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Additional Mathematics Project Work 4

Additional Mathematics Project Work 4

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ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 4/2010

INDEX NUMBER IN OUR DAILY LIFE
NAME CLASS : NOOR WILIA AMIERA BT AFENDY : 5 MURNI

TEACHER : PN. RUZI SUZANA NO. I/C : 930907-03-5836

SEKOLAH : SMK SULTAN SULAIMAN

Introduction Objectives Appreciation Part 1 Part 2 Part 3

______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________

Further Exploration ______________________________ Conclusion Reflection ______________________________ ______________________________

We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while we are in Form 5.This year the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education has prepared four tasks for us. We are to choose and complete only ONE task based on our area of interest. This project can be done in groups or individually, but each of us are expected to submit an individually written report. Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work, we are to gain valuable experiences and able to: y Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve routine and non-routine problems; y Experience classroom environments which are challenging, interesting and meaningful and hence improve their thinking skills. y Experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life problems y Experience classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking, reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected

y Experience classroom environments that stimulate and enhance effective learning. y Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing, and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely y Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problem-solving in ways that increase interest and confidence y Prepare ourselves for the demand of our future undertakings and in workplace y Realise that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics. y Train ourselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate, to cooperate, and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment y Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively y Train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more creative and innovative y Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics

First of all, I would like to say Alhamdulillah, for giving me the strength and health to do this project work. Not forgotten my parents for providing everything, such as money, to buy anything that are related to this project work and their advise, which is the most needed for this project. Internet, books, computers, and etc. They also supported me and encouraged me to complete this task so that I will not procrastinate in doing it. Then I would like to thank my teacher, Mrs. Zainun Abdullah for guiding me and my friends throughout this project. We had some difficulties in doing this task, but she taught us patiently until we knew what to do. She tried and tried to teach us until we understand what we supposed to do with the project work. Last but not least, my friends who were doing this project with me and sharing our ideas. They were helpful that when we combined and discussed together, we had this task done.

HISTORY OF INDEX NUMBER
Index numbers are meant to study the change in the effects of such factors which cannot be measured directly. According to Bowley, ³Index numbers are used to measure the changes in some quantity which we cannot observe directly´. For example, changes in business activity in a country are not capable of direct measurement but it is possible to study relative changes in business activity by studying the variations in the values of some such factors which affect business activity, and which are capable of direct measurement. Index numbers are commonly used statistical device for measuring the combined fluctuations in a group related variables. If we wish to compare the price level of consumer items today with that prevalent ten years ago, we are not interested in comparing the prices of only one item, but in comparing some sort of average price levels. We may wish to co mpare the present agricultural production or industrial production with that at the time of independence. Here again, we have to consider all items of production and each item may have undergone a different fractional increase (or even a decrease). How do we obtain a composite measure? This composite measure is provided by index numbers which may be defined as a device for combining the variations that have come in group of related variables over a period of time, with a view to obtain a figure that represe nts the µnet¶ result of the change in the constitute variables.

Index numbers may be classified in terms of the variables that they are intended to measure. In business, different groups of variables in the measurement of which index number techniques are commonly used are (i) price, (ii) quantity, (iii) value and (iv) business activity. Thus, we have index of wholesale prices, index of consumer prices, index of industrial output, index of value of exports and index of business activity, etc. Here we shall be mainly interested in index numbers of prices showing changes with respect to time, although methods described can be applied to other cases. In general, the present level of prices is compared with the level of prices in the past. The present period is called the current period and some period in the past is called the base period.
Index Numbers:

Index numbers are statistical measures designed to show changes in a variable or group of related variables with respect to time, geo graphic location or other characteristics such as income, profession, etc. A collection of index numbers for different years, locations, etc., is sometimes called an index series.
Simple Index Number:

A simple index number is a number that meas ures a relative change in a single variable with respect to a base.
Composite Index Number:

A composite index number is a number that measures an average relative changes in a group of relative variables with respect to a base.

