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(BATCH 2006-2011)

Mehwish Mansoor
Prepared by: DVM Batch (2006-2011) THE PIONEERS

Sir Dr. Kashif Ishaq


Sir Dr. Tanveer Ahmed

Editorial Board

Chief Editor:

Hafiz Faseeh Minhas


Kashif Imran Khan Niazi

Shumaila Manzoor

Nabeel Ahmad Sher

Furqan Tehseen

M.Farrukh Hafeez

LIVESTOCK RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN ..................................................................................................... 5

Feasibility Report of 25 Buffalo............................................................................................................. 12

Management of Cattle and Buffalo at Various Stages .......................................................................... 25

CATTLE / BUFFALO HERD HEALTH PROGRAM ....................................................................................... 33

RAISING OF CALVES AND KID AND REPLACEMENT OF HERD AND FLOCK ............................................. 38

Reproductive Management of Sheep and Goat .................................................................................... 42

YEAR ROUND FODDER PRODUCTION AND PRESERVATION .................................................................. 47

RABI AND KHARIF FODDER PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY ...................................................................... 56

Feeding of Goats (dairy/mutton) at Different Stages of Life ................................................................. 66

Feeding technologies for desired products ........................................................................................... 72

Animal feed safety HACCP .................................................................................................................... 83

Feeding sheep (mutton) during different stages of life ......................................................................... 89

Management of Metabolic Disorders ................................................................................................... 93

BUFFALO CALF FATTENING PROGRAME ............................................................................................... 99

Farm Machinery.................................................................................................................................. 104

LABOUR MANAGEMENT AND HERDSMANSHIP .................................................................................. 115

Artificial insemination (AI) in farm Animals ........................................................................................ 126

DRY COW MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................................... 132

REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT IN CATTLE AND BUFFALOES ............................................................. 143

HERD STRATEGIES FOR GENETIC IMPROVEMENT ............................................................................... 149

Record keeping, Transport & Animal Welfare issues. ......................................................................... 154

PASTURE & GRAZING MANAGEMENT FOR DIFFERENT ANIMALS ....................................................... 160

Production and Handling of Wool and Hair ........................................................................................ 172

Animal Feed Quality Maintenance ..................................................................................................... 178

This protection can be achieved by following methods: ..................................................................... 189

Techniques for Improving Poor Quality Roughages and Non-conventional feed stuffs ...................... 194

Feed Storage ....................................................................................................................................... 200

FEEDING DAIRY CATTLE AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF LIFE ...................................................................... 209

The Concept of Organic Farming ......................................................................................................... 216

Biosecurity and sanitation at livestockfarms ...................................................................................... 221

MANAGEMENT OF GOAT AND SHEEP IN DIFFERENT STAGES OF LIFE ................................................. 229

Body Condition Scoring & Selection of Ideal Animals ......................................................................... 241

Manure Management & Related Environmental Issues ..................................................................... 246

Livestock Housing and Structure......................................................................................................... 252

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS AND THERE MARKETING ................................................................................ 270

FEASIBILITY REPORT FOR 25 Cattle ..................................................................................................... 276

Sheep and Goat Fattening Program .................................................................................................... 286

Nutriment Requirement of Goat for Growth ...................................................................................... 289

EXTRA ASSIGNMENTS ......................................................................................................................... 293

Homeomedicine ................................................................................................................................. 293

Disease Chart for Horse: ..................................................................................................................... 300

VACCINATION SCHEDULE FOR CATTLE & BUFFALO ............................................................................. 313

By Abdul Munim Khan

Pakistan is an agriculture based country and it possesses a huge livestock wealth. According to the
economic Survey 2009-2010 of Pakistan there are about 154.2 million head of livestock (buffaloes,
cattle, goats, sheep, Camel & horses).A species wise break up indicates that there are 30.8 million

buffaloes; 34.3 million Cattle; 59.9 million goats; 27.8 million sheep; 1.0 million camels; 0.4 million
horses. According to above mentioned population of livestock we can say without any doubt Pakistan is
a rich country to have such type of wealth. Almost 62% of total population is residing in rural areas, and
directly or indirectly linked with Livestock. Livestock is playing a pivotal role in the economy of Pakistan.
According to 2009-10 survey it is contributing 53.2% of agriculture and 11.4% of National GDP. In the
following tables the population & production of livestock is given from 1990-2010 and we will discuss
how the population & production is increased. Pakistan also exports Halal food like cow meat and milk
especially to Middle Eastern countries. The above production & population is increased by improving the
feeding & animal health system, reproduction techniques, DNA technologies and breeding system.
Detailed studies about each breed are given below that is a livestock resource of Pakistan.

Buffalo Breeds

The buffalo breeds found in Pakistan are; Nili-Ravi, kundi and Azi kheli. These types belong to the group,
water buffalo or riverine buffalo.these are considered to be triple purpose domestic animals (milk, meat
and draught).These breeds have a good potential for beef.


The hometract of the Nili-Ravi includes Lahore, Faisalabad, sheikhupura, okara and vehari districts but
now it is found all over the is best milch type breed, its milk yield is 1800-2500 litters per
lactation with 6.5 percent butter fat. Males attain maturity at 30 months and females at 36 months.
Adult males weigh 550-650 kg, while females weigh 350-450 kg.


This breed is found throughout sindh, particularly both sides of Indus river. This breed is also milch type
& its milk yield is 1700-2200 liters with 6.5 percent butter fat. The average age at maturity is 30 months
in males and 36 months in females. Adult weigh of males 500-600 kg and females 300-400 kg.

Azi kheli:

This breed belongs to Swat in the NWFP province. The research work of this breed is under progress in
NARC. It is basically a dairy animal.

Cattle Breeds

The cattle breeds found in Pakistan are humped. All the breeds are categorized as milch, draught and
dual purpose.

Milch breeds of Cattle

a. Red sindhi:
Hometract is sindh. Milk yield per lactation varies from 1200-200 liters. Adult males weigh 400-
500 kg while females 300-350 kg.

b. Sahiwal:
It is present in Sahiwal, Okara, Multan, Pakpatan and Faisalabad districts. Milk yield is 1500-2200
liters per lactation with a butter fat content of 4.5 percent. Adult males weigh 400-500 kg and
females 300-350 kg. males having body weight of more than 1000 kg also been recorded. This
breed is in great demand in several Asian and African countries. It has also been exported to

c. Cholistani:
It is found in cholistan tract areas and Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar and Rahimyar khan districts.
Milk yield is 1200-1800 liters/lactation. Average body weight 450-500 kg in males and 350-400
kg in females. The males of this breed are good source of Beef and may be used as a draught

Draught Breeds

Heavy Draught

a. Bhagnari:
This breed is originated from the nari river around Jacobabad (sindh) and sibi (Balochistan).
These cows are low milk producing animal. Adult males weigh 450-600 kg and females 325-425
kg. Males are suitable for heavy draught work because in our country animals are still used for
draught purpose.

b. Dajal:
It is found in Dajal area in district Dera Ghazi Khan in Punjab. Males of this breed are good for
draught purpose. This breed is an offshoot of Bhagnari breed.

Medium Draught

a. Dhanni:
This is breed of pothwar area like districts of Chakwal, Attock, Rawalpindi and Jhelum. Milk yield
is low 1000-1200 liters/lactation. Adult males weigh 350-450 kg and females 270-330 kg. Males
are very useful for medium draught work and are also taken to other provinces for ploughing
and haulage.

b. Lohani:
This breed is originated in Loralai district of Balochistan and Dera ismail khan. An adult male weighs
300-350 kg and females 230-280 kg. cows produce 800-1000 liters/lactation. Lohani cattle are very
hardy & sure-footed; male stock is suitable for light work in hilly and sub hilly areas.

c. Rojhan:

This breed is found in the Suleiman Range and some parts of Dera ismail khan and Bannu
districts. Milk yield is very low. The adult male weighs 300-350 kg and female 230-280 kg. Male
stock is very useful in hilly and sub hilly areas for draught work.

Dual-purpose Breeds

a. Kankrej:
This breed is from the districts of tharparkar and Badin in sindh. Adult males weigh 500-650 kg
and females 350-400 kg.As it is both good milk producers and strong workers.

b. Tharparkar:

this breed is originated from tharparkar sindh region. cows are good quality milk producers.
Adult males weigh 450-600 kg and 350-400 kg females.

b. Achai and Gibrali:

Males are used for light draught purpose. Cows are raised as dairy animals but they are not
high yielders.
Sheep Breeds

Several distinct breeds of sheep are found in Pakistan. Almost as many as breeds are fat
tailed as are thin tailed. Except for a few breeds, the sheep are mainly coarse-wool type.
However sheep are raised mainly for mutton and wool production is a secondary objective.
Some breeds are also a source of milk to fulfill domestic needs. Fat obtained from fat-taile
breeds may be used for culinary purposes.

Thin tail breeds of Pakistan:

Baltistani, Buchi, Cholistani, Damani, Kacchi, Kaghani, Kail, Kali, Kari, Kooka, Lohi, Poonchi,
Sipli, Thalli.

Fat-tailed breeds:

Balkhi, balochi, Bibrik, Dumbi, Gojal, Harnai, Hasht nagri, Kohai, Ghizar, Michni, Pahari, Salt
Range,Tirahi and wazeri.

Sheep Breeds

Punjab breeds Type Average body wt. Avg.wool/anum/head


Buchi Wool/Mutton 30-35 3kg

Cholistani Wool/Mutton 35-45 3kg

kajli Mutton 45-55 3kg

Lohi Mutton 45-55 3 kg

Sipli Wool/Mutton 35-40 4 kg

Thalli Mutton 40-50 1.5 kg

Sindh Breeds

kacchi Mutton 35-45 2 kg

kooka Mutton 35-45 2 kg


Damani Milk/Mutton 30-30 1.5 kg

kaghani Wool/Mutton 25-35 1.5 kg

kari Wool/Mutton 25-35 2 kg


Kail Wool/Mutton 30-40 2 kg

kali Mutton 30-35 1.5 kg

Poonchi Mutton 30-35 2 kg


Hissardale Wool 50-60 4.5

Baghdale Wool 55-65 3.5 kg

Goat Breeds

Breed Type Avg.body wt in kg Avg.wool/anum kg

beetal Milk/Meat 45-55 Not clipped

Dera din panah Milk/Meat 45-50 1.5

Hairy goat Milk/Meat/Hair 25-30 3

potohari Meat 25-30 0.6

Nachi Meat/Milk 40-50 0.6

Teddy Meat 25-30 Not clipped

kamori Meat/MILK 45-50 Not clipped

Bugri Meat 25-30 0.6

Chappar Meat 25-30 0.6

Damani Meat/MILK 25-30 0.7

Kaghani Meat 35-40 2

Lehri Meat 35-40 1

camel Breeds

Breed Weight at Wt.ADULT KG Milk yield Hair kg
weaning kg

barahvi 100 690 1620 2.5

kharani 70 625 1930 2.2

makrani 80 680 1900 2.6

rodbari 120 700 1500 3

gulmani 125 740 2000 ..

bagri 75 660 2050 …

Feasibility Report of 25 Buffalo

By Abdul Nasir

Demand of dairy products especially of milk is increasing day by day to fulfill this requirement it is need
of hour to guide dairy farmers and other people interested to develop dairy farming in proper way by
giving them suggestion and plans to build a dairy farm. This article is a part of efforts made in this way. A
feasibility study is carried out to ascertain the value and worth of a business plan or and project to
identify the problems which can come across during that business plan. In other meanings it an analysis
to evaluate the economics of the business plans under consideration. Feasibility study answer the
questions like; will this plan work, either it can be built or not and will it give some profit to investor. The
main objective of this report is to give an idea about livestock farm economics to farmers and investors.
It will serve as a guideline to invest in the live stock farming.

Some definitions regarding this article

Capital Investment
The capital investment consists of fixed cost i.e. non-recurring cost and ongoing expenditure
(nonrecurring expenditure).

Non-recurring Expenses
Non-recurring Expenses includes the Cost of animals, building cost, equipment cost, cost of fences,
and cost of land (if purchased) etc.

Recurring Expenditure
Consist of variable cost variable cost including feeding cost, cost of labor, medicine, electricity charges
maintenance of building and equipment etc. it also include depreciation on animals, buildings,
equipment and interest on fixed capital.
Fertility rate
Percentage of animals’ parturating successfully out of conceived.

Wet Average
It is the Number of lactating animal out of total animals.

Main Body

Land Requirement
It is assumed in this feasibility study that land is owned by investor not to be purchased. We can
calculate land requirement by calculating the animal units in each year. One adult animal is taken as one
animal unit and young animal of one ore more then one year age is taken as 0.5 animal units. The calf
which under one year is not considered. For fodder production for stall feeding one animal unit require
0.4 acre land in first year of business there are 26 adult animals its means 26 animal units. Land
requirement for 26 animal units in first year can be calculated by multiplying 0.4 to 26 and so on this can
be calculated by multiplying 0.4 to animal units in each year. Animal units are increasing every year and
subsequently there will be an increase in land requirement as well.

Land requirement in each year is calculated in the fallowing table:

Year Animal units Land requirement (acres)

1st 26 26×0.4=10.4

2nd 32 32×0.4=12.8

3rd 33 33×0.4=13.2

4th 34.5 34.5×0.4=13.8

5th 39 39×0.4=15.2

Estimating capital investment

Construction of sheds a store room and a room for watchman:

One adult animal require 40 square feet covered area bull require 100 square feet and for young stock it
will require 20 square feet per individual. If we have 25 buffaloes 1 bull and average number of 18 young
stocks the covered area will be as fallows:

Class of animal No. of animal Covered area (square feet)

Buffaloes 25 40×25=1000

Bull 1 1×100=100

Young stock 18 18×20=360

Total area for sheds 1460

A store room of 20×10 feet and a room for watchman of 10×12 feet are needed.

Area for store room (square feet) 200

Area for watchman room(square feet) 120

Total area (square feet) 320

Total area to be constructed for sheds and for rooms as well is:

1460+320=1780 square feet

As for as building cost is concern now a days it is about Rs. 300 per square feet

Building cost per square feet RS. 300

Total Area To Be Constructed 1780 Square feet

Total cost on building 1780×300=534000

Cost of animals
Cost of animal is the second major factor in capital investment. In summer prices of animal rises because
of increase in milk demand so animals should be bought before summer season. Female buffaloes in 4th
month of pregnancy are available at the rate of 80000 per animal. We will have to purchase 25 female
animals at the start of business animals which have successfully completed their one gestation period
should be preferred because at that stage we know about their milk yield, there reproductive efficiency
and other factors like that. For breeding purpose one bull is enough for 25 animals. We are proffering
natural matting over artificial insemination the reason behind that is rate of artificial insemination in
buffaloes are not very good. Market price of a breeding bull is 120,000.Total cost on animal purchase is
calculated as fallowing table:

Animal No. of animal Unit price Total cost

Bull 01 120,000 1×120,000=120,000

Buffalo 25 80,000 80,000×25=2000000

Total cost of animals 120,000+2000000=2120000

Machinery and equipment and miscellaneous things

Third major factor of capital investment is the cost of machinery and equipment. Machinery which is
necessary is chaff cutter and vehicle for transportation. Other equipments include chains, tags,
drenching gun and equipment for cleaning.

Utensils for milk will come in miscellaneous things.

Item Cost

Hand cart 2500

Chaff cutter 30000

Equipment 50000

Miscellaneous 20000

Total 102500

Total capital expenditures

Type of expenditure Amount

Cost of building 534000

Cost of animals 2120000

Cost of machinery and equipment 102500

Total expenditures 2756500

Normal parameters
These are some parameters proved after a lot of research work by scientist and taken as standards.

Parameter Percentage

Fertility rate 72

Mortality rate sucklers 10

Mortality rate adult 5

Male to female ratio 50

Milk production 2500

Calf milk 275 litter

Milk price 55 litter

Animal increase decrease chart

At start of business there will be 25 animals. During period of 5 years there will be parturitions result in
increase in number of animals. This increase in number is shown in increase by chart. Newly born calf
will be written in FS and MS referred to as female sucklers and male sucklers. After one year these
animals will be transfer into young stock, FYS and MYS referred to as male young stock and female
young stock. After 2 years animal from young stock will be transferred to buffaloes if they are females
and bull in case of male animals. On the other hand decrease by chart shows the decrease in number of
animals due to sale, death or due to transfer in next category.

1st year
Increase by Decrease by

class Birth Purchase Transfer Total Death Sale transfer total C.T

Bull .. 1 .. 1 .. .. .. .. 1

Buff .. 25 .. 25 .. .. .. .. 25

MYS .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

FYS .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

MS 12 .. .. 12 1 8 .. 9 3

FS 13 .. .. 13 1 3 .. 4 9

Total 25 26 .. 51 2 11 13 37

2nd year
Increase by Decrease by

class o/b Birth Purchase Transfer Total Death Sale transfer total C.T

Bull 1 .. .. .. 1 .. .. .. .. 1

Buff 25 .. .. .. 25 1 .. .. 1 24

MYS .. .. .. 3 3 .. 3 .. 3 0

FYS .. .. .. 9 9 1 .. .. 1 8

MS 3 9 .. .. 12 1 5 3 9 3

FS 9 9 .. .. 18 1 .. 9 10 8

Total 37 18 .. 12 68 4 8 12 24 44

3rd year
Increase by Decrease by

class o/b Birth Purchase Transfer Total Death Sale transfer total C.T

Bull 1 .. .. 1 2 .. 1 .. .. 1

Buff 24 .. .. 8 32 1 .. .. 1 31

MYS .. .. .. 3 3 .. 3 .. 3 0

FYS 8 .. .. 8 16 2 4 8 1 2

MS 3 8 .. .. 11 1 3 3 9 4

FS 8 9 .. .. 17 1 .. 8 10 8

Total 44 17 .. 20 81 5 11 19 24 46

4th year
Increase by Decrease by

class o/b Birth Purchase Transfer Total Death Sale transfer total C.T

Bull 1 .. .. .. 1 .. .. .. .. 1

Buff 31 .. .. 2 33 2 1 .. 3 30

MYS .. .. .. 4 4 1 2 .. 3 1

FYS 2 .. .. 8 10 2 .. 2 4 6

MS 4 10 .. .. 14 2 4 4 10 4

FS 8 11 .. .. 19 3 .. 8 11 8

Total 46 21 .. 14 82 10 7 14 31 50

5th year
Increase by Decrease by

class o/b Birth Purchase Transfer Total Death Sale transfer total C.T

Bull 1 .. .. 1 2 .. 1 .. 1 1

Buff 30 .. .. 6 36 2 .. .. 2 34

MYS 1 .. .. 4 5 .. 3 1 4 1

FYS 6 .. .. 8 14 1 .. 6 7 7

MS 4 10 .. .. 15 1 8 4 13 2

FS 8 11 .. .. 18 2 3 8 13 5

Total 50 21 .. 19 90 6 15 19 40 50

Animal units
Calculation of animal units is necessary to calculate the feeding cost. While calculating animal units as a
rule of thumb we consider one adult animal as one animal unit. Calf older then one year is considered as
0.5 animal unit and calf less then one year age are not considered.

class 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year

Bull 1 1 1 1 1

Buff 25 25 31 30 34

MYS .. 3 0 1 1

FYS .. 9 2 6 7

MS 12 12 4 4 2

FS 13 18 8 8 5

Total animals 51 68 46 50 50

Total animal 26 32 33 34.5 39


Recurring Expenditures

Feeding cost
o Cost of fodder
Green fodder is the major component of animal feed. A buffalo consume up to 60 kg/day. We can use
oats, barley, berseem, maize, and shaftal etc. production cost of green fodder is calculated in the
fallowing table:

Factor 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year

Animal units 26 32 33 34.5 39

60 kg/animal 569400kg 700800kg 722700kg 755550kg 854100kg


Cost Rs. 2/kg 2×569400 2×700800 2×722700 2×755550 2×854100

=1138800 =1401600 =1445400 =1151110 =1708200

Total cost 6845110

o Cost of wheat straw for 120 days

We are giving the wheat straw along with berseem to control the problem of bloat which has been
reported many times subsequent to berseem feeding.
Factor 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year

Animal units 26 32 33 34.5 39

3 kg/animal 9360kg 11520kg 11880kg 12420kg 14040kg


Cost@7/kg 65520 80640 83160 86940 98280

Total 414540

o Cost of concentrate
Very important component of animal feed necessary for growth and optimal production. We can use
PARC Cattle feed it is economical and nutritious as well. For the calculation of concentrate cost first of all
we have to know the number of animal in different stages like average number of animals in lactating,
pregnant(dry) and young stock. For this we will have to calculate total number of lactating, pregnant,
and young stock animals in 5 year and then we will have to divide each value by 5 to get average
number of animals in each stage.

Physiological 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year Av.
stage of number of
animal animals

Lactating 18 16 25 15 20 18.8

Pregnant 7 9 6 15 14 10.2

Young 12 11 14 19 15 14.5

Cost of concentrate
Stage of Concentrate Time period Average no. Cost/year@21/kg 5 year cost
animal requirement of conc. of animals

Lactating 3kg/day 305 18.8 361242 1806210

Pregnant 1.5kg/day 50 10.2 16065 80325

Young stock 0.5kg/day 50 14.5 7612.5 38062.5

Total cost 1924597.5

Total cost on feed
For the calculation of total feed cost we will have to add cot of fodder, wheat straw, and the cost of
concentrate. Total cost on feed is as fallows.

Type of feed Cost

Fodder 6845110

Wheat straw 414540

Concentrate 1924597.5

Total 9184247.5

Other recurring expenditures

Other recurring expenditures such as labor, electricity, and medicine are discussed in fallowing table.
One labor man is enough for 8 animals for 25 animals 3 labor man will be required and one labor man
will charge 7000/month each. One farm supervisor cum manager will also be required to run the farm
business. Pay of farm supervisor will be 24000/month.

Recurring expenditure in 5 years

Recurring expanse Cost/year Cost in 5 years

Cost on feed 9184247.5

Cost on labor 252000 1260000

Salary of farm supervisor 240000 1200000

Electricity 15000 75000

Medicine 15000 75000

Total 11794247.5

Total Expenses
By adding capital investment, recurring expenditure and interest on loan we can calculate the total
expenses. Total expenses are as fallows:

Total Expenses
Inventory Amount

Capital investment 2756500

Recurring expenditure 11794247.5

Interest on loan17% 468605

Total 15019352.5

Farm Income
Income include income from milk, income from sale of hide of dead animal, income from sale of male
animals, and income from sale of animals after 5 years while closing the business. This income includes:

Income from sale of milk

1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year

Lactating buffalo 25 18 22 22 26

Milk 25×2500 18×2500 22×2500 22×2500 26×2500

=62500 =45000 =55000 =55000 65000

Total milk production 282500litters Average no. of 14


Milk/suckler 275litter/lactation Milk for sucklers 19250

in 5 years

Milk for sale 282500-16500=266000 Price/litter 55

Total income from milk 14630000

Income from sale of animal

(Male and culled)

Animal sale No. of animal Price per animal Total price

buffalo 1 60000 60000

bull 2 50000 100000

fys 7 15000 105000

mys 11 7000 77000

sucklers 31 1500 465000

Total 807000

Sale of Hide
This include sale of hide of those animals that dye during the 5 year duration of business. This income

Animal class No. of dead animals Price per hide Total

Buff 6 4000 24000

Fys and mys 7 2500 17500

Fs and ms 14 1500 21000

Total 27 62500

Sale of animal at closing time

Animal No. Price per animal Total

buffalo 34 50000 1700000

Bull 1 50000 50000

Fys 7 15000 105000

Fs 5 1500 7500

Total 47 1862500

Depreciation means decrease in value due to use in 5 year. For example depreciation on building means
decrease in value of building due to its wear and tear. Depreciation on different assets is different. Like
depreciation on building is taken as 5%, on machinery it is 10 % on vehicle for transportation it is 10 %
and on miscellaneous things it is taken as 10%.

5 year depreciation is calculated as fallows:

Fixed assets Value Rs. Depreciation In 1 year In 5 year Worth after

% 5 year

Building 534000 5% 26700 33500 400500

Machinery 102500 10% 10250 51250 51250


Miscellaneous 20000 10% 2000 10000 10000

Total 228500 461750

Total income in 5 years

We can calculate this by adding income from different items like sale of milk, hides, animals, etc details
are given in following table;

Items Amount

Sale of animals 807000

Sale of hide 62500

Sale of milk 14630000

Value left over building 400500

Value left over animals 1862500

Value left over equipment 51250

Value left over miscellaneous things 10000

Total 17823750

Profit Statement
This will indicate the annual profit and subsequently total profit in 5 years. We can calculate this by
subtracting total expenses from total amount. Profit statement is as fallows:

Expense and income Amount

Total income 17823750

Total expense 15019352.5

Profit 2804397.5

Annual profit 560879.5


Profit in dairy farming can be increased by optimum utilization of resources through proper
management and planning. It is concluded that larger herd size in dairy farming increase profitability by
saving labor and other resources. It is better to build dairy farming in peri-urban areas because urban
areas have more demand for dairy products and it reduces the wastage of products and transportation

Management of Cattle and Buffalo at Various Stages

By Ayesha Humayun

Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated animals. There are two species of cattle, Bos
taurus and Bos indicus. Both belong to subfamily Bovidae. Female cattle are known as cow and it is used
for breeding, meat or milk production. Buffalo is strong, extremely large, dark grey to block in colour,
height of 6th at the shoulder and weighing upto 2000lb. Its technical name is Bubalus bubalis, belongs to
the family Bovidae, Order Artiodactyla and class Mammalia. The meat of calf is known as veal. The word
calf is used from birth to weaning. In some areas, the term calf may be used up to 1 year of age. A young
cow that has not yet given birth to a calf is called heifer. Uncastrated adult male of domestic cattle is
known as bull, while castrated male is called steer. Cattle and buffalo both play vital role for man,
directly or indirectly. Direct role in a sense that we use their milk, meat and other body parts in our daily
food. Indirect role in a way that man uses their wool and bones as raw material to make the final
products like leather products (shoes, jackets, gloves, mobile pouches etc.) and cloth buttons. Their
intestines are used in making sports products like wires of badminton rackets.

Calf rearing system
Calf Rearing System Recommended calf replacer to be Recommended feeding program
Traditional Protein level of the milk replacer Bucket or nipple bottle. Generally,
should be 20 or 22% feed 2 to 3 quarts twice daily for 4 to 6
Intensified or Protein level should be matched to Follow manufacturer’s
Accelerated energy intake. recommendations.
Winter Feeding At It is preferable to use a higher energy Bucket or nipple bottle. Feed calves 3
low temperatures (20% fat) milk replacer when ambient times a day to increase energy intake
temperatures fall below freezing. In or feed a greater volume of milk
addition, milk replacer quantities fed replacer per feeding, but gradually
should be increased 25%-50%. step up volume fed.
Cold Ad libitum / Use only an acidified milk replacer. Do Nipple feed only from a reservoir with
Acidified Feeding not use a product which produces a suitable nipple assembly and hose.
high sediment. Keep milk available at all times during
the first 3 weeks until the weaning
process begins.

For the better growth and development of calves, their feeding and management in first few days after
birth are very important. After birth, calf may get infected through nasal passage, mouth or naval cord.
So, the environment in which their parturition occurs should be disinfected to avoid any problem. Calf
should be provided with soft straw bedding just after birth. Mucus from the mouth and nostrils should
be cleared. It is important that the first breath should be a gasp. In order to induce a gasp reflex just
soon after birth, application of cold water on the face of calf is an effective method. Artificial respiration
can also be given if the calf does not respire. The naval cord should be disinfected by dipping it in 10%
iodine solution for one minute.

It is the first mammary secretion after parturitation and it is necessary for calf’s health and survival. Calf
should be fed with 0.5 liters of colostrums within 2 hours after birth. Then, it should be given 10% of the
body weight for 5 days. Colostrum feeding should be continued upto 2-3 weeks of age of the calf.
Colostrum contains immunoglobulins that helps in building the immune system of the calves. Colostrum
milk can be fed fresh or it can be stored at pH 4.6 to extend the feeding life of colostrum. The suckling
reflex of calf bypass the colostrum directly to abomasum without any stay in rumen or reticulum.
Oesophageal groove is present in calves. When the calves could not take colostrum, it is called closure.
In this case, calf should be fed with reconstituted milk or milk replacer. However, colostrum have one
third more solids than milk replacer.

Milk Replacer:
It is used as 1 pound per calf per day until the time of weaning. Waste milk (antibiotic treated or mastitic
milk) can also be used as feed after pasteurization. Waste milk increases the calf weight which helps in
reducing the sick days and mortality rate. A good milk replacer should contain 15-20% fat and 20-28%
proteins. Lactose and dextrose are also added in milk replacer. Early weaning is recommended to
decrease cost of labour feed. Weaning of calf depends upon the demand of starter intake. After 6-10
days the calf intake of milk replacer reduces by 1% of body weight and demand of calf starter increases.


Crude Protein Not less than 22.0%
Crude Fat Not less than 20.0%
Crude Fiber Not more than 0.15%
Calcium (min) 0.75% , (max) 1.25%
Phosphorus (min) 0.7%
Vitamin A Not less than 20,000 IU/lb
Vitamin D3 Not less than 5,000 IU/lb
Vitamin E Not less than 100 IU/lb
When fermented feed stuffs converted to Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs), it means that rumen development
has started. Butyric acid is most important in mitogenic activity. Concentrates can enhance the growth
of papillae than the forage. The rumen microbes are developed at 6-7th days of age.

Calf Starter:
It should be given during first week of age. It should contain 80% total digestible nutrients and 17-20%
crude protein. It should be fed in pelleted from so that all nutrients are well mixed. Molasses can be
used to increase the palatability of feed. It should be added at the rate of 8% in feed. Below table
showing two different calf starters formula’s.

Ingredients Calf starter 1 all values in Calf starter 2 all values in

(%) (%)
Ground yellow corn 20.8 20.5
Wheat bran 15.0 15.0
Crimped oats 20 17.5
Linseed oil 5 5
Soybean1 oil meal (44% solvent 15 -------
Cane molasses 5 5
Nonfat dried milk solids 5 --------
Distillers dried corn soluble 5 --------
Fish meal ------ 2.5
Milk-replacer base ------ 17.5
vitamin-antibiotic supplement ------ 7.5
Alfalfa leaf mea 7.5 7.5
Dicalcium phosphate 0.5 1.0
Ground limestone 0.5 0.5
Salt 0.5 -------
Iodized salt ------ 0.5
Vitamin A and Do meal 0.2 --------

Ingredients Parts Ingredients Parts

Wheat barn 20 Wheat barn 20
Maize ground 30 Maize ground 30
Ground cakes 18 Maize gluten 18
Rice polishing 20 Rice polishing 20
Molasses 15-25 Molasses 15-25
DCP+ Salts 2 DCP+ Salt 2
Hay should
be used in limited amount because it has low digestibility. The hay which is made up of leguminous
grasses or immature grasses can be fed to calves. Adequate clean water should be given to calves.

There are some other practices in the management of calf that should also be considered before
weaning period like dehorning etc.

Age of calf Approx. body Quantity of milk Quantity of calf Green grass
weight (kg) (kg) starter (g) (kg)
4 days to 4 weeks 25 2.5 Small qty. Small qty.
4-6 weeks 30 3.0 50-100 Small qty.
6-8 weeks 35 2.5 100-250 Small qty.
8-10 weeks 40 2.0 250-350 Small qty.
10-12 weeks 45 1.5 350-500 1.0
12-16 weeks 55 -- 500-750 1-2
16-20 weeks 65 -- 750-1000 2-3
20-24 weeks 75 -- 1000-1500 3-5

Management of Heifers:
In management of heifers, emphasize is given to set the early puberty. Normally, heifers should be
bared at 13-15 months of age in order to get more production. Research indicates that calving at the
early age gives more production. In our country, heifers attained puberty at 34-36 month of age. The
feeding plan and management of heifer should be properly observed.

Heifer’s growth rate should be observed on regular basis. Height and weight are important measures in
assessing the growth.

The growth rate which is necessary for dairy heifers is approximately 2 pound per day.
First estrus of heifers should be correlated to their weight and size. Heifers show first estrus at 35% of
their mature body weight. There must be a balanced body condition score i.e BSC 2.7 at six month of
age, BSC 3.0 at breeding and BSC 3.53-3.75 at calving. As older animals require more feed for
maintaining their health, so the young animals make more economical weight gains as compared to the
older animals.

At 3 months of age and 2nd or 3rd estrus cycle, there is an increase in number of milk secretary cells. So,
the development of secretary tissues before the puberty has a positive effect of profitability. Most of
the rumen development occurs after weaning of calf. At the age of 2 months, rumen comprises of 50%
of the total compartments and at age of 6 month, it comprises of 60%.

In prepubertal period, heifers need high energy, so they should be provided with the fiber contents to
maintain the normal function of rumen. The prepubertal heifers not able to digest the mature forage.
While less digestible forage decreases the rate of passage and total energy intake and increases rumen
fill. Approximately, 0.72 M cal/lb of dry matter energy is needed for prepubertal heifers. Protein to
energy ratio below 6:1 may have negative effect on growth rate.

Passive immunity of calves determines the initial vaccination. If early vaccination is done, it will lower
the level of protection in animals. As maternal antibodies obtained through colostrum protect the calf
up to 4 months, so before this period animal should not be vaccinated. Failure of vaccine depends upon
the improper storage, administration of antibiotics, booster does not given timely.

Control of Parasite:
Ectoparasites and endoparasites of animal should be controlled properly. Heifers infected with parasites
may develop diarrhoea and blood loss. Their rate of feed intake also decreases. There are various
sanitization procedures that can help in managing these parasites.

Management of Dry Cow:
Cows should be dried off 35-60 days before calving. Cows in which dry period is lacking, they have low
production rates as much as 30%. Dry period should also have limited time period because much shorter
and much longer time period may cause problems.

In case of longer dry period, the cost for feeding and other managemental procedure increase. In case of
shorter dry period, nutritional deficiency in animals can occur which results in less production.

Dry period is the prepatory period for next location of animal. It is hormonally and metabolically very
active time period in the productive life of the cow. Most of the dairy farmers took the dry period as
resting or inactive period in which animal is not productive.

There are three phases in the dry off period.

1. First is the drying off phase, during which udder does not secrete milk. In this phase regression of
mammary secretory epithelial cells occur. First phase takes about period of one month.

2. Second phase is the period of true rest. In this phase, cells maintain themselves at non-
productive stage. Time period of second phase depends upon the total length of the dry period.

3. Third phase is the close-up period. In this phase, mammary glands regenerate for the next location.
This phase lasts up to 3 weeks.

Dry period is a transition period in which cow must have to change her metabolic functions. Dry off
period is very stressful period for animal as there are many things which are going to be changed in this
period. There are following changes that should occur during the dry off period; change in ration; cows
are separated from herd, new group maintained, milking stops and late term pregnancy.

When stress increases, corticosteroids are related. So, during dry period animals should be handled
carefully and management should be done properly. Body condition score (BCS) should be optional. It
should be within recommended rate during dry period. The BCS at dry off time should be 3.5-3.75.
During dry period, cows should be provided with feed only that is helpful for fetal development.

Cows should be grouped with lactating cows or can be separately grouped with dry cows. All the cows
should be examined routinely for mastitis. If mastitis is found, cow should be treated with proper
antibiotics. Sub-clinical mastitis can be treated easily and is much less costly. In case of chronic mastitis,
animals should be culled.

During dry period rumen of animal is reconditioned. Long stemmed hay and roughages are very
important to increase the muscle tone of rumen. Ideally, animal should not attain much weight during
dry period.

There is no need of concentrates, if the forage is of good quality. Dry matter intake (DMI) should be 2%
of body weight, forages 1% of body weight and grains 1% of body weight should be added into feed.

Proteins are sufficient during dry period bulky forage should be used in limited amount.

Management of Lactating Cows:

In management of lactating cows, emphasize is give on maintaining the energy balance rather than the
stage of lactation. During the period of early lactation, main focus is on increasing the milk production.
Due to limited rumen volume it is difficult to manage the high yielding cow. Once the rumen is filled,
cow will not feed further whether it is of good quality. Highly concentrated ratio in feed is avoided
because it will increase the fat content of the milk which causes acidosis .A concentrate mixture of
oilseed and oil cakes can also be used as feed. Rice polish contains 14-18% of oil contents. Fresh rice
polish should be used because stored rice polish can cause rancidity. Metabolic disorders that can be
seen in high yielding cow are; udder edema, ketosis, milk fever etc

Feeding schedule of bull:

Water requirement for cattle and buffalo:

If management of cows and buffalo during their different life stages is done properly and with the help
of technical experts, it will increase the production of cows and buffalos. It also increases milk, meat and
hides production as well. Due to increase in their number, extra products can be exported to other
countries. Prices of these animals also get lowered. Their products when increased can be helpful in
establishing industries of milk, meat and hide. This will provide greater employment opportunity to the
local people.

By Muhammad Imran Khan

One of the supreme losses of profits in the herd is disease. Every animal culled and sent to slaughter
house because of disease or injury. The animal that dies shows a loss equal to a value of dairy or beef
animal. In dairy herd a great loss may occur when a dairy animal are not milking up to inherited
capability and their environment because of some disease or impaired health and there are same
situation in beef animals. To avoid herd loss maintain herd health to make the herd more profitable.
Now we have to aware of the herd health management system that based on occasionally veterinarian
should check the condition of mortality rate, culling rate, health parameters, reproductive efficiency,
mastitis etc.

The main objectives of herd health program are as fallow through which we can achieve maximum

1. Minimum non genetic culling

2. Less mortality rate with high reproductive efficiency.

For maximum result firstly prevent the animals from diseases and other problems rather than irregular
treatment of numerous conditions. This can be accomplishing through team work, knowledgeable
censorious herd manager and a good veterinarian. Also keep previous health record, daily observe the
cattle, and give the feed nutritionally balanced, provide good environment and most important is
cowmen ship and herd manager responsibilities. Veterinarian play major role to achieve the objective in
a good manner so the major responsibilities of veterinarians are suitable vaccination program, exact
diagnosis of disease and their effective treatment and expert in pregnancy testing.

The program should be effective if,

1. Death rate of calf less than 5%

2. Death rate of cow less than 2%
3. No genetic culling ratio less than10%
4. Day open less than 110%
5. Occurrence of clinical mastitis less than 5%

Herd health program fluctuate from farm to farm but some basic rules are applied to all farms. These
rulers are as fallow,

Prevention of disease is more reliable and beneficial than treatment. And prevention can be achieved by
good sanitation system, exclusion of new animal, eliminate the various diseases.

High level of resistance can be maintained through vaccination of certain diseases and balanced ration
feeding and clean, healthy and comfortable environment.

Minimize the source of infection through exclusion of the animals that are suspected for contagious
disease. Also disinfectant the quarters before reused. Quick and accurate diagnosis of disease and
prompt treatment. keep keen observation on herd to detect minor problems before they become
serious problems. Minor problems can be detected through animal behavior like animal stand in un easy
position, off feed, rough hair coat feces in abnormal consistency and animals stand in a corner this
minor problem can be recover if immediately treated. If the animal has contagious disease than isolate
the animal from herd this can be don by a good cowmen ship.

Keep health record system through health record system easy to detect the problem and its
treatment.aslo know about the every animal’s vaccination.

Good working relationship Participation of owner, manager and veterinarian should be maximum for
successful herd health program. In the herd every person should be performed his duties honestly.

Calf health program

Why calves that much important in healthy herd????

Replacement animals in future through impaired growth of calves cause negatively production of herd.
The chronic illness of calves cause decreased milk production in a herd.

Increased veterinary cost if spread of infection in a herd that cause more susceptibility which increased
veterinary cost.

Difficulties for herd owner if impaired growth in calves then farmer faces the problem which is limited
opportunity for genetic selection he also face the problem about high mortality of replacement animals

So calves health in a herd is most important.

· For calves health fallow protocol will be fallowed.

· Firstly after birth dips the navel of calve in 7% tincture iodine.
· Feed the colostrum about 4 to 6lb or 8 to10% of its body weight after 1 to 2 hours of birth.
Esophageal tube used in weak calves or which are not capable to suck the colostrum.
· Provide a dry and draft free environment
· If calves are in diseased condition or mortality problem in a herd then administer mixed bacteria
and vitamins A, E, D.

· Dehorn the calves in early age about 3 to18 days of age with caustic paste.
· The equipment which is used in calves feeding is clean.
· Routinely check the calves two times a day for appetite and bowl movement condition. if
problem like scour occur then give electrolyte solution.
· Calves are kept in groups according to its age which are helpful for internal parasite control.

Source of infection
We also know about the source of infection .dirty calving pen cause infection. Calving cow itself cause
infection if she is not proper cleaned. Manure also cause infection if calve feed manure contaminated
colostrum. If calves are transported in a contaminated vehicle it causes infection. Another source of
infection is contaminated liquid or dry feed. Contamination can occur by means of aerosol which is of
two ways. First one is commingled calf or weaned heifers and second one is calf housing.

Main causes of calf losses

Are dystokia, improper housing of calves, sexual biases which means priority of females than males and
depraved colostrum feeding.

Heifer health program

Heifers are the foundation of any dairy program. Check heifer for supernumerary teats at the age of 3 to
5 months but if necessary then remove it.

Vaccinate the heifers for babesiosis, leptospirosis, brucella abortis, HS, BVD, black leg through
veterinarian recommendation. Basic considerations for vaccination program are

Initial vaccination
Done in order to hasten the passive immunity status of calves and in order to improve the overall heard

Vaccine selection
Selection of vaccine is based upon incidence of disease in a heard, cost of vaccine and its effectiveness.
Regular check up of older heifers for heat and proper record of heats and other abnormal conditions.
Cull the heifers which are not pregnant at the age of 28 months.

Deworming protocol
Also parasitic control of internal and external parasites through dewormer is necessary. Deworming
should be started at weaning age and continued to 8 months of age. Heifers should be dewormed after
3 to 6 weeks after putting them on pasture.

Adult cow health program

Adult cow should be provided well dry and comfortable bedding as well as teats should be checked for
mastitis. Also heifers take some time for first parturition so don’t be impatient during parturition and to

avoid the incidence of retained placenta give warm water. Common passage of placenta should also be

Reproductive health program

Three important goals are decrease reproductive culling, decrease AI services per conception and the
final one is to decrease semen units used per conception.

We should also keep the records of heat dates, calving date, and breeding dates, sire used and medical
treatment. Check the animal twice a day for heat detection. After 50 to 60 days of parturition check the
cows either in heat are not. If cow in heat then breed it. After 40 to 60 day of breeding check the animal
either pregnant or not. If cow are not pregnant and again show heat sign then check the reproductive
tract. In case of abortion try to know the causative agent and be conscious for next time.

New addition in a herd

Always take the animals with good reproductive, genetic and health history. Before addition in a herd
check that animals are vaccinated against certain disease. If feasible then isolate the new entry for 30

Diseases of dairy animals

There are so many diseases in dairy cattle but important are argue here which are common in the field
and foundation of great danger for farmer.

Milk fever also called parturient paresis. It is metabolic disarray which occurs after 72 hours of
parturition. it mostly occur in older cows while in heifer are exceptional. It occurs mostly due to low
level of calcium in blood.

Prevention to prevent this disease gives low calcium, high phosphorus diet during dry period. Give
enormous doses of vitamin D 3 to7 days before calving. Also used the acidic diet.

Ketosis also called as acetonemia it is also metabolic disarray. Which occur due to glucose level
decreased in blood. And ketones bodies are increased in blood, urine and milk this disease mostly occur
six week postpartum. The most critical period is three week of post partum. If cow off feed before and
after parturition it indicates the disease incidence.

Prevention maintains high energy feed intake before parturation and increased intake after parturation.

Bloat mostly occur in cattle due to pastured on humid and through rapid growing legume fodder.
Through this feed gases are accumulates in rumen and reticulum. Which distend the internal organs and
difficult breathing.

Prevention some precautionary measures reduced the incidence of disease if animal is hungry first feed
the dry hay then turn on pasture. Do not allocate the animal on pasture for long time during first days.
Also provide water along with pasture feeding. Also antifoaming agents are used.

Mastitis it is the inflammation of the udder. It is the infection

of the internal tissue of udder. Due to this disease milk production decreased and affected cow
productive life decreased. Mastitis of various forms. Acute mastitis. Gangrenous mastitis, chronic
mastitis and sub clinical mastitis. In acute mastitis affected quarters are temperate inflamed and painful.
And the milk in acute mastitis having flakes, blood and clots. Animal having high temperature and off
feed. In the case of gangrenous mastitis quarters are cold and discoloration. In sub clinical mastitis
diagnosis is difficult so for diagnosis routinely perform the tests like CMT, WMT and Whiteside.

Some highly suggested precautionary measurement. Which are as fallow?

· Accurately sanities milking utensils.

· Also sanitize the milkier, s hand before milking and after milking of infected cow.
· Milking done its right time.
· After milking always dip the teats.
· Cull those animals which have persistent mastitis and have no react against treatment.
· Do not use the mastitis milk or assorted with dirt free milk.
· Environment of cow pen is dirt free, sanitized and having proper bedding.

Mastitis control program

Some tips are in our mind to control mastitis which is as fallows

· Adopted those milking routines which enhance milk let down with minimum udder injury
· Always dip the teats in antiseptic after milking.
· In dry period treat the cow to avoid the occurrence of mastitis.
· Regularly perform mastitis tests.
· If mastitis occurs recognize causal agent and treat appropriately
· In case of udder edema accurate treatment will be performed.
· If animal are suffering mastitis isolate them and proper treat with medication.

Good external and internal parasite control. Because these parasites cause anemia and eye problems
routinely perform deworming protocol in essential

· Properly trimmed the feet otherwise cause injury.

· Give the animals’ unbiased ration with sufficient minerals and vitamins quantity.
· Be vigilant for any kind of disaster in a herd.
· If animals are dies then properly disposed off.

Equipment for routine herd health practices

In routine herd health practice some equipment are necessary and it is veterinarian duty to instruct
about instrument which he used in emergency he fallowing equipment are present all time and farmer
know about these instrument.
Veterinarian used thermometer, balling gun, stomach tube and steel speculum, drenching gun, surgical
scissors, disposable gloves and sleeves, hoof trimmer, disposable syringes, alcohol, cotton disinfectant,
iodine paper towel bandages other things as recommended by veterinarian.

At the end it is concluded that firstly the relationship between owner farmer and veterinarian are
friendly. And every person is vigilant to its work through which maintained herd health. Through good
cowmen ship and cooperation among staff improve herd health and minimize the incidence of diseases.
The vaccine should be of good quality and affordable to the farmer. The calf problems should be treated
immediately. More emphasis on mastitis control program because it is the main disease of lactating
animals and the milk production is decreased.


By Jawad Ahmed

The main aim of raising animals is to meet the growing demand of thare product such as meet and milk
and goal of this program are following

· The primary goal is to improve genetic potential of animals

· Animals should be well grown so that they are able to breed and add to milking herd according
to standard
· They should be healthy, free of diseases and parasites and properly immune against various

Now we will discuss about different stages of life step by step

Pre weaned calf management initial day of life is critical when good management can improve feed
efficiency and the rate of weight gain it also improves health of animals through out the weaning period.
The bovine placenta is impermeable to maternal antibody so the calf required colostrums as a first feed
so that immune globulin quickly pass small intestine of calf in the blood stream this is helpful in the
development of immunity against diseases about the feeding of calf you should consider FCR as well as
economy .pressurization of waste milk increases the weight gain of calf and decreases the mortality
rate. Another very important issue is stimulation of rumen development and depends on fermentation
of ingested feed stuff to volatile fatty acids feeding concentrate drives calf rumen growth which is
helpful in future feed utilization

Heifer growth
Main aim of raising heifer is to enter the milking herd as soon as possible different observation indicates
that heifer calving at younger age are more productive and give more income during there life time
than the heifer calving at older age. So growth rate of heifer should be maintained regularly it can be

measure by heart girth and height of animals. For large breed growth rate of approximately 1.75
to2pound per day is necessary

Mammary development
Most rapid increase in number of secretary cells take place during third month of age up to the estrus
cyclic activity development of secretary tissue during this period ultimately effect the profitability of
dairy cow animal feed on high energy diet attain puberty earlier which ultimately decrease timeframe
for proliferation of memory cells so increase ratio of the protein to energy should be given during
prepurbertal growth rate to ensure optimal development of secretary tissue and maximize life time

Compensatory growth
Also refer as animal is to be feed on finished ration is help fulfill the requirement of nutrient and also to
enhance the efficiency of the feed utilization. It is also said to be the period of feed restriction.

It is perform to immune they animal against the prevalent diseases of specific area to attain the desire
titer it is recommended to vaccinate after four month of age. So that the cloistral antibodies do not
interfere with the agent present in the vaccination. Vaccine should be selected according to incidence of
disease so in that area cast of vaccine and effectiveness of disease vaccinated. Vaccinating sick or
unthrifty animals also result inadequate antibody titer. Booster dose after three week of initial ingestion
is necessary for optimal response to vaccine especially in case of killed organism.

Control of parasite
Prevention of the both external and internal parasite are critical concern with this period young flock is
more susceptible to parasitism. Animals with heavy parasitic load may result into the poor growth,
anemia and reduce feed efficacy . Proper sanitation and cleaning is of prime importance to manage
parasitic load. Regular treatment of anthelmentics is helpful in decreasing the parasite. Deworming
should be done regularly with altering the drug. So the resistance against the dewormer should not be

Housing requirement
Heifer should be kept in facilities providing excellent sanitation, adequate space and ready access to
feed and water if the facility are poorly design thay may lie to the risk of enteric and respiratory
problems which ultimately result in to decrease feed efficiency and growth rates heifer should be kept
in a small group and they all should be age fallow and with approximately uniform body weight.

Number of replacement to be kept

Replacement of herd primarily depend on herd culling rate and also on the herd mortality and also calf
and heifer mortality there is great variation in culling throughout the countries and also among the herd
but nationaly it is estimated that 25% culling rate is due to low production or due to inferior genetic. It
also be done due to many other reasons. If majority of culling is done because of low production or low
genetics it may cause increase in female selection pressure. Replacement of these cow by high genetic
potential heifer result in increase genetic of herd which ultimately increases milk production different
authors recommend that all the heifer should be retain when ample resources are available which will
result in to heifer with superior genetic ultimately this will result in to more rapid genetic progress. In
case of limited resources heifer raised should meet the culling requirement and also calf and heifer
mortality should be kept in mind following calculation will explain us the percentage of heifer being

Heifer calf born = 50 %, Dead at birth = 8 %, Dead between birth to 6 months = 10 %, Death between 6
months to freshening = 2 %, Non-breed able = 6 %, Loss at calving = 4 %, Total remaining are = 35 %

Feed and labor cost:

Daily labor cost of pre weaned calf is highest among the different period of life this includes cost per unit
of gain and also increased supervision cost. Keep one thing in mind that young calf is not a ruminant so
it should be fed on milk and milk replacer milk as a whole provide best nutrition for the calf but if the
milk demand is more we can feed them on milk replacer. Milk replacer is fed to calves to reduce cost
and minimized the cost and also the risk of vertically transmitted diseases. Some time protein source
include of vegetable origin is used in milk replacer but best digestible is the milk protein or whey
protein which is used as a standard in all milk replacer. Milk replacer should have 15 % fat which
increases the over all palatability lactose and dextrose are best for the carbohydrate source. Essential
vitamin and mineral should also be added in the feed as supplement.

Other mangemental practices

Several management practice are required in pre weaned period which include following.

At pre weaned period calves should be identified for the record keeping and is done either by
permanent method or non permanent method

Permanent method
It include tattooing on the ear or by branding on the thigh region branding may be hot or cold .

Non permanent method

Include ear tag or chane in the neck the number is more visible in this technique. But there is risk of loss.

Recommended time of dehorning is before to month of age at this time horn bud has no attachment
with skull and is free floating in the skin. As the age progress the bud will attach to skull and growth of
horn will proceed dehorning at young age is also preferable due to easy handling of calf and reduce
bleeding. Also the risk of infection and misaes is minimized when calf are dehorns of younger age .

Several technique of dehorning are available . electric and gas dehorner are available they will burn the
tissue around the horn bud and also cauterize the vessels which supply blood to growing horn . this
technique is most efficient as all the tissue surrounding the horn bud is burned.there is no blood loss

using this technique. Some producer may select to dehorn with caustic paste at two to four weeks.this
opion is less desirable and has more complication. Surgical removal of horn is also perform in older calf
but this method present higher risk of infection.

Removing extra teat

Teat other than for primary teats are said to be extra teat. They are usually present posterior to rear
teat either to one or both teat these extra teat has no value and causes detract from the appearance of
udder. Extra teat also interfare during milking therefore removal of extra teat is recommended. And
preferable age for removal is one to two month. If removal is done properly there is little or no bleeding.

Raising of kid

Optimal raising of kid either that of milch or meet breed require skill management and supervision. The
purpose if raising kids or meet, milch is for any other by product such as hairs. They are also raise for
replacement of older flock is genetically poor flock.

It is common in people want milk of goat. Weaning can be done gradually initially animal must be feed
on young tender grass some concentrate feeding is also essential for ruminal growth .

Feeding of animals after weaning

Kid should be feed on the good quality roughages and grains the feed should consist of Varity of feed
staff for the first four to six month they should be feed without bran smashes pulped rood linseed cake
and green fodder . Green fodder is very essential for development of digestive organ

Types of feeding
Feeding on posture is assumed to be the best way of feeding animals hay and grains are included in dry
lot feed kid should be provided with good access to water to maximize intake of water and ultimately to
avoid the dehydration vitamin and mineral must also be supplanted in the diet for optimum growth and
immune status supplementation with selenium is also necessary to geographical location

Scours in kids
Kid are always prone to attack of scours which lead to drastic weight lost are even fatal which is always
the result of over feeding are due to poor hygiene. If mild scours appears used bake flour mix with
boiled milk and if the condition is severe dean meals useful in short we can say the loss of feces can be
correct by increases the fiber content in such situation green fodder must be avoided in case of
infectious diarrhea sulfa drug are used.

Growth of kid
Growth of animals refers to as increase in skeleton frame and body weight knowledge of animal growth
is necessary. for the improvement of feed effienciency as well as feed conversion change in composition
and shape of the muscle and other various organ is refer to as development . Under ideal condition the

relationship between weight of animal and age can be represented by sigmoid curve. Initially increase in
weight is little related to increase in age this phase is fallowed by rapid growth in which there is increase
growth of muscle bone and ital organ at the end of this phase fattening begin to accurate in muscle

Fattening program of kids

The muscle bone and fat have an orderly pattern of growth first phase include increase growth of bone
fallowed by increase in muscle finally the fat deposition take place in third phase fattening of kid usually
perform for increase in weight of carcass as well as to increase marbling fattening ration is fed to the
animal and optimal age for fattening is 6month fattening ration is high in energy content which lead to
deposition of fat between the muscle fiber this not only increase the carcass weight but also attract the
consumer high energy ration mainly consist of grains Protection against infectious diseases.

It is directly related to mangmental strategies. Poor hygiene and cleanliness lead to increase in kid
mortality and also causes the risk of johns, salmonella, parasitism etc. poor ventilation is the major
cause of pneumonia. Quarantine measures should be strictly followed. Vaccination against the prevalent
diseases should be done prior to four month so the maternal antibodies do not interfere with the
development of immunity.

Parasitic Control
Young flock faces most commonly the problems of external as well as internal parasites. External
parasites include mange, mite and lice. They are actively control by administering macrolytic lactones
such as ivermactin. In case of internal parasite regular deworming should be perform by rotating the
drugs. Uneven deworming lead to resistance parasite strain.

Reproductive Management of Sheep and Goat

By Khurram Shahzad

The production is most important to determine the profitability. Hence the production is
directly related to the reproduction. Production activities depend upon the on the reproduction. We can
improve many flocks by improving reproductive husbandry practices. The success of these operation
depends upon the

· Lambs and kids raised each year

· Lambs and kids weaned each year
· Lambs and kids marketed each year

The heat and conception is also the most important factor to improve reproduction in the females. The
conception rate also depends upon the natural breeding or artificial insemination. The genetic have also
a big role and it has too much importance to determine the reproductive traits but it is very slow
process to increase reproductive efficiency by improving genetic. Pakistani breeds have develop over
many century in their own environment a will have been subject to considerable natural selection for
reproductive fitness in that environment. From many years, some research workers have categorized
some of characteristics of Pakistani breeds but there is a little gain in comparing with other breeds. This
article looks at reproductive physiology and reproduction management of sheep and goat.

