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Running head: Model Assessment
Model Assessment Program In APA Style Peaches M. Hubbard Jones International University Online
Abstract Educational assessment refers to the assessment of the students learning. The how, what, what and why students learn depends upon the resources and curriculum offered to them. For any type of assessment there are some main components which must be provided, they include a mission or purpose for the assessment, which means their must be an initial need that must be identified in order for the assessment to be used effectively. The must also be goals and outcomes, or “learning outcomes and/or objectives,” which will help measure the effectiveness of the assessment. An assessment must also include feedback; this is a necessary tool because it offers educators and administrators the ability to be proactive in the cause of learning. If one is to continuously provide assessments without a deeper look into the results of the assessment and the impact on student learning, then the whole point of the assessment is lost. Students are assessed in order to gage their learning, to improve their learning, and to better their learning process. There are several goals of educational assessment; these goals were discussed in the article “Principles and Indicators for Student Assessment Systems,” (Posted August 28th, 2007 by Fairtest.) The article by Fairtest, The National Center for Fair and Open Testing, provided seven key principles that describe in detail, the various goals of educational assessment and the first two principles focus on the primary goals of educational assessment. Principle one discusses the primary purpose for educational assessment, which is to “improve student learning.” The second principle is to “support student learning,” which focuses on the accountability of learning placed on educators, administrators, parents, and the school community as a whole. (Fairtest, the National Center for Fair and Open Testing) The basic components of an educational assessment program are discussed in the unit theme for module, theme two. There are several factors that go into creating an assessment program; Figure 1.1 of theme two gives a break down of the steps in developing an assessment program, which include (sequentially): goals and purposes; achievement targets; design and blueprint; scoring; recording and reporting; validity; reliability; and fairness and, testing. These basic components give educators and administrators the guidelines to build a successful assessment program.
MAP Description The purpose of this assessment program is to assess and evaluate current kindergarten students, in the third quarter of school. The subject for the program is language arts, in which the student’s will assessed on their ability to write, read, and verbalize categorized sight words, (e.g., colors, days of the week, number words, and basic sight words) in accordance to the state content standards of the department of education, California. The assessment will give the teacher, principal, parent(s), and administration insight into whether or not the student is ready to move onto the first grade curriculum. The California State standards that will be examined and assessed are comprised of the English-language arts content standards for kindergarten students. The standards utilized include: (Reading) 1.0 Word analysis, fluency, and systematic vocabulary development. (Writing) 1.0 Writing strategies. (English) 1.0 Written and oral English language conventions. (Listening and Speaking) 1.0 Listening and speaking strategies.
The reference title for this MAP is “I See Sight Words.” MAP Purpose Statements Kindergarten students will be assessed on their ability to recognize and spell categorized sight words for language arts, so that the teacher and principal can determine if the students have met the requirements mandated by the state standards, to pass to the first grade. The teacher and principal can determine if the students have met the requirements mandated by the state standards, to pass to the first grade. Kindergarten students will be assessed on their ability to both write and read, independently, basic categorized sight words. This assessment is in accordance to the California State standard 1.2 (Spelling) Spell independently by using pre-phonetic knowledge, sounds of the alphabet, and knowledge of letter names and 1.17 (Vocabulary and Concept Development) Identify and sort words into basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, and food.) The teacher and principal can determine if the students have met the requirements mandated by the state standards, to pass to the first grade. Kindergarten students will be assessed orally on their ability to recognize words by sounding out words that the student deems difficult, thus using the alphabetic principle to understand and figure out word sounds. The teacher and principal can determine if the students have met the requirements mandated by the state standards, to pass to the first grade. This assessment is in accordance with California State standards 1.9 blending vowel-consonant sounds orally to make words or syllables, and 1.16 understanding that as letter of words change, so do the sounds (i.e., the alphabetic principle.)