Part 1
The prices of goods sold in shops vary from one shop to another. Shoppers tend to buy goods which are not only reasonably priced but also give value for their money. You are required to carry out a survey on four different items based on the following categories i.e. food, detergent and stationery. The survey should be done in three different shops. a) Collect pictures, newspaper cuttings or photos on items that you have chosen. Design a collage to illustrate the chosen items

Answer: Food:

Detergent:

Stationery:

Question

(b) Record the items and their prices systematically as in Table 1.Since items maybe differently packed, be sure to use consistent measurements for each item selected so that comparison can be done easily and accurately. Answer:

Category

Item

Price(RM) Mydin Mall Giant Astaka RM3.65 RM1.65 RM3.89 RM3.89 RM13.08 RM7.50 RM8.90 RM8.65 RM3.90 RM28.95 RM3.50 RM1.80 RM18.90 RM2.20 RM26.40 RM68.43 RM3.99 RM1.65 RM4.29 RM4.69 RM3.80 RM1.65 RM3.90 RM4.20

1.Self-Raising Food Flour (1000g) 2.Sugar (1000g) 3.Butter (250g) 4.Eggs (Grade A) 1 dozen Total Price 1.Attack Softener Detergent (1L) 2.Top (1L) 3.Downy (1L) 4.Softlan (1000ml) Total Price 1.Highlighter Stationery Stabilo 2.Ruler (2pcs) 3.Colour Pencils Faber-Castell 4.Pen Power Gel Faber-Castell Total Price Grand Total

RM14.64 RM13.55 RM8.49 RM7.90 RM10.89 RM11.69 RM4.50 RM35.57 RM3.79 RM9.90 RM9.95 RM4.20 RM31.95 RM3.50

RM1.99 RM1.50 RM25.99 RM22.90 RM2.99 RM2.30

RM34.76 RM30.20 RM90.96 RM75.70

Question:

(c) Create at least two suitable graphical representations (the use of ICT is encouraged) to compare and contrast the price of the items chosen. Answer:

1) Food
5

4.5 4
3.5 3

Self-raising flour 2.5 2
1.5 Sugar Butter

Eggs(Grade A)

1 0.5 0 Giant Mydin Mall Astaka

2) Detergent

14

12

10

8

Attack Softener

Top Downy 6 Softlan

4

2

0

Giant

Mydin Mall

Astaka

3) Stationery

30

25

20

R ler Colo r Pencil Pen Po er Gel Faber -Castell
Highlighter Stabilo

10

5

0
Giant Mydin Mall Astaka

¡

 

15

 

Giant Mydin Mall

self-raising flour

sugar

¢ ¢

staka

Giant Mydin Mall staka

Giant Mydin Mall

butter

Eggs

£ £

staka

Giant Mydin Mall staka

Gia t Mydi Mall Astaka

Attack S fte er

Gia t Mydi Mall Astaka

Top

¤ ¤

¤ ¤

Giant Mydin Mall

Downy

Softlan

¥ ¥

staka

Giant Mydin Mall staka

Gia t Mydi Mall Astaka

Ruler

Gia t Mydi Mall Astaka

Colour Pencils

¦ ¦

¦ ¦

Giant Mydin Mall

Pen Power Gel Faber-Castell

Highlighter Stabilo

§ §

staka

Giant Mydin Mall staka

Question

(d) Based on the graphical representation that you have constructed in Part 1(c), interpret,discuss and draw conclusions. Comments on your findings.

Answer: Based on the graphical representations that I have constructed in Part 1(c), it is shown that there are large and small differences among the prices of items in each category between the shops.In the food category, the smallest price difference are of those of sugar, while the highest is the price of eggs. Besides food, detergent also shows a large price difference between its items. Among them is the price of downy and top.On the other hand,stationery items doesn¶t have any obvious price difference. The graph also show that most of the items that are high priced comes from the Giant, while the lowest price items come from the Mydin Mall.The graph 1(d) will show the conclusion of the difference among the shops based upon the shops grand total.