Main Body:

Reproductive physiology:
The gonads or ovaries develop during embryonic life and become the
source not only of female gametes but also of hormones essential to the reproductive process. The ova
are produce from oogonia . The oogonia remain more or less quiescent until puberty. When cyclical
activity begin the wave of oogonia begin to develop the stage ova ready to be produced. It is at this
stage that most of them die. The final stages of development of oogonia are relatively rapid and evolve
the reduction in chromosome number .Finally the follicle ruptures releasing ovum and this process is
called ovulation. The ova enter the fallopian tube where it is ready to be fertilized. Sheep and goat are
short day breeders. Photoperiod and secretion of melatonin effect the estrus cycle. During the long
days secretion of melatonin take place and it inhibit the estrus. During short days the estrus days will

Sexual Season:
Breeding season of these animals is autumn and winter because they are short breeder
and the estrus cycle starts in short days. Seasonal breeding in these animals is controlled almost entirely
by changes in a day length and ewes require a shortening days of autumn to stimulate hormonal activity
leading to estrus at ovulation. The sexual behavior and days are shown in the figure

The puberty, or the time of first simultaneous estrus and ovulation , is obviously associated
with the physiological maturity of the animal. In females the on set of puberty depends upon the
genetics, environment and nutrition . The more hot environment and high energy diet will cause the
early on set of puberty. In does the first ovulation take place in five to seven month of age and in ewes
at six to nine months. In males the onset of puberty is characterized by spermatogenesis , increase level
of testosterone , and mating behavior . At the onset of puberty the males start mounting and a typical
smell is produced

Estrus cycle:
Estrus is that time in which the female except the male to mount. Sheep and goats are
short a breeders. The signs of estrus are detected to declare that animals is heat or teaser ram is used to
detect the heat . The signs of estrus are restlessness, discharge of mucous from vulva, loss of feed intake
and homosexual behavior. But in sheep and goats teaser male is necessary to detect the heat. In sheep
the estrus lasts for almost 30 hours and in goats its range is 24 to 48 hours. In sheep the length of estrus
cycle is almost 17 days and in goats it lasts for 21 days. The gestation period ranges from 145 to 150

It is the technique used for a group of ewes to mate in a very short period of
time. This technique is used when an artificial insemination is required. It helps to improve the overall
management of the flock . By it we can bring the animals in heat at a particular time which we want. By
this we can start the estrus cycle without breeding season. By using this technique the breeding
season can be started earlier. Synchronization is achieved by double injection of prostaglandin. First
injection is given at any time after puberty and the second injection is given at the 11th day of first
injection. After the second injection on 3rd day animal will become in heat . For control of estrus and
synchronization these drugs are used:

· PGF2
· Projestin
Oral and injectable projestagin

Artificial Insemination:
In present time in sheep and goat mostly the natural breeding is done but AI is
also done. In AI we transfer fresh or frozen semen by AI gun to the body of uterus . The four methods
are used to inseminate the sheep and goat . 1st one is vaginal insemination .2nd is cervical insemination ,
3rd one is transcervical insemination . 4th one is laproscopic which is surgical method.


Pregnancy Diagnosis:
Diagnosis of pregnancy in early stage Is economically very useful for
management. By this the females those are pregnant can get more attention then those which are non
pregnant . They should be offered well balanced diet. The pregnant ewes and does should be kept
separate to avoid the diseases and other problems .The most successful and accurate method of
pregnancy diagnosis is ultrasound system.

Preparation Is The Key To Success:

· Always keep good and genetically proved animals.
· Nutrition effect the reproductive performance so, always practices the high plan of
· The high temperature effect the production. It decrease ovulation rate and because
embryonic death and cause infertility in ram so, manage the temperature to get better
· Use the fence to avoid the from predators.
· Daily monitoring of those females is necessary which are near to parturate
· At the time of parturition the assistance is necessary.

· There are diseases which directly affect the efficiency of reproduction so, manage those
diseases which effect the reproduction.

After the puberty the detection of 1st heat and breeding is very necessary. Always keep those
animals whose parents have produced triplets. If the animal is in anestrous then induce the estrus cycle
by using drugs. Avoid the flock by genital diseases for better production by well management of estrus
cycle and nutritional plane; we can make reproduction of animal more better.


By Sajid Aslam

In the Pakistan economy livestock plays very important role. In total GDP livestock share 11.4%. In
Pakistan mainly there are three types of livestock production systems, rural household where animals
are closely kept and fodder is grown or purchased from market. Large herds of animals are kept on
commercial farms and on rangelands. Pakistan has a large number of livestock populations so there is
competition with human and the land for food and feed. On the other hand there is increase in the
residential colonies, industries installation, water logging and salinity results in decrease availability of
land for fodder cultivation. The production yield per animals is enhanced by production of good quality
fodder. The scarcity in animals feed is major factor in the development of livestock production. At
present the fodder is in insufficient quantity and quality so the animals are thin and underfed thus
produce less meat and milk. The fodder is the cheapest source of animal feed and so it necessary to
enhance fodder proportion in animal's diet. Fodder shortage is the major constraint in the production
and development of livestock in Pakistan. There is increase in population of human being and producing
cash crops results in the decrease of land for fodder production. Due to increase in population the
demand of meat, milk and their products are increasing very rapidly because they are very important in
the diet of Pakistani people. Year round availability of fodder in adequate amount and nutritious quality
is very necessary for the development of livestock. In terms of total digestible nutrients our animals are
deficient about 29 million tons and in total digestible protein about 2 million tons. The main fodder
crops sown in rabi season (winter) includes barseem, oats and Lucerne while in kharif season (summer)
includes sorghum, maize, millet and cowpea. In many areas of Pakistan there is shortage in the
availability of green fodder from May to June and September to October. This problem is solved by
sowing multicut fodder verities like Lucerne, S.S. hybrid and matt grass.

Year-Round Green Fodder Availability

Mostly the dairy animals are kept in intensive production system. The major sources of forage
production in Pakistan are irrigated areas of Punjab, Pakhton khowah and Sindh. The quality of forage
production at sowing and harvesting time is very important than absolute production of dry matter. The
quantity of forage varies according to animal status such in maintenance, pregnancy and lactation. So

farmer produce or purchase daily use forage regularly. Some multicut crops like lucerne, berseem, and
S.S. hybrid ensures quick and regular supply of fodder. The major forages are discus one by one in detail;


Sorghum is also known as chari or jowar. It is important fodder of summer season. It gives good
palatable green fodder. It has crude protein 12%, carbohydrates, crude fat, nitrogen free extract and
minerals 70%. Mainly sorghum is the fodder of tropical zone but now it adapted to wide range of
climatic zones. It can tolerate drought and heat. It requires 2 time ploughings and then planking. DAP 2
bags per hectare at sowing time can be used to increase the fodder production. Seed rate is 70 to 80 kg
per hectare. Sowing is done by broadcast method. Sowing time is mid march to mid September. When
the 40 to 50 % heading stage is reached, it is the best time for harvesting. It can yield around 50-70
tons/hectare green fodder.

Locally known as makai. This is important fodder crop. It helps to cope in fodder scarcity periods (May to
June and October to November) it helps by planting it spread over a period of time. Its green fodder has
crude protein 1.6%, crude fat 0.30%, and crude fiber 5.30%. In irrigated and arid areas it is sown
extensively. It requires three times ploughings then planking to prepare good seedbed. At the time of
sowing 2 bags of each urea and DAP per hectare. The seed rate is 80 to 100 kg/ha sufficient. The good
time of sowing ranges from 3rd week of March to mid September. Fodder is harvested after 55-60 days
after sowing. Fodder yield varies from 50-70 tons/hectare.

Millet is locally known as bajra. Its green fodder has crude protein 1.5%, crude fat 0.30%, and crude fiber
7.0%. It is very popular by sowing it with sorghum and maize. It is the fodder of tropical area and it also
gives good production on light sandy loam soil. Two to three ploughung then planking is required to
prepare good seedbed. Two bags of DAP and urea per hectare at sowing are require to increase its
production. Fodder crop requires 10 to 15 kg/ha seed rate. The fodder crop is sowing by broadcast
method. Sowing is done from March to September. When 25 to 30% headings stage is reached, the
fodder should be harvested. Fodder yield varies from 45-65 tons/hectare.

Cowpea is important leguminous summer season fodder crop. If its sowing is done with sorghum, maize
and millet, the balanced and nutritious fodder can be obtained. It fix the nitrogen from the air it improve
the fertility of soil. Its green fodder has crude protein 16%, rude fat 2.5%, and crude fiber 31.0%. Two to
three ploughings and then planking required to prepare seed bed. Two bags of DAP/ha at sowing are
required to increase its fodder production. Seed rate is 25 to 30 kg/ha is sufficient. Sowing is done in
lines. The time of sowing ranges from March to July. Fodder can be harvested 55 to 60 days after
sowing. The best time of harvesting is, when pod formation is completed. At this time fodder has
maximum nutrients. It gives 35 to 40 tons/ha production.


Barseem is very important fodder in winter season. Mainly it is cultivated in irrigated areas. It is multi
cut fodder which is rich in calcium and phosphorus. Its green fodder gives crude protein 18%, calcium
2.7%, phosphorus 3.0% and it is rich in vit.A. It gives repeated cuttings ranges from December to May.
The seed bed is prepared by 3 to 4 ploughungs and then planking so the soil becomes pulverized.
Usually two bags of DAP/ha are sufficient to meet its fertilizer requirement. The sowing time ranges
from September to October and the for late verities up to November. Its 1st cut is prepared in 60 to 65
days after sowing. Subsequent cuttings are available at 30 – 40 days intervals throughout the season.
New varieties yield around 80 – 100 tons green fodder per hectare.

It is a perennial and multi cut legume fodder crop. Lucerne has crude protein 19%, carbohydrates 11%,
crude fat 8.5%, and crude fiber 31%. It gives green fodder throughout year, especially during the two
periods of fodder scarcity in the country, May-June and October-November. It does best under
conditions of low to medium rainfall and high temperature. The seedbed is prepared with plough
followed by 3-4 cultivations and planking. Two to three bags of DAP/ha may be sufficient. The seed rate
is 20 to 25 Kg/ha in lines in good water condition. The crop which is sowing is done between Octobers to
November produce good fodder. Its first cutting can be harvested three months after the sowing. Later
cuts may be obtained after intervals of 5-6 weeks. On an average in five to six cuttings in a year 65-90
tons per hectare fodder can be obtained.

It is very important winter season fodder crop that can be sowing as sole crop or together with barseem.
Oat is single cut crop and supplies fodder over a very short period of time. The oat plant has crude
protein 9.20%, crude fat 3.50%, and crude fiber 31%. The grains and leaves are high in carotene and
carbohydrates. Oats provides nutritious fodder to all animals especially mules and horses. If it is mixed
with barseem, it provides balance feed to lactating animals. Its plant can grows in moist and cold
conditions. Clay loam soil is best for its production. It requires 3 to 4 ploughings along with planking to
prepare a good and pulverized seedbed. To get more yield it requires two bags of DAP and two bags of
urea at sowing time. Its seed rate for fodder is 75 to 80 Kg/ha. Sowing should be done in lines. Its early
production starts by the last week of September and continues up to mid of December. Harvesting time
is when 30 to 35% of the heads have been formed that usually gives the best yield. It can yield around
60-80 tons/ha green fodder.

To make a whole year fodder plan we have to know about the requirement of the animals according to
season, the fodder crop which is available in a season, the approximate yield of the fodder per acre or
hectare. To make the planning better we have to choose leguminous and multi cut verities of fodder.
The approximate yield of important fodders is given in the table;

The animal requirement is very necessary to calculate because fodders are main feed of the animals.
The fodder requirement varies with the age and production status of the animal. The maintenance
requirement can be only fulfilled from fodders. For stall fed animals the key role is to feed ad-libitum. A
buffalo or cattle one animals unit requires 0.5-0.6 acre land for fodder cultivation in a season.

· One Buff/Cow/Bull is 1 AU
· FYS/MYS is ½ AU
· A Cow require 40 kg /AU/day
· A Buff require 60 kg/AU/day

Now we have to calculate the total animal units which are kept at farm. For example;

· 45 buff farm with 10 FYS

· AU are 45+5 = 50 AU

Availability of the fodder according to their harvesting time.

· Rabi season (Dec – April)

o Barseem + Oats
· Lean period (May – Jun)
o Maize
· Kharif season (Jul – Sep)
o Sorghum
· Lean period (Oct – Nov)
o Millet

The fodder required for 50 AU round the year is calculated as;

· Animal require Barseem / oats for 5 months (Dec – Apr)

o 50 AU x 60 Kg/day x 150 days ₌ 450 T

· Animal require Maize for 2 months (May – June)

o 50 AU x 60 Kg/day x 60 days ₌ 180 T

· Animal require Sorghum for 3 months (Jul – Sep)

o 50 AU x 60 Kg/day x 90 days ₌ 270 T

· Animal require Millet for 2 months (Oct – Nov)

o 50 AU x 60 Kg/day x 60 days ₌ 180 T

Total fodder requires for 50 AU in a year is 1080 tons. Now we have to calculate the land which is
required to cultivate 1080 tons fodder. The land required for fodder round the year is calculated as;

· Area for Barseem/Oats = Requirement/yield

o 450 T / 80 (T/Ha) = 5.63 ha x 2.47 =13.89 acres

· Area for Maize = Requirement/yield
o 180 T / 50 (T/Ha) = 3.6 ha x 2.47 =8.89 acres

· Area for Sorghum = Requirement/yield

o 270 T / 50 (T/Ha) = 5.4 ha x 2.47 =13.34 acres

· Area for Millet = Requirement/yield

o 180 T / 45 (T/Ha) = 4 ha x 2.47 =9.88 acres

Almost 23 acres are required to cultivate fodder for 50 AU in a season (rabi or kharif).

If the animals are kept on range land then we have to calculate the carrying capacity of the rangeland.
The production of forage species averages about 700 kg/ha of dry matter per year. The ranch is 500
hectare in size and you are planning to kept cows on it. Then how 400 kg cows can be kept?

Calculation of total usable forage:

Forage production (kg/ha) X % allowable use X area (ha) = Total forage (kg) available for grazing

700 X 0.50 X 500 = 17500 kg

Calculation of forage demand:

Weight of cows (kg) X daily DMI (2% of body wt)

X number of days pasture will be grazed (365) = forage demand / cow / year

400 X 0.02 X 365 = 2920 kg of forage / cow / year

Calculation of stocking rate:

Total usable forage (kg) ÷ forage / cow / year = number of cows pasture will carry

175000 ÷ 2920 = 59.93 = 60

Total 60 cows can be kept on 500 hectare ranch for a year.

Fodders are very important source of livestock feeding. Due to change in the weather the availability of
fodder is drastically reduced, so the production of animals also reduced. In Pakistan there are two
periods of fodder shortage i.e., May – June and October – November. However very large amount of
fodder is produced before these two periods such as in February to April and July to September. In these
days surplus fodder can be preserved as a silage and hay making, so it shows the year round fodder
supply. The preservation methods (silage and hay) are discussed now in detail.

The main principle of silage production is to store the fodder crop in silo and exclude oxygen or store the
fodder aerobically. In anaerobic conditions the microorganisms ferment the carbohydrates and
produces organic acids, mainly acetic acid and lactic acid with very less amount of butyric acid. The
fermentation continues pH of 3.6 – 5.0. In Pakistan for silage making maize, sorghum and oats are
suitable crops. The fodder is harvested and chopped into small pieces and stored in the silo. The silo is
an airtight structure which is designed for storage and preservation of silage crops. Mainly there are
three types of silo.

A pit is dug in the ground, which is plastered with mud or concrete material.


This type of silo is made on flat soil surface. The side walls and floor is made with concrete. After filling,
the silo is sealed with mud, or polythene sheath.


It is new innovation and becoming popular because it does not need construction and maintenance.
These bags are temporary and good for one use. It keeps air tight and preserves the contents of silage.


Ø The type of silo according to local conditions is selected for the making of silage.
Ø The wall of silo is lined with the sheet of polythene.
Ø At the proper stage of maturity the fodder should be harvested.
Ø The fodder is chopped in 2-3 cm length.
Ø The silo is filled in layers uniformly.
Ø The compaction of fodder in silo should be properly done. The compaction is done with tractor
in case of big silo.
Ø The polythene or mud plaster should be used to seal a silo.
Ø For the increasing of protein contents of silage 2 % urea solution or molasses can be used.

As the fodder is harvested, chopped, compacted, and sealed the process of ensiling started. It has four
steps or phases;

1. The aerobic phase is started as the silage is sealed and the oxygen which is trapped in forage
pieces is release by respiration of the aerobic bacteria and yeasts. The enzymes of the plant
become active.
2. The fermentation phase started as the oxygen is released and the conditions become aerobic. In
this phase the lactic acid producing bacteria is increasing and pH is reduced 4. To encourage the
lactic acid fermentation 2-3% molasses is mixed during storage.

3. This is the stable phase. In this phase pH is decreased, the water and air is not entered in this
phase the lactic acid bacteria start decreasing. In this phase maintain the air tight seal to protect
the silage from spoilage.
4. Once the silo is opened by rodents or for feed out the spoilage begins. This result in the increase
of pH.

The main principle to use silage additives is produce feedstuffs with a greater nutritive value and
reduction of losses associated with ensiling.

Acids can be used for direct acidification. Usually formic and propionic acid are used.

Grains, molasses, urea and ammonia can be added in silage at ensiling.


The physical or general appearance of the silage is good indication to expect its nutritive value.

Color: the bright or light green or green brown color according to fodder ensile shows good quality

Smell: the lactic acid odor is good but with no butyric acid odor.

Texture: the firm texture with softer material not easily rubbed from the fiber.

pH: the pH around 4 is good.


1. There are fewer reduction losses
2. Most of the nutrients in fodder can be preserved
3. Silage nutritional value remains unchanged during the entire feeding period.
4. Silage is the most economical source of feed because it prevents wastage of the less favored
parts of fresh herbage (such as stem).
5. Silage requires less storage space than hay, and cannot be destroyed by fire.
6. Silage improves the digestibility of protein in herbage and it preserves most of the vitamins.


1. Extra labor is required.
2. Not well suited for intermittent use.
3. If improperly stored the losses will be high.
4. Considerable costly equipments are required for harvesting and storing of silage.

The fodder which is harvested during growing period and preserved by drying and used during the days
of feed shortage. The fodder is harvested during optimum stage of maturity. The principle involved in
hay making is to reduce the water contents of fodder from 65 – 85% to 20% or less. In Pakistan Lucerne
and Barseem are suitable leguminous fodder crops for hay making. In hilly area natural grass pasture
also can be harvested for hay making.


Ø The fodder crop which is used as hay making should be mowed as early as possible after
reaching early bloom stage of maturity and as circumstances allow.
Ø Efforts should be made to select the rain free weather for harvesting. Minimum of 2 – 3 days are
required for good drying weather are necessary for hay curing. So weather forecasts are very
necessary in hay making.
Ø Conditioning of harvested fodder crop can reduce the drying period. In this procedure fodder is
passed to set of rollers to crack open the stems thus facilitate drying.
Ø To avoid excessive shattering losses and over exposure to sun harvested fodder should be raked
before complete drying.
Ø To facilitate drying turning of windrow is done.
Ø When the fodder is sufficiently dry baling should be done. Round and square bales can be made.
Ø Store the bales in the damp proof store house.


Leafiness: the hay which has high leave to stem ratio is considered good.

Color: the desirable color of hay is bright green, brown color is undesirable.

Aroma: the aroma from hay should be pleasant.

Moldiness: hay should not be moldy,


1. In hay most of the moisture is has been removed so there is low transport cost.
2. Good quality hay leads to desirable DMI by animals.
3. The fodder which is surplus in the season can be conserved and used in the days of feed


1. Hay making requires optimum weather conditions.
2. The digestive and crude protein value of hay is not sufficient for maintenance plus production.
3. If the is not sufficiently dry and is stored, it can be damaged by fire.
4. If hay is containing excessive moisture the mold can grow on it.
5. If fodder is improperly harvested then the loss of leaves can occur. So most nutritious part of
fodder is loss it is called shattering.

6. If the harvested fodder or hay is given excessive exposure to sunlight it is called bleaching and it
causes loss of nutrients such as carotene.
7. If harvested fodder or hay is rained during the drying period then water soluble nutrients are
loss it is called leaching.

As fodders are main and cheapest source of animal’s feed so their availability is very important to keep
the animals well productive. Year round fodder availability is very necessary for the production
persistency and profit of the dairy business. So to make the dairy business profitable and avoid from the
undesirable fodder shortage, you have to plan the fodder availability round the year. By adoption of the
fodder production technology and preservation of surplus fodder in the season, it will help you in the
successful year round fodder plan. Some fodder crops are sown in combination and the total production
of fodder is increased. As a researcher you should develop new and high yielding verities of fodder and
introduce efficient ways to increase fodder production and transfer the technologies to the farmers.


By Sajjad Hussan Qadeer


This fodder is locally known as chari or jawar. It is originated from Africa. Sorghum is economically very
important kharif fodder. This fodder contains 70% carbohydrates and 15% protein, minerals,NFE and
crude fat.

Climate and soil

Basically it is tropical fodder but it modified to climatic condition in temperate zone. It stands batter
with heat and drought than maize. It is cultivated in semi arid region of world. In Pakistan

Punjab.................IN rainfed area Mianwali, D.G.khan, , Jhelum and Rawalpindi(for Grain) and in irrigated
area for fodder production.

NWFP.................D.I.Khan, Mardan

Sindh..................Dadu, Jacobabad, Sukkar

Balochistan........Sabi and Loralai

Sorghum is cultivated on all type of soil but heavy loam soil is most suitable for it growth.

Seed bed preparation

Good seed bed is need for it proper growth, which can be done by one ploughing with mouldboard
plough fallow by two ploughings with a planter along with planking.

To increase production 2.5 bag of DAP and 1.25 bag of urea/ha another bag 1.25 of urea after irrigation.

Seed rate
For fodder 75-80kg/ha

For grain 20-25kg/ha

Method of sowing and time

It is recommended seed in row 60 cm separately. Pora method can also be used. In Punjab sowning time
is March to August. In sindh June for fodder and grain. NWFP June and july.

2 to 3 irrigation for March crop and 1 to 2 irrigation for monsoon crop.

Best time of harvesting is 50% heading stage and free of toxin.


Maize is locally know as makka or makai. It is first time brought to Indo-Pakistan from Central America.
China is the native land of this fodder. The nutrient composition of this fodder is 1.55% protein,
0.31%fat and 5.26% fibre.

Climate and soil

Maize modified to widely climatic and soil condition. This fodder is poorly grown under high
temperature and low humidity condition. Distribution in Pakistan

Punjab Sown in irrigated and rainfed area

NWFP In hilly area as major grain crop

Sindh Cultivated as green fodder crop

Seed bed preparation

It is prepared by three time ploughing and planking to remove clod and weeds.

This fodder gives best response to Nitrogen fertilizer. At sowning 2 and half bag of DAP and 1 bag urea
per hector and two and half bag of urea when fodder gain height between 1 to 2 feet. For seed purpose
2.5 kg N and 125kg P2O5 per hector.

Seed rate
For fodder crop.................75-100kg/ha

For seed crop...................30-40kg/ha

Sowing time
Sowing can be done from first week of March to mid of September. For seed crop sowing in last week of
July. In rain fed area sown with onset of monsoon.

Normally for fodder crop 3 to 4 irrigation required and for seed crop 4 to 6 irrigation are given.

Fodder should be harvested at pre-tasseling stage and Grain crop harvested when outer sheath of cobs
get dry.

We get 60-75t/ha as fodder and seed 2.5t/ha.


Millet is locally known as Bajra. It is originated from Africa. The nutrient composition of this fodder
is0.34% fat 1.5% protein, and 6.88% crude fibre. Mix crop of Bajra with maize and sorghum is very

Soil and climate

Millet is the warm weather crop. IT is widely cultivated in dry and arid region of Pakistan. Distribution in

Punjab Barani area of Pothowar and dry region of Bhawalpur.

Sindh Tharparkar, Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Dado.

NWFP Largely in kohat and D.I.Khan

Grow best in light loam sandy soil.

Seed bed preparation

2 to 3 ploughing with planking are required for good seed bed preparation.

2.5 bag urea and DAP and 5bag of Nitrophos /ha are recommended.

Seed rate
For fodder 10-15kg/ha

For seed 5-8kg/ha

Sowing method and time
Commonly broadcast method of sowing is used. But line sowing 30 cm apart give batter result. Fodder
crop sown in March to July. Seed crop sown with onset of monsoon.

Two to three time irrigation are sufficient. First irrigation after 3 week of sowing than as required.

Fodder should be harvested at ear-initiation stage. Three cutting of fodder get when planted in March.

Fodder 40-50t/ha

Seed 1000-1200kg/ha


Cowpea is loacally known as is summar leguminous fodder. The fodder is native to Africa. This
fodder improve the soil by nitrogen fixation by air. The nutritive value of fodder 2.31% fat, 15.57%
protein and 30.65% crude fibre.

Climate and soil

Cowpea basically tropical plant. Cowpea grows batter on loam or clay loam soil.

Soil bed preparation

Two to three ploughing and planking are given to make best seed bed.

Normally no fertilizer is required. If necessary than 2.5 bag of DAP/ha given.

Seed rate
Fodder 30kg/ha

Grain 20kg/ha

Sowing method and time

Seeding should be done in line for fodder at 45cm apart and for grain 60cm apart. Sowing time range
from mid March to July.

Normally two to three irrigation are given. First irrigation is provided after three week of sowing. Over
irrigation has side effect on the fodder.

Fodder is ready to cut after two month of sowing. Best time of harvesting is pod formation stage.At this
stage fodder is full of nutrient.

Fodder 30-40t/ha

Grain 750-1000kg/ha


It is a summer hybrid fodder. It is constituted in maize and millet research institute, Yousafwala in 1971.
It is cross between sorghum and sodan grass. It contains 6.70%protein, 24%crude fibre and 76% total
digestible nutrient.

Climate and soil

This fodder grows best in dry and hot climate. It also grows best in moderately rain fed area. Heavy loam
soil give highest production. Saline and water logged soil is not suitable for it cultivation.

Seed bed preparation

The seed bed is prepared by 2 to 3 ploughing with channel turning plough.

At sowing time 2.5 bag of urea and DAP/ha and 5bag Nitrophos/ha. For repeat cutting 1.5 bag urea after
each irrigation.

Seed rate
Fodder 20kg/ha

Sowing method and time

Sowing should be done in line 30-45cm apart. Two method of sowing used are pora and kera method.
Sowing is done first fortnight of March. In case of late sowing decrease number of cutting.

There is 8-10 irrigation required for good crop. First irrigation is critical given when one month of old

First harvesting is done after 60 day of sowing. Than harvest every 40 to 60 day interval.

Total fodder yield equals to 125-150t/ha.


It is very important summer fodder also play role in fertility of soil. It is cultivated with non leguminous
fodder. This crop is used as green fodder.

Climate and soil

It is cultivated in dry and hot climate. So it is cultivated in Thal and Bahawalpur. It stand best with
drought condition. It is cultivated on sandy, sandy loam and clay soil.

Seed bed preparation

1 to 2 ploughing and planking done. Soil should be level otherwise water logged at lower place case
destroy of plant.

It require 1 bag of DAP per acre.

Sowing time and method

Two method of sowing used Pora and kera. Line sowing is good give more production sowing 30 cm
apart. Time for sowing range from April to July. For grain July is best for sowing.

Seed rate
For fodder 20-25kg/acre

For grain 12-15kg/acre

It stand with deficiency of water condition but to get more production 2 irrigation give as required

Ithe crop is ready to cut at 2 month of age when flowering take place. Fodder can be get from it June to

Arid area production is 8-10t/acre and in irrigated area 12-15t/acra



Barseem is important leguminous winter fodder. It is originated from Egypt. In Indo-Pak it is first
introduce in sindh. It dry matter include 18.3% protein, 2.80% phosphorus, 2.60% calcium and 209ppm
carotene and also rich source of Vit A.

Climate and soil
Temperature requirement of barseem moderately cool 20C it is cultivated in irrigated area of country
and can be grown in variety of soil range. It also grows in alkaline soil.

Seed bed preparation

Before sowing 2 to 3 ploughing is made. Special thing of this crop is fixation of atomospheric N. So less
quantity of N is needed.

1 bag of DAP/acre is needed

Seed rate
6 to 8 kg/acre for fodder in standing water.

Sowing method and time

Pora and Kera method commonly used for it sowing. Best time for it sowing is from last week of
September to first week of Oct. Late Varity can also be sown in mid of Nov.

First irrigation should be given up to five days after sowing irrigation should be given at 15 to 20 days
interval up to Feb.

The first cutting should be performing at 50 to 60 days after sowing and subsequent cutting can be done
30 to 40 day interval throughout the season.

It can be yield up to 100-125t/acre. Seed production ranges from 10 to 15 quantial/ha.


It is locally called as jari, jai or jodar. The nutrient contant of of Oats is 9.23% protein,fat3.56%, fibre
30.44% and is low in Calcium and phosphorus that is 0.81% and 0.28% respectively. It leaves are high in
carotene and carbohydrate.

Climate and soil

Plant can grow in cold and moist condition. It can also grow in large varity of soil except alkaline and
water logged soil. The best soil for it production is clay loam.

Seed bed preparation

3 to 4 plough along with planking are required to prepare seed bed.

2.5 bag of DAP and 2.5 bag of urea is required for the good yield. Farm yard manure is commonly used.
Seed rate
Fodder 75kg/ha

Grain 30kg/ha

If the sowing is dely 5% additional seed is recommended. Sowing should be properly done by kera and
pora method with each plant 20cm apart in a row. Seed can also be sown by broadcast method.

Sowing time
Sowing should be completed within end of September to mid of December.

3 to 4 irrigation are enough for fodder crop with the first irrigation at 20 days of sowing.

It give only one cutting of green fodder, cutting should be done 24 to 51% blooming.

It production approximately up to 75 to 80t/ha. Seed yield 1 to 2 t/ha.


This fodder locally know as AlfAlfa . it is leguminous fodder originated from iran . the nutrient
compostion of alfalfa protein18%, carbohydrate11%, fat8%, mineral6%, fibre30%.

Climate and soil

It can be grow in wide varity of soil conditions. It grow well in loamy soil which having pH value 6.4 to7.
It have ability to tolerate dry and cool condition.

Seed rate
15 to 20ka /ha

Sowing method and time

Sowing should be done in line, 45cm apart from each other. Sowing time is from mid of Oct to mid of
Nov. Pora and kera method used for sowing.

2.5 bag of DAP/ha

First irrigation should be done after 3 weeks of sowing. The subsequent irrigation with 15 to 20 days
interval depending upon weather condition.

First cutting is done after 3 months of sowing. On average six cutting per year can be obtain.
100 to 125 ton/ha production obtain in Punjab and 50 to 75t/ha in sindh.


Fodder calendar

Feeding of Goats (dairy/mutton) at Different Stages of Life
By Rissat WaseeUllah

Feed is very important for livestock as for dairy or beef/mutton purpose. To get a maximum profit from
any livestock a good feeding management and feeding according to nutrient requirements is necessary.
If feeding is not according to requirement, most of the feed nutrient is loss and result in reduced
performance of the animals. Feed is a single most cost in any livestock raising. About 64% cost is on
feeding excluding the labor. Good managemental practices decrease the feed cost. The main emphasis
in this article is on the nutrient requirement of goats, feeding practices which promote good health and
increase immune function and ultimately increase production of meat and milk from goats. Goats are
very good browser i.e. they only eat young leaves of plants. By age, breed, production system either
milk or meat, sex, body size, physiological state and climate we can determine the nutrient
requirements of goats. Goat consumes feed 3-4% of their body weight on dry matter basis. This feed
intake is change according to the stage of the animal, body weight, palatability and physiological state of
the animal.

Production Systems for Goats

Nutrients for Goats

It includes sugars, starch and cellulose. Sugar and starch are present in grains while cellulose is present
in roughages. And these carbohydrates are converted into volatile fatty acid by rumen fermentation
with the help of bacteria which are normally resident of rumen. Young leaves and fresh pastures contain
highly digestible fiber which contain more energy. Energy is presented as Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN
%). Energy requirements varies according to physiological states of goats e.g. maintenance, pregnancy,

lactation and growth. Dairy kids require more energy as compare to adults. It is recommended that high
energy ration is fed at the time of lactation.

Fat is also a good source of energy for goats. Dairy goats when browse they can consume some amount
of fat also. Excess energy is stored in the form of fat in the body and during lactation high energy is
required and this fat is use as an energy source.

Proteins are important for body growth. Different proteins are broken and converted into amino acids
which are ultimately absorbed in small intestine. These amino acids form body proteins i.e. (muscles).
This break down is occurs in rumen. Forages, soyabean meals, canola meals and barly are the good
source of proteins. During growth protein requirements are increased and also in milk synthesis. Always
form a cost effective ration is made because protein is an expensive feed item.

Good quality water is always offers to goats. Decrease water intake can impart a negative effect on
performance of the goats. If goats are on high protein diets, they consume more water.

Vitamins and Mineral

Goats require vitamins and minerals for their proper functioning of different systems. Vitamin A, D, E
and K are must be in feed because goats cannot make these vitamins in the body. Although other
vitamins are formed in the body. Vitamin B is formed in the rumen and it is essential for goat
metabolism. For proper functioning of immune system vitamin C is required. Both the micominerals and
macrominerals are essential in goat diets. 2:1 ratio of calcium and phosphorus is recommended. When
minerals are added in feed, keep in mind that some forages are high in some minerals while less in other

Acceptable Quantity of Micro and Macrominerals for Goat

Nutrient Requirements for Lactating Goat.

Feeding Practices for Dairy Goats

The process by which nutritional requirements of goats is relate with the nutrient ingredient of the feed
is called as feeding practices. It can improve productivity. The main objectives of good feed practices are
1-minimize feed cost and 2-increase animal performance.
Feeding of Goat Kids
For new born kid first three days are very critical. The young is just like a non-ruminant because rumen is
not developed, and meets their requirements from colostrum and later from milk. Colostrums contain
high level of proteins, globulins, and fat and milk solids. If kid is not separated from dam just after
kidding, kid should receive colostrum at least for first three days. If kid is separate then it should be
given milk replacer up to 8-12 week or until weaning age. (The process by which kid is separate from
dam). Weaning age for meat purpose goat is about three months while for dairy goat it should be 3-4
days but depends upon the practice. Kid starter should be containing 11% fiber and 16 % crude protein
and good quality hay for rumen development.

Herd Replacement Feeding

From weaning to up till 6 month of age kid starter is used at the rate of 0.25-0.5 kg/day. Together with
good pasture and high quality forages macro and micro minerals should be added in the grain mix which
contains 16% crude protein. When animal grow at breeding age from six months to onward they require
grain mixture about 0.5-1 kg/day, crude protein 14-16% and vitamin E and A in feed. 25% protein is not
recommended in growing replacement. The breeding is depends upon the weight and age of the does.
Flushing ration is also used for dairy goats; it is the supplement of energy and protein one month prior
to breeding time. Or when buck is introduced in herd. For meat goat it is not necessary.

Feeding Dairy Does in Early Lactation

Dairy does require additional nutrients for milk production, some additional nutrients are requiring for
fetus. For multiple fetuses more protein and energy is required. Grain mixture with 12-14 % protein,
good quality hay and salt mineral mixture is recommended.

Nursing Does Feeding

In first few month of lactation more nutrients are required by does to meet their need for milk
production and for kids. About 16 % crude protein is recommended along with vitamins and minerals.

Feeding for Milk Production

Particularly in early lactation does are in negative energy balance, so good managemental practice can
increase the milk production and less chance of disease. At 6-8 weeks of lactation milk production is at
peak while feed intake peaks at 3-4 months of lactation. In first month of lactation animal lose about
0.5-1 kg body weight/week. But at four months lactation does gain weight 1-2 kg/month. 3-4 % adding if
fat in diet can increase energy level of diet to meet the requirements in early lactation, high level of
protein is also required. The ideal temperature for milk production is 50C -250 C.

To decrease the stress on the dairy goats following points are keep in mind.

· Give less amount of feed more frequently

· Quality forages should be given

· To maintain pH add buffer in feed

· For increase fiber digestion give yeast

· Fed fat to increase energy level

· Cool water is provide in summer

Dry Does Feeding

Dry period is recommended for maximum milk production. Last 2 months are of more attention for
pregnant does. These 2 months are divided into two phases’ 1- Far-off dry period and 2- close-up dry

Far-off Dry Does Feeding

Far-off dry period is the time period in which does are dry just 3 weeks before kidding. Mammary
system is repair during dry period and mammary cells are also regenerates. Dry matter intake is about 2-
2.5 % of body weight. 12-14 % protein in grain mixture is recommended.

Feeding of Transition or Close-up Dry Does

The last 3 weeks of pregnancy is called as close-up dry period or transition period. In this period nutrient
requirement are increase dramatically while feed intake is decrease about 35 %. At this stage animal
need more protein and energy to avoid the negative energy balance.

Feeding Practices for Meat Goats

Feeding practices for meat goats are same as above mentioned in dairy goats, but there is some
difference in the requirements of meat goats in early age because this is the growing age and more
nutrients are required for weight gain before weaning age. After 3 months of age i.e. weaning time
doelings are separated from buckling. Bucklings are kept for meat and doeling for replacement of herd.
For meat purpose creep feeding is done in this practice additional supplements are fed to increase the
growth rate 30-35 kg before 6 months. Creep feeding is a good practice to increase the weight gain. It is
consists of corn, oats or kid grower mixture which contain 14-16 % of protein and fiber about 10 %.

Otherwise there is no as such difference in the requirements on other stages e.g. dry does, late
gestation and in lactation. Following table show the nutrient requirements for meat goats which are
almost resemble with the requirements of dairy goats.

Requirements for Meat Goats

Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases of Goats

There are many disorder related to nutrition and metabolism. Here some of more common problems
are discussed. Not all the disease is discuss only important aspect of disease is discussed.

Ketosis/Pregnancy Toxemia
This disease is also called as pregnancy disease, kidding paralysis, twin kid disease, and ketosis. It is the
metabolic disorder caused due to low level of glucose in the blood. Store fat is converted into by
product called ketone bodies which is toxic, present in urine and in blood. Low plan of nutrition in last
one-third of pregnancy is main cause of this disease because feed intake is less and goat cannot meet
their nutrient requirements. Symptoms include off-feed, lethargic, teeth grinding and twitching is
common. In last stages goats lies downs and unable to rise, coma and death result. Treatment includes
give propylene glycol two times in a day orally for three days. For ketoacids carbonate and bicarbonates
precursor is used. This disease is prevented rather than treated. It is generally a management disease.

Milk Fever (Hypocalcaemia)

Milk fever is seen in high producing goats mostly in one to three weeks after kidding. In this disease
calcium in the serum is decreased less than 1.7 mmol/l. Symptoms includes ataxia, hyperactive and
nervous and then recumbent. Mostly sudden death in goats is reported. Treatment with Calcium
Borogluconate i/v. to prevent this disease calcium rich diet is given in after kidding.

This is caused by thiamine deficiency. Thiamine (vitamin B-1) is normally made by rumen bacteria. A
change in the microflora of the rumen due to high carbohydrates diets can cause the deficiency of this
vitamin or produced an enzyme which inhibits the activity thiamine which results in
Polioencephalomalacia (necrosis and softening of gray matter of the brain). Symptoms are stiff gait,

anxious, blindness and fore legs are stiff and goat may fall down on ground. Differential diagnosis
includes Listeriosis, Lead Poisoning and Tetanus. No specific treatment accept nutritional management,
use if thiamine in diet of goat.

Feeding technologies for desired products

By Zeeshan Afzal

The aim of feeding technologies for desired products, is to obtain milk, meat and wool from farm
animals with some special composition.. The farm animals are playing important role for man’s
economics as well because they convert raw material in more useful products for example grass and
fodder are not direct used by us .Farm animal eat grass and fodder and convert into milk, meat and
wool which are very useful for us. Meat and milk have more nutritive value as compared to grain and
fodder. In order to get desired products in the form of milk, meat and wool, the most important thing is
feeding. However, the total expense of feed in farm animal herd is 60-90%. That’s why it is necessary to
improve production through economical way .Pakistan is deficient in crude protein by 1.5 million ton
and in TDN 12.5 million tons annually, for this reason the production from animals is reducing. Due to
increasing human population the land is decreasing for fodder cultivation. It is estimated that the land is
decreasing at a rate of 2% every 10 year. Other reason is that the availability of green fodder in Pakistan
is not round the year. The fodder is least available in May and June, as well as in December and January.
Human population as well as animal population is increasing but the cultivable land is decreasing.
However, to get better production, it is necessary that one should search alternative resources for feed
and also introduce recent feeding technologies for enhanced production of animals. In one of the
research it is claimed if we provide balanced feed, according to requirement of animal, we can enhance
production up to 50%.Our goal is to get optimum production from farm animals from limited resources.
Residues of the crops wheat straw, corncob, maize gluten molasses and urea can be used as alternative.
If we implement techniques for example straw treated with urea (cheapest source) as well as the
molasses mineral blocks. By implementation of scientific knowledge we can enhance their nutritive
value. By adopting these feeding strategies we can boost up livestock products such as milk, meat and

Feeding strategies for enhancement of milk production

Following are the important steps for enhancement of milk production through feeding.

Balance nutrition:
Balance nutrition is the key factor to enhance milk production. In the herd for milk production,
environmental role is 75% in which nutrition plays the main role and rest of 25% role is of the genetics.
Balance nutrition can boost the milk production. Improper nutrition has adverse effect on milk
production. The feed should contain carbohydrates, proteins Minerals, vitamins, water.

It is most important element. A dairy cow consume 27-36 liter of water per day. The dairy animals have
more requirements as compared to other animals. For every 1 liter milk dairy animal need 4-6 liter
water above its maintenances requirement. Ad libitum supply of water increases milk yield up to 3% and
fat by 10%.

Quality of the feed Roughages:

High quality roughages give high production. Medium quality roughages give medium production. Low
quality leads to low production of milk. Good quality feed should given. So always provide fresh forage
to the dairy animals. Always cut the fodder at an early stage that way the digestibility of forage is high.
Mature pasture is not desired because it has more lignin which is unpalatable and decreases
digestibility. Fresh forage should be 10% of live body weight of animal. Try to fulfill the maximum
requirement of the animal from green fodder because it is cheaper.

Thumb rule for concentrate feeding is that give 1kg conc. for each 3 kg milk above 1st 4kg milk
production. The concentrate (Wanda) contains cottonseed cake, rapeseed cake, wheat bran, corn
gluten, and rice polish, DCP, salt and maize. By using concentrate the farmer gets additional profit
Rs.2000 to 3000 every year from single animal.

Urea molasses block:

This is very important technology to increase milk production. It is cheaper source of
energy and it is available in abundance in Pakistan. It is also known as multi nutrient block. It is balanced
diet for animal and also improves intake of the animals. It is good appetizer.

Strategies for feeding mineral blocks:

Always block should provide small quantity in started and with the passage of time when animal useful
then provided ad-lib with green fodder and wheat straw. Blocks increase utilization of roughage and
animal’s intake is also increases and milk production is improves through mineral block. This technology
is very successful in our country.

Urea treated straw:

The urea is cheaper source of the protein. If added in the ruminant diet the microbes of ruminants
converts urea into protein .It is estimated that from 1gm urea we get 2.62 kg protein from this
techniques the milk and meat improved.

Improve milk production through Urea block:

The experiment is done in India to check the effect of block on the milk production the trail is done in
different villages .Those who use block there milk production and as well as fat % increases.

Composition of block
It contain molasses block it contain molasses, urea, minerals wheat bran.

Milk booster
It is also new technology used to improve milk production as well as improve fat %.It has also increase
growth rate and increase reproductive efficiency.

It contains calcium 26%, Phosphorus 19.0%, Sodium 02.5%, and Magnum 01.5%, trace Elements 02.0%.
Feeding procedure milk booster is recommended to be added in concentrate ration as per dosage and
mix properly before feeding.

Recommended Dosage
Dairy animals 80-100mg

Young calves 30-40gm

Sheep and goat10-15gm

By using milk booster the milk production and milk fat is improve on practical basis.

Improvement in milk composition by using mineral calcium phosphorus:

This research is done in lactating Nili-Ravi buffalo on NARC .The buffalo is divided into three different
groups A, B, C each group containing four buffalo.

For group A fed on ration Ca and P 100% means according to NRC requirement

For group B fed on ration Ca and P 80 % means 20% below requirement

For group C fed on ration Ca and P 120% means 20% above requirement

Role of Ca and P on milk yield and fat%

Profits from adding more Ca and P supplementation


It is also fed to the dairy animals, used when there is problem in the supply of green fodder.

For the use of total mix ration the balance diet should be provided to then the animals if total mix ration
is used then there is no need of green fodder.

Suitable space should be given to the animal 2 feet per cow

Feed must be available every time.

By pass
By pas protein also increases the milk production

Feed additive
In research shows that if biotin fed 15mg per cow daily than milk yield in key in a
weak.Niacin if add in the milk 6-12gram than milk yield and milk protein is increase.

Iodinated casein is known as tyro protein .It has been speculated that if fed to dairy animal
the milk production should be increase up to 20%.

In a study it was proved that if we feed Lactobacillus and streptococcus microbes to lactating animals
then milk improvement is reported 0.9kg each day. Lactobacillus also increase intake of the animal.

Steps for improve milk fat%

When in the feed high concentrate low fiber than as the result milk fat depression. High intake of
concentrate increases propionic acid and decrease acetic acid. Balance diet should be provided the
ration between concentrate and forage should be 60%concentrate 40%forage.

Studies shows feeding soybean fat percent increase up to 3.4%-4.5%

Coconut oil:
Research shows that adding coconut supplementation the fat is improve 3.6% - 3.97%

Palm oil ration also increase fat up to 3.6% -3.99%.

For adding cotton seed fat should be improve 0.19%

Fat added:
Research that adding fat increase milk yield 4-7% and fat% increase 0.2%-0.8%

Increase quality diet:

Use long stem forage the diameter more than 1/8 inch.

New research prove that adding sodium bicarbonate, calcium hydroxide, magnum carbonate magnum
oxide, sodium bentonite .lactose whey also play role for improvement of fat %

Feeding strategies for meat production

Meat is important source of protein. In our country the protein society of Pakistan suggest that it is
necessary of protein requirement of an individual are 27.4gram protein daily. But according to an idea
that now protein is available in Pakistan 17.4gram daily. The meat production is low due to insuffient
diet of the animals.

Sources of meat in Pakistan

Meat is mostly comes forms culled animals, fattening animals and growing animals.
Fattening of the animals
Fattening is simply deposition of the unused energy in the shape of fat. Fattening is the best method to
obtaining the meat from the animals .For fattening small ruminant and large ruminant concentration
should be given 60% and wheat straw should be given 40%. If green is fodder available than there is no
need of wheat straw. In fattening (intensive feeding) feeding within the confined areas is best. When
purchase the animal. Try to give feedlot fattening fed slowly. The feeding strategies are that starts
feeding with high roughage ration and then slowly shifted into (feedlot fattening feed) high energy
ration. This is prophylactic measure of the acidosis and diarrhea. Feed should be fed daily mostly
morning and evening at fixed time. For newly arrived animal mineral should be given because they are
mostly mineral deficient and also give palatable feed to the newly arrived animals for improve
todigestibility. Provide the clean water.

Ionophores also used in ruminant diet for because it improve the digestibility of the animals and it also
increase the propionic acid production its other function is to reduce acidosis and bloat. And for this
purpose probiotics is also used.

TMR (total mixed ration):

TMR is mostly used in fattening of the ruminant .the composition of total mixes ration is 15% crude
protein and TDN(total digestible nutrient)should be 65%.for fattening if we use this composition we can
enhance live body weight in buffalo calve up to7oogm to 900gm per day depending upon the age of the
animals and also environmental condition of the animals the best age of the fattening the buffalo calves
about one year and sheep and goat about 6 month age is best for fattening .In this age they perform
well and gain abrupt weight. Total mixed ration should be given 24 hour. Try to maintain the palatability
of the animals.

Nutrient requirement for fattening

The energy is the basic requirement fir fattening. The energy should be provided be provided in the
form of net energy and the source of net energy should be in the form of starch, sugar, protein and

The vitamin is also necessary roof fattening animals

For growth
Growth is cheapest farm of Wight as compare to fattening In case of growth the protein should be 25%
and water75%.

Comparison of weight gain in buffalo calves between stall feeding and pasture
AIM of study to check the weight gain difference between buffalo calves giving stall feeding and feeding
on pasture. Total no of Nile Ravi calves is 12 and divide into two groups A in which 5 calves are kept and

fed on grazing in group B calve should be kept 7 and stall feeding should be done. The duration of this
research is 9 month. The feed of stall fed is cultivated green fodder provided at manger and for otter
group on pasture. It is concluded that there is no big difference in weight gain of both groups.

This graph shows that weigh gain both on stall fed given green fodder ad lib and on pasture almost

Weight gain of Nile Ravi calves fed on stall feeding giving green pasture adlib and open grazing

Effect of urea molasses block on weight gain of the animal
Urea molasses block also play role on weight gain of the cattle.

Improvement in weight gain by molasses block

Ammonia treated straw: The weight of the animal should be increases by ammonia treated straw.

However it is expensive as compare to urea treated straw.

Nutrient composition for fattening buffalo calves

Nutrient composition for fattening

CP 16-17%

TDN 70-72%

For using this nutrient composition the weight of buffalo calve increase 700g-900g per day, but depends
on the age ,sex. The best age for fattening buffalo calves about 1year.

Feeding strategies for wool production

The wool production in Pakistan is the secondary priority. The first importance is to get mutton from
sheep. In Pakistan the wool is produce which are mostly use for carpet making. The nutrition also play
vital role for improve wool production. If the nutrition should be better the more growth of wool should
be improved. In pregnancy when feeding not properly than as the result the wool production will be
reduce. The male and non-breeding sheep gave more wool as compare to pregnant female.

Improved pasture: Recent research approved if the pasture improves than the wool should be improved
as well as its weight is also improves. The wool growth is directly correlated to wool

production. For obtain wool the sheep body score should be 2.5-3.5. The wool is mainly made of for wool production sulfur containing amino-acid is most important.

Methionine: play a vital role the enhance wool growth. It is a sulfur containing amino-acid.

Linseed: Research shows that linseed improves the wool growth in sheep.

By pass protein: In supplement the bypass protein should also improve wool production because wool is
made up of protein.

Energy: Net energy should be provided for wool production, obtain from any energy sources.

Role of minerals on growth of wool

Recent research in Australia indicates that if we increase sodium chloride in feeding than we can obtain
better wool production. In the research the sheep is divided into two groups A and group B in group A
the sodium chloride is added in feed 80g/day and in their drinking water add 1% sodium chloride and
crude protein should be given 36% than it is noted that wool increase should be 20%, as well as in group
B in these animals same feed should be given but sodium ahloride4 is not added low production of wool
as compare Group A.The conclusion from this is experiment that for enhancement of wool production
the dietary sodium chloride should be given to the sheep.

Factor affecting the wool growth

Zinc deficiency: The deficiency of the zinc can leads to poor quality wool and also decrease wool yield.

Folic acid and lysine deficiency:Its deficiency creates adverse effect on the quantity and quality of the

Selenium deficiency: Its deficiency decrease wool but feed intake not reduces.

Iodine deficiency: It is also responsible for decrease wool growth.

Copper deficiency

Starvation: If sheep not properly fed can leads to abrupt decrease of wool growth For giving these
strategies we can enhance wool production

Nutrient requirement for desired product

It this article it is concluded that through implementation of new technologies we can enhance the
animals’ production up to the mark in the economical way. We should also manage lean period in which
fodder is limited. In future we will be able to fulfill the demand of meat and milk by adopting modern
feeding techniques. As population is increasing at high pace, in order to fulfill their increasing demand
we should adopt these new techniques.

Animal feed safety HACCP
By Yasir Waqas

It has long been well-known that the manufacture and delivery of excellence feeds is vital to the success
of any animal making operation. It has also long been known infectious agents are most effectively
spread in commercial production situations via either contaminated birds or contaminated feed (i.e.
“breed or feed”).


The concept of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) was first developed in the 1960’s by the
Pillsbury Company of Minneapolis in conjunction with NASA and the US Army Natick Laboratories. Their
primary purpose was to develop a regular approach of assuring the microbiological quality of food taken
on space missions – for obvious reasons! Since then the concept has been applied to the much broader
concern of food manufacture and is now increasingly applied in the animal feed industry.Whilst the
application of HACCP in the animal feed industry is still concerned with microbiological quality, for
example control of Salmonella and other microbiological hazards such as Escherichia coli, moulds and
BSE it is now also used being used to identify hazards and introduce control measures associated with
other aspects of product quality, for example nutritional plan and corporal quality aspect and the make
of feed additive products for use in rigorous livestock production.

The Seven fundamental Principles of HACCP

Seven necessary principles underlie the concept of HACCP. They are:

· Hazard and risk analysis

· conclude the CCPs required to control the hazards acknowledged
· Establish the critical restrictions that must be meet at each CCP
· Establish procedures to monitor the CCP
· Establish the corrective actions required when monitoring of a CCP identifies a defect
· Establish effective systems of record keeping that document the HACCP plan for a product or
· Establish authentication procedures to show that the HACCP system is working (or has worked)

Steps to Implement the 7 Basic Principles of HACCP

A typical draw near to implementing the 7 basic values would be:

· A risk evaluation during which risk and hazard categories should be establishes.
· Elimination of hazards by drawing if possible (for example in the case of a new product/process)
· Control of hazards that cannot be eliminated by an connected Critical Control Point
· Definition of the control, monitoring, reporting and action procedures for each CCP.
· alteration of manufacturing process flow diagrams and finished product quality specifications to
encompass HACCP.
· Formal review of HACCP whenever processes or product specifications are modified.

The Benefits of HACCP

There are a number of major benefits to be gained from implementing an HACCP approach. They

1. HACCP is a management tool that provides a more ordered approach to the control of identified
hazards than traditional inspection and QC procedures.
2. HACCP can identify potential problems where failure has not yet been experienced.
3. Control of process and product quality is transferred from detection of failure (through finished
product testing) to prevention. In some circumstances this can bring about a significant
improvement in profitability by reducing product losses and reworks and exposure to liability.
4. HACCP is especially useful when designing new products and processes.
5. HACCP can be seamlessly integrated into existing quality standards systems and covers all
aspects of product safety. It is also an internationally accepted approach to quality assurance
and an important aspect of the defence of due diligence.
6. HACCP provides a commercial control of hazards.
7. HACCP properly implemented focuses the attention of all involved in a process on critical areas.

Requirements for Successful Implementation of HACCP


In ordinary with all modern systems of quality assurance the successful implementation of HACCP
requires commitment at all levels of an organisation and a verifiable obligation by senior management is
a requirement.


Organization must ensure that all staff receives enough training to ensure acceptance of new practices
and produce ideas from those best placed to comment on a process – i.e. the shop floor. In particular
organization must pay concentration to the effect of implementing HACCP on their existing quality
guarantee and quality control functions.

Time and Resources

Running must ensure that sufficient time and income are provided to establish and maintain the HACCP

Integration of HACCP and Product Quality

As intimated above, HACCP if not right implement can have an difficult effect on the attitudes of those
already involved in quality assurance and quality control. This is because many people feel that HACCP
should be imperfect to safety issues (and often specifically microbiological safety issues) rather than
other aspects of product quality. Therefore it is important to differentiate between CCPs connected with
safety and those associated with quality. Furthermore, quality control points should be avoided in the
HACCP plan if its effectiveness is not to be compromised. This is because quality control points are not
designed to detect critical defects and failures against check limits are often up for grabs. This can not
be the case for CCPs.

