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Specification

Edexcel Diplomas

Edexcel Level 1 and Level 2 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance
Issue 3 April 2010

Edexcel, a Pearson company, is the UK’s largest awarding body, offering academic and vocational qualifications to more than 25,000 schools, colleges, employers and other places of learning in the UK and in over 100 countries worldwide. Qualifications include GCSEs, AS and A Levels, NVQs, Diplomas and our BTEC suite of vocational qualifications from entry level to BTEC Higher National Diplomas, recognised by employers and higher education institutions worldwide. We deliver 9.4 million exam scripts each year, with more than 90% of exam papers marked onscreen annually. As part of Pearson, Edexcel continues to invest in cutting-edge technology that has revolutionised the examinations and assessment system. This includes the ability to provide detailed performance data to tutors and students which helps to raise attainment.

This specification is Issue 3. Key changes are sidelined. We will inform centres of any changes to this issue. The latest issue can be found on the Edexcel website: www.edexcel.com

References to third-party material made in this specification are made in good faith. Edexcel does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks, journals, magazines and other publications and websites.) Authorised by Roger Beard Prepared by Roger Field Publications Code DP020652 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Limited 2010

Contents

Introduction to Edexcel’s Diplomas
What are the Diplomas?

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How are the Diplomas structured? What do Diplomas include?
Principal Learning Generic Learning Functional skills and personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) Additional and specialist learning (ASL)

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Structure and aims of Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance
The Edexcel Diplomas in Business, Administration and Finance: Principal Learning Edexcel Level 1 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance Edexcel Level 2 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance

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Unit format Assessment and grading of the Principal Learning
Internal assessment External assessment Calculation of the Principal Learning grade Calculation of the Diploma grade

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Programme design and delivery
Mode of study Applied learning Delivery of applied learning Resources

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Personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
Coverage

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How personal, learning and thinking skills are used to support formative feedback

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Access and recruitment
Access arrangements and special considerations

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Further information
Useful publications

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Professional development and training Level 1 units
Unit 1: Business Enterprise Unit 2: Business Administration, Teams and Communication Unit 3: Personal Finance and Financial Services Unit 4: Sales and Customer Service in Business Unit 5: Careers and Employment in Business

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21 41 61 73 93

Level 2 units
Unit 1: Business Enterprise Unit 2: Business Administration Unit 3: Personal Finance and Financial Services Unit 4: Business Finance and Accounting Unit 5: Marketing, Sales and Customer Service in Business Unit 6: Teams and Communication in Business Unit 7: Responding to Change in Business Unit 8: Corporate Social Responsibility Unit 9: Careers and Employment in Business

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113 135 157 169 189 213 233 245 261

List of annexes
Annexe A: Qualification codes Annexe B: Personal, learning and thinking skills Annexe C: Wider curriculum mapping Annexe D: Glossary of terms Annexe E: Internal Assessment of Principal Learning Units: Controls for Task Setting, Task Taking and Task Marking Annexe F: Learning outcomes and assessment criteria for each unit

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281 283 289 291 295 303

Introduction to Edexcel’s Diplomas
What are the Diplomas?
Diplomas have been developed to provide new and innovative qualifications for 14 to 19 yearold learners. They are a defined set of qualifications that have been combined according to a set of rules. Diplomas are designed to support progression to further study, training or employment. Learners will have the opportunity to develop and practise work-related skills within a chosen employment sector. Diplomas will be developed in 17 ‘lines of learning’ which relate to different employment sectors. Employers in each sector have been involved in their design. The 17 lines of learning are: For teaching from September 2008 • • • • • Construction and the Built Environment Creative and Media Engineering Information Technology Society, Health and Development For teaching from September 2011 • • • Science Languages Humanities For teaching from September 2010 • • • • Public Services Retail Sport and Leisure Travel and Tourism

For teaching from September 2009 • • • • • Business, Administration and Finance Environmental and Land-based Studies Hair and Beauty Studies Hospitality Manufacturing and Product Design

Each Diploma will be available at three levels: • • • Foundation – Level 1 Higher – Level 2 Advanced – Level 3 Progression – Level 3. The Foundation Diploma is broadly equivalent to five GCSEs. Similarly, the Higher Diploma broadly equates to seven GCSEs, whilst the Advanced Diploma broadly equates to three and a half GCE ‘A’ levels and the Progression Diploma to two and a half GCE ‘A’ levels.

DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

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How are the Diplomas structured?
Foundation Diploma — 600 Guided Learning Hours (GLH) Principal Learning * Generic Learning 240 GLH; at least 50 per cent must be applied learning Work experience (minimum of 10 days); functional skills * (English, ICT and mathematics) 120 GLH; project * 60 GLH; personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) 60 GLH Additional and specialist learning * 120 GLH

Higher Diploma — 800 Guided Learning Hours (GLH) Principal Learning * Generic Learning 420 GLH; at least 50 per cent must be applied learning Work experience (minimum of 10 days); functional skills * (English, ICT and mathematics) 80 GLH; project * 60 GLH; personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) 60 GLH Additional and specialist learning * 180 GLH

Advanced Diploma — 1080 Guided Learning Hours (GLH) Principal Learning * Generic Learning 540 GLH; at least 50 per cent must be applied learning Work experience (minimum of 10 days); extended project * 120 GLH; personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) 60 GLH Additional and specialist learning * 360 GLH

Progression Diploma (Level 3) — 720 Guided Learning Hours (GLH) Principal Learning * Generic Learning 540 GLH; at least 50 per cent must be applied learning Work experience (minimum of 10 days); extended project * 120 GLH; personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) 60 GLH * These components of the Diplomas are also freestanding qualifications in their own right.

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

What do Diplomas include?
As can be seen from the structure diagrams, Diplomas consist of three components: • • • Principal Learning Generic Learning (including a project and work experience) Additional and/or specialist learning.

Principal Learning
Principal Learning is a freestanding qualification which is sector related, focusing on developing knowledge, understanding and skills that are relevant to the chosen sector and applying these to work-based situations. It emphasises learning through the practical application of knowledge, understanding and skills to relevant work experience and work-related tasks, problems and contexts.

Generic Learning
Generic Learning consists of: • • • • functional skills in English, ICT and mathematics personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) a project work experience.

Functional skills and personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
Functional skills are offered as stand alone qualifications at Level 1 for the Foundation Diploma and at Level 2 for the Higher and Advanced Diplomas. Opportunities to develop personal, learning and thinking skills will be embedded throughout the Principal Learning for the Diplomas, and will be assessed as part of these qualifications. Generic skills are integrated into and reinforced within the Principal Learning. This means that the Principal Learning assessments will include opportunities for learners to achieve the personal, learning and thinking skills. The Diplomas provide opportunities for learners to develop and apply functional skills and personal, learning and thinking skills within sector-related contexts. Further opportunities for learners to demonstrate these skills may also be offered in the project and in the work experience. Project and extended project The project and extended project are offered as stand alone qualifications. As part of the Foundation and Higher Diplomas learners will complete the project qualification. Learners will complete the extended project as part of the Advanced Diploma.

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They aim to enable learners to: • • • • • develop as inquisitive and independent learners be inspired and enthused by new areas or methods of study extend their planning, research, analysis and presentation skills apply their personal, learning and thinking skills use their learning experiences to support their personal aspirations for further and higher education and career development.

Work experience Each Diploma has a requirement for a minimum of 10 days’ work experience, related to workbased activities, to support the programme of study. Work experience will: • • • • • • support the development and recognition of work-related learning build on previous work experience develop sector skills when set in relevant settings develop general employability skills enhance the overall learning experience allow flexibility around how evidence of attainment is achieved.

It allows learners to draw together, apply and add to their knowledge and enable them to develop confidence and expertise.

Additional and specialist learning (ASL)
Additional and specialist learning consists of accredited qualifications at the same level as, or one level above, the Diploma which have been approved under Section 96 of the Learning and Skills Act 2000. It may include qualifications which are also available to learners not taking the Diploma, or qualifications specifically developed to be part of the Diploma. Additional learning is intended to: • • broaden the learning experience by including qualifications from other sectors allow learners to specialise further in the sector by undertaking qualifications from the same sector as the Diploma. and specialist learning is intended to:

Qualifications for additional and specialist learning must be selected from the ASL catalogue through the National Database of Accredited Qualifications (NDAQ). The catalogue includes qualifications which have the approval of the Diploma Development Partnership (DDP) and will expand over time as more qualifications are approved. To access the catalogue go to www.ndaq.org.uk and select ‘Browse Diploma Qualifications’.

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Structure and aims of Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance
This specification contains the Edexcel Level 1 and Level 2 Principal Learning qualifications in Business, Administration and Finance.

The Edexcel Diplomas in Business, Administration and Finance: Principal Learning
The Edexcel Level 1 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance aims to: • • • • • • • • • • allow learners to develop a range of skills that will be useful both in the workplace and for future learning provide learners with a firm foundation of business knowledge that will help them to enter the workplace be practical and motivating, allowing learners to apply knowledge and skills in relevant meaningful learning and assessment activities facilitate progression to further study promote the development of personal, learning and thinking skills. allow learners to develop a range of skills that will be useful both in the workplace and for future learning provide learners with essential business knowledge that will help them to enter the workplace be practical and motivating, allowing learners to apply knowledge and skills in relevant meaningful learning and assessment activities facilitate progression to further study promote the development of personal, learning and thinking skills.

The Edexcel Level 2 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance aims to:

Edexcel Level 1 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance
All units are compulsory. Unit number 1 2 3 4 5 Title Business Enterprise Business Administration, Teams and Communication Personal Finance and Financial Services Sales and Customer Service in Business Careers and Employment in Business GLH Assessment 60 60 30 60 30 Internal Internal External Internal Internal

DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

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Edexcel Level 2 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance
All units are compulsory. Unit number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Title Business Enterprise Business Administration Personal Finance and Financial Services Business Finance and Accounting Marketing, Sales and Customer Service in Business Teams and Communication in Business Responding to Change in Business Corporate Social Responsibility Careers and Employment in Business GLH Assessment 60 60 30 60 60 60 30 30 30 Internal Internal External Internal Internal Internal External Internal Internal

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Unit format
All units in Edexcel Principal Learning qualifications have a standard format which is designed to provide clear guidance on the requirements of the qualification for learners, tutors, assessors and those responsible for monitoring national standards. Each unit is set out in the following way: Unit title Level Internal/external assessment Guided learning hours (GLH) The unit title is accredited by QCDA and this form of words will appear on the learner’s Notification of Performance (NOP). This is the level of study of the qualification. Further details of the mode of assessment are given later in the unit. In the Principal Learning qualifications each unit consists of 30, 60 or 90 guided learning hours depending on the level. Guided learning hours is ‘a notional measure of the substance of a unit’. It includes an estimate of time that might be allocated to direct teaching, instruction and assessment, together with other structured learning time such as directed assignments or supported individual study. It excludes learner-initiated private study. Centres are advised to consider this definition when planning the programme of study associated with this specification. About this unit This section is designed to give the reader an appreciation of the value of the unit in the vocational setting of the qualification as well as highlighting the focus of the unit. It provides the reader with a snapshot of the aims of the unit and the key knowledge, skills and understanding developed while studying the unit. The unit abstract also emphasises links to the sector by describing what the unit offers the sector. Learning outcomes What you need to learn Learning outcomes state exactly what a learner should ‘know’, ‘understand’ or ‘be able to’ do as a result of completing the unit. This section identifies the depth and breadth of knowledge, skills and understanding needed to achieve each of the learning outcomes. This is illustrated by the range of subject material for the programme of learning and specifies the skills, knowledge and understanding required for achievement to the level required to comply with all mark bands. Each learning outcome is stated in full and then expanded with further detail on the right-hand side. Internally assessed units may contain ‘egs’ within this section. These are used to show indicative lists of content only.

DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

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Teaching this unit – Delivery guidance

This section is designed to give tutors additional guidance and amplification on the unit in order to provide a coherence of understanding and a consistency of delivery. This section includes guidance on, for example: • • • • links to other units explaining the relationship between the content and the learning outcomes guidance about possible approaches to delivery possible approaches to employer engagement.

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria Assessment information for learners – How you will be assessed Assessment information for assessors

This section contains learning outcomes and assessment criteria for the externally assessed units. Learning outcomes and assessment criteria for internally assessed units can be found in Annexe F. This section gives information about the assessment activities required for this unit. This section provides assessors details in the following subheadings: • • • • • • • Instruction and controls for setting assessment assignments Sector relevant purpose Evidence structure Level of demand Assessment duration Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments Guidance for assessment.

Marking grid(s)

Internally assessed units have a marking grid(s) which contains a list of assessment foci, with statements ordered into three mark bands. When work is marked it is judged against these statements and an appropriate mark awarded. The marking grids are supported with further information under the following sub-headings: • • • Using the marking grid Learner assistance Level descriptors.

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)

This section identifies where there may be opportunities within the unit for the generation of evidence to meet the requirements of PLTS. Assessors should take care to become familiar with PLTS and not to rely on the contents of this section when presenting evidence for moderation. The full PLTS framework is included in this document as Annexe B, but centres should refer to the QCDA website (www.qcda.gov.uk) for the latest version of the PLTS framework.

Functional skills

This section identifies where there may be opportunities within the unit for the generation of evidence to meet the functional skill requirements. This section includes guidance relating to the use of work experience within the unit. This section includes information relating to specialist resources the centre will require to have access to in order to deliver the unit. This section includes information relating to reference material that will enhance the delivery of the unit and the learning experience. Note it is not intended to be comprehensive. Examples are given. In relation to websites, tutors and learners should use website links to extend their searches.

Work experience Specialist resources Reference material

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Assessment and grading of the Principal Learning
The purpose of assessment is to ensure that effective learning of each unit has taken place. Principal Learning units are assessed either internally by tutors or externally by Edexcel. Each unit is labelled clearly as internally or externally assessed. It is essential that tutors familiarise themselves with and follow the guidelines set out in the document Internal Assessment of Principal Learning Units: Controls for Task Setting, Task Taking and Task Marking (see Annexe E) when developing assignments for internally assessed units.

Internal assessment
Internal assessment will be used to facilitate assessment of generic and practical skills. It will be quality assured through internal and external moderation. It will be supervised and completed under controlled conditions. Each unit is assessed through a single assignment which has an overall purpose that reflects the aim of the unit, and is described in the How you will be assessed section. An assignment may be broken down into a few separate tasks. Tasks may be further broken down into smaller activities. The Internal Assessment of Principal Learning Units: Controls for Task Setting, Task Taking and Task Marking document details the nature of the controls that need to be applied to each type of task/activity and its outcome. Where a unit is internally assessed, centres can use the sample assignments provided by Edexcel, or can design and quality assure suitable assignments. When designing assignments, centres are required to be aware of the following design principles (see relevant Tutor Support Materials for further guidance). Assignments should be: Fit for purpose They should consist of tasks which are related to the subject matter and content of the unit. For example, where a unit is centred on IT, the assessment will use IT at the core of the task. They should be designed to be manageable for both the learner and for the centre. They should be delivered under controlled conditions, where centres can guarantee the work produced is truly that of the individual learner. They should produce judgements of a similar standard from occasion to occasion and between different assessors. They should assess what they are intended to assess in terms of the learning outcomes. They should be expressed in ways that can be readily understood by learners, tutors and assessors. They should fairly reflect the content and associated learning outcomes, avoiding confusing learning with assessment and not adversely affecting teaching and learning. They should provide opportunities for learners to produce a variety of different forms of evidence.

Manageable Secure Reliable Valid Transparent Balanced

Flexible

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Centres are encouraged to use a variety of assessment methods, which might include, for example, the use of case studies, work-based assessments, projects, performance observation and time-constrained assessments. Centres are encouraged to place emphasis on practical application, providing a realistic scenario for learners to adopt, and making maximum use of practical activities and work experience. The creation of assignments that are fit for purpose is vital to learners’ achievement and its importance cannot be over emphasised. When reading the marking grids and designing assignments, centres should note the following. • • Each internally assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total. In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B. Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s). The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus. If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band. If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band. If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band. Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking. A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark. Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts. Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

• •

• •

• •

• •

DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

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External assessment
There is a requirement that some units in the Principal Learning will be externally assessed. These external assessments will be made available by Edexcel on agreed, published dates during the year. For the Edexcel Level 1 and Level 2 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance the following units will be externally assessed: Level Foundation Higher Higher Unit numbers 3 3 7 Unit titles Personal Finance and Financial Services Personal Finance and Financial Services Responding to Change in Business

Calculation of the Principal Learning grade
Performance in each unit of Principal Learning will be assessed against criteria given in the marking grid, giving rise to unit marks. Unit marks will be allocated according to marking criteria that do not bear a direct relationship to grading mark bands; that is, assessors will be clear that they are allocating marks and are not grading learners directly. There will be no pre-published unit grade boundaries. Once units have been completed by learners and marked, they will be graded by Edexcel through a separate process involving professional judgement of performance and of technical and statistical data. This will produce unit grade boundaries and hence unit grades which will be reported. To permit the calculation of a Principal Learning qualification grade, Principal Learning unit marks will be converted to points. Points for all Principal Learning units will be added together to devise a Principal Learning score. Using published thresholds the Principal Learning score will be converted to a Principal Learning grade.