100 90 80 70 60 50 40
30 20 10 0

Giant Astaka Mydin Mall

Grand total

Question

(e) Identify an item that has a large price difference among the shops. Calculate the mean and standard deviation of that particular item. Hence, suggest and discuss possible reasons for the price difference. Answer: Top: Mean= =22.60 Standard deviation = ¥(™ ²)/N ± ( =¥ =2.88 The large price difference of clothes detergent (Top) among the shops maybe because of the standard of the shop.A high standard shop or supermarket, the items sold intend to be much more expensive than a regular shop or supermarket.Also, the price difference of the items may also due to the quality of the item present. A better quality means a higher price. )² 

- (22.60)²

Part 2
Every year SMK Indah organises a carnival to raise funds for the school. This year the school plans to install air conditioners in the school library. Last year, during the carnival, your class made and sold butter cakes. Because of the popularity of the butter cakes,your class has decided to carry out the same project for this year¶s carnival.

Question

(a)

Suggest a shop from Part 1 which you would go to purchase the ingredients for the butter cakes.State and discuss your reasons for purchasing from the shop you suggested.

Answer: Mydin.This is because the total price of the ingredients from this shop is the lowest from the three shops.

Question

(b)

Complete Table 2 with the prices of the items found in the shop/supermarket that you have chosen.

Answer: Ingredient Self-raising flour Sugar Butter Eggs(Grade A) Quantity Per cake 250g 200g 250g 5 eggs (300g) Price in the year 2009(RM) 0.90 0.35 3.30 1.25 Price in the year 2010(RM) 0.90 0.33 3.89 1.62

Question

(i)

Calculate the price index for each of the ingredients in Table 2 for the year 2010 based on the year 2009

Answer: Ingredient Quantity Price in the Price in the Price index Per cake year year for the year 2009(RM) 2010(RM) 2010 based on the year 2009 ( ) 250g 0.90 0.90 100 200g 250g 5 eggs (300g) 0.35 3.30 1.25 0.33 3.89 1.62 94.29 117.88 129.6

Self-raising flour Sugar Butter Eggs(Grade A)

1.Self-raising flour =

2.Sugar =

3.Butter
=

4.Eggs(Grade A) =

Question

(ii) Calculate the composite index for making a butter cake in the year 2010 based on the year 2009. Discuss how you obtained your answers.

Answer: To calculate the composite index,weightage is needed (W), 

Ingredients Weightage (W) Self-raising flour Sugar Butter Eggs(Grade A)

Composite index =112.2

Question

(iii)

In the year 2009,the butter cake was sold at RM15.00 each.Suggest a suitable selling price for the butter cake in the year 2010.Give reasons for your answer.

Answer: On 2009,RM 15.00 On 2010, price= 
 =  =18.38

Thus,the suitable price for the butter cake for the year 2010 is RM18.38.The increase in price is also suitable because of the rise in the price of the ingredients.

Question

(c)(i) Find out from reliable sources how to determine suitable capacity of air conditioner to be installed based on the volume/size of a room. Answer: For common usage,air conditioner is rated according to horse power (1HP), which is approximately 700W to 1000W of electrical power. It is suitable for a room size 1000ft³ which is around 27m³ of volume.
Question

(ii) Work in groups to estimate the volume of your school library. Explain how you arrive at your answer. Hence, determine the number of air conditioners with the appropriate capacity required for your library. Answer: By using a measuring tape,the dimension for the library is: Height=3.2m Width=6.25m Length=23.5m Volume of the room=3.20 6.25 23.50 =470.00m³ 1 unit of air conditioner is for 27m ³ For 470.00m³= =17.4 That means our school library needs 17 unit of air conditioner.

Question

(iii) If your class intends to sponsor one air conditioner for the school library, how many butter cakes must your class sell in order to buy the air conditioner? Answer: 1 unit of 1HP air conditioner=RM700 Cost for a cake =0.9+0.33+3.89+1.62 =6.74 Selling price =RM18.38 Profit =18.38-6.74 =RM11.64 Number of cakes to buy 1 unit of air conditioner = = 60.13 = 60 cakes

Part 3
As a committee member for the carnival, you are required to prepare an estimated budget to organize this year¶s carnival. The committee has to take into the consideration the increase in expenditure from the previous year due to inflation. The price of food, transportation and tents has increased by 15%. The cost of games, prizes and decorations remains the same, whereas the cost of miscellaneous items has increase by 30%.