Kindergarten students will be assessed on their ability to write basic categorized sight words in accordance to the California State standard 1.4 (Penmanship) To write
uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet independently, attending to the form and proper spacing of letters. The teacher and principal can determine if the students have met the requirements mandated by the state standards, to pass to the first grade. Kindergarten students will be assessed on their ability to listen and respond to oral communication, and demonstrate their understanding of the meanings of the basic categorized sight words. This is in accordance to California State standard 1.2 (Comprehension) share information and ideas, speaking audible in complete coherent sentences. The teacher and principal can determine if the students have met the requirements mandated by the state standards, to pass to the first grade. In conclusion, the purpose for this model assessment program is to evaluate a class of kindergarten students to assess their grade level competence in an attempt to determine if they are ready to move onto first grade level work and curriculum. This particular assessment program would typically be used during the second and third quarters of the school year, both as a review and assessment. This will also be used during the fourth quarter to deem if the student is ready to pass the mandated equivalency test to pass onto the first grade.
Model Blueprint Course Title: Teacher: Subject: Unit: Purposes:
“I See Sight Words” Kindergarten Language Arts Peaches M. Hubbard Language Arts Basic Categorized Sight words To ensure that kindergarten students are able to recognize, read and spell categorized sight words for language arts, so that the teacher and principal can determine if the students have met the requirements mandated by the state standards, to pass to the first grade. Date: 04/27/06 Time: 40 min.
Assessment Method: (Selected Response/Essay/Performance /Personal Communication)
Number of Items:
Recognize and recite words.
Selected Response (Summative): Two worksheets comprised of matching activities (the word to the picture)
10 Matching 10 Fill in 1 see rubric
categorized sight exercises and fill in the blanks (missing letters) worksheets. Performance Assessment (Formative): Oral dictation of said sight words. Write and read, independently, basic words Selected Response (Summative): Students will write Personal Communication (Formative): Students will review and recite basic categorized sight words through the verbal response method of call and recognition of
1 class discussion
categorized sight song and oral review.
100 word packet
Model Assessment each categorized sight word. This will be presented in the form of a work packet. There are approximately 100 categorized sight words and students will write twenty words per day in their packets, for one week. (10-in class, and 10 for home-work) Use the “alphabetic principle” to figure out difficult word selections. Write basic words neatly, correctly, and independently. Read and make Performance (Summative): Students will have a weekly quiz on their sight words. Performance (Formative): Students will give brief Selected Response (Summative): Students are to complete the last cycle in their write to read lab workbooks, which reviews the key sight words and phonetic sounds. Selected Response (Formative): Students will use alphabet.
Performance (Formative): Students will be placed in pairs 1 class participation and review their sight words flashcards. 25 written words
1 worksheet per day.
categorized sight worksheets to practice their penmanship, by writing the
Quiz: Six sight words per week. Class discussion
simple sentences descriptions and/or definitions, orally, for their 100-sight with sight words word list. and give brief descriptions and/or definitions for the meaning of the sight words. Selected Response: (Summative): Students will write 5 be placed in student’s portfolio. Selected Response (Summative): Students will complete a two-page worksheet that uses 20 key sight words. Students are to fill in the sight word that best completes the sentence. 2 sentences in class per day, 3 sentences per night for simple sentences using each of the 100 sight words. *To homework. 20 fill ins
Achievement Target Kindergarten students will be able to recognize and recite categorized sight words. Test Item: (Personal Performance) Kindergarten students will spell out various sight words to a chanting rhythm. Scoring Rubric Score Student participates in performance. Student spells out words correctly. Students keep in tune with the music. Scoring Key: Achievement Target Kindergarten students will be able to write and read, independently, basic categorized sight words. Test Item: (Selected Response) Students will complete a weekly homework packet, in which the must identify, read, and write their sight words. Scoring Checklist: Parent Signature must be on weekly homework packet to acknowledge that the student completed the weekly reading/fluency log. Students will write their sight words using proper capitalization, letter spacing and neatness. Students will complete their weekly work packets on time, every Friday morning. Achievement Target 1 2 3
Model Assessment 8 Kindergarten students will be able to use alphabetic principle to figure out difficult word selections. Test Item: (Personal Performance) Scoring Checklist: Students will read decodable books (independently) that review basic sight words. Students will demonstrate their ability to sound out difficult word by using the alphabetic principle and through phonetic awareness. Students will be able to point out the sight words in a book or on a sheet of paper. Students will demonstrate strong reading fluency when reading decodable books. Achievement Target Kindergarten students will be able to write basic categorized sight words neatly, correctly, and independently. Test Item: (Selected Response) Students will have daily writing drills in which they must write each of the assigned sight words three times each. Scoring Checklist: Students will write the proper heading on their assignments. Students will number each set of words. Students will use good penmanship. Students will write each sight word three times. Students will turn in assignment on time. Students will use capitalization, when needed.