Calculation of the Diploma grade
The overall grade for the Diploma will be based only on grades obtained from Principal Learning and the project. However, achievement of all components within the Diploma will be required in order to gain the Diploma qualification. Points for Principal Learning units (weighted as appropriate) will be added to points for the project to derive a Diploma score. Using published thresholds the Diploma score will be converted into a Diploma grade.

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Programme design and delivery
These Principal Learning qualifications consist of units of assessment. Each unit is 30, 60, or 90 guided learning hours in length depending on the level. The definition of guided learning hours is ‘a notional measure of the substance of a qualification’. It includes an estimate of time that might be allocated to direct teaching, instruction and assessment, together with other structured learning time such as directed assignments or supported individual study. It excludes learnerinitiated private study. Centres are advised to consider this definition when planning the programme of study associated with this specification.

Mode of study
Edexcel does not define the mode of study for the Principal Learning of Diplomas but there is an explicit requirement that for at least 50 per cent of the time learners will be engaged in applied learning.

Applied learning
Acquiring and applying knowledge, skills and understanding through tasks set in sector contexts that have many of the characteristics of real work, or are set within the workplace. Most importantly, the purpose of the task in which learners apply their knowledge, skills and understanding must be relevant to real work in the sector. Reference: The Diploma (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, 2007) Centres are free to offer the qualifications using any mode of delivery that meets the needs of their learners and the requirements of applied learning. For example this may be through a combination of traditional classroom teaching, open learning and distance learning. Whatever mode of delivery is used, centres must ensure that learners have appropriate access to the required resources (see individual units) and to the subject specialists delivering the units. Assignments based on the work environment should be encouraged. Those planning the programme should aim to enhance the vocational nature of the Diploma by: • • • • • liaising with employers to ensure a course relevant to the specific needs of the learners accessing and using non-confidential data and documents from workplaces including sponsoring employers in the delivery of the programme and, where appropriate, in the assessment linking with company-based/workplace training programmes making full use of the variety of experience of work and life that learners bring to the programme.

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Delivery of applied learning
It is important that centres develop an approach to teaching and learning that supports the applied learning requirement of the Diploma. The Principal Learning specifications contain a balance of practical skill development and knowledge requirements, some of which can be theoretical in nature. Tutors and assessors need to ensure that appropriate links are made between theory and practice and that the knowledge base is applied to the sector. This will require the development of relevant and up-to-date teaching materials that allow learners to apply their learning to actual events and activity within the sector. Tutors are reminded that experiential learning techniques are required and that the opportunities for formative assessment where learners benefit from regular and structured feedback are a necessary requirement of a Diploma programme. Where learners are performing an activity by practically applying their knowledge and skills, they are essentially behaving in the required applied nature of the Diploma. By then reviewing that learning and considering how improvements can be made and implemented, experiential learning will take place (see Figure 1).

Do Experiential learning

Review

Plan
Figure 1: Experiential learning cycle

Resources
One aim of Diplomas is to prepare learners to progress to employment in specific sectors. Physical resources need to support the delivery of the programme and the proper assessment of the learning outcomes and therefore should normally be of industry standard. Staff delivering programmes and conducting the assessments should be fully familiar with current practice and standards in the sector concerned. Centres will need to meet any specialist resource requirements when they seek approval from Edexcel.

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Assessment and learning Summative assessment Summative assessment serves to inform an overall judgement of achievement, which may be needed for reporting and review, perhaps on transfer between years in a school or on transfer between schools, perhaps for providing certificates at the end of schooling. Although learners are working to satisfy a summative assessment (the marking grids reflect a final overall judgement) the benefit of formative assessment should be strongly emphasised throughout the learning. Formative assessment Formative assessment is concerned with the short-term collection and use of evidence as guidance of learning, mainly in day-to-day classroom practice. In order for formative assessment to occur, the learner must understand what they have learned, what they have yet to learn and what they need to do to learn it. The responsibility of helping learners through a process of planning and reviewing their learning lies with the tutor.

Personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
Personal, learning and thinking skills are necessary for work and for general learning. Learners will have opportunities to develop, apply and assess all the personal, learning and thinking skills within Principal Learning. Personal, learning and thinking skills consist of the following six skills: • • • • • • independent enquiry creative thinking reflective learning team working self-management effective participation.

Annexe B contains detailed information relating to each of the six personal, learning and thinking skills. Each unit requires learners to demonstrate personal, learning and thinking skills, which are a mandatory requirement and a key feature of the Diplomas. Personal, learning and thinking skills are to be used as both a guide on the delivery of each unit and also as a motivating formative indicator for the learner.

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Coverage
All personal, learning and thinking skills are required to be covered and assessed during the delivery and assessment of the whole Diploma and provide the context for the delivery and assessment of the programme of learning. A final summary of the coverage is also provided in Annexe B which collates the coverage of personal, learning and thinking skills throughout the programme. Personal, learning and thinking skills are an essential, embedded feature of the delivery and assessment of the Principal Learning. Learners may also develop and apply personal, learning and thinking skills within the other components of the Diploma. Centres should design the programme of study so that approximately 60 GLH will be allowed to enable learners to develop, plan and review the application of their personal, learning and thinking skills across their learning programme. Personal, learning and thinking skills will not be separately assessed as part of the Diploma but all six personal, learning and thinking skills will be integrated into the assessment criteria for Principal Learning. Each learner’s achievement of personal, learning and thinking skills will be recorded in the Diploma transcript.

How personal, learning and thinking skills are used to support formative feedback
Personal, learning and thinking skills provide an excellent structural guide for the tutor when providing formative feedback to the learner. Tutors will be able to structure assessment and learning opportunities around personal, learning and thinking skills and should use a pro forma sheet to indicate to the learner where progress has been made and where the learner needs to focus further development. A suggested sheet (‘PLTS Performance Indicator’) for this activity is provided in Annexe B. The ‘PLTS Performance Indicator’ can be used by the assessor to feed back on work to the learner showing the level of success that has been demonstrated during each assignment. The indicator is filled in by the assessor or supervisor to record the learner’s performance at regular intervals during the course and ideally after every assignment. This informs the learner of their strengths and weaknesses and illustrates graphically where the learner should concentrate their efforts in the future.

Access and recruitment
Edexcel’s policy regarding access to its qualifications is that: • • • the qualifications should be available to everyone who is capable of reaching the required standards the qualifications should be free from any barriers that restrict access and progression there should be equal opportunities for all wishing to access the qualifications.

Centres are required to recruit learners to Edexcel qualifications with integrity. This will include ensuring that applicants have appropriate information and advice about the qualifications and that the qualification will meet their needs.

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Centres should take appropriate steps to assess each applicant’s potential and make a professional judgement about their ability to successfully complete the programme of study and achieve the qualification. This assessment will need to take account of the support available to the learner within the centre during their programme of study and any specific support that might be necessary to allow the learner to access the assessment for the qualification. Centres should also show regard for Edexcel’s policy on learners with particular requirements.

Access arrangements and special considerations
Edexcel’s policy on access arrangements and special considerations aims to enhance access to the qualifications for learners with disabilities and other difficulties (as defined by the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and the amendments to the Act) without compromising the assessment of skills, knowledge, understanding or competence.

Further information
For further information please call Customer Services on 0844 576 0028 (calls may be recorded for training purposes) or visit our website at www.edexcel.com.

Useful publications
Further copies of this document and related publications can be obtained from: Edexcel Publications Adamsway Mansfield Nottinghamshire NG18 4FN Telephone: Fax: Email: • • • • • • • • • • 01623 467 467 01623 450 481 publications@linney.com

Related information and publications include: Accreditation of Prior Learning available on our website: www.edexcel.com Guidance for Centres Offering Edexcel/BTEC NQF Accredited Programmes (Edexcel, distributed to centres annually) Operating Rules for Component and Diploma Awarding Bodies (QCA, 2007) The Diploma Structure and Standards, Version 2 (QCA, 2007) Regulatory Arrangements for the Qualification and Credit Framework (Ofqual, August 2008) What is a Diploma? (DfES and QCA, 2007) the ASL catalogue on the National Database of Accredited Qualifications (NDAQ) website: www.ndaq.org.uk the current Edexcel publications catalogue and update catalogue the latest news on the Diploma from QCDA available on their website: www.qcda.gov.uk/diploma the latest news on Edexcel Diplomas available on our website: www.edexcel.com/quals/diploma

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Professional development and training
Edexcel supports UK and international customers with training related to our qualifications. This support is available through a choice of training options offered in our published training directory or through customised training at your centre. The support we offer focuses on a range of issues including: • • • • • • • planning for the delivery of a new programme planning for assessment and grading developing effective assignments building your team and teamwork skills developing student-centred learning and teaching approaches building key skills into your programme building in effective and efficient quality assurance systems.

The national programme of training we offer can be viewed on our website (www.edexcel.com/training). You can request customised training through the website or by contacting one of our advisers in the Training from Edexcel team via Customer Services to discuss your training needs. Our customer service numbers are: The Diploma BTEC and NVQ GCSE GCE DIDA and other qualifications The training we provide: • • • is active – ideas are developed and applied is designed to be supportive and thought provoking builds on best practice. 0844 576 0028 0844 576 0026 0844 576 0027 0844 576 0025 0844 576 0031

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

Level 1 units

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

LEVEL 1 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Unit 1: Business Enterprise
Principal Learning unit Level 1 Guided Learning Hours: 60 Internally assessed

About this unit

Behind every successful business enterprise is a good business idea, and in this unit you will learn about what makes a good idea for a business. This means understanding what it is that makes products and services successful. You will then use this to come up with your own ideas for a product or service, choose one and then test it out by carrying out some simple market research, learning about the main market research methods in order to choose the best method for you. You will then present your ideas to an audience. There can be a big difference between an idea and the realities of trying to make it work, and there is a lot that can be learned from this experience. The final part of the unit is about putting the idea into practice and deciding how successful you think it has been.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 LO.5 Understand what makes a product or service successful Be able to generate and develop an idea for a product or service Be able to test an idea for a product or service Be able to present a business idea Be able to implement and review a business enterprise.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Understand what makes a product or service successful Before you develop your own ideas, you need to understand what makes a product or service successful. You will need to consider: • • • types of products, eg food, clothing, electrical types of services, eg entertainment, transport, insurance links between products and services, eg retailing, delivery, post-sales support.

Things can change quickly in business and businesses need to innovate in order to keep up with these changes. You need to understand the different types of change: • • • • technology market needs fashion the competition.

You will need to understand some of the reasons why a new product or services is successful. For example, compared with what was available before, it may do something that is: • • • LO.2 Be able to generate and develop an idea for a product or service • different better cheaper. generating ideas for a product/service:
○ ○

You need to learn about how to generate and develop ideas: looking for opportunities brainstorming techniques time, money and resources available your knowledge and skills whether there seems to be a market for it what it is who it is for why people need it.

deciding which ideas are realistic based on:
○ ○ ○

choosing the best idea and developing it:
○ ○ ○

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LO.3

Be able to test an idea for a product or service

You need to learn about the process of carrying out market research to test an idea: • • • • • deciding what you want to find out choosing a method collecting information interpreting results modifying ideas as necessary.

You need to learn about different methods of carrying out market research, eg: • • • • interviews questionnaires observation focus groups.

There are the different sorts of information that you can find out, eg: • • • • • LO.4 Be able to present a business idea • • • • • • • what the competition is numbers of potential customers what they are looking for what they think of your idea how much they will pay. what information people will need to know what order to put information in how to be positive and identify benefits anticipating questions you may be asked use of supporting materials. use of voice, eg speed, clarity body language, eye contact.

You need to learn about how to prepare and make a presentation

Communication skills:

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LO.5

Be able to implement and review a business enterprise

You need to learn about the implementation of business ideas: • • • • • • • deciding on promotional methods and materials, eg leaflets, adverts, notices, demonstrations, door-to-door sales agreeing roles within a group estimating demand and setting targets, eg number of sales, money taken working out which supplies/raw materials are needed and quantities setting prices production and the importance of monitoring: quantity, quality how to decide if the business idea has been successful, eg whether targets were reached, which decisions worked well.

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance This unit is 60 guided learning hours (GLH) in length. Centres should allocate this amount of time within the timetable for its delivery and assessment. Unless otherwise stated, all of the content included in the What you need to learn section needs to be taught. Sometimes an ‘eg’ or ‘for example’ is included in order to show content that is indicative: in these cases not all of the examples will need to be covered (for example, because some may not always apply in a particular situation), and tutors can introduce other examples of their own that are relevant to particular situations and to the needs of their learners. There are opportunities to link the delivery of this unit to others, particularly Unit 4: Sales and Customer Service in Business and Unit 2: Business Administration, Teams and Communication, so that parts of those units are contextualised within the enterprise that the learners are working on in this unit: so, for example, the team working activity that learners carry out in Unit 2: Business Administration, Teams and Communication could relate to an activity connected to their business idea. Delivery guidance for LO.1 One way of approaching the subject of success would be to start by encouraging learners to use their own experiences as a consumer. For example, they could keep a diary of all the money spent over the course of a week; they could then try to classify each as either a product or a service. This could then lead on to the reasons why they purchased each: what is it that made them choose them rather than the alternatives. A key point in this learning outcome is the role that innovation and creativity play in the success of new products and services. One problem is that after an idea becomes successful, the idea then seems obvious to everyone; great ideas often identify needs or desires that nobody even realised they had. This can make it difficult to think back to what life was like before the idea had been thought of. One way of addressing this is to take a particular sector, for example telecommunications or electronic entertainment, and trace innovative developments over a number of years, such as mobile phones, music storage media, games consoles, etc. It is also important to emphasise, however, that innovation is not just about ideas that have never been thought of before: much innovation is about small, incremental improvements, or applying existing ideas in new contexts. Delivery guidance for LO.2 Learners need to learn about the process of generating ideas. There are different ways of identifying opportunities, for instance identifying a need that is as yet unmet, or seeing what is already successful in one situation and considering whether it can be applied in a different context. Learners should be taught about how to generate ideas in groups. Brainstorming is the most widely used method, and there are different types and classifications, but it is not necessary to go into variations. It is important that they learn that all ideas need to be recorded and that, at the idea generation stage, it is important not to pass judgements in order not to stifle creativity. Learners could practise using brainstorming techniques in groups to solve any type of problem. Before learners are able to develop their own ideas, they will need to have some understanding of what makes an idea realistic. Time, money and physical resources will be critical, as will other issues such as any relevant laws, regulations and health and safety considerations. It would be useful to look at examples of business ideas that have proven to be overambitious and were not realistic.

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Delivery guidance for LO.3 Learners will not need to carry out a variety of types of market research, but they do need to understand what they are in order for them to choose the best method or methods; learners will benefit from getting hands on experience of different methods. Before they put this into practice for assessment, they should have opportunities to practise devising questions and carrying out small-scale interviews and surveys. This may help them to appreciate the importance (and difficulty) of finding the right questions to ask and the right people to ask. They could then use this experience to modify their questions and see how this affects the results they get. Delivery guidance for LO.4 Learners will need to be taught about the basic principles of making presentations to stimulate interest in a business idea: the importance of structure and clarity; how software and handouts can be used; why it is important to present an idea in a positive light; and what information potential investors will want to know. However, it is important for tutors to be realistic: learners at this level will not be expected to be able to provide the detailed financial and practical information that would be expected in the real world. To prepare for creating a presentation, learners could practise presenting personal information to each other in small groups. Delivery guidance for LO.5 Learners need to be taught about the decisions and planning that are involved in implementing a business idea. They need to know about the different promotional methods and materials they could use, although at this level they will not be expected to justify their decisions. When it comes to quantifying demand and materials needed and setting targets, they need to know about why it is important to estimate demand and set targets, but at this level it is not necessary to go into detail about how this is done. For setting of prices, there is no need to introduce terminology such as break even, but it is important that learners know how to at least make sure they cover their costs (assuming that their predictions of demand and targets are met). They also need to know why it is important to monitor quality (particularly if they are producing anything tangible) and quantity (production/sales) while the enterprise is running so that they can take action if required: the actual monitoring methods are less important than the fact that some sort of monitoring needs to take place. As part of their learning activities, it would be worthwhile for learners to investigate how a variety of local businesses do this, if the information is available.

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Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed by an assignment connected to developing and implementing a business idea. You will need to: • Decide on an idea for a product or service and carry out research to test the idea, providing
○ ○ ○

a list of the ideas you thought of; a description of the idea you chose and why [LO.2] background research into an existing product or service: a description of what it is, who the main market is, why it has been successful [LO.1] the market research carried out to test your chosen idea: method(s) used; key findings; how you used the results to modify the idea [LO.3]

• •

Present the idea to potential investors: what the idea is and why it is worth investing in [LO.4] Put the business idea into practice and then write up: what decisions were taken and why, and how successful the business was [LO.5].