HACCP and Feed Additive Use in the Intensive Livestock Industry

The use of feed additives in thorough livestock production now presents some special concerns in the
following areas:

1. Achieving a consistent mix of active substances in premixtures and feed

2. Achieving the optional dosage levels in premixtures and feeds
3. Health and safety of workers in the premix, feed and livestock production industries
4. fractious contamination at the premix factory, feed mill, during transport of treated feeds and
on farm

Feed Mill HACCP Programs and Medicated Premixes

In order to assist feed mills seeking HACCP certification, we would like to make the regulatory status of
medicated premixes and the implications of this position clear.

What are the possible hazards associated with medicated premixes?

Hazard 1. Medications not properly recognized

Hazard 2. Incorrect level of active ingredient
Hazard 3. Strength of the medication is not correct;
Hazard 4. unsuitable combinations of medication used in formula;
Hazard 5. wrong level or withdrawal time of medication in formula;
Hazard 6. Cross-contamination of feed with medication from a previous batch;
Hazard 7. Uneven mixing of medication in the feed

What benefits do Bio Agri Mix premixes provide for a HACCP certified mill

· Granular drug premixes show lower levels of fines than grain premixes which reduces
the risk of contamination of the feed mill equipment and environment with drug
· Granular medications provide a uniform level of drug throughout the particle size range
which means that there is no segregation of the drug by particle size when mixing feed.
· Bio Agri Mix sweeps out, washes and sanitizes its production areas and equipment
whenever- there is a change over from one type of premix to another. This ensures that
drug premixes are not cross-contaminated with other drugs or contaminated with
pathogenic organisms during manufacture. • Granular medications use a mineral carrier
that is not attractive to birds, rodents and insects.
· This reduces the risk of pest infestation and contamination of our premises, storage bins
and equipment. In addition, Bio Agri Mix employs a licenced pest control company to
inspect and if necessary treat the premises to control pests.

Feed Mill HACCP: Validation of Clean Out

· follows a medicated feed with a clean feed for "market ready" animals (market ready includes
finisher feeds, feeds for dairy cattle or goats and layers):

In any of these instances or any other instance where the feed come to a decision that sequencing is not
an acceptable method for mitigating risks associated with drug carryover, a validated method is
required for the clean out of the equipment including storage space and transport equipment.

Typically in feed mills the clean out is performed by flushing the system with one or more charges of
feed ingredient(s). This is intended to push the residual medication through the system so that
subsequent batches of feed do not contain unacceptable residues .

The requirement in the proposed regulations is that all components of the feed manufacturing and
storage system be free of drug residue. .

The agreement at the meeting was that flushes need to be to clean residues from all components of
the system including mixers, pellet mills, storage bins legs, conveyors, etc. that connect them.
Measuring the amount of drug in a flush batch does not validate that the flush works unless the
authentic amount of drug in the system is identified at the launch of the exercise. When planning a

residue study, the first step would be to use a qualitative test, such as Microtracers, to determine the
flush is suitably sized and effective. Step two is to sample the first "clean" feed at beginning, middle and
end of the batch at the endpoint of the system to validate cleanliness. These three samples should then
be tested for drug residues by a sensitive analytical method. Routine follow up monitor of "clean" feed
by Micro Tracer tests or other qualitative tests will provide additional supporting data for the flush

beginning Steps for HACCP development

explain the Feed or Food and its distribution

· Feed supply
· Ingredients quantity and quality
· Processing technique

Describe the scenery of the products

Method of preservation and distribution
Use "Consumer" conditions
complete recipe for products

· Include list of element or substance which may find its way into the product

Shelf life of that product

Describe property that will influence the protection of the product

· latent for mistreatment?

explain the intended use and consumers of the food

What is proper use

· vend internal, further manufacturing

Who are the normal end users?

· farm animals, Companion animals

What training actions are required?

· Feeding information

Develop a process flow diagram

function - Provide a clear, easy summarize of steps in process

Must include all steps in the method which are under be in command of of the feed mill
Is a anthology of all the route steps used to construct a product from receiving to distribution
Use terminology, not trade terms
Can use simple block diagram

Example of Flow Diagram: Feed mill

confirm the flow diagram

HACCP team should study business to verify correctness and fullness of diagram
On-site assessment
Modify flow diagram if needed
forceful document that must be simplified to mirror current process
HAZARD ANALYSIS in animal feed
Dust, moisture and feed age will have a major bearing on the degree to which a given lot of feed
will be infected.
Mycotoxins (such as aflatoxin) are toxic compounds that are produced when molds grow.
Therefore mycotoxins in feeds is evidence of mold growth in the feed or the feed ingredients
microbial counts were indeed abridged by the heat of the pelleting process, numbers quickly
rebound. Although many feed manufacturer rely on the pelleting process for microbial
A greater percentage of samples that were pelleted at 190°F contained less Salmonella than
those samples pelleted at 140°

1. Exclude contamination from the feed, and feed ingradiants

2. Prevent reproduction of the organism in the feed and multiplication
3. Kill organisms within the feed and prevent recontamination Rodents control

Feeding sheep (mutton) during different stages of life

By Rabia Ikram

The livestock sector is an important sub-sector of the agriculture sector in Pakistan. It contributed
approximately11 percent to the GDP which is more than the contribution of entire crop sector of the
country. There is gradual increase in consumption/demand of live stock products and by-products .One
of the reason of this increase in demand is higher consumption of meat especially mutton. Sheep is a big
source of mutton. In PAKISTAN we have 27 sheep breeds in which lohi and sipli are main mutton
breeds. Usually sheep is kept for two main purposes i.e. wool production and meat production. To get
maximum production of meat fattening is done. It is a necessary thing to know about the different
nutritional requirements of an animal so that these requirements can be fulfilled at its particular stage
of life. Nutritional requirements are different in different stages of life. These stages includes pre-
weaned, post-weaned ,gestation period, fattening period, etc . There are 5 major nutrients required to
sheep are water, energy, protein, vitamins minerals. An adult sheep normally require 2-5 kg DMI per 100
kg B.W. sheep are provided with a ration/pasture having 7-8% CP and 45-50% TDN. A palatable and
nutritious ration having 10-12% CP and 52-55% TDN is given to pregnant ewes. A palatable ration having
12-16% CP and 58-65% TDN is given to growing lambs. During early stages protein and energy ratio

should be lesser and should gradually increased during finishing period. Sheep require high quality
legume hay, silage or legume straw. Sheep require water like all other animals. When sheep drink water
DMI decreases. In summer water is required about 13% of BW, and it is about 50% in winter. Almost 2-3
kg water is required for each kg of DMI in growing and fattening sheep. Pregnant sheep requires 50-
100% more water than growing sheep during last 3 months of gestation period.

Daily mineral requirement (% or ppm of diet DM) of sheep

VITAMINS are needed in trace amount because these are essential for growth and production. The
sources of vitamins are green fodder, hay, cereals, cakes, by products, feed additives, fish oil, etc.

PROTEIN sources are straw and bhusa, grains, legume hays, cakes, etc.

ENERGY sources are cereal by products, dry grass fodders.

Table: Daily nutrient requirement (% of diet DM) of sheep

Adult sheep



Pre-weaned lambs:
The lamb should be provided colostrums just after the birth for a few days in a sufficient amount so
that passive immunity can be produced through immunoglobulin entered by giving colostrums which
play important role against different infectious diseases. And colostrums is also a rich source of energy.
As soon as possible creep feeding should provided to lambs after birth. Creep feeding is the practice in
which supplemental feed is provided to the lambs which their mother cannot give them. Creep feeding
is usually started around 10-14 days of age and creep ration should be provided to suckling lambs up to
10-12 weeks of age. The palatability and energy level of creep ration should be higher to gain higher

Ingredient composition of creep mixture for lambs

Post weaned lambs

After the lambs have been separated from their mother they should be provided with a ration having
12-16% CP and58-65% TDN and DM consumption should be 3-4.30% which meet the for average daily
weight gain of 50-150 g. cereal grain, groundnut cake, wheat bran, mineral mixture, common salt in a
ratio of 27:30:40:2:1 is given which is a concentrate mixture and it is given when for adlib feeding high
quality fodders like green oats, cowpea, maize, berseem, Lucerne, and their hays are available. The
ration should be having 18-20% CP and 68-70% TDN so that it can fulfill protein and energy
requirements. This concentrate mixture should be fed @50-150 g/head/day depending upon BW.

Table: Daily nutrient requirement (% of diet DM) of post-weaned lambs

Pregnant ewes
The high quality feeding of sheep is done to get healthy lamb of adequate BW. And also to maintain
the health of ewe. Good feeding is usually provided in last months of gestation period because good
feeding in early stages is of no importance as it cannot fulfill requirements in later stages when poor
feeding is provided. The gestation period of last 6-7 weeks is of great importance for foetal
development. Almost 70-80% foetus mass is developed in this last period. 0.5 times maintenance is
required for the ewe bearing single and 1.0 times for the twin bearing ewe. So that approximately 1.75
times the total feed requirements increases, of maintenance. A balanced ration should be provided to
sheep in this crucial stage which should having 10-11% CP and 50-55% TDN with a DMI of 3.5-4.5%. In
late pregnancy good quality hay and small amount of grains can fulfill its requirements. During last 10-15
days of gestation DMI is decreased. It may be due to hormonal changes or abdominal distention. And
due to these reasons weight loss can occur in this last period. A diet having wheat bran or linseed cake
can manage this problem of intake.

Table: Daily nutrient requirement (% of diet dry matter) of pregnant ewes

Feeding sheep for higher production

There are different factors which influence the production level in sheep; these factors can be type
of animal, genetic potential of these animals, environment, health but there are some other factors
which are neglected i.e. intake of digestible energy, amount of protein given, level of mineral and
vitamins and also the feeds and fodders are not checked whether they are of good quality and they are
not deficient in nutrients which are essential. The lambs which are normally fed, not for higher
production usually gain 16 kg weight at the age of six months. These lambs are sold to markets at the
age of 9-12 months with a weight of 20-22 kg and their dressed carcass is weighed about 10 kg. Now a
day to fulfill market requirements the sheep are kept on intensive feeding or grazed on highly nutritious
pastures having high legumes in addition with concentrate as supplemental feeding. The lambs kept on
intensive feeding have almost 180 g ADG within 90 days. Grazing the lambs with supplementation for
meat purpose is cost effective. A limited amount of concentrate can be added in addition to free grazing
@ 1.5-2.0% of BW. It will provide 25 kg finishing weight at the age of 6 months and 30 kg at the age of 9
months. So slaughter weight of lamb can be increased at lower age by grazing on good quality pastures
with supplementation.

As we know fattening of the sheep at various stages can increase meat production. But in Pakistan
we do not raise the sheep for higher production. Higher production of meat will increase the marketing
value. The higher quality feeding not only increases meat quantity as well as meat quality. And also
average daily weight gain is increased. The nutrient requirements should be fulfilled at is particular stage
of life. So animals should be kept for meat production.

Management of Metabolic Disorders

By Ikram Chohan

Problems which arise as a result of impaired metabolism and nutritional in origin are called
metabolic diseases. These problems occur in dairy animals mostly, around parturition. After calving,
animal is stressed due to calving, physiological and hormonal changes and increasing milk production.
These stress factors further aggravate situation by reducing feed intake and animal goes in –ve energy
balance. Animal can’t get enough energy required to fulfill its body needs. Besides these problems if
animal is not managed properly, it is liable to catch disease which turns out to be a great blow on
economy of farm. Once an animal contracts a disease, it becomes more prone to that disease in
subsequent lactations as compared to those animals which did not encounter the disease. We can easily
avoid these problems through good management. As cost of treatment is extra burden on farm
economy. And their management is much easier, doesn’t cost much. We can easily avoid or control
these diseases by providing balanced rations along with supplements as a prophylactic measure. These
problems are interlinked and chained with each other. A disease acts as a precursor for the other; for
example fatty liver disease acts as a precursor for ketosis and these both strengthen grounds for
displaced abomasum. Hence, a single disease, due to sheer negligence of management, becomes a
syndrome. Once a disease occurs it becomes a future threat. If an animal encounters a disease, he / she
fails to give its maximum production even if treated properly, in certain cases. We can prevent
occurrence of such diseases by following a golden principle”Care is better than cure”. Prepare the
animals for future challenge. Through management we equip them for upcoming turmoil. Some of these
diseases are 100% fatal, for example milk fever, if it is not treated, it is 100% fatal. But its incidence can
be easily evaded by reducing Ca intake or by providing anionic acidogenic diet (-ve DCAD) pre partum in
dry period. Fatty liver disease can be prevented by maintaining body score around average
3.5.Interestingly, by taking preventive measures against one disease, other disease itself gets ruled out.
Management can save an enterprise from huge losses, so follow the golden rule “care is better than

Main body:

Metabolic Disorders:
Nutritional problems that show acute signs and need prompt treatment; occur mostly just before
calving to peak lactation. During this time conditions become more favorable because of abrupt change
in metabolism from small to large demands of production.Following are the metabolic problems:

1. Udder Edema:
Pooling up of fluid (blood) in udder as calving draws near and near, is called udder edema. It is a
normal phenomenon but sometimes it becomes drastic and severe, manifests as excessive swelling
around the udder, on udder and teats .It creates hindrance in normal milking and suckling and poses as
a risk factor for suspensory apparatus of udder. Major cause of this problem is impaired or decreased
blood and lymph flow from lower abdomen. This decreased flow is largely because of fetal pressure.
Sometimes it becomes very severe but gets itself corrected within few days unless aggravated. Other
causes include heavy grain feeding and heavy sodium and potassium intake. Owing to these problems
UE appears as a herd problem and most serious for first-calf –heifers. Hypoproteinemia is considered
another cause for blood proteins are used to make colostrums. Some people don’t agree with this idea.
Rate of occurrence is different in different situations but it should be less than 3-5% in terms of severe
cases that require treatment.

Prevention before calving includes provision of little exercise to animal since it enhances
circulation, massage of udder for it improves blood circulation. Sometimes milking before calving is used
as preventive measure for it reduces udder pressure. Some people opt for diuretics as well. After calving
Prevention after calving, treatment with corticosteroids along with diuretics and sometimes only
diuretics also work well. This treatment enhances excretion of fluid through urine. As fetal pressure is
the main cause of the problem, induced parturition seems a logical option in very severe cases. Carefully
monitor grain feeding and avoid feeding high amounts of salts in late dry period.

2. Milk Fever:
It usually occurs near or at calving.Ca level decreases in blood and muscle become weak. Sometimes
may lead to death. It is most common metabolic disease and if not treated well results in other
complications like uterine inertia , prolapsed, retained fetal membranes etc. Normal incidence rate is 3-
8% and it may become as high as 25-30% and even higher. The rate of incidence is directly proportional
to age and parity. It is rarely observed in first- calf -heifers, sporadic in 2nd calf heifers, 3rd calf heifers
encounter this problem usually 1st time and up to 6th lactation incidence may be as high as 20%.Why its
incidence increase with age and parity? Because as age and parity increase, milk production also
increase but Ca mobilization decreases.

Decrease Ca intake in dry period .It is done to initiate Ca mobilization from bones before parturition
in order to get copious amount of Ca with increasing milk production to cater the needs. But it doesn’t
work much as is very difficult to formulate diets with so much low Ca content Dietary cation-anion
difference has revolutionized milk fever prevention therapy for it is not difficult to adjust cations and
anions in diet. Feeding anionic diet (-ve DCAD), in late pregnancy, results in acidosis of blood which
causes Ca resorption from bones and increases Ca absorption in gut. This can be done by adding anionic
salts such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate, ammonium
sulfate and ammonium chloride. Another strategy to reduce blood pH is by lowering potassium content
of diet of a cow near calving. It can be done by withholding potassium fertilizers on fields from which dry
cows are being fed.Addition of anionic salts in diet of dry cow in order to counter the effect of high
cation level. The target value for close up dry cow rations is +200 to +300 mEq/kg. Poor palatability is
the main problem in feeding anionic diet so some palatable item such as corn silage and molasses
should be added as well. Milk fever can also be prevented to occur by administration of vit.D3 and its
metabolites in dry cow.20-30 million U/day, for 5-7 days prepartum reduces the incidence. OR Single inj.
Of 10 million IU of crystalline vit. D, 8 days before calving, is also effective. After calving diet high in Ca
content is required. Synthetic bovine Parathyroid hormone is preferable to vit D metabolites as it causes
Ca absorption in gut and Ca resorption from bones as well. But main problem lies in the availability of
such products.

3. Ketosis:
It usually occurs in adult cattle in early lactation (1st 6 wks).It is characterized by partial anorexia,
depression, nervous dysfunction signs, abnormal gait etc. It occurs when there is excessive adipose
mobilization and high glucose demand which are normally present in early lactation because of negative
energy balance. In this disease animal refuses to take grains, feed intake is reduced. It is diagnosed on
the basis of presence of ketone bodies in milk and urine.

Maintain body condition when cows become too fat. Ketosis can be prevented by maintaining and
promoting feed intake because feed intake is reduced in last 3wks of gestation. In late gestation closely
observe feed intake and adjust rations to maximize DM and energy consumption. Concentrations of NDF
should be 28-30% and non-fiber carbohydrates concentration 38-41%.Supplementation of propylene
glycol, calcium propionate, niacin, sodium propionate, and rumen protected choline in the feed is also
helpful in prevention of ketosis.

4. Downer Cow Syndrome:

In cattle condition of prolonged inability to rise is called DCS. Two days before calving to 10 days
post calving are most susceptible for occurrence of this disease. Cows which do not react to Ca therapy
two times are termed as downer cows. The main cause of the” downer cow” is recumbence for a longer
time (beyond 4-6 hours). Most cows which don’t react to milk fever treatment subsequently become
downer cows. So mostly it is considered a worsened case of parturient paresis.
Postmortem exam of downer cows shows signs of injury, due to trauma, to heavy muscles and
thigh & pelvis nerves. The cause of injury could be dystocia, parturient paresis etc. and it can occur
before, after or during calving. Treatment generally doesn’t work.40 to 60% mortality rate may be
observed. Nursing care is more important than treatment. Animal should be provided enough bedding,
diet to eat and clean, fresh water to drink and change the sides of cow frequently (hourly) every day to
lessen the damage due to pressure.

Calving cows should be observed carefully and immediately treated when first milk fever signs
appear. Calving areas should be clean, rough surfaced to avoid slipping and well bedded. Avoid
occurrence of milk fever as most of the time this problem is aggravated milk fever case.

5. Grass Tetany:
It is also called hypomagnesemic tetany, and lactation tetany. It is reported to be highly fatal disease
of milch dairy cows. It is characterized by low Mg level in blood coupled with hypocalcaemia in some
cases. Affected animals show tonic-colonic muscular spasms and convulsions along with muscular
weakness. This weakness is similar to that of milk fevers. Lush grass with high moisture content (wheat
or rye) in the springtime is major cause of this disease. This grass reduces magnesium (Mg) absorption.
This problem can also occur when concentrations of Mg are low as compared to other minerals .If the
loss of Mg in milk, urine, digestive secretions, and sweat is copious, hypomagnesemic tetany may occur.
This is due to, more loss of Mg than its dietary intake.
Earlier signs are similar to milk fever. Other signs include, muscle twitching, grinding of teeth,
excitement, convulsions, and high salivation etc It shows more vigorous nervous signs than milk fever
because of Magnesium, being the 2nd most abundant cation in fluids present inside the cells (to K+)
and the activator of many nervous system enzymes .These enzymes are likely to cause more nervous,
excitable symptoms than Ca tetany. Its response towards treatment is quick and dramatic. Milk fever
and grass tetany recover both with the same treatment because most "milk fever" treatments contain
Mg also.Pastures which are heavily fertilized (wheat, sometimes called wheat pasture poisoning) have
been found involved in this condition. Supplementation of Magnesium oxide can help us improve this
condition. Mg should be 0.25% of total diet DM.

6. Fat Cow Syndrome:

In early lactation it increases risk of metabolic, infectious, and reproductive disorders especially
parturient paresis, ketosis, and retained fetal membranes. It is recognized by the presence of very fat
cows in the dry period and too much thin cows in the early lactation. Feeding practices which cause over
conditioning in dry cows are the main cause. In early lactation fat accumulates in liver which is a normal
phenomenon. Sometimes too much fat gets stored in liver and impairs its function and in few cases
leads to liver failure. Such cases generally do not respond to treatment and end up in the death of the
animal. In such cases mortality is as high as 50%.

Monitor and manage body condition of dry animal so that cows reach calving in proper body
condition. After calving, try to maintain high levels of energy intake in high producing animals.
Immediate treatment in early postpartum disease helps to reduce off-feed time and thus reduces the
energy deficiency risk.

7. Displaced Abomasum:
It is basically of two types; left side DA and right side DA.

Left side DA:

Normal location of abomasum is on the right side of the floor of abdomen. LDA is a movement of
the abomasum from its normal position to the left side of the abdomen .It gets located between the left
wall of the abdomen and rumen. During 1st month of lactation its incidence is vey high and reaches up
to 80%. A few cases have also been reported before calving. Mostly, animals, that produce milk in very
high quantity, are the victim of the disease. Incidence is higher in older cows than in first-calf heifers.
Feeding of grain, in very high quantity near calving and in early lactation, is the main cause of this
problem. Corn and corn silage are good examples that contribute to its incidence. Grains produce VFAs
and decrease the movement of stomach and intestines. If the production of VFAs is very high then some
unabsorbed VFAs accumulate in the abomasums and lessen its movement by acting on its smooth
muscles. VFAs are also produced as a result of feeding concentrates. Feeding too much concentrates
increases the flow of ingested feed to abomasum and it gets stored there. It causes gas production and
inflation of abomasums which ultimately results in displacement of abomasum. Some people consider
parturition the main cause of this problem. It normally occurs within a week after calving. Cows become
off feed, drop milk production and show signs of ketosis with normal temperature. Abomasun is visible
from outside in very severe cases when it is distended too much. It appears as a bulge on left side under
last rib.
Loud "ping" by striking over the 9-12th ribs at the same time and listening the sound with stethoscope
above last rib region and flank area can be helpful in diagnosis. Treatment usually requires surgery.

Right-side displacement of the abomasum (RDA) and abomasal torsion:

Abomasum becomes dilated due to accumulation of gas and fluid. Sometimes it leads to twisting of
abomasums which resultantly completely blocks the GIT. Animal feels very severe abdominal pain,
becomes off feed. This complication has a very high mortality rate. It incidence is very low as compared
to LDA but causes are same for both complications. Both of these are different from each other only in
terms of positioning of abomasums after displacement. Their signs are similar so their differentiation is
very difficult clinically. Sometimes distention of abomasum is visible on right paralumber fossa. And ping
can be heard on right side percussion. Immediate surgery is option for treatment. Consequently,
keeping these diseases to a minimum will aid in reducing the incidence of abomasal displacement.

Prevention of DA:
Avoid over conditioning of cows as over conditioning is a likely cause of DA. High concentrate
feeding before calving can cause DA, so it should be avoided. it should be enough to maintain body
condition and ration should contain more roughage. If there is less space at feeding bunk, overcrowding
, difficulty in feed access and animal is uncomfortable, this can lead to less feed intake ,low rumen fill
,more chances of migration to abomasums and ultimately DA. Physical form of feed matters a lot as too
small particle size can cause DA. Small particle size leads to less chewing which results in less rumen fill
and more GIT motility, and more VFAs production and ultimately DA. Properly manage other calving-
related disorders ultimately reduce risk of DA. Sudden dietary changes should be avoided as it lead to
low feed intake.

8. Retained placenta:
It is defined as failure to expel fetal membranes, after parturition, because fetal villi can’t detach
from the caruncles of mother. Its incidence rate is 10%.It is reported in literature that cows which give
birth to male calf retain placenta for longer time. Premature birth and certain diseases are considered as
contributing factors of retained placenta. Other causes are Vitamin A and Selenium deficiency, Cu and
Iodine deficiency. Its recurrence rate is 20%.Its treatment is done by infusion of intrauterine antibiotics
and sulfonamides. Sometimes warm water is also infused intrauterine as it causes the release of
prostaglandin and relaxin and release afterbirth. Pre partum injection of Selinium at low doses reduces
incidence. Supplementation of Selenium and Vit E in deficient areas. Don’t cause Vit A and fiber
deficiency. Avoid over conditioning.

Management not the treatment is the ultimate solution of metabolic disorders. Dry period
management is the critical one in this regard. Efforts should be made to prepare animal to face critical
period after parturition. As feed intake is reduced to almost 30%, so try to maximize feed intake in early
lactation. In other words increase DM intake. Adopt preventive and prophylactic measures to avoid
incidence of any metabolic disorder. Give glucose precursors to prevent from ketosis. Combat –ve
energy balance period and try to bring the animal in +ve energy balance. Provide –ve DCAD diet to avoid
milk fever. Monitor and maintain body score around 3.5.Avoid feeding too fine particle size diet as it
may lead to decreased GIT motility and displaced abomasum. Don’t feed heavy grains and concentrates
in dry period. Provide balanced rations for protein and energy both. Avoid abrupt dietary changes
without proper rumen preparation.


By M.Afzal Sohail

In Pakistan the production of meat is the secondary farm enterprise but its potential is not fully
exploited. The current system for the production of meat of the buffalo is traditional & inefficient. The
gain in the live body weight is 1.87 Ib/ day to the 1 year & 1.46 Ib/day to the 2 year. So this gain in the
weight is ordinary of the feeding & management. Out of the total population of the male calf the 50%
died during the 1st week of their life. So on the poor & unbalanced diets the some calves are raised &
they reach weight of 60-80 kg & some reach to the 200 kg of their live body weight. The potential of the
buffalo for the meat production is very large. The buffalo breeders are facing the problems which are
calf survival rates are lower & the cost of feeding is high. The calf fattening is all-inclusive activity,
related to meet animal's care, housing, medication, feeding and management. One should want to
invest in the livestock farming he should make the decision carefully to analyze the associated risk
factors. The buffalo calf fattening is the beneficial aspect of the business and also help to the poor
farmers. It will decrease the poverty and make a tremendous development in the progress of the

Main Body
Buffalo calf fattening play a role of back bone in the economy of the country. The meat is used as a food
& hide for the leather industry. In this sector the family of farmer should be involved fully, devoted and
hardworking. It gives the Farmyard Manure as a source of fertilizer. Through the export it gives a better
source of earning of foreign exchanges. In this sector the humen resource employ is so high. In this
sector the loaning is secured, permanently. But there are the many weakness which is discus as. The
cost of production is high. The bulk feed which is produce is of low level. In a few cases the management
level is poor. Keeping the record of pedigree is no or low & the application of research work is no or low.
In Pakistan the animals which are kept social but not than the commercial reasons. In Pakistan there is
no breed is registered for the production of beef. There is the lack of extension services & low
interaction with farmers. The farmer is lack in skill and education. The sector is unorganized & the basic
management of farm practice is unaware. In the cause of remote area there is the lack of transportation
& market approach. The communication services are not available. The market information and farm/
market infra structures are lacking. The management of livestock farm job is very difficult. The major
problem is the nutrition that is generally in livestock productivity & particularly in the production of
meat. The demand of fattening calf is also higher in this respect that the demand of meat is increasing
day & night as the population is increasing. On the Eid-ul-Fitr and Eidul-Azha like occasions the demand
is increases. The animals on such occasions are sold at higher prices. The business can be started before
these occasions or any time throughout the year due to increase in sale price & farmer can get benefit
on such occasions. A better production will be obtain if the cooperative farming is done. In the
commercial calf fattening farm it is the modern aspect that the work with the people & animal and
utilize the resources in most efficient way. As the population of Pakistan is increasing day by day so the
consumers are also increasing & the demand of meat as a food is also increasing this demand is
favorable if the price of meat is also favorable so the beef industry is the major segment in the
production of livestock. The consumption of meat Worldwide during 1983 for developed world was 74
kg & for developing countries were 14 kg and 11 kg for Pakistan. In 1993 the meat consumption was
76kg, 21 kg and 16kg for the three, respectively. The challenge for Pakistan to achieve 47 kg per capita
consumption of meat up to 2020. There is the gap between the demand & supply curve. The animals
are purchase from the mandies & also from the rural area on the basis of live weight. In the country the
animal are traded across the mandies of animals round the year. Which are operating on weekly basis.
The other source of animal buying is through making an agreement with a supplier
(middlemen/beoparies). For purchasing the meat animals Government and private livestock farms are
also the main sources. To control the waste products the calf are keep on the semi-confinement the calf
are housed on the slatted floor. To eliminating the use of bedding material the urine & faeces is
collected. In the feedlots system the fatten calf are kept on the concrete floors or in dry region on the
area of unpaved. If the shade is provided the more efficient growth should be obtained. The manure is
collected daily store, dry in the feedlots which is removed & spread in the field. In the feedlot system
the collection of urine is less with the slatted floor. Sheds of the animals should be airy with protection
of the animals from extreme temperatures and strong winds. The animal housing should be facilitated
with drinking water for animals. There should be proper drainage system to keep hygiene at the farm. It
consists of a built up animal shed, a brick soling paddock for animals. The other components are feeding
manger, open paddock and water trough as the major housing requirement for the calves. The sheds of
animals should be directed along north to south for getting the sunlight & face is away to the direction
of falling winds whatever possible. The tree should be planted for providing the natural shadow & work
as wind breakers. The dimensions of the water trough should be same to that of feed mangers & water
should be available all the time. All the animals should be feed at same time & all animals drink also at
same time. The fattening of the calf is done when they attain the body weight of 100 kg at the age of
nearly 8 to 9 month of age. The fattening period is 90 to 150 & average is 120 days the final weight is
350 to 400kg & average is the 375 kg. Feed for the calf which is provided is the ration for Calf Fattening.
In the operation of the finishing the proportion of the ration feed depends on the feed types which are
produce locally & on the availability of feed to the weight & grades of the calf which is to be fattened.
The range of ration is from high roughage low to high energy ration which consist of concentrates. For
example the ingredients presents in the ration are

Ø Maize, maize silage, soya bean meal & urea

Ø Barley, maize silage, by-products feeding large feed lots
Ø Cottonseed hulls, alfalfa, sorghum grain, maize, straw & molasses.

In the fattening of the calf the ionophores, antibiotic feed additives & hormone like growth stimulators
are also added in the feed which is common. The fodder for the calf is the green fodder which are the
summer & winter fodder the summer fodder include the maize, sorghum, millet, mott grass &
sadabahar, guar and the winter fodder are the barseem, alfalafa (Lucerne), oats, rye grass & sugarcane
tops. The dry roughage are the rice straw, wheat straw and oat straw. The table A shows the nutrient
requirement of the calf which are discus the nutrient composition of the feed which is given to the calf
and the daily nutrient requirement of the calf according to the weight of calf and ADG (average daily
gain) which is range from 0.50 to Ib. In this table NEm, NEg, CP, Ca, and P which is required per day for
the maintenance & growth.

Table A; Nutrient requirement of the calf

The feed which is provided for fattening of calf is 4.5 % on dry matter basis. One third of this DM will
come from green fodder and 2/3 rd will met be supplemented by TMR in fattening calves to get
maximum daily weight gains. There is no fixed fodder requirement for the calf but the calf requires the
fodder as a rule of thumb of 10% of the fresh matter basis. According to these estimates, one calf of 80
Kgs body weight will consume 8-10 kgs fodder daily for 120 days (preferred if fed free of choice i.e. ad
libitum). For an animal of 80 kgs body weight, it will be 3.6 kgs feed per day so 2.4 kg given the TMR and
1.2 kg dry matter is come from green fodder.

In the feedlot system the calf are fed on TMR. The ration which is fed to the calf has the CP (crude
pritein) value of 12-13 % and the value of TDN (Total Digestible Nutrients) is 65-70 %. To get the
required value of the CP and the TDN, formulate the ration of the calf according to the value of CP and
TDN so that the value of feed stuff for the CP and TDN is same which is required. The table B gives the
feed formulation and the value of CP and TDN to that of our requirement.

Table B; Feed Formulation

The mineral are used as a feed supplement. The mixes of the minerals (magnesium, iron, sodium and
salts) are used as a feed supplement in the ration of calf fattening. To produce the lean meat and also
increase the productivity of the animal mineral mixtures are added as feed supplement. For the
supplement as a source of mineral the Urea Molasses Blocks are given to the calf. For the production
and to maintained the health status and also to prevent the infectious diseases of the calf Vaccination &
Medication is required. Before putting the calf into the farm each new animal will be vaccinated to
prevent the diseases. Anthelmantics are used to treat the animals for internal parasites where as
spraying and dipping with some disinfecting solution is used to eradicate external parasites. Nayzan Plus
oral (Levamisole Hcl 1.5% w/v Oxyclozanide 3.0% w/v Cobalt Sulphate 0.382% w/v). Albasym Oral
(Albendazole 2.5% w/v and 10% w/v).Ivotec injection (ivermectin). Vaccination is done against
following diseases BQ, HS, FMD and Anthrax. For the new animals the quarantine yard should be made
which consist of the vaccination, dipping & weighing etc. The animals which are purchase newly should
be dewormed & medicated with proper vaccination. The animals which are disease free should be
moved from the quarantine to the feedlot. The chance of the disease should be minimize in the
quarantine which ensure that new animal should not carry the any disease. The quarantine period
should be 7 days to stop the spreading of disease in the feedlot sheds. For a calf-fattening farm,
manpower is required for performing the various animal husbandry practices at the farm such as the
watering, feeding, medication housing and care of animals etc. The 25 animals is handle by 1 person
easily for the feeding & other management. The period during which the animal puts on weight is called
the fattening period. Such animals are called the fattened animals. Following are the animals which are
desirable according to the size and thickness. The animal which are desirable for the fattening is the
large frame size and according to the thickness the No.1 is required. That is our desired product for the
fattening of calf.

Beef is the rich source of protein like to all other meat. The meat of the calf contains vitamin B &
minerals which are the phosphorus, potassium & sodium. The liver is the good source of the vitamin D,
C, A, B12, folic acid, iron & riboflavin. In the composition of meat the moisture content is 75-79 % the
crude CP content is 18-22 % and mineral content is 5-6.5 %. The percentage of lean meat, bone and
other tissues of carcasses are given as under;

Table C; Buffalo Meat Composition

Base on the above data it is stated that in the Pakistan the consumption of the meat is less & the
availability of the meat per capita is less & our nation is deficient in protein consumption. The demand
of meat is more than the supply. So to fulfill the protein requirement and to manage the supply and
demand curve the such program are need for the requirement of the meat and also the research is
needed and also help to the farmer to encourage and solve their problem. Through the better nutrition
and management we increase the buffalo meat production and also increase daily weight gain to
increase the meat production.

Farm Machinery
By Furqan Tehseen

Man as a power unit is futile and nonproductive. He is confined to about 0.1 horse power uninterrupted
turnout, hence account almost nothing as a source of power. Thus if a farmer wants to create an ample
output from his labor he must be an efficient producer. Undoubtedly this efficiency will rely on the
substitution of human and livestock labor with machinery. This replacement is termed as farm
mechanization. Actually farm mechanization is any on-farm operation which carries some of following
goals like 1- to increase the production, 2- tone down the cost of production, 3- improve quality of farm
produce, 4- increase turnout per farm worker, 5- make the farm life easy and enjoyable, 6- stabilize the
clumsy labor peaks.

Present Status of Farm Mechanization in Pakistan:

Farm mechanization is sociological-cum-technological complex. Some people of our country theorize
that mechanization will fallout in unemployment, thus they perceive that it is an opulence of wealthy
nations. Some others think that it bears lot of benefits so should be adopted on a large scale. Still some
canvass for partial mechanization of their farms. Later idea of partial mechanization looks economically
In past few decades many developing countries have begun agricultural and livestock farming powered
by machines rather by animals and human labor and in this regard Pakistan is no exception. The trend of
mechanization is bound to go up with the passage of time in a natural evolutionary manner. A general
awakening among the farmers about different aspects of farm mechanization does exist. Work has
started on various fronts to implement the concepts of mechanization.

Combine farming System:

Now a days concept of combine farming system is gaining popularity. According to this concept a farmer
runs both livestock and agricultural farm at the same time. Benefit is that he obtains fodder and other
ingredients used in concentrate formulation from agricultural section while fertilizer for his crops from
the livestock section.

Problems of the Livestock Sector:

Mastitis is the major limitation for our milk animals. It has two forms clinical and sub-clinical. Clinical
form is visually detectable and can be treated but problem arises in case of sub-clinical form which can
not be unmasked at earlier stage. Thus milk quality becomes compromised causing economic losses.
Second issue is failing to detect estrus by the farmer in time and breeding the animals. Furthermore
silent heat is also a contributing factor resulting in failure to breed animals in time and delay in getting
calf. Both are detrimental in achieving desired livestock farming goals. Another dilemma in livestock
farming is to diagnose pregnant animals. It is necessary to know about the status of animal to provide it
proper nursing care and feed accordingly or sometime to sell it. Moreover milking time and labor
required, medications, restraining, routine farm chores like castration, dehorning, shearing, clipping,
identification marks and reducing heat stress all seek solutions in some sort of machinery or equipment
which should be reliable and trustworthy.

Possible Solution in Form of Machinery:

Device for Detection of Mastitis:

To detect mastitis in its earliest stage an electrical device (fig.1) can be used having sensors built in it
which are able to sense instant changes in electrical resistance produced by somatic cells in mastitic
milk. By incorporating this device in mastitis control program one can be able to treat it before
permanent damage to secretory tissue and economic losses to keep from happening. Some diagnostic
tests for sub-clinical mastitis exist but they become laborious and expensive as well on herd basis.

Device for Detection of Estrus:
It is necessary to know exactly the time when animal ovulates to breed them. For this purpose a device
(Fig.2) which senses electrical changes in vaginal fluids due to hormonal concentrations can be used. It
has got a probe which is inserted in vagina and then reading is taken. Reading will be 260 when animal is
going to ovulate (Fig.3). So to determine the exact moment for breeding one or two readings in days
when animal is likely to come in heat rather than visually observing them will be more efficient.



Ultra Sound Machine:

It is essential to diagnose pregnancy earlier and to identify fertility problems at individual and herd level.
By using ultrasound scanner it can be achieved by day 30 of gestation which is far earlier than rectal
palpation. An accuracy of 99 percent can be achieved by using ultrasound added with the advantage of
safety over rectal palpation which can harm the embryo at this stage.


Milking Machine:
It is actually a mechanism designed to suck milk from udder of milking animal. It consists of teat cups,
claw, vacuum tubes, and source of vacuum, pulsator and milk tube. Two types are being used one which
is fixed and installed in shed or pen and second is portable and can be moved anywhere at farm quite
easily. Use of milking machine is gaining importance as it is time and labor saving and assures hygienic
collection of milk. Its use on herd basis also reduces mastitis cases if properly maintained and
implemented carefully.

Fig.5 Portable Milking Machine

Mobile Feeding Trough:

Certain conditions have been observed in field that animal graze at pasture where there is no
arrangement for drinking water and concentrate feeding. So for this purpose animal are brought to the
shed for some time and again sent to graze. To solve this problem a trough can be mounted on wheels
and drawn with a small tractor to provide concentrate, minerals and water to the animals at their
grazing place.

Sprinkler machine:
Temperature may override 45ºC in our country during summer months and our main dairy animal
buffalo is more sensitive to heat stress than cows and other animals. This is reason for an increased
number of deaths due to heat stroke cases in these months. So to provide protection against high
environmental temperature sprinkler may be used to shower water on animals.

Nipple waterer:
It is an implement to provide water to the animals automatically. It helps to ensure availability of fresh
clean drinking water and saves wastage of water by the animals.

Besides all these machine there is a long list of equipments which can be used on a livestock farm to
make the farm operations easy. But here we are going to enlist those which are most needed.

They include

Burdizzo castrator: This gives several advantages over surgical methods when a large number of calves,
rams or buck are to be castrated. It provides bloodless castration and safety from post operative
contamination of wounds.

Bull nose holder and rings: Nose holder can be used when animal has to be restrained temporarily while
nose rings are applied for permanent restraint and then rope or chain can be attached to ring when
animal is required to move somewhere.

Mouth gag: It is used to keep the mouth of animal open for examination of mouth or some other
medical purposes.

Anti Cow Kicker and Anti Kick Bar: These are used to immobilize the animals while injecting some
medicine or rectal palpation. (Fig.6)


Electric Dehorner: This is used to disbud the calves at an early age when horns are not attached to the
skull and are floating buds. It burns them and there further growth is restricted.

Shearing and Hair Clipping Machines: Former one is used to trim the sheep wool usually and previous
one is used to clip the hairs of certain region to avoid contamination. For example udder or area around
genital organs.

Tattooing forceps and Ear Notcher: Tattooing forceps are used to make identification marks and ear
notcher is used to make V-shaped cut on ear of animal. This will be helpful in record keeping and
recognizing the animals individually.

Drenching and Balling Guns: These are beneficial in administering medicines. Drenching gun to give
liquid solution and balling gun to give boluses.

Problems of Agricultural Sector:

Now a days progress in agricultural sector does not seems to be possible without using new agricultural
implements. It is necessary to have new implements at farm and also to use them properly to get
maximum utility. According to an estimate approximately 80% of farmer of our country don’t know
about latest agricultural implements. The implements which have gained popularity and wide use as
tractor plows are cultivator and disc harrows. Hardly anywhere in world these are used as plows. Matter
of truth is that for plowing purposes commonly used implements are mould board plows and disc plows,
while cultivator is used as secondary tillage implement for tilling ground, stirring and aerating soil as well
as for intercultural operation. It has also been noticed that in heavy soil a hard pan is created at a very
shallow depth due to the continued use of cultivator and harrow for purpose of plowing. This pan
creates problems of inadequate penetration of roots; improper drainage on account of incorrect use of
implements optimum result can not be expected.

It is also miserable that our farmer is wasting much water because of his ill planed and unleveled farms
and ditches. Our farmers do level their field by means of ‘Karah’ without applying engineering
techniques and naturally field lacks precise leveling. Even slight surface undulation of few inches in fields
creates high and low spots resulting in water holding in low patches and less water supply in higher
spots. Consequences of both are detrimental.

Possible Solution in Form of Machinery:

Agricultural implements are broadly categorized in primary and secondary tillage implements, general
agricultural implements and instruments for land leveling. Tillage is actually working with soil by
implements as that mechanical soil stirring actions carried on to provide conditions favorable to growth
of crop.

Primary tillage implements (used in initial preparation of land) include:

Subsoiler which is used where soil compaction is present and hard pan is formed in field. It breaks and
looses the soil. It can be used with 45 horse power tractor and can work up to 24 inches deep. Chisel
plow can be used where upper layer of soil is fertile but deeper layer is not so much fertile instead it
may contain more minerals. It can plow at depth of 20 inches. Use of chisel plow will improve soil
fertility by providing space, natural elements like sunlight and rain to roots of plants. It may require 50-
85 horse power tractors. Disk plows will serve to mix the left over crop roots and weeds in soil properly
and is suitable for rain-fed areas as it prevents soil erosion by wind and water.


Secondary tillage implements include:

Disk harrow that helps to prepare seed bed by making the soil granular as it is more suitable structure
for plant growth. Soil aeration and moisture conservation capacity improves and weeds are mixed in soil
and decompose so used as fertilizer. Cultivator is also called tine tiller. It is used to stir and pulverize the
soil before planting, to decamp the weeds and improving soil aeration after crop is grown. Rotavator is
used to prepare the land for next crop after previous crop has taken. It is better to use it before planting
wheat, cotton, maize and guar. It breaks the soil and mixes the stems, stubbles and other unwanted
weeds which after decomposing serve as fertilizer.

General agricultural implements include:

Ditcher is used to make ditches (furrow or trench) for soil irrigation and also for correction of already
made trenches. Border disk or Bund former is used to make border around the cultivated land for
separation. It will help to reduce loss of water. Ridger is used to make small ridges (crests) at equal
distances for crop planting.


Instruments for land leveling:

In our country most of farmers level their lands by manual methods using land scraper and land planer.
In this method land is not accurately leveled. In 1976-77 program of water management was launched
by government. In this program a method was deviced to level land with dumpy level, land scraper and
land planer. But it gained no popularity because it requires lot of efforts, time and does not yield
excellent results. Now laser technology for land leveling is available which most accurate method is. It is
a thumb rule in aeration by land leveling that difference of not more than 2 cm should be present
between any two points of field. In our country 5-10 cm or more is observed. Laser land leveling system
three main components 1- transmitter which rotates and emits rays and is applied anywhere in field to
be leveled 2- receiver which is installed on land scraper behind tractor, it first receives signal by
transmitter and sends to the interface unit 3- hydraulic system of tractor which works according to
command of interface unit and automatically uses land scraper to level the land.


Besides land leveling irrigation practices can also be improved by using new methods like irrigation by
sprinkler and drip irrigation. In former method water is sprinkled over the crop by pipelines and in drip
irrigation a network of pipelines is installed in the land and water is provided drop by drop to roots of
plants by nozzles. Both are helpful in reducing water losses.

Drill machine:

Drilling refers to mechanized sowing of seed. Before introduction of seed drill sowing, this is a wasteful
method. Seed drill is a device used to precisely position the seed at equal distance and cover them with
soil. It ensures sowing of crop in time reduces cost of production and improves seed germination and

Fig.11 Seed drill

Fertilizer Band Placement drill:

In our country fertilizer is also applied by broadcast method by which only 15-25% is utilized by crop.
Seeder-cum-fertilizer drills being used apply fertilizer either too far from seed or too near to it. Both
affect seed germination and reduce yield. So fertilizer band placement drill was created by farm
machinery institute, NARC Islamabad. It applies fertilizer at distance of 5cm and 5cm lower than the
seed. In this way crop utilizes 60-70% more efficiently.


Harvesting machine:

Wheat and rice are main food crops in our country as well as their by products are used in concentrate
making for cattle and buffalo. During harvesting season of both shortage of labor is observed through
out country. So after applying lot of efforts it becomes necessary to get crops in time and reduce losses.
To fulfill this deficiency a harvesting machine should be used which cuts and aligns these crops,
harvested rows are then picked up by laborers. It is and intermediate method between manual and
mechanized harvesting.

Threshing machine:

After harvesting wheat crop is flailed in threshing machine. This machine has threshing drum in which
beater or cutter shaft is revolved at a very high speed by attaching it with tractor or high capacity
electric motor. Grains are separated and chopped straw plus grains fall on sieve having pore size of 5
mm, thus allowing only grains to fall on second sieve below with pore size of 2 mm. Straw is blown out
by fans and collected. From second sieve only dust particles, stones or any other foreign material less
than 2mm size falls and fine grains are obtained.

Combine harvesting technology:

A latest technology to save time and labor required is to harvest and thresh crops at the same time. This
technology has combined three tasks in single operation i.e. cutting, binding and then flailing. Its use is
limited to few government farms currently in our country.

Chopping machine for wheat straw:

Harvesting machines only pick up upper portion of crop that is grains and leave high stem. Many farmers
in our country burn left over straw in fields which damages organic matter of soil and also wastes wheat
straw that can be fed to cattle. So after taking wheat crop chopping machine should be used in field to
collect all the straw left behind. It picks up straw and cuts high stubbles, after chopping blows processed
straw in separate trolley.


It is vehicle-cum-machine, bears lot of power to do a variety of farm operations, and has many benefits
for the farmer. It is used to pull all agricultural implements, most of agricultural machinery and to
transport heavy goods. Many types of tractors like Massey Ferguson, FIAT, Belarus and ford are being
used in our country but only two types Massey Ferguson and FIAT are most popular and have achieved
80% deletion. FIATs are available in 55-85 horse power range and Massey Ferguson is available in 50-85
horse power. Each model has unique characteristics like power steering, number of cylinders, disk
brakes and four wheeler.

Machine for Hay Conditioning:

Hay is sun dried fodder with less than 20% moisture. During the time it takes to dry it is also subject to
environmental factors like temperature, wind velocity, soil moisture, solar radiation and relative
humidity. So processing time should be reduced. In developed countries a machine for hay conditioning
is being used which has rollers made up of plastic usually and crushes fodder crop and aligns in rows. By
crushing action 1- time to dry reduces by 50% and hay will be less exposed to sun rays 2- plant is killed
sooner and nutrients are preserved and resulting hay will be palatable.

Baling machine:

It is a type of machine which is used to make compact bales of already cut and raked crop. Mostly a
baler which makes round bales is used.

Fodder chopping machine:

For harvesting and then chopping the fodder crop a tractor operated machine should be used which
performs both action at the same time and puts chopped fodder in separate trolley known as chopper
box that can be pulled by tractor to use as mobile feeder wagon for the purpose of filling manger in
large sheds.



As population is increasing human needs for food are also increasing. Plant and animal proteins are
integral part of our diet. So to meet these increasing demands for food definitely require some
amendments in livestock and agricultural farming practices. Goal seems obvious that is to increase per
animal production in case of livestock farming and production per acre in case of agricultural farming
without compromising product quality in relatively shorter time. To accomplish this we have to reduce
cost of production, labor involved and to increase output per farm worker. These goals can be satisfied
by using machinery and new technology. No doubt mechanization carries tremendous benefits with it
but all the machinery is not in access of our small farmers. In case of large agricultural and livestock
farms trends are being changed and labor is being replaced by machinery. Some efforts should be done
by government to make costly machinery in reach of small farmer. Moreover farmers don’t know about
all new options which are now available. So extension programs should be run for the awareness of
farmers which may contain both objectives to introduce machinery and how to use it and get maximum
output. Skilled technicians should be available to use them properly. To achieve this goal training
programs should be started at government farms for farmer that are cost free. These recommendations
will certainly improve status of farm mechanization in our country.


By Ghulam Abbas


A social group comprising those who do physically labor or work for salary.


The direction of workforce and resources to attain objective is necessary for the smooth operation of all
organizations. Managing efficiently comprises planning, organizing, leading and controlling the

Labor management

Labor management is defined as the planning, organizing and directing of the running functions of the

The principle of the labor management plan on a dairy farm, or in any association, is mainly that we
should do correctly and on time. We can say that if there is a farm of small size the problems are less ,
the reason behind this is that the task are perform by single person. Similarly if herd size increases there
is much need of labour and most important is the devotion of manager. As farm grows and the work on
dairy farm increases more of the daily work is done by hired person, the importance of a labor
management increases at that time. So the success of whore management programmed not only
depends on the abilities of manager but need all people’s efficiencies.
Importance of labor management

Labor management has great importance because when herd size, production level, and degree of
mechanization increases then there is need of management. It simply means that if we have large
numbers of cows then we should hire workforce in large numbers. If cow’s production is high then she is
also more susceptible to variety of diseases and need great concentration.

So if we want to be a successful manager on farm we need proper hiring

and the owner needs jobs done on right time. On the other hands, to
manage workers, animals, land, and funds. To complete this task owner
and manager needs proper hiring, training, motivation and main thing for
owner is the investment.

Manpower planning

The aim of the manpower planning programmed is to elaborate the number and kind of workforce that
need to be hired. This varies massively, depending upon the size of work and the job of owner or
manager expects to perform himself. For instance on large farms there are need of highly enthusiastic
laborers and workers such as milkers, feeders. Likewise on smaller farm the needs are less as compare
to large dairy farm.

So following are the problem during manpower planning

Hiring experts and challengers but assigned just routine work

It means hiring those people who are proficient of accept significant task and expected to be concerned
in the thinking , planning , and having an important effect work on the dairy farm but are assigned only
to the routine and rational jobs that need little decision or initiative. This state of affairs soon becomes
dullness or disappointment of the employee.

Hiring those who feel comforts doing routine but assigning them responsibilities of decision making
and planning

It means that if we hire the person that can not complete a difficult task but we assign him an evaluation
making job. This condition soon results in again frustrating for the employee and who does not want to
cope with intellectual challenges. He will also leave the first prospect.

Hiring Lazy Workers

This states that if we hire lazy and non serious workers this will also cause the problem

Hiring too many or too few people

The labor that we hire is hard cash like feed, fuel, or fertilizer, but if unnecessary is purchased they will
be use less and it is difficult to acquire labor in small farm as needed. It must be used at a planned time.
Over use of labor always cause poor quality of performance and frustrated employee who seeks job.

There are several basic principal that may be helpful in planning manpower needs

Identify total work requirement and decide job delegated to others then management

Following are the guidelines that are helpful in deciding this

Divide the job to be performed by others in total work units

It means milking unit, calf care etc.and classify the number of person needed to get the total job done
at right time and on right time

Write a job description for each labor unit

This should comprises job designation ( herdsman , milker ) , duties , responsibilities , administrative ,
working condition ( hours , vacation , sick leave ) The description when precisely completed enables
management to better equal jobs needs and employee capability, this helping to avoid problems. Job
description mainly with smaller operations with one or two employee must flexible sufficient to
accommodate enlarging the job with more significant and demanding farm duties; those for large
operation should provide for advancement to higher level jobs or rotations of job. In implementation job
description, dairy manager should keep the need for and improve of cowmanship topmost in his mind.
Description of jobs concerned with working with cattle must contain confirmation that being a good
cowman is an important part of the job liability.

Organizational chart

This chart showing the organizational framework of dairy farm.



Herdsman Manager

Assistant Maintenance
Herdsman Man

Milkers Feeders


The hiring process consists of finding or recruiting, selecting. Locating and hirig well-qualified dairy farm
labor is not an easy job, nor is it likely to be so in the future. Tradititional concepts that dairy labor must
be farm-reared and have a lifetime of experience may have to be laid aside the supply as the people
diminish. Hiring energetic and passionate people without experience but with the desire and ability to
learn, training them, can be an effective method of dairy labor meeting dairy labor needs for many dairy
men. There is no one best source of labor or best way to find labor. An accurate job description can be
helpful in finding labor. It can be used in advertising to accurately describe the available position and
attract the type of person needed.

Some method of finding labor are following,

Ads in local and area newspaper, and national farm magazines. In writing ads it is important to
remember the purpose of ads that is to sell your job – to stimulate the interest of qualified person
sufficiently that they apply for the position. To do this the ads must accurately describe the position in
imaginative, positive and desirable fashion. Ads that reflect owner, confidence and desirable chance for
employees or more likely to attract optimistic, energetic people then those that reflect owner
pessimism and objectionable work condition. Brief but accurate description of farm duties should be

Following are the example.

Types of advertisement
a) Dairy labor needed, reply box 2200
b) Hard working man needed for milking and general farm work. Wages plus house provided. No
smoking, drinking, pets allowed
c) Assistant herdsman needed. 300 cow’s sahiwal breed, handled in modern free stall
arrangements. Current herd average 12,000 lb milk and improving. Responsibilities include calf
care, relief milking, heat detection, AI 5 days work in week. 2 weeks annual vacations.
Competitive salary plus incentive plan. 3 bed room home, near hospital experience desire but
not necessary Now compare these ads Ad (a) is too brief. It contains no job description,
location, benefits
d) Ad (b) is of negative sense. It reflects owner dissatisfaction with dairying and intolerance of
e) Ad (c) reflects owner optimism, confidence and success in dairying, working conditions,
incentive plan that will boost up the worker.

Current employees

This is an admirable source of prospects if the current labor relation program is good. If the current
employees like their jobs, their employer, they are very helpful in publicity. They can often identify and
help others on the desirability of working on a farm.

Personal contact

With associations or service industries. Some of these are state extension workforce, vocational
agriculture teacher, AI technicians, DHI supervisor, field men for milk cooperatives; feed industry,
salespeople employment offices, dairy science faculty members, ministers’ veterans’ and employ


This is mainly done where farm labor is organized and in union form, this can be an excellent source of
selection. But here one problem comes that there are some lobbies that try to disrupt the smooth farm
operations. So we should handle all these objectionable activities

Main key to hire the labor

In most cases the basis for selection of the employer is acquired by interview. The aim of an interview is
to learn as much as possible about the candidate, expose him to the working condition of operation, and
give him the prospect to interview the employer. If we want to get these purposes in a positive sense we
should held the interview on the dairy farm. Following age the important points that must be kept in
mind during in an interview.
v We should give interview main concern and hold it on the farm. But we must care that it not be
near the milking shed or other same places where workings are being under procedures, for
example feeding, sanitation etc.
v If the applicant is married and has a family, so invite him with his family and living quarters
should be inspected to his family.
v The employer approach must be positive enthusiastic, successful and optimistic towards the
dairying and its future. Rather tan being pessimistic about the future of farm operation. So he
should stress the eye-catching part of the job like outdoor living, local community activities, and
opportunity to lunch with family and innovation and incentive plan. So he must not show the
pessimistic approach by telling working long hours, breakdown of equipment, because we all
know that a person can do better work in a positive environment rather than negative

environment. So we should keep this thing in mind that any incidence can occurs on the farm
from the workers. So keep in mind that this can also happen by us.
v Collect the information systematically. Ask the right question and according to the nature of the
job. If we ask rubbish questions like how much you have a weight? Or how active was you in
your school?
v Ending the interview should be in a good way. Always give the detail description that contains
responsibilities, work schedule, salary scale and other benefits.
v There must be a written agreement rather than verbal agreement. Many dairy men are
reluctant to offer written contracts to a labor because employee request for such contracts are
recorded as lack of trust. These agreements may vary considerable depending on the degree of
specialization of lack of it required for the job, whether housing is provided, incentive plan etc.
thus they should be tailor to fit individual farm needs.