Achievement Target Kindergarten students will be able to read and make simple sentences with the categorized sight words that are provided; students will also be able to give brief descriptions and/or definitions for the meaning of the sight words. Test Item: (Disposition) Students will be given categorized sight words about feelings, colors, seasons, and moods. The students will then articulate how they feel in response to the sight word, and determine whether or not the emotion matches the sight word description.
Scoring Rubric Item Word Association Colors Seasons Moods Feelings Mood Association Colors Seasons Moods Feelings Description of Sight Word Poor Good Very Good
Validity. An appropriate grade level scoring scale, which is comprised of both graphic and number ratings of student proficiency level, will be used in the assessment of all kindergarten students. The scoring scale is appropriate for the grade level of the students.
The assessment aligns with kindergarten English and Language Arts standards based principles, contents and objectives mandated by the department of education for the state of California for grades (K-12). The assessment will measure kindergarten student’s mastery of kindergarten coursework and their readiness to move on to the first grade. Reliability. Both numbered and graphic-scoring rubrics will be used for all assessments to gage student’s performance ability, content knowledge, and academic readiness for the next grade level. Assessments demonstrate the students: rate of fluency, oral pronunciation, reading and writing of categorized grade level sight words.
Model Assessment A variety of grade level appropriate scoring rubrics will be used for all assessments to gage the student’s ability to read, write, and pronounce categorized sight words.
Fairness. All kindergarten students have practiced and reviewed the same subject matter and objectives from the beginning of the school’s first quarter to the third quarter of the school year. Students will be assessed by the same scoring rubrics, Both traditional and nontraditional assessment methods will
which are appropriate for grade level. be used to identify the student’s mastery of the subject matter and readiness for the fourth grade.
Memorandum To: From: Date: Subject: Teaching Colleagues Peaches M. Hubbard February 21, 2009 Incorporating Assessment FOR Learning Practices in the Classroom.
Attachments: Formative Assessment Scheme
The purpose of this memorandum is to present the discussion of incorporating Assessment FOR Learning practices into our classroom assessments. In this memo I will give detailed information regarding the benefits of using this type of assessment, as well as the ramifications if this type of assessment is not implemented into our class assessments. Please read this memo thoroughly in order to weigh in on the discussion of utilizing this assessment process. Thank you in advance for your careful reading and consideration. What is Assessment FOR Learning? Assessment FOR Learning is an assessment process by which students are involved in the assessment process. process. Students are given unit information, the learning expectations that are required of them, and the ability to assist wit the learning As Rick Stiggins says, "Students can hit any target that they know about and holds still for them." Although, most assessment for learning assignments are not graded, it is critical to use this assessment process to enable the student to get a better of understanding of the material that they are given, in order for that information to be transferred in other subjects or in real life experiences. What does this mean for summative assessment? Assessment for learning can be looked at as a tool for learning or learning aide, and is an ongoing process through out the course of study, yet it can be used in conjunction with traditional assessment processes.
How Can Assessment For Learning Be Used? Assessment for learning can be used by doing a number of tasks, which have multibeneficial elements. A few of these uses include the following: Student Portfolio’s: “A portfolio is not the pile of student work that
accumulates over a semester or year.” (Jon Mueller, writer of the Authentic Assessment Toolbox) Student portfolios should be comprised of student’s works that provide quality assessment assignments. Not all assignments should be cluttered into the portfolio, but those assignments that show that the students has met instructional objectives and written projects, essays, or reports that verify their learning and class participation. Observation: Also known as class participation. Observation must be
conducted by the teacher, where as the teacher observes the learning process in order to get a better understanding and assessment of student learning. A teacher can observe students working individually or in cooperative groups. A great way to use observation is to incorporate “authentic assessment” into our classroom, thus giving “real life” assignments or projects to our student’s and observing a variety of factors of the learning process, such as: the use of vocabulary words for the unit for students explanations and the thought process that goes into the transference of knowledge of what the student has read or learned into order to solve challenging objectives or tasks, just to name a few uses. Class Discussions: Although the term is pretty self explanatory, class discussions can be an extremely useful tool in the assessment process. Can discussions can promote active learning, evoke a natural curiosity for learning, and can provide students with an outlet to get their points across and felt heard
Model Assessment 13 as an individual learner. Class discussions are not graded but it can provide teacher’s with insight into a students understanding of the subject matter.
