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What is Computer?
Computer Computer is Electronic Machine that is used to: is Electronic Machine that is used to:
-- Execute Processing Execute Processing ·. . ··· ·. . ··· Processing Processing
-- Store Data Store Data ··.·. · ··.·. · Data Data
-- Organize Data Organize Data ·.·.. ·.·.. Data Data
-- Find Information Find Information :· .·· ..’ ··« :· .·· ..’ ··«
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-- Find Information Find Information :· .·· ..’ ··« :· .·· ..’ ··«
-- Do Calculations Do Calculations .. ···..«· .. ···..«·
-- Translate the Processing Translate the Processing ·:· . .« ···· ·:· . .« ····
-- Control other machines Control other machines ·. .. « .·..·.. ··· «.... ·. .. « .·..·.. ··· «....
-- And more usages And more usages « . ·.¡.· ····....·..¡. « . ·.¡.· ····....·..¡.
Computer’s Environment Computer’s Environment
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Computer’s Family
1- Micro-Computer is a small computer that contains the Microprocessor Chip
.··...· .· . ·:...· Microprocessor chip
- Desktop Computer \ Personal Computer
- Laptop Computer \ Notebook Computer
- Pocket PC \ Hand-Held PC \ PDA(Personal Digital Assistant)
2- Mini-Computer is a computer that is smaller and slower than a Mainframe
but larger and faster than a Micro-Computer= .··...· .· . ·:... ..«··..·.
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but larger and faster than a Micro-Computer= .··...· .· . ·:... ..«··..·.
Mainframe :« ..¡«.·. Micro-Computer
3- Mainframe Computer is a large powerful computer, usually the center of
network and shared by many users around the world
.·· .· . ·:....¡«.·. .·.· .···.··.··. .network
.· · ··:.·.··..·..··.·.·····..·......··
4- Super Computer is a powerful computer with a large amount of memory and
a very fast CPU .·· .· . ·:....¡«.·. ...······...·«...¡«··...¡« ..
Micro and Mini Computer Micro and Mini Computer
Desktop Computer / PC Laptop Computer / NC
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Mini-Computer
-Pocket PC
-Hand-Held PC
-PDA
Mainframe and Super Mainframe and Super
Computer Computer
Mainframe Computer
...···.«··.«..«···«···«·..··
Super Computer
.·····.·..·.··.
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Computer Software
Software is the set of Instructions that directs the hardware
to accomplish a task, it can be called Program..· set of
Instructions :...· ·..·. .« ····· ·..··..·..· .·· · hardware
1- Operating System Software
 Microsoft (MS-DOS, Wins 9X, Wins NT, Wins ME, Wins
2K, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7)
 Linux (Red Hat, Fedora Core 10-11-12)
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 Linux (Red Hat, Fedora Core 10-11-12)
 Apple (Mac OS, Mac OS X)
2- Application Software
 Microsoft Office 2007 Enterprise
 TuneUp Utilities 2009 …etc
3- Firmware
 Student Registration
 Market Management …etc.