Any form of operation need training, and if the dairy is concerned where the motorized skills are needed
with complex biological system so training is highly appreciable. Good cows and good equipment are
expensive and easily damaged. so proper training is important to prevent these problems. Most
dairymen are well aware of the need for proper training, however most either wish to rely on some one
else to do it like school training. To some extant these methods are helpful but personnel training and
instruction are needed.

The following points should be kept in mind while training the new employees.

v Provide friendly atmosphere

v Encourage them to ask the question about things that they don’t understand. Avoid uneasiness
them or implying that they are stupid by a way you answer or explain the things.
v We must know that each employee has new and his own approach to do a task
v Don’t suppose that they know how to do the job exactly, but observe them thoroughly
v The most important thing is to agree on the degree of knowledge by discussion and then explain
the importance of job and of doing it correctly then takes the manifestation from the new
employee. If there is problem then correct it smoothly and express the confidence in their
ability. It does time and patience to properly train employee especially those that have less
experience. However the payback can be quality of employee improve ethics, decrease labor
revenue and reduce cow and equipment loses. These all things will result in increase profit.


This is defined as wanting to do the job correctly and on time. By the motivation we may obtain both
quantity and quality of performance. Employees that are motivated they do their job correctly and on
time with quality and quantity. Similarly the people that are not motivated do their job poorly with low
quantity and quality. So the major responsibility of the management is to provide such type of
environment that does instill the employee desire to do the job right and on time.

Motivation is based on human needs such as

v Physical needs including food and housing etc.
v Safety and security
v Social needs such as friendship, love, and a sense of belonging
v High regard and self respect
v Self actualization or the requirement to become what one is deserving.

To motivate dairy labor, employer must then provide the opportunity for employees to fulfill these
needs to as large and extent as possible. In short, employees must be treated with honor, dignity,
respect, and understanding. So if we not provide these human opportunities of basic needs the
performance of the employees will be of lowest status.

There is no one best way to motivate all employees, as individual human needs and the goals very
considerably. There are however some basic principles that are applicable in most situations
v Determine the personnel needs
v Pay a decent base wage and additional bonus on high performance

Wage motivation Plans

v These plans should be designed to improve production.
v Payments may be awarded per week, month, or for whole year.

Ideas for Designing an Incentive Plan

v These plans must be above and beyond good earnings. Their range must be between the 5% --
v The plan should be based on performance and abilities
v We should describe the payment method in advance
v Performance must be measured by working ability
v The plan should not be in favor of unprofitable work to the dairy
v Incentive plans should be planned for a definite period of time

Steps to Implement a Bonus Plan

v Start with proficient employees to ensure that your plan is valuable
v Workers must be well trained before you are going to start a bonus plan

v Focus on your problematic areas
v Set sensible goals for each area and talk about these goals with your employees
v Increase pay in return for high performance
v Incentive plans should not be a replacement for fair wages.
v The plans should be in written form and comprehensive
v Incentive plans must not encourage loss-making practices

Job Safety and Security

Mainly the job safety is the factor that can directly affects the working ability of employees. We are
aware that dairy farms accidents are caused by an unsafe condition, an un safe action or a combination
of both. Unsafe mechanical use and other such condition should be eliminated on time and unsafe
action discouraged by good example and by urgent correction of employees’ performing them. By doing
this we may emphasize concern of management for employee safety and discourage carelessness
employees security is enhanced by the success of business and attitude of manager. A confident
optimistic manager commands the confidence of employees in their ability to do job, thus helping to
ensure continued profitability of the operation and job security.

Employer-Employee relation

If we want to labor of higher efficiency then we should maintain a good relation. The employee
employer relationship is not a marriage but an arrangement. The main objective on both sides is that of
a financial one. If the employers feel that that are not getting as much they deserve definitely they will
look the other source

Applying golden rule

Factors that are important in maintaining good relation

There are many important factors which are necessary, if we want to maintain the good relation
between the manager and other workers.

Now if I briefly discuss about these factors, it will clear that if mutual respect and understanding is
present then there will be no problem in farm operations. So manager always show respect towards the
worker and in return they will response in same sense. Secondly there should always a clear
understanding between employer-employee and owner. If there is some sort of confusion then they
can’t do their respective tasks properly. And if we want that all the operation on farm should be profit
based, and then we have to select the competitive persons, so that they can handle any problem on the
farm. The other factor maintaining the good relation is the proper training of the worker. If they are well
aware about their tasks, they will work smoothly and efficiently. Always encourage the proposal and
ideas from the workers, as they are working closely the animals they may know some thing else from
which you are not aware. Always provide the opportunities of advancement to them so that they work
sincerely. If some sort f problem occur and you are very much angry, but remember always open
communication line so that problem may be solved.

Employee retention

The most important factor to maintain any operation on the farm is the retention of the good
employees. The reason behind this is that it will reduce the problem on the farm. It is also helpful in
smother running operation on the farm. And the other thing is that by follow these rules we can save
the money and time that is spent on the new worker training.


Defined as interest in and concern for cattle; awareness or perception that is hearing, seeing, and
sensing when the animal is normal or abnormal and action or taking meaningful action on time to
correct abnormal condition of animals.

Herdsman function is not only care of animal but to train other dairy employees in the proper care of
dairy animals. Now it is clear that a cowman is backbone of a dairy farm. As he has the all knowledge
about the animals as well as others worker that are working on the farm. That’s why he perceives all
about at farm. He is keen observer.

So it is essential that at least one herdsman should be present on the dairy farm. As we all know that
castles on the dairy farm are the marvelous and they need regular observation. So profitability and
unprofitably depends on the presence of herdsman.

Herds handled by people who lack cowman ship show few symptoms
v Problems related with calf and heifer; if there is lack of cowman them calf mortality is above the
5% and several managemental problems occur.
v If the culling rate high then 40%, showing poor cowman ship
v We know that a normal calving interval is about 13.5month. If that exceeds from this range, this
is also a big problem.
v Occurrence of diseases such as metritis , mastitis and foot rot. Udder development problems
also occur.
v Lack of heat detection in the absence of observer
v Problems related to milk: the milk is main output on the dairy farm, so if fluctuations occur with
this there will be great loss.
v Feeding management problems; if there is inconsistent feeding programmed, there will be great
fluctuation in the daily production.
v One of the major observation is that cow becomes nervous during visit of outsider, even some
workers comes when milking is going under procedure , this is the major problem , this is the
great loss of production but a cowman is well aware from it and he has affiliation with the cow .

Characteristics of a good herdsman
The abilities and presence of a herdsman is shown, if the losses are minimal on the farm. If there is a
good cowman the problematic symptoms which I discussed above they are absent and the production is
high. But all this is related to the keen observation of the herdsman. All the profit and losses are related
to the activity of cowman.

It is clear that the success of him is fully dependant on his high performance and high performance is
related to high production and profit.

The cow man is keen observer. He keeps all the breeding record, and knows the production of sire as
well as dam.

He oftenly visits the barn at night time and observe the unusual condition of the cow.

As the mostly heat sign are shown at night time, so cowman visit at night time are very useful. He also
checks for coughing at night time.

He moves softly around the animals and not disturbed the activities, and observes the droppings and
limbs position. He checks the overall condition of the animal even whether she is bright or dull.

The most salient feature of the herdsman is that he takes the action on the spot. He has great patience
to solve very difficult task.


I conclude that a herdsman is a backbone on the dairy farm... And when I talk about labour management
that comprises proper selection, training, motivation and giving them good incentive plan. This entire
thing in optimistic way will enhance the production and success on dairy farm.

Artificial insemination (AI) in farm Animals

by Imran Abbas

Artificial insemination (AI) is a popular, simple and inexpensive technique, by which the
semen is collected from the male by different methods, processed, stored and artificially introduced into
the female reproductive tract for the purpose of conception. Today, the artificial insemination has
become a normal method of breeding quality cattle. A large number of cows and buffaloes are
inseminated artificially.

In about 1322 A.D. an Arab tribe leader wanted to conceive his a very precious Mare from an excellent
stallion of the enemy. For this purpose he placed a wand of cotton into another mare's reproductive
tract, then used it to sexually excite the stallion causing him to ejaculate. The semen was introduced into
his own mare resulting in conception. In 1677 Anthony van Leeuwenhook invented the microscope, first

person who observed human spermatozoa under magnification. This invention led to further research.
Spallanzani is the inventor of AI. He did successful AI in dogs in 1780.Ivanoff of Russia (1899) is pioneer
of AI research in birds, horses, cattle and sheep. He was the first to successfully inseminate cattle
artificially. AI cooperative association was developed in Denmark in 1936. In Pakistan, the artificial
insemination work in cattle was started in 1954 at the College of Animal Husbandry, Lahore.

Advantages of AI: The following are advantages of AI

a) Genetic improvement of the herd

b) Record keeping is easy and better
c) Disease transmission can be reduced
d) First calving is easier
e) Progeny tested bulls are used
f) Semen can be store and transferred to a long distance.
g) Cross breeding is easier
h) More uniform calf crops
i) Relatively cheap and safe than natural breeding

Artificial insemination has also some disadvantages like for this proper trained AI technicians with
specialized knowledge are needed. For AI more help and time is required for animal handling and heat

Necessary equipments for AI are AI Gun, Gloves, Straw cutter, collection vial, thawing bath, paper
towel, prostaglandin (function of prostaglandin is to regress the corpus luteum), lubricant, teaser bull,
and AI Gun sheath.

AI Gun Thawing bath Straw cutter

Artificial Vagina Glove AI Sheath

In the procedure of AI first of all we collect semen from the sire and for this purpose different methods
are used

1. Rectal massage

2. Eletro ejaculation

3. Artificial vagina

The most frequently used method for collection of semen is the artificial vagina as this result in highest
quantity and quality of semen. The Artificial vagina used for cattle and buffalo is consisting of a large
plastic tube lined with water holding rubber liner. A graduated collecting tube is attached to the end of a
rubber cone. Before the collection of semen artificial vagina is cleaned and sterilized. Bulls are trained to
mount on a dummy, a fellow bull or teaser female; penis is guided into the artificial vagina. As the bull
ejaculates, the semen is collected in the collection tube at the opposite end of the artificial vagina.

Semen evaluation:

After semen collection, it is examined to check its suitability for inseminations. There can be two types
of examinations.

Routine examination

In this type of examination, the color, quantity, movement of sperms, individual motility. And after
dilution density of sperms and rate of mortality are also checked.

Detailed examination

This is done at much longer intervals to check the fitness of a bull for AI before starting it to A.I. it is
also done annually to asses that the bull is producing adequate sperms or not.

In addition to correct motility (activity of sperm) and morphology (shape of sperm), sperm cells have to
in sufficient quantity in the semen sample. Sperm quantity is determined by a professional who is able
to estimate the number of active sperm in a millimeter of semen. Semen must contain at least 40 million
cells per cc before freezing and 12.5 million cells per cc after thawing to be used for AI.

Semen dilution

After the evaluation, semen must be processed using an extender. The extender dilutes the semen
sample so it can be divided into several units for the fertilization of many eggs. It also dilutes the waste
products produced by the sperm so the sperm remains viable. Extender also provides nourishment and
protects the semen after it has been frozen. Common ingredients detail formula of diluents/extenders
added to semen extender are milk, egg yolk, glycerol, and antibiotics (streptopencillin). After the semen
dilution, it is checked again for motility. The semen is then placed into straws. Each straw contain
enough semen to artificially inseminate a female once (half cc).

Cryopreservation: Semen is frozen at a constant rate until it reaches a temperature of -320F (-196C).
Semen is stored in liquid nitrogen tanks to preserve it.

Insemination Time

Ø The cow must be in heat or estrus before she is artificial inseminated. Estrus is the time during
the estrus cycle when the female will allow breeding to occur.

Signs of estrous

Ø Riding other cows

Ø Restlessness

Ø White mucus discharge from vulva

Ø Pacing the fence

Some procedures use an artificial version of the natural hormone prostaglandin to induce estrus. Two
injections of this 11 days apart will cause the cow to come into estrus regardless of her current stage in
the estrus cycle.

Estrus Synchronization is a technology used on large farms and in large groups of cows. Estrus
Synchronization provides advantages to farmers because in this technique all the cows comes in heat
and can be inseminated at the same time and all should calve around the same time.

Insemination process

First step of insemination is to load the cow into the crush or other holding device. Once the cow is in
the crush, the AI technician should thaw the straw of semen. Thawing must be done carefully to avoid
damage to the sperm. Thawing semen too fast or too slow will damage the sperm. The aim is to
reconstitute the sperm to body temperature (37oCelsius), or close to it, for insemination. The straw must
be carefully removed from the liquid nitrogen tank to avoid burn injuries from the liquid nitrogen. The
straw should then be placed in a warm water bath for 30 seconds. The straw is then removed from the
bath and dried off with a paper towel to prevent water from coming into contact with semen. make
table about don’ts during AI i.e, critical points

Better to make a list of operationWith the help of a straw cutter, cut the end of straw of semen. The
straw is placed into the end of AI rod and a protective sheath is put over the AI rod. The plunger is
locked into place. Then is transporting the AI rod. It is a good idea to wrap it in a paper towel to protect
the semen from temperature change and to avoid contamination. The rod should be carefully carried by
the technician or an assistant to the site where the will be inseminated.

AI technician insert his hand into the rectum of female and grasp the cervix with help of hand inside the
rectum. To become expert in the AI adequate practice is required and before inserting the hand into
rectum some type of lubricant which should be nonirritant is applied to the anal region.

The vulva should be cleaned with paper towel to avoid contaminating the cow when inserting the AI rod
into the vagina. Once the cervix has been located, the rod inserted through the vagina into the
reproductive tract. The rod must be passed through the three cervical rings of the cervix and into the
body of uterus. Once the technician has sure that the rod has passed the three muscular rings of the
cervix the semen is deposited into the body of uterus. After the semen has been deposited, the rod
should be carefully removed from the vagina.

The AI technician may also massage the reproductive tract to ensure the semen reaches both uterine
horns. The technician cannot be sure if the female will ovulate from the left or right ovary, so massaging
the tract ensures that the semen reaches both uterine horns. Massaging the tract also causes the
release of oxytocin which aids in semen transport.

After AI is completed the normal fertilization will take place and a calf should be born in approximately
280 ±10 days.

Artificial insemination in Goat

All the procedure of semen collection, preservation and storage are same as in cattle. The difference is
of insemination process because of its small size. Prior to insemination all the equipment should be
sterilize. When observe the goat in heat or estrus suitably restrains her in stanchion. After restraining
prepare the straw of semen for insemination, load the AI Gun. Position the doe in the milk stand. The

inseminator places his left foot on the stand and drapes the hindquarter of the doe. The doe is in such a
position that she cannot struggle and collapse her legs.

Then vulva is cleaned. Turn the head light on and a lubricated speculum is inserted slowly and carefully
to avoid scrapings across the vaginal floor. Place the end of speculum over the os uteri (entrance of
cervical canal).If the doe is truly in heat or estrous the color of cervix is purple red with a viscous white
mucus present inside. Insert the AI Gun into the speculum. Slowly move the instrument through the
cervical canal up to 4th or 5th annular ring. Deposit the semen slowly near the uterine end of the cervix or
just in the uterus. After deposition of semen remove AI Gun and speculum slowly and carefully. At the
end discard all the disposable material and sterilize the reusable equipment.

Artificial insemination in sheep

Most sheep are inseminated laparoscopically. Sheep are not AI'ed like Cattle and Goats for the reason
that their internal reproductive structure is so bent and fragile that insemination through the cervix is
usually not practical.


By Kashif Imran Khan

Cows have played very important role in bringing white revolution in India and America etc.Buffalo Cows
are also the important part of our milk industry. Overall milk production can be enhanced if there is the
better management of cow during lactation period, dry period and transition period is done, dry and
transition period are most important periods for management because if the proper feeding plan is not
done during these periods, the cow will go under score condition or over condition, if poor feeding is
done the cow will go under condition and if high energy diet is feed the cow will be over condition, both
conditions are harmful and in both conditions milk production will be affected in the following
parturition besides feeding plan other management tools should also be kept in mind for example to
control mastitis, space requirements,water supply, light and ventilation requirements.

Main body:
Dry period is that period which lies between the end of a lactation and the start of next lactation. It is
very important because if it is not provided to the cow there will be the loss of 25% in milk production
will take place in next lactation. It is very important to provide relieve to the cow’s rumen from high
energy diet which it was obtaining during lactation for high milk production. Dry period is necessary for
the regeneration of the epithelial or secretary cells to enhance milk production and for the development
and nourishment of calf.

There should be following goals for the dry period program, that are given bellow

I. provide dry period for 30-60 days

II. separation of dry and milking cows herd and feed them according to their requirements
III. to avoid fatty and thin condition of the cow and the maintenance of body condition score
through proper diet
IV. to reduce metabolic and calving problems through proper feeding
V. during dry period it should be try to rely mostly on forages

There are the procedures that are involved in drying off the cow that are given below

· for low producers we induce intermittent milking but in this case there are much chances
of mastitis because in this way teat canal of the teat remains open and entry of pathogens
take place in the udder through teat canal
· for high producers we induce abrupt cessation or stoppage of milking, to induce this
procedure we restrict or reduce the feed and water intake etc prior 3-4 days of abrupt
cessation of milking

we do teat dipping to reduce the chances of the entry of pathogens through teat canal by using barrier-
type teat dip. In the start of dry period, treatment of mastitis (sub clinical) is done with long lasting
antibiotics .we do tests for mastitis to detect it, for 10 days.

BCS (body condition score):

BCS of the cow should be 3.25 to 3.75 at the time of drying off and at calving it should
be 3.5 to 3.75. But the cows having in adequate body condition score at the time of its
drying off., There can be some gain in BCS is acceptable but it should not be more than
0.5 because beyond this limit it can badly effect milk production in the next lactation.

There are following factors which should be keep in mind for optimal BCS

· The cows that are heavy in dry period, they consume less dry matter so they
loose their body condition prior to calving
· Increase in BCS from 2-3 cause increase in milk yield
· Cows having BCS from 3 to 4 have optimal milk yield
· If body condition score is much higher than the normal range then there will be
more decrease in dry matter intake in transition period (DMI normally reduced
by 30% during transition period)
· Cows having more BCS than the normal range are more prone to displaced

Feeding in dry cows:

To feed the cows, firstly we separate the dry cows from milking herd and during this
period we should keep in mind that over-conditioning of cows should be avoided.Roughage(long
stemmed hay) intake should be more and more because it is very important in stimulating rumen’s
muscle tone. In this period if the forage quality is good then there is no need of concentrate feeding.
Dry matter intake should be near about 2% of body weight of the cow(on the daily basis),and forage
intake should be 1% of the body weight with grain intake should not be more than 1% of the body
weight and should be according to needs of the cow. Crude protein requirements are 12% during this
period. Vitamin feeding should also be done. Vitamins include Vit.A, Vit.D, Vit.E and trace amounts of
mineral should also be feed. if forage is fresh and green then vitamin A supplementation is not

Because very less intake of concentrates there is decrease in the size of papillae of the rumen so the
area of rumen is reduced. Because of less feeding of concentrates there is less production of butyrate.
Microbial population shifted from starch digesters to more fiber digesters in this period.

Other managemental practices includes

I. Exercise should be adequate to avoid the health problems like displaced abomasum in the
cows that are non exercised are more prone to leg problems, calving related problems and
II. Clipping the hair from inside the hind legs, flank and on the udder it is important to control
the disease like mastitis and other diseases.
III. Examining of the udder whether they are healthy or not if there is swelling in udder or any
other injury then treat it in proper way.
IV. Cleanliness of the keeping area or shed and of cow is very important to control diseases,
ticks and mites attack etc., It is also important to give clean feed to the cow.
V. In the shed there should be proper ventilation, lightning of the shed is also very important.
VI. Bedding should be dry and clean to control ticks and mites attack and other diseases.
VII. Space requirements for dry cow are 50-70 square ft/cow.
VIII. Water requirements for dry cow in summer are 35 gallons per day.


Transition period is that period that comprise on final two few weeks before parturition and 10 to 14
days after parturition.

Goals of transition period:

1. In this period main goal is on feeding in preparing the rumen and its microbes to
increase the performance and output
2. To adapt the rumen high energy diet
3. Maintaining of the DMI
4. To maintain strong immune system
5. To avoid hypocalcaemia and to avoid other metabolic disorders

In transition period followings are the changes that take place in the rumen.

I. Microbes shift from more fiber digesters to more starch digesters(it takes several days or weeks)

II. Area of the surface epithelium is increased, because in this period we slowly or gradually
introduce the lactating ration like concentrates so more butyrate production take place,to
absorb this butyrate, papillae elongated in size and the surface area of the rumen increased so
reduce the acid load in the rumen, the elongation of papillae take place in 4-6 weeks

DMI is reduced by 30% during this period because of hormonal changes that are involved in preparation
for parturition and lactation, however it should be maintained because…

a) Reduce in immune function take place if DMI is decreased, so it will leads to higher rates of
mastitis and metritis
b) Mobilization of the fat take place if DMI is reduced

c) Abomasal displacement is also the result of empty rumen that is due to decreased DMI.

d) If DMI is maintained at proper level there will be less chances of metabolic disorders after
calving and also the DMI is improved after calving

e) When there will be more DMI after calving then milk production will be reach on peak and it
also reduce the negative energy balance period after calving

f) Reproductive performance is also increased by increasing DMI

— DMI is very important because

— Decreased DMI leads to fat mobilization.
— Decreased DMI lead to reduce immune function
ending in a higher mastitis,metritis rates.
— Decreased DMI leads to an empty rumen (less fill
ending in displaced abomasum).

The effects of decreased feed intake in the transition period is felt

throughout the entire lactation. The top panel represents a 30% decrease in
feed intake while the bottom panel represents a 70% decrease in feed


1. Feed should be smaller as it is easy to consume

2. There should be more frequent meals rather than single or two times big meals
as in this way cow will consume less feed and most part of the feed will be
wasted, and in frequent meals cow consume more feed
3. Feed should be palatable
4. Optimal lightning should be maintained(16:8 light:dark) as in poor lightning feed
intake can be decreased
5. Water and feed should be fresh and clean
6. Yeast culture can also be added in to feed to improve the rumen environment

Feeding in transition cow:

In this period we add gradually lactating ration because in this way microbial
population shifted towards starch digesters, butyrate produced by these organisms elongates the
papillae so increase the surface area of rumen,it prepares the cow to gain heavy or high energy diet
after parturition. It is important because lactate utilizing bacteria increased in number so it reduces the
chances of acidosis in rumen following calving. The main component of the ration for transition cow is
the forage, but grain(concentrate) is also important.
In ration for transition cow
1. We add 5-8 pounds long forage/animal
2. 6-12 pounds of grain is added/animal
3. Fat should be added at the rate of 1/4-1/3 per animal
4. Crude protein is increased to 15-16 in this period
5. Vitamins A,D,E are also important
6. Trace amounts of minerals like zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, iodine, iron, and
cobalt are also added in ration

Some feed additives are also added in ration that are helpful in making the feed more palatable like
yeast culture is added at the rate of 10 to 113 gm/day, it improves rumen environment, niacin can also

be added in ration at the rate of 6 gm/day it is water soluble B vitamin it improves the lipid metabolism
so less ketone bodies are formed.

In addition to feeding management other management tools are

· They should be managed individually

· Availability of fresh and clean water
· Well and dry bedding, proper ventilation, lightning(light16hr:8hr dark )are more critical
· Space requirements for transition cow are 80-100 square ft.
· Clean the shed daily
· You should always be ready with animal first aid kit, as injuries can be happened at any time
· Gynea kit also must be ready

Role of light and BSt on feeding:

Its response is triggered by pineal gland,low level of melanine out put is induced by high intensity light
that is reaching to the eyesby which insulin growth factor ,the feed intake increases so milk production
increases after calving.BST act in such a way that it stimulates the release of insulin growth factor 1 by
binding with the receptors in the liver,the metabolism increases and feed intake is increased.

Metabolic disorders management

Overview of some important metabolic disorders and their treatment is given below.

Fatty liver syndrome:

This condition take place just after few days of parturition in excessive fatty cows, it occurs because of
consuming high energy or not enough protein in dry period, so excessive fat is being stored in the body
of these cows, because of fat liver becomes unable to function properly, in these fatty cows more
decrease in feed intake occurs following parturition, so fat is mobilized in the body to compensate the
energy. Much accumulation of this fat take place in the liver so more impairs the ability of liver, liver
becomes unable to oxidize more fat.ketone bodies(partially oxidized fat) are released from liver into the
blood, this decrease the appetite so animal will lose its condition, immune function becomes weak and
there are more chances of other metabolic disorders take place.

(Fatty liver syndrome)

Treatment and prevention:
Supplementation of choline chloride improves lipoprotein transport, so decrease the level of fat in the
liver other treatment methods includes protein and energy should be balance in ration,overfeeding
should be avoided,

This condition occurs usually in high producing animals in 10 days to some weeks after
parturition. It is characterized as high level of free fatty acid and ketone bodies and decreased
level of glucose in blood and urine.


When there is incomplete oxidation of mobilized fat occurs ketone bodies are formed, this mobilization
of fat take place as result of negative energy balance, that is reason that high producing animals are
more prone to ketosis.

There are two types of ketosis

Ø Primary ketosis;it occures because of more mobilization of fat take place than liver can
Ø Secondary ketosis; it is also known as nutritional ketosis,it is because of feeding low energy diet
or not enough feeding, it is also because of feeding silage having increased level of butyrate

Because glucose level drop greatly in this condition so increase or maintain its level by giving i/v 40 %
dextrose, injection of glucocorticoids that helps the body in the conversion of body protein to glucose,
niacin can also help in improving the lipid metabolism.

Milk fever:
It is also known as parturient paresis and clinical hypocalcaemia, it occurs because of rapid
transport of calcium from blood to the milk, calcium from bone cannot compensate this sudden drop in

calcium level so resulted in hypocalcaemia. Hyperglycemia, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcaemia take
place in the blood when milk fever occurs. Milk fever occurs usually after parturition, it occurs mostly in
high producing animals, and occurs in cows between third and seventh lactation, seldom observed in

(Milk fever in cow)


There should be provision of low level of calcium in diet in dry period,the reason is that, it will enhance
the skeletal resorption and stimulate the intestinal absorption of calcium, it compensate calcium level at
the onset of lactation when the sudden drop of calcium take place. Milk fever can also be prevented by
using the cation-anion difference, by which PH of the blood of the cow decreased during transition
period and in the start of postpartum period.

Udder edema:

Before parturition, some hormonal changes occur related to the onset of lactation, that
increase the level of blood flow to the udder, lymph system can not accommodate this increased
volume of fluids in some cases. Swelling of the udder take place as result of fluids accumulation, it is
called udder edema. the reason of udder edema is low level of blood proteins at the time of parturition
and increased level of blood flow to the udder that is not compensated by the lymphatic system.
Potassium chloride and NaCl(salts) should be avoided in the case of udder edema because they increase
the severity Many other metabolic disorders includes the dystocia,retained placenta,twining are also
take place.All metabolic disorders as a result of the overcondtioning of the animal so it should be

There should be better management during dry and transition period in all aspects.

There should be provision of 45-60 days for dry period.

A close up dry cow feeding program will reduce metabolic disorders and enhance DMI following

Cows should be in adequate condition at the time of drying off,so feeding should be proper during late

Proper amounts of micronutrients, inoculation of yeast culture, and anionic salts have better effects
both on health and economy.


Profitable milk production and genetic improvement of dairy cattle are dependent on a high degree of
reproductive efficiency and can be made more economically profitable by aggressive reproductive
management. As for the cattle is concerned most reproductive specialist be of the same opinion that a
12 month calving interval is ideal for maximum production although some consider that a slightly
shorter or longer may be ideal for some individual cows. Productivity can be enhanced

Thirty percent by improving reproductive management

Forty percent by modern reproductive tools

Thirty percent by control of reproductive disorders

There are many measures for reproductive efficiency which include age of heifers at first freshening,
interval of time from calving to the time when animal conceives and how many number of services are
required per conception. Others include the number of days per year a cow carries a calf, percent
conception to first sevice,second service and the third sevice as well as the percentage of nonreturn to
estrus. The interval between two successive calving is known as calving interval.The calving interval
should not exceed above 13 months in cattle and above 14 months in buffaloes.

Table;Calving interval in buffaloes

(Ståhl Högberg and Lind, 2003)

There are many factors which affect calving interval like high persistency in cows favours longer
calving interval.Similarly if the feed cost to milk price ratio is high the calving interval should be short
as well as cows with high incidence of mastitis should be given short calving interval because the
tissues of alveoli are repaired during dry period.Days open should be determined by desired calving
interval.A good practical goal is an average of hundred days open in cattle.The heifers should be

bred when they attain 75% of maturebody weght.The target level for age at conceptionfirst time
should be 24 months in buffaloes and 21 months in cattle although body weight is more important
rather than age.Ther are somefactors which influence calving to first service interval which
include1.BREEDING POLICY e.g. Cows may show early estrous but they should not be bred before 45
days.2. ACYCLICITY OR TRUE ANOESTROUS for which adequate mineral supplement and hormonal
therapy is very much necessary.3. FAILURE TO DETECT OESTROUS so proper heat detection aids
should be used .For an efficient farm management pregnancy rate is very much important which
depends upon accurate heat detection and the time of insemination.Body condition score is also
important for optimum conception.It has been shown that rate of conception for each 0.5 unit
change in BCS between calving and AI is decreased upto10-15%.


Above figure shows that with increase in days after calving conception rate is increased .But cost is
also incresed so it should be managed accordingly to manipulate the optimum calving interval.

Figure; Effect of AI timing on Conception Rate

In above figure it is clear that the highest percentage for conception is achieved when cows are
inseminated with in 12-18 hours after heat detection.

Figure;showing the effect of calving difficulty score on conception rate

Calving difficulty score has also effect on rate of above figure it is clear that the highest
percentage is achieved by calving difficulty score of one.This thing also dictate that heifers and cows
should have appropriate body condition score at breeding and calving,and it should be managed
accordingly in transition period.

Whenever there is highest heat detection rate the conception rate also be increased depending upon
time of insemination,ovulation,quality of semen as well as body condition of animal.The breeder should
know the obvious signs of heat because accuracy of heat detection can increase the effeciency of farm
and can prevent huge economic losses as it can aid in making calving interval more tighter by decreasing
the days open and reducing the cost of feed because cost of feed accounts 70% of total farm budget.So
there are many possible aids for heat detection which includeTEASER ANIMALS,TAIL HEAD MARKERS,DYE
PROGESTERONE KITS and Records also increase the chance of predicting estrous. Average mounting time
is 7 sec (range 2-15 sec.Visual observation should be at least twice/day for 30 minutes .As it is easy to
miss so it should be only job at that time to detect estrous. It has been explored that more number of
mountings are observed from midnight to 6 A.M.



The underfoot surface affects the mounting activity as duration of heat. The cow in estrous mounts
easily on pasture it has got difficulty on slatted floor. The duration of heat is more when underfoot
surface is made of pasture and straw and again at slatted surface it is less.

Figure shows that when there are more heifers in heat the mounting activity is increased. The
duration of standing heat may vary from 3-30 hours but the average time is 12 hours. Insemination
should be done according to AM/PM rule: Cows showing estrus in morning should be inseminated
the same day. Cows showing estrus in evening should be inseminated the morning of the next day.
Buffaloes should be inseminated 12 h after the detection of standing oestrus (bull/teaser) or 18-24 h
after the onset of heat signs.

Figure; Time of artificial insemination and ovulation after standing heat.


Group females for parturition, making shorter calving interval, for having uniform weaning weights
cattle and buffaloes can be synchronized for estrous by using different protocols including some of the







Figure; estrus synchronization with GnRH (Bhosrekar, 2005)

Buffaloes can be successfully synchronized with optimum fertility using either PGF2α alone (detected
estrus) or using (Ovsynch protocol) during low breeding season to calve during the period when milk
availability is short.

Feeding management is also necessary for optimum efficiency.Following feeding guidelines are
necessary and should be kept in mind.

1.In order to meet the vitamins and protein requirement at least 3-5 kg of green fodder be provided in
dry mater basis.2. DM; 2.5-3 %( 2/3RD ROUGHAGE plus 1/3rd CONCENTRATE).3. 1/3RD DM requirement of
total roughage by non leguminous/silage or1/4th by leguminous fodder.30 to 60 g mineral mix, 40 to50 g
common salt and individual feeding for maximum yield is quite good. 1 kg concentrate mixture per 3 lit
milk yield is recommended. Vitamin A 35000 to 45000 iu.Can be increased to 100000 iu in case of
deficiency. Vitamin E1000 iu during last 40 days of gestation can be given. Beyond 30 days postpartum
injection of PGF2 alpha helps involution of uterus.

Cows in a moderate BCS should be calved and minimise BCS loss in early lactation. Have cows gaining in
BCS at breeding. Breed the cows to calve early but minimise the risk of calving difficulty. One should
Increase submission rates by paying particular attention to heat detection. Carry out pre-breeding heat
detection and Ensure that the semen used is of high fertility.Use Sires for insemination contaiing values
as negative for calving interval and values should be positive for survival.Manipulate the calving
interval for maximum reproductive efficiency. Adequate feeding and mineral supplement is necessary
for optimum performance.

By M.Saad

The basic aim of any farmer to keep the animals is to get maximum output by using minimum input. Any
business is categorized only on the basis of profit level. Is the profit is lesser the business is categorize in
lower scale as compare to the business with higher profit or income level. So in order to get maximum
output from the herd some basic and most important steps are necessary to be taken in account.
Genetic improvement in a herd is one of the most effective steps for the betterment of the farmer as
well as for the betterment of the animals which are reared on the herd. genetic improvement means
use such animals for breeding which have some superior traits as compare to other animals and these
superior traits must be responsible for better production level of that animal and also for there
offspring, usually when anyone listen to the word genetic improvement the they think that it is quiet
difficult and expensive steps to be taken but in reality it very simple and easy to be adopt for all the
farmers according to there requirement. In Pakistan the trend of genetic improvement in a herd is very
rear and the basic reason behind this is only the unawareness of the farmers about the modern
techniques when are use to increase the profit ratio. There are some steps and if we are going to kept
these points in our mind then it is very easy to make the genetic improvement possible on any level and
in any country,

1. Proper record keeping.

2. Proper management of nutrition and environment.

3. Introducing the animals with good or superior genetic makeup in order to improve the herd average
performance or individual performance.

These are the main points for the farmer in order to manage or improve their business status and profit.

Genetic improvement involves some steps which are helpful for the betterment of the herd and also
help in increase the output of the farm

Basically there are two main points on which genetic improvement of any herd is based

1. Proper selection.

2. Proper breeding strategies on farm or herd.

First of all move towards the proper selection portion.

In this section mainly two types of selections are included which are as under.

1. Mass selection or individual selection.

2. Family selection.

Mass selection:
In this method the specific breeders with specific and superior traits of one or another herd is chosen to
become the parents of the next generation. it involves the selection of the required or desired trait for
example if the animal has a milking record of 16 liters per day and a body weight at maturity is more
than 450kg is to be chosen for producing an off spring which is capable to produce minimum of 12-13
liters per day and gain a weight of 400kg at its maturity level. It is very useful to improve the herd status
in a proper way but there are some limitations or disadvantages of this method which bounds us for
their regular usage in our normal routine these limitations are as under.

1. Sex limited traits such as milk production, egg production that are maternal traits are mothering
abilities and are not directly measures in male.

2 .Performance records are not available until an individual has reached sexual maturity.

3. A dairy cow may be three or four years old before the breeder has data on her milk producing

Family Selection:
In this method a number of factors should kept in mind to select the individual use for further breeding
process. The proper records of these three things are very much important to fulfill the selection





Simple records of ancestors

Performance data of ancestors are indicators of ancestor genetic merit

These data can also use as indication of individual genetic merit when the degree of relation ship
between individual and its ancestor is known.

The ancestors are truly representative of there parents because they are random half of the dam
genotype and half of sire genotype.

Degree of relationship between an individual and its ancestors is halved in each generation.

When the pedigree selection is used greater emphasis should be placed on closed relatives and less
stress on distinct relatives such as grand parent and grand. Grand parent.


It is a general term for estimating the breeding value of individual based on performance of its progeny.

The net result is to have more effective programs and thus make better progress in improving ones

Progeny test data are collected only in sire rather than dam reason for this is most dams don’t have
enough progeny to provide sufficient information.

Beside all these usefulness of the progeny base selection, there is a limitation or disadvantage of this
method which is as describe here. Progeny test information is only used for determining of quantitive
traits such as weight gain etc.


It refers to the record of the relatives of specific individual which is under consideration such as there
brother, sister and other relatives which have one or more ancestors in common. Basically there are two
types of sibs which are as under.

Full. sibs

Half. Sibs

Full. Sibs:

If A is sire and B is dam in case of full sib both sire and dam are common A1 did not get any of its gene
from B but both animals have common gene due to common ancestors.

Half. Sibs:

They have common sire but different and unrelated dams vice versa.

In case of half sib individual with one parent is common.

Sometimes the half. Sibs are phonotypical similar to each other due to two factors which are as under.

The genes that share should be common.

Common environment in which they are reared on the same diet and same housing system.

Now move towards the requirement which must be fulfill by the individual to further qualify for the
breeding purpose. And in this way selection of an individual has based on specific criteria which are as
In our situation it is enough to understand that selection of individual based on performance of there

Degree of relationship.

Number of sibs.

Phenotypic resemblance.

There are three main methods use for selection of any individual and allow the animal to play there role
in the genetic improvement of that herd.

1. Tandem method.

2. Independent culling method.

3. Selection index.

Tandem method:
In this selection method one trait which has to be improved is taken in account until that is improved at
required criteria.

One trait is taken in account in one time.

Independent culling method:

In this method there is specific score or production criteria and the animal which is not attaining that
production or not performing well is culled from herd for-example a cow having minimum production of
6.litrs/day and below that level it is culled immediately from the herd.

Selection index:
In this method overall score or total grand total of all the traits are formulated in a specific table which
tells us about the average of that animal and we are also able to compare the average values of
production of all the animals in a herd and animal which is not attaining that score is neglected or
removed from the herd or farm. It is the best known method of selection of animal for genetic
improvement ant also for improving the profit ratio of the business.

There are two factors which usually cause the variation in level of genetic improvement and those
factors are as under.

1. In.breeding.

2. Out.breeding.

In. breeding:
This term is refers to the breeding strategies or steps taken by using the animals of the same farm and
they same environment, feeding standards, may be having some relations with each other from there
forefathers. So there is very less chance of great genetic variation or improvement, cause we already
know the average performance if those animals which is kept on our own farm. But the chance of any
heredity disease is much lesser as we have complete data of both sire and dam.

Out. Breeding:
In case of out. breeding two different individual related to different areas or different farm are crossed
together to get the better offspring which receive genes from both the parents and has very much
improved genetic makeup and give a good ratio of profitable business to the farmer, but there is a huge
chance of infection specially congenital or inherited diseases because farmer doesn’t get the enough
information about the family history of that animal which is come from the other area or farm.

There are some other methods or procedures which are used to improve the genetic make-up of the

A.I (artificial insemination):

This is the best method of artificial breeding. the semen of best performer bulls is use to inseminate the
high milk producing cows or buffalo in order to get the best or high producing off. Springs having the
superior genes from both the parents. (Sire, dam)

E.T (embryo transfer):

By using this method a farmer is able to get more than one calf per year out of the best cow’s means
genetically superior cows or buffalo. But the disadvantage or the cause due to which it is not very much
common is that, embryo transfer is very time consuming and also very expensive procedure. But in
developed countries it is used to increase the number of individual belonging to the superior genetic
make. Up.

E.S (embryo sexing):

This is a method which is use to get the desired sex of the animal, usually male calf’s have lesser value or
demand as compare to the female calf’s. So by using embryo sexing we are able to determine or
manage the sex of the calf before birth. but the disadvantage of this method is, it is very expensive and
require a very skilled and professional person which ultimately effect the farm expenses.

Male animals with average or below average genetic makeup on herd are castrated so they are not
breed further anymore. But the bulls with higher genetic makeup are kept on farm for further breeding

These are the steps which are involved in the genetic improvement of the herd as well as the
betterment of the business of the farmer.

All the types and methods of genetic improvement which are described above are for the betterment of
farming sector, and to get the maximum output from the animals. The body requirement of an ordinary
animal and an animal with superior genetic makeup is same means both have survive in the same
environment, feed on same diet plan, handle by the same handlers, but there is a huge difference
between the production of these animals this is because of the genes. a proper management, care, and
awareness about the herd is helpful to increase the profit ratio to much higher extend which is the most
beneficial thing for the farmer. If the bull is not present on the herd or if the bull is infected from some
disease than A.I should be done but keep in mind that always use the semen which is authenticated and
tested and fulfill the genetic requirements. Farmer can easily improve milk production, meat production,
leather production, wool production of the herd and as a net result it ultimately helps to improve the
economy of the country. Government should provide some financial support to the farmers which are
interested in the genetic improvement of there herd, and the veterinarian should also guide the
interested farmer in order to groom there interest and also aware them about the modern techniques
introduce in the world day by day. It should be spread in the villages and far areas of the countries that
by using the modern techniques of genetic improvement they are able to increase the herd average as
well as the profit of there farm or herd is much extend to higher level. The basic and most important
thing which is very much helpful in genetic improvement is the record keeping, if a proper record
system is present on every herd contain the history, breeding value, individual performance, incidence
to the diseases, weaning age, maturity age and weight, calving interval, number of calving. Than it is
very easy and simple to categories different animal and decide whether the animal is fit or suitable for
further breeding or not. If all the farmers are become aware to the benefit of genetic improvement than
this field reaches to higher extend and in our country the high producer animals which are capable of
producing a lot more than an ordinary animal, are frequent available here. And at that time Pakistan is
count in list of good producer countries of the world.

Record keeping, Transport & Animal Welfare issues.

By Muhammad Umer

Record keeping.
Accurate & complete records are very important for farm management and routine farm
operations. They play vital role and acts as backbone of dairy enterprise as well. Record keeping & their
proper maintenance can helps in making correct management decisions, increasing income & profit.
Detailed information about each individual is very important for daily farm management practices &
decisions. In developed countries use of computer play important role in record keeping & their
maintenance. Applications of computer will help improve the cost effectiveness & efficiency of records
in Pakistan.

Good record has desirable qualities such as it should be complete, up to date, simple, accurate &
understandable. Minimum cost & time is required to keep it. Important farm kept records are ancestry
(at least parents) but grandparents are preferable, birth data or record, health records.(previous
infection, disease, medication & outcome), treatment register (especially for reproductive diseases and
mastitis), current infection & medication if any, total lactation production. ( periodic milk & fat yield ),
reproduction information ( heats, breeding, service sires, lambing & calving), animal culling guide,
register; farm equipments, utensils & their cost, feed register, feeds storage records, purchasing of
animals & equipment, worker’s daily attendance & previous expenditures at farm. Here few examples of
records are given.

Milk Records
Milk records are very important to determine economic value of each animal. They help to regulate
feeding economically on the basis of milk quantity produced and avoid wastage of extra food. Dairy men
provided with an opportunity to use more productive animal for future breeding & discard low
producers. They are essential for improvement of productivity and also help in the selection of best bulls
from dams with high milk yield. Dairy animals with records can be sold on higher prices than that
without any record. Performance record of an animal & its ancestors reduces the element of risk in
animal purchasing.

clear and readable

Animal transportation
Animals are transported from one place to other for purposes of shows, competition, salt, treatment &
others. One of the most important factor for maintaining an adequate level of welfare during the
transport of is loading physically fit & healthy animals to the vehicle.(Grandin,2003 ).

According to OIE guidelines animals with following problems are not suitable for travel such as weak,
sick, injured, blind, animals which are unable to stand & bear weight on their limbs, newborn having
unhealed naval cord, during last trimester of pregnancy & dams without young born in previous 24-48

Driver’s training play very important role in the safe journey along with supervision & maintenance of
vehicle. Driver fatigue is main cause of road accidents. According to Jennifer Woods, 2005, about 80 %
of accidents did not involve another vehicle & mostly occurred between midnight & 7.00am, when the
driver is most tired & fatigued.

In our country, facilities for transporting animals are inadequate. Important modes of transportation are
by road, train, air & sea but mostly by vehicle or road & train. Although transporting animals by sea & air
is very effective, less time consuming & for long distance but very expensive. Race horses, zoo animals &

imported purebred species such as Holstein cattle can be transported through these ways. Special types
of compartments are reserved for animals in the ship & aircraft. Because of very long travel, animals
should be in the state of drowsiness to avoid fatigue. Tranquilizers should be administered to animals
prior to journey. Special bedding should be provided to them.

For long distance rail is also a good mean, which is somewhat cheaper than that of by sea & air, having
rail wagons with roof, non-slippery floors ( 10—15 cm thick sand layer ) & side windows left open to
facilitate free air passage for ventilation. Ideal floor is rubber mat covered with thin straw layer. Wooden
poles are used for partition between animals. In the rail wagons animals should be grouped on the basis
of their size, age & body condition. Animals with horns should be arranged at head to tail system.

Carry the local feed, utensils & equipments for feeding, watering & milking etc. Commonly used drugs
especially of fever, diarrhea, parasites, injury & bloat etc should also be arranged before starting
journey. At least 2 or 3 experienced attendants should also be present. Watering arrangement must be
checked. Provide fresh & clean water to the animals during journey after every 12 hrs in winter & 3—4
times a day in summer. If journey is longer than 2 or 3 days, offload the animals after some travel for
feed & rest.

Rail is also very effective & cheap source of transporting horses, in which special rail wagons or boxes
are reserved for them. There are separate feeding & watering devices for each animal. These boxes have
a layer of bedding material on floor. While loading a horse care must be taken. If it is over excited, wait
for some time until it calm down, talk to it, pet it & don’t drag it. After loading, restrain it properly in the
rail wagon.

By road or vehicle problems of repeated handling can be avoided. An ordinary truck having capacity of 4
to 5 cattle & buffaloes, 3 to 4 horses & 20 to 25 small animals depending on their age, size & body

Goats & sheep, if transported in a vehicle, not allowed too much space because they knocked against
the sides & there will be chances of injury. If only few are transported, extra space should be filled with
straw bales. They should be firmly tied to minimize their movement inside moving vehicle & should not
provide climbable surfaces. It is very important to check While traveling, the suitable direction of
animals inside vehicle should be perpendicular to the road.

Horses can also be transported by road, using trucks or trailers. A truck has capacity of 3 to 4 horses.
They should be properly restrain inside moving vehicle by using well fitting head collar & rope to prevent
kicking and biting between them. Horses which are injured or diseased must require special supervision.
Ensure ventilation & remove the dung from vehicle and must checked for safety & cleanliness. Care
must be taken while loading to avoid traumatic injury & should allow settling in the vehicle. Arrange the
ramps while loading & offloading them. Never allow the horse to come off the truck as soon as ramp is
down. Grains must be reduced 24-48 hrs prior to traveling. Avoid highways & always drive at or below
speed limit. It should not exceed 5o km/hr.

Animals must be marked & tagged. While transporting, protect them from harmful effects of weather.
Always cover the vehicle with woolen rugs in cold & protective sheet in hot especially day time that
prevents sunlight. In extremely low temperatures increased the bedding & protect the animals from
water-splashing coming from the road. In hot conditions reduce the stocking density, provide sufficient
ventilation by opening inlets & avoid the parking of vehicle in direct sunlight that can cause
hyperthermia. Feed & water animal 2 hrs before journey.

In the advanced countries there are some rest stop requirements during long travel. It varies from
country to country such as in EU journey time should not exceed 8 hrs, in Chile 8 hrs rest-stop after 24
hrs journey & in Canada rest stop requires after 48 hrs of travel. But in Pakistan there is no such concept
of rest stop requirement & drivers take rest according to their own desire whenever they need.

Main side effect of animal transportation is Stress, including both psychological (fear) & physical
(vibration). Heart rates accelerated at loading & unloading.( Jacobson & Cook, 1998 ). When sheep are
loaded to a vehicle after gathering from a paddock, their cortisol level in the plasma can
increase.(Broom et al.,1996). Heart rate is mostly lower during longer trips than the shorter. (Honkavara
et al. 2003). Pregnant animals may abort due to release of corticosteroids in response to stress during

Another risk factor during transportation of animals is loss of balance mostly during speed, sudden
brake, stopping, gear changes & uneven roads that can cause injury & suffocation. At minor losses of
balance, animal quickly respond by shifting footing to regain their balance. By using non-slip flooring can
prevent the risk of falls. But shifting is difficult at high stocking density. Mostly animals injured during
loading & unloading. About 5 to 1o % decrease in body weight of animals due to transport.

Animals slaughtered in the state of fatigue after a long railway or by road journey do not bleed well. Due
to imperfect bleeding their flesh is dark in color & somewhat sticky to touch. In fatigued & tired animals
various types of waste products which are also poisonous in nature are accumulated & distributed in the
body muscles especially skeletal muscles. Such type of meat is not recommended & unfit for human use.
It is suggested that at least 24 to 48 hrs period of rest must be given to the animals after transportation
before slaughter.

Over crowding of animals on a vehicle during transportation may results in to Hypoxia (suffocation). The
flesh or carcass of such animals show bruising at various parts & is of dark red color. So that meat is of
inferior quality.

Animal Welfare issues.

Animals are also living creatures as that of man. They also have some rights. Consideration should be
given to the well-being of this innocent creature. Animals are used for food purposes, scientific research,
recreation, transport, as pets & many others. The issue for animal welfare was 1st arose in the Indus
Valley Civilization, according to their belief that the religious ancestors return in animal form.

In 1822, a British named Richard Martin presented a bill to the Parliament offering protection from
cruelty to animals especially horses, sheep & cattle. In 1965, British government commissioned an
investigation team led by Prof. R. Brambell for the welfare of farmed animals in response to concerns
raised in Ruth Harrison's 1964 book, named “Animal Machines”. On the basis of report submitted by
Prof. Brambell, Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Committee was established in 1967 later became Farm
Animal Welfare Council in 1979.

Main guidelines recommended by the committee were that animals require the freedoms to "move,
stand up, turn around, lie down on the ground, groom themselves and stretch their head &limbs freely”.

Animals should have freedom from hunger, thirst, pain, discomfort, disease, injury, fear & to express
their normal behavior. Sufficient space should be given to the confined animals to avoid cage fatigue.
Fresh & clean water, proper food according to their stage of growth, proper handling, clean
environment & proper health care must be provided to the animals. Animal housing & management
procedures should also be evaluated continuously, and replaced when indicated. Treat the animals with
respect throughout their lives and, when necessary, provided a humane death without to much pain.
Don’t slaughter an animal in front of other animals. Animals should also be provided with company of
others. Whenever required avoid loading of too much weight on the animal & try to facilitate their
freely movement.

According to Pakistan prevention of cruelty to animal’s act, 1890, which extends to whole British
India, the meanings of “animal” are any domestic or captured animal. An amendment was done in its
section -2, which says “Phooka” means introducing of air or any thing into the female organ for the
purpose of drawing off any secretion or milk from the animal. If any person performs Phooka he shall be
fined or imprisoned for up to 2 years.

According to section 3 of this act, if any person beats the animal, overloads any animal, keeps in
painful manner, or offers for sale any dead animal which has been killed in cruel manner, he shall be
fined & imprisoned for one month or three months in case of second, or with both.

According to its section -5, if any person kills any animal in cruel manner, he shall be punished with
fine or with imprisonment for six months, or with both. Similarly in section-6, if any person employs in
any work or labor any injured, unfit or diseased animal or other, he shall be punished with fine.

By Mehwisn Mansoor

Grazing is a process in which animals feed on plants to obtain energy & nutrients which are utilized for
their growth & maintenance. It provides a relatively cheap & energy-efficient feed source for livestock
production. Rangelands’ being a cheap source & in abundance in Pakistan, their management is
beneficial & cost effective. A 2/3rd (62%) of Pakistan’s total area is rangeland. These range areas are not
only extensive but are also variable in terms of soils, climates, vegetation & productivity. Light textured
soils, unsuitable arid to semi arid climatic conditions, poor quality & low productive vegetation are
characteristic features of these rangelands. In contrast to this poor condition of range areas of the
country, Pothowar upland & hill slopes of Central & Northern NWFP are considered high potential areas
having frequent good quality & nutrient rich vegetation. Although high potential areas are well
represented, extensive desert/semi desert ranges are also found in Punjab, Sindh & Baluchistan. Most of
these deserts with the exception of Chaghi & Kharan are man made produced as a result of overuse &
misuse such as overgrazing, overcutting, excessive lopping, trampling, uprooting, burning etc.
Overgrazing is a problem which has reduced the rangeland productivity by soil compaction & vegetation
removal. The graziers of Pakistan in general are neither aware nor interested in proper range & livestock
grazing management. Thus, 48.3% of the rangelands in Pakistan are completely eroded & other affected
areas are producing only 15-20% of their biomass.

The challenge to the manager is “to live on a piece of land without destroying it”. There are three main
components of a grazing management system, i.e., livestock, vegetation & land. The management of
pastures & rangelands thus involves manipulation of all the three variables. The objectives of rangeland
management are the production of livestock products while maintaining quality of rangelands & its
sustainable use. The management aims at ensuring sufficient forage at stages suitable for grazing
throughout the grazing season. Hence, combination of the technology, experience & comprehensive
planning is required for fulfilling the grazing capacity needs of livestock on daily, seasonal and annual
basis. Grazing management practices are designed to assist in balancing forage supply & forage demand
centred around controlling grazing pressure by altering the kinds & numbers of grazing animals over
both time & space. The management must ensure availability of balanced livestock demand with forage
availability, promotion of rapid pasture/rangeland re-growth during grazing season & long term
pasture/rangeland persistence. A vigilant manager should implement a plan which suits best to his
range condition & should be flexible while selecting. Knowledge about key species (dominant grasses,
shrubs & trees of the rangeland) is also very important. A wise manager should be equally concerned
about his range condition & range livestock. Lastly, the manager should assess range/pasture condition
by walking through his rangeland & monitoring vegetation growth.


The principles of grazing management are broad guidelines which incorporate all the available
knowledge regarding range site, range vegetation & livestock in a systematic & precise manner leading
to the maximization of range vegetation & livestock productivity without affecting rangeland condition.
Thus, the principles of grazing management have been defined to achieve the goals to arrange adequate
forage for each animal for its maximum production & leave adequate leaf area to ensure re-growth. In
view of above information, the principles of grazing management can be classified into three main

· Factors related to vegetation

· Factors related to livestock
· Ecological factors (related to range ecosystem)

Each of these factors would be discussed in details in subsequent paragraphs. While discussing these
factors their effect & management techniques would also be discussed.