The Pros And Cons of Assessment FOR Learning. The information above gives a concise explanation of what Assessment FOR Learning is and why it is beneficial to both students and teachers; now let’s discuss the downsides to using this type of assessment. There will always be good and bad, but in helping students achieve academic success it is imperative to always find the positive. Assessment FOR Learning can be somewhat more time consuming, it can take you off track for the lesson, and it should this type of assessment should not be used for grading. However let’s look at the benefits of these downsides: If a little extra time will help a student learn better and more effectively, in able to better retain the subject matter, it is worth the time. Also, it has been my experience that some of the best learning experiences that I have had personally is when the lesson delves off track, and other resources, materials, or subjects are brought into a discussion or lesson. Off track learning can be a beneficial tool that can help students retain information, and can benefit the teacher by enabling them to incorporate real life situations to incorporate into lessons. The key to using off track learning is to always remember to review and round up, which means don’ go too far off track, always come back to the lesson and it’s objectives. Lastly, assessments for learning are not graded, but they can still provide valuable assessment information, and can provide a teacher with the feedback of what content they may more readily need to review. It also allows the teacher to provide a more pro-active feedback. A CALL TO ACTION “The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (No Child Left Behind) is a landmark in education reform designed to improve student achievement and change the culture of America's schools.” (US Department of Education) Assessment FOR Learning will provide students with the tools and options to become apart of their learning and
Model Assessment 14 assessment process, thereby, promoting: student’s self-esteem, active learning and participation, ongoing feedback, students transference of learning, and synergy in the classroom. How Can Assessment FOR Learning Be Implemented Into Our Classrooms? According to an article by Dylan Wiliam, entitled “Implementing Assessment FOR Learning in Schools,” there are five effective methods into incorporating this assessment process into our classrooms and schools. The methods are as follows: Accountability. “Learn” to think outside of the box. As educators we teach our students to be or to become life-long learners, the same should be said for us teachers. In the profession of teaching there are changes and improvements made daily, we may not be equipped to readily incorporate all styles of learning and assessment, but we should be able to make improvements in learning when possible. As teachers we need to be accountable to our students and ourselves, and “practice what we preach.” Therefore, I am calling you to action in supporting and implementing Assessment FOR Learning in our classrooms. Support. In order for implementation to occur support is key, from
administration to teachers and the parent community. It is said “That it Takes a Village to Raise a Child,” and it takes the togetherness of educators help build a school. Support is vital to the success of implementing Assessment FOR Learning into our classrooms. Choice. This call to action is not an act of intimidation, rather a means for further discussion for a subject matter that is of urgent need. Everyone has a voice, and it is imperative that we all express how we feel about implementing Assessment FOR Learning. Although this may seem to be a somewhat daunting tasks; with all of the other things that are required of teachers to implement into our lessons, assessments, and evaluations, it is worth the sacrifice. As adults we all have choices to make and a voice to use, lets give
Model Assessment 15 our students the same voice and incorporate them into their assessment process. Flexibility. Be prepared to work together to ensure a smooth transition into Assessment FOR Learning practices. Do not force this assessment, if it will
better a lesson or unit, that is great, but if not stay on the more traditional track. This method of assessment is not to just to benefit the students, but rather to benefit both teacher and student to create an active and pro-active learning environment. Gradualism. “Do not through all of your eggs in one basket.” Start small, you do not have to jump in with both feet, it is okay to test the waters a bit. Assessment FOR Learning is an ongoing process, and should be used as the example of how to proceed. It is imperative to make everyone comfortable with this assessment style; therefore it is a great idea to implement this process in steps. Not only will this help teachers who are on the fence about implementing this type of assessment, it will give everyone the opportunity for more in depth learning regarding this assessment, and create the time needed to implement it properly and in an effective and approachable manner. In closing, I believe a statement by Richard Stiggins (The President and founder of the Assessment Training Institute, in Portland, Oregon) sums up the this call to action: “We have come to a tipping point in American education when we must change our assessment beliefs and act accordingly, or we must abandon hope that all students will meet standards or that the chronic achievement gap will close. The troubling fact is that, if all students don’t meet standards—that is, if the gap doesn’t close between those who meet and don’t meet those standards—our society will be unable to continue to evolve productively in either a social or an economic sense.” (Richard Stiggins)
