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Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion

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This paper focuses on how to include all types of learners in a general education classroom.
This paper focuses on how to include all types of learners in a general education classroom.

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Published by: 112578 on Jul 02, 2010
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Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 1 Running head: INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION

Assignment 8.2--Final Synthesizing Project: Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion Peaches M. Hubbard Jones International University EDU524: Exceptional Needs in Inclusive Classrooms Professor Peak May 1, 2010

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 2 Abstract The term inclusion means to include all students, regardless of their disabilities and/or special needs, into a collaborative learning environment that takes place in a general education classroom setting. ³Inclusion seeks to provide all students with fairness rather than sameness by establishing collaborative, supportive, and nurturing communities of learners that are based on giving all students the services and accommodations they need to succeed, as well as respecting and learning from each others individual differences´ (Bucalos & Lingo, 2005). Inclusion is important for a variety of reasons: it helps special education students learn to relate to their peers socially, helps them to adapt to everchanging situations and environments and helps them to pace themselves with timing and planning. Diversity in today¶s classroom can be a very sensitive issue, and although the dynamic of presenting other cultures into the classroom has improved significantly, there is still a long way to go. The students and teachers of today have embarked on a new era; one in which being different can be celebrated, in which various cultures and religions are widely accepted under the same roof, and in which student¶s have the ability to be apart of and create the infrastructure of their classrooms. Students have a voice today. In yesteryears students were told to just listen to random recitations and that would equate learning. But just as with the changes in the classroom there are changes in the everyday lives of students, which can have a tremendous impact on how they learn.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 3 Table of Contents

Terms and Definitions Regarding Inclusion What is an Inclusive Classroom? Philosophies of Inclusion Establishing an Inclusive Environment Case Study One: Melvin¶s Story Case Study Two: Tony¶s Story Case Study Three: Kora¶s Story Diversity in Today¶s Classroom Case Study Four: Carl¶s Story Case Study Five: Zohan¶s Story Case Study Six: Maria¶s Story Case Study Seven: Julia¶s Story Case Study Eight: Sun¶s Story Case Study Nine: Marissa¶s Story Case Study Ten: Tom¶s Story Case Study Ten: Ms. Stanley vs. Ms. Diaz Case Study Eleven: Liz and Daniel¶s Stories Literacy in Inclusive Classrooms Kora¶s Case Reviewed Testing and Grading Reviewed Modifications and Evaluation Procedures Transitioning Exceptional Needs Students to Inclusive Environments Case Study Twelve: Jacob¶s Story Conclusion Appendix Reference

4-6 7 7-9 9-11 12-15 15-18 18-25 25-26 26 27-34 27-34 27-34 27-34 34-39 39-43 44-45 45-51 51-52 52-55 56-60 61-62 62 62-65 66 67-79 80-85

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 4 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION When discussing special education there are several acronyms that are tossed around, sometimes this can be confusing. Following are some of the main acronyms, terms and definitions that are linked with special education laws and philosophies. The ADA is the Americans with Disabilities Act, which was passed by congress in 1990, and was amended in 2009. ³On September 25, 2008, the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA) was signed. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (P.L. 101-336) is the most comprehensive civil rights legislation adopted to prohibit discrimination against people with disabilities. Public and private businesses, state and local government agencies, private entities offering public accommodations and services, transportation and utilities are required to comply with the law. The ADA was signed into law by President George Bush on July 26, 1990´ (CTR, et, al). FAPE is one of the founding principles of the IDEA that states that all school districts must provide students with a free and appropriate education, regardless of their disabilities. The FAPE (Families and Advocates Partnership for Education,) is an organization. The organizations project ³is a partnership that aims to improve the educational outcomes for children with disabilities,´ (FAPE, 2004.) The acronym IDEA stands for the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act or (PL 94142), originally passed in 1975 under the title of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and was amended the title became the IDEA in 1990. The IDEA act is comprised of six principles that are created to provide students with special needs the same educational rights and goals as those of their peers. The six principles that amalgamate the IDEA include: FAPE, zero rejection policy, nondiscriminatory evaluation, IEP, LRE, and procedural due process (JIU, Myers, R. 2010.)

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 5 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION An IEP stands for Individualized Education Plan, this plan is used to set goals and determine the needs of a student with special needs. An IEP is put together by a team of education professionals: which usually include the school¶s principal or vice principal, the general and resource classroom teacher¶s (if possible), a school psychologist, and the parent as well as the student in some cases. Each member of the team is detrimental to assessing, determining and providing a successful educational plan for a student, thus creating a successful plan that will provide the student with a fair and appropriate educational opportunity as mandated by the IDEA Act (PL 94-142, in 1990.) After much research, evaluations and documentation by all parties involved an IEP meeting will be established, in which all parties will come together to create the IEP for the student. Each IEP is reviewed annually in order to make any needed adjustments or accommodations to ensure a quality education for the special education student. A Section 504 Also referred to as (PL 93-112) is apart of the ³rehabilitation act´, it was implemented 1973. Section 504 states that any institution that receives public funds must not discriminate against any party with disabilities. This includes: ³not discriminating against people with disabilities in education, employment, housing, and access to public programs, etc´ (JIU, Myers, R. 2010.) ³A 504 plan spells out the modifications and accommodations that will be needed for these students to have an opportunity perform at the same level as their peers, and might include such things as wheelchair ramps, blood sugar monitoring, an extra set of textbooks, a peanut-free lunch environment, home instruction, or a tape recorder or keyboard for taking notes´ (Mauro, et, al).

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 6 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION This leads to the term LRE stands for least restrictive environment; this principle demands that school districts offer a student with special needs the opportunity to interact with their peers to the best of their ability. In other words, students must be given the opportunity to be incorporated in a classroom setting with their peers as much as possible, deemed by the students¶ capabilities and severity of their disability. The NCLB stands for the ³No Child Left Behind Act,´ which was established on January 8, 2002. This act appeals to the rights and needs of all students, that they may all have a solid education. The act is comprised of four pillars: Stronger accountability for results, more freedom for states and communities, proven education methods, and more choices for parents (US Dept. of Education, 2010.) Due process are safeguards put in place to protect the student, it is a process that allows for appeals when a school is not providing and/or meeting the intended, recommended, or applicable educational standards, objectives, and goals designed for a student. The term mainstreaming refers to students with special needs who are moved into a general education based on their readiness level both academically and socially. Mainstreaming programs can be implemented part-time or full-time.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 7 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION What is an Inclusive Classroom? The term inclusion means to include all students, regardless of their disabilities and/or special needs, into a collaborative learning environment that takes place in a general education classroom setting. ³Inclusion seeks to provide all students with fairness rather than sameness by establishing collaborative, supportive, and nurturing communities of learners that are based on giving all students the services and accommodations they need to succeed, as well as respecting and learning from each others individual differences´ (Bucalos & Lingo, 2005). Inclusion is important for a variety of reasons: it helps special education students learn to relate to their peers socially, helps them to adapt to ever-changing situations and environments and helps them to pace themselves with timing and planning. THE PHILOSOPHIES OF INCLUSION Historically, in the early 1800s, residential institutions, or asylums, began to emerge in order to accommodate those with hearing, visual, mental, or emotional impairments (Thompkins, R and Deloney, P. (1995.) Starting in the early 1970¶s, new laws and practices were made to accommodate special education students; one of these practices is inclusion, which is a fairly new concept in terms of educational practices. According to Reynolds (1988) progressive inclusion is defined as the evolution of services to those with various disabilities. With any new practice or methodology there is a stigmatism that comes along with it. There are several benefits to inclusion, ³it gives children with special needs the opportunity to learn in natural, stimulating environments. Inclusion makes it possible for friendships to occur with nonhandicapped peers, provides positive role models, and may lead to greater acceptance in the community´ New for Parents.org (2005.)

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 8 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Inclusion can also have negative outcomes, for example, if a school does not have the resources to adequately accommodate special needs students or the classrooms are overcrowded, which gives the teacher even less time to spend with students, especially those that may need extra attention. In an inclusive classroom a student, who is deemed as a special education student in placed into a general education class with his or her peers. The student then relies on the general education teacher and for all the supportive services that he or she may need in the classroom. My personal beliefs about inclusion vary depending on the situation. Inclusion can be successful for students that are able to easily adapt to new situations. The benefits of inclusion are described by Kids Together.org, they offer the following benefits to inclusion: higher educational expectations; increased school and staff collaboration; peer models for academic, behavioral, and social skills; increased achievement in IEP goals and increased inclusion in future environments, to name a few (Kids Together, Inc., 2010.) Inclusion can also have its downfalls, for example due to lack of resources and special education teachers training many teachers are lack the ability to adequately assist special education students (Purick, K., Ross, D., Severino, A., Zwirz, D., 2008.) Inclusion is one of the programs that stem from a range of special education services, called the continuum of educational placements. The continuum of educational placements refers to the range of placement that is offered to special education students. It is comprised of ten educational options and learning platforms: from the least restrictive programs to hospitalization and institutional educational settings. The continuum of educational placements offers fair and adequate education for all students with disabilities.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 9 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION In 2000, the New York City Board of Education adopted a new continuum of education; the new continuum stated that special education students should not just receive a fair and adequate education, but that they should share the same rights and freedoms of their nonhandicapped peers, in the least restrictive learning environment (The Advocate, 2001.) The continuum of educational practices is a wonderful platform for special education students because the are no longer overlooked, or shunned, or hidden away from their peers and community. We are all unique individuals and it is important for students to be educated to accept these differences and to work collaboratively. ESTABLISHING AN INCLUSIVE ENVIRONMENT Establishing an inclusive teaching environment is more than just making minor accommodations for a special education student; it is about empowering the student and making him or her feel comfortable in a general education classroom. It is also about having the student make contributions and recognized as a valued member of the class. According to an article on inclusive learning, ³the practices of inclusion are in direct conflict with the worksheet, factory model of schooling that continues to be so common in schools throughout the United States´ (Goodlad, 1984). In my past teaching experiences I have worked with students with different types of disabilities, including: ADHD, autism, cognitive delays, and behavioral conditions. Some approaches that I took to creating a well-balanced inclusive curriculum and classroom environment were to incorporate collaborative learning, class discussions, technology based learning, curriculum adaptation and peer or student tutoring.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 10 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION In future teaching endeavors I plan to play an even more active role in providing students with student-related teaching methods, which helps students learn self-monitoring, selfevaluation, picture cues, self-instruction, problem solving, and other student-directed learning strategies (Martin Agran, Ph.D., Margaret King-Sears, Ph.D., Michael L. Wehmeyer, Ph.D., and Susan R. Copeland, Ph.D., 2003.) Some teachers may find working in an inclusive classroom a daunting task, but in actuality it provides teachers with the opportunity to provide a more creative learning environment. It also helps a teacher hone in on their time management skills, collaboration with other teachers, and creativity by creating multiple types of learning methodologies. The goals of my inclusive classroom would be to incorporate student-centered teaching practices and formative assessment procedures, which will facilitate active learning environments. The benefits of incorporating student centered learning techniques are that there will be a focus on each student¶s strengths and incorporate it into a successful learning model. As discussed in the article ³Formative and Summative Assessments in the Classroom,´ formative classrooms provide student with an instructional process that ³when incorporated into classroom practice, it provides the information needed to adjust teaching and learning while they are happening. In this sense, formative assessment informs both teachers and students about student understanding at a point when timely adjustments can be made. These adjustments help to ensure students achieve, targeted standards-based learning goals within a set time frame´ (Garrison, C. and Ehringhaus, M.)

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 11 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION The challenges that I would face in creating an inclusive classroom that is based in student-centered and formative learning methodologies are having to spend extra time in creating diverse lesson plans, adequately meeting the socio-emotional needs of the special education students, creating even more stimulating and advanced curricula for gifted students and having access to the resources to accommodate technological teaching practices. The resources needed to support the success of an inclusive classroom, include: more frequent PowerPoint presentations, audio-visual equipment, and field trips, as highlighted in the article ³Ways to Create an Inclusive Classroom.´ (Salend, 2005), defines special education as a process that involves delivering and monitoring a specially designed and coordinated set of comprehensive, research- based instructional and assessment practices and related services to students with learning, behavioral, emotional, physical, health, or sensory disabilities. Inclusive placement provides and fosters a positive learning experience for all involved. For the special education student inclusion means the end of being excluded, a way to learn, develop and grow with your peers in a classroom setting that promotes learning, as well as self-determination. For the non-disabled student inclusive classrooms promote learning social nuances and learning to appreciate the uniqueness of all individuals. For the teacher inclusive classrooms provides them with beneficial learning experiences, collaborative efforts with other teachers, and possibly more collaboration with the parent community. In my research for this essay I found a teaching quote that I felt best encapsulates special education inclusion practices, ³Every student can learn, just not on the same day, or the same way´ (George Evans.)