Plant strength, its vigour, growth, effects of animal consumption and seasonal fluctuation in growth etc
are some of the factors to be considered for management in order to have a continuous supply of forage
for a long grazing season on regular basis. These factors are further elaborated as under:


Plant growth is not uniform throughout the year but follows a certain pattern synchronized with the
season of the year. It must be kept in mind that season & time of grazing with respect to growth stages
of range plants & intensity & frequency of grazing have a far reaching effect on condition, floristic
composition, nutritive value & reproductive capability of range vegetation. Plants usually begin growth
in spring from the stored root reserves. Plant growth is the function of the proportion of
photosynthesized food that is used in the formation of plant tissues as compared to the remainder
which is stored in roots. This stored material is later used to provide food for rapid growth during the
next growing season. If stored energy is low because of previous year’s overgrazing, slow re-growth
occurs. Plants are much more susceptible to grazing during growth periods & extreme hot/cold weather.
Grasses are more susceptible to damage during early growth stages. Determination of plants/grasses
active growing stage during spring or fall helps the manager to plan. In spring, extensive leaf growth
helps maximized grazing however overgrazing even at this time will remove most of the leaf area,
diminishing root reserves, slowing re-growth & reduces plant vigour. In extensive growth periods, the
duration of rest can be decreased up to 20- 30 days because the vegetation can easily re-grow & recover
from the effects of defoliation, however, in winter when the growth is delayed & vegetation is maturing,
longer rest periods up to 70-120 days are recommended. Determination of proper vegetation age is an
important factor for rangeland management. Considering the plant/grass development stages i.e.,
vegetative (leaf growth) & reproductive (seed development & setting), a manager should plan when to
keep the livestock for grazing in rangeland. Timing of grazing should be neither too early when the

plants are flowering/setting seeds nor too late when the plants are woody & fibrous. Hence, grazing
season may be adjusted accordingly to either six months in extreme weather conditions or 12 months


The fundamental principle of grazing management is to control the frequency & severity of defoliation
of forage plants. It is an important factor which is best defined as range use intensity meaning that a
certain amount of plant biomass must remain in the rangeland to assure the health of plants & livestock.
Suitable intensity of use depends upon range condition i.e., soil, kind of plants & their growth stages.
Ideally the best time to leave a rangeland for rest is when half (50%) of the vegetation has been
consumed. In a good condition rangeland where grasses are in their late development stages & range
vegetation is dense, supported by grasses; range use intensity can be increased up to 70% while in poor
condition rangeland it can be reduced up to 30%. In addition, it can be stated that increasing range use
intensity (more than 50%) increases livestock production per unit area but if it continues to increase for
several years, livestock production declines.


Determination of carrying capacity of land & allowing grazing according to the estimating capacity is
another management practice. Carrying capacity determines the maximum livestock that a
rangeland/pasture can support on a sustainable basis or a minimum number of hectares required to
feed one animal unit for one year. It can be calculated by dividing the range area within each block into
1 square meter quadrants. 1-5% samples of the range area are collected. The forage collected is air dried
& weighed in grams. Half of the weight forage is multiplied by 10 (50% range use intensity) to get forage
available in kg /ha. This procedure is repeated 2-3 times & average is taken out. It is divided by annual
animal unit feed requirement 3285 kg. For other animals it is converted into animal unit equivalents
which are given in the following table:

Animal equivalents

Cow 1

Bull 1.3

Horse 1.3

Donkey 0.6

Sheep 0.2

Goat 0.3

Camel 1.7

Buffaloes 1.5

The average carrying capacity of well managed & high productive areas like Pothowar is estimated to be
5 hectares/AU while in case of poor range such as Cholistan, it is estimated to be 100 hectares/AU.
However, a manager should be rather rigid while planning to keep the animals according to carrying
capacity. Because most of the range areas of our country are low producing, carrying capacity
measurement should be considered only a rough estimate & it is suggested to reduce the overall
estimate by 5% or so, to adjust the livestock on range area without further deteriorating range

Maintaining grazing pressure according to the range condition & vegetation growth is a very important
tool for grazing management. It is in fact the ratio of forage demand to forage availability for specific
forage at a given time. It takes into account how fast the vegetation growth with respect to its
consumption is. Thus it is the measure of feed availability (Feed On Offer) to the animals. Light grazing
pressure means greater forage availability to the animals while high grazing pressure means less forage
availability to the animals.

It is the utilization of range forage evenly at desired intensity throughout the range area. It is important
because all the vegetation is equally consumed at proper stage thus range condition remains stable &
there is no harmful effect on vegetation. Factors contributing to uneven grazing are unpalatable or
woody plants, inaccessibility of certain parts of the range, distant water locations & animal grazing
behaviour. Uniform grazing should be promoted by planting palatable grasses, improving vegetation by
seeding, cultivation, fertilization, placing salt, providing shelter/water & applying fences.

It is a management tactic which leads to uniform or even grazing. It refers to giving the livestock a fresh
allocation of pasture daily or compelling the livestock to consume certain vegetation which is less
palatable. Animals in this management system are controlled by temporary electric fencing & 50-
100sq.m/AU/day area generally required. It minimizes the waste of plant biomass & weakens the less
palatable species due to continuous grazing.

General design for strip grazing

Frequency of grazing during the grazing seasons or interval between intermittent grazing seasons is a
very important factor for the management of range vegetation. Different types of vegetations respond
to the frequency of grazing in a different way. A manager should adopt specific frequency of grazing
while keeping in mind the fact that it will influence both diversity & density of range vegetation.
Frequency of grazing refers to continuous or season long grazing & intermittent grazing throughout the
grazing season. Continuous light grazing throughout the grazing season favours grasses more than plants
& is suitable when growth season is optimum. Generally, less palatable species become more vigorous
after the years of continuous grazing. Intermittent grazing & rest allows sufficient time for vegetation re-
growth. Rotations are conducted more frequently during rapid growth period & less frequently during
period of slower growth. Grazing period is followed by a variable rest period of up to 60-120 days.
Concentrated grazing over shorter periods followed by long rest is suitable when vegetation growth is
seasonal. However, in case of perennial vegetation, increased frequency i.e., short duration heavy
grazing or rapid rotation yields better results as total forage production increases & less palatable
woody vegetation gets weakened.

A manager can use this technique as a powerful tool to propagate & achieve desired density of range
vegetation. It refers to performing certain operations which lead to seed dispersal & germination thus
assuring the establishment of young seedlings of desired species. These include giving rest period during
seed germination/maturity & harrowing.

It refers to the removal of undesirable, woody & poisonous vegetation either manually, chemically or

It refers to destroying thorny, woody & unpalatable vegetation by controlled fire. It increases soil
fertility as the mineral nutrients from woody vegetation are released into the soil after burning.

It refers to keeping the forage shrubs & trees at proper height by cutting their leading shoots to allow
their growth at regular pattern. It is also important for the production of foliage that is easily assessable
to browsers.


The second factor in grazing management is about management of livestock. Being a manager, a
manager should be well aware of livestock grazing behaviour, nutrient needs & preferences. It is a
decision based on his knowledge to select livestock species (either grazers or browsers) which suit best
to his range topography & kind of vegetation present there, keeping in mind the land utilization
patterns which vary depending upon the animal species. He should also adjust the estimated livestock
requirements with the estimated forage supply throughout the year in order to ensure continuous
availability of forage. To maintain animals in good health, he should be vigilant enough to fulfil their
needs in case of increased demand by arranging supplementary feed (hay, silage etc.). Some of the
important features which are to be considered for range livestock management are:


Grazing behaviour varies for different livestock species. Cattle & buffaloes have short & broad mouths &
they graze by wrapping their tongue around grass mass & then rolling & cutting it. They prefer taller
(tuft of) grasses & are not good browsers. These can handle low quality roughages & can supplement
their feed with some browse i.e., fallen leaves/pods. Sheep have deeply divided upper lip & graze closer
to the ground. They nibble on thorny bushes, small plants, creepers & cattle’s left over vegetation. They
can better consume low grade vegetation than cattle. Goats have sharp incisors & narrow mouth. They
browse on leafage, thorny plants & twigs & bushes. Tree lopping is common practice. They can
supplement their feed with some grass & herbage. Horses pull grass & don’t cut full forage. Mostly, the
plant is uprooted. Camels have cleft upper lips & they graze on poor quality, fibrous, thorny vegetation
& mostly browse on large trees. Time spent for grazing also varies for different animals. Horses can
graze for 12-16 hrs/day, cattle can graze for about 8 hrs while goats & sheep graze for less than 6
hours/day. In deserts, animals graze mostly at night. While normal practice in winter is to graze during
the day. Average daily water requirements for livestock vary with temperature, humidity, productivity &
diet. Sheep can fulfil most of their water requirements through succulent vegetation thus they need less
water. Sheep require 1 gallon water while horses & beef cattle require 8-10 gallons daily. Lactating
cattle require up to 30 gallons of water per day. Keeping in mind the above differences in livestock
grazing behaviour, preferences & requirements, a manager should be wise enough to select suitable
livestock specie that would yield maximum production/unit area without affecting its productivity.


In flat/gently undulating area, having moderate climate & predominant herbaceous vegetation cattle &
horses are ideal. In arid sand dunes having long severe summers having scanty vegetation (thorny,
leafless shrubs) camels, goats & donkeys are ideal. In hilly areas having steep slopes, rocks, extreme
climate & mixed vegetation of herbs & shrubs, goats & sheep are ideal. Bulk grazers like cattle &
buffaloes prefer open grasslands while browsers like goats prefer woody areas. Sheep are more efficient
at level to rolling lands than cattle while goats prefer steep slopes. The management practices related to
range livestock include:

It refers to selecting a kind of livestock that would yield maximum production per unit area without
producing any harmful effect on range vegetation & condition. The livestock grazing behaviour,
preferences & land utilization patterns have been discussed earlier. However, it can be added that
keeping mixed herds is a better management practice because such herds can make use of a variety of
range vegetation leading to uniform grazing. Because of non-uniform plant composition, mixed species
livestock production systems are more productive. Generally, one cow eats forage about the same as 6-
8 goats thus it is preferable to keep 1-2 goats along with a cow without adversely affecting their
production. Sheep & goat mixed herd is suitable for arid/semi arid rangelands where browse species are
prevalent. They can also be kept along with horses & camels in desert range areas where there are
prevalent thorny shrubs/trees & seasonal low quality grasses.


Stocking rate refers to the number of animals (actual or expressed as animal units) grazing over a unit
area at a specific time. It can also be defined as a specific piece of range that a manager has allotted per
livestock head for the entire grazing seasons throughout the year. It is in fact livestock-vegetation
relationship over a specified time period, attempting to balance livestock forage requirements &
demands with forage availability. Thus it maintains livestock & range resource productivity. Stocking
rate can be calculated by the formula:

SR=Total range area ÷ [(animal units) x (duration of grazing)]

For example; 20 cows can be grazed on a 100 hectare rangeland for a year. Thus the stocking rate will be
0.4 Hectares/AUM or 5 Hectares/AUY.

Stocking rate can also be calculated using AUE (Animal Unit Equivalents), as follows:

First calculate the animal units based on AUEs & then calculate stocking rate as calculated before:

SR= total range area÷ [(livestock no. x AUE) x (duration of grazing)]

Number of livestock heads should be adjusted such that their total forage requirements & demands are
equal to the annual forage availability. If animals are grazed in numbers larger than the proper stocking
rate, then the total livestock production will temporarily increase over a year but will gradually decline
along with the individual productivity & vice versa if fewer numbers of animals are allowed to graze.
Thus best option is to estimate socking rate at first & then to allow grazing accordingly.

No doubt stocking rate is a very powerful tool for grazing management; it only considers animal
requirements in term of their productivity. It does not take into account the forage availability at specific
time period & the impacts of defoliation on range vegetation. This is best explained by grazing pressure,
which can be considered a better yardstick for grazing management.

This can be explained by the following example: In a 200 hectare rangeland area 30 cows (AUs) can be
grazed which is the stocking rate. In winter, when the vegetation is maturing & re-growth is slow,
stocking 30 cows will after some time cause decrease in forage availability because the animals are
consuming vegetation at faster rate than its growth rate. Thus grazing pressure will be increased, feed
availability (FOO) will be decreased & animal productivity will also be affected. However, in summer
when vegetation is in active growth stage, vegetation growth rate will be almost equal to the
consumption or at least it will not be affected by extensive defoliation. Thus, forage availability will not
be decreased at the same stocking rate. Hence, it can be concluded that grazing pressure discusses the
effect of livestock requirements in term of forage demand, along with range vegetation in terms of
forage availability & takes into account how fast the vegetation is growing with respect to its
consumption. The management tactics to control forage demand are; proper stocking rate, adjusting
proper kind of livestock, proper grazing system to ensure forage re-growth & determination of
vegetation growth season.


Livestock should be evenly distributed on the rangeland for even utilization of forage resources. In
general, animal preferences & presence of unpalatable vegetation lead to non uniform grazing with in
turn spoils the rangeland condition. In order to have evenly distributed livestock species throughout the
range area, a manager should at first adjust the kind of livestock which is suitable for that range. Fencing
should be used to control area selective grazing by restricting animal movement so that animals would
not have excess to certain areas where susceptible plant species are present & they would forcefully
consume other vegetation. This technique is helpful because all the vegetation including less palatable
plant species is evenly consumed. Another tactic to control area selective grazing is by placing shade,
salts/mineral licks, shade & water in the areas which are usually avoided by the animals.

It has been already discussed that range ecosystem is a natural unit comprising of site, native
vegetation, livestock & grazing community. A manager should have an insight of range ecology,
components of the range ecosystem, their functioning & various constraints on range productivity. He
should also have a broad vision of the mutual interaction of all these components. The driving force
responsible for proper functioning & growth of ecosystem is solar energy. In this regard, energy flow in
the ecosystem should be considered:

Sun Range vegetation Range livestock Man

(1%) (10%) (15%)

The basic philosophy to discuss this energy flow is the fact that in order to have maximum output from a
range area & livestock while maintaining both of them in good condition, maximum capture of solar
energy by vegetation & its maximum transfer from plants to livestock & than to man must be ensured.
This can only be done when wastage & leakage of energy is minimized at all points of capture & stages
of transfer in the ecosystem.

Environmental factors are necessary for the proper functioning of range components. These factors will
be broadly discussed below along with the limitations & constraints related to them:

· Climatic: Factors such as rainfall, floods, temperature, wind, radiation etc. & losses occur due to
aridity, dry winds, too high/too low temperature changes, frost, hailstorms, & lack of intensity/
duration of sunlight.
· Biotic: Factors such as plants, grazing animals, decomposers & man. Losses occur due to plant
uprooting & destruction, heavy & uneven grazing due to lack of management & intense
competition among the plants.
· Physiographic: Factors such as soil texture, structure, depth, slope, fertility etc. & losses occur
due to site inaccessibility, compact & impermeable soil, shallow soil, steep slopes, low
water/nutrient capability of soil, water logging, leaching, soil loosening & lack of controlled

Pasture is a term used to denote grazing land the use of good pasture in the feed program is important
as it is the cheapest source for nutrient provision & requires less labour for maintenance. In Pakistan,
there are three types of pastures:

· Seasonal: Having seasonal rabi & kharif crops like guar, berseem, cowpea etc.
· Rotational: Having a mixture of legumes & perennial grasses (e.g., napier grass &
berseem/lucerne mixture) & available 2-3.
· Permanent: Available for 10-15 years & consist chiefly of grasses.

Pasture management practices include:

· Controlled grazing practices- By Implementation of grazing system & maintaining grazing

pressure at suitable stocking rate.

• Protecting vegetation from misuse & overuse by protecting their root reserves & maintaining
plants in their vegetative stage. Plant growth seasons/pattern, timing of grazing & phenological
state should also be kept in mind. A manager should aim to have an even vegetation cover with
dense, vigorous plant growth ranging b/w 5-15cm & should say ‘no’ to grazing if height of
pasture herbage is below 10cm.

• Periodic weed control & removal of poisonous plants through the use of chemicals & by
grazing/mowing. Weeds can be controlled effectively in early summer when they are actively
growing or in autumn after rainfall when perennial weed growth occurs.

· Applying nitrogenous fertilizers- grass pastures having less than 25% leguminous plants require
additional application of nitrogenous fertilizers.
· Pasture renovation/seeding, burning, harrowing, liming & irrigation practices.

· Maintain forage availability (Feed On Offer) between 800-1400 kg DM/ha in autumn/ winter for
small animals & 1500-2000 kg DM/ha for large animals & Up to 2000 kg DM/ha during spring.
· Another factor to be considered before the application of management practices is the purpose
of pasture i.e., whether it would be utilized for hay/forage cultivation or to fulfill livestock feed
requirements just by grazing. It is recommended that during pasture establishment phase &
while applying management techniques, livestock population should be removed from the
pasture to allow development of good root system of the new seedlings & their efficient growth.

Pasture management in winter involves:

· Maximization of stocking rates as plants are mature enough to withstand defoliation. But
remember that during winter, certain plants are susceptible to cold stress & overgrazing will
lead to slower growth & weakening roots/shoots of these plants.
· Increasing pasture utilization by implementing strip & intensive grazing.

Spring management tactics involve:

· Management intensive grazing & strip grazing.

· Controlled grazing during flowering & seed setting phase. Overgrazing during extensive growth
phase affects grasses more than plants.
· Conservation of excess forage (cutting, hay/silage making etc.)
· Pest control

Prairies are the areas where vegetation is governed chiefly by grasses & fewer numbers of woody trees.
The purpose of prairies management is to conserve their biodiversity while enhancing their natural
qualities. General management guidelines include:

· A biological survey of land including plant & animal species.

· For renovation treatments like burning, cutting, mowing & herbicide application, utilize only a
small portion of prairie to minimize negative impacts of treatment on susceptible vegetation.
For this prairie should be divided into blocks & smaller units.
· Controlled grazing.
· Control of weeds/unpalatable species & cutting woody vegetation.
· Introduction of native grass species.
· Burning one block per year however, standard burn cycles of 2-3 years are recommended.

Grazing system is a specialization of grazing management. It is defined as planned utilization of range
vegetation by livestock for the benefit of both vegetation & livestock. There are number of grazing
systems each having its own advantages & disadvantages. However, any system can succeed if the
manager is diligent, active & faithful. Success of a system depends upon factors such as climate & land

condition, type of vegetation, grazing pressure, stocking rate etc. & failure is mostly due to negligence
on the part of the manager rather than internal weaknesses of the system applied. A brief description of
well known grazing systems is as follows:


In this system, the entire range area makes one unit & is open to grazing throughout the year. This
system is very easy to comprehend & apply & results in high per animal gains. However, it leads to
uneven grazing & results in undesirable changes in vegetation. Palatable & good quality vegetation
becomes weaker over the years because of repeated use & inferior/ less palatable vegetation become
vigorous. It must be added here that year long continuous grazing is hard on plants. After the years of
repeated use, root system is greatly destroyed, root reserves are used up & leaf area becomes smaller
thus plant re-growth is affected.


This includes grazing & then giving rest to the range vegetation in sequence by dividing the range area
into several units. The rest periods allow plants & grass to recover from the impacts of defoliation
before they are grazed again. This practice is applied in the following systems:

This practice is based on rotation of grazing period over entire range area by dividing the rangeland into
several paddocks. It involves grazing & giving alternate rest periods to each paddock in a planned
sequence. This system provides 70-120 days of rest periods followed by 7-10 days of grazing. Rest
periods can be adjusted according to the grazing season & vegetation growth stages when the plants are
leafy & nutritious. For division of rangeland into paddocks, temporary fencing is set up.

1st= 1st March-15th April

2nd=16thApril- 16th May
3rd=16th July-30th Aug
4th=31th Aug-30th Sep
5th=1st Oct-1st Nov
6th=2nd Nov- 15th Dec

*16th May-15th July & 16th

Dec-28th Feb are non grazing periods

Components of a good rotational system include forage supply, fencing system, shade & water
availability for the livestock. Fencing materials mostly in use are made up of either woven or barbed
wires. Electric fencing is also applied.

Electric fencing Wire fencing

A rotational system is chiefly implemented because forage yield, vigour/health can be optimized by
avoiding repeated grazing & secondly, nutritional needs of livestock can be fulfilled efficiently. It is an
efficient system because it reduces land & vegetation waste, encourages vegetation re-growth, prevents
overgrazing & provides maximum benefit to the livestock. A manager should assess his rangeland
condition in order to conduct rotations. He should be active & watchful enough to judge the right time
for rotation by looking at his range vegetation growth, livestock productivity & weather conditions.

Along with innumerable advantages, this system also has some disadvantages. Firstly, this system is
rather complex & difficult to comprehend for an illiterate grazier. It is also expensive in terms of fencing
& water requirements. Lastly, this system is not suitable for mixture of grasses & low quality legumes.


It is a multi-paddock, multi-herd system which is designed to maintain or improve the rangeland
condition by allowing deferment to any paddock where protection for vegetation reseeding is required
up till the time when seed setting/seed maturity is over. Its key feature is that each paddock periodically
receives deferment of 2-4 years according to the situation of vegetation present & number of paddocks.
The principle involved in this case is that delayed grazing up till seed setting & maturity is better than
complete rest. Deferred rotational system can be explained by the following table:

Paddock 1st year 2nd year 3rd year

1 Graze 1st Graze 3rd Graze 2nd

2 Graze 2nd Graze 1st Graze 3rd

3 Graze 3rd Graze 2nd Graze 1st

In the first year, vegeation in 1st paddock is extensively growing that’s why it is grazed earlier than the
other two because in 2nd paddock, the vegetation is flowering & in 3rd one, the vegetation is setting
seeds. That’s why grazing is delayed in both paddocks. Similarly, in the following years, grazing is
delayed in 1st & 2nd paddocks because vegetation present there is flowering & setting seeds.

In this system, instead of allowing delayed grazing in a specific paddock, grazing is totally disallowed.
Usually, one or two paddocks are given complete rest throughout the year while other pastures are
grazed seasonally in a 3-4 year cycle. This system provides rest to about 1/3rd of the range vegetation

This can be explained by the following example:

In a 4 paddock, 3 year cycle system, 1st paddock will be grazed for the entire grazing season, and then it
will receive deferment, then delayed grazing & lastly complete rest in the following years.

This system provides ample time to range vegetation to allow recovery from the impacts of defoliation
& also provides protection to the vegetation during reproductive phase by delayed grazing. A major
disadvantage cited is reduced animal performance due to forced animal movements form one unit to
another. However, this problem can be overcome by properly adjusting stocking rates.


In this system, grazing is allowed in best unit until 50% of vegetation is utilized. Then animals are moved
to the next block. This system is flexible, easy to comprehend & evaluate.

It has become evident that for implementation of a successful grazing program, a manager should have
knowledge about the tools of grazing management described above. Chalking out a strategic plan by
using these management tools, a manager can maximize productivity of rangeland, vegetation &
livestock. In my opinion, this would not only be a cost effective solution but also offer bright future
prospects for livestock production and maintenance. Hence, there is a need to make the graziers aware
of these tools by conducting interactive sessions and training programs, keeping in view local limitations
of language and literacy rate. Studies & research in area specific rangeland and livestock management
may be offered to in graduate programs as well as post graduate level in Pakistan.

Production and Handling of Wool and Hair


Wool is natural covering of sheep and is one of the important by product. Sheep raisers earn about 15-
16% of income from wool. It protects the sheep from warmth. Wool and hairs perform
thermoregulatory function for warm blooded animals. Hair is an outgrowth of mammalian animals.
Wool and hairs are distinguished by following characteristics. Wool is crimp, different in texture, elastic
and grows in staples. While hairs have no crimp and are straight. Wool and hair are dissimilar in
structure. Wool was most certainly the first animal fiber from which the clothes are made. It was started
about 4000 B.C. the first wool factory in England was recognized by Romans. There are mainly 40 breeds
of sheep found `in the world and they are producing 200 different types of wool. Australia is world
biggest producer of wool. Other countries contributing much better in wool production are China,
Argentina and South Africa. There are the four different types of wool. These are fine, medium, long and
coarse or carpet wool. The fine one is merino wool. It is producing in Australia. Coarse or carpet wool is
just producing in Pakistan. Because we lack fine wool producing sheep breeds. We have just few
crossbreds, which are producing fine wool. Hand knitted carpets and blankets are just produced by
Pakistani wool. The annual production of wool and hairs in Pakistan are 39.5 and 19.3 thou tons (2002)

Structure of wool and Hair

There are the three layers of wool epidermis, cortex and medulla. It is the surface layer made up of
irregular horny cells which overlapped over each other. At free end, there is the presence of serrated
appearance. Fine wool contains the more serrations. Below the epidermis is cortex, it forms the
principle body of fiber. It is composed of spindle like cells. The functions of cortical cells are to provide
the strength and protection to the wool fiber. The third layer medulla is only present in medium and
coarse wool. The cells of this layer have a honey comb like appearance. Hairs are growing from follicles
which are arranged in form of groups called bundles. These contain primary and secondary follicles
.Long and coarse guard hairs are obtained from primary follicles while secondary follicles give the fine

Composition of wool
Wool is chiefly composed of keratin which is also the main constituent of hairs, nails, hoofs and feathers.
Other major constituents are: carbon 50%, oxygen 22 to 25%, nitrogen 12to15%, hydrogen 7% and
sulfur 3 to 4%. The main ingredient in hair is also keratin.

Characteristics of wool

Strength of fiber
A good fiber has same strength throughout in length. Illness and nutrition are the causes of
decrease in strength.

It is the reflection of light from wool fiber. There are three types of luster obtained silver luster,
silk luster, glass luster.

Staple length
It is the length of fiber from tip to base.

It is very good characteristic of to resist to external force that is applied.

The impurities which are lost during wool scouring process is called shrinkage.

Evenness of fiber
Wool should be even and regular but variation is possible. The wool can easily be sorted

it is caused by the unique chemical and physical properties of wool. in this property fiber tend to bend
and turn in to a resilient 3 dimensional structure. It insulates the wearer. Fine wool contains the 10-12
crimp/cm while coarse wool contains 2-3 crimps/cm

This term is related to the all the impurities found in unsecured wool. There are the three types of
impurities found in unsecured wool. These are natural impurities, acquired impurities, and applied
impurities. Natural are by the secretion of the animals, acquired are sand dust and applied are by spray

Wool fiber interlocks with each other. It is called felting.

Water Absorbency
Wool can suck up to 30% of its weight in moisture without feeling moist. So it resist to fire
with out any chemical treatment.

Wool fiber can be stretched up to 50% of its t without breaking and it will also return to its
original length when released.

Production of Wool:
There are the four major steps of production of wool. These are shearing, sorting and grading,
making yarn and making fabric. Shearing is the removal of wool from sheep.

It is done two times in a year, in early spring and in early summer. The best wool obtained from
shoulder and sides of sheep. Shearing is done early in the spring and before lambing. Keep
sheep dry before shearing. Shearing should be on a clean, dry surface. Initially separate belly
wool and tags from the rest and hold them separately. to separate the belly wool from the
fleece as he or she shears it. Put the sheep off feed some hours before shearing. Avoid second
cut during shearing and try to maximize the fiber length. A properly set fleece helps create a
good impression on the buyer or grader. Use paper twine only for tie the fleece. All belly wool,
tags, off-color, burry, seedy, chaffy, cotted, stained or dead wool should be bagged separately.
Before sent to market wool should be placed in a dry clean place.

Sorting and Grading

The removing any discolored broken or poorer wool from each fleece and separated on the
basis of quality of fiber. Wool fibers are judged on the basis of their strength, fineness
(diameter), length, crimp (waviness) and color. The wool is then scoured to remove the
impurities such as sand and dust. There are the two types of wool scouring practices are doing.
One is water based scouring and other is solvent based. In the first the blended greasy wool is
passed through six hot and cold bowls at the end the wool squeeze the scouring solution along
with grease and dirt before entering to next bowl. Three bowls contain detergent and remain
are clean rinse or cold suit bowls. After the wool dries, it is passes through rollers which organize
into a flat sheet that is called a web. This process is called carded. The web is then shaped into
narrow ropes known as silvers.
Wool Grading
The wool is broadly classified into fine, medium and coarse

Numerical Count System

Grading of wool in Pakistan

Making yarn and Making Fabric

Woolen yarn are heavier than worsted. Worsted wool is lighter and highly twisted.
Worsted wool formation requires a number of processes, which the fibers are set parallel to each other.
Its use is in making athletics attire. The finishing process is fulling.

It involves wetting the fabric with water and then passing through the rollers. Fibers interlock and mat
together with each other. In Worsteds wool fibers passes through boiling water and then cold water. It
strengthens the fibers.

Quality of wool
There are the four parameters which determined the quality of wool. These are crimp, yield,
color, fiber diameter and staple strength. From which fiber diameter is of significance.

Camel hair
Camel hairs are produced in Mongolia, Iran, Afghanistan, Russia, China, and Australia. Annual
production of hairs from camel is 5 pounds. Camel hair is obtained from the Bactrian camel, found
from Turkey east to China and north to Siberia. Camel's hair is also a fiber that provides warmth
without extra weight. The hairs protect camel from extreme cold conditions.

Alpaca (in alpaca (mammal)

The alpaca’s wool is used in making the protective covering.

Cashmere wool
It is the fiber of Cashmere goats. It provides natural light-weight insulation without bulk. It is
collected during the spring moulting season.

Mohair is from the Angora goat and is highly resilient and strong. Mohair’s luster are not softness,
determines its importance. Home decorating fabrics and garment fabrics are produced from mohair.

It is obtained from the angora rabbit. This is used in making sweaters, mittens and baby clothes


Fiber Diameter(micron)
Mohair 24-45

Cashmere 1 5-19

Wool (Marino) 17-25

Wool Production in Pakistan

Pakistan is producing 42.7 Thousand tons grease wool and 25.65 thousand tons of
clean wool. 5% is lost during shearing, handling, transportation. Wool production depends
on No. of sheep, annual yield, wool consumed or marketed. Average annual production of
wool per sheep, 1.1 – 1.8 is low as compare to 4.5 – 13.6 kg in countries such as Australia,
Newzealand & USA. Pakistani wool suited for carpet & rugs. Pakistani wool suited for carpet &

Animal Feed Quality Maintenance

By Tahseen Alam,

Pakistan is an agricultural country, and 52 percent of the agriculture is comprises of livestock. The
livestock is an integrated part of agriculture. A large percentage of human food is obtained by the
animal sources in the form of milk and milk products, and meat. In order to increase the production of
livestock it is necessary to provide a quality feed to the animals and avoid the deficiency of nutrients by
a safe and balanced ration. The animals are the good converters of bio-roughages into very useful
products. We should utilize this efficiency to increase our production. The target is to increase the
production efficiency not the number of mouths. This can be obtained by producing a safe, balanced
and quality feed for livestock according to the requirements of animals in different stages of life. For
improving the nutrition and performance of animals the quality of feed is of utmost importance in
achieving the target. In quality control program, all the steps in feed manufacturing starting from
formulation to the delivery of the feed are evaluated and inspected.

What is a Feed
Feed is a term used for the “food which is being used by the domesticated animals” such as cattle,
sheep, goat and dogs etc.

Quality of a feed
Quality is referred as “any characteristic that make a thing describable to what it is”, or “it describes the
level of excellence of a product that it has”.

There is no pet definition of quality; however a good quality feed can be explained as “a feed that is
unadulterated, true in nature and give desired results to the producer, is known as quality feed”.
A feed which provide the animals with all essential nutrients in sufficient quantity and high digestibility
and palatability is a quality feed.

Quality Control
The quality control can be defined as with the minimum cost of processing maintain the quality of a feed
at the levels that are acceptable for the buyer as well as for the consumers with a high degree of

Check list or Points to Evaluate in Quality Control Program:

A complete layout of in-plant quality control program is an essential landmark of a feed
manufacturing industry. The typical points to evaluate regarding to quality control is:

§ Division of manpower, Supervisory, duties and responsibilities.

§ Training of all employees with realizing their individual duties of quality control.
§ Complete record keeping of production and procedures.
§ Setting standards for products, procedures, equipments, ingredients, sampling,
labeling, packaging and storage etc.
§ The complete list of useable and banned ingredients in feed manufacturing with lab.
Interpretation report of each ingredient to be used in feed.
§ The standard operating procedure and equipment handling practices.
§ Use and availability of necessary test equipment at each step of feed manufacturing.
§ Periodic, routine inspection of products and procedure with check list to assure that
company’s quality standards are being met.
§ Complaints and product recall procedures.
§ Equipment and plant sanitation program.
§ Raw ingredients purchasing, sampling and standardizing specifications.
§ Shelf life, storage, handling and pest control guidelines for raw and finished feed.

Factors Involved in Quality Maintenance of Feed:

Building Layout and Maintenance:

Layout of the building is very important factor in quality feed manufacturing. The farm building design is
always in accordance with the type of machinery used for feed processing. The layout of the building
should be designed in such a way that it should facilitate the routine and stepwise work of labors. These
factors should be pre-planned according to the demand of product you want to produce there.

Housekeeping and maintenance of the building is also important in order to control the quality of feed
and to avoid the contamination of product or raw ingredients by any other undesirable material. For this
purpose cleanliness of building, work area, and equipment used is very much necessary. Besides, the
work area should be well lit, either naturally by sunlight or artificially. Proper ventilation, temperature
and humidity control prevent the spoilage of ingredients and finished feed. Dust control also prevents
contamination of feed through environment.

Buildings are constructed and maintained to avoid the entrance of any unwanted or foreign material
which can gain access to the feed and ingredients and contaminate them. The purpose of building is to
provide the housing and sufficient space for the equipment, labors, processing, and storage of feed. The
wear and tear both in building as well as in equipment or machinery should be done immediately and
regularly. Any delay in repairing of equipment cause improper functioning of machinery and result in
poor quality product manufacturing.

Grounds and Topography of the Mill:

Area selection is important factor determining the quality of the product. A clean and separate area
should be preferred for such type of enterprise. However the provision of basic facilities in the area such
as road links, electricity, and water supply etc. are necessary considerations. The purpose of selecting a
separate area is to avoid the access of any affluent or other pollutants which can contaminate the
product and hence, deteriorate the quality of finished and raw product ultimately.

The grounds should be free of any vegetative contaminants and weeds or other plant debris which can
directly contaminate the products or harbor any pest, insects and other infections that may cause
contamination. Besides this there should not be any presence of excessive feed wastes or spilled grains
which promote the growth of vermin and other infections.

The topography of the grounds and whole area is of very much importance in order to prevent such type
of contaminations. The proper drainage of the grounds is necessary to avoid the growth of unwanted
things nearby.

Bio-security Measures:
The complete bio-security measures should be adopted to avoid the risk of any outside infections at the
feed processing unit. Specific bio-security measures should be adopted for any entry or exit at the feed
unit. Entrances and exits into the feed processing unit should always be monitored and secured all the
time. These may be staff personals, customers, vehicles and equipments or luggage etc.

In vehicles, the trucks containing raw feed ingredients coming from any far away areas should be
disinfected properly before entering the gate. The other option is that there should be a completely
separate area for loading and unloading of trucks. Customer’s vehicles and other delivery vehicles
should not be allowed to enter the area where feed is processed or stored. The staff vehicle’s parking
should also be away from this area or outside of the main gate.

In personnel, there may be staff members, labors, customers, truck drivers and visitors. All the personals
which are entering the feed processing area should wear the disposable boot covers and preferably the
disinfected gowns when coming in contact with working personals or processing equipment.

Personnel Training and Supervisory:

The golden rule of “right man for right job” is of more importance in order to run an enterprise and to
produce a quality product. For this purpose, the proper training of every person working there for doing
a specific job is an essential tool in quality maintenance program. Mandatory training programs are
essential for the personnel which are appointed to critical areas of manufacturing unit. These critical
areas may be the drug room; mixing areas and scale house etc. the adequate training of the back-up
personnel in the critical areas is also necessary.

Besides these critical areas, all other personnel who are in direct contact with feed or feed ingredients
should be adequately trained and well aware of good hygienic practices. Feed safety and quality
maintenance procedures along with the standard operating procedures should be well documented and
acknowledged by every personnel dealing with feed manufacturing. These standard operating
procedures should essentially be posted on the critical areas of manufacturing unit.

Supervision at each working unit and every working personnel is necessary to check the adherence of
standard operating procedures and quality maintenance program. The responsibility for monitoring of
these procedures is clearly assigned to a well educated and experienced person. The supervisor should
have complete knowledge of all aspects of the standard operating procedures and quality maintenance
program of the feed manufacturing unit.

Steps in Quality Control Program:

Before Processing

Before receiving any feed ingredient, sampling and testing for any variation or potential risk is
necessary procedure in order to maintain the quality of finished feed. Taking proper or right
samples is an art. The samples should be taken before unloading of truck. The site for sample
taking is important parameter in order to get correct samples. Generally there are four steps in

1. Mark the different areas within the body of truck.

2. Select/choose the areas for taking samples.
3. Select the bags/sacks from which you want to take the sample.
4. Choose the areas within a bag for taking a sample.

Sample Analysis and Testing

1. Visual Analysis
2. Laboratory Testing

The visual analysis is the first criteria for selection of any feed ingredient for quality feed
manufacturing. The samples are visually analyzed for size, color, shape, smell, broken seeds and
presence of foreign bodies (adulterants). These all parameters should be matched with the
standards provided by the firm for the selection or rejection of raw feed ingredients. The visual
analysis should be done by the trained persons who have sufficient experience to deal with the
grains and other ingredients.

The samples which are passed during visual analysis should be tested in the laboratory. In the
laboratory analysis, the samples are tested for protein, fat, fiber contents, calories, minerals,
toxins and residues etc. The standard values or tolerance levels of all these parameters for each
ingredient are provided by the firm and sample ingredients are then compared with these
standards for each parameter in order to pass or fail the ingredient to be used in feed

Storage of Raw Ingredients

Storage and protection of raw ingredients is very much important in manufacturing a quality feed. The
purpose of storage is to protect the bulk from environmental changes and adulterations. Special
precautionary measures are adopted before and during storage the storage period. Specifically designed
silos, bins and stalls are used for storage of specific type of commodities under specific conditions. For
example, the more perishable ingredients are stored under different conditions of temperature and
humidity. Similarly the prohibited material such as blood meal, meat meal, bone meal etc. are stored
separately from other grain feed ingredients. The wear and tear in the building of the store house
should be repaired immediately so that the stored ingredients should not be exposed to direct sunlight,
rain water, pests and rodents etc. the spoiled, moldy, damaged and adulterated material should not be
stored along with. The ingredients store house should be far away from the other hazardous materials
or feed additives such as the caustic and cleaning agents, lubricants and petroleum products and
pesticides etc. All the ingredients should be clearly identified by proper labeling.

Rodents, insects and birds are the common pests of the grain ingredients; therefore there should be a
routine pest control system against these pests. The pesticides should be used with great precautions to
avoid the adulteration of the feed ingredients and to assure the quality of finished feed. Therefore, only
trained personnel should apply the pesticides and record it along with the list of pesticides to be used.

Formulas and Labels

The review of formula is important for safety and regularity purposes. The suitability of formula for
intended species, specific class and purpose of rearing of animal are some necessary considerations
while formulating the feed. The formulas are also reviewed to check the suitability and compatibility
with the equipment limitations. The feed formulation should be done only by an experienced
nutritionist. Then a clear check out, control and inspection procedures should exist between formulation
and mixing.
Labeling is the second most important consideration. The formulas should be accurate as indicated by
its labeling to produce a quality commercial feed. The labels should provide all indications, contra-
indications and limitations relating to the feed.

During Processing

Equipment Maintenance
Equipment maintenance is necessary to produce good quality feed and improve processing efficiency.
Equipment is also involved in contamination of feed being processed. The main contaminants from the
equipment are the lubricants and cleaning agents. In equipment maintenance the magnets and screens
should be checked and cleaned properly. Besides these all other equipments or parts of machinery such
as bins and pits, conveyers and elevators, grinders and mixers etc. should be checked for their proper
functioning and any wear and tear in the moving parts should be monitored routinely.

Weighing and Mixing

Exact weighing is very important to maintain the quality of finished feed. The improper weighing or
weighing procedures can alter the ratio of ingredients used in feed manufacturing hence altering the
nutrient values of finished feed.

In weighing there may be two types of errors;

1. Equipment error: This is due to faulty equipment or zero error in the measuring scale.
2. Personal error: This is due to the negligence of person during reading on the weight scale.

In mixing, the capacity of the mixer and the time of mixing are two important factors which can
deteriorate the quality of finished feed. The capacity of the mixer should be according to the limitations
and specifications mentioned by the manufacturer.

The mixing time depends upon the type of feed ingredients used in feed formation. Optimum mixing
times for different types of feeds to be manufactured should be adhered on the mixer. Under-mixing
and over-mixing both can deteriorate the quality of finished feed.

Cleanout procedures
Cleanout procedures for different equipments should be sufficient to prevent the contamination and
adulteration of feed. Complete description of the procedure should be available at the working unit. The
cleaning agents to be used should be safe and approved. The old material from previous feed which is
adhered to the different parts should be cleaned out to prevent the over built-up of equipment and
adulteration of next processed feed.

The effectiveness of cleaning procedures is checked and analyzed by the laboratory testing.

After Processing

Labeling is necessary procedure for any type of commercial product. In labeling, all the information and
precautions about the manufacturing and usage of product should be mentioned. In a feed
manufacturing unit, the labels should contain the necessary precautionary measures relating to the
customers, the list of ingredients used, guarantee and expiry date etc.

The other things mentioned in the labels are the type of feed, name, and monogram of manufacturers
and person who designed the labels.

Records Keeping
Record keeping is a necessary tool in order to run an enterprise. In a feed manufacturing unit the record
of ingredients received, formulation records, processing technique used, weight of raw and finished
feed, difference in theoretical and actual production values, comparison of actual production and final
bag count/weight are necessary to be maintained by a trained person.

Storage of Finished Product

The storage requirements are similar to that of raw ingredients with some extra precautionary
measures. In order to store the finished feed the sacks are stored on the pallets instead of flour/ground.
The environment of the store house should be clean, free of pesticides and contaminants. The
contaminated, adulterated and moldy products should be stored separately. Separation of medicated
products from non-medicated is also necessary.

The prevention from environmental contamination of feed outside of the mill is also necessary. The
cleaning and disinfection of trucks before the loading and covering of the bulk load to prevent from
direct air and sunlight is necessary while distributing the feed.

The complete identity of feed should be maintained on the sacks from mixing to unloading and

Recall and Complaint Procedures
In recall procedure the labeling play a very important role. Feed can be identified and traced by a code
or lot number. The customer complaint forum should be open and always welcomed. All the complaints
should be received and documented and then investigation is initiated accordingly. The animal health
hazards and feed safety procedures are investigated and reported.

A complete follow- up of all the customer’s complaints is documented which should contain the findings
and resolution.


By Tayyab Ahsan Tahir

High yielders can be defined as the animals which has genetically potential to produce large amount of
milk. Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, Milking Shorthorn are the world best
milk producing cattle breeds. In Pakistan we have Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, and crosses of sahiwal with Jersey
and Friesian, as best producer. Nili Ravi and Murrah are two best milch breeds of buffalo. In real sense
high yielders are the true dairy animals and for a profitable dairy business they should be the first choice
of a dairyman. From the studies it is clear that nutritional management is very important factor for the
health, production, and profitability of the dairy animal. Problems related to mastitis, reproduction,
culling, lameness, post-calving disease, and milk production are influenced by nutrition. Four factors
genetics, management /environment, health and feeding programs determine Milk production.
Nutritional management has the major effect on the milk production after the genetics. But due to use
of traditional feeding practice and low quality feeding sources, it is not only difficult but may be
impossible for an animal to produce according to its vigor. Although keeping high yielding dairy cattle is
an excellent choice for a profitable dairy enterprise. But ordinary feeding approaches are not sufficient
to get good milk production from them.

If we provide good fodder and concentrate supplementation according to the animal’s nutrition demand
we can get maximum out put form them. With better nutrition and feeding management cows can
produce 67,000 lbs/year or 89 litters/ day and buffalos can produce 6615 lbs/year or 22-30 litters/day.
Better nutrition and management is key to avoid from metabolic disorders e.g. milk fever, ketoses
twisting of stomach, acidosis, and milk fat depression in animals kept on high plan of nutrition.

So as a farm manager or farmer one should keep in mind these things and has to make the policy

Nutritional management:
Nutritional management is one of the most important aspect of dairy animal management. It takes
almost 70% of the cost of a dairy form and it is very important for the performance of dairy animal.
Generally it is said that an animal consume dry matter 2.5 -- 3 % of its live body weight. But for the high

yielders this percentage of dry matter intake can goes up to 4.5-5 %. So to ensure the required dry
matter intake it is advisable to provide palatable and good quality forage. Palatability refers to the level
of acceptance. And quality refers to the nutrient profile and availability of nutrients from it. Palatability
of fresh green fodder is generally good. But availability of ample amount of green fodder whole the year
is problem. So due to this reason some countries like Pakistan, former are 40% deficient in fodder crops.
To fulfill the dry matter requirement one very good option is crops residues e.g. wheat straw, rice straw,
corn cobs and maize stalks. But these feed stuffs are very poor source of nutrients and can not support
animal needs. So by applying different type of treatment we can increase there nutritive value, and
palatability. An effective feeding system is essential for the management of proper nutrient intake and
maximizes the consumption of nutritionally balanced ration. So to make it possible the most important
step is the division of herd into groups on the basis of production level and stage of lactation. This will
facilitate the feeding program. A good dairy feeding program must consider the quality of feed, quantity
to be fed and feeding time. Nutrients that require for milk production are taken from the cry matter. So
Increase in dry matter intake is the key for productive and efficient milk production. Dry matter intake is
high during mid to late lactation so this leads to increase in milk production. Following table explain the
relation ship between dry matter intake and milk production for the cows of different body size, in mid
to late lactation.

To fulfill the nutritional demand of dairy animal different type of nutritional combination ca be used.



In early parturition the amount of dry matter intake decrees by up to 18%.due to decrease appetites.
Some other problems like difficult calving, milk fever, retained placenta or twisted stomach
suppress the DMI further. After calving it increases and attain peak on 10 to 12 weeks of
lactation. So during the early lactation days you have to practice the lead feeding. Don’t increase the
grain from the level that offered pre-calving. Offered the high quality forages as much as possible. Offer
several pails of warm water to reduce the stress of calving. Keeps the cow eating to prevent the twisted
stomachs and milk fever. Then form 3-4 days post calving increase the level of grain@ 1kg/day during
first week, 0.5kg/day during 2nd week and 0.3kg/day during 3rd week and also offer high protein feed.
Protein will stimulate appetite and feed digestibility of fresh cow. Try to maximize the protein intake i.e.
10 lb, up to 2nd week of lactation and grain intake i.e. 23 lb by 3rd week of lactation. Protein requirement
are high during early lactation i.e. is 19% of DM and it reduce to 18% during peak of lactation.

After attaining the milk production peak, feed the grain according to the nutrient requirement. Demand
of grain in feed depends on milk yield, fat %, stage of lactation, body weight, body condition,
quantity and quality of eaten forage.

Following table explain level of grain feeding based on milk production:


TMR can be defined as, “a complete ration which can provides adequate nutrients to meet the needs of
dairy cows." It is actually a mixture of roughages and processed ingredients.

Advantages of Total Mixed Ration: (1) It Increased the dry matter intake and peak of DMI is achieved at4
to 8 weeks of lactation. (2) Cause 5-85 increase in milk production. (3) Its use limits the rumen ph
between 6.2-6.8.that result in increase ruminal fermentation and cellulose digestion, which lead to
acetic acid formation, thus, this result in increased milk fat percentage. (4) It reduces the digestive out
put but maximize the protein microbial protein formation. (5) It give better control on cattle’s diet and
allow better use of low quality forage, eliminate the use of concentrate at milking and no need of extra
mineral and vitamin supplementation

Forage quality, accurate weighing and moisture determination of feeds, correctly balanced ration, Dry
cow programme, and monitoring the feed intake absolutely are keys for the success of TMR program.

An example of a TMR system follows:

The forage, fiber levels and particle size are important part of Total Mixed Rations. Proper forage size
improves the dry matter intake even when the forage quality is very poor. If the particle size is too small
then cows will spends less time in chewing which lead to decrease in saliva production. When this
happens, pH will decrease milk fat percent.
Disadvantages of TMR: (1) When animals are not grouped according to milk production then cows in late
lactation become too fat. (2) Small groups (less than 50 cows) of cattle not feasible. (3) Baled hay
required chopping before being mixed into a TMR.


Generally High-producing cows are sent to grazing on excellent pasture. But no grain supplement lead to
energy deficiency in early lactation, low peak and daily milk yield, excessive loss of body condition, poor
persistence after peak, silent heats, and low conception rates . Energy obtained by a high-producing cow
grazing on a pure legume pasture would support about 50 to 60 lb/day of milk. But in field condition it is
absorved that they produce75 to 80 lb/day milk. So it is necessary to supplement the high yielders with
energy source such as grains. Pasture cattle should be fed grain at a rate of 1 lb per 5 lb of milk yield.


High-quality forages are high in CP but low in protein that “bypasses” ruminal degradation so to fulfill
the UDP demand they should be supplemented. Studies shows that heifers supplemented with 0.9 lb of
soybean meal shows 0.2 lb/day increase in live body weight. From experiments it is seen that milk
production responses to protein supplements typically range from 0.5 to 1 lb of milk per pound of
supplement fed.


As for the concern of high yielders nutritional demand, alone green fodder or treated straw can not full
fill their requirements. So there is needed to add some nutrient in such form that they remain inert from
the rumen environment and make available at lower part of digestive tract. Such nutrients are called by
pass nutrients.


Aim of this technology is to make the nutrients low or un-degradable in the rumen and digestible and
absorbable at lower tract. Bypass nutrient mean that the essential and more important nutrient (high
BV) should escape from the rumen or face minimum fermentation. Reasons are different for different
nutrients and are based on their mode of utilization in the rumen.

Various nutrients are used in by pass form and these include bypass protein, fat, starch, minerals and

Crude protein which is supplied by forage usually metabolized to ammonia and then ammonia is used
by rumen microbes to form microbial protein. Good quality roughages in combination with grains as
Concentrate satisfy the dairy cow’s energy and protein requirements during mid to late lactation. But
during early days of lactation and high-yielding period the cows required some concentrate containing
undegradable protein rich in essential amino acids e.g. lysine and methionine. The protein must be
rumen protected to ensure that most of the amino acids should reach the intestine. Where they form
precursors to milk protein and blood glucose.

This protection can be achieved by following methods:


Some part of protein from all feed resources can bypass the rumen digestion. But some bypass more
protein than others as given in the table. Following are the factors that effete the natural bypass of
a) Particle size
b) protein’s chemical nature
c) protein’s physical consistency
d) other dietary components in feed
e) Passage Rate from Rumen

Following table shows the %age of bypass protein in different feed resources:

Heat treatment increases the protection for protein. Heat causes the denaturation of protein which
provides effective protection against microbial fermentation in the rumen.

It is a widely used chemical treatment method for the protein´s protection. In this method there is
added 3-4 kg of commercial formalin (37-40% HCHO) per 100 kg of CP or 1-1.2 g HCHO/ 100 g CP.
formaldehyde use to protect dietary protein is based on the premise that bound formaldehyde
markedly reduces the solubility of the protein at pH 6.0 which is the rumen ph. Other aldehydes like,
acetaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, glyoxal can also be used.

It is useful method for those proteins and individual amino acids that have good Biological value.
Mostly Methionine and lysine which are limiting amino acids are given in encapsulation form with a
combination of fats or fatty acids, carbonate, kaolin, lecithin, glucose etc.


Manipulation in amino acid structure is another way for rumen bypass of amino acids. Examples of
such manipulation are Methionine hydroxy, N-acetyl-DL-Methionine, DL-Homocysteine thiolactone-
Hcl, DL-Homocysteine, etc. they yielded free amino acids at abomasal pH, and increase the amino
acids concentration in the ruminants.
Feed processing, metal amino acid complex, plant secondary compounds, decreasing retention time
in rumen etc are some other ways to produce UDP.

In following table there is given % bypass of amino acid from treated soybean oil seeds:

Rapeseed is rich in the important amino acids. But its protein is metabolized in to ammonia in the
cow’s rumen and resulting in to a low degree of utilization. If we subjected the rapeseed under heat

treatment after oil extraction then the resultant protein is less degradable in the cow’s rumen. And
it has no negative effects on its metabolizable properties in the intestines. Its by pass value is 65%.
Biochemical and nutritional basis for bypass protein effect on animal performance:
Bypass protein feeding provide Additional supply of amino acids at intestinal and tissue level and it
Lower ammonia production in the rumen that result in to low urea synthesis in liver. So this result in
Energy saving and availability of more amino acids go for Gluconeogenesis, which is best utilization
of protein resources.
Effect of by pass protein on lactating performance:
Studies shows that by pass protein feeding result in significant increase in m milk yield and fat
corrected milk yield. This increase in milk yield varies from 8 – 10%.

It is a common practice to add the fat in the diet of most high producing herds. During 80 to 100
days postpartum energy demands exceed from energy intake. So it result in Severe weight loss
which lead to ketosis, fatty liver disease, reduced reproductive performance, and decreased milk
yield. Cereal grains can be used as an economical source of energy. But grains have less amount of
fiber and great amount of fermentable carbohydrate that can lead to acidosis. So Fat can be use as
alternate source of energy without changing ration fiber and carbohydrate dynamics. Fat sources
include Oilseeds, animal fats, and animal fat-oil blends are referring to as ruminal degradable fat and
they also provide nutrients other than energy. They are cheep source of energy. There are also some
special processed products that provide fat as their prime nutrient and called as ruminal inert fat.

Following table contain the example of such available products.

Through the experiments of fat feeding it is concluded that addition of 0.45-0.7 kg of bypass fat in diet
will increase 3 to 8 percent in milk yield and 0.2-0.3 % in milk fat. It also enhances the reproductive
performance because animal were return to positive energy balance earlier and this effect the follicular
size, ovum fertility and circulating blood progesterone level. There was reported 20% higher first service
conception and decrease in calving interval by adding fat.
When practicing fat feeding there is necessary, make some changes in ration of dairy animals. 20-22 %
NDF and 19-20 % ADF is needed to maintain ruminal digestion so when feeding fat 1-2 percent increase
in ADF is recommended. Calcium should be increase from0.7-0.9 % and Magnesium should also be
increased from 0.25 to 0.30 % in the total ration dry matte. Increase in the amount of added fat be
gradual and during early lactation fat supplementation should be limited. Fat addition will cause
decrease in milk protein so it is recommended to add 6-12 g of niacin or protected amino acids.
Chemically it is trimethylated hydroxide. In biological tissues, it found in free form and as a component
of lecithin, acetylcholine, certain plasmalogens, and sphingomyelins. It is not a vitamin; but is an
essential nutrient. Most animals can synthesize choline, but this level is inadequate to maintain health.
It is very crucial for brain, neuromuscular signaling, normal nerve transmission, synthesis of
phospholipids, secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) from liver, normal tissue metabolism and
milk production in lactating dairy cattle. So need to give with feed. Naturally it found as a component of
phospholipids, commonly called phosphatidylcholine or lecithin. Increasing the amount of by pass
choline will increase the milk and milk fat production. The adequate level of choline in feed is 4-6 g/day.
For the rumen-protected choline the milk production response is 5 to 7 lb day during the first 56 to 60
days of lactation.
Nutritionally essential minerals for an animal are 21, which are grouped into major minerals and trace
(minor) elements, depending upon their requirement. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine,
potassium, sulphur and magnesium are important major minerals. While copper, cobalt, iron, iodine,
zinc, manganese and selenium are important trace minerals. Mostly they are present in forage but are
not sufficient to meet animal requirements. Under normal conditions balanced commercial feeds can
fulfill minerals demand of dairy animal. However, some time they are need to supplemented. Mineral
deficiencies or imbalance cause metabolic disturbances and can produce specific deficiency diseases
that ultimately lead to decrease in production.


Generally Ca and phosphorous are required in a 1:2 to 1:1. But for the dairy animal Calcium to
phosphorus ratio maintain between 1.3:1 and 1.5:1. This is recommended by the National Research
Council (NRC). The requirements for phosphorus can be multiplied by a factor of 1.3 to 1.5 to obtain
the amounts of calcium required can be calculated by multiplying the P requirement with a factor of
1.3 to 1.5.

Following are recommended requirements of P.