Model Assessment 16 Once again, I sincerely thank you for your careful reading and consideration. Also, please take a few moments to read an example of how to incorporate formative assessment by reviewing the corresponding assessment scheme. Peaches M. Hubbard Educator
Scheme for Using Formative Assessment MAP Title: “I See Sight Words”
Grade Level: Kindergarten Formative Assessment Usage: Formative assessment will be used to promote student learning and create an active learning environment. Student will be provided with both casual and structured formative assessment. I have aligned this scheme with formative assessment principles since it contributes to the ongoing learning process of language arts, and makes it possible to give students the feedback needed to help them reach learning goals and expectations. In my opinion it also helps to better monitor student progress, and works well with the curriculum and age range for kindergarten students. priority. Purpose of Assessment: What we want to achieve is to ensure that kindergarten students have met the language arts requirements mandated by the state standards, to pass to the first grade. Objectives for Assessment: Students will demonstrate their ability to independently: recognize, read and spell categorized sight words for language arts, so that the teacher and principal can determine if the students. Principle for Assessment: Principle Two, Clear and Appropriate Achievement Targets. (Stiggins, Chapter 2, pages 20-23) Data Collection Methods: The assessment data will be collected by the use of grading rubrics and scoring checklists collected from personal communication (Oral) items, performance items (The arts), and selected response items (written). A weekly assessment timetable will be used to keep the learning process on track. Formative assessment focuses on the learning process, not ranking the end result of the grade as the
Model Assessment Each week there will be assessments, assessment tasks, and scoring guides, and review to establish clear and appropriate achievement targets. Data Storage Methods: The data or work will be graded using grading rubrics and/or scoring checklist. The work that best demonstrates course content, student achievement goals, or problem areas for the student will be placed in the individual student portfolios, as well as the class portfolio, which will be reviewed by teachers and administration. whole. This will enable previous, current, and subsequent teachers to have access to the performance of the class skill level as a This will beneficial to teachers and administration, as well as accreditation boards. Data Reporting: The data will be recorded into the teacher’s grade book. The data will be recorded for grading as well as to map students individual and collective learning development. The classroom teacher and teacher’s aide to better understand students strength and weaknesses will review this data, in order to get a better understanding of students’ learning needs. Parents will review the data during parent-teacher conferences. Lastly, the principal or administration will review assessment scores to see if students have met the requirements to enter the first grade. Measure of Success: students who achieve average passing scores to above average and excellent scoring marks will measure success in the assessment process. Students who are able to read, write, ad recognize at least 80 of the 100 categorized sight words, will be considered as ready to move on to first grade language arts curriculum.
Evaluation of Assessment MAP
3- Distinguished Learning Goals and Objectives Learning goals and objectives are clear and concise, and are well aligned with state standards, lesson plans, and target audience. Complies with and meets state mandated standards, focuses on the learning objectives, utilizes a variety of assessment practices, and provides the student with the best possible learning experience. Clear and well defined purpose and achievement targets. Utilizes a number of assessment methods. Well-defined achievement target and purpose. Clear design and framework. Easy to read with clear and concise writing. Original ideas, themes, and style. 2- Proficient Learning goals and objectives are stated clearly and follow the mandated state standards. Standard based curriculum uses at least one assessment practice. Uses learning objectives for assessment practices. 1-Basic Learning goals are stated and follow curriculum guidelines.
Curriculum utilized learning objectives to create learning outcomes for assessment.
Assessment Integration of Assessment Methods MAP design/Aesthetics and Originality
Purpose statement and listed achievement targets. Utilizes at least one assessment method. Achievement targets and readable. Adequate originality.
