Prakash Sharma Asst.

Business Development Officer IndiaReport Metrix Web Services (P) Ltd

€ The

assignment of numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain pre specified rules € Perceptions, attitudes, preferences € Numbers permit statistical analysis of the resulting data

€ Involves

creating a continuum upon which measured objects are located

€ Nominal:

Numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects. Alphabets or symbols can be assigned as well. Numbers do not reflect the amount of the characteristic possessed by the objects

A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which some characteristic is possessed. Thus it is possible to determine whether an object has more or less of a characteristic than some other object € Examples: Quality rankings, rankings of brands
€ Ordinal:

scale: A scale in which the numbers are used to rate objects such that numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal distances in the characteristic being measured € Allows you to compare the differences between objects
€ Interval

scale: The highest scale. It allows the researcher to identify or classify objects, rank order the objects, and compare intervals or differences. € Examples: height, weight, age, and money € Examples in Marketing: Sales, Costs, Market share, and number of customers are variables measured on a ratio scale
€ Ratio

Comparative e.g. Coke vs. Pepsi

Non-comparative Evaluate only Coke or Pepsi

€ Paired

comparison: Respondent is asked to choose one between two given objects according to some criterion € Useful when the number of brands is limited

Jhirmack Jhirmack Finesse Vidal S H&S Pert No. of times preferred

Finesse

Vidal Sasson

H&S

Pert

0 1 1 0 1 3 1 0 1 2

0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 4

0 0 1 0 1

Order Scaling € Constant sum scaling € Q-sort scaling: 100 attitude statements; 11 piles; number of objects to be placed in each pile is pre specified
€ Rank

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Nokia Colgate Tata Salt Pepsodent Pond·s Lux Britannia Dettol Lifebuoy Vicks
Source: Brand Equity

€A

measurement scale with five response categories ranging from ´strongly disagreeµ to ´strongly agreeµ € 1= Strongly agree € 2= Disagree € 3= Neither agree or disagree € 4= Agree € 5= Strongly agree

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