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Assessment information for assessors
Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments This unit must be covered by a single assignment, which is described in the How you will be assessed section, and exemplified within the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Sector-relevant purpose By its nature, any business enterprise idea can be considered relevant to business, administration and finance as long as it is for a real product or service, not a simulation. The enterprise must have some sort a purpose: it is not enough for it to be done in order solely to satisfy the assessment requirements; rather it must have some other purpose, eg a goal or target. Evidence structure Learning outcome LO.1, LO.2, LO.3 LO.4 B Group presentation Marking grid A Activity/section Research and development of business idea Evidence Written evidence: ideas, background research, market research Learner observation record, supported by hard copies of any slides, notes, handouts, etc Written evidence of decisions taken and assessment of success of business Learner observation record of learner’s contribution to the business

LO.5(.2, .3)

A

Implementation of business idea

LO.5(.1)

B

Level of demand The level of demand is exemplified in the unit sample assessment material (SAM). It would be appropriate for the final ‘live’ stage of the business in LO.5 to be run over a limited period of time. This could be done intensively, eg one day’s selling at the school fete or done over a more extended period, eg one or two hours each day for a week. However, centres may wish to extend this enterprise activity over a longer period with more hours allowed. This may make particular sense if centres are contextualising the delivery or assessment of other units within the learners’ business enterprise; in this case the enterprise activity can also make use of hours allocated to those units. Assessment duration The suggested guided learning hours (GLH) needed to complete this assignment is 14 hours per learner. Centres can structure this time as they see fit. The suggested GLH for assessment does not include time spent collecting information for background research in LO.1, collecting the market research data in LO.3 or on implementing the business idea in LO.5. Centres should note that the total class assessment time may need to be higher to allow time for separate group presentations for LO.4.

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Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments The learners must be provided with full access to study all of the areas identified in What you need to learn section of the specification. Controls relating to resources and supervision are contained within Annexe E of this specification. Although work that leads up to the creation of the assessment evidence will be done as part of a group, the learner must produce their own evidence for assessment. The existing successful business idea that the learners research for LO.1 must relate to their business idea: this stage is a preparation for the market research carried out in LO.3 to test their idea. For LO.4, it will be necessary for groups to collaborate in collating the information together into a single presentation. Each learner must take responsibility for presenting one part of the presentation. Learners must be awarded individual marks for their own part of the task. Tutors must apply the relevant sections for each individual learner, and award marks to the individual, not to the group. This means that is possible for one group member to score highly on their part of the presentation while another scores less well on their part. For LO.5, marks must be awarded not only for the written evidence submitted by the learners (Marking grid A) but also for the contribution made to the running of the business, as observed by the tutor (Marking grid B). Tutors will not need to be present at all stages, nor to observe every activity, but must take a holistic view based on what they see throughout the process rather than, say, at the beginning or end only. When assessing the contributions made, tutors must remember that even if the business is not a great success overall, it is possible for any (or even all) individual team members to make a significant and sustained contribution to the running of the business. One factor in determining marks for the contribution made by the learner is the degree of support and guidance required from the tutor. This refers to help provided by the tutor either because the learner has asked for it or because the tutor can see that it is necessary to intervene, eg to pre-empt problems or suggest ways forward when problems are encountered. This does not include more general encouragement or reassurance where learners merely want reassurance that what they are planning to do is sensible. Summary of unit controls Setting
Limited

Time
Limited

Resources
Limited

Supervision
Medium

Collaboration
Limited

Marking
Medium

See Annexe E for further information. Guidance for assessment It would make most sense for assessment to take place in three separate stages (research and development of idea; group presentation; implementation) after the relevant learning has taken place. Groups should contain between 3 and 6 learners.

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Although LO.1 should be taught first as an introduction to the unit, LO.2 should be the first part of the assignment. For LO.2, learners will need to work in groups. The ideas they come up with need not be for brand new products or services; they could be improvements or adaptations of existing ideas or simply taking an existing idea used in one context or location to another, a different price, etc. Each learner must contribute to the discussion, and will produce their own written evidence of what was decided upon. This does not mean that each person has to come up with an idea, but they should make some contribution to the discussion, for example helping to develop an idea that someone else thought of, pointing out why an idea is not practical, etc. For assessment for LO.1, the work may be presented in any format. Although learners must produce individual evidence, they may research the same examples of a successful product; it would be preferable, however, for them to each choose a different example. The product/service chosen must be as similar as possible to their own idea in order for them to benefit from looking at what makes it successful. When carrying out the market research in LO.3, learners can choose one or more methods and can choose to find out whatever types of information are relevant to them. This might involve them coming up with a proposition to test (such as how much would people pay for their particular product), or research carried out in a more open and hypothetical manner (such as what features in a generic type of product people value most). For greater realism, the ‘potential investors’ in LO.4 should preferably involve people external to the centre, such as a local employer. The investors could also include centre staff and selected learners. All-learner panels should be used only as a last resort. It could be given added purpose by being set within a scenario such as BBC’s Dragons’ Den; if so, it would help if the panel were provided with money (real or imaginary) to invest. The presentation need not be done in a traditional way; learners could, for example, produce displays and explain the ideas to investors as they move around the room. However, the tutor will need to observe each learner at least once and there must be some form of audience with which to interact. For assessment of LO.5, learners must actually put the idea into practice; it is not enough for this to be a theoretical exercise. The business idea that they implement should ideally be the same one that they presented in LO.4. Learners can also make use of feedback received at or after the presentation. It is quite likely that ideas will have to be adapted as soon as the practicalities are considered; learners should not be penalised if this is the case. If circumstances change or unforeseen problems arise, the original plan may need to be abandoned and a new one put into action. This does not mean that learners will have to re-present their ideas in LO.4. It is not necessary for each learner to have a distinct role within their group. The evidence for their decisions taken should be in writing but it could be in any appropriate format. When it comes to judging success, learners can limit themselves to holistic judgements about the overall success, rather than being expected to analyse different stages and parts: the judgement of success may be subjective or it could be linked to something quantitative, such as whether they have achieved their sales targets.

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Marking grid A
Mark Band 2 A product or service is described, and there is an explanation for why it is successful. A product or service is described accurately and in detail, and there is a clear explanation for why it is successful. (5–6) The ideas are listed clearly, and the idea chosen is described in detail. 6 Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus

Mark Band 1

LO.1

Understand what makes a product or service successful (3–4) The ideas are listed clearly, and the idea chosen is described.

Brief information about the product or service is identified, with limited explanation given for its success.

(0–2)

LO.2

Be able to generate and develop an idea for a product or service There is some explanation for why it was chosen, with some reference to what makes it viable. (5–7) (8–10)

The ideas are listed, and a basic description of the idea chosen is given, although this may lack clarity.

There is an attempt to explain why it has been chosen.

A clear explanation is given for why it was chosen, including why it is viable. 10 Data is collected, and will be adequate in terms of both quality and quantity. There is clear evidence of relevant interpretation, showing that the learner can extract key findings and apply them to confirm or adapt their business idea. (8–10) 10

(0–4)

LO.3

Be able to test an idea for a product or service

Data is collected, although is likely to Data is collected, and will be be limited in terms of quantity and adequate either in terms of quality or quality. quantity. There is some evidence of relevant interpretation, showing that the learner can extract key findings.

There is limited evidence of relevant interpretation.

(0–4)

(5–7)

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Assessment focus As a whole, the information provided is reasonably clear in places. There is information about the decisions taken, with some rationale provided as to why. (4–6) The learner judges how successful the enterprise has been overall, with some supporting evidence given. (7–8) The learner judges how successful the enterprise was overall, backing this up with good supporting evidence. (5–6) 14 Total marks 40 As a whole, the information provided is clear. There is information about the decisions taken, with a clear rationale provided as to why.

Mark Band 1

Mark Band 2

Mark Band 3

Maximum marks available

LO.5(.2)

Be able to implement and review a business enterprise

As a whole, the information provided may lack clarity. There is some information about decisions taken, although there is limited rationale provided as to why.

(0–3)

LO.5(.3)

Be able to implement and review a business enterprise (3–4)

A basic judgement is made about the overall success of the enterprise.

(0–2)

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Marking grid B
Mark Band 2 Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus The learner may lack fluency, but enough specific information is conveyed for the audience to have a reasonable understanding of the overall business idea. The learner is able to highlight relevant features that make the idea worth investing in. (5–7) The learner works with others towards their goals, showing some degree of commitment and perseverance. Some support and guidance is required. (5–7) (8–10) The learner works well with others towards their goals, showing a good degree of commitment and perseverance. Only limited support and guidance is required. (8–10) 10 Total marks 20 The learner is able to highlight a range of relevant and positive features which make the idea is worth investing in. 10 Even if the learner lacks fluency, specific information is conveyed clearly so that the audience has a good understanding of the business idea.

Mark Band 1

LO.4

Be able to present a business idea

The learner is likely to be hindered by a lack of fluency. Some general information is conveyed, but may be unclear.

An attempt is made to show why the idea is worth investing in, but this may not highlight features that are relevant or positive.

(0–4)

LO.5(.1)

Be able to implement and review a business enterprise

The learner shows some ability to work with others towards their goals, showing a limited degree of commitment and perseverance.

Frequent support and guidance is required.

(0–4)

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Assessment guidance
Using the marking grid • • Each internally assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total. In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B. Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s). The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus. If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band. If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band. If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band. Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking. A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark. Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts. Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

• •

• •

• •

• •

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Level 1 descriptors
Descriptor Accurate/accurately Adequate Attempt to Basic Brief/briefly Clear/clearly Describe/description Detail/detailed Explain/explanation Frequent support and guidance Meaning Correct, without errors. Only just sufficient. Tries, but has no or only limited success. Limited to the fundamental features, elements or facts. Short, lacking detail. Well expressed, easy to understand or see. Provide information that includes relevant features, elements, facts, etc. Showing thoroughness. Provide reasons for a decision, feature, etc. The learner relies on the guidance and advice of the tutor to make progress. The tutor needs to direct significant aspects of the work to make progress. Vague, lacking specific information, details. To a high level or degree. Mentions the key elements, facts, features, etc. Not well expressed/not easy to understand. Showing basic or incomplete knowledge, evidence, ability etc. The learner makes only occasional use of the guidance and advice of the tutor. Provide the information in a list, rather than in continuous prose. Features that show why the idea is a good one. Three or more. Moderate or average. Somewhat, fairly Features that show why the idea is a good one. Basic, routine, straightforward. At least two; to a certain degree, partial. The learner makes use of guidance and advice of the tutor, and the tutor assists in some aspects of the work, but does not need to direct it. Precise, exact, detailed.

General/generalised Good/well Identify Lack clarity Limited Limited support and guidance List Positive features A range Reasonable Reasonably Relevant features Simple Some Some support and guidance

Specific

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
The following table identifies the PLTS that have been included within the assessment criteria of this unit. Skill Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers When learners are … Carrying out simple market research on their business idea [IE2]. Generating ideas for a product or service [CT1]. Assessing how successful the business idea has been [RL1]. Reaching agreements on which product or service to develop [TW2]; collaborating with others to work towards the common goals of implementing a business idea [TW1]. Working towards the goal of implementing the business idea, showing initiative, commitment and perseverance [SM2]. Persuading prospective investors of the merits of the business idea, presenting a case for action [EP2].

Self-managers Effective participators

Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning. Skill Independent enquirers When learners are … Identifying questions for their market research to answer [IE1]; analysing the results of their market research, judging its relevance and value [IE4]. Connecting their own and others’ preliminary ideas for a product or service to come up with an inventive idea to develop [CT3]; developing their business idea, trying out alternative approaches [CT5]. Reviewing progress at the end of the market research in terms of what they have found out [RL3]; inviting feedback from the investors to who they have presented the business idea, dealing positively with praise and criticism [RL4]; evaluating the experience of implementing a business idea and deciding on how to follow this up [RL5]. Showing fairness and consideration while working to choose a business idea [TW4]. Preparing to implement their business idea, organising their own time and resources [SM3]; dealing with competing pressures when trying to organise the activities involved in putting a business idea into practice [SM5]; responding positively to any changes that need to be made when putting the business idea into practice, seeking advice and support from the tutor when needed [SM6].

Creative thinkers

Reflective learners

Team workers Self-managers

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Skill Effective participators

When learners are … Implementing their business idea, proposing practical ways forward, breaking these down into manageable steps [EP3]; identifying ways in which the product or service they have chosen will result in improvements for customers [EP4]; trying to influence others in their group when discussing which business idea to choose [EP5]; presenting a business idea to investors, which may represent a group choice of product or service rather than one that they personally wanted to choose [EP6].

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Functional skills — Level 1
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Interact with and use ICT systems independently to meet needs Use ICT to plan work and evaluate their use of ICT systems Manage information storage Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently to meet needs Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • • text and tables images numbers graphs records Creating a presentation for prospective investors. When learners are …

Bring together information to suit content and purpose Present information in ways that are fit for purpose and audience Evaluate the selection and use of ICT tools and facilities used to present information Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, independently, responsibly and effectively Presenting their business idea to prospective investors.

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

LEVEL 1 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Skill Mathematics Understand practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations, some of which are nonroutine Identify and obtain necessary information to tackle the problem Select and apply mathematics in an organised way to find solutions to practical problems for different purposes Use appropriate checking procedures at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems, drawing simple conclusions and giving explanations English Speaking and listening – take full part in formal and informal discussions/exchanges Reading – read and understand a range of texts Writing – write documents to communicate information, ideas and opinions using formats and styles suitable for their purpose and audience

When learners are …

Discussing ideas for a business. Presenting their business ideas to prospective investors. Working in groups to implement their business idea.

Creating materials to support their presentation for potential investors.

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LEVEL 1 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Specialist resources None. Reference material Books Bridge S – Understanding Enterprise, Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2nd edition (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) ISBN 0333984659 Burke R – Entrepreneur’s Toolkit (Burke Publishing, 2006) ISBN 0958239442 Burke R – Small Business Entrepreneur (Burke Publishing, 2006) ISBN 0958239442 Parks S – Start your Business: Week by Week (Prentice Hall, 2004) ISBN 0273694472 Pinson L and Jinnett J – Steps to Small Business start-up (Kaplan Business, 2006) ISBN 141953727X Websites www.businesslink.gov.uk www.nfte.co.uk www.scottberkun.com www.young-enterprise.org.uk Government site offering information and advice on starting up and running a business Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship Essays on various topics, including innovation and creativity Young Enterprise

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

LEVEL 1 UNIT 2: BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, TEAMS AND COMMUNICATION

Unit 2: Business Administration, Teams and Communication
Principal Learning unit Level 1 Guided Learning Hours: 60 Internally assessed

About this unit

In a lot of popular organisations, the most important thing is to get a ‘foot in the door’; once you’ve done this, you can start working your way up the career ladder. One of the most common ways of getting into an organisation is in a job providing administrative support. Organisations really value good administrators – they know that without them, there would be chaos: information would get lost, people wouldn’t know where their meetings were taking place, a lot of time would be wasted. Not only that, but administration skills are transferable across industries and they come in useful even in the most senior positions. In this unit you will learn about the importance of administration, and learn skills that will make you a valuable employee. Alongside administration skills, in most jobs you will have to be able to communicate and work in teams. When you write something to a customer or colleague, you are representing your organisation or department, and so you will be expected to know how to do this well. Teamwork can allow you to get more done than when everyone works on their own, and this too relies upon good communication. In this unit you will have the chance to practise both of these: writing different types of business communication and working in teams.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 Know administrative processes used in business Be able to produce simple business documents Be able to plan and carry out administrative work safely Be able to work as part of a team.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Know administrative processes used in business You need to learn about the range of day-to-day administrative activities that need to be undertaken in an organisation: • • • • dealing with visitors: receiving and welcoming visitors, creating the right image, meeting their needs handling mail: receiving, sorting, distributing and dispatching organising and supporting meetings managing manual and electronic information: keeping and updating records; storing information in folders and filing systems dealing with enquiries: providing information orally and in writing using telephone systems to make, receive and transfer calls.

• • LO.2 Be able to produce simple business documents

The way that you communicate with colleagues and customers can be more or less formal. The choice will depend on: • • • your relationship with them, eg how well you know them, seniority what you are communicating about the method of communication you are using.

Businesses use a variety of methods of written communications for different purposes: • • • • to request information to provide information to give instructions to attract potential customers.

You need to learn about the uses of different types of written business communication: • • • • • • emails messages/notes letters memos faxes forms, eg invoice, order.

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

LEVEL 1 UNIT 2: BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, TEAMS AND COMMUNICATION

You need to learn about how to produce business documents: • • • • • • using standard document conventions: layouts, content and style suitable for the type of document expressing the message clearly entering, editing, and formatting text combining information checking for accuracy, grammar and spelling, and correcting mistakes managing information: using appropriate file names; saving documents in folders for easy retrieval; saving back up versions.

LO.3

Be able to plan and carry out administrative work safely

Providing administrative support involves working with other people and to maintain good working relationships you will need to learn about ways of planning to help you manage your time to meet deadlines: • • • • • checking deadlines deciding which tasks need to be done, eg using ‘to do lists’ agreeing who will do what deciding what order tasks need to be done in estimating how long tasks will take and setting yourself time limits. computers printers photocopiers telephones.

Working in an office involves using different office equipment: • • • •

When you are working in an office you need to carry out work safely in accordance with legal and organisational requirements: • • • • • seating: positioning, adjustability and comfort using a monitor, mouse and keyboard: positioning and distance regular breaks and exercise safe lifting techniques following instructions for using office equipment.

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LEVEL 1 UNIT 2: BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, TEAMS AND COMMUNICATION

LO.4

Be able to work as part of a team

Teams make a difference to an organisation’s performance. Teamwork involves a group of people with complementary skills, working together to achieve a common goal. Teams can be classified depending on whether they are: • • temporary, eg project teams, hot groups permanent, eg departmental.

An effective team recognises the importance of each team member’s contribution, whatever their role. This has several advantages: • • • • making best use of people’s differing strengths shared vision and sense of commitment increased efficiency and productivity: less duplication of tasks, suggestions from team members for improvements less risk: if a team member leaves, others can take on their role and responsibilities.

