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Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research

Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research

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Published by Prakash Sharma

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Prakash Sharma on Jul 02, 2010
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Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research

Prakash Sharma Asst. Business Development Officer IndiaReport Metrix Web Services (P) Ltd

MR Data

Secondary Data

Primary Data



Quantitative Data Descriptive Survey Data Observational and Other Data Causal Experimental Data

Qualitative Research
y An unstructured, exploratory research methodology based

on small samples that provides insights and understanding of the problem setting

Quantitative Research
y A research methodology that seeks to quantify the data and,

typically, applies some form of statistical analysis

Qualitative versus Quantitative
Qualitative y Objective: To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations y Sample: Small y Data collection: Unstructured y Data analysis: Non-statistical y Outcome: Develop an initial understanding Quantitative y To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest y Large y Structured
y Statistical y Recommend a final course of


Rationale: Qualitative
y People may be unwilling or unable to answer certain

questions y Unwilling to give truthful answers y Unable to answer questions that tap the subconscious y Useful for discovering which sensory feelings are important

Qualitative Research Procedures Direct Focus Groups Depth Interviews Indirect Projective Techniques

Association Completion Construction Expressive

Focus Group Interviews
y Unexpected findings obtained from a free-flowing group y y y y y

discussion Synonymous with qualitative research Sample quality critical Moderator plays a critical role Be wary of ´professional respondentsµ Should not be the sole criteria for decision making

Applications of Focus Groups
y Understanding consumer behaviour concerning a product y y y y y

category Obtaining impressions of new product concepts Generating new ideas about older products Advertising Price impressions Reaction to marketing programmes

FG: Methodological applications
y Define problem precisely y Generate alternative courses of action y Develop an approach to a problem y Information for questionnaires y Generate hypotheses y Interpret previously obtained quantitative results

Depth Interviews
y An unstructured, direct, personal interview in which a single

respondent is probed by a highly skilled interviewer to uncover underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings on a topic

DI Techniques
y Laddering y Hidden issue questioning: focus on deeply felt personal

concerns y Symbolic analysis: non usage of a product, attributes of an imaginary non product, and opposite types of products

Advantages and disadvantages of Depth Interviews
y Uncover greater depths y Responses attributable to respondent y Depends on skills of interviewer y Data difficult to analyze and interpret y Cost ² remember, each interview is minimum 30 minutes

Applications of Depth Interviews
y Detailed probing y Confidential/personal subjects can be discussed y Respondent not under pressure to be swayed by the group y Industrial marketing research y Interviews with competitors y Product consumption sensory in nature

Projective Techniques
y Respondents are asked to interpret the behaviour of others y Indirectly project their own motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or

feelings y The more ambiguous the situation, the more respondents project their emotions, needs, motives, attitudes, and values

Association Techniques
y Stimulus presented and response sought with the first thing

that comes to mind y WORD ASSOCIATION: first word, animals, personification, benefit

Completion Techniques
y Sentence completion y Story completion e.g. Couple at Furniture shop

Construction Techniques
y In the form of a story, dialogue, or description y Picture response y Cartoons

Expressive Techniques
y Role Playing y Third-person Technique

Advantages and Disadvantages of PT
y When the issues are personal, sensitive y When underlying motivations, beliefs, and attitudes are

operating at a subconscious level


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