Sources of Calcium and Phosphorus:


Magnesium is a structural part of bones and also an activator in phosphorus metabolism. It also has role
in carbohydrate metabolism and neuromuscular functions of the muscles. Per cow per day magnesium
requirements are approximately 9 g for maintenance, and 0.74 g per liter of milk.
Potassium is a major intracellular cation and also involved in the osmotic regulation of tissue fluids and
in acid-base balance. There exist an ionic balance among K, Na, Ca and Mg. 0.5 to 0.8% K should be
added in ruminants diet. But in stress requirement s appears to be increase. For heat-stressed dairy
cows its level should be 1.1%. More than 1.5% will decrease the dry matter intakes.
Both Na and Cl are required in a ratio of 1:1.6.The recommended level of sodium in ration is 8.5 g for
maintenance of a 500 kg cow and 0.63 g for each liter of milk produced. No Cl supplementation is
d) IRON (Fe):
Deficiency of iron causes anemia development in calves fed on milk low in iron level. Dietary allowances
for pregnant and lactating cows is 40 mg Fe/kg DM.

Vitamins are complex organic compounds and are the parts of enzyme systems required for the energy
transformation and regulation of body metababolism. Vitamins are required in minute amounts for
normal growth, production, reproduction and health. Essential Vitamins are A, D, K, E, C and B. their
deficiency in cattle is rare. So supplementation is required in only certain specific circumstances. Only
vitamin A, D required some supplementation.


Use of buffer in dairy animal feed is recommended to resist the change in ruminal ph.
chemically it is the combination of week acid and its salt. The buffers that are use for the
lactating animal include magnesium oxide, potassium carbonate, potassium bi carbonate and
sodium bi carbonate. Mostly we use carbonate and bicarbonate of Na and K. in rumen, intestine,
tissues, and body fluid buffers maintain hydrogen ion concentration. The recommended
concentration level of buffers in feed varies from agent to agent. For example magnesium oxide
used @0.4-0.6%, potassium carbonate @ 1.2% , potassium bi carbonate @ 1.8%and sodium bi
carbonate@ 0.6-0.8%.


High yielding dairy animals require a high amount of nutrient to support high milk production. By
Normal feeding approach it is impossible to fulfill there requirements. So for better feeding and nutrient
intake they should be divided into different production groups. The entire dairy animal kept on stall
feeding should given energy and protein supplementation according to stage of lactation and milk
production. But the percentage of NDF and ADF should not decrease to 20-22 % and 19-20 %
respectively. Because too decrease in the level fiber will lead to milk fat depression. By using TMR for
dairy cattle feeding is good approach when there is shortage in the availability if good quality green
forage and has the abundance of low quality feedstuffs. Cattles feed on good quality pasture respond to
the supplementation of energy and fatBypass protein, fat, minerals and some vitamins use in the feed of
dairy cattle is necessary to support their production, maintain health, reproductive capability and
profitability of a dairy business. Use of high percentage of energy rich diet can lead to ruminal acidosis
so buffer feeding is a option to keep the acidity right.

Techniques for Improving Poor Quality Roughages and Non-

conventional feed stuffs
By Syed Waqas

Roughages are those feeds which have high fiber content and low protein, and digestibility for example
wheat straw, rice straw etc. The non-conventional feed stuffs are all those feeds that are not
traditionally used in animal feeding and are not being used in commercially produced rations for animals
for example rice husk, residues from maize etc.

The basic purpose of improving the poor quality roughages and non-conventional feed stuffs is to
increase the protein contents and digestibility. There are numbers of methods by which we can improve
the poor quality roughages and non-conventional feed stuffs, including physical, chemical and biological
methods. Each method has some advantages as well as some limitations. The most important and easily
applicable is the chemical method as compared to the others because of availability and economics. The
objective of this paper is discussing the major techniques for improving the poor quality roughages and
non-conventional feed stuffs. There are two ways by which we can increase the nutritional value of poor
quality roughages. First is by supplementation and second is by treatment. The objective to understand
the basic points related to the digestive utilization of poor quality roughages that we should keep in
mind while adapting any technique is the practical situation. In developing countries Livestock
production is largely dependent on fibrous feeds that are deficient in nitrogen, minerals and vitamins.
To compensate the nitrogen deficiency in fibrous feeds and increasing their digestibility, intake and
nutrient availability by optimization of rumen fermentation we can use urea and other compounds

Main Body

Following are some methods by which we can increase the nutritional value of the poor quality
roughages and non-conventional feed stuffs.

1. Physical methods

2. Chemical methods

3. Biological methods

1. Physical methods:
These methods change the physical structure of the roughages. Physical methods can be divided into:

(i)Mechanical techniques

(ii)Thermal techniques

(iii)Irradiation techniques

(i)Mechanical techniques:
The purpose of mechanical treatment is to decrease the size of blades of straw. It includes:

It can be done with machines ,knives or flails by this we can cut the blades of straw into long sections
from 1 to 10 cm. we cannot say that is a treatment but it is a technique for improving the quality of long
and tough forage, making its handling and manipulation easy for the animal. Chopping can be useful,
for example, while feeding like long maize stalks etc.

It is also called as defibering.It can be achieved by a type of flail mill but should not have concave sieve.
It gives shorter but variable sections by bursting the stalk and dividing it along its length. This technique
increases the absorptive capability of the forage and can be used in developed countries to create a
carrier for giving liquid feed supplementation such as molasses and whey.

It can be done with the help of a hammer mill which produces forage particles less than a centimeter in

(ii)Thermal techniques:
High pressure steam is used which causes the swelling of the fibers and a significant damage to the
hemicelluloses. Steam treatment is used to improve the nutritive value for example of the pulp residue
byproduct remains after sugar cane juice extraction. It increases the digestibility.

(iii)Irradiation techniques:
Gamma radiation can significantly enhance the digestibility of forages, but in vivo results with oat straw
showed no effect of radiation on voluntary intake and a reduction in dry matter digestibility. Electron
irradiation is an efficient method of increasing digestibility, but it is too expensive for commercial

2. Chemical methods:
This category of treatment techniques is most widely using now a days in the the field of research and
development. These treatments are really very efficient and hence some of them are extremely easy to
put into practice because of being economical and feasible. Chemical methods include:

(a)Urea treatment:
Although there are a number of factors related to the urea treatment which cannot be discussed in
detail and there are many processes involved in handling and manufacturing which are difficult to
explain. The urea treatment is the consequence of two processes which occur at the same time within
the forage mass that is treated; first is ureolysis in which urea is converted into ammonia, and the
subsequently the effect of the ammonia that is produced on the cell walls of the forage. We can use
urea molasses block. In older times blocks were used without molasses but now a days urea molasses
multinutrient blocks or urea molasses mineral blocks are used. Digestibility enhanced due to increased
rates of rumen fermentation. The major requirements for attaining better microbial activity and cell
production in the rumen are:

(i)To supply enough nitrogen

(ii)To supply enough ATP

(iii)To supply enough minerals and monomers

The major limiting factor with straws is insufficient nitrogen. To compensate that urea treatment is best

Advantages of urea treatment:

(i).It stimulates rumen fermentation hence increases straw intake by animals.

(ii)It increases microbial protein synthesis.

(iii)Itimproves daily milk (by 0.5–1.0 kg) and fat (by 0.3–0.5 percent) yields.

(iv)It maintains health and reproductive functions.

(v)There is no risk of urea toxicity.

(b)Alkali treatment:
If there is no availability of ammonia or the distribution network is unsatisfactory then we have another
option that is to treat the straw with a solution of urea which will hydrolyses and ammonia will be
produced within the straw mass. It has great importance to treat the straw and other roughages with
ammonia (can be in gas or solution form) because residual alkali as NaOH, is not left over there and It
can increases the nitrogen content of that material by 0.8 to 1.0 percentage unit. Ammonia application
should be carried out by trained technical person. we can also spray the urea solution by using a
sprinkler on chopped straw to attain moisture content of 30 per cent in final product. Then treated
straw is ensiled immediately. The ensiled material can be exposed to air for one or two hours before
feeding to get rid from excess ammonia.

(c)Treatment with NaOH:

It can be used in 3 ways:

(i)Semi wet treatment:

In this method a caustic soda solution is prepared in a concentration of between 1.6 and 5 % and then
mixing it with the straw at the rate of between 1 to 3 liters per kg of straw. The treated straw then can
be offered to the animals either 24 to 48 hours later or as an alternative, we can also conserve it as

(ii)Semi-dry treatment:
In this method trailed machine is used which is operated through the tractor power which chops and
mixes the straw with a solution of 12 % caustic soda at a rate of 0.4 liters per kg of straw. This
treatment procedure takes about 8 days and in the open air the straw can be dried.

(iii)Dry treatment:
This technique is used on industrial scale. In this technique the solution of caustic soda that is used is
more concentrated that is 16% is mixed with chopped straw at a rate of 0.3 liters per kg of straw; after
that it is passed through a continuous press. Due to the high pressure and temperature used in this
process, the duration of action of the caustic soda is much more quick and it takes only 20 to 60

The above picture shows the percentage of digestibility affected with or without the use of NaOH and by
Physical treatments at different temperature, pressure and time.

3. Biological methods:
In this method we can use the bacterial or fungal culture which is inoculated. The most commonly used
bacteria are Lactobacillus. Fungi which are commonly used such as white or brown decomposition rot
that enable the enzymes to break the bond or loosen the bonds between the carbohydrates and lignin
causing decomposition of the lignin itself. But this method is neither commercially applicable nor

The above diagram shows that how different treatments act on lignin-hemicelluloses complex.


Although there are number of methods discussed above but among these chemical methods is most
economical and applicable. Physical and biological methods are very expensive and inapplicable at farm
level and could be questionable at commercial level due to investment and equipment required .In
chemical methods urea treatment is most commonly used now a days because of easily handling and
most economical. A lot of research has been done on urea treatment and proved successful. In
developing countries like Pakistan urea treatment is best method. It is now widely used in rural and
urban areas of Pakistan.

Now a days Urea treatment such as multi-nutritional blocks and feed blocks treated with urea and
molasses are widely used in practice because they are the simplest and easiest way for optimizing
poor quality roughages use by ruminants. Due to it improvement in average daily weight gain,
increase in milk production in cattle and better efficiency of draught animals are observed. It also
showed good results in small ruminants.

Feed Storage
By Shumaila Manzoor

Feed storage is very important but not the difficult process, it is the easiest thing which we can do to
improve the nutrition level of our animal as the bad storage can affect the nutritional level of the feed
which can ultimately result in reduced growth of young stock and effects economics.

In Pakistan mostly feed is stored in bags placed in the corner of the barn or somewhere else.

Feed storage prevents many things such as mold growth on feed, insect infestation, nutritional
breakdown, attraction of rats, rodents and other pests and transfer of disease. Most obvious reason of
feed storage is to prevent it from getting bad as insects in feed or moldy feed will be refused by the
animal. Feed spoils during storing solely or quickly but it depends on you that how correctly you store
the feed.

Main body
Losses and Deterioration during Storage
Feed stuffs are deteriorated due to environmental factors such as feed moisture, humidity,
temperature, oxygen, light etc.

Physical losses

Most obvious physical losses are due to rats and rodents but the stored feeds are inflammable and if the
temperature increases feed stuffs can catch fire.

Water and heat damage

Moisture content of the feed stuff and humidity can destroy the physical structure of feed ingredients
and also enhance the mold growth. Cereals should be stored at 11% moisture level.

High temperature also effects the quality of feed ad it decreases the availability of amino acids.
Combustion due to high temperature will lead to fire losses.

Insect Damage

Insects of different species of moth, weevils and beetles are attracted towards the feed places. As they
consume the feed and decrease the weight of bulk.

Fungal Damage

Most fungi grow at temperature above 25° C and humidity above 85%. Fungi cause’s losses by
decreasing weight, discoloration, effects flavors and may also produce mycotoxins. Sorghum, maize and
its by-products, groundnut, cottonseed, coconut and sunflower are ingredients are more prone to
contamination with mycotoxins.

Chemical Changes

Feed stuff when stored for long period of time become rancid due to breakdown of lipids and release of
fatty acids. Carbohydrates may also produce volatile fatty acids when fermented. Due to these chemical
changes feed become more prone to infestations of insects and pests.

Recommendations for storage of different types of feed


Vitamins are the most expensive feed ingredients so special care should be given to them. Vitamins are
added in very small quantities so there should be no problems of space for storing. Vitamins should be
stored in light tight container and should not be placed in hot sunny room but should be placed in
coolest place. Don’t store vitamins with minerals before storing.

Dry ingredients (raw Materials)

Dry ingredients should be stored in a building which should avoid the entry of rain water. Ventilations
should be provided but they must be mashed to avoid the entry of rodents, rats and birds.

Don’t buy too much feed stuffs. As they are cheaper you must not buy those for year as they will
become costly when you will throw half of that. Dry compound feeds

These should be handled as dry ingredients but should not be stored for as long period as dry
ingredients are stored. Because mixed feed can be damaged more easily than the individual ingredients.
Those feeds which are prepared under heat treatment can be preserved for longer period as many of
the deteriorative factors are killed during heating.


Lipids should be kept in cool and light free place and should preferably be sealed in a plastic container.


In tropical zones no extra care is needed to store the molasses but in temperate zone where molasses
solidifies in winter should be heated before mixing in the feed.

Don’t store the ingredients longer than the given time

Ingredients Tropical zone Temperate zone
Ground Ingredients 30-60 days 90 days
Whole Grain and Oilcakes 90-120 days 150-180 days
Compounded Dry Feeds 30-60 days 30-60 days
Vitamin Mixes (keep cool & light free) 180 days 180 days
Wet Ingredients 120-180 minutes 120-180 minutes
Frozen Materials 60-90 days 60-90 days

Method of storing feed depends on time length that we have to store it for some days or for year, what
is being stored and what the cost will be.

Different structures used for storing feed, raw material and finished product are silos, bunkers, bins,
bags etc.

Here I will give detail about every structure being used for fed storage.

Silos are the structures which are used to store grains or fermented feed that is silage in bulk. Mostly
used silos are tower silos, bag silos and bunker silos. Silos are sloppy for draining out of moisture.

Tower silos

Tower silos are the best to withstand the challenges. Silos are the cylindrical structures with 5-45 sq. ft
diameter and 15-150 sq. ft in height. Silos are made by different materials such as wood staves,
concrete, plastic and steel. Storage losses in tower silos are less than bunker silos and filling rate is 105

In vertical silos feed quality remains best thus switching from horizontal to vertical increases milk

Advantage of tower silos is that silage is well tightly packed in the silos except the upper 4 or 5 feet.
Tower silos are unloaded from top manually by hand fork. Silos can be unloaded in trucks or conveyers.
Tower silos are difficult to clean.

Fig: Tower silos

Bunker silos

These are trenches made up of concrete. Tractors and loaders are used to fill and pack and also for
unloading of silo. These trenches are covered with plastic trap on the top to make them air tight. Bunker
silos have fewer corners so proper cleaning is easy. Bunker silos are effective for large operations.

. Fig: Bunker silos

Bag silos

These are heavy tubes with 4-6 sq. ft diameter. Length of the bag is variable according to the amount of
feed we have to store. Bags are filled by the machines made for this purpose and then are sealed from
both sides. These are unloaded by using tractors and loaders. Once the bag is torn-off it is of no use and
is disposed off. Each time new bag is used. Bags are used temporarily when there is heavy load of
storing harvested forage but on many farms these bag silos are used throughout the year.

Fig: Bag silos

Filling of silos

Tower silo is typically filled with a silo blower which a fan having three paddles shaped blades. Material
is filled in a vibrating conveyer and then pushed in to blower by the help of spinning spiral auger.
Moisture is added to the plant matter by the water connection attached with the blower. Blower is
driven by using tractor. Conveyer chain beneath the silage moves the piles in front and piles are broken
by rows of rotating teeth and dropped in to hopper from where it is transferred to the blower.

In bag filling same method is used as in tower filling at the wagon move forward with the bag loader.
Bag is placed on the loader and forage is pushed in to bags by rows of rotating teeth. Bag silos are filled
under pressure and pressure is controlled by large brake shoe pressure regulator. To make the bag air
tight and mold free it is sealed on the both ends.

Bins are smaller than silos and are used for storing dry materials such as grains. Bins may be round or
square but the round bins are better as they are easy to unload and feed does not stick and encrusted in
the corners as in square bins. Material stored in bins may be powdered such as kernels or corn cobs. As
material stored in bins is dry so the handling is easy due to lighter weight than silage and can be easily
unloaded by under-floor unloaders. Some grain bins have perforations in the shaft from where air can
enter in the stored grain and facilitate drying after harvesting.

Round Overhead Storage Bins

These are used for cattle feed storage and grains. Capacity is 15-35 tones.

Features of this bin are:

Ladder on side to access on top

Control on ground for top lid opener

Bottom gate opener

The Pusa Bin

It is developed by Indian Agriculture Research Institute. Used for storing grains. These are triangular in
shape and have 4 tones capacity.

Base is made by bricks or earth. A polythene sheet is laid on it and then 9-10 cm thick concrete slab is
placed over it. Internal wall is also constructed by bricks and then covered with polythene sheet. Height
of internal wall is usually 5-10 ft. roof is also made by concrete slabs and around it wooden frame is
made. During construction a hole is made on corner for drainage.

Pusa bins are best hen fairly dried grains are stored.

The Burkino Bin

These are dome shaped bins made up of earth bricks. These are available in different sizes so have
variable capacity.

The Ferrocment bin

It is similar to burkino bin but it is mostly made of chicken wires which are plastered inside the wall and
outside of wall is made up of cement. Thickness of wall varies according to the capacity of the bin.

Piles are made for short time storage of silage. These are wedge shapes structures. Proper management
of pile is necessary because if the piles are not maintained properly dry matter loss can exceed 31% and
if managed properly dry matter loss is less than 14 %.

Factors important while preparing site for pile

Piles should not be located on bare soil as it will cause losses and feed contamination. Silage piles should
be constructed on the concrete floor. A sloppy pad should be constructed a little above than ground
level for drainage of rain water and silage moisture. If two piles are constructed on the same place the
distance between the piles should be so much that water run-off should not interfere other pile. Silos
should not be constructed near the well or water source as it will cause water contamination.

Shape of pile

Best shape for the piles being constructed is wedge shape in which silage is packed in thin layers. Small
silage piles should be constructed in triangle shape while larger should be constructed in trapezoid

Covering of piles

Cover the piles as soon as possible after construction. Cover the piles with black plastic sheet and fix it
tightly on the edges by putting send or by placing tire to make it air tight. This helps to prevent
deteriorative changes caused by air.

Forage moisture

Moisture level of forage to store in piles should be more than concrete tower silos for better packing
and to increase the quality of feed. For pile storage moisture level of the forage should be 64-69%.

Modern Warehouses
Warehouses are made for the storage of grain mainly the bagged grains in an ideal situation that is mold
and pests free. Packaging and handling equipments are also stored in the warehouses.

Location of Warehouses

Warehouses should be located on area above the surrounding area where the drainage is easy and no
chance of flooding. Should be constructed along the road side so the vehicle approach is easy.

Standard design for warehouses

Ware houses mostly consist of floor, walls, roof, one or more entrances, window and ventilators.
Whatever the design is main purpose is to store the feed properly so it must not be affected by physical
factors such as moisture and temperature. It should also prevent the entry of rat, rodents and birds.
Floor of the warehouse must be impermeable to ground water and stable to bear the weight of stacks.

Walls may be made by blocks, earth bricks, fibro cement or aluminum sheeting. Walls should be painted
white internally to detect insects and pests and also white on outside to keep the house cool.

Roof should be made of galvanized cement or asbestos cement. Insulation properties should be
maximum. Tiles should not be used.

Warehouse should be well ventilated and illuminated. There should be two entry points.

Dimension of ware house

Before determining the dimension of ware house we have to look that which thing we have to store
either they are grain bags or stacks. For storing sacks we need a larger working area.

Following points are kept in mind while determining the dimension of warehouse.

Volume of the product which we have to store

Tonnage of the product

Stack height

Volume of the product

In table specific volume of different products is given for which the space is required

Commodity Specific Volume (m³/t)

Millet 1.30

Wheat, milled rice 1.59

Maize, sorghum 1.78

Soybeans 1.99

Maize meal 2.30

Cotton seed 2.49

Round bales technique for hay storage
Round bales are not commonly used for storing of hay but with every coming year their use is getting
common. Round bales are stored outside so give a very little protection from physical factors. Now the
technique has been improved by using developed equipments. The wrapper wraps the plastic sheet
around the bale to protect it from weather. In round bale technique problems occur when the hay is not
properly stored or fed. If the bales are stored in barns losses are minimized. Outdoor losses are mostly
due to rain as rain water enters in the bale from top and it gets absorbed up to the bottom. If we have
to store hay for shorter period than losses will be less. Disadvantage of wrapping is that water
accumulates on the bottom as it has no drainage and can cause problem during winter.

Fig: Round bale

Economics of storage
What so ever technique we adopt for storing the feed stuffs, cost of the technique should also be kept in
mind. While we are improving the storage situation we make it very expensive. So the technique in
which losses are less and is not expensive should adopted.

Some farmers calculate the cost which is spent on storing but don’t calculate the losses which occur
during storage and the feed which become useless and discarded.

Proper storage is very necessary for quality of feed and for the health of animal. So storage should be as
ideal as possible to increase the profit. Bt the storage techniques should not be costly as expenses
increase than the profit. Most suitable method for storage is silos and it is widely being used in many
countries. To tackle the economics of storage we should have bulk of storing material. For small quantity
feed stuffs temporary storage is the better option.

By Nabeel Ahmed Sher

Feeding plays vital role in livestock production. Feeding constitutes 60-70% of total cost of expenses in
animal rearing. Performance of animal is directly proportional to feeding. Proper balanced diet can
ensure optimal production of animal. There are two factors on which performance of animal depends 1-
genotype 2- environment. In environment feeding is of utmost importance. Good genetic potential of
an animal can only be cashed by proper balanced feeding. In dairy cattle milk outcome is of prime
concern. Milk is synthesized by myoepithelial cells of mammary glands. Only complete feeding can
ensure that all the necessary ingredients for milk production are supplied. Although there are different
school of thoughts about milk production. One says that all milk components are supplied by feed but
other agrees with theory of metabolism. But combination of these two theories seems to be more
precise. One can believe that optimum milk production is dependent upon proper balanced feeding.

All dairy animals require nutrients to maintain their body at homeostasis, that is, neither getting or
giving weight, not pregnant and not producing. Young animals demand additional nutrients for
development the laying down of new muscles and bones. Pregnant animals demand additional nutrients
for reproduction and growth of neonate. Lactating cows also require additional nutrients to synthesize
the milk. Dairy cattle feeding depend upon how much milk is produced by cow and present status of
animal which means whether cow is lactating, dry or pregnant or first calf heifer. Milk yield is landmark
in feeding of dairy cattle.

Stage of lactation:

To consider stage of lactation is very important factor because of production varies in the stage of
production. For example feeding management will be different in negative energy balance as compared
to late lactation.

Age of cow:

Age of cow is important in terms of lactation number. If the animal is first calf heifer some extra
allowance will be required for growth, along with feeding done to achieve maintenance and milk

Live mass:

Live body weight of cattle is also of great worth because feeding principle for large and small sized cattle
are different. More importantly feeding standards (tables which provide information about animal
requirement) are based on live metabolic weight.

Body condition:

Body reserve of the cow should be also kept in mind because proper body score at different stages of
animal is critical for example 3.5 at lactation and then due to negative energy balance it may go down to
2.5 and again restore 3-3.5 in dry period.

Butter fat yield:

Amount of fat in milk is very important because not in Pakistan but in developed countries milk is sold
on percentage fat basis. The level of fat in milk is determined by feed ingredients for example if cow is
not fed proper amount of fiber there will be less production of acetic acid. Acetic acid is involved in
synthesis of milk fat and less fiber may lead to milk fat depression.

Stage of pregnancy:

Feeding requirement is increased in last trimester of pregnancy due to additional requirements of

adnexia (fetus and fetal membranes).

Dairy cattle demand five classes of nutrients 1- water 2- energy 3- protein 4- mineral 5- vitamins 6- fiber,
to overcome their needs for maintenance, growth reproduction and production.


Water is most important nutrient for good animal health. There is lot of debate that whether water is
nutrient or not because it does not provide energy to the body but it is necessary for metabolism of
other nutrients because all the enzymes need water for their functioning. There are different functions
of water in animal body. It acts as lubricant for transfer of nutrients. It helps in excretion and most
important function of water is regulating temperature of animal body. It also acts as buffer to control
the PH of body fluids. Dairy cattle can obtain water from three different sources 1- directly by drinking
water 2- water intake through the feed stuffs containing moisture 3- and water obtained from
metabolism. For example 100 gram carbohydrates produce up to 60 grams of water after metabolism,
fat produces 110 grams of water when metabolized. This is reason fat is considered as wetter than
water. Cattle usually consume 3-4 units of water for each unit of dry feed.


Feed is most important source of energy. Energy is supplied by all organic nutrients like proteins,
carbohydrates and fats. Quantitatively energy is the major nutrient needed by dairy cow and normally
comprises approximately 70-80% of non-water nutrient intake. Energy values of feed are given in form
of TDN (total digestible nutrients) or NE (net energy). TDN system is not effective because it only
accounts for fecal losses, feed higher in fat can have TDN more than 100% and it is expressed in KGs
rather than calories. NE energy system is accurate and more commonly used.


In dairy cow ration it comprises 10-18 % of dry matter intake. Protein deficiency in young animals results
in decrease rate of growth and puberty. In lactating cow protein deficient ration cause low production
and loss of body protein and depressed appetite. Over feeding does not harm the animal but because of
expenses per unit of protein it is usually uneconomical. Protein contents of feed stuffs can be expressed
either as total protein or crude protein.


Sodium, chlorine, calcium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, cobalt, iron, copper, iodine, zinc, sulphur
and selenium etc are minerals needed by dairy cow. Other minerals are found in animal body and also
critical for maintaining proper body functions.


Vitamins play vital role in animal nutrition. These increase production and prevent nutritional diseases.
Under normal conditions feeds furnish the vitamins or they can be synthesized in animal body. Rumen
synthesizes vitamin A and K, vitamin C is produced in body tissues, only vitamin A, D and E must be given
in ration.


Fiber is the most important component of diet although it is undigestible. The amount in diet depends
on level of production, type of fiber fed and its characteristics. High producing cows are given energy
rich diet so less amount of fiber is fed. Low producing and dry cows are fed higher level of fiber.
Roughage is excellent source of fiber. Fiber controls ruminal PH ( helps to avoid ruminal acidosis) and
also controls milk fat level by producing acetic acid.

Nutrient requirement of lactating cow:

Requirement during lactation depends on stage of lactation. i.e. early lactation, mid lactation and late

Water requirement for dairy cows:

DM intake:

It depends on BW, health of cow, level of milk production, frequency of feeding, palatability of ration
etc. DM intake is usually up to 3% of BW. Negative energy balance is major problem in early lactation.
Production of animal is at peak at 4 to 8 weeks postpartum and DM intake is at peak 10 to 14 weeks
postpartum, so animal uses its body reserves to fulfill requirement. Dry matter intake increases as
lactation progress.


During early lactation due negative energy balance milk production is increasing and dry matter intake is
less. So more energy as compared to protein given because amino acids are available from catabolism of
muscles so to utilize these amino acids energy is required. In late lactation less energy as compared to
protein because extra energy can lead to accumulation of fat and this may cause reproductive disorders.


During lactation recommended protein level is up to 18%. More importantly 30% of protein should be
undegradable in rumen. Animal which produces 20 liters of milk should be given 5 kg concentrate.


40% of dry matter should be fed as forage. It should be kept in mind that fiber should be effective fiber.
Effective fiber is that which has length minimum 1 inch. If effective fiber is insufficient it can lead to
laminitis. NDF level in ration should be 28-30% and ADF level should be 20-22%.

Daily Nutrient Required by dairy cows

Requirement of Nutrient for dry Cow

Dry Period IS the Period during lactation when cow is not giving milk. We can divide dry period into two

· dry cow with pregnant uterus

· non-pregnant dry cow
Now if the cow is not giving milk and is non-pregnant too then the requirements will be similar as for the
maintenance necessities. And in case of dry cow with pregnant uterus it will require special formulation
of feed for it. In this article we will discuss in detail about the feeding of dry cow with pregnant uterus.

Goals of dry cow feeding:

· to get maximum milk in coming lactation

· to minimize pre and post parturient problems
· to give rest without any kind of stress
· allow the cow to male a good producing mammary parenchyma
· to ensure the health of fetus
Recommended dry period for cow is 60 to 70 days. Dry period longer then this will result in shorter
duration for milk production on the other hand dry period shorter then this will result in reduction of
milk in coming lactation because in this case udder can’t develop properly.

We can divide dry period into three phases.

1. Drying off phase

Drying off phase is initial 4 to 10 days during which cow is going to dry off. To dry the cow give up
milking the cow at once reduce water intake and stop grain feeding. Use roughages which are poor in

2. Far off phase

Next 30 to 40 days of dry period are called as far off phase. In this phase animal will require
maintenance ration along with the pregnancy allowance. During this period dry matter intake should
be1.5 to 2 percent of body weight. Fodder should be 50% 0f total dry mater intake. If you are giving high
energy ration then dry mater reduces up to some extent. Crude protein in the diet should be 10 to 12%
CP on the basis of dry matter. Give mineral supplement having 60 to 80 g Calcium along with 30 to 40 g
Phosphorus every day. These minerals if given in a quantity more then this can increase the chances of
milk fever. Also give vitamin supplementation that will decrease the post parturient problems like
retention of placenta.

3. Closing up phase
Time period of 2 to 3 weeks before parturition is called as closing up phase. This period is very
important because we have to adjust the cow on the lactation ration to prevent metabolic problems.
Bring in grains in the ration for the reason that you will have to transfer microbial population from
fodder digesting population to concentrate and fodder digesting population. Add 6 to 10 pounds grains
in the ration every day which will assist in development of rumen papilla, keep in mind that grains
should increase than 40% 0f dry matter intake. Feed grains alone or in total mixed ration it is your choice
but those form should be given should which is going to be use in lactation period. Add rumen UN
degradable protein which will to make available amino acid for fetal development.

Reduce fat in diet to 0.25 pounds since extra fat will decrease DMI and rumen microbial population will
also be affected. Eliminate salt from ration to prevent udder edema. Begin to give Niacin, if it will be
given in the beginning of lactation.

A few manage mental issues are vital in case of nutrient prerequisites of dry cows.

1-Body condition score:

In late lactation Body condition score should be 3 to 3.5 and it must be maintain in dry period.

Keep dry cows separate from milking cows because it can result in too much feeding.

Nutrient requirement for dry cows

Requirement particular for pregnancy

As a rule there is no requirement up to 190 days of pregnancy. Requirements after 190 days follow
exponential curve. In case of Jersy bread the adnexia weight increase is

Requirement of Energy

Requirement of Energy is taken as zero up to 190 days of gestation. It increases in the final 4 to 8 weeks.
Up till now extra 3 to 6 Mcal of Net energy for lactation are enough during this period. 11 McCal Net
energy for last two months of gestation. Maintenance requirements are included in it. Energy for
pregnancy is 30% of that of the maintenance. It depends upon

· Body condition of the Animal

· Day of pregnancy
· weight of calf at Birth
Efficiency of ME used by pregnant uterus is 0.14 and for Net energy is 0.64.

Requirement for Protein

Protein is necessary for the maintenance, fetal growth and for the growth of mother. Requirement for
Protein depends on the efficiency of utilization for fetal growth. Efficiency through which matabolizable
protein should utilize for pregnancy is 0.33.

Requirement of Minerals

Calcium is required in small quantity but for the period of last trimester its requirement will increase
when skeleton of fetus begin to calcify. 8 gram Calcium at 190 days daily and 12 gram Calcium at 279
days daily. Phosphorus is also not required up to 190 days. It increases from 1.9 gram/day at 190 day to
5.4 gram/day at 279 day. Requirement of sodium will start from 190 day @ 1.39 g/day up to 279 days
potassium and chloride one gram is enough per day.

Requirement of Vitamins

Vitamin supplementation should be done in ratio as shown in the table below.

For each 50 Kg raise or drop off in Body Weigh, raise or drop off net energy and metabolizable energy by
1. Raise or drop off DE by 2 Mcal Raise or drop off Crude protein by 50gram.


Milk is of prime importance in dairy farming and optimal milk production depends on proper balanced
feeding. All nutrients should be supplied to avoiding according to exact requirement because under
feeding leads to decrease in production and over feeding is uneconomical. While feeding dairy cattle
ruminal fermentation and metabolism should be kept In mind. If we provide our farmer proper balanced
feed we can increase milk production and improve the status of livestock production in Pakistan.

The Concept of Organic Farming
By: Ali Asad Babar

1. Introduction:

The man has always been striving for excellence; whatever may be the field of life. Agriculture
and cultivation of crops and plants have always been there, since ancient times, to fulfill the food and
other requirements of man. There has been gradual improvement in the methodologies with passage of
time, in the best interest of mankind.

Organic farming is a branch of agriculture, in which the natural resources are utilized for the sake of
growth and safety of different crops. It involves the application of different farming practices. For
understanding the subject in detail, there is a need to elaborate upon certain farming terminologies,
which are as under.

a Agriculture By this we mean production of food and certain goods by process of farming.

b. Crop Rotation: It is a practice in which different crops are grown in the same area in
continuous consecutive crop seasons. This is meant for avoidance of excessive growth of pathogens and
pests, which is there in excessive amount, if the same crop is grown in the sequential seasons. The
nitrogen requirement of the soil is fulfilled through use of green manure in this methodology. This
practice improves the soils structure and fertility.

c. Green Manure: By green manure we mean a type of cover crop which is grown for the benefit
of the soil. It provides organic matter and nutrients to the soil. This is grown for a certain period of time
and then it is made part of the soil through ploughing. Leguminous green manure includes Sweet clover,
Berseem clover, Crimson clover, hairy Vetch and sunn hemp are the examples of green manure. Others
are Fava beans, mustard, Lupine, Alfalfa etc.

d. Compost: By composting we mean a collection of rotted organic matter, originating from

decomposition of plant material. It is low in plant nutrient containing nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium, and is used for improvement of soil structure. The compost is prepared from leaves, grass
clippings, weeds, shrub prunings and trees. Certain micro-organisms and parasites play a key role in
carrying out the process of decomposition.

e. Biological Pest Control: This is method of controlling pests like insects, mites, and weeds by
natural enemies. This is of paramount importance for successful organic farming. For example pitcher
plant ingests the bee which is attracted towards this plant because of certain enzymes secreted by the

f. Fertilizers: Fertilizers are soil conditioning substances added to the soils to improve plant
/crop growth and health of plants and crops. Fertilizers usually contain nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium in addition to the micro nutrients, which improve the fertility of the soil. The factory made
synthetic fertilizers are being extensively used now-a day along with some natural substances which can
be used as fertilizers. The examples of natural fertilizers aorgare rock phosphates, green sand, human
and animal excreta. The fertilizers are mixed with the soil or are sprayed on the leaves of the

g. Organic: These are the substances raised by natural recourses with no artificial aid. If related to
farming this will be crops raised without use of unnatural means.

h. Farming; relates to the land attributed to cultivation activities, horticulture, soil sciences,
alternate husbendary, crop rotation etc.

2. Background:

For the last 17 years, organic farming practices have earned agriculture over 45 billion dollars,
which has proportionately raised the demand of farm-land managed through organic practices. Now the
major portion of world which is over 31.99 million hectors is farmed organically. that makes a total of
over 0.799% of the global farm-land. There are certain standards of organic farming methods, being
practiced by many nations world-wide. These standards have been set by International Federation of
Organic Agriculture Movement.

The promotion of organic farming started during pre-mid of 20th century by different organizations, as a
reaction to increasing dependence upon un-natural and artificial means of farming e.g. Haber Bosch
process of making Ammonia by chemical reactions was very popular at that time but it was associated
with lot of possible hazards to the ecosystem Sir Albert Howard, and Lady Eve Baflour from UK and JI
Rodale from USA respectively, are among the pioneers of organic farming. Sir Albert Howard worked in
India and introduced a special composting method called Indore method. He also wrote a book on

agriculture testament. He raised his voice in favour of organic farming in 1926, in Indian Science
Congress. Lady Eve Baflour carried out Haughley experiment, in which he scientifically compared
chemical and organic farming and mentioned her experiments in her book titled “Living Soil”.

3. Soil Amendments:

One of the major challenges faced by the organic farmers is to provide the plant with essential
nutrients like nitrogen, at the nick of time so that plant growth proceeds efficiently. This dilemma is
solved by application of crop rotation and green manure practices by which nitrogen fixation occurs by
legumes through their symbiotic relationship with bacteria known as Rhizobia. Other problems involve
soil erosion which is overcome by applying rock phosphate and green sand to soil as a source of
potassium. Soil pH is adjusted by applying calcium carbonate to the land.

Alternate husbandry is an efficient way to decrease the use of artificial fertilizer. In this method,
during a particular season, grain crops are grown on the farm-land and then no cultivation is carried out
in the next season and the land is left for the growth of Pasteur and for grazing by the castles/animals.
This results in mixing of the decomposed leaves and manure of the grazing animals in the soil, which
improves the land fertility and provides essential nutrients to the subsequent crop, grown on this land.
This methodology of alternate husbandry is also called ley farming. The other problems which farmers
have to face, involve weed control which can be achieved through hand weeding, covering soil with land
protectants like wool of animal newspapers etc. Use of domestic products like vinegar is also effective
accompanied by integrated farming like use of ducks along with rice crop. Problem like pest control is
solved by applying the programs like integrated pest control management.

4. Economy:

Many integrated crops are raised at a time in organic farming, with the involvement of livestock,
the danger of decrease in economy of organic farming is low in case some disaster. There is rather a
boosting effect in the economy of the counties, due to increase in organic crop supply by countries like
Japan, Italy and Canada. Organic crops have stable price premiums, these crops provide green house
effect, reduce global warming and have low production cost. As these crops are grown in natural
environment they are less prone to disease and pests. As far as marketing is concerned Europe has
unique significance in organic farming ,where around 150000 farms are working under organic
environment. It has 7.8 million hectares of its land managed organically. The largest market in world of
organic products are Germany, Italy, France and UK. These have turnover of over 10 billion euros
annually and if it is considered with that of America this figure goes up to 6 billion dollars

5. Geographical Distribution:

There is gradual change with passage of time, and the different countries are trying to reap the benefits
of organic farming. There was a time when there was no organic farming but now various countries are
allocating their lands for the purpose of organic farming. Following is the distribution of land allotted to
organic farming by different countries in terms of percentage and million hectors:

Region/country Land Allocated to organic Farming

Australia 38.99%

Europe 24%

Latin America 19%

Asia 9.5%

Africa 7.19%

North America 2.99%

Argentina 3.09 million hectors

China 2.29 million hectors

United States 1.59 million hectors

It can be seen that Australia is at the top of the list as regards the percentage of the land allocated to the
organic farming. There are certain reasons behind this difference in allocation. As we all know that
Australia is famous in the world for cattle rising, dairy marketing and use of sophisticated agricultural
methodologies. Similarly there is no doubt about the progress of the Europe in various walks of life. The
organic farming has definitely played a positive role in well being of the Austarlians and European
populations. The allocation of land for organic farming and use of organic farming methods is playing a
pivotal role in sustaining a good Australia as well as Europe.

6. Organic Food:

Most of the people all over the world believe that food products grown through organic
processes are much more nutritious than the one gron by conventional farm practices. The nutrients
present in the organic food are low in concentration but are of higher quality and nutritional value.
Organic foods account for 1-2% of global food sale. By organic foods, we mean the food that is grown
without the addition of unnatural flavours to enhance the smell.

7. Organic Clothings:

These are the clothes, formation of which does not require any chemical. For example the
cotton fabrics made on hand looms. The residual hazardous materials are not added to the environment
through these practices, resulting in non exposure of animals and humans to the hazardous materials.
This indirectly helps in prevention of many diseases to humans and animals which can occur due to such
exposures.. As there are no hazardous material added to the environment, this contributes towards
enhancement of the global green-house effect.

8. Cattle Organic Farming:

By this we mean growing the cattle in the organically suited environments. For example, in organic
cattle farming the practices like use of substances like oxytocin to enhance the yield of milk are not
under taken, the yield is rather increases by use of organically made products, like green fodder ,
legumes and pasteurland given to the cattle to raise the milk yield. Antibiotics are only usedesprate
situations, when the animal is very very sick. These are not included in the food of the animal. If some
antibiotic iss given to some animal, the milk of such animal is not used until the secretion of the used
antibiotic in the milk ceases.

9. Conclusion:

There is no doubt about the benefits of the organic farming, as the methodologies used are
close to the natural processes and there is minimum use of the artificial substances. This helps to grow a
food/crop, consumption of which is more health friendly for human beings as it is free of the
chemicals/hazardous substances. Moreover, the quantity of the crop is not only compatible with the
one which we get through use of artificial means, but it is more than that in certain situations. The
sustainability of the organically managed crops, to the storms and hurricanes is definitely much more
than that of the crops grown by use of artificial means and chemicals. You measure and consider it in
any way; this has definitely proved to be a more profitable option. There is a get appreciation of this fact
world wide and different nations are trying to exploit the technique in their best interest. There is a dire
need to implement these methodologies in country like Pakistan, where there is population explosion,
food shortage, poverty, un-employment, infectious diseases and illiteracy, all leading to weak economy
and compromised socioeconomic conditions of its inhabitants. Promoting the organic farming can go a
long way in reducing the magnitude of the above mentioned problems, as it ensures good quality and
quantity of the crops/foods, which are not injurious to health and can contribute towards the disease
control as well, in addition to the already discussed benefits of organic farming methodologies. We may
be able to see the improvement in various spheres of life in Pakistan, as the benefits of this sort of
farming are manifold and multidimensional.

Biosecurity and sanitation at livestockfarms

By Asghar abbas

Prevention of any disease causing agent at livestock farm by managemental mechanisms and
operations is known as biosecurity.Due to increased incidence of many foreign and emerging diseases
such as FMD and Avian Influenza has made it of major concern. Biosecurity is basic phenomena in
disease prevention at farm. There are many factors that contribute towards disease at livestock farm.
Their list includes

· Farm visitors
· Veterinarians themselves
· Regulatory personnel
· Dead stock collectors
· Friends

All of these should understand the importance of biosecurity. If any one of these does not aware of
biosecurity he will ultimately contribute to make himself and animal susceptible to disease.

May be it is possible that a person carrying infection visit multiple farms in one day and may effect
other farms .As a result of which the disease can spread in whole country. So today there is need to
develop certain mechanisms and operations to minimize the chances of disease occurance and this can
be done with the help of qualified and experiences staff at farm which include farm manager ,farm
supervisors, nutrition and extension specialists because various problems in practical implementation
for prevention of disease are due to the fact that majority of livestock farms are managed by illiterate
and ignorant persons who ignore the basic principles of biosecurity and sanitation .

Improper sanitation provides the ideal environment to bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi and
provides shelter to germs. Proper sanitation identifies the causes of all preventable diseases and makes
all those causes ineffective to spread diseases. By this animal can live in the favorable conditions of life
with provision of clean water, good ventilation and well sanitize sheds.

Types of risk factors:

· Environmental risk
· Human risk
· Production risk
· Financial risk
· Price risk/marketing

There are four basic steps in prevention of disease.

· Proper vaccination
· Detection of disease
· Removal of intermediate hosts
· Control meseaure for infectious disease
Disease results from the intervention of infectious agent in the farm in outs and farm outputs. Farm
inputs include the health of animal, housing hygiene, feed and water hygiene. Farm out puts
includes the farm visitors, wild life and visiting vehicles .Farm input and outputs both should be
controlled for prevention of disease.

Whenever there is breakage in biosecurity process the infectious agent infects animal which sheds
agent in environment (foods, water, and housing) and ultimately make animal susceptible to disease .It
is shown in following diagram.

Above figure
explain that
agent enters
through the

Biosecurity increases the death rate of germs, reducing chance of infection. Bioseurity not only prevent
disease in this way but also enhances the prevention by sanitation of farm premises, by maintaining
close herd and by killing the natural and mechanical carrier of disease .Bioseurity helps us to prevent the
disease causing agents inside the farm and stops them to enter at farm but one thing keep in mind that
close observation and biosecurity measures should be adopted at constant basis.

Biosecurity plan

For prevention of disease an effective Biosecurity plan and its accurate implementation
is needed at farm. Biosecurity plan limits the chances of disease occurance. It prevents pathogens from
entering through different routes of transmission. The main theme is to keep the health status of
animals and avoid entry at the farm for pathogens of importance in health. Thus the risk of
contamination should be avoided or reduced to zero. So the plan should be cheaper and healthier with
effectiveness directly approaching the standards of real pathogen free environment or close to it.

Biosecurity can be broken through any of following routes shown in diagram below.

A biosecurity plan consists of isolation, traffic control and sanitation.

At first isolate animal according to age and production. Isolate sick animals for at least one month
and they should be separately feeded. They should be properly vaccinated according to appropriate
vaccination programme to produce immunity against infectious diseases. Basic purpose of isolation is to
control the visitors minimize contact between disease and healthy animals. New animals should pass
through process of quarantine remember that new animal are greatest risk to biosecurity.

Secondly control the visitors and vehicles that routinely visit your farm .Only concerned visitors
should be allowed to visit farm. They should be properly dressed up wearing coveralls and gum boots.
Vehicles should be properly cleaned and disinfected before entrance. Vehicles should be free of any
unwanted material that can cause disease.

Adequate fencing should be provided for protection of animals against wild life and neighboring herds.

Lastly ensure sanitation at livestock farm. Sanitation minimizes the effects of infectious agents
by adapting hygienic practices and maintaining health status of animal. Provide proper lightning and
ventilation in animal sheds. Clean bedding should also provided. Adopt all the sanitary conditions to
ensure a healthy calf at birth. Good hygienic conditions for young animal are important in both
safeguarding health and future profit .Sanitation should be carried out in all aspects including farm
equipments, farm employee, and farm visiting vehicles. Milking should be done in hygienic environment
.Both milking man and milk collecting utensils should be clean. Teats should be dipped regularly and do
not handle udder with dry hand because it will lead to chapping of udder.

CHLORINE – (50 – 100ppm concentration of available chlorine at a water
temperature between 55*F and 120*F.)
IODINE – (12.5 –25ppm concentration of available iodine at a water temperature of
not less than 75*F.)
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM – (200ppm concentration of available quaternary
ammonium at a water temperature of not less than 75*F unless otherwise specified by
manufacturer’s instructions.)
Application of chemical sanitizer to clean/rinsed equipment shall be completed according
to the sanitizer’s manufacturer’s recommendation for water temperature when mixing
Monitor sanitizer concentration with chemical test strips to insure correct and safe
Do not mix sanitizers in wash solution of a three-compartment sink.
Do not use scented or oxygenated bleach as a sanitizer.
Plain chlorine bleach with a minimum 5.25% chlorine concentration is acceptable for use
as a sanitizer.

Fumigation is a method and process of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides
to suffocate or poison the pests within. Pesticide fumigation process is utilized for control of pests in
buildings (structural fumigation), soil, grain, and produce, and is also used during processing of goods to
be imported or exported to prevent transfer of exotic organisms. Fumigation process is the recognized
means of combating infestation by the application of fumes to disinfect or purify.

There are mainly two types of Fumigation


· Methyl Bromide (Bromomethane)

· Phosphine Fumigation

SS Foundry Chemical Industries Pvt. Ltd. is

a well known name in the market in providing
fumigation services. Researches were undertaken
by our skilled scientists to substitute and
supersedes such chemicals as Methyl Bromide,
phosphine with natural reside-free and
environment friendly disinfestation processes. In
the new fumigation process, the originally packed
agricultural product is exposed to pressurized CO2 atmosphere. The infestation is done on the optimum
condition and cycle time of few hours is required of the product that has to be fumigated. No special pre
or post treatment is necessary.

Disinfection is process to kill all bacteria and parasites with the help of specific compounds.
Disinfection should be thoroughly carried out. Before disinfection a thorough cleaning of building is
necessary to facilitate disinfection. Instruments (hoof knives, clippers, dehorners) are main source of
cross contamination so, should be disinfected before and after use. There should be separate
instruments that are to be used on disease and healthy animals. As the infectious agents are very small
and they become indefinite in dust, cracks and crevices and surfaces of buildings .so, disinfection should
be done with extreme care and attention to kill all the life threatening bacterial, parasitic, fungsl and
viral agents. At a limited area disinfectant can be applied with help of brush while for a large area
disinfectant can be applied by spraying on that area. Some disinfectants are extremely irritating to eyes
and skin so person applying disinfectant should wear gloves to protect skin and goggles to protect eyes.

Disinfectants commonly available in market are

· pyodine (iodine)
· parachlorometoxylenol (dettole)
· methylated spirit
· and carbolic acid or phenol.
They are available in low cost. Some insecticides are also available that are applied externally to kill
ticks, mites and fleas on animal body. These include

· coal tar,
· petroleum and
· Nicotine.
Employee clothing should be continuously washed with detergents. In addition to disinfectant the
sanitizer can also increase death rate of infectious agents and decrease their population. A sanitizer kills
about 99.9 percent of all bacteria, fungi and viruses. The instruments should be disinfected before and
after use.

Disinfectants are classified into three types detail classification of disinfectants

· Sunlight
· Heat(hot air, steam, fire)
· Chemical disinfectants
Chemical disinfectants are further classified into three type’s compounds (pot.permnganate),
alkalies (pot.hydrooxide, limestone) and acids (boric acids, carbolic acids).The drinking water
can be disinfected by carbonate or oxide of calcium. Classification of disinfectants is shown
below in diagram

The chart shown below outlines the good and bad sides of different disinfectants.
Product For Against
Bleach Effective against a wide Effectiveness is affected by
range of bacteria. concentration. The concentration of
Widely available. bleach is hardly ever printed on bottles
Easy to dispose of. and there is no standard concentration
Cheap. when sold through ordinary retail outlets.

Limited effect against viruses. Rapidly

neutralized by organic matter which
makes it ineffective in an aviary
environment where large amounts of
organic material are commonly present.
Corrosive, even on some metals. Will rot
many natural materials (wood, cloth

Fumes toxic to birds.

Unstable. Its disinfecting abilities

degrade with time.
Glutaraldehyde / Effective against Slow acting, 2-12 hours needed for full
Formaldehyde bacteria. effect.

Very strong smell.

Neutralized by organic matter so prior

cleaning is necessary.
Complicated to use, (requires activating).

Short shelf life, 60% of activity is lost

within 4 weeks of activating.

Toxic. Very hard to dispose of. Many
waste contractors will refuse to remove
or empty Septic Tanks which contain
aldehyde contaminated effluent.

Formaldehyde causes respiratory distress

and allergic dermatitis in humans.
Alcohols Effective against Some types of Alcohol (isopropanol) are
bacteria, limited ineffective against viruses; others only
effectiveness against affect certain types of virus. Unlikely to
viruses. be effective against fungi and algae.

Very strong solution - 70% - required to

be effective.

Does not penetrate well into organic

matter (e.g. wooden perches, nest boxes
and cages)


Highly flammable
Hydrogen Very effective against Explosive in strong concentrations. MUST
Peroxide bacteria and viruses NOT be kept in air tight conditions.

Degrades with time

Hard to obtain. Only commonly available

in powder form in denture cleaners
where the explosive nature of the
chemical has been controlled.

Biosecurity is an important step towards the prevention of disease before its
occurance as prevention is better than cure .Biosecurity play a significant role in production of healthy
and profitable livestock. A good biosecurity plan should include a proper sanitation at farm with
effective measures. Cleaning should be done in a proper way. The things should be properly cleaned and
disinfected. Cheaper disinfectants are available in the market. Similarly there should be strong
quarantine measures at the farm. The introduction of new animals at first subjected to quarantine and
there should be strict isolation of sick animals up to recovery of the sick animal stage has surpassed. As
well as entry of new animals should avoid the entry of new pathogens at the farm. There is always a
need of an excellent herd immunization or in other words a vaccination program. By this the risk of fatal
and an outbreak of endemic diseases can be reduced. Whenever there is an excellent biosecurity plan
with control measure for different maladies there would be good health status in the herd as well as
immunization will lead to create resistance against diseases, so the desired goals for an enterprise of
farm can achieved effectively and can be made it profitably economical.


By Ayesha Khan

Management is defined as the use of available scarce resources and giving us maximum profit/output.
Management of sheep and goat is essential for improving meat, milk, and hide and wool industry. In this
paper, managemental aspects like, breeding, diseases, housing and health will be discussed.

Feeding Management
Feed is important parameter in maintaining the body condition score and energy balance of the animal.

4 - 6 Weeks Pre-Lambing:
1. Shear or crotching ewes
It is becoming more common to shear sheep before they lamb. The reason for this is that these sheared
sheep will not put out as much moisture in the air, thereby reducing the humidity in the shed. Shearing
also will remove any mudballs from the wool near the udder that could mistaken by the newborn lamb
for a teat. This would lead to lack of colostrum and milk and shortly to starvation.
Ketosis, pregnancy disease or toxemia, lambing paralysis
This is a condition usually seen in the last 2 to 3 weeks of gestation. It is seen mainly in overly fat ewes,
but may be seen in thin ewes, usually those carrying twins or triplets. Stressful conditions may help to
precipitate this problem, such as storms, fasting, transporting. Basically, ketosis is caused by an
inadequate intake of carbohydrates during late pregnancy. Symptoms include listlessness, no appetite,
weakness and incoordination, lying on the chest, mucus from nose, rapid breathing, and possibly
Treatment of the individual animal is not too rewarding: 4-6 ounces of propylene glycol
orally twice a day until ewe lambs, corticosteroids injections to induce lambing, or a caesarian section.
Ewes will usually recover rapidly shortly after lambs are delivered.
Prevention is the best treatment. Increase the amount of grain fed to the ewes. Test the urine of several
late gestating ewes for ketone bodies. Get a test strip from your veterinarian. If one or two ewes
develop ketosis, it is a good indicator that more ewes may develop ketosis and that the entire flock is
hovering on the brink of a disaster.

Vaccination program
All ewe lambs and older ewes not previously vaccinated need to be vaccinated at this time with
Clostridium perfringes Type C&D and tetanus. Repeat in 2 to 3 weeks with just Cl. perfringes Type C&D;
omit the tetanus.
A good immunized ewe should transfer a high degree of passive immunity to the lamb
through the colostrum and milk. This should provide the lambs with protection for 2 to 4 weeks.
Older ewes that have been vaccinated the previous year may get by with only a “booster” two weeks
before lambing. However, if a problem occurs, it will be necessary to vaccinate twice before lambing. At
4 to 6 weeks and again at 2 weeks before lambing.
If black leg (Cl. chauvoei) or malignant edema (Cl. septicum) is a problem on your farm, then use a
vaccine that also contains these organisms. It is essential that the rams are vaccinated at the same time
as the ewes.

(1) Repeat clostridium perfringes Type C and D. Tetanus may be omitted, if given earlier.
(2) Parasite control if not given earlier.
(3) Get lambing area, jugs and equipment ready for lambing.
To save time, vaccinate all ewes 4 to 6 weeks before the first ewe is to lamb.
If lambing season lasts longer than 6 weeks, it is advisable to revaccinate those ewes that have not
lambed with Clostridium perfringes Type C and D.


Management procedure
A quarantine period of 30 days should be observed in bringing freshly purchased animals into a flock.
This gives ample time for observation and attack by any disease. Animals of about 15 months of age or
12 kg (about half weight of bag of livestock feed) should be purchased. They should be bought from the
villages rather than the market. The incidence of pestes des petitis ruminants (PPR) or “Kata” a
rinderpest-like viral disease is rampant whenever goats from different sources are gathered in the local
markets for sale. Animals are dipped in gammatex or supona solution twice in two weekly intervals.
From the first day and for a period of 4 days, the animals should be administered with triple
sulphonamide, like theracazan. On the

first day of arrival in the farm, they should be immunized with rinderpest hyper-immune serum followed
by vaccination with tissue culture rinderpest vaccine(TCRV) on the 11th day. On the 3rd and 24th days of
arrival, they should be treated with broad-spectrum anthelmintic e.g., thiabendazole. In the absence of
veterinary drugs, newly purchased animals should be watched closely. If there are signs of disease, such
animals should be temporarily culled. If the disease persists the animals should be disposed off.
Feed adult animals with hay or crop residue free choice plus legume hay at 1-2 kg/animal/day. Maize,
soyabean, cowpea, millet or sorghum straws obtained after harvesting can be collected, treated and
given to the animals free choice. Dissolve about 0.5 of ash made from cocoa pod husk or 1kg ash from
palm bunch into a bucket of water to make a lye solution. Soak as much of the straw as possible into the
solution and leave it overnight. Feed it straight the next morning or dry for some few hours before
feeding, to increase
intake. Animals can then be allowed to graze or browse afterwards. For pregnant does, and freshly
weaned animals, it may be necessary to feed some concentrate consisting of 40% wheat offals, 25%
brewers’ dried grains, 25% palm kernel mean, and 10% cassava peels or cowpea husk, 1% vitamin and
1% salt or supplement with 200g DM of legume fodder per day in the last 2 months of pregnancy and up
to weaning at 3 months post partum.