Communicating in team situations involves the ability to adapt your behaviour and style of communication depending on the situation and the people involved. You need to learn about what makes an effective team member: • • • • • • working with others as part of a team to achieve specified goals showing a positive attitude: being committed to the team’s success; being willing to take collective responsibility supporting other team members: being polite and cooperative; letting others speak, showing respect communicating effectively: listening and speaking skills; body language, eye contact, gestures, facial expression being aware of your own contribution to team activities responding appropriately to feedback.

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

LEVEL 1 UNIT 2: BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, TEAMS AND COMMUNICATION

Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance This unit is 60 guided learning hours (GLH) in length. Centres should allocate this amount of time within the timetable for its delivery and assessment. Unless otherwise stated, all of the content included in the What you need to learn section needs to be taught. Sometimes an ‘eg’ or ‘for example’ is included in order to show content that is indicative: in these cases not all of the examples will need to be covered (for example, because some may not always apply in a particular situation), and tutors can introduce other examples of their own that are relevant to particular situations and to the needs of their learners. Delivery guidance for LO.1 It would be helpful if learners base some learning activities on an organisation they can access to help them gain a better understanding of the relevance of the administrative job role. This could be one chosen by the learner or with tutor guidance, and there are advantages in selecting an organisation with a local presence as any investigations can be achieved through a visit or a visiting speaker from the organisation. Learners need to understand the role administration plays in contributing to the effective operation of organisations, irrespective of the size of the organisation. This can be achieved by investigating the links between different administrative tasks carried out for functions such as human resources, finance, production, customer service, etc. Learners could split into groups to investigate a different admin function in the centre, such as finance, human resources or customer services, and each group could feed back so that the whole picture emerges (this would also minimise disruption to the administrative staff). Learners should also be encouraged to observe admin areas of different establishments during their own time and be aware of the types of tasks undertaken – such as in the reception area at a hotel or leisure centre, the customer services desk in a department store or a bank. Learners should be given the opportunity to practise using office equipment, handling mail, dealing with visitors and managing electronic and manual information (there is no need to practise organising and supporting meetings, although learners should be given an overview about what is involved). They could investigate the filing systems used in the centre library and, if possible, the tutor could show examples of chronological, alphabetic and numerical systems, with exercises provided to develop practical skills. Much of this unit will require simulated exercises, but it might be possible to access opportunities in the centre to distribute and dispatch mail. Delivery guidance for LO.2 It is not intended that this unit will be used to teach word processing, but learners need to develop skills to prepare simple business documents and are expected to be competent in basic word-processing skills. Tutors should explain the format of letters, memos and other standard documents. Examples of standard documentation used in business should be shown. Learners can work in groups, with each group collecting documentation for a different admin function (and different from the one they investigated for admin tasks). They could present their findings to the rest of the learners and describe the purposes of each of the documents. Learners should have opportunities to practise their word processing skills using different styles and layouts. The importance of producing well-presented and accurate business documents needs to be stressed, as this affects the professional image of the organisation. Learners can not only check their own work for grammar, punctuation and spelling but can check each others’ work also. Storing and retrieving documents for amending at a later date is important and learners must be encouraged to keep copies of the original documents.

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Delivery guidance for LO.3 Learners need to be familiar with the stages of planning: where are you now, where do you wish to be, how are you going to get there, how will you measure progress. They should be familiar with the tools and techniques available to make effective use of their time, including to-do lists, diaries, planning charts, and schedules. Learners could carry out in-tray exercises relating to estimating time limits for a range of tasks, and case studies could help reinforce the importance of meeting deadlines and the need to be able to respond to changing work plans and still meet requirements through taking corrective actions. Learners will need to be introduced to different types of equipment: computers, printers, photocopiers and telephones as well as learning their purpose and the importance of following safety procedures. Relevant printing features will include the different types (laserjet, inkjet, colour, black and white, whether they are on a network), how to load paper and how to print documents. Also, demonstrating photocopying equipment can show the wider features (such as sorting, stapling) that the machine offers. Learners should be aware of problems they are likely to experience with the equipment and how these should be dealt with. Learners need to learn how to use telephone systems to make, receive and transfer calls. Visits to an administrative office such as the centre’s own or a local business would help learners investigate how the work area is organised and the types of equipment used to support activities. The health and safety issues relating to workstations and the surrounding work area should be highlighted, for example the factors to consider when sitting at a computer (chair height, distance from screen, glare, etc). Delivery guidance for LO.4 Factors that make teams work can be introduced through learners undertaking one of the many team activities that are available for use in the classroom. Discussion groups can then look at the benefits of effective teamwork. Tutor input is needed on why businesses use teams to achieve goals; then learners can work in groups with each group investigating the goals of different teams in the centre or a local business. Alternatively, learners could use teams they are involved with outside of class, such as sports teams, cadets, orchestra, drama groups etc. Learners can present their findings to the rest of the groups and then discuss where they have seen effective teams and their common features. Effective communication in teams can be introduced through a group discussion with learners drawing on their own experiences. The tutor could show videos/DVDs showing examples of different behaviours and communication styles in team situations, and the importance of body language and interpersonal skills. Learners should be encouraged to develop teamworking and communication skills in a supported environment through role-play exercises, and they should have plenty of opportunities for working in teams and/or groups. Exercises can be given to highlight advantages and disadvantages of team working, including how to contribute, follow instructions, adapt behaviour and styles of communication, and how to take into account each individual team member’s strengths and weaknesses. Role-play scenarios could be used here.

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

LEVEL 1 UNIT 2: BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, TEAMS AND COMMUNICATION

Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed through an assignment connected to working in a team and producing written business communication. You will need to: • • • Work as a team, showing your ability to plan your work as a group and as an individual [LO.3(.1)] and demonstrating your teamworking skills [LO.4(.1, .2)] Produce different types of written business communication [LO.2] while using office equipment safely [LO.3(.2)] Review the team working activity. This will involve: responding to feedback from your tutor and assessing how well you and your team worked together whilst carrying out administrative activities [LO.4(.3, .4)] and identifying other activities that need to be carried out to ensure the smooth running of an organisation [LO.1].

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Assessment information for assessors
Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments This unit must be covered by a single assignment, which is described in the How you will be assessed section, and exemplified within the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Sector-relevant purpose The team activity and the business communication produced must have a relevant purpose related to an organisation or business. Ideally, the assignment will be based on the learners’ own enterprise or it could be connected to some other real business or organisation. Alternatively, a case study could be used. Evidence structure Learning outcome LO.3(.1) LO.4(.1, .2) Marking grid A B Activity/section Team activity Evidence Written evidence: planning teamwork Learner observation record: teamworking and communication skills Producing written business communication Written evidence: information management, documents produced Learner observation record: use of office equipment Review of teamworking activity Learner observation record: assessment of team and response to feedback; identification of administrative processes

LO.2

A

LO.3(.2) LO.4(.3, .4) LO.1

B B

Level of demand The level of demand appropriate to the assessment of this unit is exemplified in the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Assessment duration The suggested guided learning hours (GLH) needed to complete this assignment is 6 hours per learner. Centres can structure this time as they see fit. Centres should note that the total class assessment time is likely to be higher to allow time for separate one-to-one reviews in LO.4.

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LEVEL 1 UNIT 2: BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, TEAMS AND COMMUNICATION

Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments Learners must be provided with full access to study all of the areas identified in the What you need to learn section of the specification. Controls relating to resources and supervision are contained within Annexe E of this specification. Learners will need to work in groups (of no more than four) to agree how to plan their work. However, each learner must provide their own separate records of the planning. The planning must relate to both the group that they are working in and also their own responsibilities within the group. They will also need to work individually. Each learner must be required to use more than one type of written business communication (email, letter, etc). In the course of their work, learners must be required to use as a minimum the following pieces of office equipment: computer, printer and photocopier. The ‘review’ part of the assignment must take place individually in a one-to-one session with the tutor. When considering the administrative processes that need to be carried out, learners can make use of any notes made during learning activities in or outside class. Summary of unit controls Setting
Limited

Time
Limited

Resources
Limited

Supervision
Medium

Collaboration
Limited

Marking
Medium

See Annexe E for further information. Guidance for assessment It is recommended that the entire assignment is done after all teaching for this unit has taken place. It could, however, be split over a number of different sessions. The assignment brief provided will need to stipulate a purpose for the business communication. If the assignment is based on their own enterprise, the purpose could be connected with planning or setting up their business activities, or possibly a follow up activity after the business has finished, for example a second, improved enterprise activity (either real or notional). The assignment could also be based on a case study, based on a scenario created by the centre and could involve, for example, learners fulfilling the administrative requirements of a business over a short period of time, such as replying to queries or placing orders. For the first part of the assignment, learners will be working in groups. They need not be given distinct roles, but should plan and agree work together. Evidence for planning can be in any suitable format(s), but must be done in writing. The task that they then carry out should be linked to the business communication that they will then be producing in the next part of the assignment (such as finding out information or preparing in some way). During this part of the task some of the marks are awarded based on the tutor’s observation of learners’ teamworking skills. Tutors will need to be present in a discreet way for most of the activities and must take a holistic view based on what they see throughout the process rather than, say, at the beginning or end only. In the second part of the task (producing the business communication), the centre may (but need not) stipulate which types of business communication must be used. The learner’s ‘information management’ ability will be assessed by records of where documents are saved, and so there must be a written record which includes full file paths for each document created.

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Similarly, at the review stage, even if the learner has not shown particularly good teamworking skills and the quality of work produced has not been high, it is still possible for them to gain high marks for their ability to respond to feedback and to assess how well they have performed. When it comes to assessing success, at this level, learners should be steered towards assessing how well they worked together rather than, say, assessing different team members’ written communication skills. Tutors can prompt the learners with general and open questions. Tutors need not transcribe learners’ answers verbatim, but brief summaries should be recorded.

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LEVEL 1 UNIT 2: BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, TEAMS AND COMMUNICATION

Marking grid A
Mark Band 2 Documents are stored in a way that makes future retrieval possible with some effort. (2) The style, content and layout of the documents conform to some degree to standard document conventions. (4–6) The message is reasonably clear, although there may be some errors in the use of language which may be intrusive. The learner has reasonable success in using language and tone that are suitable for the message, recipient and type of the communication. (6–9) The learner shows reasonable ability to plan in a way that makes best use of the time available. Tasks are generally ordered in a logical way. (5–7) (10–12) The learner shows good ability to plan in a way that makes best use of the time available. Tasks are ordered in a logical way. (8–10) 10 Total marks 33 (7–8) The message is clear. There are few errors in the use of language and these are not intrusive. The learner has good success in using language and tone that are suitable for the message, recipient and type of communication. 23 (3) The style, content and layout of the documents mainly conform to standard document conventions. Documents are stored in a way that will make future retrieval straightforward. Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus

Mark Band 1

LO.2(.1)

Be able to produce simple business documents

Documents are stored, but in a way that could make future retrieval difficult or time-consuming.

(0–1)

LO.2(.2)

Be able to produce simple business documents

The style, content and layout of the documents conform, to a limited degree, to standard document conventions.

(0–3)

LO.2(.3)

Be able to produce simple business documents

The message expressed may be unclear, and there are frequent errors in use of language, which may be intrusive. The learner has limited success in using language and tone that are suitable for the message, recipient or type of communication.

(0–5)

LO.3(.1)

Be able to plan and carry out administrative work safely

There is either limited evidence of planning or learners have limited ability to plan in a way that makes best use of the time available. Tasks may not be ordered in a logical way.

(0–4)

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Marking grid B
Mark Band 2 The learner identifies different administrative activities. The learner clearly identifies different administrative activities and what these involve. Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus

Mark Band 1

LO.1

Know the administrative processes used in business (3–4) The learner uses office equipment safely but with some difficulties which require some support and guidance. (2) (3) (5–6) The learner uses office equipment safely and with few difficulties, requiring limited support and guidance.

The learner briefly identifies different administrative activities.

(0–2)

6

LO.3(.2)

Be able to plan and carry out administrative work safely

The learner uses office equipment safely but has frequent difficulties which require frequent support and guidance.

(0–1)

3

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

LEVEL 1 UNIT 2: BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, TEAMS AND COMMUNICATION

Assessment focus The learner shows reasonable teamworking skills, and makes a reasonable contribution to the task. They show some ability to maintain a positive attitude, support team members and to communicate during the task. (5–7) They listen to feedback and show some ability to accept and understand it. Their assessment of how well they performed generally corresponds with what the tutor has observed. In the assessment they can provide some support for their opinions. (4–6) (7–8) (8–10) They listen to feedback and show good ability to understand and accept what is said. Their assessment of how well they performed corresponds well with what the tutor has observed. In the assessment they can provide clear support for their opinions. 18 Total marks 27 The learner shows good teamworking skills, and makes a good contribution to the task. They show good ability to maintain a positive attitude, support team members, and they communicate effectively throughout the task.

Mark Band 1

Mark Band 2

Mark Band 3

Maximum marks available

LO.4(.1, .2)

Be able to work as part of a team

The learner shows limited teamworking skills and makes a limited contribution to the task. They show limited ability to maintain a positive attitude, support team members and to communicate during the task.

(0–4)

LO.4(.3, .4)

Be able to work as part of a team

They listen to feedback provided, although they may have difficulty accepting or understanding it.

Their assessment of how well they performed may not correspond with what the tutor has observed. The assessment is brief and limited.

(0–3)

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Assessment guidance
Using the marking grid • • Each internally assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total. In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B. Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s). The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus. If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band. If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band. If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band. Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking. A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark. Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts. Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

• •

• •

• •

• •

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Level 1 descriptors
Descriptor Brief/briefly Clear/clearly Difficult/difficulties Difficult or time consuming (document retrieval) Meaning Short, lacking detail. Well expressed, easy to understand or see. Clearly has a problem doing something, may be unable to do or does so only after a struggle. There are issues with more than one of the following: document format; unclear file names; multiple copies of the same document; failure to use sub-folders; sub-folders that are poorly named or not stored in a logical place; other relevant issues. A small number of errors in one or more of the following: spelling, punctuation, grammar, syntax. Numerous errors in one or more of the following: spelling, punctuation, grammar, syntax. The learner relies on the guidance and advice of the tutor to make progress. The tutor needs to direct significant aspects of the work to make progress. Mostly/or most of the time but not completely or consistently. To a high level or degree. Mention the key elements, facts, features, etc. Errors that stand out prominently and interrupt the flow of the reader. To a small and incomplete degree; showing basic or incomplete knowledge, evidence, ability, etc. The learner makes only occasional use of the guidance and advice of the tutor. Mostly but not completely. There may be issues with one of the following: document format; unclear file names; multiple copies of the same document; failure to use sub-folders; sub-folders that are poorly named or not stored in a logical place; other relevant issues. Moderate or average. Somewhat, fairly. A number of errors in one or more of the following: spelling, punctuation, grammar, syntax. To a certain degree, partial; not all. The learner makes use of the guidance and advice of the tutor, and the tutor assists in some aspects of the work, but does not need to direct it.

Few errors Frequent errors (in use of language) Frequent support and guidance

Generally Good/well Identify Intrusive (errors) Limited Limited support and guidance Mainly Possible with some effort (document retrieval)

Reasonable Reasonably Some errors (in use of language) Some Some support and guidance

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Descriptor Straightforward (document retrieval)

Meaning There are no obvious problems with the following: document format; unclear file names; multiple copies of the same document; failure to use sub-folders; sub-folders that are poorly named or not stored in a logical place; other relevant issues. Vague and poorly expressed – not clear and specific.

Unclear

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
The following table identifies the PLTS that have been included within the assessment criteria of this unit. Skill Reflective learners Team workers When learners are … Reviewing the teamworking activity, assessing themselves [RL1] and responding to feedback [RL4]. Working as part of a team, collaborating with others to work towards the team goals [TW1] showing fairness and consideration to others [TW4]. Carrying out administrative tasks, organising time and resources [SM3].

Self-managers

Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning.

Skill Independent enquirers

When learners are … Identifying and clarifying which problems have to be resolved in order to succeed at the teamworking task [IE1]; researching the administration in an organisation, exploring its value from the perspective of different parts of an organisation [IE3]. Working as part of a team, trying out alternative approaches [CT5] and recognising the need to adapt their behaviour and styles of communication with different team members [CT6]. Preparing for the team activity, setting goals and success criteria for the task [RL2]; reviewing progress at the end of the teamworking task [RL3]. Reaching agreements and managing discussions while taking part in a team activity [TW2]; taking responsibility for the team’s success, showing confidence in themselves [TW5]; working as part of a team, providing constructive support and feedback to others [TW6]. Showing flexibility when performing reception duties by responding as circumstances change [SM1]; working as part of a team, showing commitment and perseverance to achieving the goals [SM2]. Working as part of a team, presenting a persuasive case for action [EP2], proposing practical ways forward [EP3] and trying to influence others [EP5].

Creative thinkers

Reflective learners

Team workers

Self-managers

Effective participators

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Functional skills — Level 1
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Interact with and use ICT systems independently to meet needs Use ICT to plan work and evaluate their use of ICT systems Manage information storage Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently to meet needs Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • • text and tables images numbers graphs records Creating word-processed business documents. Creating word-processed business documents. Creating word-processed business documents. Researching different business roles that require administrative skills. Carrying out reception duties. Creating business documents. Ensuring organisational procedures are met when using office equipment and systems. When learners are …

Bring together information to suit content and purpose Present information in ways that are fit for purpose and audience Evaluate the selection and use of ICT tools and facilities used to present information Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, independently, responsibly and effectively

Sending faxes. Sending and receiving emails.