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 12 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION CASE STUDY ONE: MELVIN¶S STORY Melvin has always been one of the best students in his class. His family members are very proud of his success and spend a great deal of time working with him. They are very active in school, and they think that Melvin needs to be in smaller classes, have more time with his teachers, and receive more challenging assignments. Therefore, they are concerned about his placement in an inclusion program. (Salend, S., p.41 2008.) I choose this scenario because I can personally relate to it. I mentioned in my class introduction that my son has ADHD. During the times when my son was not being home schooled he was placed in general education classes. My son is very sociable; he makes friends wherever he goes. My son has never had a problem with his grades in regards to his studies. Teachers and staff adore him, yet, I have many battles that he needs to be placed where there are smaller class sizes because he gets very easily distracted; and because he tests well above his grade level he gets bored with the class work easily because it is not challenging to him, needless to say this does not help with his behavior. He tends to become jittery. In regards to scenario involving Melvin I can empathize with his family. They may feel apprehensive about letting Melvin be placed into inclusion program for a number of reasons. The goal of all programs and acts designed for special education students is to create a collaborative environment that will benefit the student and as hard or stressful as it may be on the student, parents share some of the burden as well. Melvin¶s parents may worry about him being teased, and although it is a normal part of growth and development, it can be even crueler and devastating to an exceptional needs student.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 13 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Another reason Melvin¶s parent¶s may be worried is that the larger ratio of students to teachers may cause Melvin to become of task; not be able to keep up as efficiently as the other student¶s or could potentially hinder his grades if he does not have the extra attention and direction of multiple teachers, instructions and resources. For several parent¶s inclusion drudges up the separation anxiety that a parent feels when a child first begins school. Putting a special needs student into an inclusion program can be a challenging task for all parties involved. In the above paragraph I discussed the potential challenges and anxieties that a family may face but there are also challenges and anxieties that the school and the general education teacher face. For example, some of the concerns a teacher might face include: increased frustration over having to set aside more time class instruction time to assist Melvin, having to create and implement lesson plan accommodations, attending extra and more frequent meetings to meet with resources teachers, school liaisons, and staff. As both a mother with a special needs child and a teacher¶s who has taught special needs students, a teacher¶s time is very limited. With larger class sizes and less resources it is hard to make accommodations for any student. From the information provided by the scenario I would say that it sounds like Melvin may be ready to enter into an inclusive learning environment. Some questions to ponder that are not answered in this scenario and may better determine my response are: how old is Melvin, what grade level is he in and what grade level is he on academically? Is Melvin eager to enter an inclusion program? What would be the benefits of keeping him in his current program and what is his current program?

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 14 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION With this said, I feel that all parties of the IEP team need to get together and review his previous goals, set new goals in an effort to determine the best solution to Melvin¶s and his families dilemma. If the determining factors were aligned correctly I would say that Melvin should be entered into an inclusion program and in an attempt to embark in studies with his peers. If I were apart of the decision making team I would make sure that Melvin felt as comfortable as possible and that he has a smooth transition. I would ask the team to establish clear objectives and goals. I would also try to urge Melvin¶s parents to meet with other families dealing with his particular needs, maybe even starting or joining a group, if they have not already done so. Lastly, I would see what other resources may be available to Melvin such as continued learning and enrichment through the summer or summer school. For many special needs students the long break in the summer can be have a negative impact on their studies and when school resumes they sort of have to reboot and relearn what they have learned. This can be very time consuming to all parties involved. Therefore, I would check into the summer services that are available to him through the school district. Melvin¶s scenario is much like every student; his dilemma can either have a positive or negative outcome. Much like the saying µTis better to have loved and lost than to have never loved at all´ (Alfred Lord Tennyson, Poem: In Memoriam, 1850) It is better to have tried and learn than to have not tried at all. A disability of some sort is the cause of a child being deemed a special needs student, but a child is a child nonetheless.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 15 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Any student will have educational dilemma¶s that they will have to face along the way, and the better the communication between the student, the school and the teacher; the better changes that student has to excel. PLANNING FOR SPECIAL NEEDS--CASES STUDY TWO: TONY¶S STORY Tony is uneasy with visual tasks and usually performs poorly on them. When reading, he holds the book close to his eyes and frequently skips lines, loses his place, needs breaks, and uses his finger as a guide. He often rests his head on the desk when working, and his notebook is poorly organized. He appears clumsy, trips over and bumps into things, and walks hesitantly (Salend, 2007.) The process of pre-referral will truly help in determining how to help Tony. Pre-referral is defined as is a preventative problem-solving process designed to assist the classroom teacher in identifying and implementing interventions before referral to special education can be made (Myers, 2010.) In reviewing the scenario it could be simply be said that Tony needs glasses

and should seek an optometrist and not special education resources. Fortunately, the pre-referral process is available to students such as Tony. Further investigation into Tony¶s case may conclude that Tony does indeed need a prescription for glasses; yet and still he could also have a learning disability that could potentially be overlooked. There are various types of vision impairments, therefore, the first step that I would take to determine what is affecting Tony would be to refer Tony to the school nurse and I would recommend that his family take him to the family¶s physician and optometrist, as referred to in the text, ³Creating Inclusive Classrooms´ (Salend, 2007, p.99.)

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 16 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Secondly, I would meet with Tony and discuss my concerns. I would ask Tony what he felt he was having trouble with and if he could think of any suggestions that could help to better his learning experience. I would perform my own assessment to see what type of learner Tony is in an attempt to help him until the assessments and referral process is complete. Two helpful websites that I can recommend that provide practical tools and resources for children with disabilities are the Help Guide, at http://www.helpguide.org/mental/learning_disabilities.htm. The Help Guide is a non-profit organization that offers support and resources for students with disabilities. Another website is the National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD), whose website is located at http://ncld.org. The NCLD offers useful tools and information regarding various types of learning disabilities, as well as evaluations. My personal evaluation may determine that the use

of more audio and dialogue in the class may help Tony. If possible, I would speak with Tony¶s previous teacher and try to get some feedback as to my concerns. It is beneficial for a teacher to do their own assessment as well, in order to be better prepared when meeting with a team that may work with the student.

Tony¶s case would appear to benefit from a 504 plan. A 504 plan is defined as ³a written plan for students with disabilities requiring only reasonable accommodation´ (SCSE, 2010.) Tony is demonstrating that he is having some learning challenges, yet in the scenario provided in the case it does not appear that his need is severe enough to require an IEP at this time.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 17 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION

The challenges with Tony¶s case would be in determining if Tony has vision impairment or a learning disability. If the pre-referral process is completed and Tony is in need of an IEP or a section 504 plans there are several goals that should be addressed. The goals would need to address the entire five major component of reading, as discussed on the NCLD website: ³phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and reading comprehension´ (Cortiella, 2010.) Other related services that may need to be provided for Tony include a pullout program in which he has some type of resources class for reading.

Accommodations can also be made for Tony, such as the ones discussed in the article Accommodations for students with LD (2006.) The accommodations are divided into six categories. I have chosen a few accommodations from each category that I believe are beneficial to Tony, they are as follows: ³Presentation: provide on audio tape, provide in large print, present instructions orally. Response: allow for verbal responses, allow for answers to be dictated to a scribe, allow the use of a tape recorder to capture responses. Timing: extend allotted time for a test. Setting: provide preferential seating, provide special lighting or acoustics. Test Scheduling: administer a test in several timed sessions or over several days. The last section is comprised of miscellaneous accomodations´ (NCLD, 2006.)