Computer Hardware
Hardware is the physical components of computer which we can touch
and hold it .·····.·.· ··.··· .· . ·:...· ..·.. .« .··«··«
• Mainboard \ Motherboard (Built-In, Built-Out)
• Monitor (CRT, LCD)
• Keyboard
- Escape Keypad - Function Keypad
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- Escape Keypad - Function Keypad
- Numeric Keypad - Cursor Movement Keypad
- Main Keypad
• Memory Chips (RAM: SDRAM - DDRRAM)
• Hard Drive (HDD, FDD, Zip, Memory Card , USB Flash…etc)
• Mouse (Rolling-Ball, Optical, Wireless)
• Expansion Cards (Sound Card, VGA Card…etc)
Hardware _ Input Devices
Input Devices include
- Keyboard
- Mouse
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- Mouse
- Joy Stick
- Scanner
- Touch Screen
- Light Pen
- Bar Code Reader
- Microphone System …etc
Keyboard Device
Touch Screen
Hardware Hardware __ Input Input Devices Devices
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Mouse Device
Scanner Device
Hardware Hardware __ Input Input Devices Devices
Microphone
Light Pen
Bar Code Reader
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Joy Stick
Microphone Bar Code Reader
Output Devices include :
- Monitor
- Speaker
Hardware Hardware __ Output Output
Devices Devices
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- Speaker
- Printer
- Plotter
- LCD Projector
- COM (Computer Output Microfilm) …etc
Printer Plotter
Hardware Hardware __ Output Output
Devices Devices
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Widescreen LCD LCD Projector
Hardware Hardware __Output Output
Devices Devices
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Computer Processing
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 System board / Circuit board:
- CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
- BIOS (Basic Input / Output System)
 Temporary Memory: RAM (Random Access Memory)
 Permanent Storage:
- Floppy Disk - USB Flash Memory
- Hard Disk - Zip Disk
Hardware Inside System Unit
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- Hard Disk - Zip Disk
- CD-ROM - Mobile Phone …etc.
 Data Cable:
- FDD (Floppy Disk Drive)
- IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics)
- SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)
- SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
 Power Supply: AT and ATX
Hardware Inside SystemUnit
Power Supply
CD_ROM drive
Floppy Disk Drive
CPU Fan
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Hard Disk Drive
Data Cables
Expansion Cards
Circuit Board
Computer’s Ports
Ports is the physical connectors that allow a cable from a peripheral device
to be attached .· physical :...« .· ·...··· ····· .·.·:...·. attach .·· ·
device ....·
• Parallel Port / Printer Port = 25 pins
• PS/2 Port = 6 pins
• Serial Port = 9 pins
• Game Port / Midi Port = 15 pins
• USB Port v.2.0 (Universal Serial Bus)
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• USB Port v.2.0 (Universal Serial Bus)
• Network Port / LAN Port = 8 pins (RJ45)
• Modem Port = 4 pins (RJ48)
• Sound Port / Audio Port (Input-Output-Microphone)
• VGA Port (Video Graphic Adapter) = 15 pins
• IDE Port (Integrated Drive Electronics) = 39 pins
• FDD Port (Floppy Disk Drive) = 34 pins
• ATX Port = 20 pins or 24 pins
• CPU Sockets (Central Processing Unit)
Computer’s Ports
Power In / Plug In
PS/2 Keyboard
Power Supply Fan
PS/2 Mouse
USB Ports
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USB Ports
Serial Port
Parallel Port
LAN Port / Network Port
Game Port / MIDI Port
VGA Port
Audio Port / Sound Port
Computer’s Computer’s Ports Ports
Power in
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Power Supply Fan
PS/2 Port
Computer’s Computer’s Ports Ports
USB Ports Case Fan
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LAN Port
Audio Ports
Game Port
Computer’s Computer’s Ports Ports
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VGA Port
Computer’s Ports
USB Ports
Parallel Port
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Serial Port
PS/2 Ports
Computer’s Slots
Slot is the long, thin, narrow(...¡.) opening hole which stands on the
system board
1- RAM Slot (Random Access Memory)
2- Expansion Slot is the connector inside a computer which an
expansion card can be plugged(..«····.··« ·)
- PCI Slot (Peripheral Component Interconnect) uses to install
expansion cards as:
- Network Card - TV Card - USB Card …etc
- Modem Card - PCI Card
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- Network Card - TV Card - USB Card …etc
- Modem Card - PCI Card
- Sound Card - VGA Card
- AGP Slot (Accelerated Graphics Port) uses with VGA Card only
- ISA Slot (Industry Standard Architecture) uses to install the
oldest version of expansion cards
Expansion’s Slots
ISA Slot
PCI Slot
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PCI Slot
AGP Slot
Modem Card
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Network Interface Network Interface Card Card
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VGA Card / Graphic Card VGA Card / Graphic Card
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Sound Sound Card / Audio Card Card / Audio Card
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Internal TV Internal TV Card Card
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TV TV--BOX Device BOX Device
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