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LEVEL 1 UNIT 2: BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, TEAMS AND COMMUNICATION

Skill Mathematics Understand practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations, some of which are nonroutine Identify and obtain necessary information to tackle the problem Select and apply mathematics in an organised way to find solutions to practical problems for different purposes Use appropriate checking procedures at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems, drawing simple conclusions and giving explanations English Speaking and listening – take full part in formal and informal discussions/exchanges Reading – read and understand a range of texts Writing – write documents to communicate information, ideas and opinions using formats and styles suitable for their purpose and audience

When learners are …

Taking telephone messages. Dealing with visitors. Taking part in a team activity.

Creating word-processed business documents.

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Work experience Work experience connected to this unit would useful, especially in relation to using office equipment. Specialist resources Centres need to have access to a range of office equipment and systems for learners to practise and develop their administrative skills, which may be in the form of a model office comprising a desk, computer, printer, telephone. However, centres do not need the more specialist types of equipment eg scanners, binders etc, which might be available in the centre’s admin office or through a visit to a local business. Reference material Books Ashley V and Ashley S – Student Handbook Level 1 (Business and Administration Standards) (Council for Administration, 2006) ISBN 0955092027 Carysforth C and Neild M – Administration NVQ Level 1: Student Handbook (Heinemann, 2002) ISBN 0435451685 Evans-Pritchard J, Bywaters B, Glaser T and Mayer L – GNVQ Foundation and Intermediate Business (Longman, 2000) ISBN 0582406331 Websites www.businessballs.com www.cfa.uk.com www.hse.gov.uk Resource for team activities The Council for Administration Health and Safety Executive

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LEVEL 1 UNIT 3: PERSONAL FINANCE AND FINANCIAL SERVICES

Unit 3: Personal Finance and Financial Services
Principal Learning unit Level 1 Guided Learning Hours: 30 Externally assessed
(29 hours learning time and 1 hour for assessment)

About this unit

‘The art is not in making money, but in keeping it’ – Proverb Money is often given as one of the main reasons why we work for a living. We all need to manage our personal finances well, and this unit shows you how to do this. ‘Personal finance’ is to do with financial decisions that are made by individuals and families about their money. In this unit you will learn about money and how it is used. Learning how to make financial decisions will help you manage your own money more efficiently. To make these decisions you will need to obtain advice and information. In this unit you will therefore learn about ‘financial services’ and how they can help you make decisions about your finances such as how to make choices about different bank accounts that suit your needs. This means that you’ll be well equipped to keep in control of your money and make it work for you.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 Know the main types, features and sources of money Understand the importance of avoiding debt Know how to plan personal finances Know how to choose and use current and savings accounts.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Know the main types, features and sources of money We use money to buy and sell goods or services. In order for us to use it efficiently, we need to know what ‘money’ is. You will need to learn about: • Money as a method of settling payments; the whole and its parts (eg £1 = 100p); concept of ‘legal tender’; types (cash, cheque, debit cards, credit cards, credit) Money and ‘near money’: key features of cash (watermark, metallic strip, signature, other security features, portable, durable); types of ‘near money’ (loyalty cards, vouchers, travellers’ cheques, e-money, railcards, season and other prepaid tickets, savings stamps) Key features of other types of money: cheques (how used, relationship to current account); credit cards (how used, length of credit, statement and payment); debit cards (contrast with credit cards as a method of purchase, role in relation to personal accounts); store and other forms of credit (types, availability, how accessed, typical costs) Sources of money: banks and other lenders; state benefits; personal sources (earned income, inheritance, selling, borrowing and using savings).

LO.2

You will need to learn about why debt management is important: Understand the importance • to avoid legal action and/or repossession of avoiding • to avoid added costs, eg interest payments debt • to maintain a good credit rating.

LO.3

Know how to plan personal finances

We all have to make financial plans and decisions. Factors that affect our financial plans and decisions: • • our age, responsibilities and financial commitments whether we are earning and, if so, how much we are earning.

There are different sources of information, depending on the advice we need: • • • • • Citizens Advice Bureau (free financial information and advice) banks and building societies (advice on own products and services) independent financial advisors Department for Work and Pensions (advice on benefits and entitlements) publications, telephone and internet sources: eg Which?, National Debtline, www.moneyfacts.co.uk, www.moneyexpert.com.

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You will need to learn about budgeting to help you manage your money: • • what a personal budget is, how it is constructed and its key elements recording your income and expenditure, eg using an expenditure diary, using financial records such as monthly bills handling budget surpluses and budget shortfalls.

• LO.4 Know how to choose and use current and savings accounts

More and more of us use ‘high street’ banks and building societies to look after our money. These businesses offer many financial services to us, including current accounts and savings accounts. From the point of view of a customer, you will need to learn about: • whether to store or save money: at home; in a bank or building society; investing in property/valuables/other products the main providers: banks and building societies; telephone and internet banking how to choose a provider: individual need, location accessibility and convenience; interest/borrowing costs and charges; influence of supporting products (cash/debit card, cheque and paying-in books, regular statements); availability of services (local ATM, telephone/internet banking, student facilities, overdraft) current and savings accounts: opening and managing; features, rewards and benefits; financial calculations of interest and borrowing charges opening a current or savings account: eligibility, eg age; proof of identity and why proof is needed (fraud/money laundering); completion of application form; signature and account identification (bank, branch and account numbers) managing, paying and/or withdrawing money: at the counter; use of direct debits, standing orders and Bacs; use of ATMs and pin numbers; telephone/internet/postal banking protection against fraud and theft: by the organisation, eg customer verification, secure internet connections using https protocol; by the account holder, eg keeping pin numbers secret, secure storage and disposal of documents.

• •

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance The purpose of this unit is to allow learners to develop their knowledge and understanding of personal finance and the main local financial services that will influence them. Although all learners will be using money in their everyday lives, they will need to understand what ‘money’ is: as a concept, its types or forms, its purpose and sources. Learners will be taught the main factors that affect personal financial planning, and be introduced to the main sources of information available to them at home or in their local area. They will learn the importance of debt avoidance and be introduced to simple financial planning (budgeting) in order to help them plan their future financial needs. Most learners will either have a current and/or savings account, or will require one in the near future. As a result, they will need to be taught about the nature, purposes and differences relating to such accounts, how they are selected, opened and managed, and their associated costs and benefits. Learners will also study the basic ways that fraud and theft can be avoided both personally and organisationally, and the importance of balancing risk against reward when making financial judgements. Delivery guidance for LO.1 Learners will have experience of money in their everyday lives. To achieve this learning outcome they will need to (accepting the inevitable constraints of confidentiality) focus on their own experiences of earning, spending and saving money, and to reflect on their present understanding of what money is and its characteristics. Case studies of individuals, families and local organisations will allow learners to relate their learning to their everyday experiences, to discuss their findings and to appreciate the extent to which individual financial circumstances and needs differ. Delivery guidance for LO.2 This outcome leads into LO.3 by first establishing why it is important to avoid debt. Of course, debt is often unavoidable, and is often easily managed, such as when people borrow money to finance large purchases; the emphasis here is on avoiding debt that cannot be managed, and so ‘debt’ here is interpreted to mean being unable to pay back money that is owed, getting behind on repayments, etc. This leads naturally into the next learning outcome, where learners find out about ways of planning their finances to avoid this happening. Delivery guidance for LO.3 Learners will now be in a position to undertake a simple analysis leading to individual financial decisions, and the factors that affect this planning. To do so, they will need to be introduced to the different sources of information available locally to individuals, such as banks, building societies, publications and web-based sources. Visits to, or guest speakers from, these local financial organisations will allow learners to experience the realities of financial advice. Research using the internet and paper-based publications is also appropriate: see the ‘Reference material’ section at the end of this unit. There are substantial opportunities here for developing communication (in particular, listening and reading) and teamwork skills and for promoting the use of ICT.

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All learners will, in practice, budget, even though they may not be familiar with the term. Learners can use their own experience of planning as a basis to reflect on the importance of personal financial planning in terms of, for example, avoiding getting into debt. Figures can be used to good effect by allowing learners to experience situations that lead to debts being created, and the related financial effect, so there will be particular opportunity both here and in budget construction to develop number-based skills. Learners should be introduced to a reasonably formal budget construction and layout, for example headings of Inflow, Outflow (or Receipts and Payments), Net inflow/outflow and Balance – and be given a range of situations. It is important for the learners to be able to draw simple conclusions, based on their calculations, concerning both deficits and surpluses, the latter acting as a good link to the later consideration of savings as well as to Unit 1: Business Enterprise. Delivery guidance for LO.4 Many learners will be familiar with banks and building societies from personal experience, but this experience will need to be strengthened and broadened by investigating a range of such organisations and the current and savings accounts they offer. Although there is a link with LO.1, the focus here is more on the ‘mechanics’ of the accounts rather than on the institutions and the advice they offer. Even if they already have relevant accounts, learners should go through the experience of comparing and selecting from a range of actual accounts, and then completing real paperwork (which is usually readily available in bank and building society literature). There will be a number of opportunities for promoting ICT through research into the financial institutions’ products, and to develop teamwork and communication skills. All learners will be familiar with the importance of taking care of their cash, but they are likely to be less conversant with wider issues of fraud and theft. Existing experience of, for example, part-time retail employment and how the organisation controls theft and fraud can probably be discussed to good effect, and a visiting speaker from (say) a bank will act as a suitable information source.

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Learning outcomes and assessment criteria
Learning outcome number LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 Learning outcome The learner should: Know the main types, features and sources of money Understand the importance of avoiding debt Know how to plan personal finances Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Identify the types, features and sources of money in everyday situations 2.1 Explain why it is important to avoid getting into debt 3.1 Identify how sources of financial information and advice can be used to help make financial decisions 3.2 Construct simple budgets for personal use LO.4 Know how to choose and use current and savings accounts 4.1 Outline how to open and manage current and savings accounts, taking account of the account provider’s information requirements, costs, charges and benefits 4.2 Select an appropriate current account and a savings account, based on the account’s features and calculations of interest 4.3 Outline common security measures taken to protect against fraud and theft

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Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed by an examination lasting one hour, containing a range of questions. The mark you achieve for this examination will be your mark for the unit.

Learning outcomes — assessment weighting Learning outcome LO.1 Know the main types, features and sources of money Range of weighting (% age) 25–35%

LO.2 Understand the importance of avoiding debt

2.5–12.5%

LO.3 Know how to plan personal finances

20–30%

LO.4 Know how to choose and use current and savings accounts

30–40%

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) Although PLTS are not identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning. (Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements.) Skill Independent enquirers When learners are … Exploring debt from the point of view of the consumer of the financial institution [IE3]; analysing and evaluating information about personal finance and financial services, judging its relevance and value to their own circumstances [IE4]. Asking questions about financial products and services to extend their thinking [CT2]; considering the merits of different products/services in a given situation [CT5]. Reviewing their own progress in becoming more financially aware [RL3]. Organising time and resources when constructing personal budgets [SM3]; anticipating and managing risks when constructing personal budgets by building in contingencies [SM4]. Discussing issues of concern such as debt management [EP1]; proposing practical ways forward when planning expenditure, breaking these down into manageable steps [EP3].

Creative thinkers

Reflective learners Self-managers

Effective participators

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Functional skills — Level 1
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Interact with and use ICT systems independently to meet needs Use ICT to plan work and evaluate their use of ICT systems Manage information storage Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently to meet needs Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • • text and tables images numbers graphs records Bringing together cash inflows and outflows; comparing current and savings accounts. Constructing budgets. Researching into banks and building societies, current and savings accounts. Selecting current and savings accounts. Researching banks and building societies, current and savings accounts. Preparing spreadsheet budgets. Saving and retrieving text-based and numerical (budget) information. Exploring issues relating to electronic fraud and theft; undertake safe practice when using internet and other relevant software/hardware. When learners are …

Bring together information to suit content and purpose Present information in ways that are fit for purpose and audience Evaluate the selection and use of ICT tools and facilities used to present information Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, independently, responsibly and effectively

Obtaining web-based information about current and savings accounts.

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Skill Mathematics Understand practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations, some of which are nonroutine Identify and obtain necessary information to tackle the problem Select and apply mathematics in an organised way to find solutions to practical problems for different purposes Use appropriate checking procedures at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems, drawing simple conclusions and giving explanations English Speaking and listening – take full part in formal and informal discussions/exchanges Reading – read and understand a range of texts Writing – write documents to communicate information, ideas and opinions using formats and styles suitable for their purpose and audience

When learners are …

Dealing with budgeted figures; calculating interest and borrowing amounts and other charges.

Obtaining budgeted information from existing spending and income statements; selecting relevant interest percentages. Constructing budgets; calculating interest and borrowing amounts.

Totalling budget columns and rows and cross-checking; checking the logic of interest and borrowing calculations. Interpreting budgeted, interest and borrowing results.

Discussing and exchanging information about banks and building societies, current and savings accounts; discussing informally results of research with fellow learners. Reading and understanding literature from banks and building societies. Completing documents relating to current and savings accounts; creating budget statements.

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Specialist resources None. Reference material Book Lowe J – Personal Finance Handbook, 2nd edition (Child Poverty Action Group, 2007) ISBN 1906076014 Other resources Colossal Cards Financial Products resource pack Money-go-round CD ROM Money power CD ROM Moneytalk CD ROM Websites www.adviceonline.co.uk www.fool.co.uk www.getsafeonline.org www.home.co.uk/finance www.moneyfacts.co.uk www.moneymadeclear.fsa.gov.uk www.moneysavingexpert.com www.nationaldebtline.co.uk www.uk250.co.uk/Bank/index.html www.unbiased.co.uk Advice Online: independent financial advice The Motley Fool: financial advice and information Get Safe Online: government-sponsored site Home.co.uk: information about financial products Moneyfacts Group Financial Services Authority Martin Lewis National Debtline UK bank websites Independent Financial Advice Promotion Ltd Basic Skills Agency Basic Skills Agency Basic Skills Agency Basic Skills Agency Basic Skills Agency

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LEVEL 1 UNIT 4: SALES AND CUSTOMER SERVICE IN BUSINESS

Unit 4: Sales and Customer Service in Business
Principal Learning unit Level 1 Guided Learning Hours: 60 Internally assessed

About this unit

Customers are the lifeblood of any business. Businesses need to ensure that the needs of the customer are paramount in their organisation. They need to consider both sales and customer service. The customer should be satisfied by getting the product that they want at the right price. Modern businesses seek to add value and attract customers away from competitors by providing customer service that is second to none. You will learn about the principles and practice of customer service. You will investigate why businesses need to offer good customer service and how they go about doing so, as well as having a chance to put your own skills into practice when dealing with customer enquiries. At the same time, you will learn about, and practise, the skills involved in making a sale.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 Know the role of sales and customer services in a business Know how organisations provide effective service to customers Understand the importance for organisations of providing effective service to customers Be able to interact with customers.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Know the role of sales and customer services in a business Customers are vital to business. It is important to take care of customer concerns and enquiries by providing effective customer service. You need to learn about different roles performed by people who work in sales: • • • • • selling a product or service communicating product information to customers and potential customers supporting customers through the buying process organising sales promotions keeping customer records up to date.

You need to learn about some of the different sales methods that can be used: • • • • personal selling: face-to-face, in store, door-to-door telesales online sales direct mail.

You need to learn about the roles of people who provide services to customers and common customer service procedures: • • • • LO.2 Know how organisations provide effective service to customers providing information about products and services supporting customers through the buying process after-sales care and support, short-term and long-term, such as replacing damaged goods, arranging repairs dealing with enquiries and complaints.

In order to satisfy customers’ needs, organisations need to understand their customers. You need to learn about how customers can vary according to: • • • whether they are new or repeat customers individual characteristics: age, gender, income, education special needs: disabilities and impairments, speakers of English as a second language.

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Organisations need to know what differentiates between poor, adequate and excellent customer service and the relevant factors: • • • • • the accuracy of information provided the speed of response: time taken to answer emails, phone calls how easy it is to get through to the right person how knowledgeable the sales/customer service representative is, eg about the product, organisational procedures how responsive the service is, eg whether a customer service representative is willing to take responsibility to solve a problem the appropriateness of a product/service for the customer how pleasant and friendly the service is.

• •

In order to provide effective service to customers, organisations need to make sure that they: • • • • LO.3 Understand the importance for organisations of providing effective service to customers have trained staff that understand the importance of providing good customer service make sure that correct procedures are followed have a system that allows them to monitor how effective their customer service is understand and follow their legal obligations towards customers.

You need to learn why it is important to provide good service to customers: • • • • to promote customer loyalty and result in repeat business to attract new customers to reduce complaints and negative publicity to contribute to the success of the organisation.

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LO.4

Be able to interact with customers

At some point most businesses have to interact with their customers. You need to learn about different types of routine enquiries that employees have to deal with: • • • • • • asking if product or service is available asking for information about the performance or specification of a product or service asking the price of a product or service asking for directions to the business asking opening or closing times asking to exchange a product.