Since Tony¶s needs are not exceptional in the way that he they are so severe that he cannot complete work I believe it would be beneficial to keep him in an inclusive environment. This would allow for him to continue working with his peers as well as boost his self-esteem by promoting positive outlooks on his disability. Professionally, I have worked with students with concerns as those of Tony.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 18 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION In one instance the student was a girl who did not see very well but she did not want to wear glasses in front of her peers for fear of ridicule. In this case the student was prescribed glasses and we had a class discussion regarding treating others kindly. Another student that I¶ve taught had most of the same concerns of Tony and more. The problem was that I taught at a private school and the resources that could be provided were limited. His mother was also in the process of obtaining an IEP. For this particular student I assigned most of the accommodations that I discussed above in the six categories for accommodation. As a general educator I would not mind Tony being placed in my classroom. I would attempt to create a positive learning experience for all and make the necessary accommodations for him. In order to have this be a successful learning experience for Tony it is important to have the support of other teachers, the IEP or 504 team, the school administration, the student and his or her family, as well as the student¶s classmates. ³After all it takes a village to raise a family´ (African Proverb) and it takes a collaborative effort to teach a child. IDENTIFYING EXCEPTIONAL STUDENTS²Case Study Three: Kora¶s Story Kora is currently a high school senior and she has an Individual Educational Plan. Kora¶s mother had pre-natal complications, which led to her having to be induced. Kora had apnea and was placed on a ventilator during birth. Kora received services from the Los Angeles County Regional Center as an infant and toddler. When Kora became of school age an IEP meeting was held in response to a recommendation by the LA Regional Center and at her mother¶s request. Kora continues to have IEP resources and is looking forward to starting college in the fall.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 19 The pseudonym that I will be using for the student in this case study is Kora. Kora was born about two weeks before her mother¶s due date. The labor had to be induced for the reason that Kora was showing signs of distress in the womb; about a week prior to delivery Kora¶s mother was having abdominal pain she was put on a fetal monitor however she was released by the end of the day. Kora¶s mother was called by the hospital the next day, after reviewing the fetal monitor records the doctor advised that she should be admitted immediately. The reason for this is that the fetal monitor was showing abnormalities and that Kora was suffering from apnea in the womb, in which she was not receiving enough air to the lungs. INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Kora¶s her heart rate dropped during each contraction and after birth Kora had to be placed on a ventilator for a couple of days. As Kora developed as a toddler her mother noticed some learning difficulties that she was having. Kora was assessed for several learning disabilities and at age three was diagnosed with dyscalculia, dyslexia, and borderline autism. The theory as to why the disabilities occurred stem from Kora¶s extended periods of apnea and ventilator usage. As an infant and toddler Kora received services through the Regional Center of Los Angeles for her developmental disabilities. Though Kora was placed in an early start preschool program and she excelled with her studies, she struggled in the primary grades in the areas of reading comprehension and mathematics. Kora was assessed for an IEP a resources classes in mathematics and reading. Kora was initially assessed for various learning disabilities at 3 years old; she was then diagnosed with dyscalculia, dyslexia, and borderline autism.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 20 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Kora was reassessed in February of 1996 in which it was determined that she did not meet the requirements for resource due to autism since she scored within the upper end of the non-autistic range. She did however meet the criteria for special education services due to the severe expressive and receptive language deficits. Kora was also diagnosed with ADHD and a hearing impairment in her left ear; this is said to be the cause of some of her language deficit. Although Kora was not placed on medication for ADHD she did take medication for asthma, for which she was diagnosed at the age of eighteen months. Currently, she still continues to take medication for asthma and allergies. There are several facts linking asthma to ADHD, learning disabilities and hearing impairment. Dr. James Blackman, developmental pediatrician at the Kluge Children's Rehabilitation Center at UVA Children's Hospital states that "We can definitively state that families with asthmatic children not only report higher incidences of ADHD, but also of depression, anxiety and learning disabilities," (Science Daily, 2007.) ³A study of 102,000 children found that children with asthma have a higher rate of ADHD, depression, and learning disabilities than children without asthma. The more severe the asthma, the more severe the symptoms of ADHD, depression, and LD,´ (Dr. Stephanie Sarkis, 2008.) Kora¶s IEP determination and referral process closely matches the referral process discussed in Chapter Two of the text, Creating Inclusive Classroom (Salend, 2007, p. 47- figure 2.1.) The text maps out the special education determination process.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 21 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Kora¶s referral process differed from the text because she did not initially have concerns in her general education class, in 1996 when Kora became of school age a pre-referral was prepared as a result of her receiving services from the Los Angeles County Regional Center. She was referred for a psycho-educational assessment due to her diagnosis of autism. The Response-to-Intervention (RIT) process was not needed for Kora because she had already had several assessments prior to the existing IEP. Kora¶s learning disabilities affected her educational stamina and limited her educational performance, therefore it was decided that she be given an IEP instead of a 504 plan. Kora¶s difficulties were addressed by the services offered which started initially as an 11/2-hour resource pullout program, daily. Later, it was determined that Kora¶s goals were being met. Due to the workload and testing requirements in high school, Kora takes has a daily resource class for both English and mathematics, in addition to her regular classes. Kora¶s IEP offered all of the elements of the IEP components listed in the textbook ³Creating Inclusive Classrooms,´ which is comprised of background information on the student, socially, emotionally and academically. The IEP also discussed measurable goals, related services to be provided to the student along with an explanation of these services and any accommodations that are deemed necessary. Kora¶s IEP team suggest that she be placed in general education classes, yet be provided with additional resources classes for mathematics and English. Kora is striving as a student and partakes in several extra-curricular.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 22 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Additional accommodations and modifications (in the form of curricular goals, teaching strategies, instructional materials, technology/assistive devices and instructional arrangements) would greatly assist Kora in her continued academic development. As Kora has multi-disabilities, her IEP had several recommendations, accommodations and modifications. Two accommodations included in the IEP are: (1) additional time to complete tests, as well as projects and assignments, as needed. (2) Providing Kora with detailed study sheets. This is mentioned in module five of the course and accompanied course textbook (Tomlinson & Eidson, as cited in Salend, 2008, p.325), ³developing a skeletal outline to accompany a lecture´. Two modifications that are mentioned in Kora¶s IEP include: (1) both the teacher and guardian must sign daily lesson and homework journal. (2) Frequent meetings with teacher or aide to check for lesson comprehension. The IEP team provided an instructional recommendation for Kora, by which she will take part in resource classes for mathematics and English. With the support of the IEP team, the reinforcement from her guardian, and Kora¶s hard work and determination, Kora is thriving as a student. Kora has excelled socially by being involved in a variety of extra-curricular activities including: varsity swimming, marching band/honor¶s band, basketball, and the college club. Kora has excelled academically by successfully maintaining a grade point average of 2.5 or higher through out her high school education. Kora has also excelled personally by not having her disabilities define her or the level of education she wants to receive. Kora¶s teachers have helped Kora by incorporating a differentiating instruction by providing her with the necessary accommodations and modifications to assist her in learning, comprehending, and retaining subject matter.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 23 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Kora¶s Strengths and Weaknesses include: demonstrating good behavior in and outside of the classroom, she makes purposeful eye contact, has demonstrated good gross motor skills, exhibits great effort in the areas of social graces and she excels in music and sports. Kora is also a diverse athlete; she has played such sports as: basketball, soccer, volleyball, and made the varsity swim team in her sophomore year of high school. Kora¶s weaknesses include: low auditory attention to detail, difficulty answering or understanding questions and focusing for extended periods of time. Kora¶s disability was defined as Other Health Impairment (OH), which is defined as limited strength, vitality or alertness impairing educational performance (Personal Communication: LAUSD, 2006. Kora¶s learning disabilities are considered to be highincidence, which is defined as ³mild mental retardation, mild emotional/behavioral disorders, and speech/language impairments that make up the vast majority of disabilities experienced by students. These disability conditions also are sometimes referred to as mild disabilities´ (Salend, 2007.) For instance, ³dyslexia or reading disabilities are said to affect 2 to 8 percent of elementary school children´ (About.com, 2010.) Kora is currently a high-school senior and she does well in school. She takes two extra resource classes in addition to her regular class schedule, in the subject areas of mathematics and reading. Kora has faced challenges in math and reading comprehension, yet she excels in music, which is her major when she enters college in the fall. Her mother has expressed some concern since Kora¶s IEP will not be enforced in college.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 24 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION The article Transition: There are no IEP¶s in College, touches upon the concerns of Kora¶s mother, the article states that ³the laws affecting college students with disabilities and the process of obtaining assistive technology in college are completely different from the K-12 world. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is not in effect in higher education. Colleges have no legal responsibility to identify students with disabilities or involve parents in decision-making´ (Dell, 2003.) The goal of an IEP meeting is to review the recommendations made by the evaluation team and to determine what resources are available to the student and what resources will benefit the student. If I had the opportunity to attend this meeting I would conduct it in the same manner, though I might provide additional accommodations for the student. Some of the recommendations that I would include: administering a developmental test of visual motor integration. One commonly used visual development tests is the BeeryBuktenica Test, also known as VMI (Answers.com 2010), which is a ³neuropsychological test that analyzes visual construction skills. It identifies problems with visual perception, motor coordination, and visual-motor integration such as hand-eye coordination´ (Answers.com) I think it would benefit the student to take this test both semi-annually and annually. I would also recommend having questions re-phrased for better understanding when testing and extended testing times, extra breaks through out the day, after school tutoring, if possible.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 25 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION For inclusion purposes I would recommend that the students teachers offer her accommodations, such as: student teaching, cooperative learning, and additional in class or take home assignments that will aid the student in their target subject area of need. Kora was a textbook case of how an IEP should be handled, there were not any grievances on the part of the parent and all members of the IEP team worked together to make certain that Kora achieved her learning goals. Lastly, as with Kora who plans to start college in the fall, the true goal is for education to be an extended process of life-long learning. Diversity in today¶s classroom can be a very sensitive issue, and although the dynamic of presenting other cultures into the classroom has improved significantly, there is still a long way to go. The students and teachers of today have embarked on a new era; one in which being different can be celebrated, in which various cultures and religions are widely accepted under the same roof, and in which student¶s have the ability to be apart of and create the infrastructure of their classrooms. INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION DIVERSITY IN TODAY¶S CLASSROOM Students have a voice today. In yesteryears students were told to just listen to random recitations and that would equate learning. But just as with the changes in the classroom there are changes in the everyday lives of students, which can have a tremendous impact on how they learn.

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On the Encarta world Dictionary Online, the second definition of diversity is as follows: ³social inclusiveness: ethnic variety, as well as socioeconomic and gender variety, in a group, society, or institution´. In today¶s classrooms student¶s are faced with extreme hardships, from teasing and bullying to divided homes or homelessness. An educator must strive to make an impact on their students, both educationally as well as emotionally. The most memorable teachers are not those who coodle you or those who just simply let you slide by. The teachers that are most memorable are those that stand with you, that push you to succeed and that teach you to take pride in yourself as a student and an individual.

Diversity in today¶s classroom can be a very sensitive issue, and although the dynamic of presenting other cultures into the classroom has improved significantly, there is still a long way to go. The students and teachers of today have embarked on a new era; one in which being different can be celebrated, in which various cultures and religions are widely accepted under the same roof, and in which student¶s have the ability to be apart of and create the infrastructure of their classrooms. Students have a voice today. In yesteryears students were told to just listen to random recitations and that would equate learning. Just as with the changes in the classroom there are changes in the everyday lives of students, which can have a tremendous impact on how they learn. In reviewing the cases of Carl, Zohan and Maria, there are several concerns that can have an impact on their success in the classroom. Some of these concerns include hygiene in the case of Carl. Carl is a homeless student with poor hygiene and he is often tires and hungry. The case study also mentions that Carl fails to complete most of his homework assignments.

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INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION My concerns with Carl as a student in my classroom are more so emotionally based than academic. Needless to say if a student were homeless it would be extremely difficult to complete or keep up with assignments, to say the least. Statistics show that ³Children in homeless families do worse in school and have lower attendance and more long-term absences´ (National Alliance to End Homelessness). In Carl¶s case you have a student that needs more help than a teacher could potentially give. The sheer fact that Carl still shows up to class demonstrates that fact that he wants to learn and that he is determined to persevere and succeed. With this said, there should be some sort of intervention through the school in an attempt to help Carl and his family. There is a chance that Carl¶s case may not be resolved and that he and his family may remain homeless, but that does not mean his situation cannot be bettered. Other concerns would be Carl¶s hygiene and how that impacts the other students, he may be up to date with his vaccinations and this could pose a health concern to the rest of the classroom. Also, Carl faces his own health concerns. For adults transition is difficult but tolerable and as we age we tend to lose sight of how scary things can seem to a child. In Zoltan¶s case study he has overcome many obstacles and still is carrying around tremendous pain, and probably loneliness. The case mentions that Zoltan is acting out, but one must understand Zoltan is not a product of divorce, which can be a tremendous burden for a child. Zoltan is dealing with an extremely traumatic situation. In the article ³Why Do Children Misbehave´, the author discusses three core reasons as to why children act out.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 28 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION While some children exhibit one of the characteristics, Zoltan exhibits all three: ³ (1) The child is attempting to fill a legitimate need (2) The child lacks information (or is too young to understand or remember rules). (3) The child is suffering from stress or unhealed trauma. (Solter, 1999). According to the article Teaching the ESL Student, ³students who speak English as a second language (ESL) comprise a significant percentage of the nation's school population. Experts estimate that the number of ESL students is growing two and half times faster than the number of students for whom English is the primary language´ (Shore, 2006). Therefore, as an educator it is imperative to better understand the multi-cultural/multi-linguistic classroom. My primary concerns about having Zoltan in the class would be that his behavior might become more erratic and begin to disrupt the classroom completely. Another concern would be that Zoltan would not be able to keep up as the curriculum progresses through the school year, in which the vocabulary and subject become more challenging. And, that he may need constant assistance, which could hinder the educational process for all of the students. Julia is the typical American student; everyday students face the burden of the family, as they knew it, falling apart. As an educator it is common to have students whose parents are separated or divorced. A personal story is a conversation that involved my son and his friend, one in which I just happened to be walking by and I heard the dialogue: My son¶s friend: [³What are you doing after school?´] My son: [My mom and dad are taking me to Chuck E Cheeses. Friend: [³Your mom and dad are taking you together?] Son: [µWell Yeah.´] Friend: [You mean, you mom and dad are still together?] Son: [Yeah, we are all together.]