Goats and sheep are unable to attain their genetic potential when insufficient diet is fed to them. As a
thumb rule, they should consume 3 % of body weight on DMI. Feedstuffs that are fed to the sheep/goats
include grains (energy feed for high producing animals) hay (protein source), minerals (calcium and
phosphorous being important one in a ratio of 2:1) silage (made of forage or grain crops), vitamins (A, D,
E) and water (fresh water access at all the time).Table given below shows the nutritional content of
different feeds that are fed to sheep and goats

Table 1. Nutrient Requirements Of Sheep: Daily Nutrient Requirements Per Animal.

Body Dry Percent Total Vitamin Vitamin
Daily TDN [b] Ca P
Wt. Matter Body Protein A E
Gain (lb.) (lb.) (lb.)
(lb.) (lb./head) [a] Weight (lb.) (IU) (IU)
Early-Weaned Lambs, Moderate Growth Potential [c]
22 0.44 1.1 5.0 0.38 0.9 0.008 0.004 470 10
44 0.55 2.2 5.0 0.37 1.8 0.012 0.005 940 20
66 0.66 2.9 4.3 0.42 2.2 0.015 0.007 1410 20
88 0.76 3.3 3.8 0.44 2.6 0.017 0.008 1880 22
110 0.66 3.3 3.0 0.40 2.6 0.015 0.008 2350 22
Early-Weaned Lambs, Rapid Growth Potential [c]
22 0.55 1.3 6.0 0.35 1.1 0.011 0.005 470 12
44 0.66 2.6 6.0 0.45 2.0 0.014 0.006 940 24
66 0.72 3.1 4.7 0.48 2.4 0.016 0.007 1410 21
88 0.88 3.3 3.8 0.51 2.5 0.017 0.009 1880 22
110 0.94 3.7 3.4 0.53 2.8 0.021 0.015 2350 25
132 0.77 3.7 2.8 0.53 2.8 0.018 0.010 2820 25
Lambs Finishing, 4 to 7 Months Old [c]
66 0.65 2.9 4.3 0.42 2.1 0.014 0.007 1410 20

88 0.60 3.5 4.0 0.41 2.7 0.014 0.007 1880 24
110 0.45 3.5 3.2 0.35 2.7 0.012 0.007 2350 24
Replacement Ewe Lambs [d]
66 0.50 2.6 4.0 0.41 1.7 0.014 0.006 1410 18
88 0.40 3.1 3.5 0.39 2.0 0.013 0.006 1880 21
110 0.26 3.3 3.0 0.30 1.9 0.011 0.005 2350 22
132 0.22 3.3 2.5 0.30 1.9 0.010 0.005 2820 22
154 0.22 3.3 2.1 0.29 1.9 0.010 0.006 3290 22
Replacement Ram Lambs [d]
88 0.73 4.0 4.5 0.54 2.5 0.017 0.008 1880 24
132 0.70 5.3 4.0 0.58 3.4 0.018 0.009 2820 26
176 0.64 6.2 3.5 0.59 3.9 0.019 0.010 3760 28
220 0.55 6.6 3.0 0.58 4.2 0.018 0.010 4700 30
Ewes [e] Maintenance
110 0.02 2.2 2.0 0.21 1.2 0.004 0.004 2350 15
132 0.02 2.4 1.8 0.23 1.3 0.005 0.005 2820 16
154 0.02 2.6 1.7 0.25 1.5 0.005 0.005 3290 16
176 0.02 2.9 1.6 0.27 1.6 0.006 0.006 3760 20
198 0.02 3.1 1.5 0.29 1.7 0.006 0.006 4230 21
Ewes [e] Flushing: 2 Weeks Prebreeding and First 3 Weeks of Breeding
110 0.22 3.5 3.2 0.33 2.1 0.012 0.006 2350 24
132 0.22 3.7 2.8 0.34 2.2 0.012 0.006 2820 26
154 0.22 4.0 2.6 0.36 2.3 0.012 0.007 3290 27
176 0.22 4.2 2.4 0.38 2.5 0.013 0.007 3760 28
198 0.22 4.4 2.2 0.39 2.6 0.013 0.008 4230 30
Ewes [e] Nonlactating: First 15 Weeks of Gestation
110 0.07 2.6 2.4 0.25 1.5 0.006 0.005 2350 18
132 0.07 2.9 2.2 0.27 1.6 0.007 0.005 2820 20
154 0.07 3.1 2.0 0.29 1.7 0.008 0.006 3290 21
176 0.07 3.3 1.9 0.31 1.8 0.008 0.007 3760 22
198 0.07 3.5 1.8 0.33 1.9 0.009 0.008 4230 24
Ewes [e]: Last 4 Weeks of Gestation (130-150 percent Lambing Rate Expected)
110 0.40 3.5 3.2 0.38 2.1 0.013 0.010 4250 24
132 0.40 3.7 2.8 0.40 2.2 0.013 0.011 5100 26

154 0.40 4.0 2.6 0.42 2.3 0.014 0.012 5960 27
176 0.40 4.2 2.4 0.44 2.4 0.014 0.013 6800 28
198 0.40 4.4 2.2 0.47 2.5 0.014 0.014 7650 30
Ewes [e] Ewes [e]: Last 4 Weeks of Gestation (180-225 percent Lambing Rate Expected)
110 0.50 3.7 3.4 0.43 2.4 0.014 0.007 4250 26
132 0.50 4.0 3.0 0.45 2.6 0.015 0.008 5100 27
154 0.50 4.2 2.7 0.47 2.8 0.017 0.010 5960 28
176 0.50 4.4 2.5 0.49 2.9 0.018 0.013 6800 30
198 0.50 4.6 2.3 0.51 3.0 0.020 0.014 7650 32
Ewes [e]: First 6-8 Weeks of Lactation, Suckling Singles
110 -0.06 4.6 4.2 0.67 3.0 0.020 0.013 4250 32
132 -0.06 5.1 3.9 0.70 3.3 0.020 0.014 5100 34
154 -0.06 5.5 3.6 0.73 3.6 0.020 0.015 5960 38
176 -0.06 5.7 3.2 0.76 3.7 0.021 0.016 6800 39
198 -0.06 5.9 3.0 0.78 3.8 0.021 0.017 7650 40
Ewes [e]: First 6-8 Weeks of Lactation, Suckling Twins
110 -0.13 5.3 4.8 0.86 3.4 0.023 0.016 5000 36
132 -0.13 5.7 4.3 0.89 3.7 0.023 0.017 6000 39
154 -0.13 6.2 4.0 0.92 4.0 0.024 0.018 7000 42
176 -0.13 6.6 3.8 0.96 4.3 0.025 0.019 8000 45
198 -0.13 7.0 3.6 0.99 4.6 0.025 0.020 9000 48
Ewes [e]: Last 4-6 Weeks of Lactation, Suckling Singles
110 0.10 3.5 3.2 0.38 2.1 0.013 0.010 4250 24
132 0.10 3.7 2.8 0.40 2.2 0.013 0.011 5100 26
154 0.10 4.0 2.6 0.42 2.3 0.014 0.012 5960 27
176 0.10 4.2 2.4 0.44 2.4 0.014 0.013 6800 28
198 0.10 4.4 2.2 0.47 2.5 0.014 0.014 7650 30
Ewes [e]: Last 4-6 Weeks of Lactation, Suckling Twins
110 0.20 4.6 4.2 0.67 3.0 0.020 0.013 4250 32
132 0.20 5.1 3.9 0.70 3.3 0.020 0.014 5100 34
154 0.20 5.5 3.6 0.73 3.6 0.020 0.015 5960 38
176 0.20 5.7 3.2 0.76 3.7 0.021 0.016 6800 39
198 0.20 5.9 3.0 0.78 3.8 0.021 0.017 7650 40
Ewe Lambs Nonlactating: First 15 Weeks of Gestation

88 0.35 3.1 3.5 0.34 1.8 0.012 0.007 1880 21
110 0.30 3.3 3.0 0.35 1.9 0.011 0.007 2350 22
132 0.30 3.5 2.7 0.35 2.0 0.012 0.007 2820 24
154 0.28 3.7 2.4 0.36 2.2 0.012 0.008 3290 26
Ewe Lambs: Last 4 Weeks of Gestation (100-120 percent Lambing Rate Expected)
88 0.40 3.3 3.8 0.41 2.1 0.014 0.007 3340 22
110 0.35 3.5 3.2 0.42 2.2 0.014 0.007 4250 24
132 0.35 3.7 2.8 0.42 2.4 0.014 0.008 5100 26
154 0.33 4.0 2.6 0.43 2 0.015 0.009 5950 27
Ewe Lambs: Last 4 Weeks of Gestation (130-175 percent Lambing Rate Expected)
88 0.50 3.3 3.8 0.44 2.2 0.016 0.008 3440 22
110 0.50 3.5 3.2 0.45 2.3 0.017 0.008 4250 24
132 0.50 3.7 2.8 0.46 2.5 0.018 0.009 5100 26
154 0.47 4.0 2.6 0.46 2.5 0.018 0.010 5960 27
Ewe Lambs: First 6-8 Weeks of Lactation, Suckling Singles (Wean by 8 Weeks)
88 -0.11 3.7 4.2 0.56 2.5 0.013 0.009 3440 26
110 -0.11 4.6 4.2 0.62 3.1 0.014 0.010 4250 32
132 -0.11 5.1 3.8 0.65 3.4 0.015 0.011 5100 34
154 -0.11 5.5 3.6 0.68 3.6 0.016 0.012 5450 38
Ewe Lambs; First 6-8 Weeks of Lactation, Suckling Twins (Wean by 8 Weeks)
88 -0.22 4.6 5.2 0.67 3.2 0.018 0.012 4000 32
110 -0.22 5.1 4.6 0.71 3.5 0.019 0.011 5000 34
132 -0.22 5.5 4.2 0.74 3.8 0.020 0.014 6000 38
154 -0.22 6.0 3.9 0.77 4.1 0.020 0.015 7000 40
Source: Sixth Revised Edition, National Research Council, 1985.
[a] To convert dry matter to an as-fed basis, divide dry matter values by the percentage of dry matter
in the particular feed.
[b] One pound TDN (total digestible nutrients) = 0.91 Mcal DE (digestible energy)
[c] Maximum weight gains expected.
[d] Lambs intended for breeding, so maximum weight gains and finish are of secondary importance.
[e] Values are applicable for ewes in moderate condition. Fat ewes should be fed according to the
next lower weight category and thin ewes at the next higher weight category. Once the desired or
moderate weight condition is attained, use that weight category through all production stages.

Table 3. Nutrient Requirements Of Goats: Daily Nutrient Requirements Per Animal.
Body Percent Total Vitamin Vitamin
Matter TDN [b] Ca P
Wt. Body Protein A E
(lb./head) (lb.) (lb.) (lb.)
(lb.) Weight (lb.) (IU) (IU)
22 0.63 2.80 0.05 0.35 0.002 0.002 400 84
45 1.08 2.40 0.08 0.59 0.002 0.002 700 144
67 1.46 2.20 0.11 0.80 0.004 0.003 900 195
90 1.81 2.03 0.14 0.99 0.004 0.003 1200 243
112 2.13 1.90 0.17 1.17 0.007 0.005 1400 285
134 2.44 1.82 0.19 1.34 0.007 0.005 1600 327
157 2.76 1.80 0.21 1.50 0.009 0.006 1800 369
179 3.05 1.70 0.23 1.66 0.009 0.006 2000 408
202 3.36 1.64 0.26 1.81 0.009 0.006 2200 444
224 3.58 1.60 0.28 1.96 0.011 0.008 2400 480
Additionl Requirements for Late Pregnancy (All Goats) [c]
- 1.56 - 0.18 0.87 0.004 0.003 1400 213
Additionl Requirements for Growth: Weight Gain at 0.11 Lb. Per Day (All Goats) [c]
- 0.40 - 0.03 0.22 0.002 0.002 300 54
Additionl Requirements for Growth: Weight Gain at 0.22 Lb. Per Day (All Goats) [c]
- 0.79 - 0.006 0.44 0.002 0.002 500 108
Additionl Requirements for Growth: Weight Gain at 0.33 Lb. Per Day (All Goats) [c]
- 1.19 - 0.09 0.66 0.004 0.003 800 162
Additionl Requirements for Milk Production Per Pound at Different Fat Percentages (percent Fat)
3 - - 0.13 0.73 0.004 0.003 3800 760
3 - - 0.14 0.74 0.004 0.003 3800 760
4 - - 0.15 0.75 0.004 0.003 3800 760
4 - - 0.16 0.76 0.007 0.005 3800 760
5 - - 0.17 0.77 0.007 0.005 3800 760

5 - - 0.18 0.78 0.007 0.005 3800 760
Additionl Requirements for Mohair Production by Angora at Different Production Levels (Lb.)
4 [d] - - 0.02 0.004 - - - -
9 [d] - - 0.04 0.07 - - - -
13 [d] - - 0.06 0.11 - - - -
18 [d] - - 0.07 0.15 - - - -
Source: Number 15, National Research Council, 1981.
[a] To convert dry matter to an as-fed basis, divide dry matter values by the percentage of dry matter
in the particular feed.
[b] One pound TDN (total digestible nutrients) = 0.91 Mcal DE (digestible energy)
[c] Requirements in addition to those for maintenance.
[d] Annual fleece yield (lb.).

Species of shrubs, grasses, and trees grazed and browsed by goats and sheep in rangelands are as under:

Feeding goat and sheep in different stages of life is given as:

v For maintenance, goat/sheep must consume DM @ of 1.5-2% of their live body weight.
v In flushing period, availability of good quality pasture must provide.
v For gestation phase, availability of high quality pasture and good grass hay up to 4 pounds
should be given during early - mid gestation and in late gestation 2 pounds grain/day should be
v During kidding or lambing, forage should only be fed in last weeks of parturition.
v During lactation, provide 1.5 pounds of grain to the doe or ewe nursing kid or lamb.
v At weaning stage, energy and low protein feed strategy should be followed during 3-5 days after
and 5-10 days before weaning.
v To feed kid and lamb, offer good quality pasture and mineral supplements.
v In breeding season, provide 1-2 lbs of grain to each ram or buck.

Housing Management
Housing is defines as Provision of shelter to the animals. There are two types of housing: (a) confined
housing (animals confined to a place by means of fencing) (b) loose housing (open are for the animals-
free hand). Space requirement for the sheep/goats is given below:

Facilities that must be provided in housing for small ruminants are as follows:

v Drainage and cleaning system: first provide feed to sheep or goats, and then they will allow
cleaning the shed without causing any trouble.

FIRST: Allow feed SECOND: Cleaning THIRD: Cleaned

v Milking facilities: milking can be done either with milking machines or by hands. Measuring
Buckets and other milk utensils should be used for transportation and storage of milk. Utensils
should be cleaned on daily basis.
v Fencing: fencing is provided to limit the animals in a confined area and to keep them away from
predators. different types of fencing can be provided in the housing area and are given below:
· Portable electric net fencing
· Five strands of electric wires
· Off-set electric fencing
· Woven wire with barbed wire
· Multiple stands of electric polytape
· Multiple stands of barbed wire
v Feeding trough: 18 inches in height, length ranges from 6-8 ft and 9 inches in depth.

Other facilities include: ventilation, dip baths, feed storage stores and offices etc.

Dip Bath for sheep and goats

Routine farm management practices like castration, hoof care, dipping :

Health Management
It includes many operations which are important for proper health and identification of the animal.

Disbudding Ear Tagging FAMACHA System

Breeding Management
Make a table of management issues at various stages of life i.e. from day one to market age This
management refers to steps or aids that are to be taken during lambing/ kidding. (1) Mate goat or
sheep. For this purpose, observe the estrus cycle of goat or sheep. Estrus lasts for 2-3 days in goats and
24-36 hrs in sheep, so mate 12-24 hrs and 12-18 hrs post estrus respectively. (2) Remember the mating
date, so the lambing/kidding time can be estimated. If the days are over the pregnancy period, then
there is a chance of obstetrical problems e.g. dystocia and monsters. Gestation period in goat ranges
from 144-157 days and 140-159 days in sheep. (3) Preparation for the kidding time. Observe the signs of
parturition such as restlessness, expansion in pelvic cavity, 1st water bag comes out and enlarged udder.
Emergency born formula is formulated for doe or ewe comprising of one beaten egg yolk, 26 ounce milk
(1/2canned+1/2water), 1 tablespoon glucose 1 tablespoon caster oil, mix it and give orally.

Disease Management
There are many diseases which cause great economic loses and must be considered to keep animals fit
and healthy. Some important diseases of sheep and goats are given below:

Pre –kidding / pre-lambing vaccination:

1-Doe and Ewe injected with 2ml of clostridia D & C and tetanus vaccination 2-4 weeks before
kidding/lambing to make kids/lambs immune against infectious organisms.

2-To avoid diseases in a flock, pasture management, sanitation and good nutrition should be provided
and vaccination schedule should be followed.

Keeping goat and sheep healthy and active is all the magic of management. By keeping good feeding
management, health, disease and housing management, small ruminants give us a lot.

Body Condition Scoring & Selection of Ideal Animals

By Faiza Bano

Scoring means assessing different body parts of animals to check whether animal is good for dairy
purpose and mutton\beef, or not, and to assess the need to slaughter the animal.

Now a question assess why we score the animals‘s body? We score the animal body for different

· The most important purpose is to check the amount of fat in animal body.
The most important region\part where we look for amount of fat is

1. Loin:-

In loin, we consider area b\w hip bone and last rib.

· Tail:-
We check level of fat in subcutaneous tissue.

· To check the balance between feed intake & energy level Loss of Energy
4. It is used to check the comparison between the animals whether it is good foe meat and dairy
purpose. We also check this animal for its state of health-absence or presence of any diseased

4. To check the management of animal at different physiological stages e.g. at wearing, breeding,
calving etc.


The objectives of body condition scoring are:-

1. To increase the production and reproduction in those animals.

By increasing the production, we mean increasing milk production. If we have to use for doing
purpose and we need an increased meat production for. IF we want to heap then for beef
production, then increase reproduction means to use such type of animals which have good genetic

2. To check the previous feed that check the type of feed, supply of feed whether good for animal
consumption or not, amount of feed that how much is supplied to animal.
3. To determine the feed requirement and animal that how much the animals need to maintain
their optimum body conditions.
4. To asses the animal s’ health condition, whether the animals are healthy or not.
5. To check the animal s’ management during wearing, breeding and calking.
6. To check for human behavior toward animal because it is important for their welfare.
Body parts of cow:-

Animals require different types of mutients for different purposes especially for:

· Body maintenance.
· Location for dairy purpose.
· The growth.
· Breeding.
· Also necessary for foetal development.
Graph Explanation:-
In this fig, it is explained that if animal is at maintained\mid gestation body score will be 4.5, or at the
location of parturition the body score will be 5.5, At breeding body condition score will be 5, at
location body score will be 4.5 and at wearing body score will be 4.5. If the above mentioned conditions
are not filled. It means animal is not in good or healthy state, Then we need to be concerned about
animal health concentration on animals health.

“Purpose of keeping the dairy anima s’ the production of milk, and the beef or mutton type animal to
get good or more amount of meat from healthy animal.”

In order to scoring the dairy type animal we have to keep several paints.

1. %age for general appearance =15%

2. %age for general dairy character = 20%
3. %age for general body capacity =10%
4. %age for general mammary system=40 %
5. %age for general legs and feet =15 %

Selection Criteria and grading:-

· If %age 90-100 then animal consider excellent.

· If %age 85-89 then consider very good animal.
· If 80-84 then consider animal is good plus.
· If 75-79 then animals just good.
· If 65-74 then animal is just fair.
· If 50-64 then animal is in poor condition and animal needs proper case
1. General appearance:-

i. Breed Characteristics:-
ii. In breed characteristics we consider the structure of animal, which includes head should be
neat and clean. Muzzle should be broad be strong.

Stature means height of animal, It also includes length of bone

iii.Front End:-

It should accompany with front legs that should be straight, wide and squarely arranged

iv. Shoulder blade:-

Shoulder blade be against\opposite to the wall of chest.

v. Back:-

Back should be straight and strong.

vi. Loin:-

Loin should be wide and strong.

vii. Rump:-

Rump should be long, wide and up to the pin bone.

viii. Thurls:-

Thurls should be wide and should be in center of pin bone and hip bone.

ix. Tail Head:-

Tail head should be little bit between pin bones, and there should be no coarseness.

Dairy Character:-

· Neck:-
Neck should be long, clean and completely blended into shoulders.

· Withers:-
Withers should be soup and prominent.

· Ribs:-
Ribs should be wide, flat, and deep.

· Skin:-
Skin should be thin, loose and pliable.

Body Capacity:-

· Chest:-
Chest should be deep and wide.

· Barrel:-
Barrel should be long, deep and wide.

· Flanks:-
Flank should be long and wid

Mammary System:-

Udder depth:-

Udder depth should be moderate, should be at the level of hock joint.

· Teat Placement:-
It should be squarely place on every quarter.

iii.Rear Udder:-

It should be wide and high, should attach from top to bottom and udder floor should be round.

iv.Udder Cleft:-

It should be supported by strong suspensor ligaments.

v.Fore Udder:-

It should be moderate length and of sufficient capacity.


It should be cylindrical the size should be uniform, and length should be medium.

vii. Udder Balance and texture:-

Udder floor should be balanced when viewed from sides.

Legs and Feet:-

Front Legs:-

They should be at steep angle, well rounded with closed toes.

· Hind Legs:-
They should be straight, wide and squarely placed.

· Hock:-
It should round and flexible, having no coarseness.

· Pastern:-
It should short and strong and should also flexible.

· Feet:-
It should be at steep angle, and rounded.

Body Scoring\Grading:-

For body scoring we have to keep the body part of animal which contains large amount of fat. The
most important part fat is accumulated

i. Loin

Ii.Tail head

Manure Management & Related Environmental Issues
By Hafiz Faseeh Minhas

The word manure came from Middle English word “manure” meaning (To cultivate land). Chemically
manure is an organic matter used mainly as fertilizer in agriculture.

There are mainly two types of the manure; this division is mainly on the basis of the source from which
we get manure

1) Plants 2) animals

Manure is one of the main components that provide the soil organic matter & nutrient like Nitrogen of
natural source for enhancing the fertility of the soil. So we can say it has a potential role in the soil food

Now if we talk about animal manure, it is a fact which is forgotten during this era of artificial fertilizers,
that animal manure provides nitrogen, phosphoric acid at a cheaper rate.

227.3 kg

One ton
4.5 kg Avg. NITROGEN
4.5 kg


ACID 2.3 kg

It is said as a general rule on a farm having animals of different type belonging to different age groups
80% of the fertilizer value of feed is excreted in feces and urine. With proper management plans this
value may be returned to soil.

Problems regarding the manure at farm:

They are following

· Farmer's lung is an allergy caused by dust from moldy hay, straw and grain. In early stages of
the disease, it can seem like nothing worse than a nagging winter cold. If ignored, the allergic
reaction can cause permanent lung damage. The victim may be forced to give up farming and --
in some cases -- may suffer from permanent disability or even death.
· Manure Gas - Hydrogen Sulphide: Many livestock operations use liquid manure systems as a
fast and economical method of handling animal wastes. These systems, particularly if they are
incorporated into the barn construction, may pose a serious hazard because of gases produced.
Decomposing animal manure gives off a variety of gases including hydrogen sulphide, carbon
dioxide and methane. Of all these gases, hydrogen sulphide or more commonly called manure
gas, is the most dangerous. Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) has been responsible for many animal
deaths as well as occasional human deaths. [990311]
· Fencing Farm Ponds, Lagoons & Other Hazardous Areas: [pdf] Each year in Ontario and Canada,
there are a number of drowning in farm ponds, waterways and lagoons. The danger of drowning
has increased dramatically with the widespread adoption of liquid manure systems. These
hazardous areas pose some unique problems for landowners. The liability situation with respect
to this area is unclear with few legal precedents to offer guidance.

Manure management:
Manure management is defined as a decision making process aiming to combine profitable agriculture
production with minimal nutrient loss from manure for present and future use. There are different types
of manure management system (MMS). These systems are site specific means they are designed
according to the local requirement but considering the major need or by major use of the area where
that manure is produced or by the fact that according to the farm management, requirement.

Main body:
Fore thousands of year’s manure of both types remain as the main source of fertilizer. Because in past
the total number of livestock reared by the farmers was not so high, the farmer only kept animals for
prestige so manure management was not a big deal. At that time population was not aware of different
environmental issues related manure.

But in recent past livestock gain the status of an industry and total population of livestock increased
significantly both in developed and under developed countries. A country like Pakistan where economy

is agriculture based, and in agriculture livestock has the central position. Manure production increased
and there is need to develop manure management systems which would serve both purposes, to avoid
environmental pollution and also to utilize the valuable manure. Because of increase in pollution of air &
water made the scientist to think more deeply before designing a management system for manure.

Amount, composition & value of Manure:

The quality, composition and value of excrement produced vary with the following points. Specie to
specie, weight of the animal, type and kind of feeding practices, amount of bedding used in animal shed.

Approximate Daily Manure Production

System for managing Manure

Manure management through proper plan is an integral part of livestock production program. The
buildings and equipment used should handle manure produced by animals efficiently in a manner that
the work required minimum labor and cause minimum pollution. It also has the qualities of retrieve the
maximum value of manure, maximize animal sanitation & comfort.

Manure is mainly handled in one of the three ways

1. As a dry product, this actually runs 20 to 30% solids and which refers to feces plus bedding or
feces after liquid separation.
2. As slurry, this may be up to 15% solids and which refers to feces, urine, and some dilution water.
3. As a liquid, with less than 5% solids, including feces, urine, and large amount of dilution of

Dry systems
Manure can be handled as a solid if it is mixed with bedding or if the liquids are allowed to evaporate or
drain away. Manure from a stall barn is usually loaded directly into a spreader with a barn cleaner and
spread on the land daily. However, provisions should be made for manure storage capacity for a period
of 180 days or more. To calculate the size of the storage area, multiply the number of 1000 pound cow
units with 2.5 cubic feet per day and than multiply by the number of days of storage desired.
Scrapes, stacks, and spread
Storage by stacking works best with manure containing bedding. It is well suited for use with stall barn
and up to eighty cows in the herd. The investment in facilities is usually lower than with liquid or slurry
storage systems. Moving stacked manure to the land requires a manure loader, spreader, and tractor.

Composting is of interest to many producers as a means of reducing odor, facilitating export from the
farm, and potentially earning income from manure. Ir provides a means of stabilizing raw manure
aerobically, rapidly converting the biodegradable products in manure to stable end products.
Composting systems often require the addition or other materials to remove water and provide
additional fermentable carbohydrates sources for optimal aerobic fermentation. Many different
materials can fill this need including shavings, hay, grain hulls and yard waste. The most common means
of aerating the compost is the window method, where the manure is stacked into window and turned at
defined intervals.

Slurry system
The main objective of cattle producer if they want to store the manure is the yearlong availability. It will
allow them to apply manure to soil at best time. The one of the important advantage of slurry system is
we can store milk house and parlor wastes can be stored in this system. This system in comparison to
others is most costly. The other problem is of odor especially when agitating or spreading. More labor
required. Different type of slurry, storage tanks under the barn; outside, below ground storage tank;
earthen storage basin; and last above ground storage. Manure can be moved to storage area by
dropping it through slots or moving with floor scrapers or through pump. Generally the time for storage
kept in mind is 12 months. Picture and layout of working

Slotted Alleys
Scraping of alleys takes time if alleys are without slots. Slotted alleys eliminate the requirement of labor,
different equipments used in scraping because wastes pass directly into storage area present below
through slots. So manure buildup can be avoided easily over floor. So we can maintain cow in hygienic
conditions comparatively because manure not stick to hooves and we can also reduce amount of
manure carted by the animal hooves to milking parlor. The basic drawback of this system is it is
expensive, and manure accumulation beneath the parlor for a shorter period will increase gasses
production the will a threat to cow’s health.

Liquids Systems
In this system the basic principle behind is flushing of waste by water out of the barn. The water
requirement depends upon (1) System type ;( 2) Numbers of times the flushing of the barn is done in a
day. In some countries the dairymen use a combination in which they first use scraping and after that
they wash the barn through flushing. The basic advantage of this system is to reduce the amount of
water used and to reduce total solid contents in the flushing water. This will allow better cleaning of the
area and recycling of the water that was used for flushing. The manure that is being removed from the
area can be moved to storage area by numbers of ways like; gravity follows into setting basins. When
the flush reached basin the solid are removed from that are used in fields, or recycled in beddings and
feed source.

Water can also be separated and it is pumped in lagoons. Lagoons are of two types; aerobic lagoons or
anaerobic lagoons. The liquid stored in lagoons can also be used in fields. The most economic and
maintained method of applying liquids in fields is through irrigation system but the point that should be
kept in mind is keep the solids contents in liquid less than 4%. The reason behind this most of the
irrigation systems can handle solid contents up to this level. The solid separator used in this system only
removes 10 to 30% nitrogen and 30% organic matter but this system do not remove sand to that
efficient level which is achieved by settling basins.

Environmental Issues Related Manure

Manure Gases & contribution toward Global Warming

When manure is kept for storage in buildings, in underground basins, in lagoons, the main hazard to
environment are the gases being produced during storage. These gases cause health hazards to people
working in facility and mainly to the animals as well as produce undesirable odor. Out of total gases
volume 95% is contributed by Methane, Ammonia, Hydrogen sulfide, and Carbon dioxide. The undesired
effect of these gases are different, some having undesirable odor both for humans, animals, some are of
toxic in nature to animals and some causes corrosion of the instruments.

Methane emission poses also a potential threat to environment through increasing global warming and
green house effect. The green house gases age those gases which are contributing towards global
warming. This basic phenomenon behind the gases is; there are some gases which surround the world
as a layer and allow only waves to pass through it from atmosphere to earth having small wavelength
they warm the earth. Some of the waves went back to atmosphere as long wavelength waves. Some of
the gases that surround the earth including methane and carbon dioxide make a greenhouse effect. This
effect causes the absorption of these long wavelengths rather than allowing them to go in atmosphere.
This causes a condition known as global warming and increasing the temperature of the earth
continuously. The effect of gases emitted from the manure contributing a lot in global warming and
these days this is one of the hot issue circling in scientific community. Although carbon dioxide is the
largest in amount in green house gases and it is said that it contribute about half of the total global
warming. But methane is the most dangerous gas from all these gases from the fact that it can trap one
quarter more radiant energy than carbon dioxide when we on molecule to molecule basis. The most
alarming fact about methane presently is that the amount of methane in greenhouse gases is increasing
by 1% annually. In total gases present around earth in layer the contribution of methane from animal
source is 3%.

Contribution of man in Total greenhouse methane and in other Gases

Manure as a source of water pollution

It is stated that an average cow being kept on pasture for a whole day can produce manure and urine up
to 45 kgs. Manure handling system are efficient in utilizing the value of manure and in also keeping the
facilities clean but when the manure applied in field as a fertilizer in semi solid or liquid mixture. The
nutrient present in that mixture can be absorbed by different types of plants like nitrogen absorbing
plants. In reality these plants can’t absorb all the nutrient present, some of the nutrient will bypass this
and will go in the underground water.

The animal waste contain different types of substances like antibiotic residues, hormones, trace
elements, organic matter, pathogens but the main causes of water pollution are Nitrogen and
Phosphorus. In California a state of USA in one of the lake the presence of abnormal amount of
phosphorus was noticed and on investigation it was stated that 90% of the total phosphorus in lake
came from animal manure. It came in lake through application on land, through leaching, or accidental
breakage of storage facilities.

Biogas technology provides an alternate source of energy in rural India, and is hailed as an archetypal
appropriate technology that meets the basic need for cooking fuel in rural areas. Using local resources,
viz. cattle waste and other organic wastes, energy and manure are derived. Realization of this potential
and the fact that India supports the largest cattle wealth led to the promotion of National Biogas

Programme in a major way in the late 1970s as an answer to the growing fuel crisis. Biogas is produced
from organic wastes by concerted action of various groups of anaerobic bacteria. An attempt has been
made in this review on the work done by our scientists in understanding the microbial diversity in biogas
digesters, their interactions, factors affecting biogas production, alternate feedstocks, and uses of spent

Recycling - Process
Recycling is a four-step process. The first step is collection and separation from other trash. The second
is reprocessing into a raw material, and the third is manufacturing into new products. The final step is
the purchase and use of recycled products by consumers, including individuals, businesses, and
government institutions. Although this is a simple formula, recycling faces much controversy …

Manure can be a blessing as a byproduct in large amount but as it is said excess of every thing is bad. So
Without proper handling manure can be a hazard for livestock farm. So livestock owner should adopt a
manure handling system with proper consideration given to economics of the farm and facilities
available at farm. Manure is one of the main contributors of higher level of green house gases (GHG) to
environment and methane the most dangerous one. The manure methane produces during storage of
manure can be utilized for good purposes as generation of electricity is one of them. Manure as a whole
can be utilized as a source of energy as in our neighboring country India it is being used as a source of
house gas since 1970 named as “Gobar gas”. On small scale manure as a whole can be directly used as
fuel and can be sold in compost solid farm like being done in our rural areas. As manure contain organic
matter and it contain different elements like Nitrogen, Potassium so the excessive use of manure on
land without knowing the proper profile of the felids elements can cause water pollution, soil
contamination. So before using it is being advised to the farmer that he should check the soil sample. In
the end we can modify the animals in a manner that they stop urinating and defecating but we have to
discover new ways of improving the systems in a manner so we could decrease environmental hazards
along with getting maximum benefit from it.

Livestock Housing and Structure

By Faryal Shahid

In older times animals are wild. They were living in forest and fulfil their feeds requirement by moving
here and there. As the time passes people domesticate the animal using for milk, meat, egg and for

The housing for animal in order to fulfil the requirement of humans need. There must be good site
selection where proper facilities are being available. There must be an ideal environment for the animal
so that we get the maximum outputThe idea is to control all environment factors for animal welfare.

The three main factors must be considered while housing is economic factor, biological factor and
engineering factor. New heading i.e. consideration of housingAn integrated system should be designed
Minimize labor demands, utilize mechanical/automatic equipment, provide desirable environment,
minimize stress on animals, allow for a smooth flow or animals and materials, provide for individual
animal care and treatment and comply with sanitary & pollution control regulations. In livestock
housing and structure the following point must be considered

Site selection
The first consideration is the location of building. so following are the important factors

The site must be near to market so that whatever is produced on an animal farm must reach to market.
There must be less time on transportations cost and less losses to the spoilage of farm products.

There must be proper water supply, electricity, gas and telephone must be available

Farm building must be near to a good service road

(1) The area is flat and has certain slope but no abrupt slope.

(2) It should not be flood affected area

(3) Should not be water logged area

(4) The farm should be constructed in depression because of ventilation etc

(5) It should be 5miles away from urban area and 1 kilo meter away from human population

(6) Protected from bad odor

(7) Drainage site should have some slope so drainage should be easy

(8) it should be fertile one. Soil must be compact one and should not be dehydrated

Water supply
Clean and safe water should be available in plenty. The electricity can help foe cheap water supply.
Water is required for many purpose like showering, splashing of buffaloes in summer.

Sun exposure and wind protection
The building should be located in place were maximum sun light is reach as it is a good for farm cleaning.
The farm is protected from strong winds. A site with many trees is ideal as it protect from strong wind
and trees act as shade and provide natural environment.

Miscellaneous consideration
For present day life requirement the nearby school for children, health center, post office and a
shopping center are the essential it must not be too far from farm building.

Farm stead building

In planning a new farm or altering an old one, building, fences, gate etc should be added according to
well laid master plan, for one construed building are difficult and expensive to remove. In general the
animal shed and other commonly used building should be located around a central court and should be
so arrange that most of them can be seen from the house of farmer or farm manger. The following
factor must be considered

Location of farmer’s / Farm Manger’s house

It is normally termed as homestead. The farm manger’s house should be located near to road and on
high area so that person can watch the farm operation properly.

Orientation of area
Farm stead building in hot climate the building should face north to south and its long axis east to west.
This would help the paddock site to get direct sunlight. The direction can be change according to the
local condition in country.

Direction of winds
The home stead should be located in wind ward side according to the direction of prevailing wind. In
hilly areas the protection can be achieve through hilly to break wind. This can also be achieve through
tree. Usually, a tree windbreak is located 25 to 40meters from the farm building to be protected with
three to six rows of tree.

Save time and labor

The building should be built in such a way that it require minimum time and walking when doing farm
chores. The building in which most of the time is spend such as milking barn, workshop should be closed
to homestead. The building should be near to one another to permit the efficiency of labor without fire
hazard. The milking parlor should be in center of building.

Fire protection
Farm building enough apart so that fire cannot spread from one farm to another farm. It should be 25m

Animal house design
The basic principle to design a farm house is to reduce the heat gain and promotes the heat loss from
animal during summer. During winters the structures like wall and floor should not get too cold rather
that it give protection from wind. The following factors affect the choice of design

1 Economics
It depends on the availability of funds that how much the cost on equipment, construction and
operation is needed and how much funds we have.

2 climate
It is the most important factors in hot climate open sided houses mostly rely on natural condition and in
cold climate closed sided houses mostly rely on unnatural condition.

3 Ventilation
For the good or ideal productivity and comfort of animal the proper ventilation is needed. There must
be good exchange of air so that the accumulated water vapour, carbon dioxide, dust and air bone
microorganism are removed.

4 Management by machine
The farm that are automated or build according to modern needs the machine are install at right and
proper place. The efficient work and maximum output is ensured.

Type of Housing
There are three type of housing system

1 Extensive

2 Semi intensive

3 intensive

(1) Extensive
Animal are kept on free range system

(2) Semi intensive

In this system we use combination of these two systems at day time animal kept on free range system
and in night animal are kept in shelter

(3) Intensive
Most of the time the animal kept in covered area

Dairy Housing
The general rule to plan a dairy house is depend on number of animal, facilities to be provided for
feeding of animals, collection of manure, cleaning and washing. For this purpose we shall kept in mind
the basic rule of animal management, general hygiene and sanitation and disinfection.

In general use two types of dairy houses


1 loose housing system

2 conventional dairy barns

Loose housing system

In this system animal are kept in open paddock or pasture most of the day and night except milking the
concentrate are give in milking time in separate shed. The open paddock is provided with shelter on one
side with animal is protected from extreme environmental condition like rain. The water trough is
common for all animals. The open paddock is enclosed by mean of half walls of convenient size. In loose
housing system the trees can be used for shelter in cheap cost system.

1. Cheaper system

2. Less labour is required

3. Animals feel happy

4. Heat detection is easier

5. Farm is easy to expand

6. Large number animal can be kept

7. Overall management is easier

1. Fighting of animals

2. Chance of diseases transfer

Cattle shed have milking room, dry animal shed, pregnant animal shed, calf shed, heifer shed, maternity
pens and separate sick animal shed if possible

Roof height from centre and at eaves

Gable type, in hot climate and also in rain fall and snow or shed type, roof where the natural ventilation
system.roof types, price and

It should be concrete floor that should have coagarated surface to avoid slippery of animal. In case of
kaccha floor it should be off mud one.

Side wall
Wall is of any material like concrete wall the height is 10-12ft and boundary wall is 5ft

The size of floor depends upon structure of building and soil type. For example if soil is sandy the
foundations is of large size. 12- 18inch depending upon the type of construction

Floor space requirement

Open area is 3 or 4 times double the covered area.

Layout plan

Conventional dairy barn

It is comparatively, costly than loose housing. They may be either

1 tie stall

2 stanchion barns

Conventional dairy barns are also called stall barns. In this system the cows are confined together on a
platform and secured at neck by beck chain or neck ropes or stanchion. Cows are feed as well as milk in
this barn. The barns are completely roofed and walls are also complete with windows or ventilators
where required. In conventional barns animal are less expose to harsh weather condition and kept clean
and disease control is also better.

Building required
1Milking herd 2 Dry cows 3 Springing heifers 4 Unbredheifers 5 Calves 6 Bulls 7Maternity 8
Treatment 9 Milking (parlor) 10 Milk room 11 Hay storage 12 Grain storage 13 Silage storage
14 Manure storage/treatment 15 Utilities

Cow shed
The shed for milch animals can be constructed either in a single row or double row arrangement. If the
number of animal is more than ten than double row system is better than single row system. In double
row system standing for animal can be arranged either in tail to tail system or face to face system.

More space required Less space is required
More time consuming 60%time in hind area, 15 in front and 25% other
Sun shines on gutters and drainage No shine
Expensive for large herds Economical for more than 30 animals
Two gates to enter Single gate

Layout plan


The purpose of Stall is to provide protection from other animal or injury to herself and other. It size is
big enough for a cow to lie down but it should not allow to move forward and to turn in stall. The bed of
stall is made up of concrete, rubber mats, packed clay, or limestone etc. the bedding is of any material
like sawdust, silt, chopped straw and ground hills etc.

It is provided for cattle movement and manure accumulation. It is also used for bedding distribution.
Size of this area is according to animal requirement to move freely and equipment. Size is 7-10’ between
row of stall and 11-14’ between stall and feed bunk

Separate manure from stall size is about 8-10”. Its height is depends upon length of alley, frequency of
removal and limited by cow udder.

Feed bunks
Height is about 28”height, 1-1/2ft length par cow,3-5ft. Its size is depending on feeding program,
method of filling and frequency of filling and it is limited by cow reach.

Traffic alleys
34” wide for single cow. 5-6ft wide for two cow.
It can be one cup type or tanks for 20 animals. It should be easy to access and use of barrier between
waterers and feed bunk. Top of waterers should be 20-24” above where cow stand.

Calf housing
The calf shed should be located either at the end or one side of milking barn. This facilities help in taking
the calf to their dams quickly at milking time and hand feed to calf if weaning is practise. In calf shed
there must be proper removal of manure, the resting place is properly dry and there should no calf to
calf contact. In warm climate the elevated type of calf shed is ensured while in case of cold climate
individual pens( 4' x 6' ) used like calf hutchs. Calf hutchs are 4' x 8' shelter with 4' x 6' pen.

Calf pen layout

Heifer housing
Heifer from about 2-4month of age and the group size is limit up to 6 animals. While grouping age, size,
nutritional requirement, medical treatment and bedding should be consider. space requirement

Young stalk shed space requirement

Older heifer from about 6 month of age to breeding age is too housed separately from suckling calf and
male calf.

Maternity pens
The number of calving boxes required is about 5% of number of breed able female stalk on the farm the
dimension of each calving box shall about 3×4m for covered area and 3×4m for open paddock. It should
have area of 100sqm. The covered area shall have 1.25m high wall all around. The manger should also

Sick animal shed

Shed more or less similar to maternity pens in structure and shall be located away from other shed so
that these shed are in accessible to other animal size is about 150s.qft

Bull shed
The bull shed should be constructed towards one end of farm. There should be individual space for each
bull. The number required being 1 for every 50 breed able female on the farm. The bull shed shall have
covered 3×4m and open paddock 120sqm.

Showering area
This area is important for heat stress management during summer. Heat stress can decrease animal
production, reproduction and profitability. The heat stress managed by feeding, housing and adequate
water supply. The animal should bath 2 times daily i.e. showering. The heat stress can be mange through
proper is shade provided proper installation of fans and mist producing fans. For water buffalo there
should be tanks which have capacity for 10-15 animals.

Foot bath
It is important from hygienic point of view. It should be near to entrance so that farm is free from
various infections. For foot bath there should be a Shallow tank of 6×3 m bottom and 12×4m on top and
0.3m deep.

Milking Center
The objective of milk center is to take good quality of milk safely, efficiently & economically. To make
sure that cow is clean & udder healthy. There should be a place for milking cooling. So for this purpose
following area must be provided

1. Milking parlor, 2. Milk room, 3. hospital, 4. Office 5 Utilities 6 Holding areas 7 Feeding & waste
handling 8 Ventilation & lighting

Milking parlor
This is the full covered barn where the milk animals are milked. There is lot of acivity in the milk barn it
should be located in the center of farm with all other building arrange around it. There shall be
individual standing or stall in one or two rows. The number of standing required on a farm or equal to ½
to 1/3 of is number of milch animals. The length and width of the standing stall be divided according to
the size of animal & it may vary from 1.5 to 1.7m in length & 1 to 1.2m in width. The width of central
passage is 1.5 to 1.8m. There shall be a gentle slope from the center outward towards the drain. There
shall be two continuo’s manger one on each side along the head of standing rows and 0.75m wide
feeding passage beyond each manger. There shall be shallow U-shaped drain (20cm wide) and on other
side of central passage. The floor of the standing should be paved with a slope of 1 in 40 towards drain.
The roof of shed should be gabled. The eves of the roof shall project out at least 50cm away from the
side wall.

Milk Room
This is a place where milk is collected, weighed & stored in cans for short period before delivering to
market or in milk plant. Its can store milk up to 100liter. The floor space is 3.7×3.0m an additional
0.37sq.m floor space is required for every 40liters of milk. This floor space can accommodate the milk
recording equipment like milk cooling device, can racks, sink, washing out fit & furniture.

The door and windows of milk house shall be made fly proof. The flooring of the room shall be made up
of cement, concerete and it is impervious. The wall should be lined with white glazed tiles up to height
of 1.5m. A suitable platform or concerete slab shall be provide for keeping milk testing equipment.

Holding pens
It should be separate from other. The area for per cow is 14-16sqft.the purpose of this area is to hold
the cow to milked in 1- 1/2hr. The slope is 1-6% than parlor. There should be no door/wall between
parlor and holding area to avoid the visual.

Crowd gate
The cows cannot enter into the parlor. The length of gate is about 30ft it can be electrified it can be
light, bell and buzzer.gates types

Treatment area
The treatment area allows the handle of 1500lbs cow with one man. The area is easy to clean and have
access to animal. It should have capacity to handle down and dead animal. There should be safety of
man while dealing with animal like breeding, pregnancy checking or vaccination etc so head gates , lock
in stanchions or squeeze chute must be installed crush dimension

Ancillary structure
Those structure which are required for storage of feed, equipment and medicine etc like store & silos.

1 Store
Stores are required for storing concentrate feed, hay, straw, equipment on the farm. The size and type
of building for stores can be decided on the basis of quantity of feed and fodders. That are to be store
on the farm at a time. For concentrate feed the store size is determined on the assumption that 0.2m
storage space required per adult.

Silos are used for storage & making of silage. Silage obtained by ensiling the green fodder in silos

Types of silos
1 Trench silos

2 Pit silos

3 Plastic silos

4 Tower silos

The silos capacity depend up on the number of animals.

3 Handling Yard
For vaccine & medication on large farm it is advantageous & economical to construct on flexible had
lying yard. That can be used for three purposes of animal handing collection, filling & control of
individual animal for weighing, vaccination marking etc.

Small Ruminants Housing

Small ruminants are homoeothermic animals. There housing is not expensive there must be good
provision of sunlight, ventilation, drainage & space. It is easily future expandable. There should be easy
access to feed and water. We can also use old dairy cattle stanchion barns are used for dairy goat
housing. In goat/lamb housing fencing must be provided

Lean-to type shed

This shed is for family of two goats it is 1.5m wide and 2.0m long. The length show that 0.3m for manger
1.2m for goats and remaining 1.5m is for milking goats which are two in number.

General flock shed
Adult breeding doe/ewe base in this shed each shed should accommodate about sixty ewes. The shed
should be 3m high & should have brick on edge.

Milk animal shed

In Pakistan the goat are kept for milk purpose. The shed is two row stall 0.75m wide and 1.5m long, the
central passage is for milk and feed

Animal Space required

Adult 1 sq.m
Lamb/kid 0.4 sq.m
Ram/buck 2 sq.m

Shed for ram and buck

They house individual in these shed wooden partition in large shed can be used to partition in stall.
Single stall size is 2.5m×2.0m.

Lambing or kidding shed

These are the maternity pens pregnant ewe or doe are house individual in these shed. Animal are
housed for 3 days. In cold areas heater must be provided & moisture free bedding in laming or kidding

Lamb or kid
This shed is away from adult female shed. The animal is kept from weaning up to attaining the size of
maturity house in these shed at the rate of about 75 animals per shed. The wall and doors are 1.3m
high. The size of one stall is about 1.5×2.5m can have up to 10 kids and height is 0.9-1.0m.

Exercise paddock for stall-fed goats

It is adequate for about 100 goats and the size is 12m × 18m. The area must be well fenced with strong
wire and have shady trees.

Sick animal shed

Away from the other shed one or more sick animal shed of about 3×2×3m size may be constructed.

Sharing room
This is the place where sheep wool is removed. This room should be well lit by having large glass
windows all around. The floor should be cemented paved & surface made smooth on either side of
share room. On either side of room there shall be two simple fenced lots where sheep can be collected
before & after sharing. The room must have plain floor.

Horse Housing
The hosing use for horse must be well designed in regarding management efficiency and for the welfare
of horse. Horse is likely to eat everything so good management of feed is necessary and the horse
housing is easily expandable in future. The extensive facilities includes, riding arenas, sales barn, open
shelters, training barn, equipment storage, exercise area, , corrals, loading ramp, space to turn around
trucks, hay and feed storage, office, including some residential quarter.

The area must be free from rodent and moisture. Availability of clean and pure water 30-45lit/day, for
light we can use fluorescent because it is cheaper as it gave 2.5 times more light.

The arrangement favored in outside our country is not suitable to our country. The wall of the stable is
3m high and the thickness is 35cm. The roof is sloping type so that more air and light can enter. The roof
of tiles and T-R is good. Stall should be free from sharp edges as it avoids the chance of injury. The floor
of the stall have solid foundation and slope is about 5cm in 3cm. Floor is impervious and no slippery so
for this purpose the floor is made up of cement, concrete and have rough broom. The size for each stall
is as follow

stall Size (m)

Box stall 3.6×3.6(12×12)
Foaling stall 3.6×4.5
Stallion stall 4.5×4.5
Ponies 3.5×3.5

The door of stall is at least 1.25m wide, sliding type is preferred. Door is solid and opening is on upper
parts. Feeding trough, water trough and drainage must be made in each stall.

Layout plan

In horse housing the ventilation must be provided adequately. For this purpose the door are open,
windows must be provided at height of 2.5m and we can also use exhaust.

Camel Housing
In Pakistan no such farming is been taken place. Mostly open houses is seen, in chilly night camel is
provided by thatched roof. Sometimes in very cold we can also provided some kind of cloth.

Some people made camel pens of about 4×4m under gable roof and the height at eve is 3m and at ridge
is 4m. They provided shed of plywood or date leaves so to protect from rays.

The housing is depending upon the type of animal, number of animal and climate condition. The most
important is economics that how much money we had how should we proceeded. The good person is
that which work under their limits. So for good housing proper installation of every needy thing is
ensured. The wall, roof and floor structure is ensured and is according to need, the type of farming and
how much we provide feed and how much time animal is out for grazing and how much animal feel
happy is all based on need and time and the management. Hence good housing is equal to increasing in
animal health and product.


By Aatka Jamil

Livestock refers to domesticated animals kept for useful purpose. Livestock is integral part of our
economy because it shares half with agriculture in national GDP .From livestock we can get many
valuable products and by-products. In PAKISTAN we have best breeds from which we can get maximum
out put. Our land resources, irrigation systems, environmental conditions and availability of man power
also favor livestock production. But it’s sorry to sayx that we are not getting much benefit as we can.
There may be many reasons, but most important and ignored one is proper lower case. Due to this
producer is not getting any benefit and there is a hell of difference between actual price and retail price.
It is due to involvement of many intermediaries and absence of proper marketing system. Due to this
both producer and consumer are not satisfied. Major products which are obtained from livestock are
milk, meat, wool, hide/skin, blood etc. In this article I will discuss prevalent marketing systems for
livestock products in country.

In our country there are 3 types of markets for livestock and livestock products.

1-TERMINAL MARKETS: In this system there is involvement of commission agents.

2-AUCTION MARKETS: The selling and buying is done by bidding

.3-LOCAL MARKETS: Producer sell there products directly to consumer.


Milk is a main livestock product .Most of the milk is produced by buffalos and cows. It is estimated that
70% of milk comes from buffalos in Pakistan. Our buffalo is called black gold of the country due to its
milk production. Combined Population of cattle and buffalo is more than 45 million. According to
statistical data, per capita consumption of milk in Pakistan is 190 liters 154 liter per year / see plz check
through statistical bureau or economic survey approximately. If we see share of provinces it is 63% of
Punjab, about23% of sindh, 12% is of Khyber Pakhtoon khuwa, while remaining 2% of Baluchistan.
Pakistan stands at number 5 check it 4 or 5 in the world among milk producing countries, but it is
surprising that we are still importing milk powder of about 39 million dollars to meet our needs. When
we see production of milk it is very clear that most of milk is produced in the rural areas of the country
which is approximately 80% .These farmers consume half of the milk at there homes and sell rest of it.
About 15% is contributed by peri-urban farmers, while remaining is produced at commercial farms.. Milk
is a perishable livestock product so a lot of care is necessary during its marketing .There is about 15-20%
of milk spoilage due to improper handling how much reach to processing plant . In Pakistan there are
two types of marketing systems for milk.


In conventional marketing of milk, it is sold as such i.e. without any treatment. It is estimated
that from total production of milk in country 97% is marketed by this way. In conventional marketing of
milk there is involvement of approximately seven intermediaries. These intermediaries are dodhies,
whole salers, halwaies, retailers etc. In this marketing system there is no quality testing procedures.
Buyer can assess it just by his aesthetic sense or by visualizing it. Quality of milk is also questionable in
this system. Because there are many ways of adulteration, such as mixing of water and ice etc. In this
system there is an immense difference between the prices. It is due to involvement of middle man.







In this type of marketing milk is processed and sold. It is said that about 3% of milk is marketed by this
mean in country. There are more than 20 units in country where milk is processed. Some known are
given below.

These plants have their own collection points where they purchase milk from farmers. Milk is purchased
on the basis of fat %.These collection centers also have facilities of chilling. Then milk is transported to
plants via insulated vans .There it is treated with high temperature to kill all microorganisms. This type
of milk is called UHT milk. Milk is also homogenized at these plants and fat% is reduced up to 3.5% .Then
it is packed in tetra packs. Then these are distributed all over the country by distributers. Some of these
plants also produce pasteurized milk. This milk is then sale in polythene pouches or open in bulk. But the
processed milk is very costly and the difference in prices is almost double from the actual price. In the
following flow sheet overall process of milk marketing is described.







Meat is flesh of animals used as food, and is valuable livestock product. Man is consuming it as food
since Stone Age .Red meat is divided into two categories beef and mutton which we get from large and
small ruminants respectively. According to economic survey of Pakistan last year production of beef and
mutton is 1655 and 603 thousands tons respectively new figures from economic survey. But it is not
according to demand so poultry and fish meat is also used. When we talk about marketing of meat it is
directly linked to marketing of alive animals. Meat marketing is majorly run by private sector. Role of
Government is to formulate the laws about the quality of meat. Farmer sells his alive animal to butchers
who then sell meat locally after slaughtering. The farmers can also sell their animals to collectors/arthies
from there wholesalers/butchers purchase these animals. Then retailers purchase fresh carcass from
butchers/wholesalers and sale it at their shops in big cities. We can say that our most meat marketing is
by conventional means. In Pakistan there is no grading system for animal carcass. In fact there is also no
concept of raising animals for meat production, only the animals which are too old or do not remain
productive are sold for slaughtering. Meat is marketed on the bases of cuts. People prefer cretin cuts on
others. Important beef cuts are highlighted in this picture.