Question,

a) Complete Table 3 based on the information given above.

Answer , Expenditure Food Games Transportation Decorations Prizes Tents Miscellaneous Amount in 2009 (RM) 1200.00 500.00 300.00 200.00 600.00 800.00 400.00 Table 3 Amount in 2010 (RM) 1380.00 500.00 345.00 200.00 600.00 920.00 520.00

Question

a) Calculate the composite index for the estimated budget of the carnival in the year 2010 based on the year 2009. Comment on your answer. Solution . Expenditure Amount in Amount in 2009 2010 (RM) (RM) 1200.00 500.00 300.00 200.00 600.00 800.00 400.00 1380.00 500.00 345.00 200.00 600.00 920.00 520.00 Price Index, I I= 115 100 115 100 100 115 130 Weightage, W

Food Games Transportation Decorations Prizes Tents Miscellaneous Composite Index = = =

12 5 3 2 6 8 4

=111.625

The total price for the year 2010 increase by 11.625% . This is because some price in the year 2009 increased in the year 2010. 

Question .

a) The change in the composite index for the estimate budget for the carnival from the year 2009 to the year 2010 is the same as the change from the year 2010 to the year 2011. Determine the composite index of the budget for the year 2011 based on the year 2009. Solution . Composite index for the year 2009 to the year 2010 =111.625 Composite index for the year 2010 to the year 2011 =111.625 
=

=111.625 111.625 124.60

Further Exploration
Index numbers are being used in many different daily situations, for example air pollution index, stock market index, gold index and property index. Obtain information from the internet or other reliable sources on the importance of two different types of index number of your choice. Elaborate the use and the importance of these index numbers in daily life.

Air Pollution Index
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere.

The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. The Air Quality Index (AQI) (also known as the Air Pollution Index (API) or Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) is a number used by government agencies to characterize the quality of the air at a given location. As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model. The function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to

AQI varies by pollutant, and is different in different countries. Air quality index values are divided into ranges, and each range is assigned a descriptor and a color code. Standardized public health advisories are associated with each AQI range. An agency might also encourage members of the public to take public transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high. Limitations of the AQI Most air contaminants do not have an associated AQI. Many countries monitor ground-level ozone, particulates, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide and calculate air quality indices for these pollutants. Causes of Poor Air Quality The AQI can worsen (go up) due to lack of dilution of air emissions by fresh air. Stagnant air, often caused by an anticyclone or temperature inversion, or other lack of winds lets air pollution remain in a local area. Indices by location
South Korea The Ministry of Environment of South Korea uses the Comprehensice Air-quality Index (CAI) to describe the ambient air quality based on health risk of air pollution. The index aims to help the public easily understand air quality level and protect the health of people from air pollution. - The CAI has values of 0 through 500, which are divided into six categories. The higher the CAI value, the greater the level of air pollution. - Of values of the five air pollutants, the highest is the CAI value.

CAI

Description

Health Implications

0-50

Good

A level that will not impact patients suffering from diseases related to air pollution. A level which may have a meager impact on patients in case of chronic exposure.

51100 101150

Moderate

Unhealthy for A level that may have harmful impacts on sensitive patients and members of sensitive groups groups. A level that may have harmful impacts on patients and members of sensitive groups (children, aged or weak people), and also cause the general public unpleasant feelings.

151250

Unhealthy

A level which may have a serious impact 251Very unhealthy on patients and members of sensitive 350 groups in case of acute exposure. A level which may need to take emergency measures for patients and members of sensitive groups and have harmful impacts on the general public.