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 29 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGRADING INCLUSION As simple as the discussion seems, the look of astonishment on the face of my son¶s friend gave a clear insight into the reality of families in today¶s society. As opposed to forty years ago, the traditional family is not made up of a family in which there is a mother, father, 2.5 children and a white picket fence. Families are just as diverse as our cultural differences. In fact, studies show that half of all American children will witness the breakup of a parent¶s marriage. Of these, close to half will also see the breakup of a parent¶s second marriage.´ (Furstenberg, Peterson, Nord, and Zill, ³Life Course´). The article ³The Abolition of Marriage by Gallagher,´ mentions that among the millions of children who have seen their parents divorce, one of every 10 will also live through three or more parental marriage breakups. (Gallagher, et, al). My concerns with having Julia as a student are getting her entire family to sign a family agreement, in which every member of the family will work together to ensure Julia¶s academic success, emotional well being. It is obvious as to why Julia is acting out and she has every right to feel the way that she feels, nevertheless she must learn that her behavior will not be accepted and that she must deal with her emotional issues because if she does not face the true cause of her pain it will affect every aspect of her life. One of the courses week¶s readings focused on girls, and more importantly the transcript ³REVIVING OPHELIA: Saving the Selves of Adolescent Girls´ discussed what girls need. The author¶s response was [³girls need what they¶ve always needed but some of those things are harder to get in this culture. For example they need physical safety, they need psychological safety ± and by that I mean they need a sense that they can think clearly, feel what they feel without being punished or teased or hurt in any way by a sort of free exercise of their being.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 30 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION They also need love of their parents, they need friends, they need useful work, they need skills, they need an opportunity to grow and develop into total human beings.´] (Pipher, 1998). Lastly, I question her erratic behavior, would she become violent with other students? And, would she injure herself? Maria¶s case is very prevalent; it is common for many ESL speakers to speak to their ESL peers. However, it is normal for any individual to spark friendships with those who share the same cultures and interests. Maria¶s behavioral concerns may not stem from acquainting herself with other ESL speakers, but from just wanting to fit in. This type of change in behavior is typical of most pre-teens and teenagers. Also, pressure may not just stem from Maria and her beliefs; there may be conflict at home because relatives may feel as if Maria thinks she is ³better than them´ because she can speak English. A lot of times trying to preserve one¶s culture can place a student in a situation, in which they become conflicted as to which side of their selves should they stay true to. My concerns for Maria would be would her behavior worsen due to continued pressures from her friends and family? And if the family is a part of the problem how can the issues be resolved? Sun is another one of those students that an educator is destined to come in contact with; she is the typical over achiever. The problem here is pressure, girls in particular are placed under tremendous pressure from the time they are pre-schooled age and up. Girls are expected to conform to fit into societies norms, which unfortunately are pretty distorted. Because girls face so much pressure just being a student it is very perplexing to think that they also face tremendous pressure from their parents.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 31 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Pope, author of "Doing School: How We Are Creating a Generation of Stressed Out, Materialistic and Miseducated Students," said even young students quickly understand that the real parental pressure is for grades, not knowledge, so sometimes cheating is the simplest path. Teachers cheat, too, inflating grades because it's easier than fighting with parents. Sun reminds me of a classmate from elementary; she received straight A¶s through out elementary and high school, and if she happened to receive an A- she would argue her point until the teacher just happened to erase the minus in the grade book. My classmate was placed in several extra curricular activities. Day in and day out she was bounced around from one sport to another, and one tutor to another, to one club meeting to another and to one honors program to another. She participated extracurricular activities seven days a week. After high school my classmate went on to a well-known college and she was supplied with an abundance of scholarships. About a year into her bachelor¶s program she quit school. The pressure became too much when she had to deal with life outside of the classroom. The student who could talk her way out of a grade of A- could barely pull a C and she became withdrawn. Research in 1999 by Donald McCabe, founder of the Center for Academic Integrity, found that cheating is common at many universities. In his survey of 2,100 students on 21 campuses, one-third admitted to serious cheating on tests, and half admitted to cheating on written assignments. "A lot of these kids who cheated their way through high school are cheating their way through college," Pope said. "And it doesn't work." ³Often the children's schedules and parental anxieties mirror what is happening in the parents' careers, said UC Berkeley Sociology Professor Arlie Hochschild´.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 32 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION My point in sharing this story is that it is parents may have the best intentions and want their children to flourish academically, but putting too much pressure on a student will cause more damage in the long run. My concerns for Sun would be that she would focus more on memorization and recitation than using problem-solving strategies to rationalize her work. Another concern would be burnout, this is not just something that affects adults and when students are placed under severe stress they tend to act out, become withdrawn, and simply give up. This can lead to poor behavior, grades, and hanging around with the wrong crowd. Each one of these students faces educational challenges. In regards to Carl some of the educational challenges that he can face are: not having the appropriate school supplies needed to complete his class work. Missing out on important assignments due to frequent absences, which can have an impact on his overall achievement. Lastly, having parental or family support in meeting educational needs is a concern for this student. Zoltan¶s educational challenges would be language acquisition, finding a way to express his self without extreme emotional upheaval. Being able to practice the English language both at home and at school. Another challenge may be helping Zoltan to adapt to the new environment he is placed in, an example of this comes from the textbook: Creating Inclusive Classrooms: Effective and Reflective Practices,´ in which chapter starts off by telling the story of Halee, a student who cam from another country to begin school in the United States. Halee mentioned that he struggled academically because he did not understand the language, not because he was incapable of doing grade level work.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 33 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Julia¶s educational challenges would be to learn how to separate home life and school life, it may sound harsh and a little silly to give that responsibility to a child but it is a life-skill that would guide her as she grows older. Julia also has to learn how to release her anger through being creative and the achievement of completing a task effectively. Lastly, in the case of Sun, some of the foreseen educational challenges could be lack of respect for teachers and administration due to a sense of entitlement. Another challenge may be that due to her busy extra-curricular schedule Sun may only be memorizing facts and not truly understanding or retaining the curriculum. It is important to create an inclusive classroom design to accommodate all of the students mentioned in the case study above. Classroom¶s just as our world is filled wit diversity; the United States is a melting pot. As our cultures combine it is important to remember that each individual is unique, and to learn to truly promote and appreciate that uniqueness. In order to create a classroom to adequately accommodate the needs of all of these students the approach that I would take is to determine the individual strengths and weaknesses of the students. I would try to determine what type of learner each student is, for example´ Timmy loves computers, but Sarah loves to write´. I would use this information to address the needs of each individual¶s desired learning style and try to incorporate those efforts into class activities and assignments. I am a firm believer in formative assessment, in which students are encouraged to become active participants in the learning process.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 34 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION This is beneficial to all learners because it gives the student the sense that they are apart of the class and that they have a voice. It also allows for students to use discussions about their culture or home life to relate real-world situations to those that they read in their texts. In addition, I am also a firm believer in collaborative learning and peer-to-peer teaching strategies. I would also create a multi-cultural environment, in which different ideas from various cultures are expressed and discussed and even celebrated. I would include learning about various cultures through out all subjects. Also, I would provide group forums: in which students would openly and respectfully discuss any concerns, use practice problem resolution and problem solving strategies and introduce team-building initiatives. STUDENTS WHO CHALLENGE THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM CASES STUDY EIGHT: MARISSA¶S STORY In the article How Many Children are Abused and Neglected in the United States, a shocking statistic was unveiled, that stated ³More than half (61 percent) of the children (771,700 children) were victims of neglect, meaning a parent or guardian failed to provide for the child's basic needs. Forms of neglect include educational neglect (360,500 children), physical neglect (295,300 children), and emotional neglect (193,400)´ (Iannelli, 2010). Neglect is defined as ³the persistent lack of appropriate care of children, including love, stimulation, safety, nourishment, warmth, education and medical attention´ (NSPCC, 2009). Educational neglect is when a guardian fails to provide a student with the means to promote and support their educational well being.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 35 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION The most common types of educational neglect include truancy and habitual truancy, which is when a student has a significant amount of unexcused absences from school, not related to medical concerns. An additional type of educational neglect is continuous tardiness. Marrissa is a bright child who is friendly and empathetic. Ms. Churchill, her special education teacher, is concerned because she believes that Marrissa is in special education classes only because of her family situation. Although doing well academically in both her general and special education classes, Marrissa is often left with irresponsible relatives where she is severely neglected while her mother goes out of town. (USF, 2001). Marissa¶s mother Ann was a teenage mother, she gave birth to Marissa in her sophomore year of high school. Ann was not ready for the responsibilities of raising a child but with the help of her family she preserved and finished high school through an alternative program. Although Ann had plans to attend college she knew that with the responsibility of being a mother would have a tremendous impact on her college experience. Prior to her pregnancy Ann and her two best friends planned on attending the same out-of-state university and she became saddened when her two best friends left for college and she felt left behind. Soon after her high school graduation Ann found a job, while her mother babysat Marissa. Months went by and Ann¶s parents began to see a change in her behavior, she would act erratically, have constant mood swings and did not want to be bothered with her daughter. Ann was determined to move out because she did no want to abide by her parents rules. Ann began dating, and hanging out with the wrong crowd, later that year she moved in with some friends and brought Marrissa with her. Ann began to realize she did want the responsibility of raising a child, yet she also did not want to be under her parents influence.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 36 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDIN INCLUSION Shortly after her move Ann began to leave Marrissa with random friends when she felt that she needed a break. Initially this would last for a couple of hours, but as the years progresses Ann would leave Marrissa with friends for several days at a time without contacting them. Ann¶s parents were concerned but most times they did not even have a way to contact Ann. Recently, Ann made a call to her parents they offered to let Marrissa stay with them, Ann declined. Ann did not want the responsibility of her job either; she quit and applied for welfare benefits and is continuously late on her rent. The landlord is threatening to evict her within three days. Once Marrissa became of school age and entered kindergarten it was apparent to her teacher that something was wrong at home. Marrissa was always late, sometimes up to an hour. Marrissa was a good student and a delight to have in class yet there were certain aspects that affected her educational process. Marrissa did not have the supplies she needed for class, she frequently fell asleep during class, she made constant complaints of her stomach hurting and wanting to eat, her hair was rarely combed, and she would turn her homework in tattered and torn. In third grade Marrissa was placed in special education classes because of her grades, and she was behind in her studies.

Ms. Churchill was Marissa¶s special education teacher in fourth grade; she noticed that Marrissa could complete her class assignments and that she was working on grade level. Ms. Churchill was concerned about Marissa¶s frequent unexplained absences and tardiness, as well as her fatigue and constant trips to the nurse. Marrissa was fairing well in both her special education and general education classes and Ms. Churchill decided to go to the administration to see what could be done for Marrissa.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 37 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Marissa was placed in special education classes under a 504 plan, which is defined as, ³A civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities. Section 504 ensures that the child with a disability has equal access to an education. The child may receive accommodations and modifications. Unlike the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Section 504 does not require the school to provide an individualized educational program (IEP) that is designed to meet the child's unique needs and provides the child with educational benefit. Under Section 504, fewer procedural safeguards are available to children with disabilities and their parents than under IDEA´ (Wright & Wright, 2010). (Jedi, 2009) mentions that for a student to be eligible for a 504 plan they must meet the following criteria: ³The student must exhibit one or more of the following symptoms: a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities, have a record of such a physical or mental impairment, be perceived as having such a physical or mental impairment. In California the truancy laws are as follows, a student missing more than 30 minutes of instruction without an excuse three times during the school year must be classified as a truant and reported to the proper school authority (CA Dept. of Education, 2010). EC Section 48260 (a): Any pupil subject to compulsory full-time education or compulsory continuation education who is absent from school without a valid excuse three full days or tardy or absent more than any 30-minute period during the school day without a valid excuse on three occasions in one school year, or any combination thereof, is a truant and shall be reported to the attendance supervisor or the superintendent of the school district (CA Dept. of Education, 2010).

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 38 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Therefore, Marissa¶s truancy issues are going to be reported to the attendance supervisor. Ms. Churchill is waiting to see what further action will be taken because she has also voiced her concerns regarding physical neglect. Marrissa often talks to her classmates about staying up all night, playing outside instead of coming to school, and that she stays with a variety of people. Ms. Churchill has made several attempts in the past week to contact Ann, Marissa¶s mother but she has been unable to get in touch with her. Ms. Churchill is also concerned about Marissa¶s appearance; at this age children can be cruel with their teasing. Marrissa often comes to school with clothes that have stains; her hair seems as if it has not been combed for days, and she has poor hygiene. (Salend, 2007), discusses the effects of poverty on the five family domains, which include: health, productivity, physical environment, emotional well-being, and family interaction. Until some action is taken Ms. Churchill worries about Marrissa and her struggles both at home and academically. Ms. Churchill believes that Marrissa should be placed inclusively into a general education class. Marrissa has several academic strengths: socially she gets along well with others, enjoys having class jobs and responsibilities, she is very good in spelling and vocabulary, she has strong numbers and operation sense, as well as very good oral communication skills. Marissa¶s weaknesses include: poor reading comprehension and phonemic awareness skills, poor mathematical processing skills (i.e., word problems). Also, included are fatigue, poor hygiene, missed school and homework assignments, and frequent visits to the school¶s nurse. In order to ensure Marrissa a successful inclusive learning environment I would provide her with one-on-one time through out the school week.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 39 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION She would work with our classroom teacher¶s assistant and when working on math problems I would have Marrissa write out the steps that she uses to figure out a problem. Other accommodations that I would make is to incorporate cooperative learning into the class environment, more formative assessments, practice worksheets regarding sequencing and using repetition and memory skills practice in class exercise and activities. According to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System ³Child neglect is the most prevalent form of child maltreatment in the United States, of the approximately 899,000 children in the United States who were victims of abuse and neglect in 2005, 62.8 percent (564,765 children) suffered from neglect alone´ (NCANDA, 2005). There are four core types of neglect; physical, education, emotional, and medical and usually all of these forms of abuse are mutually inclusive. In this case Ms. Churchill is faced with a dilemma that many educators are faced with, whatever the outcome the best course of action to help a student like Marrissa is to not give up, collaborate with other teachers, stay informed and keep the school administration informed of any additional concerns or changes.


Tom Back has spent five years developing a constructivist math curriculum to accommodate all types of learners including general and special education students. After spending long hours and many sleepless nights, he is finally seeing the fruits of his labor. His student's math grades and test scores reflect the effectiveness of his methods.

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But Tom is troubled because none of his fellow teachers have taken his lead and modified their teaching styles. Many of his students, after reentering traditional classes are returning to their former spiral of failure. (USF, 2001.)

³Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving information. Learners are the makers of meaning and knowledge. Constructivist teaching fosters critical thinking, and creates motivated and independent learners´ (Gray, et al).

Applying the practices and methodologies of constructivism in a mathematics class can be a somewhat daunting task. In using constructivism in teaching mathematical approach ³"Students need to construct their own understanding of each mathematical concept, so that the primary role of teaching is not to lecture, explain, or otherwise attempt to 'transfer' mathematical knowledge, but to create situations for students that will foster their making the necessary mental constructions. A critical aspect of the approach is a decomposition of each mathematical concept into developmental steps following a Piagetian theory of knowledge based on observation of, and interviews with, students as they attempt to learn a concept" (Drexel University, 2010.)