Now in big cities there are few super stores which are providing meat in packaging, like Metro Cash and
Carry but it is not adopted by people because they like fresh meat also the prices are very high as
compare to fresh meat available at butcher’s shop. Important mutton cuts are as following.


Wool is defined as dense coat obtained from sheep. Total wool production in country is approximately
42 million tons. Sheep is sheared twice in a year, in spring and autumn. In our country 45% wool is
obtained from spring shearing while rest 55% from autumn .Spring wool is white in color while autumn
is of yellow color. Shearing is mostly done by farmer himself. And it is estimated that 20% losses are due
to faulty shearing process .And mostly shearing is done without washing. In Pakistan most of wool
produced is coarse. Its specialty is its sponginess, which is best for carpet making; There are 4 major
types of wool on the basis of diameter.

. wool marketing channel from Animal husbandry by iqbal shahWhen we talk about marketing of wool
there are certain steps before marketing. It includes shearing, washing, sorting and bulking. There are
about 30 markets of wool in country, major are Multan, Mianwali, Deraghazi khan, Jhang, Sahiwal,

Bhawalpur etc. Different grades are given to wool according to quality, which are PAK super, PAK
medium, PAK coarse, PAK pieces, PAK colored. There are 28 sheep breeds in our country from which
wool can be obtained. Hairs of goat are also produced and marketed. Angora and Kashmiri goat are the
breeds of goat for hair production.


It is also an important livestock product because of its intensive use in leather industry. There combined
production in the last year was more than 78 million numbers .There are mainly three sources of
hide/skin in our country which are slaughter houses, butchers, and sacrificed animals. Marketing of
hide/skin is not systemic. Collectors collect it from rural areas for commission agents, then transport to
depots. Then supply to the leather tanneries, where further processing is done. Whole sale is done
without cleaning and grading process. Quality is affected by two ways, there may be fly infestation or
other skin diseases and butchers give unnecessary cuts during the process of flaying. Quality is assessed
by grades, Grade 1,2 and 3 are used for hide/skin in our country. This grading is done on the basis of
moisture level .Moisture in dry skin should not more than 30%, dry salted skin should not contain>13%
moisture and <25% salt, wet salted skin should not have <30% salt.


These are not main livestock products. However are important by-products. Annual production of blood
is near 47 thousands tons It is used in preparation of feed for poultry, The main sources are slaughter
houses .Bones are used in the manufacturing of buttons, bangels , handles of knives and decoration
pieces. During last year bone production was up to 693 thousands tons.


If we see the annual exports of livestock products of our country it will be obvious that it is very low as
compared to production. The following table contains the information about last year export of main
livestock products.

From above table it is clear that although production is increasing but profit and export has not
increased due to certain constraints in livestock marketing system in Pakistan.

To conclude above discussion we can say that marketing of livestock products in Pakistan is not up to
mark .We need a lot of struggle to overcome this wide gap. There are a lot of flaws in this field, such as
too much involvement of middle man, lack of planning, improper implementation of laws, lack of farmer
training etc. Which results in high pricing and hence the end user and the farmer (producer) both are
least benefited. These flaws can be overcomed by appropriate marketing strategies, grading of livestock
products according to international standards, sustainable price system, and proper counseling of
farmer. The monopolistic attitude of the private sector in the marketing of livestock products especially
(milk)is also one of the reasons of failure of livestock marketing. Although the present scenario of
livestock marketing in Pakistan is not satisfactory one. But we are pretty sure that being veterinarian if
we contribute our share in this task we can become at par with the world wide livestock marketing in
near future, (INSHALLAH).


By Abdul Samad Haidary

Land requirement

1 Adult animal is equal to 1 AU.1 calf 0lder then 1 year is equal to 0.5 animal unit.
1 animal unit requires 0.4 acre.

For 25 we will multiply 25AU with0.4 the lands require will be10 acre.

In 2nd year we will have 28 AU. For 28AU we will multiply 28 with 0.4 so the land require will be 11.2

In 3rd year we will have 32 AU. For 32 AU we will multiply 32 with 0.4 so the land require will be 12.8

In Year 4th there will be 33.5 AU. For 33.5AU we will multiply 33.5 with 0.4 so the land require will be
13.4 acres

In 5TH year we will have 38 animal units. For 38AU we will multiply 38 with0.4 so the land require will be
15.2 acres

Capital investment: For shed construction @40 sq .ft /animal.

Ø For 25 animals =40x25= 1000 sq .ft

Ø For20 young stock the shed construction is @ 20 sq. ft/animal.

Ø For 20 animals=20x20=400 Sq ft

Ø Construction of room for watchman 10 X12 ft =120 Sq.ft

Ø Construction of store 20 X 10 ft = 200 sq.ft

Ø Total area=1000+400+120+200=1720 sq.Ft

Construction @ 300 /sq.ft

For 1720=1720x300=516000 rupees

Ø Purchase of 25 cattle @80000 =80000x25= 2000000 rupees

Ø Chaff cutter = 20000 rupees

Ø Chain ,buckets ,milk utensil etc = 45000 rupees

Ø Van = 500000rupees

Ø Miscellaneous = 20000 rupees

Ø Total = 3060500 rupees

Loan and interest:

For starting any business you should not invest whole cost from yourself. You should take loan.

Interest on capital investment @ 17% = 520285rupees

Ø 50% is the capital investment is loan

Animal increase decrease chart Normal parameters

Parameters Values %

Fertility 80

Mortality rate Sucklers 10

Mortality rate Adults 5

Male-Female ratio 50

Milk production 3500

Calf milk 275 liters

Milk price 42/liter


I have purchased all pregnant animals

Increase by Decrease by

Class Birth Purchased Transfer Total Death Sale Transfer Total Cumulative


Cattle 25 25 25



Male 12 12 1 8 8+1=9 12-9=3


Female 13 13 1 3 1+3=4 13-4=9


Total 25 25 50 2 11 13 37

Second Year

Increase by Decrease by

Class o/b Birt Purchased Transfer Total Deat Sale Transfer Total Cumulati
h h ve


Cattle 25 25 1 1 25-1=24

Mys 3 3 3 3 3-3=0

Fys 9 9 1 1 9-1=8

Male 3 9 12 1 5 3 1+5+3=9 12-9=3


Femal 9 9 18 1 9 1+9=10 18-10=8

Total 37 18 12 67 4 8 12 24 37

Third year

Increase by Decrease by

Class o/b Birt Purchased Transfer Total Death Sale Transfer Total Cumulativ
h e


Cattle 24 8 32 1 1 32-1=31

Mys 3 3 3 3 3-3=0

Fys 8 8 16 2 4 8 2+4+8=14 16-14=2

Male 3 8 11 1 3 3 1+3+3=7 11-7=4


Female 8 9 17 1 8 1+8=9 17-9=8


Total 43 17 19 79 5 10 19 34 45

Fourth year

Increase by Decrease by

Class o/b Birth Purchased Transfer Total Death Sale Transfe Total Cumulative

Cattle 31 2 33 2 1 2+1=3 33-3=30

Mys 0 4 4 1 2 1+2=3 4-3=1

Fys 2 8 10 2 2 2+2=4 10-4=6

Male 4 10 14 2 4 4 2+4+4=10 14-10=4

Female 8 11 19 3 8 3+8=11 19-11=8


Total 45 21 14 80 10 7 14 31 49

Fifth year

Increase by Decrease by

Class o/b Birt Purchased Transfer Total Death Sale Transfer Total Cumulative

Cattle 30 6 36 2 2 36-2=34

Mys 1 4 5 3 1 3+1=4 5-4=1

Fys 6 8 14 1 6 1+6=7 14-7=7

Male 4 11 15 1 8 4 1+8+4=13 15-13=2


Female 8 10 18 2 3 8 2+3+8=13 18-13=5


Total 49 21 18 88 6 14 19 39 49

Animal unit/year:

In the following table we will see animal units in five years

Class First year Sec. year Third year Fourth year Fifth year

Cattle 25 24 31 30 34

MYS 1 1

FYS 8 2 6 7

MS 3 3 4 4 2

FS 9 8 8 8 5

Total 37 43 45 49 49

Animal units 25 28 32 33.5 38

Feeding cost

Cost of fodder

Factor First year Second year Third year Fourth year Fifth year

Animal unit 25 28 32 33.5 38

Require 25x50x365 28x50x365 32x50x365 33.5x50x365 38x50x365

=456250 =511000 =584000 =611375 =693500

Cost @350/MT 14258.5 15969.5 18250.8 19106.38 21672.91

We calculate the cost in the way below

1mt =10 ton




1 MT=1120x10=11200kg

Price of 1kg fodder=350/11200=0.03125rupees

To calculate cost of fodder we multiply requirement of each year with0.03125rupees.the above values
have taken in this way I have cultivated fodder on my on land so the price of fodder is very low.

Total cost=14258.5+15969.5+18250.8+19106.38+21672.91=89258.09

Cost of wheat straw (120 days)

Factors First year Sec. year Third year Fourth year Fifth year

Animal unit 25 28 32 33.5 38

Require 25x3x365 28x3x365 32x3x365 33.5x3x365 38x3x365

@3kg/au/day =9000kg =10080 =11520 =12060 =13680

cost@5/kg 5x90000 5x10080 5x11520 5x12060 5x13680

=45000 =50400 =57600 =60300 =68400

Total cost in five years=45000+50400+57600+60300+68400=281700 rupees

Number of animals

Stage First year Second year 3rd year 4th year 5th year Average no.
of animals

Lactating 25 20 18 19 21 20.6

Pregnant 9 12 15 11 13 12

Young stock 12 11 14 19 15 14.5

Cost of concentrate

Stage Concentrate Days Avg. no.0f Cost/year Five years cost


Lactating 3kg/day 280 21 3x280x21x13 229320x5

=229320rupees =1146600

Pregnant 1.5kg/day 50 12 1.5x50x12x13 11700x5

=11700rupees =58500

Young stock 0.5kg/kg 50 14.5 0.5x50x14.5x13 4712.5x5

=4712.5rupees =23562.5

Total cost in five years=1146600+58500+23562.5=1228662.5

Total feed cost in five years

Type of feed Cost (rupees)

Fodder 89258.09

Wheat straw 281700

Concentrate 1228662.5

Total 1599620.6

Five years recurring expenses

Recurring expenses Cost/year Five years cost

Cost of feed 319924.12 319924.12x5=1599620.6

A .I cost 7000 7000x5=35000

Cost of labor(3 Laborers) 6000x3x12=216000 216000x5=1080000

Salary of Farm Supervisor 16000x12=192000 192000x5=960000

Electricity charges 10000 10000x5=50000

Medicine 10000 10000x5=50000

Total 754924.12 3774620.6

Total Expanses in five years

Inventory Amount

Capital investment 3060500

Recurring expenditure 3774620.6

Interest on loan (17%) 520285

Total 7355405.6

Income from sale of milk

Avg. lactating animals=21

Avg. Milk production per day=12.5 liter
Milk production per lactation=12.5x280days=3500liter
Milk production in 1 year=3500x21=73500 liters
Milk production in 5 years=73500x5=367500 liters

Milk consumed by calf=270liter/lactation of calf=15
Milk consumed by all calves=270x15=4050 liters
Milk consumed by calves in 5 years=4050x5=20250 liters
Milk for sale=367500-20250=347250 liters
Price of milk=42rupees/liter So total income from milk sale=14584500 rupees

Income from sale of animals

Animals sale No. of Animals Unit price Total price

Cattle 1 50000 50000

Bull 2 45000 45000x2=90000

FYS 7 15000 15000x7=105000

MYS 11 7000 7000x11=77000

Sucklers 31 1500 1500x31=465000

Total amount from sale of animals=50000+90000+105000+77000+465000=787000 rupees

Income from sale of hide

Animal class No. of animals death Price/unit Total price

Cattle 6 4000 4000x6=24000

FYS and MYS 7 2500 2500x7=17500

FS and MS 14 1500 1500x14=21000

Total income from sale of hide=24000+17500+21000=62500rupees

Income from sale of animals after five years

Animals No. of animals Price /unit Total price

Cattle 34 60000 60000x34=2040000

FYS 7 20000 20000x7=140000

FS 5 5000 5000x5=25000

Total income=2040000+140000+25000=2205000rupees


Fixed assets Value Rs Depreciation 1st year So for 5 years Worth after 5 years

Building 3060500 5% 153025 153025x5 3060500-765125

=765125 =2295375

Chaff cutter 20000 10% 2000 2000x5 20000-10000=10000


Miscellaneous 20000 10% 2000 2000x5 20000-10000=10000


Chain etc 45000 10% 4500 4500x5=22500 45000-22500=22500

Van 500000 10% 50000 500000-50000=450000

Total worth after five years will be=2295375+10000+10000+22500+450000=2787875 rupees

Income in five years

Items Amount

Sale of milk 14584500

Sale of animals 787000

Sale of hide 62500

Value left over animals after 5 years 2205000

Value left over equipments after 5 years 2787875

Total income =14584500+787000+62500+2205000+2787875=20426875 rupees

Profit statement:
The total profit obtained in 5 years will be

Total income=20426875 rupees

Total expenses =7355405.6 rupees

Total profit=20426875-7355405.6=13071469 rupees

Annual profit =13071469/5=2614293.8 rupees

The dairy farming is a profitable business. We can get more profit if we improve management. If we
have own land for farming and for fodder we can obtained maximum income. The feasibility report
helps to estimate total expenses and total income obtained from any business.

Sheep and Goat Fattening Program

By M. Farrukh Hafeez

Agriculture is the foremost contributor in the economy of Pakistan. It contributes 23.1% in gross
domestic product out of which 10.8% is of livestock. The population of sheep and goat in Pakistan is 25.5
million and 59.9 million respectively out of which growing male sheep and male goat population is 3.57
million and 8.71 million respectively.They are raised by conventional system due to which they have low
carcass yield and high mortality rate. That why meat resources are depleting. Major factor for low meat
production is importer nutrition and management. Secondly kid and lamb are slaughter at low body
weight and poor condition. Fattening of these animals result in increased carcass yield up 10-12 kg and
enhanced carcass quality. Total mutton production in Pakistan is 782.1 thousand ton but its requirement
is increasing day by day.And Pakistan is the second largest goat meat producing country after china. In
certain event such as Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha the demand of mutton and small ruminants increased.
To fulfill this demand fattening is done to get mutton in short period with high marbling and increased
palatability. Fattening of small ruminant is the only business in which small input and minimum time
period is required to obtain good result.

Main Body
Fattening is defined as intensive feeding of highly nutritious feedstuff to promote fast growth and fat
deposition to achieve desired carcass quality and marbling. All goats breed are used in fattening purpose
but the most commonly used goat breeds for fattening in Pakistan are beetal, kamori, barbari, jattan
and teddy, while sheep breeds used are kajli, lohi, balkhi……etc. The most common used goat breed is
beetal because of its high growth rate and its meat is preferred by the people. The daily weight gain is
observed 180-200 gram per day. While in sheep breed i.e. Lohi daily weight gain is observed 160-
175gram per day.

Selection of animal
Selection of the animal of the animal for fattening program is most important, because for getting good
result good animal selection and good nutrition is major factor. While selecting animal following point
should be kept in mind; the animal should be attentive and hale and hearty. Apparently they should not
have any abnormality and should be looking healthy and active. Weight of the animal should be proper
according to the age of the animal. If the weight of the animal is not according the age i.e. less than the
age of the animal, then proper result could not be obtain. Secondly weak, scrawny animal and diseased
animal does not show proper growth. At the age of 6-7 month the weight of the animal should be 20-22
kg. The frame of the animal should be good. Local breed should be selected because it can adjust on the
local climate. Otherwise stress can affect the animal negatively. While selecting the animal not only
suitable but also from suitable a breed the suitable animal should be selected. Animals should be of
uniform age. The proper age of the sheep and goat used for fattening is 5-7 and 6-9 month respectively.
At this age the growth of the animal has maximum. Old animal should not use because of low growth
rate and they have low feed conversion ratio (FCR). Similarly young animal does not feed properly in the
presence of old animals. Castrated animal should be used because of high growth rate, and the mutton
of the castrated animal is preferred. Animal should not be castrated at an early age it retard the growth
of the animal as in early stage the testosterone has positive effect on the growth of the animal. While in
later stage the testosterone is negatively related to the growth of the castration should not be
done in early stage.

As the animal for fattening is purchased from different there is the chance that the animal
may be carrier of the pathogen so animal should be kept in a separate shed. If the animal apparently
normal i.e. does not showing any sign of diseases then at least 7-10 days animal should be isolated from
other animal. Here the following standard procedure should be adopted that included giving
identification no’s to the animals. Any system of identification could be done but good method is ear
tagging for this program. For controlling infectious disease vaccination is the effective one. The
vaccination should be done according the most prevalent pathogen of sheep and goat in that particular
area. Following vaccination should be at least done, Enterotoxaemia, foot and mouth (FMD) and Peste
Des Petites Ruminants (PPR).Deworming should be done regularly because worm infestation causes the
major loss in sheep and goat. Locally occurring internal parasite should be identified and deworming
schedule be developed. For the control of external parasite dipping or spraying should be done
regularly. Dipping is most effective then spraying. The animal is passed through the pen containing
insecticide. In case of severe infestation then repeat dipping at an interval of 14-16 days.

Following points should be kept in mind according to the housing of the animal; 3×4 feet closed area
should be given per animal, and double the open area, Avoid overcrowding. Floor should be concreted.
The region should be dry and because damp area favors the microbial growth. That affects the health of
animal which retard the growth of animal. Feeding manger should be 5 feet long and their depth should
be 6-8 inches, with a height of 1-1.5 feet for 10-12 animals. Clean and Fresh water should be supplied ad
lib. The length of water trough should be 8-10 feet, with a width of 2 feet and 9 inches depth. This
trough is enough for 100 animals.

Preparation of animal for fattening

After quarantine, the sheep and goats are shifted to the feedlot fattening sheds. Timing the start of the
feeding is critical, as feeding high grain ration to the animal cause acidosis and enterotoxaemia. Similarly
feeding poor quality fodder effects animal health energy balance negatively that ultimately will affect

growth and fattening . It is advisable to So start feeding with low concentrate and high roughage ration.
Then gradually increase the concentration of concentrate and decrease the forage up to the ratio of
60:40 (60 part is being the concentrate) For this purpose a series of ration can be formulated that
contain different proportions of concentrate and forage with a final ration of high concentrate and low
forage proportion. This period is also called adaptation period and should last for 15-20 days.

Nutrient Requirements of Animal

All the animals require nutrient i.e. Protein, energy (Carbohydrates, Fat), minerals, vitamin and water for
the maintenance, growth, production and reproduction.

Energy The most importation factor in not only sheep and goat but also in other ruminants is the
limiting. Energy plays important role in growth and fattening. It enhances the fat percentage between
the muscles i.e. enhance marbling. On the other hand deficiency in energy results in decrease in growth
rate of the animal and les marbling. The term total digestible nutrient represents energy and in fattening
ration they must be between 60-70%. At this the animal has maximum growth.

In small ruminants the amount of protein is most vital rather than the worth of protein. Protein is
involved in the development of muscles of the body. Total protein should be between 13-16%.

Important minerals for sheep and goats are phosphorus, calcium and salts. Calcium being the
component of bone is also important for muscular activity. Its deficiency results in retard growth. While
phosphorous is being important in chemical reaction in the body that release energy. Calcium to
phosphorous ratio should be proper because their excess cause urinary calculi.

Vitamins are those compounds that are essential for the normal growth, health and
production/reproduction. The dietary requirement of vitamins is small because of the diet they
consume contain enough vitamins, and because of their synthesis in the rumen.

Nutrient Requirement of Goat

The maintenance requirement is that which is required to maintain basal body function and
temperature of the body. The daily dry matter (DM) required for maintenance for a goat of 45 pound is
1.08 pound per head that is the 2.40 percent of body weight and total digestible nutrient (TDN) for a
goat having body weight of 45 pound required 0.59 pound TDN per day. The protein requirement for
this goat is 0.08 pound per day. Similarly minerals and vitamins requirement is given in the table
1.maintenance requirement for a goat having body weight 67, 90,112,157 pound is given in the table 1.

Table.1 showing maintenance requirement of goat

Nutriment Requirement of Goat for Growth

If the animal is gaining weight at the rate of 0.11 pound then it is thumb rule to provide 0.44 pound dry
matter per head and 0.22 pound TDN above the maintenance requirement. Similarly 0.03 pound protein
should be provided as shown in table 2.
Growth Dry Protein Tdn (lb.) Ca (lb.) P (lb.) Vitamin A Vitamin E
Rate Matter (lb.) (IU) (IU)
(lb./day) (lb./head)
0.11 0.40 0.03 0.22 0.002 0.002 300 54
0.22 0.79 0.006 0.44 0.002 0.002 500 108
0.33 1.19 0.09 0.66 0.004 0.003 800 162

Similarly if the animal is gaining weight at the rate of 0.22 and 0.33 pound per day the allowance shown
in the table 3 and 4 respectively should be provided above the maintenance requirement.

Table.3 Nutrient requirement for animal with a growth rate of 0.22 pound per day

Table.4 Nutrient requirement for animal with a growth rate of 0.33 pound per day

Nutrient Requirement of Sheep

Lamb with moderate growth rate having body weight 22 pound and with an average daily gain 0.44
pound per day required 1.1 pound dry matter that is 5.0 percent of body weight. This animal required

0.9 pound total digestible nutrient per day. The protein requirement will be 0.38 pound per day. The
requirement for lamb of with a weight of 44, 66, 88, 110 pound is given in table.5.

Table.5 Nutrient requirement of lamb with moderate Growth rate

Nutrient requirement of a lamb with rapid growth potential is slightly higher than that of lamb with
moderate growth rate. The nutrient requirement of a lamb with a rapid growth rate are given below in

Table.6 Nutrient requirement of rapidly growing lamb

Finishing Ration

Finishing ration we provide in last few week. it fulfill all the nutritional deficiencies that has occurred
previously. The finishing ration nutritive value with respect to the animal body weight is given in table 7.

Table.7 Finishing ration for gaot or sheep

Feeds and feeding system for fattening of sheep and goat

Following two types feeding system for fattening of sheep and goat can be adapted

§ Grazing with supplement feeding

§ Total Mix Ration feeding

In grazing with supplement feeding, the nutritive requirement of the animal is fulfilled by grazing on
pasture with concentrate feeding. In grazing, the animal are sent to pasture where animal consume 2
percent of its body weight on dry matter. The pasture managed in blocks so that grazing can be
controlled and animal does not disturb pasture. While rest of the nutrient requirement is fulfill by
concentrate.1.5-2 percent of the body weight is provided by concentrate. The advantage of this system
is that we can prevent the animal from metabolic diseases such as acidosis and enterotoxaemia.

Total Mix Ration contains roughages/wheat straw and concentrates which is mixed together.
Forage/wheat straw and concentrate are mixed with a proportion of 60:40. 60 parts being the amount
of concentrate while 40 part is roughage/wheat straw. Wheat straw can be replaced by green fodder or
hay, it depend upon availability of green fodder/hay and their cost. The nutritive value of the total mix
ration should be so that it contains 13-15% CP and 60-70% total digestible nutrient (TDN).The advantage
of total mix ration is that the energy is conserved as the animal is not sent to pasture.

Concentrates are those feeds having high energy content and low fiber content. Following feedstuff
used in preparation of concentrate feed.

Maize, Barley, Oats, Sorghum, Bajra, Beet pulp, Beet molasses, Cane molasses etc. they contain higher
percentage of high digestible carbohydrates and lower proportion of indigestible fiber content. Their

protein content is 8-10% and 70-80% TDN. While the protein source is cottonseed cake and meal,
Rapeseed cake and meal, Corn gluten feed and meal, Sunflower meal, Linseed meal, Sesame cake etc.

Formula for concentrate feed

Formula for Total Mix Ration

Feeding Schedule for Fattening of Sheep and Goat
Sheep and Goat rise for fattening of required good quality feedstuff that is palatable and free from any
contamination. Green fodder is harvested when there is 25% flowering at this there is there are high
palatability, high nutritive value and maximum feed intake.

In grazing with supplement feeding, in the early hour of the day 50% concentrate of daily requirement is
offered i.e. 1% of body weight requirement and then the animal is sent for grazing for few hours so that
the animal can consume 2% of their body weight green fodder. While rest 50% i.e. 1% of the body
weight of concentrate is offered in the evening in the shed. In Total Mix Ration system fodder/wheat
straw is presented twice a day along with concentrate in shed.

Animal performance and record keeping of fattening program

The following record should be kept to evaluate the performance of the animal.

Initial body weight at first day, daily, weekly and monthly weight gain record, daily feed offered and feed
consumed Vaccination& treatment record and deworming record.

Pakistan has high population of sheep and goat in but lower production of meat and its quality because
of improper rearing, lower quality of fodder and nutrition, slaughtering of animal at early age, similarly
lake of govt interest in this sector. We can get higher quantity and quality of mutton by utilization of our
resource, proper breed selection, and proper nutritional management by proper herd heath program.
Supply of high quality of fodder/roughage and concentrate which contain at least CP between 13-16%
and TDN between 60-70% free supplies of clean water. To expend this business and to get maximum
output govt should participate actively and give incentive to the people.


By Abdul Nasir

Homeopathy for animals , a brief history

Homeopathy (also spelt: homoeopathy, homœopathy) uses the principle discovered and developed
during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by Dr Samuel Hahnemann, in Saxony. In literal terms,
the name means 'similar to the disease' or the treatment of disease using a substance which has the
power to provoke similar symptoms when administered to a healthy body. What a substance can 'cause'
or 'provoke' in health, it can cure in disease.

Homeopathy was officially recognized by the Government of Pakistan in 1965 and the Board of
Homeopathic System of Medicine, Pakistan

Why Use Homoeopathy

The following points show the peculiarities of homoeopathy that make it a very sensible choice of
treatment in animals:
1. No side effects.
2. No suppression of symptoms for later, more vicious reappearance.
3. No dependence on diagnosis but only a dependence on symptom observation.
4. No need for laboratory trials in animals for the proving of medicines.
5. Allowance for and Dependance on a patient's individuality.
6. Whole patient treatment.
7. Homoeopathy appears to work with the body's own disease-combating mechanisms to effect a cure
and this constitutes a most natural, humane and effective method of cure.
8. No environmental pollution.

First-Aid Homeopathic medicines:

· Aconitum - This remedy treats shock, both mental and physical and will also assist in the
treatment of acute febrile conditions, such as viral or bacterial diseases. Any sudden-onset
disturbance of equilibrium may be helped by Aconitum.
· Apis - Urticarial swellings, edema and fluid in joints will often respond to this remedy, apart
from its benefits for burns and scalds or for insect bites and stings.
· Arnica - Arnica is homeopathy’s great injury remedy. Its use will minimize pain and bruising and
will speed healing.
· Belladonna - High fevers with head, ear, throat or eye pain are especially helped by this remedy.
Very painful abscesses may also respond.
· Bryonia - Arthritis, rheumatism, pneumonia or mastitis, when the animal refuses to move, are
the main areas of use of Bryonia.
· Calendula - Used as a lotion, this remedy speeds healing of cuts, grazes or open wounds, in
addition to helping the animal to fight septic infection of such injuries.
· Cantharis - This medicine helps most cases of cystitis.
· Carbo veg. - This is nick-named the ‘corpse reviver’, on account of its ability to help patients in
· Caulophyllum - The birth process, at all stages whether before, during or after, is helped by
· Chamomilla - Teething in young dogs and trouble from teething in any species will benefit from
use of this remedy.
· Colocynthis - Colic in horses would be the most common first-aid use of Colocynthis.

· Euphrasia - With the folk-name ‘eyebright’, this remedy helps many eye conditions, including
conjunctivitis from cold winds. It also helps in cases of sneezing and nasal allergy. It is also useful
as a first-aid treatment for eye ulcers.
· Glonoinium - First-aid remedy for heat stroke or heat distress (the AVMC uses a selected
combination of remedies, for ill-effects of heat and heat stroke. Client reports are very
· Hamamelis - Bleeding from wounds and orifices would indicate Hamamelis, in many cases.
· Hepar sulph. - This is nick-named the ‘homeopathic antibiotic’, so effective is it in helping
patients to fight septic, purulent infections.
· Hypericum - Use this remedy whenever there is a painful graze or damage to tissues rich in
nerve endings (e.g. toes and tail).
· Ledum - Use this whenever puncture wounds occur, from whatever injury. There are reputed
anti-tetanus properties in addition to its ability to help such wounds heal correctly, from the
depths outwards.
· Nosodes - These are remedies made from diseases or disease material (e.g. discharges, tissues,
secretions, excretions). For a fuller account of nosodes, click here.
· Nux vomica - If an animal has stolen too much rich food or has had access to poisons, Nux
vomica should help recovery from the resultant intoxication. It may also help cases of
constipation and is a useful first-aid treatment in cases of 'prolapsed intervertebral disc' in dogs.
· Rhus tox. - This suits most cases of rheumatism and arthritis, that are worse for first movement
but limber up.
· Ruta - Ligaments, tendons and other fibrous tissues are the main areas of benefit of this
· Silica - Helps the body to drive out foreign bodies, e.g. grass seeds. The power of this remedy,
way beyond this simple capability, is evidence of the power of crystals.
· Symphytum - Symphytum treats bone injuries of any type, speeding healing. In cases of bone
fracture, Symphytum will speed healing and stimulate a better repair. Non-union fractures will
also generally respond.
· Urtica - This remedy treats nettle rash (urticaria) and helps the flow of milk from the mammary

Homeopathic Treatment of Some Cattle Diseases

Milk Fever (hypocalcaemia)

IV calcium; follow-up with homeopathic (“HP”) Calc phos every few hours for a day or two. If the cow is
standing but wobbly, HP Calc phos may be all that’s needed. Or an oral calcium product may be used.
Only use a calcium oxide or calcium propionate product—not calcium chloride as it burns the cow’s
throat. Prevent milk fever by slightly acidifying the bloodstream by using ½ cup (4oz) apple cider vinegar

once daily for the last 3 weeks before calving. It can be put on their silage or in their water. This is an
mild alternative to anionic salts that are very unpalatable.

Herbally, garlic is excellent. One whole bulb given twice daily. A mild antibiotic. A fairly effective
treatment for a mild flare-up given 3 milkings in a row includes: 20cc vitamin B complex and 60cc
vitamin C in the muscle and 35cc of a colostrum whey product under the skin. Also a homeopathic
remedy given orally or in the vulva 3-4 times daily for 2-3 days in a row.
Homeopathic remedies to choose from for mastitis depend on symptoms observed. Change remedies as
symptoms change (this applies to any condition treated by homeopathy).

Aconitum (rapid onset) given every 30 minutes
Belladonna (hot, hard quarter) given every hour
Pyrogenium (septic, sick cow; perhaps with retained placenta) given 3-4 times daily.

Watery secretion
Aresenicum, given every 1-2 hours
Pyrogenium, given as above

Phytolacca (stringy, cow fights being stripped out) given 4 times daily
Hepar sulph (thickened milk) given 3-4 times daily

Hard quarter

Apis (animal likes cool cloth applied) Belladonna,Bryonia (slow moving cow, lays on affected side), Calc
carb (big, blocky, slow moving peaceful type cow), Calc phos (lean, touchy, nervous type
cow),Phytolacca (especially if supra-mammary lymph nodes enlarged), Silica (for longer standing
condition with possible scar tissue), If a cow has hard quarter, watery mastitis with fever, also give
intravenous bottle of vitamin C as an anti-oxidant, hypertonic saline to make her drink water and, if
milking a lot, give calcium. Also applying peppermint ointment to the udder itself can cool down a very
hot and painful udder. Apply it at least twice daily.

To prevent this from happening, feed a slice of hay to all the animals a half an hour before turning out
and also wait until frost is off the field. Treatment consists of carefully drenching with a quart to half
gallon of vegetable or mineral oil (not crank case oil!). Add 1-2 tablespoons of peppermint oil to give it
flavor so the animal does not inhale the oil when drenching. Peppermint is also a good botanical for
gassy build-up in the gastro-intestinal system. Then make the animal walk about. Free gas bloat usually
occurs in only one individual animal and is treated the same way. Homeopathic colocynthus given every
15 minutes can be of benefit—this can be alternated with HP carbo veg

Give HP arsenicum 3-4 times daily if diarrhea is watery, HP podophyllum if it is thick green “pea-soup”
or HP merc corr if it is a bit slimy and blood-tinged. A colloidal mineral called “Ferro” is great to bind up
and slow down a hyperactive gut. It is rich in iron as well and many cows are borderline anemic anyway.
Calves with diarrhea, especially if only a few days or a week old, can be treated the same way but
may need IV fluids. They do not have the body reserves that adult animals have and dehydrate rapidly
Also rehydrate them orally by using a calf feeder tube if they will not suck from a bottle. A good formula
that can be made at home consists of 8 tablespoons honey, 2 teaspoons baking soda, 2 teaspoons salt in
1 gallon fresh water. Or use a commercial calf electrolyte replacement pack. Feed no milk for 2 days.


Homeopathic lycopodium given four times daily can help as could herbal liver tincture, made of equal
parts celandine, goldenseal and red root given as 5cc orally three times daily for four days. Prevention
includes high levels of choline pre-freshening.

Lame Cow
Puncture wounds must be addressed individually by lifting the hoof, opening the abscess, cleansing
with 3% hydrogen peroxide and wrapping with a drawing salve such as icthammol. Using HP hepar sulph
or silica twice daily for 7-10 days can hasten healing.

Reproduction problems

For regular herd checks, try the following homeopathic remedies depending on what your vet finds on
rectal palpation. Pulsatilla for creamy pus discharges, no odor. Also no heats, poor uterine tone.
Friendly, curious but shy cows. Twice daily for 5 days. Ovarian for cycling cow that hasn’t shown visible
heat. Perhaps an alternative to prostaglandins. Twice daily for 5-7 days. Folliculinum for cow with
healthy follicle or if having shown previous heats and bred but not settled. Help show heat better.
Perhaps an alternative to GnRH. Twice daily for 2-3 days right before anticipated heat. Apis for right-
sided cyst or cysts on both ovaries. Twice daily for 5 days, then follow with Natrum mur, twice daily for
three days. Lachesis for left-sided cysts with cow mounting others. Twice daily for 5 days, then follow
with Natrum mur, twice daily for three days. Sepia to improve uterine tone and reproductive system in
general. Also for cow at day 21 fresh. Twice daily for 3-5 days. Spectra 305, an herbal combination to
help cows show heat. Give when CL present (mid-cycle). 10 tablet every other day for 6 doses. Works
really well. By taking into account all the factors that impact an animal on a particular farm, it is possible
by taking a multi-prong approach to help heal animals without constantly using hormones and

Pain control

Scientists at a BRITISH SCHOOL of PHARMACY found that rodents given Hypericum were able to INHIBIT
PAIN RESPONSES. Rodents were able to remain on a hot plate longer than the control group. When
given NaLoxone. which inhibits pain killing endorphins, the protective effects of Hypericum was reduced,
showing that Homeopathic Hypericum activates endorphins when needed. Please note that these
rodents were free to walk off the hot plate whenever discomfort was noticed.


Homeopathic Apis and Histamine have a significant effect on reducing the release of certain allergy-
causing chemicals from Basophils, which demonstrates one reason for Homeopathy’s positive effects on

Foot and Mouth Disease

Arsenicum 30: On disease commencement.

Dose: 15 drops repeated doses.

2. Merc sol 30: 2nd choice when animal was brought in advance stage.

Dose: 15 drops in repeated dosage

3. Rhus tox 200: Foot lameness, redness of mouth with burning pain.

Dose: 15 drops four times daily.

4. Borax 6C: Stomatitis symptoms prominent.

Dose: One dose four times daily till recovery.

5. Five phos 6x + Alfalfa Q: it brings the animal back to normal health and restores the production if
given after the symptoms of the disease have subsided.

Dose: One dose two times daily for 10 days

Anoestrous :-
Due to profuse leucorrhoea Calc phos6x
When ovaries are very small on rectal examination Iodum
Due to retntion of placenta & in Silent heat Pulsatilla
To regulate oestous Cycle Sepia

Babesiosis - China offi, Ficus religiosa, Millefolium, Phos, Crotalus horridus, Pulsatilla.
Bronchitis - Aconite, Bryonia, Kali brom, Ars alb, Antim tart, Kali bich.
Bruises - Arnica, Ruta g.
Blue tongue - Aconite, Nat mur, Ars alb, Acid nit, Borax,Rhus tox,Mercurious

Botulism :-

Paralytic sypmptoms of throat, Difficult Swallowing Gelsemium200

Paralysis of fore limb muscles Plumbum met 30
Paralysis of hind legs Conium mac200
Muscular Stiffness Difficult in walking of fore limbs Curare30
Peripheral paralysis of throat & mouth Lathyrus Sativus 1M
Black Quarter - Hepar sulph, Rhus tox

Symptoms Of Horses Diseases And Some Recommended Treatments

Abortion - Arnica,Sabina,Secale,Pulsatilla,China Rhus tox
Bronchitis - Aconite, Bryonia, Belladona, Spongia, Ars alb, Pulsatilla.
Catarrh or Common cold:-

Fever, restlessness, Short hurried breathing, Violent thirst Aconite200

Mouth dry, putrid smell from mouth, Thin watery discharge from nostrils Nux
Sudden exposure to wet, dull, drowsy, tongue coated thick sticky phlegm Dulcamara30
Short dry cough, Mucus in nose, obstructed respiration frequent sneezing & Rhus tox200
Acrid corrosive discharge from nostrils,dry cough sneezing with watery discharge Ars alb200
from nose
Difficult breathing,dry spasmodic cough swelling of nose with profuse coryza Bryonia200
Swelling of nose, profuse corryza with much sneezing Merc sol
Cough is loose, discharge of greenish foetid matter from nose Pulsatilla200

Colic or Gripes :-

Due to bad quality of food, Drinking cold water when heated Ars alb+Aconite
Due to constipation Animal walks slowly falls down, bloat Nux vomica200
When faeces are hard dry black coloured, Animal lies quitely Opium200
Restless, animal Frequently lying down and getting up, ears cold Chamomilla200
Due to green food, Flatulent distention of abdomen Colchicum200
Due to retention of urine, Urine passes in drops with straining Cantharis200
Cough - Dulcamara, Nux vomica, Squilla, Amm mur, Drosera, Pulsatilla.
Difficult Parturation - Arnica+Caulophylum

Fatigue after exercise Arnica200

With loss of appetite Nux vomica200
Bloody urine passes after severe exercise Cannabis200
Fistula,Or Sinus :-
Fistula of salivary gland Pulsatilla200
Founder - Aconite, Bryonia,Veratum alb, Rhus tox

Bluish or Brownish excrescences which bleed easily with discharge of foetid ichor Thuja 200
Watery swellings or dark looking ulcers with foetid discharge Secale cor200
Numerous small ulcers discharge thick matter bleed easily Merc vivus200
Glanders - Ars alb, Merc sol, Sulphur

Disease Chart for Horse:

By Furqan Tehseen

Bacterial Diseases

Disease Etiological Transmissi Clinical Pathogene Diagnosis Treatment/preven

Agent on Findings sis tion

Strangles Streptococ Via The incubation Highly Bacterial Maturation of

(distemp cus equi fomites period is 3-14 contagious culture of abscess should be
er) equi. and direct days, the first produces exudates tried and ruptured
contact sign is fever high from abscess should be
to with (103-106°F) morbidity abscesses or washed with 3-5%
desiccation infectious mucoid to and low nasal swab povidine iodine
, extreme exudates, mucopurulent mortality samples. CBC solution for
heat, and nasal in reveals several days until
exposure Carrier discharge, susceptibl neutrophilic discharge cease,
to sunlight. animals depression e leukocytosis. NSAIDs, anti-
are and population Endoscopy or biotics therapy is
important submandibular s, ultrasonogra recommended
lymphadenopa phy of upper after abscess
spreading thy (swelling), Abscessati respiratory development, not
the difficulty in on of the tract or in early cases,
bacteria. swallowing, lymphoid radiographic after that
strangles may tissue of examination procaine penicillin
the upper
be metastatic of skull. (22,000 IU/kg, IM,
termed as two times in a day
“bastard y tract. for 5-7 days. The
strangle”. vaccine must be
given in

three doses, two

weeks apart,
followed by an

annual booster.

Tetanus Clostridium This Inability to Serious non- Clinical Parental

(lock tetani bacterium open infectious findings and antibiotics, to
jaw) produces is normally mouth to disease of the history of relieve
toxins found in eat and central recent injury muscular
the drink, eyes nervous enough for tetanus
intestinal wide open system that diagnosis chlorpromazine
tract of and ears has a high and acetyl
horses and rigid, mortality rate promazine
is passed extreme in horses. twice daily for
in the sensitivity Deep 10 days,
feces. The to sounds, puncture Tetanus
spores are sights, and wounds antitoxin(within
always touch, third contaminated 10 hours after

present in eyelid with dirt are appearance of
the soil in prolapse, ideal signs @300,000
any horse convulsions locations for IU 12 hourly for
facility. and death tetanus to three
in 75 to 80 flourish. injections),
percent of gives
cases. immediate but
short lived
given to horses
not previously

that have a
wound or to
newborn foals

mares. Tetanus
toxoid gives

protection and
given in two
shots one
month apart
then annual
Pregnant mare
should be
vaccinated one
month prior to
foaling and foal
at 3 month of

Clostridium Ingestion Impaired The botulism Demonstration If botulism is
botulinum of toxins suckling in toxins act on of toxin in caught early,
which usually in foals, the serum or feed. there is a
produce adult dilated peripheral polyvalent
toxins. horses, pupils, nervous Demonstration equine
foals eventual system by of organisms in antitoxin @ 30
become muscle preventing feed, intestinal 000 IU for a foal
infected weakness, transmission contents or and 70 000 IU
with tremors, of the wounds. for adult horses
absorption and nervous that is active
of toxins progressive impulses. against several
from muscle These toxins types of the
bacterial paralysis are found in organism. This
growth in affecting the soil and in antitoxin has
GIT the limbs, decaying improved the
jaw, and plant or chances of
throat animal survival in
muscles, matter. Adult horses.
paralysis of horses and
the upper foals usually
eyelid, less than 8
tongue, and months old
tail are also can be
noted. affected.

Glanders Burkholder Spread to Acute: There Invasion Mullein test: Treatment is

ia other is a high occurs Mallein (0. 1 generally not
(Pseudomo animals fever, cough, mostly mL) is injected recommende
nas) mallei and nasal through the intradermally d due to
is the discharge intestinal zoonotic
ingestion with rapidly wall and a into the lower implications.
causative of spreading septicemia eyelid with a sodium
contamina ulcers or tuberculin sulfadiazine
organism. ted appearing on bacteremia syringe. The has been
material the nasal is set up. test is read at
by nasal mucosa, and Localization 48 h, a positive highly
discharges nodules on always effective in
, infected the skin of occurs in the reaction the treatment
animals the lower lungs but the comprising of
and limbs or skin and marked edema
of the lid with experimental
carriers abdomen. nasal glanders.
are Death due to mucosa are
potential septicemia also and a severe, Complete
source of occurs in a common purulent quarantine of
infection. few days. sites, conjunctivitis clinical cases
terminal occurs. and should be
Chronic: destroyed,
signs are
Pulmonary bronchopne remainder
form: umonia and should be
deaths in subjected to
Manifests as typical cases mullein test
a are caused at interval of
by anoxic 3 weeks until
chronic all reactors
pneumonia eliminated.
with cough,

epistaxis, and

Nasal form:

appear on
lower parts
of turbinates
and nasal
Serous nasal

lymph nodes,


s which soon
ulcerate and
pus, mostly
skin lesions
are found in
hock but can
occur in any
part of body.

Pleuropne Secondary Pleural pain Viral Clinical findings Pleural

umonia to bacterial (pleurodynia) respiratory with drainage
pneumonia evident as infection, leukopenia, avoiding
(Pleuritis, or short strides, long- neutropenia, pneumothora
Pleurisy) penetratin guarding, distance left shift, x, Medical
g thoracic and flinching transportatio hemoconcentr therapy
wounds. on n, general ation, and includes
percussion of anesthesia, azotemia, broad-
the chest, and thoracocentesi spectrum
ial and shallow strenuous s, ultrasound antibiotics,
respiration, exercise are examination. NSAID,
anaerobic- and common analgesics,
aerobic endotoxemia predisposing and
infections. , anxious factors that supportive
facial impair care.
expression, pulmonary
stand with defense
their elbows mechanisms
abducted, allowing
and are secondary
reluctant to bacterial
move, cough, invasion.
or lie down, Race and

grunt test sport horses
positive, are
Cardiac particularly
sounds may at risk.
be muffled
or absent,

Viral diseases

Disease Etiological Transmissi Clinical Pathogenesis Diagnosis Treatment/pr

Agent on Findings evention

Equine Orthomyxo Transmissi Clinical signs The Rapidly Horses

influenza virus on occurs begin incubation spreading without
A/Equi-1, by abruptly and period of respiratory complications
inhalation include high influenza is signs in a group require rest
Orthomyxo of fever up to ~1-3 days. of horses can and
respirator 106°F, serous Influenza lead to supportive
A/Equi-2 y nasal virus diagnosis, care,
secretions discharge, replicates minimum 3
. submandibul within Virus isolation weeks rest is
ar respiratory or influenza A essential,
lymphadeno epithelial antigen NSAID are
pathy, and cells, detection by recommende
coughing resulting in taking d for horses
that is dry, destruction nasopharyngea with a fever
harsh, and of tracheal l swabs. of >104°F
nonproductiv and (40C).
e. bronchial Antibiotics
Depression, epithelium are indicated
anorexia, and and cilia. when fever
weakness are Regeneratio persists
frequently n of beyond 3-4
observed. respiratory days or when
epithelium purulent
takes nearly nasal
21 days discharge or
during this pneumonia
period horse are present.
is Vaccination
susceptible attempted

to secondary but has not
complication been proved
s which successful.
monia, and

Equine EHV-1, Transmissi Fever of 102- EHV-1 Virus isolation No specific

Herpesviru EHV-4 on occurs 107°F, strains have from samples treatment,
s Infection by direct neutropenia a obtained via rest nursing
or indirect and predilection nasopharyngea care,
contact lymphopenia for vascular l swab and antipyretics
with , serous nasal endothelium citrated blood and
infectious discharge, , especially sample (buffy antibiotics to
nasal malaise, the nasal coat) early in avoid
secretions pharyngitis, mucosa, the course of secondary
, aborted cough, lungs, the infection complications
fetuses, inappetence, adrenal, and by , Inactivated
placentas, and/or thyroid, and serologic vaccine is
or submandibul CNS, EHV-4 testing of acute available,
placental ar or infection is and dams should
fluids. retropharyng restricted to convalescent be vaccinated
eal respiratory sera. at 3, 5, 7, and
lymphadeno tract 9 of
pathy. epithelium pregnancy , in
and foals at 3-4
Mild associated months of
incoordinatio lymph age vaccine
n and nodes, should be
posterior started,
paresis to booster after
severe every 6
posterior months.
loss of
bladder and

tail function,
and loss of
sensation to
the skin in
the perineal
and inguinal
may occur in

Equine Retrovirus, EIA is Symptoms of ElAV Agar-gel No specific

Infectious transmitte the acute multiplies in immunodiff treatment is
Anemia d “blood- form of the tissues that usion available.
to-blood” have Supportive
by disease abundant (AGID) test
would macrophage and ELISA to treatment
blood- include s with detect including blood
sucking extremely antibodies transfusions
insects high the spleen against test,
(flies and temperature being the and hematinic
mosquito principal site drugs may
(104 to 108 facilitate
es) of viral
infection and clinical recovery
and depression, propagation but it is
contamina weakness, and
ted important to
loss of accounting
syringe remember that
needles. appetite, for over 90%
drop in red recovered
of cellular horses are
blood cells viral burden.
and even persistently
Viral infected and
death. The replication
subacute infectious for
occurs only life.
form would in mature
show similar Test and
tissue slaughter policy
but less macro-
severe signs recommended.
phages and
and seldom
death. The

inapparent monocytes.
carrier may
just appear
weak or
unthrifty or
may be very

Parasitic diseases

Disease Etiological Transmiss Clinical Pathogenesi Diagnosis Treatment/pr

Agent ion Findings s evention

Small Belong to Infection Acute Eggs passed Strongyle Treatment

Strongyles Cyathostomi occurs by syndrome of in feces and eggs are with large
nae of the ingestion sudden developmen not seen on dosages of
family of weight loss, t progress fecal fenbendazole
Strongylidae infective often with up to third examinatio (10 mg/kg for
larvae severe stage larvae, n, gross 5 consecutive
diarrhea, which is observation days) or with
neutrophilia ingested and of fourth- moxidectin,
and develops to or fifth- horses
hypoalbumin fourth stage stage severely
emia. in cecum or larvae, affected with
colon (large which are disease may
intestine), often bright be given
When these red, in the corticosteroid
worms feces is therapy to
emerge helpful in reduce
from the gut making a inflammatory
wall, they diagnosis, conditions.
feed Biopsy of
superficially large
on the intestine.
mucosa and
may rupture
may be
enough to

resulting in
loss of
and even a
enteritis of
the large

Large Three major Infection As they have Larvae In case of Ivermectin

Strongyles species is by large buccal exsheath in mix and
ingestion capsules and the intestine strongyle moxidectin
(also known 1-Strongylus of are active and migrate infection are effective
as Blood vulgaris infective blood extensively demonstrat against larval
2-S larvae. feeders, they before ion of eggs stage,
edentates ingest developing in the feces, fenbendazole
mucosal to maturity for specific and
3-S equinus plugs as they in the large diagnosis oxfendazole,
move about intestine. larvae may at dosages
in the The be cultured. higher than
intestine. prepatent that for adult
The period is 6- parasites, are
associated 11 months. also effective
blood loss against larval
may lead to Larvae of S. infections,
anemia. vulgaris adults are
Weakness, migrate susceptible to
emaciation, towards wide range of
and diarrhea cranial anthelmintics
are also mesenteric .
common. artery and
Complication its branches,
where they
s may be
colic; may cause
gangrenous parasitic
enteritis; or thrombosis

intestinal and arteritis.
stasis, Larvae of
torsion or the other 2
intussuscepti species may
on, and be found in
possibly various parts
rupture. of the body,
including the
eal tissues,

Tapeworms Three Ingestion Loss of In heavy Diagnosis is 6.6 mg/kg of

species of of eggs weight infections, by pyrantel
tapeworms GI demonstrat pamoate,
are found in disturbances ion of the
horses unthriftiness, , characterist pyrantel
colic, and tartrate @
Unthriftines ic eggs in
Anoplocepha intestinal s and the feces. 2.65 mg/kg
la magna blockage. anemia, Praziquantel
A. perfoliata Ulceration @ 0.75-1.0
of the mg/kg.
Paranoploce mucosa,
phala intussuscept
mamillana ion.

Oxyuris sp Oxyuris equi Eggs are Adult The gravid Clinical Most of the
ingested pinworms females pass signs and broad-
(Pin worms) and are are of little toward the microscopic spectrum
source of significance rectum to examinatio drugs are
in the lay their n of eggs by effective

infection. intestine but eggs, applying against the
cause “cementing” cellophane parasite.
perineal them to the tape to the
irritation perineum perineal
after egg around the region.
laying. anus.
Rubbing of Masses of
the tail and eggs and
anal regions, cement
with around the
resulting anus appear
broken hairs as a white to
and bare yellow,
patches crusty mass.
around the
tail and

Colic in Horses

It is actually a syndrome not a disease usually caused by digestive tract problems located in abdominal
cavity and is much painful to the horse.

Type and Causes: Signs Treatment Prevention

· Gaseous colic: Gas Horse will be off- Treatment dependent on Minimization of colic
formation in feed, uneasy and type of colic. episodes depends on
digestive tract rolling, kicking at management factors,
may be due to abdomen, Analgesics to relieve pain including ensuring
such as NSAIDs and
over ingestion of sweating, heart adequate parasite
sedatives like xylazine
grain or lush green rate increases control, feeding large
pasture or moldy (more than 60), and (0.1-1 mg/kg in case of quantities of forage and
or spoiled hay. respiration colic) may be given, minimizing the amount
mineral oil
· Impaction colic: accelerated. of concentrate fed, and
administration by providing dental care,
Blockage in
nasogastric tube, if fresh clean water should
digestive tract
dehydration fliud be available all the time
may be due to low
therapy should be done, except immediately
quality indigestible
trocharization of cecum after work, feed at
roughage, sand or
or colon if severely regular intervals, feed
other foreign
distended abdomen dusting should must be
matter, lack of
interfering with avoided. Grain bouts
water or lack of
regular respiration, antibiotics in must be divided in two
deworming. case of toxemia due to or more portions.
· Spasmodic colic: presumed bacteremia.
Feeding large
bouts infrequently,
hot horse drinking
lot of water,
irregular exercise
or stress.


By Aatka Jamil
Disease Type of Vaccine Dose & Route Tentative Manufactured By

Hemorrhagic Alum precipitated 5ml/300kg B.W May-June Veterinary Research

septicemia (having strains of S/C Institute (VRI) Lahore
pasteurella Nov-Dec
VRI Peshawar
multocida Robert
type-1) Centre for Advance Studies
of Vaccinology and
Biotechnology (CASVAB)

Sindh Vet Vac Production

Center Tandojam

Hira Labs Faisalabad

Avesina Lahore

NIAB Faisalabad

Vety Care Islamabad

Bio Labs Islamabad

Killed oil adjuvant Once in a VRI Lahore, NIAB Faisalabad,
vaccine year Bio-Labs Islamabad, Grand
3 ml adult and 1 Pharma Islamabad, Hira Labs
ml up-to one year Faisalabad, Vety-Care
of age Islamabad

Booster in calves
after 12 weeks

Foot & Mouth Aluminuim 5ml S/C (young 3 Feb-March Avesina Lahore
Disease hydroxide ml)
trivalent(O,A,Asia Sep-Oct FMD Rearsch Center Lahore,
1) vaccine University of Veterinary and
Animal Sciences (UVAS)

Black Quarter Alum Precipitated 5ml/600 lbs B.W April-May VRI Lhr

(culture of Sindh Vet Vac Production

cl.chauvoei) Center Tandojam



Anthrax It is suspension of 1ml S/C Once in year VRI Lahore,

live attenuated
CASVAB Quetta,
spores of non-
capsulated Bacillus VRI Peshawar
anthracis in


Rabies VRI Lahore

Disease Type of Vaccine Dose & Route Tentative Manufactured By


Enterotoxaemia Alum precipitated For Adult 3ml January & July VRI Lahore,
(prepared by For lamb 1ml
incorporating equal VRI Peshawar
quantity of Ewe 7-10 days
before CASVAB Quetta, Sindh
perfringens type Veterinary Vaccines
B&D Production Centre

Contagious It is a formalised 1ml S/C May & VRI Lahore; VRI

Caprine Pleuro- culture of november Peshawar, CASVAB
pneumonia Mysoplasma Quetta
(CCPP) mycoides

Peste des Petits PPR vaccine CASVAB Quetta, VRI

Ruminants (PPR) Lahore

Foot & Mouth Aluminuim 2.5ml S/C Feb-March Avesina Lahore

Disease hydroxide
trivalent(O,A,Asia 1) Sep-Oct FMD Rearsch Center
vaccine Lahore, University of
Veterinary and Animal
Sciences (UVAS) Lahore

Anthrax It is suspension of .5ml S/C Once in year VRI Lahore,

live attenuated
spores of non- CASVAB Quetta,
capsulated Bacillus VRI Peshawar
anthracis in


Sheep Pox It is attenuated live 1ml S/C March & VRI Lahore
virus cell culture September
(RM-65 strain)

Goat Pox It is attenuated live 1ml S/C March & VRI Lahore
virus cell culture September


Note: All vaccines being manufactured at VRIs, CASVAB, Poultry Veterinary Vaccines Production Centre
Karachi and Sindh Veterinary Vaccine Production Centre Tandojam have not been registered with the
Ministry of Health, Govt of Pakistan

Most of the vaccines are demand driven i.e. vaccines are only manufactured when there is a demand,
they are not manufactured on regular basis.