Personal selling is important to many businesses. You need to learn about the basic steps involved in making a sale: • preparation:
○ ○ ○ ○

understanding the product and pricing preparing the physical environment understanding your potential customers deciding how to approach the customers

• • • •

making initial contact with the customer finding out what the customer wants presenting them with a solution closing the sale.

You need to learn about what is required when making a sale or dealing with customer enquiries: • a positive attitude: in a sales situation (approachable, motivated to sell); in a customer service situation (polite, willing to take responsibility) verbal communication skills:
○ ○ ○

listening skills ability to give information in a sales situation, eg describing a product/service ability to give information in a customer service situation, eg answering questions, explaining policies, summarising information; knowing what to do if a query cannot be answered appropriate tone of voice, pace and clarity ability to adapt your delivery depending on the customer effective body language, eg open posture, use of eye contact ability to adapt your body language depending on the customer.

○ ○

non-verbal communication skills
○ ○

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance This unit is 60 guided learning hours (GLH) in length. Centres should allocate this amount of time within the timetable for its delivery and assessment. Unless otherwise stated, all of the content included in the What you need to learn section needs to be taught. Sometimes an ‘eg’ or ‘for example’ is included in order to show content that is indicative: in these cases not all of the examples will need to be covered (for example, because some may not always apply in a particular situation), and tutors can introduce other examples of their own that are relevant to particular situations and to the needs of their learners. Delivery guidance for LO.1 This learning outcome covers sales and customer service activities that occur in any organisation, not just businesses. Most learners will have experience of ‘sales’ as a customer, as a witness to a sale, or through work experience or part-time employment. It is important to emphasise that although sales may appear to be relatively casual, relaxed, even easy, it will be the salesperson’s skills and experience that makes it appear so – to put the customer in the right frame of mind for the sale to take place. Discussion within the learners’ group will elicit a range of different sales experiences that can be explored, and any sales experiences missing can then be filled in. It would also be worth inviting a sales manager from a local organisation to give a demonstration of sales techniques to the learners. Sales managers from retail, estate agency, car showrooms, manufacturing organisations, etc will each have different experiences but in the main will follow a relatively standard sales process. Organisations that use online, telesales or direct mail may also be available locally. Most organisations involved in sales will have someone who is responsible for sales training. Learners are more likely to gain more practical hints and tips from a visit if you can manage to get hold of a sales trainer. Similarly, how customer service is viewed and delivered will be different for different organisations, and like sales, how it is organised will be down to the needs of the organisation itself and the market in which it operates. In general terms customer service is usually viewed as the responsibility of all employees in an organisation, so any employee who learners contact, or meet as a visiting speaker, should be able to inform learners how they, personally, put customer service into practice. However, tutors will also find that some organisations have dedicated and named ‘customer service departments’, having a specific role within the organisation. Staff employed in these departments or employed in a customer service role are likely to give learners a more focussed, but also more narrowly-defined, definition of ‘customer service’ than the average employee. For all sections in LO.1, personal observation or experience, placed in the context of the learning, will be of great value. Learners should be able to get useful information and support from a local organisation where they have a personal contact, eg family member, friend, parttime employment, etc that they can interview and use as a source of ‘real life’ information. Personal contact will be key for the learner when working on this unit as learners will be able to tailor their research to meet the precise needs of the unit. Personal contacts in an organisation are more likely to be able to provide information and insight into their sales methods, and the role carried out by their customer service department. In contrast, large national or international organisations where information is only available from websites are likely to be less useful. While basic facts such as customer service statements, mission statements, and facts about sales and the size of teams may be useful background information, the general nature of most information on company websites is not likely to be sufficient for learners to gain much knowledge, and they will certainly gain no experience from this source. If learners find it difficult to make personal contact direct with local organisations, they could make contact with 77

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their local Business Link organisation for advice and support. Business Link organisations will be in regular contact with local businesses, they will also have contacts with local business advisers who may also be able to provide additional support for learners. Delivery guidance for LO.2 and LO.3 It would make sense to integrate the delivery of LO.2 with LO.3, so that learners gain an understanding not only of the features of good service, but also why this is important. Understanding how customers, and their needs, can vary can be quite challenging. However, the point can be illustrated quite explicitly by showing learners how they themselves can be grouped, or divided, by some of the different criteria used by sales and customer service operations. When researching how customers can be grouped, the concept of new customers and repeat customers is quite straightforward. Recognising individual customer characteristics is a way of grouping customers so that organisations can identify and build up a picture of which types of customers they have, which types of customer they would like to have, which are the most important to their business, and which types are less important. This can help the business in many ways, including: to provide the products and services that are wanted and expected by the majority of its customers, to target marketing and advertising more precisely, to train staff to meet the needs of customers better. The main customer characteristics that an organisation is likely to use include: • Age – depending on the organisation this could be as simple as grouping young persons and older persons; pre-school, school age, over-18, or retired customers. More sophisticated classification by age could be: under 14s, 14-19s, 20-29, 30-39, 40-50, 50-59, over 60s years. Gender – male or female. Income group, to identify high and lower earners, such as: under £10,000 p.a., £10,001 to £20,000, £20,001 to £30,000, over £30,000. Education – this classification usually groups people based on the highest level of education that they have attained eg GCSE, GCE, university degree.

• • •

As well as these individual characteristics, customers can be grouped depending on any special needs that they may have. Grouping by special need would take into account any disabilities and impairments, speakers of English as a second language, or any other need that requires expert or specialist support. In this unit learners are not expected have a detailed understanding of how customer characteristics are used. However, they should be able to recognise and describe commonlyused customer characteristics, and use this knowledge to improve how they handle their own customer interactions by tailoring their response more precisely to the needs of each customer. There is a good chance that each learner will have been on the receiving end of customer service, whether they realise it or not. It would be worth exploring learners’ experiences in a range of different situations and getting them to discuss and share with others what made the customer service experience good or bad for them – and whether their experience of customer service has changed their views about an organisation, whether it has put them off or will encourage them to use its services again.

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How organisations provide customer service can be investigated using remote research, but field research in the form of visits will make the subject come alive. The obligations of organisations and employees towards customers may be dictated by industry standard, regulation or sometimes by an organisation’s mission statement, but it will be consumer protection legislation in all of its many forms that sets the ultimate standard. Legislation need not be a dry subject. The Trading Standards organisation produces a wide range of accessible material to put across the basics of consumer protection legislation, from the point of view of both business and the consumer. Learners can access this information readily from a Trading Standards website, or contact local Trading Standards officers who are often willing to share their knowledge and experience. As in LO.1, the choice of organisations contacted for information and support on customer service can have a great bearing on the quality of information provided and, consequently, the quality of learning that takes place. For organisations that are used for research, the learner will need to not only investigate what customer services are in place, but to show that they know what makes each customer service identified effective – from the point of view of the organisation as well as the customer. How well the learner can do this will again depend on the relationship they have established with the organisation, which in turn comes back to their choice of organisation in the first place. The more remote the organisation, the more difficult it will be to find information about customer service that is not superficial or general. If learners choose an organisation that is local or has easy access for the kind of research and investigation, then they will find the task easier. The advice given for LO.1 on how to choose an appropriate organisation and how to get the most out of the organisation that they choose will apply equally to the learner’s work for LO.2 and LO.3. Delivery guidance for LO.4 Good preparation is the key to success in this part of the unit. Learners need to understand and practise the basic steps involved in making a sale. For the sales skills, it may be helpful to practise with a sales script, something that they can learn and rehearse before being placed in front of real customers. This will give them confidence. They could work in pairs to practise and then review how well they have done, drawing lessons from this to apply the next time they practise, as part of the experiential learning cycle. Part-time jobs could give learners opportunities to develop their skills at both sales and dealing with customer enquiries. Practising a sales script in front of a mirror may sound strange to some learners, but this can be a good way for them to see how their body language interacts with the verbal language of the script. The script itself should be one that the learner has developed themselves, one that applies directly to the product that they have chosen for their sales demonstrations. But what are they going to sell? Some learners may already be working in a sales situation by virtue of part-time jobs or family businesses. If not, then a sales situation could be developed in centres using product from enterprise schemes. An alternative could be to sell the facilities, services or courses offered by the centre itself. What ever is being sold, the learner will need to be familiar with and understand the product and the pricing. Like making sales, success in handling customer service enquiries will come from confidence. This, in turn, comes from learning and practicing the customer service process, and understanding the services and standards being operated by the organisation that they are representing. Role play is a very useful way of allowing learners to practise their customer service skills before they are assessed. Role-play scenarios could be developed from learners’ own experiences on the receiving end of customer service. If this is not a good source then learners could be encouraged to investigate classic or stereotypical scenarios that have been experienced by the customer service team at the centre itself, or at places where learners have part-time jobs. Another very useful source for examples of customer service scenarios would be to invite visiting speakers who are work in customer a service role, asking them to provide classic examples of situations when customer service needs to be provided. 79

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Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed by an assignment connected to sales and customer service, in two stages. You will need to: • Research an organisation. This will involve looking at an organisation which sells a product/service and outlining the roles of people who work in sales and those who provide services to customers [LO.1]; identifying the characteristics of its customers and the ways in which it does/does not provide effective service to its customers [LO.2]; and explaining why it is important that it provides effective service to its customers [LO.3] Show you can deal with customers. This will involve you demonstrating your sales and communication skills and how well prepared you are when making a sale; and answering routine customer enquiries face-to-face and over the telephone [LO.4].

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Assessment information for assessors
Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments This unit must be covered by a single assignment, which is described in the How you will be assessed section, and exemplified within the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Sector-relevant purpose Any sales or sales/customer-service setting will provide learners with a sector-relevant purpose for completing their assignment. The assignment could be based on the learners’ own enterprise or some other business, real or simulated. (See also below, Guidance for Assessment.) Evidence structure Learning outcome LO.1 Marking grid A Activity/section Research Evidence Written evidence: sales and customer services roles performed Written evidence: customer characteristics and effectiveness of service provided Written evidence: importance of customer service Customer interactions Learner observation record: preparation* and customer handling skills

LO.2

A

LO.3 LO.4

A B

* Preparation will be assessed indirectly during the interactions Level of demand The level of demand appropriate to the assessment of this unit is exemplified in the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Assessment duration The suggested guided learning hours (GLH) needed to complete this assignment is 6 hours per learner. Centres can structure assessment time as they see fit. Centres should note that the total class assessment time may need to be higher to allow time for separate observations of individuals in LO.4. Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments The learners must be provided with full access to study all of the areas identified in the What you need to learn section of the specification. Controls relating to resources and supervision are contained within Annexe E of this specification. Group work is permitted at the research stage. Learners can also work together when interacting with customers (ie as ‘colleagues’), but evidence must be based on individual learners’ interactions. The review stage must be completed individually.

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The customer interactions must involve answering customer enquiries face-to-face and over the telephone. They must demonstrate their sales skills with at least three customers in total, which could be done face-to-face, on the telephone or both. Summary of unit controls Setting
Limited

Time
Limited

Resources
Limited

Supervision
Medium

Collaboration
Limited

Marking
Medium

See Annexe E for further information. Guidance for assessment Assessment could take place in two stages corresponding to the two stages of the assessment process, after the relevant learning has taken place. Alternatively all assessment could take place at the end of the unit. The organisation that the learners use in the research stage should be one of sufficient size so that it has a range of well established customer service procedures. Retailers which rely primarily on self-service and customer-operated self-scanning checkouts should be avoided where possible as this will provide limited opportunities to investigate the role of sales and sales methods. If the organisation sells products/services that are similar to what the learners will be trying to sell in their customer interactions, then so much the better. Tutors can guide learners as to the most appropriate way of gathering this information. Preparation for the sales process should include familiarising themselves with the product and pricing as well as being ready to deal with routine enquiries they may face. If the interactions are assessed via a role play (see below), learners could: • • • be given information on the product/business, which they will need to use during the interactions find out information, eg about a real product/business or, if the product/service being sold is linked to the product/service in Unit 1: Business Enterprise the information could be decided by the learners themselves, in which case the learner will need to supply this information to the tutor before the interaction begins.

Evidence of the customer interactions could be gathered during one or several sessions. The context in which the customer interactions take place could be connected to the learners’ own business enterprise (possibly as an extension to this activity if it has already finished). It could also be done in a real workplace, for example through a part-time job or on work experience. Alternatively, a scenario could be developed by the centre and assessed through a role play based on either a real or imaginary business situation, in which case, the ‘customers’ should not be learners in the same class. Centres could also use other real selling activities, including courses, qualifications, tuition services, membership to the library/sports clubs etc, food in the canteen, stationery, tickets for an event, extra-curricular activities, support for fundraising activities, attendance at meetings, recordings of the choir, items produced by other courses, such as artwork, food, gifts, etc. The customer enquiries could be done at the same time as the sales or they could be separate, but if the latter, the enquiries should relate to the same overall business situation. Learners should be assessed on their ability to deal with customer enquiries that are routine; they may in fact, be faced with non-routine enquiries (eg complaints or problems), but at this level, this should not be assessed. There are six listed in What you need to learn; if any are not observed, then the tutor should take on the role of customer to ask them.

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Similarly, the sales skills that should be assessed at this level are those used in straightforward selling situations: where the customer is willing, prepared and expecting to make a purchase, but who need more information to help them decide. Learners may have to deal with customers who are not willing, prepared and expecting to make a purchase, but they should not be assessed on those interactions. Learners may find it helpful to use and practise with a sales script, but if so, it should be one that the learner has developed and prepared themselves.

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Marking grid A
Mark Band 2 The learner outlines the roles performed by people who work in sales and people who provide services to customers. (4–6) The learner identifies customers, describing their characteristics. (7–8) The learner identifies customers, fully and clearly describing their characteristics. 8 The learner outlines clearly the roles performed by people who work in sales and people who provide services to customers. Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus

Mark Band 1

LO.1 Know the role of sales and customer services in a business

The learner briefly outlines some of the roles performed by people who work in sales and people who provide services to customers.

(0–3)

LO.2(.1) Know how organisations provide effective service to customers (3–4) The learner identifies, with examples, ways in which the organisation does or does not provide effective service. (5–6)

The learner identifies customers, listing a few characteristics.

(0–2)

LO.2(.2) Know how organisations provide effective service to customers (5–7) The learner explains briefly why effective customer service is important. Reasons why are given. (8–10)

The learner briefly identifies a few ways in which the organisation does or does not provide effective service.

The learner identifies, with clear and well chosen examples, ways in which the organisation does or does not provide effective service.

(0–4)

16 The learner explains why effective customer service is important. Clear reasons why are given.

LO.3 Understand the importance for organisations of providing effective service to customers (3–4)

The learner states that effective customer service is important. There is limited evidence provided to support this.

(0–2)

(5–6)

6 Total marks 30

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Marking grid B
Mark Band 2 Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus From the way that the learner interacts with customers, it is clear that there has been adequate preparation for the sale. (3–4) The learner demonstrates reasonable communication skills in a sales context, and they demonstrate a reasonably positive attitude. They are able to give adequate information about a product/service. (6–9) The learner shows reasonable ability to deal with routine customer enquiries, answering them successfully and with a reasonably positive attitude. (6–9) (10–12) The learner shows good ability to deal with routine customer enquiries, answering them successfully and efficiently and with a positive attitude. (10–12) 30 Total marks 30 (5–6) The learner demonstrates good communication skills in a sales context, and they demonstrate a positive attitude. They are able to give detailed information about a product/service. From the way that the learner interacts with customers, it is clear that there has been good preparation for the sale.

Mark Band 1

LO.4(.1)

Be able to interact with customers

From the way that the learner interacts with customers, it is clear that there has been limited preparation for the sale.

(0–2)

LO.4(.2, .3)

Be able to interact with customers

The learner demonstrates limited communication skills in a sales context.

They are able to give basic information about a product/service.

(0–5)

LO.4(.4)

Be able to interact with customers

The learner shows limited ability to deal with routine customer enquiries. Some of them are answered successfully.

(0–5)

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Assessment guidance
Using the marking grid • • Each internally assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total. In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B. Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s). The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus. If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band. If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band. If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band. Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking. A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark. Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts. Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

• •

• •

• •

• •

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Level 1 descriptors
Descriptor Adequate Basic Brief/briefly Characteristics (of customers) Meaning Only just sufficient. Limited to the fundamental features, elements or facts. Short, lacking detail. As listed in What you need to learn: individual characteristics, special needs (if any) and whether customers are new or repeat (if known and relevant). Well expressed, easy to understand or see. Provide information that includes relevant features, elements, facts, etc. Showing thoroughness. Able to both understand the customer’s requirements and to satisfy them quickly and with a minimum of effort. Provide reasons for a decision, feature, etc. One or two. Complete/completely. To a high level or degree. Mention the key elements, facts, features, etc. Incomplete or having a narrow scope; shows only basic ability or understanding. Provide the information as separate, individual points rather than in continuous prose. Set out main characteristics, give an overview of the main features. In a sales situation: approachable and motivated to sell; when dealing with customer enquiries: polite and willing to take responsibility. Three or more. Moderate or average. Somewhat, fairly. Incomplete, not all. Assert, make a statement, express in unequivocal terms without evidence or explanation. Dealing with the query or enquiry to the apparent satisfaction of the customer, and the organisation. Chosen in such a way that it provides support for the argument; a good example.

Clear/clearly Describe/description Detail/detailed Efficiently (dealing with enquiries) Explain/explanation A few Full/fully Good/well Identify Limited List/listed Outline Positive attitude

A range Reasonable Reasonably Some State Successfully (answering enquiries) Well chosen (examples)

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
The following table identifies the PLTS that have been included within the assessment criteria of this unit.