Mr. Back faces quite a dilemma, and this dilemma is growing more and more common everyday. In my own personal teaching experience I have tried to implement new teaching methodologies that really helped the students. INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 41 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION In using the more traditional methodologies the students would memorize the materials and information that they were studying, yet they were not necessarily learning or retaining what was being taught to them. Unfortunately, in overcoming the obstacles of helping students become better learners you face the risk of creating more obstacles for yourself, especially with your own peers. As I mentioned I too was involved in a similar situation as Mr. Back and some of the newer teachers were very accepting of the methodologies that I initiated for my class. But the elder teachers at the school were none to pleased; it seemed to become a battle of the new school and old school teachers. The situation sounds silly since we all shared the common goal of trying to give our students the best education we could give them; but not everyone is a proponent for change and not everyone is able to adapt so easily. ³The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.´ (Think Exist, 2010). There are three major collaboration challenges that Mr. Back faces. The first challenge is gaining support from his colleagues. A few ways that Mr. Back can gain support from his colleagues in the mathematics department is to actually provide them with proof that his methods are working. He could do this by inviting other staff members to view the class projects, with permission of the principal he could video tape on of his lessons and screen it during a staff meeting, as well as getting support from the students¶ guardians and families. Lastly, Mr. Back could ask the principal for a section of time during a staff meeting to present a brief presentation regarding the benefits of the constructivist teaching method and why he believes it is beneficial to his students.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 42 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Mr. Back¶s ultimate goal is to enable his student¶s to become progressive and perceptive thinkers. The case study mentions that when the student return to their general education mathematics classrooms they tend to revert to their previous trepidation to learning. Although it is great that Mr. Back is taken a new approach to getting his students involved in the learning process, he must remember that the students have other teachers. When introducing a new approach to teaching it is imperative to teach students how to discern information and apply the constructivist model to their traditional studies. Teachers must enable students to focus on the primary facts and equations while implementing the constructivist model.

An additional challenge that Mr. Back faces is a common challenge for most teachers, one in which Mr. Back mentions in the case study ³How much more time and effort would it take to convince the others to change the way they taught? Tom questioned his role as a teacher and asked himself, "How much more should I do? Am I responsible for what happens next for my students?" (USF, 2001). Too many times teachers are too stressed; just as a parent¶s they want the best for their students. Unfortunately, in most cases teachers do not have sufficient time or resources to share all of the knowledge that they have to offer. Some solutions for Mr. Back are time management, using his own private journal for a reflection process, and just the basic understanding of the fact that one person can only do so much.

³The ultimate measure of a person is not where they stand in moments of comfort and convenience, but where the stand in times of challenge and controversy´. This week¶s module offers some insight into the case of Mr. Back.

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Theme one of module four discusses collaboration, in which it touches upon the point that collaboration is voluntary (Friend & Cook as cited in Friend, 2008, pp 124-126) With this said, even though Mr. Back is making great strides with his students he has to realize that everyone may not be on board with the constructivist approach to teaching. This theme also discusses the other aspects of collaboration that are important for Mr. Back to take into account; collaboration is based on parity, requires a mutual goal and shared responsibility, includes shared responsibility, requires sharing resources, and is emergent (Friend & Cook as cited in Friend, 2008, pp 124-126).

The constructivist approach to teaching is still a fairly new methodology and sometimes something new can be considered unfavorably. As with anything there are pros and cons to the constructivist approach to teaching. Some speculate that ³kids are unable to do simple math operations in real life, kids are confused by multiple methods of operations and kids are at a disadvantage in later grades when traditional methods are the norm´ (Readington Parents.org, 2005). Others may say, ³Constructivist teaching provides a rich, problem-solving arena that encourages the learner's investigation, invention and inference. The constructivist teacher values learner reflection, cognitive conflict and peer interaction.´ (ACT, 2002). Whichever method a teacher may choose the common goal is simply to for students to learn, which means that collaboration has already begun unknowingly.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 44 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION

I would like to further discuss the topic of collaboration by introducing the case study of Ms. Stanley and Ms. Diaz. Ms. Stanley and Ms. Diaz are co-teaching one period together, where the classroom they are sharing has been Ms. Diaz¶s for 15 years.

Unfortunately the two teachers have very different teaching strategies. Ms. Diaz, believing there is a certain percentage of a student destined to fail, is strict and unyielding with the students. Ms. Stanley has spent two years working with "at risk" students and believes that all students can succeed with support. Ms. Stanley has tried to talk to Ms. Diaz about their differences but to no avail. (USF, 2001). This case study deals with a teaching team that is in crisis. It is one in which I can relate to professionally. I have been in a situation in working with a teacher who would just not budge on their teaching style or much of anything. I felt as though I was just a paper collector instead of an important member of the educational team and process.

The dilemma shared by Ms. Stanley and Ms. Diaz is a common problem that is faced by many individual, in many different industries, everyday. The questions that must be dealt with immediately are what can be done to make a resolution? How can the teachers begin to bond and work more effectively as a team? In reading the case study ³You¶re a Disgrace!´ (USF, 2001) I noticed that there are several issues that should have been looked into immediately. If matters are left to fester the end result will be explosive. Much like the scenario presented in the case; Ms. Stanley had finally had enough. The problem with this is that Ms. Stanley let her concerns fester, for so many out of line comments and rudeness. This was not only doing a disservice to her teaching ability it was doing a disservice to the students.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 45 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION

It is apart of common courteous to be kind to others, yet there is a definite line that Ms. Diaz crossed in which an immediate response was needed. It is certain that their needs to be an intervention of some sort, both teachers face fault in the scenario. Although, Ms. Diaz¶s actions were distasteful, there are obviously deep-rooted reasons as to why she has pretty much given up on her students, and why she will not budge in her teaching methods. The administration must step in to assist this teaching duo. Ms. Stanley must learn how to say no, and Ms. Diaz must learn when things are better left unsaid. For now this pairing is toxic and will lead to more stress for both the teachers and the students alike. It is imperative for Ms. Stanley and Ms. Diaz to utilize collaborative problem solving to better aid their students. Theme three of module four discusses four problem-solving techniques that were presented in the text. The four steps are: 1. Problem identification. 2. Problem analysis. 3. Plan implementation. 4. Plan evaluation (Salend, 2007).

Given that this case study focuses on mathematics I created my lesson plan accordingly. I have resented three concurrent lesson plans that focus on mean, median, mode and range. Each teacher¶s strengths will be used in the lesson plans, which include the teaching methods of parallel teaching, one teaching/one helping and station teaching. Please Refer to Table 1.1 following this paper, for a detailed lesson plan for co-teaching.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 46 INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Another aspect of learning that we face as educators is diversity, and how to differentiate instruction to accommodate various learners. Liz is a poor reader. Her struggle with decoding the words makes it hard for her to comprehend what she reads. Her main difficulties are when she is asked to read out loud in class, read the text to gain information, or read information on a test. She learns best through listening with visual images and structures to follow. She likes to work with other students, mainly one on one, and is very eager to please her teachers. (Myers, 2010). Daniel has ADHD, but is very intelligent. His hyperactivity gets in the way of his ability to demonstrate how smart he is, so he does not perform at his optimal level. He annoys his teachers and fellow classmates, especially when working in groups. He also cannot work independently for very long periods of time. (Myers, 2010). I find that using a collaborative environment is very helpful in working with diverse students with diverse abilities. In this way hi and lo learners are placed together in an environment in which they can all benefit from their various strengths and weaknesses. Collaborative learning is defined as ³an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of students working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product´ (Gerlach, 1994). The website ³Collaborative Learning´ describes 44 benefits to collaborative learning, out of these benefits I chose a few to share in describing the benefits of facilitating collaborative learning to students such as Liz and Daniel.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 47 The benefits of collaborative learning include: promoting student-faculty interaction and familiarity and building self-esteem in students. Developing oral communication skills and develops social interaction skills. Creating an environment of active, involved, exploratory learning; using a team approach to problem solving while maintaining individual accountability.

INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Encouraging diversity understanding and encouraging student responsibility for learning. Giving students the opportunity to explore alternate problem solutions in a safe environment, which stimulates critical thinking and helps students clarify ideas through discussion and debate and enhances self-management skills (GDRC, 2010). In order to provide special needs students with a fair and adequate learning experience, it is imperative to incorporate their special education teacher. The article ³Teaching in School and Clinic,´ discusses three types of collaborative teaching, which include: team teaching, supportive learning activities and complementary instruction (Bauwens and Hourcade, 1997-pp. 81-85, 89.) It is important to instill all of these components to create an inclusive environment for the students and to yield a harmonious environment between teachers. When incorporating another teacher into a class it is important to treat them as the equal that they are, include them in all facets of learning and to maximize their strengths. The course textbook offers some insight into special educators in an inclusive classroom, ³that Special educators working in inclusion programs report having a greater sense of being an important part of the school community, an enriched view of education, greater knowledge of the general education system, and greater enjoyment of teaching that was related to working with

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 48 students without disabilities and ob-serving the successful functioning of their students with disabilities´ (Burstein et al., 2004; Cawley et al., 2002). Accommodations is defined as ³changes made to the teaching or testing procedures in order to provide a student with access to information and create an equal opportunity to demonstrate knowledge and skills´ (Myers, 2010). While, modifications is defined as ³changes in what a student is expected to learn and/or demonstrate. INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Modifications do change the instructional level or performance criteria for meeting the standards´ (Myers, 2010). In reading and discussing the case study, there are several accommodations that would suggest Liz, such as: Incorporate more group reading activities. Allow Liz use a reading pointer, in order for her to better follow along during reading. Increase the use of verbal and visual cues and set aside some time for one-on-one peer reading. I would provide extra work, such as sequencing worksheets to reinforce reading comprehension skills. There are also several modifications that I would incorporate learning games in the reading center that focus on decoding and the alphabet. Allot extra time for assessments and quizzes. Incorporating audiotapes when appropriate and decoding efforts in all subjects. I would encourage Liz to circle difficult words that she finds in text, for review. Incorporate phonics software into Liz¶s learning, as well as incorporating the use of manipulatives to improve reading and phonics skills. The article ³Struggling to Learn´ discusses reading decoding skills in which it states, ³decoding creates the foundation on which all other reading skills are built. For many, decoding comes naturally, quickly becoming an automatic process. For people who struggle to decode words, however, the process requires such extreme concentration that they often miss much of

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 49 the meaning in what they read. Indeed, according to many experts, decoding problems are at the root of most reading disabilities´ (PBS.org, 2003). Therefore, it is important to focus have Liz focus on reading in every subject. In the case of Daniel, the accommodations that I would construct include: frequent breaks and frequent positive reinforcement.

INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Other accommodation would include reviewing and reiterating multi-step directions, as well as giving him specific daily tasks. Sending daily learning and homework journals (must be signed daily by both the teacher and the guardian). And, lastly, avoid complexities; make directions clear, simple, and concise. The modifications that I would enlist for Daniel include: allotting extra time for test and quizzes and re-phrasing or para-phrasing test questions. I would also allot additional playtime at recess and frequent stretch periods (in or outside of the classroom). I would make certain that Daniel is placed in a collaborative group near the teacher¶s desk. Lastly, I would incorporate unison replies in lessons and activities. In the course textbook ADD/ADHD are mentioned on pages 74-76, the author (Montgomery, 2005), describes students with ADHD as ³students whose inattentiveness is accompanied by hyperactivity (ADHD- HI or ADDH), impulsivity, distractibility, and disorganization. In the classroom, their high level of activity and impulsivity may lead them to engage in such high activity behaviors as fidgeting with hands and feet and objects, squirming, calling out, being out of seat, talking excessively, and interrupting others´. With this said it is imperative that teachers¶ create an interactive learning environment to keep student attention, ways to do this include incorporating research based learning and technology into curriculum.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 50 Some additional non-traditional accommodations or modifications would be to incorporate stretching or movement activities and exercises after each subject lesson. This could include such simple exercises as having students march around the class in a circle or jump up and down for twenty minutes. In incorporating these types of activities it does not single out the student with ADHD and it will be beneficial for all students, not just those students with learning disabilities. INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Another method to accommodate students with ADHD would be to include meditation exercises and activities, and play soft music in the classroom. Lastly, teaching personal skills such as organization, tidiness, and social skills will greatly assist a student dealing with ADHD. When having a discussion about differentiated learning, one must discuss teaching in the core content areas. One main content area to discuss is literacy; there are several methods to increase reading fluency. In prior years, educators used the round robin reading technique, which is essentially when a group of student¶s reading a book by taking turns and reading aloud. The article Round Robin Reading: The Worst Strategy in the World, mentions that while one student is reading the others become bored or distracted, and some students skip ahead if the reader does not have consistent fluency in their reading (Lance, 2008). A few ways in which students can practice fluency other than reading in round-robin fashion include: repeated reading, in which students are given numerous opportunities to practice reading short (between 50 and 200 words), appropriate, and relevant materials at the reader¶s independent or instructional level until they can read them fluently (Dudley, 2005; Rasinski, 2004; Therrien & Kubina, 2006). Previewing refers to methods that give student opportunities to read or listen to text prior to reading (Welsch, 2006). Using root words and

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 51 affixes to decode unknown words, pausing appropriately based on the punctuation, using semantic and syntactic cues to read with expression, self- correcting errors, and limiting omissions by using a finger to trace the print (Salend, 2007). Recordingc students during reading activities and have them analyze and reflect on their reading ( Al Otaiba & Rivera, 2006; Hasbrouck, 2006; Herrel & Jordan, 2006).