Vague but with adequate information. Assessment methods are vague. Has defined achievement targets, yet uses a predesigned template for MAP structure.
Model Assessment Peaches M. Hubbard EDU503: Assessment Strategies to Improve K-12 Learning Assignment 8.1: Should I Join the Debate?
Abstract For this assignment I have the opportunity to discuss my opinion on state mandated testing programs to improve local educational practices, my stance on this subject matter is neutral and there are several factors that made me come to this conclusion. Although I consider myself to be very open-minded, I am usually the type of person that is either for or against something, although some gray area may creep into view at times; I usually have a well-defined reasoning for everything. Yet, for this subject matter I can clearly see the pros, the cons, and the improvements that are necessary to help students achieve and exceed. So many institutions of learning, whether they are high or low scoring, tend to teach students what is mandated for them to learn and the bottom line is that students need to be challenged. Yes there should be academic objectives and benchmarks, but so many times students can reach much further in their learning experience, when they are stifled by the fact that they are just being taught enough to get by or to pass a test, instead of reaching their full capacity for learning.
Thus, leads to the question Should I Join the Debate? And the answer is yes! Although everyone may have their own personal views on state mandated testing it is imperative that all educators weigh on the subject, this will lead to less unbiased discussions and actions.
Model Assessment Pros and Cons of Local State Mandated Testing
Pros: There are several benefits to local state mandated testing; a few are listed as follows: Teachers, staff, administration, and the parent community get to review the test scores of students to see exactly what subject students are having a difficult time with. This gives everyone the ability to work with students to help them to improve in these areas. Norm referenced assessment rankings are usually made from the assessment of other students in relatively proximal areas, therefore, a teacher and the administration can view a comparison of other students in a specific geographic region. These results can be used for a variety of reasons, one of the reasons can be to find out what improvements need to be or can be made at their home school.
Cons: There are several downsides to local state mandated testing; a few are listed as follows: Schools that are low income or challenged schools already have limited resources; therefore a good chunk of the student body may already be behind in their studies. Is it truly fair to assess these students who do not have the ready tool, technology, and resources as other schools, with the same type of standardized tests? Basically the test results will confirm what is already known, the students are achieving low scores. I believe that it is imperative for challenged schools to use these test scores to better and improve curriculum, lesson plans, and assessment practices.
Another downside to local state mandated testing is the type of assessments that are used. Not all students learn in the same; therefore, I believe that there should be alternative methods of assessments. I believe students should first be tested on how they learn best, from performance assessment to essay questions. Once this is established the student should be given the opportunity to choose the assessment method that best suites them. It is imperative to teach students how to learn and teach them appropriate study and note-taking skills, before we assess them.
Teaching to the test is yet another downside to assessment. Many teachers feel that they must play catch up in order to prepare students for standardized tests so they teach for the test. Which can lead to stress to both the student and the teacher. The pressure to do well on high-stakes tests can sometimes have
exactly the opposite effect from the one we see. Stiggins (1999)
Lastly, teachers may be blamed for low scores of students.
Promoting the Value of State-Mandated Assessment.
Some of the concrete instructional practices that can be implemented into any classroom to promote the value of state-mandated assessment programs while maintaining the integrity of instruction include:
Incorporating note-taking skills, and instilling these skills in primary grade students and on.
Teaching ongoing test preparation skills, beginning at the primary level. Daily subject drills, especially in the key areas of math and language arts. Instructional skills, giving students detailed instructions or directions (multi-step) and having them follow the instructions to complete a project, assignment, etc.
And lastly, according to Scholastic test preparation strategies, some helpful practice skills to incorporate in test preparation are: making word problems a priority and converge into other subjects; encourage purposeful reading; teaching text structure; emphasize on mental math and estimation.