Skill Effective participators

When learners are … Trying to influence others while demonstrating sales skills [EP5].

Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning.

Skill Independent enquirers

When learners are … Looking at the importance of customer service from different perspectives: the organisation and the customer [IE3]; considering the influence of circumstances on the customer service provided [IE5]. Considering their own experience of receiving customer service [RL5]. Showing commitment and perseverance in dealing with customer enquiries [SM2]. Discussing issues of concern while demonstrating sales and customer service skills [EP1]; presenting a persuasive case for action when demonstrating sales skills [EP2].

Reflective learners Self-managers Effective participators

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Functional skills — Level 1
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Interact with and use ICT systems independently to meet needs Use ICT to plan work and evaluate their use of ICT systems Manage information storage Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently to meet needs Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • • text and tables images numbers graphs records When learners are …

Bring together information to suit content and purpose Present information in ways that are fit for purpose and audience Evaluate the selection and use of ICT tools and facilities used to present information Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, independently, responsibly and effectively

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Skill Mathematics Understand practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations, some of which are nonroutine Identify and obtain necessary information to tackle the problem Select and apply mathematics in an organised way to find solutions to practical problems for different purposes Use appropriate checking procedures at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems, drawing simple conclusions and giving explanations English Speaking and listening – take full part in formal and informal discussions/exchanges Reading – read and understand a range of texts Writing – write documents to communicate information, ideas and opinions using formats and styles suitable for their purpose and audience

When learners are …

Learning about pricing information related to a product that they are preparing to sell.

Handing simple customer enquiries. Demonstrating sales skills.

Writing a report on a sales and customer service function in an organisation of their choice.

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Work experience There is no requirement for work experience to complete this unit, but learners would benefit from any experience gained in a sales or customer service environment in terms of finding out about how these are delivered in the workplace as well as developing their own skills. The assessment of LO.4 could take place during work experience. Specialist resources None. Reference material Book Evans-Pritchard J, Hancock M, Jones R, Mansfield A and Gray D – AS Level Applied Business for Edexcel Double Award (Causeway Press, 2005) ISBN 1405821159 Websites www.businesslink.gov.uk www.instituteofcustomerservice.com Business Link provides an easy to use support, advice and information service for local businesses. The Institute of Customer Service is the professional body for customer service. Its main purpose is to lead performance and professionalism in customer service. The Market Research Society, professional body supporting the market research industry. The Sector Skills Council for Retail. Trading Standards Central – a one stop shop for consumer protection information in the UK. The site is supported and maintained by TSI, the Trading Standards Institute.

www.mrs.org.uk www.skillsmartretail.com www.tradingstandards.gov.uk

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LEVEL 1 UNIT 5: CAREERS AND EMPLOYMENT IN BUSINESS

Unit 5: Careers and Employment in Business
Principal Learning unit Level 1 Guided Learning Hours: 30 Internally assessed

About this unit

It is important to find a job that you enjoy. Competition for the best jobs is growing stronger, and the more you understand about how to get and keep a good job, the better. But how can you find out more about different jobs? In this unit you will find out about the sources of careers information, and use them to research two different types of job. Many people find themselves a job by using a CV or application form. In this unit you will practise doing this, and also take this to the next stage by preparing for and taking part in an interview. To get and keep a job, you need to understand what skills and attributes are required in the workplace. You will use this to help you set goals for your experience in the workplace, which will enable you to get the most out of your time there. Finally, you will write up what happened in the workplace and think about how successful it was in helping you to meet your goals.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 LO.5 Be able to use sources of job information Know the skills and attributes required in the workplace Be able to prepare for and participate as an interviewee in a job interview Know how to set goals for work experience Be able to record and review experiences in the workplace.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Be able to use sources of job information The employment market is competitive. You need to learn about the sources of information about jobs and careers: • • • • • LO.2 Know the skills and attributes required in the workplace careers advisers company websites and career packs agencies and job centres newspapers: articles, job advertisements careers guidance software.

You need to know the skills and attributes that will help you succeed at work. This will depend on the type of job, eg: • • • • • • • good timekeeping appropriate self-presentation a positive attitude the ability to work in a team good communication skills information technology skills the ability to work with numbers.

LO.3

Be able to prepare for and participate as a an interviewee in a job interview

During your working lifetime you will probably face an interview each time that you change jobs. You need to learn about the preparation and process involved in doing this: • • • • • producing an up-to-date CV and covering letter or application form following interview protocols, eg dress code, punctuality preparing for questions that you may be asked. oral communication skills: responding to questions, listening, voice clarity, tone and pace non-verbal communication skills: body language, posture, eye contact, facial expression.

You need to learn about the skills that are needed at interview:

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LO.4

Know how to set goals for work experience

You need to learn about the process of goal setting for experience in the workplace. This involves identifying: • a starting point: deciding which skills and attributes are relevant for the job you will be doing, eg:
○ ○ ○ ○ ○

attendance and timekeeping ability to work with other people following instructions being motivated knowing about the organisation/industry in which you are working

• • • LO.5 Be able to record and review experiences in the workplace

where you are now: your strengths and weaknesses what to concentrate on: which skills/attributes you want to improve or show you can do goals that can help you do this.

You need to learn about ways of recording and reviewing workplace experiences: • • • • how, eg simple diary when: ongoing/regular updates what: recording own activities, experiences, feelings; collecting and interpreting feedback from others reviewing: identifying things that went well and not so well.

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance This unit is 30 guided learning hours (GLH) in length. Centres should allocate this amount of time within the timetable for its delivery and assessment. The time spent on experience in the workplace, which learners will need to take part in order to complete the assessment (but not the learning) for LO.4 and LO.5, is not considered to be part of the guided learning hours for this unit. Unless otherwise stated, all of the content included in the What you need to learn section needs to be taught. Sometimes an ‘eg’ or ‘for example’ is included in order to show content that is indicative: in these cases not all of the examples will need to be covered (for example, because some may not always apply in a particular situation), and tutors can introduce other examples of their own that are relevant to particular situations and to the needs of their learners. Delivery guidance for LO.1 Delivery should cover the different types and sources of information that can be used to access job information. Careers advisors and local employers could provide an introductory overview on the local job market to encourage learners to think about the jobs that they may wish to do. A good starting point for gathering information will be the jobs section in local newspapers where learners could cut out or photocopy current job vacancies. It is important that they can gather information on local job opportunities which are at the appropriate level. Their own parttime job or a work placement may be a convenient and accessible source of information, particularly if they have current vacancies. If practical, visits to the local jobcentre could provide learners with useful information on pay and conditions on current local job opportunities. The internet is a rich source of information but learners may need some guidance and support to ensure that they remain focussed on appropriate vacancies in the local job market. Delivery guidance for LO.2 A good way to encourage learners to think about the skills and attributes required at work is to ask a workplace provider to talk to them about what they expect from their employees. This can be followed up with a worksheet asking the learners to match their skills to those identified by the workplace provider and to think about themselves in relation to these. Ranking exercises where learners decide on the relative importance of different skills/attributes in different types of job can lead to fruitful and interesting group discussions. Another starting point would be to use fictional representations, such as from television dramas.

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Delivery guidance for LO.3 Learners will need guidance on the format and content of job application documents, in order to show how they have the skills and attributes necessary for a job (which links with LO.2). They should have some practice at completing an application form. For practice purposes, real examples could be obtained from local employers. As well as using hard copies, it would also be useful to practise using online application forms that are readily available. An example or a template of a basic CV and covering letter could be used to provide guidance on what they should include in their own CV. As a starting point for interview preparation, learners could work in small groups to come up with basic questions they think they could ask at an interview. Showing learners a DVD or video of a mock interview and asking them to identify the examples of good or bad practice can be an effective and fun way of introducing them to the importance of body language and interview protocols. As a confidence builder, learners should have the opportunity to practise basic interview techniques prior to the assessed interview; recording learners’ practice interviews for them to watch afterwards could help. Learners are likely to require guidance and regular feedback on their progress in order to develop their interview skills. Local businesses may also be able to help by providing examples of real applications made for particular jobs (with personal identifying information removed). The delivery of this can be linked to Unit 2: Business Administration, Teams and Communication, which includes ways of improving written communication. Delivery guidance for LO.4 At this level, is not necessary to introduce the concept of SMART goal setting, but the concept of goals being at least realistic is important. To prepare learners to set goals, learners can practise by setting goals related to other learning experiences in the school or college or personal goals for the future. Ideally the delivery of this outcome will begin before the experience in the workplace has started, but if the workplace experience is part time, it can be done after it has started as long as there is still time for learners to set their goals and have a realistic chance of achieving them. Delivery guidance for LO.5 Learners will need to be prepared for their workplace experience by learning how to record their experiences in some way, eg using a diary, for which they will need to be prepared (although the diary itself will not be assessed) and what to record. It is important that learners understand that it is much better to keep an ongoing record rather than leave this to the end. Centres can suggest alternative methods of recording experiences, eg video diaries or blogs. It is useful preparation if learners can practise the skills of recording experiences by completing a diary of their learning experiences in school or college so that learners understand which sorts of information is useful to record.

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Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed by an assignment connected to job applications and workplace experience. You will need to: • • • Find out information about two jobs that you would like to do for your workplace experience, saying which one you would prefer to do and why [LO.1] Create job application documents [LO.2, LO.3(.1)], and then prepare for, and take part in, a job interview [LO.3(.2, .3)] Prepare for and reflect on your workplace experience, which will involve:
○ ○

identifying the skills/attributes you want to improve (or show that you have) and setting goals for your workplace experience [LO.4] assessing your workplace experience after it has finished: what you did; what could have gone better and why; and what you think about the feedback you received [LO.5].

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LEVEL 1 UNIT 5: CAREERS AND EMPLOYMENT IN BUSINESS

Assessment information for assessors
Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments This unit must be covered by a single assignment, which is described in the How you will be assessed section, and exemplified within the unit sample assessment material (SAM). The assignment for part of this unit is connected to experience in the workplace. This could be in the form of a placement or it could be a part-time job that the learner is starting or is already doing, but centres will not be able to complete the assessment for this unit without it. The job applied for in the assessment of LO.3 must not be one that they have practised preparing as part of the learning for this unit. Sector-relevant purpose The assignment (and by extension the job in which learners will be doing in LO.4) must be relevant to the Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance. Evidence structure Learning outcome LO.1 LO.2, LO.3(.1) Marking grid A A Activity/section Job information Job application: documents Evidence Written evidence: information about two jobs Written evidence: CV and covering letter or application form Written evidence: questions they think they may be asked Learner observation record: communication skills Written evidence: skills/attributes and goals Written evidence: review of workplace experience; feedback received during workplace experience (not assessed but required to back up learner’s review)

LO.3(.2) LO.3(.3) LO.4 LO.5*

A B A A

Job application: interview preparation Job application: interview Preparation for, and review of, workplace experience

* This part of the assignment is based on learners’ experience at work, but assessment takes place afterwards. Level of demand The level of job-related information in LO.1 is exemplified in the unit sample assessment material (SAM). The job applied for in LO.3 should be a job that is suited to Level 1 learners. The job should be one in which learners would be expected to apply knowledge and skills to compete well-defined routine tasks, managing their own time subject to supervision. Examples of appropriate jobs include: data entry assistant, junior accounts clerk, mail room assistant.

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Assessment duration The suggested guided learning hours (GLH) needed to complete this assignment is 10 hours per learner. Centres can structure this time as they see fit, but it is recommended that the job interview lasts no longer than 15-20 minutes. The suggested GLH for assessment does not include time spent in the workplace. Centres should note that the total class assessment time is likely to be higher to allow time for separate observations of interviews in LO.3. Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments The learners must be provided with full access to study all of the areas identified in the What you need to learn section of the specification. Controls relating to resources and supervision are contained within Annexe E of this specification. For the goal-setting task in the third part of the assignment, learners may use tutors or others, such as the work-experience provider, as a resource to discuss and agree goals on a one-to-one basis, eg in a tutorial slot. However, the ideas for the goals themselves must come from the learner; the tutor may only help with formulating the wording but must not prompt the learner with ideas. All work must be completed individually; no group work is allowed. Although learners will not be under direct supervision when collecting information for the assessment of LO.5 as it will take place in the workplace, it should be written up under normal tutor-supervised conditions. Summary of unit controls Setting
Limited

Time
Limited

Resources
Limited

Supervision
Medium

Collaboration
Limited

Marking
Medium

See Annexe E for further information. Guidance for assessment It is recommended that assessment takes place in stages after the relevant learning has taken place rather than all at the end of the unit. See below for further guidance. Learners will benefit most from this unit if the assessment for LO.1 and LO.2/LO.3 takes place shortly before their workplace experience starts (unless this assignment is based around a job that learners are already doing). This will help prepare them for the workplace and should maximise the chances that it will be a mutually beneficial experience both learner and the employer. The two jobs that they find out about in the first part of the assignment could be related or unrelated to each other. Although they should be jobs that the learners would like to do as workplace experience, the jobs do not necessarily need to be those that will be available to learners for this purpose, for example they could be jobs that are advertised for full time employment, and so the job-related information will apply to people doing the jobs on a permanent basis. The learners should be guided to choose entry-level jobs, although there is no requirement that the jobs are currently accessible to the learners: for example, the jobs might require further study or the development of other skills before the learners have a realistic prospect of getting them.

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However, the centre may be able to identify a range of jobs that will actually be available for workplace experience, from which learners could choose and then gather information on; this would add greater realism to the assessment task. If the workplace experience has already been arranged and the learner already knows what they will be doing, this job could one of the ones that they research. Learners do not need to use all of the sources and types of information listed in the What you need to learn section, only what is relevant. There are different approaches possible for the job application and interview for the second part of the assignment. The most coherent approach would be either to use one of the jobs that they have found out about in the first part of the assignment or the job that the learners are going to do as workplace experience in LO.4 and LO.5 or for centres to assess LO.3 last, after the workplace experience has been completed: this would allow learners to make use of what they have learned and been able to demonstrate during the workplace experience when making their application, and could be contextualised as being an interview to recruit recent work-experience participants into a permanent position within the organisation. Alternatively, the job could be one that learners find for themselves, eg a part-time job from a local newspaper or it could come from a brief specially designed by the tutor. Whatever approach is taken, tutors will need to ensure that learners have enough information about the job to make an application. If the application is made using a CV and covering letter, learners can make use of previous versions that they have created for practice purposes, but they should customise them for the specific requirements of the job applied for. Learners are assessed on their ability to show how they have the necessary skills/attributes for the job applied for (LO.2) as well as the ability to communicate this information effectively (LO.3). The job interview can be done as a role play, and the tutor must complete a learner observation record. Other members of staff, local employers or a work-experience provider could take part in the interviews in the role of interviewer. The workplace experience, which forms the context for the assessment of the last part of the assignment, could be in the form of a placement or it could be a part-time job done over a longer period. The workplace experience must relate to some part of the Business, Administration and Finance diploma and therefore allow the learners to apply some of the knowledge and skills that they have developed or (if the workplace experience takes place early in the course) get a taster of the knowledge and skills that they will later focus on. The goals that learners set in the third part may relate not only to what the learner wants to improve, but also to what learner wants to prove they can do. For example, it may be that a learner thinks that they are good at time keeping, but they would have difficulty in coming up with evidence for this; they can therefore use their goal setting and workplace experience to gather evidence of their existing attributes/abilities which will be useful to them in future. Learners doing full-time work experience should complete this before they review it. Ideally, this will also be the case for learners doing part-time work experience, but if this proves impractical, they may be able to complete this after at least half of the work-experience is finished. During the workplace experience, they will need to record their experiences in some way, for example using a diary (although the diary itself will not be assessed) so that afterwards they have the necessary information to allow them to write up their experiences. They will also need to collect feedback during their work experience: this is best collected with a pro forma feedback sheet which is given to the employer with an explanation of how it will be used for assessment, which must be included with the rest of the learner’s evidence; alternatively, it could be oral feedback, which the learners summarise for themselves. Reflection on their experiences in the workplace will be more effective if it is provisionally done verbally on a oneto-one basis with the tutor using the evidence that the learner has generated before being written up for assessment.

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Marking grid A
Mark Band 2 The learner provides information on two jobs and identifies a range of similarities and differences between them. They say which they would prefer, with a brief explanation why. (5–7) (8–10) 10 Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus The learner provides information on two jobs and identifies a wide range of similarities and differences between them. They say which they would prefer, with a clear explanation why.

Mark Band 1

LO.1

Be able to use sources of job information and advice

The learner provides limited information on two jobs and identifies one or two obvious similarities or differences between them. They say which one they would prefer.

(0–4)

LO.2(.1)

Know the skills and attributes required in the workplace

LO.3(.1)

Be able to prepare for and participate as an interviewee in a job interview (5–7) They make some preparation for the interview, identifying a range of questions, most of which are relevant to the job they are applying for, and basic answers. (3–4)

The learner shows limited ability to identify ways in which they have the skills/attributes required for the job they are applying for. The learner shows limited presentational ability in terms of layout and formatting. Some essential information is included. There are likely to be a number of omissions/errors and difficulties in using appropriate style and register, which may be intrusive. The learner identifies some ways in which they have the skills/attributes required for the job applied for. The learner shows reasonable presentational ability in terms of layout and formatting. Most essential information is included. There are likely to be a number of omissions/errors, some of which are intrusive. There is some evidence of attempts to use appropriate style/register, even if this is done inconsistently. (8–10)

The learner identifies clearly how they have the skills/attributes required for the job applied for. The learner shows good presentational ability in terms of layout and formatting. Essential information is included. There are likely to be some omissions/errors, but few of them are intrusive. There is clear evidence of attempts to use appropriate style/register, even if this is done inconsistently.