The approach to reading that I prefer is the whole word approach. The whole word approach to reading is defined as ³a method to teach reading by introducing words to children as whole units without analysis of their subword parts´ (Beck and Juel 2002). There are pros and cons to the whole word approach to reading, yet in my opinion the benfits outweigh the loses. I find that this approach is beneficial to all types of learners because it enables students to learn and recognize the actual word, instead of breaking down syllables to create words. In doing this students can become confused by the spelling and look of the actual word, as opposed to the way the word sounds.

The article ³Reading War: Phonics vs. Whole Language,´ discusss the downside of the phonetics based approach to reading. The article suggests that ³While knowing basic phonetic rules helps students sound out words, other very common "outlaw words" still need to be memorized as sight words because they don't follow any but the most complicated rules. It is estimated about half the words in the English language cannot be pronounced correctly using commonly taught phonic rules. Other problems with phonics include the differing size of

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 52 students' vocabularies and differing dialects of English that vary in their pronunciation rules´ (Reyhner, 2008).

Three ways to differentiate instruction across the content areas are to use teaching aids, implementing a variety of instructional approaches and giving students models, cues, and prompts, using assessment to guide future teaching (Myers, 2010). Teaching aids can include materials such as, manipulatives or instructional technology. Some examples of models, cues and prompts could be incorporating outlines or story starters/enders into a lesson (Salend, 2007). INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Lastly, some approaches to instruction include offering peer-mediated instruction and offering specialized instruction in solving word problems (Myers, 2010).



Kora is a high school senior whom has an IEP and receives special education services. Kora¶s IEP defines her needs as (OHI) Other Health Impairment, her disabilities include: dyscalculia, dyslexia, ADHD, and a hearing impairment. According to LD Online (a website that focuses on learning disabilities and ADHD) ³approximately 80 percent of students with learning disabilities have been described as reading disabled (Ld online.org, 2008). Kora¶s IEP also identified the challenges that she faces in mathematics; she has been identified as having difficulties in (1) problem-solving and (2) arithmetic. Kora¶s struggles with problem-solving and arithmetic difficulties can also stem from a combination of her reading disabilities and ADHD. Many students, particularly those with disabilities, experience problems in learning mathematics

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 53 (Geary, 2004; Gersten, Jordan, & Flojo, 2005; Hodge, Riccomini, Buford,& Herbst, 2006; Xin, Jitendra, & Deatline- Buchman, 2005). Providing a student with differentiated learning in the literacy and content areas will greatly benefit his or her academic livelihood. Kora is a high school senior that received special education services for dyscalculia, dyslexia, ADHD, and a hearing impairment. Dyscalculia refers to a difficulty in performing mathematical calculations, while dyslexia refers to difficulties in reading, decoding, fluency, and reading comprehension.

INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Kora receives resources classes for mathematics and English, in addition to her other courses. In the team meeting for her IEP, Kora was defined under other health impairment (OHI). According to LD Online (a website that focuses on learning disabilities and ADHD) ³approximately 80 percent of students with learning disabilities have been described as reading disabled (Ld online.org, 2008). Kora¶s has several key problems in the core content areas. Her IEP determined that she had difficulties in reading comprehension: primarily in the areas of (1) memorization and (2) determining key facts. In the article What Are Learning Disabilities in Reading Comprehension, the author discusses reading comprehension, stating that this particular type of disability ³affects the learner's ability to understand the meaning of words and passages. The author goes on to point out that although students can effectively read the words of a passage with fluency, they are unable to retain what they have read. The author also notes that ³reading aloud, their words and phrases are often read with no feeling, no change in tone, no logical phrasing, and no rhythm or

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 54 pace´ (Logsdon, 2010). This is called prosody, which is defined as a student¶s ability to read smoothly with proper levels of stress, pauses, volume, and intonation (Dudley, 2005). A strategy for success that could be incorporated into Kora¶s learning plan is to incorporate Story Grammars and Frames. These strategies to boost reading comprehension are discussed in the course textbook, Creating Inclusive Classrooms. Story grammars are defined as outlines of the way stories are organized. They often involve identifying and articulating a reading selections main character, story lines, conflicts, and ending (Salend, 2008 p. 426). Frames give an outline of the pertinent facts of a story and provide story cues to help the student better understand (comprehend) what they are reading (Salend, 2008 p. 426). INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Illustration 1.1 is a frame organizer of the story A Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe. The lesson is divided into three segments; therefore, this graphic organizer will only cover the first segment of the story. This organizer can assist Kora or any student with a reading disability in achieving more success in the inclusive classroom. Please refer to illustration 1.1 to view a sample of a graphic story organizer for reading comprehension. The illustration is immediately following this paper. Kora¶s IEP also identified the challenges that she faces in mathematics; she has been identified as having difficulties in (1) problem-solving and (2) arithmetic. Kora¶s struggles with problem-solving and arithmetic difficulties can also stem from a combination of her reading disabilities and ADHD. Many students, particularly those with disabilities, experience problems in learning mathematics (Geary, 2004; Gersten, Jordan, & Flojo, 2005; Hodge, Riccomini, Buford,& Herbst, 2006; Xin, Jitendra, & Deatline- Buchman, 2005). Furthermore, according to an article on LD online.org ³Some learning disabled students have an excellent grasp of math

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 55 concepts, but are inconsistent in calculating. They are reliably unreliable at paying attention to the operational sign, at borrowing or carrying appropriately, and at sequencing the steps in complex operations. These same students also may experience difficulty mastering basic number facts´ (Garnett, 1998). Some strategies that can benefit Kora in successfully boosting her problem-solving difficulties are varying the instructional sequence. The course textbook discusses this method for teaching students with difficulties in both memorizing math facts and honing in on computational skills; it offers the tasks of ³varying the teaching sequence to cluster math facts can make it easier to remember them. INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Rather than teaching math facts in isolation, you can present related math facts together´ (Tucker, Singleton, & Weaver, 2002). In regards to Kora¶s concerns in arithmetic, the article ³Math Learning Disabilities,´ offers some keen insight into the steps that can be used to assist a student having difficulties in this area of learning. These step involve, ³acknowledging their computational weaknesses, maintaining persistent effort at strengthening inconsistent skills; sharing a partnership with the student to develop self-monitoring systems and ingenious compensations; and at the same time, providing the full, enriched scope of math teaching´ (Garnett, 1998). The next corresponding chart that I have provided is a sequence chart for mathematics, with a focus on reading comprehension, as well. Please refer to illustration 1.2, immediately following this paper. This particular type of sequence chart can be used to solve a word problem. Sequence charts for mathematics focus on mathematics as well as reading comprehension. The charts format was taken from an adapted model of Poyla¶s Four-Step

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 56 Sequence Chart (1957). This is helpful to students with disabilities in both math and reading, such as Kora. Providing a student with differentiated learning in the literacy and content areas will greatly benefit his or her academic livelihood. Myers (2010) offers some successful strategies to help students improve their literacy skills. The strategies consist of: promoting phonological awareness, promoting reading fluency, enhancing student¶s text comprehension and using a balanced approach to teaching literacy.

INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Improving a student¶s literacy will help them to succeed in all subjects, and as students move upward in grade level the will be presented with more complex wording and levels of master needed to comprehend their assignments and assessments. Lastly, there are two quotes that I must mention that truly help to rely the point of this paper; ³Fluency is important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.´ (Briggs, 2003). And, ³It is not enough to simply teach children to read; we have to give them something worth reading. Something that will stretch their imaginations--something that will help them make sense of their own lives and encourage them to reach out toward people whose lives are quite different from their own.´ (Katherine Patterson, et al.) ISSUES ABOUT TESTING AND GRADING When discussing inclusive classrooms one must touch upon the discussion of testing and grading. In recent years, testing and grading procedures have become a complex topic, one that has its fair share of pros and cons. High-stakes testing for example, is defined as ³when important decisions about grade level promotion, graduation, and the quality of the school are

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 57 determined by the results´ (Myers, 2010). One of the benefits of high-stakes testing is ³tests can be invaluable in helping to diagnose gaps in learning ³ (Carpenter, 2001). The article HighStakes Testing: A Balanced View, provides the following information in defense of high-stakes testing, ³ Nearly 30 states now rate schools primarily or solely on the basis of student test scores. A similar number explicitly link student promotion or graduation to performance on state or district tests. In addition, more than half the states identify low-performing schools and have the power to close, take over, or reconstitute these schools; many also have the authority to replace school staff based on poor student performance. INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION At the other end of the spectrum, a third of the states reward high-performing schools with money, and many give financial bonuses or pay raises to teachers and administrators for exemplary student performance. More states are expected to adopt such policies as a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). NCLB requires all states to test students in grades third through eighth annually (WIHSR, Volume 1, 2003). It is my personal belief that highstakes testing does not always adequately demonstrate what a student has learned and retained. It is imperative that we as administrators and educators realize that every student is unique, thus every student learns differently. Although, differentiated learning is applauded in the classroom, should we then offer students differentiated testing? Another high stakes testing article discusses the flaws of high-stakes testing, stating that ³Tests are not perfect," a committee of the National Academy of Sciences concluded in its exhaustive 1999 study of the appropriate and inappropriate uses of tests, titled High Stakes. ³No single test score can be considered a definitive measure of a student's knowledge´ (Alliance for Childhood, 2001). Standardized testing, such as high-stakes is also said to be discriminatory.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 58 For many urban schools, struggling with low teacher retention, budget cuts, and skeleton administrations, can have a tremendous impact on the level of learning of students. With dated textbooks and larger class sizes, schools face a significant deficit in the scores that their students receive. \ During my own personal reflections of standardized testing I realized that half of the items in the math portions of the test were only taught during the last quarter that we were in school, therefore, we as students had not yet learned a significant chunk of the material.

INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION Also, so much emphasis being placed on reading the directions thoroughly, yet there was not enough time put into actual test-prep strategies. Another concern that I have with high stakes testing are the time limits; if we are truly trying to determine students understanding, why should we place time constraints on them. Scenario, Ms. Bloom says: ³Times up, students. Put your pencils down and close your test book. Johnny says,´ But I only have a few more problems to go. Ms. Bloom says, sorry Johnny, the test booklet designated 20 minutes for this portion of the test´. With this said, is this truly giving an accurate depiction of what our student know or are we simply determining what a student can achieve in twenty minutes? Although, I am not a proponent for high-stakes testing I can understand the need for some type of assessment. My hope is that in the future students are offered a better alternative for testing. There are several kinds of accommodations that I believe to be appropriate during highstakes testing, such as: alternative assessment for special needs students, extra time to complete tests, more frequent breaks and the rephrasing of test questions and/or directions. Response tests asks the student to demonstrate their mastery of the subject matter by answering questions in