I reside in California, in (LAUSD) the Los Angeles Unified School District; the district prepares students for standardized tests with the aide of sample tests, promoting proper diet, for both morning and lunch, and making daily review a priority (about.com). When is it appropriate to use criterion-referenced tests and what value can you get out of that data? The definition for criterion-referenced tests is assessments that are made to determine whether a student has learned the material taught in a specific grade or course. Some instances in which the use of this type of testing is appropriate include: end of the year, quarterly testing, and beginning of the school year testing (previous year knowledge). In conclusion, I am a believer in state mandated testing, but I truly believe that there is room for substantial improvement and growth. Students need to be comfortable and familiar with the test-taking process as a whole, therefore, it is imperative to teach students note-taking and study skills starting at kindergarten and up. Students also need to have sessions regarding test taking practices, drills, and daily reviews to help them prepare for tests, instead of them feeling pressured, stressed, and overwhelmed. Lastly, I will end on a call for hope, as educators we must realize that tests are like winding roads and the end objectives, benchmarks, and standards are the mountains, thus leads to the quote: “Mountains cannot be surmounted except by winding paths,” (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.)
HOME PRINT HELP
Reference: Reading: “Purposes and Programs of Educational Assessment,” Module one, theme two, figure 1.1: Sequential Steps in Developing an Assessment Program (2009.) Jones International University, online. http://courses.jonesinternational.edu/display.jkg? clid=14576&uid=12032&tpl=frameset&jess_cookie=phubbard:682f26fd:1c1270d3 Article: “10 Key Elements of Testing: Types, terminology, measurement principles, and development process,” (May 2004.) Category: Testing and Accountability: Student testing. Last Retrieved: Tuesday, December 30, 2008. The California Department of Education, Sacramento, CA. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sa/ Article: “Introduction to the Three-Year Plan for the Development of California’s Assessment System, Developed by the State Board of Education and the California Department of Education (May 2002.) California State Department of Education Standards and Assessment Division, Sacramento, CA. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sa/documents/threeyear32102.pdf Reading: “Toward a Philosophy of Educational Assessment,” Module one, theme one, (2009.) Jones International University, online. http://courses.jonesinternational.edu/display.jkg? clid=14576&uid=12032&tpl=frameset&jess_cookie=phubbard:682f26fd:1c1270d3 Smith, Richard C.; Module Two, Theme Two: Purposes and Programs of Educational Assessment (2009.) Jones International University, Online. Centennial, CO. Article: English-Language Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools (K-12) (2002.) California Department of Education, Sacramento, CA. http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/elacontentstnds.pdf Stiggins, Richard, Aligning Achievement Targets and Assessment Methods Matrix (1997). Student-Centered, Classroom Assessment. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Model Assessment http://www.aea267.k12.ia.us/cia/files/pat/assessment_matrix.pdf
Smith, Richard, C. Module two, and theme two: Constructing Good Achievement Targets (2009). Jones International University, online, Centennial, CO. www.jonesinternational.edu. Stiggins, Richard. Textbook: Introduction to Student-Involved Assessment for Learning, fifth edition, Pearson Education, Inc., Published by Prentice Hall (1995-2008). Smith, Richard, C. Module five, and themes one, two and three: Validity, Reliability and Fairness (2009). Jones International University, online, Centennial, CO. www.jonesinternational.edu. Smith, Richard, C. Module five, and themes one, two and three: Validity, Reliability and Fairness (2009). Jones International University, online, Centennial, CO. www.jonesinternational.edu. Smith, Richard C., Module Four, Themes (1-6) (2009.) University Online, Centennial, CO. www.jiu.edu Jones International
Smith, Richard C., Module Six, Theme three: Using Test Results for Assessment For Learning (2009.) Jones International University Online, Centennial, CO. www.jiu.edu Duke, Nell K. and Ricthhart, Ron (1996-2009). No Pain, High Gain, Standardized Test Preparation. Scholastic Teaching Resources. Scholastic Inc., New York, NY. http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=4006 Volante, Louis (2004.) Teaching to the Test, What Every Educator and Policy Maker Should Know. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, Issue #34. Concordia University, Canada. About.com: Secondary Education (2009) Assessments and Tests – Creation, Delivery, and Grading Systems for Assessment. http://712educators.about.com/od/assessments/Assessments_and_Tests.htm FairTest, The National Center for Fair and Open Testing (2009.) FairTest, Boston, MA. http://www.fairtest.org/criterion-and-standards-referenced-tests Khurana, Simrin (2003.) Test Quotes, A Collection of Test Quotes: Reference: A Quote from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. About.com (2009), A New York Times Company. http://quotations.about.com/cs/inspirationquotes/a/Challenge9.htm
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