351500

Hazardous

Malaysia The air quality in Malaysia is reported as the API or Air Pollution Index. Four of the index's pollutant components (i.e., carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide) are reported in PM10 particulate matter is reported in g/m³.

Unlike the American AQI, the index number can exceed 500. Above 500, a state of emergency is declared in the reporting area. Usually, this means that non-essential government services are suspended, and all ports in the affected area closed. There may also be a prohibition on private sector commercial and industrial activities in the reporting area excluding the food sector.

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A stock market index is a method of measuring a section of the stock market. Many indices are cited by news or financial services firms and are used as benchmarks, to measure the performance of portfolios such as mutual funds. Types of indices Stock market indices may be classed in many ways. A 'world' or 'global' stock market index includes (typically large) companies without regard for where they are domiciled or traded. Two examples are MSCI World and S&P Global 100. A national index represents the performance of the stock market of a given nation and by proxy, reflects investor sentiment on the state of its economy. The most regularly quoted market indices are national indices composed of the stocks of large companies listed on a nation's largest stock exchanges, such as the American S&P 500, the apanese Nikkei 225, and the British FTSE 100. The concept may be extended well beyond an exchange. The Dow ones Total Stock Market Index, as its name implies, represents the stocks of nearly every publicly traded company

in the United States, including all U.S. stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange (but not ADRs) and most traded on the NASDAQ and American Stock Exchange. Russell Investment Group added to the family of indices by launching the Russell Global Index. More specialised indices exist tracking the performance of specific sectors of the market. The Morgan Stanley Biotech Index, for example, consists of 36 American firms in the biotechnology industry. Other indices may track companies of a certain size, a certain type of management, or even more specialized criteria one index published by Linux Weekly

News tracks stocks of companies that sell products and services based on the Linux operating environment. Index versions Some indices, such as the S&P 500, have multiple versions.[1] These versions can differ based on how the index components are weighted and on how dividends are accounted for. For example, there are three versions of the S&P 500 index: price return, which only considers the price of the components, total return, which accounts for dividend reinvestment, and net total return, which accounts for dividend reinvestment after the deduction of a withholding tax. As another example, the Wilshire 4500 and Wilshire 5000 indices have five versions each: full capitalization total return, full capitalization price, floatadjusted total return, float-adjusted price, and equal weight. The difference between the full capitalization, float-adjusted, and equal weight versions is in how index components are weighted.

Uses and importance of air pollution index and stock market index

As everyone can see,the air pollution index is use by the government to measure the air quality index and to detect any pollutants in our country¶s air.This is to ensure the air is clean and safe for us to inhale.Besides that,an early warning can be given to us if the air pollution is to high for us to get out of our homes. This warning is given based upon readings and interpretations of the air pollution index.

As for the stock market index, it is mainly for the business entrepreneurs. This type of index is used to determine the outcome of a stock market and also the conclusion of a stock market. The stock market index is important because a country¶s economical state sometimes depend on it.

Conclusion
After doing research, answering questions, drawing graphs and some problem solving, I saw that the usage of index number is important in daily life. It is not just widely used in markets but also in interpreting the condition of the surrounding like the air or the water. Especially in conducting an air-pollution survey. In conclusion, index number is a daily life essecities. Without it, surveys can¶t be conducted, the stock market can¶t be interpret and many more. So ,we should be thankful of the people who contribute in the idea of index number.

Reflection
After spending countless hours, days and night to finish this project and also sacrificing my time video games and magazine in this mid year holiday, there are several things that I can say... Additional Mathematics... From the day I born... From the day I was able to holding pencil... From the day I start learning... And ... From the day I heard your name... I always thought that you will be my greatest obstacle and rival in excelling in my life... But after countless of hours... Countless of days ... Countless of nights ... After sacrificing my precious time just for you... Sacrificing my Computer Games... Sacrificing my Video Games... Sacrificing my Facebook ... Sacrificing my Internet... Sacrificing my Anime... Sacrificing my magazine... I realized something really important in you...

I really love you... You are my real friend... You my partner... You are my soulmate... I LOVE U ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS...

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