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 59 which a limited response is needed and only one selected answer shall suffice. On the opposite spectrum of the educational assessment wheel there is performance-based assessment. Performance±based assessment refers to, ³when students are evaluated on products that reveal their ability to apply the knowledge and skills they have learned to problems in real-life settings´ (Myers, 2010). Between the two types of assessment my stand is with performance-based assessment. With this said, I do believe that selected response tests serve a significant purpose in determining a student¶s understanding and achievement level. Although students are taught to memorize important facts and dates, the ultimate goal of learning is for students to retain the important facts that they have learned and apply that information in their everyday lives as adults. A student may not understand the wording of a question on a selected response test, yet that does not mean that they do not know the proper answer. A student may not be aware of the benefits of learning, or take it seriously; therefore it is important to keep students engaged throughout learning and assessments. Students need to be able to demonstrate what they know, rather than merely recite random facts and key terms. I believe that teachers should incorporate various types of assessments throughout the learning process. I think a great way to include both is to use selected response tests at the end of a chapter or lesson. And in order for the student to demonstrate their mastery of the curricula, performance-based assessments can be used as a unit review. It is also beneficial to use performance-based assessment at the beginning of a lesson as a pre-learning aid when introducing new material; students can begin by demonstrating what they think they know, and at the end of the lesson student can demonstrate what they actually have learned and apply that to a performance based activity. As far as the value of each, selected response tests vs.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 60 performance-based assessment, each are equably valuable in gaining insight into students¶ level of understanding. Although I am a proponent of differentiated grading it is important to remember to challenge students, in order to make grading fair students should be given the leisure to select the assignments that best suit them. At the same time in order to keep an unbiased account of student learning, various other types of grading should be used. For example, Charles is a student that is very creative and excels in art. Every time Charles is given the opportunity to choose a differentiated assignment for grading, he chooses to draw about what he has learned. INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION The concern here is that Charles is not being challenged, he is choosing a method of assessment that comes naturally to him. Therefore, Charles is not relaying a deeper sense of the subject matter. Thus, it is imperative for teachers to use differentiated grading as one of the many methods of grading class assignments, as opposed to a sole method of grading. Differentiated grading is a part of the norm-referenced grading system, which also includes: multiple grading, level grading and accommodations checklists. Since social studies and science are subjects that require further investigation, research, and relation to real-life scenarios, differentiated grading work well with these subjects. Art, spelling, and language are subjects in which mastery is demonstrated progressively, over a period of time. Therefore, multiple grading would be better suited for these subjects. Level grading aligns well with reading, language, and mathematics. An accommodations checklist could be used with all of the above subjects. Different methods of learning provide students with a well-balanced education, so does each of the above grading systems. If I had to defend one

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 61 system it would be differentiated grading, which enables students to be expressive, have a voice and opinion in their learning and to explore various activities. A differentiated assignment gives students the ability to show their strengths while demonstrating their knowledge of the subject matter. MODIFICATIONS AND EVALUATIONS PROCEDURES Modifications are a necessary component when providing assessments to special needs students. For this portion of my synthesizing project I used the sample teacher made test for middle school students. INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION In reviewing the test I noticed that several modifications would be needed. First, I started off by modifying the format; I added a place for the students to fill in the heading. I added extra line space for the students to answer questions, as well as making sure that everything aligned properly. Next I focused on the actual test questions. The beginning of the test the students were given to columned boxes, in which they were to match the definition to the key term. My concern with this section of the test is that there were too many terms to match. When creating a test it is important not to overwhelm the students, and when presenting matching to a student it should be limited to about five to eight terms. I decided that the test should be broken down into five distinct parts. I opted to include the matching section, yet I only provided three key terms to match. Many of the original key terms did not relate; my goal was to give students a better understanding, while checking for understanding. Therefore, I choose the three key terms that were relative to one another but had different meanings.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 62 Some additional modifications that I made included re-phrasing questions, grammatical and spelling corrections, and putting the directions for each section in bold print and other minor adjustments to make the questions easier to understand. My overall goal for breaking the test into five parts is to provide a test that can be completed over a week¶s time, or it can be completed in a day. The test also provides students with an area to demonstrate their creativity by drawing their own map of a Scandinavian country. I also included two short essay questions, one of the questions asks the student¶s to explain what their journey would be like if they traveled to one of the Scandinavian countries discussed in their textbook.

INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION The grading system that I would use to grade this test is a norm-referenced grading system, which is defined as ³grading systems involve giving numeric or letter grades to compare students using the same academic standards´ (Salend, 2008, p. 529). The type of normreferenced grading system that would be beneficial for grading this test would be level grading, which is defined as ³Numeric or letter subscripts are used to indicate the specific level of curriculum mastery´ (Myers, 2010). Please see illustration 1.3, following this paper to view the modifications that I have made to the supplied teacher-made test for middle school students.

TRANSITIONING STUDENTS TO INCLUSIVE ENVIRONMENTS ³The new, more direct role of the general education teacher has demanded an increased understanding of various types of disabilities, types of appropriate curricular and instructional modifications, and interactions with the students with disabilities in the classroom (Sabornie & deBettencourt, 1997). In-service training in these areas is vital and continues to be addressed as

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 63 schools move to an inclusive model. Teachers have a right and a responsibility to be prepared for the task at hand´ (Turner, et, al).

INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION ³The new, more direct role of the general education teacher has demanded an increased understanding of various types of disabilities, types of appropriate curricular and instructional modifications, and interactions with the students with disabilities in the classroom (Sabornie & deBettencourt, 1997). In-service training in these areas is vital and continues to be addressed as schools move to an inclusive model. Teachers have a right and a responsibility to be prepared for the task at hand´ (Turner, et, al). It is imperative for general educators to understand the needs of special education students, in order for them to transition smoothly from self-contained classrooms to inclusive learning environments. The case of Jacob describes the task of the general education teacher to create a welcoming inclusive environment. Jacob has been in a self-contained class for students with behavior problems in a separate school for the past two years. During this time, his behavior has improved and his multidisciplinary team has determined he is ready to return to his neighborhood school. He will be in an inclusive class where the special education teacher co-

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 64 teaches with the general education teacher. He still has a positive behavior support plan that requires that he receive help with organization, socialization, and attention difficulties. (Myers, 2010). As Jacob¶s general education teacher, I would attempt to attain a repertoire of as much information as I could in regards to Jacob. Having information on his background, his IEP, his likes and dislikes, strengths and weaknesses, are all beneficial elements as to learning about Jacob, which will enable me to make his transition into an inclusive setting a smooth one.

INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION I would also need to build a working relationship with his special education teacher to encourage a team effort. I would also attempt to attain information from Jacob¶s parents, such as what his behavioral triggers are? I would also invite Jacob¶s guardians to be active participants in his learning, as well as actively communicating with his family through journals, email, telephone and more frequent parent-teacher conferences. The goals that I have for the transition program include: creating a welcoming environment and introduction for Jacob, into the inclusive classroom. Having a dynamic working relationship with Jacob¶s special education teacher. Allowing Jacob to feel that he is a vital member of the class by encouraging active learning and creativity for all students. Accordingly, one of the my main priorities would be to make sure that Jacob is meeting his goals as outlined in his IEP, both academically and socially. The strategies that I would implement in helping Jacob strive in an inclusive setting would be differentiated learning strategies. The discussion of differentiated learning is quoted

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 65 by Renee Myers as, ³Teachers need to implement a variety of accommodations and modifications to meet the needs of the diverse students in today¶s inclusive classroom´ (Myers, 2008). In Jacob¶s case, incorporating various activities, exercises, and assessments in which he can demonstrate his talents and show his creativity could do this. Another strategy to aid Jacob in learning is to use formative assessment and learning practices. Formative assessment refers to the practice of self-reflection, by which students ask questions to engage in their learning. Using this method of learning also helps students on a social level, students usually work collaboratively to learn and further explore and various lessons. This method also teaches student¶s responsibility and problem-solving skills. INFORMATIVE STUDIES REGARDING INCLUSION There are several measures needed in order to help Jacob strive in inclusive learning environment. One key factor would be a teacher that has experience in assisting and promoting learning for students with special²exceptional needs. All parties must assist each other and work together, from the IEP team, to the special education teacher and/or resource teacher, to the general education teacher and the parents. There must be a continuous flow of communication between all, to truly aid Jacob in his academic endeavors. Lastly, keen insight into Jacob¶s own personal needs and goals is key. Sometimes adults get so wrapped up in trying to find the best way to help a student, tat the student¶s own personal needs can get overlooked. Focusing on what Jacob has to say and how he feels, as well as the other student¶s is the top priority, everything else will fall into place. In would like to close with a quote regarding teaching and my hope for inclusive education, ³A teacher is a compass that activates the magnets of curiosity, knowledge, and wisdom in the pupils´. (Terri Guillemets, et, al)

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 66 In conclusion, Encarta world Dictionary Online, the second definition of diversity is as follows: ³social inclusiveness: ethnic variety, as well as socioeconomic and gender variety, in a group, society, or institution´. In today¶s classrooms student¶s are faced with extreme hardships, from teasing and bullying to divided homes or homelessness. An educator must strive to make an impact on their students, both educationally as well as emotionally. The most memorable teachers are not those who coodle you or those who just simply let you slide by. The teachers that are most memorable are those that stand with you, that push you to succeed and that teach you to take pride in yourself as a student and an individual.

Kavale and Forness (2000) emphasized that "inclusion is not something that simply happens, but something that requires careful thought and preparation implemented with proper attitudes, accommodations, and adaptations in place" (p. 287). The paper Aspiring Elementary Teachers Inclusion Conclusion Prior to Coursework, the writer recalls upon the fact that ³In 1994, the American Federation of Teachers reported that only 22% of teachers in inclusive classrooms said that they had received special training, and only half of those teachers felt that their training was ³good´. There is some evidence to support the notion that general education teachers have a lack of training and insufficient skills to adequately serve students with exceptional needs (Houck & Rogers, 1994; Lieber et al., 2000; Schumm et al., 1995; Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2000; Salend, 2001; Sprague & Pennell, 2000)´ (Hipsky, et, al).

Lastly, in order to provide exceptional students with inclusive learning environments we must be facilitator¶s, we must challenge all of our students, we must offer our students a differentiated learning experiences and provide them with formative tools, in order for them to achieve.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 67 APPENDIX-- Table 1.1

Planning for Co-Teaching
General Educator: Special Educator: Grade Level: Subject: Ms. Diaz Ms. Stanley Grades 3-4 Mathematics Title: ³What is the Meaning?´ (Introduction) Finding the Mean. Monday, March 29, 2010 An introduction to finding the mean, median, mode and range. For this introductory lesson the teaching technique that will be used is the parallel teaching method. This method will be used because there are several students that are not fairing well in the class. Both Ms. Diaz and Ms. Stanley will work as lead teachers for this lesson. Ms. Stanley, the special education teacher will work with the special education students and the students who are scoring low in class. They will receive extra enrichment and exercises to help them better understand the lesson. The rest of the class will sit with Ms. Diaz; they will work on the current lesson and be presented with enrichment assignments from other lessons. The materials that are needed for this lesson include: y The textbook y Scratch paper y Crayons y Pencils and Erasers y Activity Worksheets Students will be evaluated by their class participation in the class discussion, as well as the activity sheets that correspond with the lesson. The activity sheet corresponds with the lesson; most of the sheet will be filled in as a class. The last two remaining questions on the sheet will be filled independently on another day. The students can use this sheet as a student guide that will help them review for their weekly quiz. Students who need follow up work will be offered several means of doing so: y At the beginning of the school year all teachers signed on to stay an extra thirty minutes after school in order to assist students who need extra help. y The school offers a free after-school tutoring program for students that are in ³at risk´ of failing. y In lieu of a family agreement, students who need extra assistance will have extra lessons sent home. These assignments will help

Lesson 1
Date What will we teach? Which co-teaching technique will be used? What are the specific tasks for both teachers?

What materials are needed?

How will we evaluate learning?

Information about students who need follow-up work?

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 68 give students more practice and a better understanding of the classroom lessons. Lastly, are encouraged daily to ask questions if they do not understand a lesson; as well as class discussion that take place every Tuesday and Thursday.

Lesson 2
Date What will we teach?

Title: ³What is the Meaning?´ (Part One) Finding the Mean. Tuesday, March 30, 2010 This mathematics lesson will be a review of lessons (s) 4-1 to 4-4: finding the mean, median, range and mode.

For this lesson the student will have a quick review and on how to find the mean and median. Next, the teachers will have the students break-up into teams and begin a fun mathematics race.

Which co-teaching technique will be used?

The one teaching/one helping style that will be used for this lesson is team teaching. This style will be used because Ms. Diaz is a stricter traditional teacher that likes to work strictly with book knowledge. Therefore, Ms. Diaz will be teaching the review portion of the lesson, as well as a textbook exercise in which the student are to complete three assigned problems. During this portion of the lesson Ms. Stanley will work as a support for Ms. Diaz. Ms. Stanley, the special education teacher who enjoys a more interactive classroom. Ms. Stanley will have the students break up into groups of four, while Ms. Diaz supervises. She will have the students work together in teams to find the mean, median, mode and range for a series of numbers. Each group member will have a turn to race to one of the four chalkboards and write their teams answers. The team who wins receives a treat at the end of the day. What are the specific The specific task of each teacher is to review key points and definitions tasks for both regarding: mean, median, mode and range. To monitor the four groups, to respond to any questions that each group may have, to make sure that teachers? each student is participating, What materials are The materials needed for this assignment are: needed? y Math textbook y Scratch Paper How will we Learning will be evaluated by the teachers, during the race both teachers evaluate learning? will have journals in which they will make notations about which students put forth the most effort for their teams, which students struggled and the

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 69 pros and cons of this activity. The students will not receive a letter grade for the activity portion of this lesson however their actions in their teams will count towards class participation. Students who need follow up work will be offered several means of doing so: y At the beginning of the school year all teachers signed on to stay an extra thirty minutes after school in order to assist students who need extra help. y The school offers a free after-school tutoring program for students that are in ³at risk´ of failing. y In lieu of a family agreement, students who need extra assistance will have extra lessons sent home. These assignments will help give students more practice and a better understanding of the classroom lessons. Lastly, are encouraged daily to ask questions if they do not understand a lesson; as well as class discussion that take place every Tuesday and Thursday. Title: ³What is the Meaning?´ (Part Two) Median, Mode and Wednesday, March 30, 2010 This mathematics lesson will be a review of lessons (s) 4-1 to 4-4: finding the mean, median, range and mode.

Information about students who need follow-up work?

Lesson 3
Range. Date What will we teach?

For this lesson students will learn about finding the median, mode and range. The students will be placed stations in which they will be given specific tasks, which correspond with the lessons. Which co-teaching The co-teaching technique that will be used for this lesson is station technique will be teaching. The students will be learning about three different topics that used? all relate to each other. What are the specific Ms. Diaz will be at the station that focuses on learning the fundamental of tasks for both finding the median, mode and range. Ms. Stanley will be working at the teachers? station in which student will be given a set of interactive activities to reinforce Ms. Diaz¶s lesson. The last station is for independent work, which will be assessed by both teachers. At this station the students will work in pairs to a corresponding mathematics workbook page. When the students are finished with this station they will go to their own desks and complete numbers 1-10, lesson 4-5 in the math textbook. What materials are The materials needed for this assignment include: needed? y Math textbook y Math workbook y Pencil y Crayons

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 70 y Scratch sheet of paper This lesson will be evaluated in three ways: 1. Students will be evaluated on their participation of the lesson activities. 2. Students will be evaluated on their independent class work. 3. Lastly, students will be evaluated on their understanding of the corresponding homework assignment and end of the week quiz. Following these lessons, students will write in their math journals; they will explain what they have learned, there likes and dislikes of the lesson, what the did not understand, and write about one way in which they will use mean, median, mode and range in real life. Students who need follow up work will be offered several means of doing so: y At the beginning of the school year all teachers signed on to stay an extra thirty minutes after school in order to assist students who need extra help. y The school offers a free after-school tutoring program for students that are in ³at risk´ of failing. y In lieu of a family agreement, students who need extra assistance will have extra lessons sent home. These assignments will help give students more practice and a better understanding of the classroom lessons. y Lastly, are encouraged daily to ask questions if they do not understand a lesson; as well as class discussion that take place every Tuesday and Thursday.

How will we evaluate learning?

Information about students who need follow-up work?

APPENDIX--Illustration 1.3 Reading Comprehension Story Frame Graphic Organizer

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 71

Name: Title:

Kora The Tell-Tale Heart

Author: Edgar Allan Poe

Directions: Fill in the blanks or circle the correct answer; refer to the text if needed.  The Tell-Tale Heart is written (in the 1st person, 2nd person, 3rd person?)  What type of story is this: (narrative, non-fiction, fiction?) Narrative  The tone of the story is (somber, scary, happy?)  The Narrator is the main character in the story who: is driven to insanity after killing an old man.  The narrator insists that a disease has (dulled or sharpened) his senses.  In the opening sequence, the narrator states that he (loves or hates) the old man.  In the beginning of the story the narrator says ³Hearken! And observe how healthily, how calmly I can tell you the whole story´. What does the word Hearken mean? Circle. (To watch out for something or to listen carefully)  The plan the narrator conceived haunted him? Day and night.  What is the meaning of the sentence, ³For his gold I had no desire´? It means that the narrator did not want the old man¶s money.  The old man had a pale blue, what? Circle. (Shirt, Eye, Bed Throw).  What happened to the narrator every time he saw the old man¶s pale blue eye? The narrator¶s blood ran cold.

APPENDIX--Ill. 1.2. Four Step Problem-Solving Sequence Chart

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 72

Name: Date:

Kora April 16, 2010

Subject: Mathematics Word Problem A van travels a maximum of 100 km/h. Its speed decreases in proportion with the number of passengers. The van can carry a maximum of seven people. Given that the van can travel 88 km/h with 3 people in the van, what will be the speed of the van when 6 people are on board?

1. Understand the Problem (What is the goal? Draw a representation) To determine the speed of the van when six people are on board.

2. Devise a Plan (Is there a similar problem I can relate to this?)
100 - 3t = 88 100 - 88 = 3t

3. Carry out the Plan (Carry out plan and check each step)
t = 12/3 t = 4 km/h reduction in speed per person

4. Look Back (Check answer)
When six persons are on board, the van travels at 100 - 6t = 100 - 6(4) = 76 km/h

Four Step Problem-Solving Sequence, Adapted from Polya, 1957 and Word Problem (Grade12), Saint Francis University, 1999.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 73 APPENDIX²MODIFIED TEACHER MADE ASSESSMENT

Lands of the Northern Coast Name: ______________________________________ Subject: ____________________________________ Date: _______________ Room No. __________

From the Mountains to the Sea! (Part 1) Directions: Match the key terms to their definitions in List B. Write the correct letter on the lines provided. List A ___1. Fjords ___2. Dikes ___3. Polders List B
a. Deep, narrow bays formed by the sea between mountains b. Broad banks of brick, sand, gravel, and clay, built to hold back the tide c. Low fields reclaimed from the sea

People! People! Everywhere. (Part 2) Directions: Fill in the blanks. 1. A _____________________________ map shows the areas the people live in. 2. Areas having few people are _______________________________ populated. 3. Areas having many people are ______________________________ populated. 4. __________________________ are businesses in which farmers sell their produce together. 5. Fish dried in the open air are called ___________________________________.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 74 Looking at Maps (Part 3) Directions: Look at Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark on the maps on pages 160-161 and 184. Choose the country that best completes the answer and write it¶s name on the line.
1. Rank the most mountainous from greatest to least mountainous. _______________________________. (Most mountainous) _______________________________. _______________________________. _______________________________. (Least mountainous)

2. Name the country is made up entirely of lowland plains? ______________________________________________.

Looking at Maps continued. (Part 3) Directions: Look at Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark on the maps on pages 160-161 and 184. Fill in the proper country to answer the question
3. Which country is made up of several small lakes? ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Which country has a network of rivers and lakes, linked by canals, through its southern part? ___________________________________________________________________. 5. Review the map pages listed above, choose a country a draw your own illustration of one the maps, in the box below. (Make sure to incorporate lakes, rivers, and etcetera).

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 75 The Scandinavian Countries (Part 4) Directions: Answer each question, using complete sentences. Check for answer for punctuation, grammar and spelling.
1. Why do many Norwegian s make their living from the sea? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________. 2. Why is the sea an important means of transportation in Norway? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________. 3. List two to three main resources of Sweden? _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ 4. What is Finland s chief resource, and what is done with it? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________. 5. Is Denmark a good country for dairy farming, if so why? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________. 6. Is trade important to the Scandinavian countries? If so, explain why? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ___________________.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 76
(Part 4 continued) 7. Identify two of the most valuable natural resources are found in Norway s mountains? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ________________________. 8. Name at least two ways that the Finns make use of their lakes, rivers, and canals? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________. 9. Describe how farmers in Scandinavian countries have formed co-operatives? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________. 10. Why does the Netherlands have good farming lands? What great problem did its people have to face to keep those farming lands? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ___. 11. Name three major products that the Dutch manufacture? ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 77
Essay Questions. (Part 5)

*Remember to write using complete sentences and to check your answer for punctuation, grammar and spelling.
12. The industry in Belgium and Luxembourg has grown. What chief natural resources have led to this boom in industry? And, what industries have seen the most growth?

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 78 13. If you were to visit any Scandinavian country which one would it be and why? What sites and cities would you like to see? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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Myers, R. (2010). Module 5, Themes 1-3: Differentiating Instruction, Centennial, CO: Jones International University, Online.

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 84 Beck, I.L. & Juel, C. (2002) The role of decoding in learning to read. Scholastic Red.

Myers, R. (2010). Module 6, Themes 1-3: Differentiating Instruction in Literacy and the Content Areas, Centennial, CO: Jones International University, Online. http://courses.jonesinternational.edu/display.jkg?clid=20771&uid=12032&tpl=fra meset Reyhner, J. Ph.D (2008). Reading Wars: Phonics vs. Whole Language. North Arizona University. Retreieved on April 10, 2010, from the website: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/Reading_Wars.html Dudley (2005). Early Identification and Intervention, Salend, S. (2008.) Creating Inclusive Classrooms: Effective and Reflective Practices (6th Ed.) Merrill Publishing. Garnett, K (1998). Math Learning Disabilities. Retrieved on April 15, 2010, from the website LD Online, at http://www.ldonline.org/article/5896 Geary, (2004); Gersten, Jordan, & Flojo, (2005); Hodge, Riccomini, Buford,& Herbst, (2006); Xin, Jitendra, & Deatline- Buchman, (2005). How Can I Differentiate Mathematics Instruction? Salend, S. (2008.) Creating Inclusive Classrooms: Effective and Reflective Practices (6th Ed.) Merrill Publishing. LD Online (2008). Reading and Dyslexia. Retrieved on April 15, 2010 from the website: www.ldonline.org/indepth/reading Logsdon, A (2010). What Are Learning Disabilities In Reading Comprehension? Retrieved on April 15, 2010 from the website: http://learningdisabilities.about.com/od/learningdisabilitybasics/p/rdgcomprhnsn.htm Poe, E. A. (1843). The Tell-Tale Heart. Published by: The Pioneer, USA. Retrieved on April 16, 2010, from the website: http://www.adamsmithacademy.org/etext/The_TellTale_Heart_text.html Polya (1957). Four Problem-Solving Steps, Mathematics Sequence Chart. Retrieved on April 16, 2010, from the website: http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/mathgraphicorganizers.asp Saint Francis Xavier University (1999). Grade Twelve Word Problems. Retrieved on April 16, 2010, from the website: http://www.mystfx.ca/special/mathproblems/welcome.html The Literacy Company (2010). Famous Literacy and Reading Quotes. Retrieved on April 16, 2010, from the website: http://www.readfaster.com/famousquotes.asp

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 85 Alliance for Childhood (2001). A Statement of Concern and A Call to Action: High-Stakes Testing. Retrieved on April 20, 2010, from the website: http://drupal6.allianceforchildhood.org/testing_position_statement Carpenter, S. (2001). The High Stakes of Educationally Testing, Retrieved on April 19, 2010, from the website: http://www.apa.org/monitor/may01/edtesting.aspx Myers, R. (2010). Module 7, Themes 1-3: Differentiating Evaluation Procedures, Centennial, CO: Jones International University, Online.

Myers, R. (2010). Module 7, Themes 1-3: Differentiating Evaluation Procedures, Centennial, CO: Jones International University, Online. http://courses.jonesinternational.edu/display.jkg?clid=20771&uid=12032&tpl=fra meset Myers, R. (2008). Jones International University, Module 5: Differentiating Instruction. EDU524: Exceptional Needs in Inclusive Classrooms, Professor Peak. Guillemets, T. (et, al). Quotations About Teachers. Retrieved on April 29, 2010, from the website: http://www.quotegarden.com/teachers.html Hipsky, M. Dr. Ed.D (et,al). Aspiring Elementary Teachers Inclusion Conclusion Prior to Coursework. Retrieved on April 30, 2010, from the website: http://www.cehs.wright.edu/resources/publications/ejie/Winter_Spring_2007/HTML_File s/2HipskyInclusion.htm

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 86

Jones International University Sponsored Project Acceptance Form
To be completed Course number by the student. Course title Student's name

Peaches M. Hubbard EDU524 Exceptional Needs in Inclusive Classrooms Professor Peak A final synthesizing paper on inclusion practices for exceptional/special needs students.

Professor's name

Proposed project description

Reason for selecting the sponsor's organization

The reason I selected this sponsor is because of her personal and professional knowledge in education, both general and special education practices.

Date of initial meeting with sponsor Date of project presentation

February 2010

April 2010

Informative Studies Regarding Inclusion 87

To be completed

Sponsor's name Sponsor's role in

Angela Scurry Retired Special Education Teacher

by the the organization sponsor or by the student with the sponsor's consent. y y y y The nature of the project The proposed benefit to your organization Your role as sponsor The importance of your availability to provide feedback on the project presentation date listed above Contact info 1-661-373-8026

By providing the information above, you are acknowledging that you understand:

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