(0–4)

LO.3(.2)

Be able to prepare for and participate as an interviewee in a job interview

They make limited preparation for the interview, identifying a few general questions they think they may be asked.

They prepare well for the interview, identifying a range of questions that are relevant to the job they are applying for, and basic but appropriate answers. (5–6) 16

(0–2)

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Assessment focus The learner identifies a range of skills/attributes that they would like to improve or show they have, on which they base the goals they set. (3–4) The learner produces a description of their workplace experience, identifying both things that went well and those that could have gone better. The learner is able to say which parts of the positive and negative feedback received from the workplace experience they agree with. The learner produces a detailed description of their workplace experience, identifying both things that went well and those that could have gone better, giving reasons to support this judgement. The learner is able to say which parts of the positive and negative feedback received from the workplace experience they agree with, and can give reasons for why they think it is or isn’t justified. (11–14) 14 Total marks 46 (5–6) 6 The learner identifies a wide range of skills/attributes that they would like to improve or show they have on which they base the goals they set.

Mark Band 1

Mark Band 2

Mark Band 3

Maximum marks available

LO.4

Know how to set goals for work experience

The learner identifies one or two skills/attributes that they would like to improve or show that they have, on which they base the goals they set.

(0–2)

LO.5

Be able to record and review experiences in the workplace

The learner produces a basic summary of their workplace experience and identifies things that went well or things that could have gone better.

The learner is able to say which parts of the feedback received from the workplace experience are positive and which are negative.

(0–6)

(7–10)

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Marking grid B
Mark Band 2 The learner demonstrates a reasonable level of oral communication skills, showing the ability to answer simple questions and a few of the more unexpected or open-ended questions. Some aspects of non-verbal communication skills are likely to be reasonable, but may not be sustained. (7–10) (11–14) Non-verbal communication skills are likely to be generally good. The learner demonstrates a good level of oral communication skills, showing the ability to answer simple questions and some of the more unexpected or open-ended questions. Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus

Mark Band 1

LO.3(.3)

Be able to prepare for and participate as an interviewee in an interview for a job

The learner demonstrates a basic level of oral communication skills, showing the ability to answer simple questions.

Aspects of non-verbal communication skills may be weak.

(0–6)

14 Total marks 14

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Assessment guidance
Using the marking grid • • Each internally assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total. In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B. Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s). The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus. If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band. If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band. If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band. Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking. A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark. Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts. Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

• •

• •

• •

• •

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Level 1 descriptors
Descriptor Appropriate Basic Brief/briefly Clear/clearly Detail/detailed Difficulties Explain/explanation A few Few Generally Good/well Identify Limited A number of Most Obvious Open-ended question A range Reasonable A simple question Some Summary/summarise Sustained Unexpected question Weak A wide range Meaning Suitable/relevant. Limited to the fundamental features, elements or facts. Short, lacking detail. Well expressed, easy to understand or see. Showing thoroughness. Finds it difficult to do or is unable to do. Provide reasons for a decision, feature, etc. One or two. Not many. Mostly/or most of the time but not completely or consistently. To a high level. Mentions the key elements, facts, features, etc. Incomplete or having a narrow scope; shows only basic ability or understanding. At least three. The majority with one or two left out. Easy to identify. A question which requires more than a yes/no answer. Three or more. Moderate or average. A question that is very straightforward or which requires only a yes/no answer. At least three; to a certain degree, partial. Give a short description of the main facts, features, etc. Maintained over a period of time. A question that is not routine or easy to predict. Not good. Four or more.

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
The following table identifies the PLTS that have been included within the assessment criteria of this unit. Skill Independent enquirers Reflective learners When learners are … Identifying questions to answer in preparation for the interview [IE1]. Setting goals for their workplace experience [RL2]; assessing the success of their workplace experience [RL1].

Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning.

Skill Independent enquirers

When learners are … Planning and carrying out research into jobs [IE2]; preparing for their interview, considering what employers are looking for as well as what they themselves need from a job [IE3]; concluding which jobs are suitable for them, supporting these with reasoned arguments and evidence [IE6]. Generating ideas for jobs that may be suitable for them and exploring different possibilities [CT1]; questioning their own assumptions about suitable jobs [CT4]. Reviewing the progress they have made during the workplace experience and deciding what to do next [RL3]; inviting feedback from people involved in their workplace experience and dealing positively with it [RL4]; evaluating their experiences of the workplace to inform plans for the future [RL5]. Rehearsing their interviews, showing fairness and consideration to others [TW4] when providing feedback afterwards [TW6]. Working towards their goals set for their workplace experience, showing initiative, commitment and perseverance [SM2]; organising time and resources, prioritising actions while preparing for a job interview [SM3].

Creative thinkers

Reflective learners

Team workers Self-managers

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Functional skills — Level 1
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Interact with and use ICT systems independently to meet needs Use ICT to plan work and evaluate their use of ICT systems Manage information storage Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently to meet needs Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • • text and tables images numbers graphs records Using information about themselves to complete CVs, covering letters and application forms. Presenting information about themselves in CVs, covering letters and application forms. Completing CVs, covering letters and application forms, using text and tables. Researching different types of job using IT resources. Saving documents prepared for their job applications. When learners are …

Bring together information to suit content and purpose Present information in ways that are fit for purpose and audience Evaluate the selection and use of ICT tools and facilities used to present information Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, independently, responsibly and effectively

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Skill Mathematics Understand practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations, some of which are nonroutine Identify and obtain necessary information to tackle the problem Select and apply mathematics in an organised way to find solutions to practical problems for different purposes Use appropriate checking procedures at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems, drawing simple conclusions and giving explanations English Speaking and listening – take full part in formal and informal discussions/exchanges Reading – read and understand a range of texts Writing – write documents to communicate information, ideas and opinions using formats and styles suitable for their purpose and audience

When learners are …

Participating in a job interview.

Researching different types of job. Presenting information about themselves in CVs, covering letters and application forms.

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Work experience Experience of the workplace is integral to this unit. For further information, see Assessment information for assessors, above. Specialist resources This unit can be delivered without specialist resources. However, a number of specialist resources are useful and relevant, including Cascaid’s Kudos software (www.cascaid.com). Support material from the Chalkface Project (www.chalkface.com), including Career Management: Work Experience (2001), which is designed to help students prepare for, go through and debrief after work experience. Reference material Books Donald V and Grose R – Your First Job, 2nd Edition (Kogan Page, 1993) ISBN 0749410434 Fry R – Your first Interview: for students and anyone preparing to enter today’s tough job market (Career Press, 2002) ISBN 1564145867 Hitchin P – Getting Your First Job, 2nd Edition (How To Books, 1999) ISBN 1857035496 Linn L – Landing your First Real Job (McGraw-Hill Education, 1996) ISBN 0070380619 Messina E N – Teenwork: Four Teens Tell All: A guide for finding jobs (Goodheart-Wilcox, 2005) ISBN 159070598X Websites www.alec.co.uk www.support4learning.org.uk Alec: employability skills advice Support4Learning

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Level 2 units

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LEVEL 2 UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Unit 1: Business Enterprise
Principal Learning unit Level 2 Guided Learning Hours: 60 Internally assessed

About this unit

Behind every successful business enterprise is a good business idea. However, a good idea alone is not enough – to make it succeed you need to have the willingness to take risks, determination and adaptability. In this unit you will look at successful entrepreneurs and work out what it is that lies behind their success. You will then have a chance to put your own ideas into practice, drawing together skills and knowledge from other units. First of all, you will come up with your own ideas for a product or service, choose one that you think will be successful and develop it, presenting your idea to an audience. Producing a business plan is next: planning is a key requirement in starting a business as not only does it help focus the idea and turn it into a reality but without this, it is very difficult to persuade others that it is a realistic idea. After planning your idea you will get the opportunity to put it into practice, documenting what happened, deciding how successful you think it has been, and working out what lessons you have learned from this so that next time it will be even better.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 LO.5 Know the features of entrepreneurship Be able to generate and develop an idea for a viable product or service Be able to present a business idea Be able to plan a business enterprise Be able to implement and review a business enterprise.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Know the features of entrepreneurship Entrepreneurs are people who are enterprising, that is they have ideas. They take decisions and risks to make their business successful. You will need to learn about the typical characteristics of an entrepreneur: • • • • • • • • • • • LO.2 Be able to generate and develop an idea for a viable product or service willingness to make decisions and take risks being motivated, self reliant and dedicated awareness of changes in technology, market needs, fashion, the competition creative thinking: ability to see an opportunity for a new, different, better, or cheaper product/service flexibility and ability to adapt ability to communicate the idea to others organisation and planning ability. providing competition benefits for consumers generating wealth and employment setting an example to others.

Enterprise and entrepreneurs bring benefits in terms of:

You need to know about the process of developing a business idea: • generating ideas for a product/service:
○ ○

looking for opportunities brainstorming techniques time, money and resources available your knowledge and skills whether there seems to be a market for it laws and regulations any other obstacles will need to be overcome what it is who it is for whether there is any competition. If so, what makes your idea different/better how you could you sell it.

comparing the ideas and deciding which ideas are realistic:
○ ○ ○ ○ ○

choosing the best idea and developing it:
○ ○ ○ ○

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LO.3

Be able to present a business idea

You need to learn about how to prepare and make a presentation • • • • • • • what information people will need to know what order to put information in how to be positive and identify benefits anticipating questions you may be asked use of supporting materials. use of voice, eg speed, clarity body language, eye contact.

Communication skills:

LO.4

Be able to plan a business enterprise

It has been said that a business that fails to plan is one that plans to fail. You need to learn how to draw up a business start-up and implementation plan. Aims and objectives are designed to help an organisation achieve its purpose and they provide staff with a focus for what they do. You need to learn about the functions of different types of organisation and how their aims differ: • • • private sector, eg to provide goods or services, to survive, to grow, to make a profit public sector, eg to provide a service to the community, to improve service provision voluntary sector, eg to provide a service to a target group, to promote a cause, to survive, to make a surplus.

You need to learn about what a business start-up and implementation plan needs to include: • • • • • • • what the business will do and its objectives, including essential facts about the product or service who the target market is how the product/service will be promoted and sold human resources: who is involved; who will do what physical resources, eg premises, equipment, materials financial resources, eg start-up costs, what money will be spent on, sources of finance (eg savings, loans) prices and a simple cash budget: estimated revenue and costs.

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LO.5

Be able to implement and review a business enterprise

You need to learn about the implementation of business ideas: • • • putting plans into action, adapting where necessary creating promotional methods and materials, eg leaflets, adverts, notices, demonstrations, door-to-door sales complying with relevant law and regulations
○ ○ ○

consumer legislation: unfair trading, sale of goods, weights and measures record keeping: financial record keeping, data protection other regulations: health and safety; planning; fire waste and recycling energy saving

the need to take environmental issues into account, eg
○ ○

• •

production and the importance of monitoring: quantity, quality, taking action to put problems right how to decide if the business idea has been successful, eg against original aims and objectives, whether targets were reached, which decisions worked well.

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance This unit is 60 guided learning hours (GLH) in length. Centres should allocate this amount of time within the timetable for its delivery and assessment. Unless otherwise stated, all of the content included in the What you need to learn section needs to be taught. Sometimes an ‘eg’ or ‘for example’ is included in order to show content that is indicative: in these cases not all of the examples will need to be covered (for example, because some may not always apply in a particular situation), and tutors can introduce other examples of their own that are relevant to particular situations and to the needs of their learners. There are opportunities to link the delivery of this unit to others, particularly Unit 5: Marketing, Sales and Customer Service in Business, Unit 2: Business Administration, Unit 6: Teams and Communication in Business and Unit 4: Business Finance and Accounting, so that parts of those units are contextualised within the enterprise that the learners are working on in this unit: so, for example, the teamworking activity that learners carry out in Unit 6: Teams and Communication in Business could relate to an activity connected to planning or running their business enterprise; Unit 5: Marketing, Sales and Customer Service in Business could be linked to this unit at several stages: learners could carry out market research on the business idea from this unit; they could also use it to learn and then demonstrate their personal selling skills. Similarly, it would be beneficial to link the forecasting and financial planning that is required in LO.3 to Unit 4: Business Finance and Accounting. Finally, the planning and running of a business idea offer an ideal context for the meetings that learners are required to organise and support in Unit 2: Business Administration. Delivery for LO.1 There is no consensus about what the common features of an entrepreneur: it may be best to think of the ‘typical’ features as a rough guide rather than a rule, as there are likely to be many counter examples, and different entrepreneurs will possess these qualities in different proportions: in some cases, say, their persistence and expert knowledge may have played the key role; with others it may be their adaptability and ability and creativity. The topic is probably best contextualised by looking at examples of successful entrepreneurs. This need not just focus on the nationally or internationally famous; there will be numerous examples of local people who have started their own businesses, who could be invited to talk to learners about the qualities they feel are most important, and about their own successes and how they have dealt with setbacks. It also may be motivating for the learners themselves to suggest business people who they would most like to focus on; it would help to consider a wide range of business fields, which may make the similarities and differences their personal qualities more obvious. This topic would lend itself well to learners researching and presenting what they have found in small groups. It is important to recognise the role of being creative and innovative in the success of new products and services. The topic may be more accessible and fun for the learners if they can consider their own experience of using a particular product or service: what is it that makes it so desirable or useful to them? Or what sorts of innovation in the near future would they really like to see? One problem is that after an idea becomes successful, the idea then seems obvious to everyone; one reason for this is that great ideas often identify needs or desires that nobody even realised they had. This can make it difficult to think back to what life was like before the idea had been thought of. One way of addressing this is to take a particular sector, such as telecommunications or electronic entertainment, and trace innovative developments over a number of years, such as mobile phones, music storage media, games consoles, etc. It is also important to emphasise, however, that innovation is not just about ideas that have never been thought of before: much innovation is about small, incremental improvements, or applying existing ideas into new contexts.

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Delivery guidance for LO.2 Learners need to learn about the process of generating ideas. There are different ways of identifying opportunities, eg identifying an un-met need, or seeing what is already successful in one situation and considering whether it can be applied in a different context. Learners need to be taught about how to generate ideas in groups. Brainstorming is the most widely used method, and there are different types and classifications, but it is not necessary to go into variations. It is important that they learn that all ideas need to be recorded and that at the idea-generation stage it is important not to pass judgements in order not to stifle creativity. Learners could practise using brainstorming techniques in groups to solve any type of problem. Before learners are able to develop their own ideas, they will need to have some understanding of what makes an idea realistic and viable: the time, money and physical resources will be critical, as will other issues such as any relevant laws, regulations and health and safety considerations. Tutors should try to steer learners towards ideas that will work in the context of their surroundings. It would be useful to look at examples of business ideas which looked at face value as if they would be successful, but which proved to be flawed, for example by being overambitious, unrealistic or failing to see the potential obstacles in the way. The process of developing an idea could be linked to work carried out in Unit 5: Marketing, Sales and Customer Service, particularly the marketing principles and market research. Delivery guidance for LO.3 Learners will need to be taught about the basic principles of making presentations to stimulate interest in a business idea: the importance of structure and clarity; how software and handouts can be used; why it is important to present an idea in a positive light; and what information potential investors will want to know. However, it is important for tutors to be realistic: learners at this level will not be expected to be able to provide the sorts of detailed financial and practical information that would be expected in the real world. To prepare learners for creating a presentation, learners could practise presenting personal information to each other in small groups. Delivery guidance for LO.4 Learners need to understand the information that needs to go into a start-up and implementation plan. This type of plan should contain the practical information required to put a business idea into practice. There is no set format, and learners need not look at a variety of different formats: the most important thing is that they understand what sorts of information are required. Real examples (either blank or completed) might help; examples from high street banks are likely to contain too much information, particularly in terms of financial information, and so may not be appropriate. It would be beneficial for learners to have already studied budgets in Unit 4: Business Finance and Accounting and marketing in Unit 5: Marketing, Sales and Customer Service before they complete their start-up and implementation plan. However, the topics of budgets and marketing could be dealt with briefly in isolation so that learners know enough for the purposes of this unit; this knowledge can then be developed further and reinforced when the other units are delivered. When it comes to quantifying demand and materials needed and setting targets, they need to know about why it is important to estimate demand and set targets in order to plan and make effective use of resources. The setting of prices should be linked to the simple cash budget so that learners attempt to at least cover their costs.

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Delivery guidance for LO.5 Learners need to be taught about the decisions and planning that are involved in implementing a business idea before: there is a clear overlap here with LO.4 in that many of them need to be built into the planning but then executed during delivery. They need to know about the different promotional methods and materials they could use and why. They also need to know why it is important to monitor quality (particularly if they are producing anything tangible) and quantity (production/sales) while the enterprise is running so that they can take action if required: the actual monitoring methods are less important than the fact that some sort of monitoring needs to take place. As part of their learning activities, it would be worthwhile for learners to investigate how a variety of local businesses do this, if information is available. Learners need to be taught about the different ways in which success can be measured: quantitative (such as profits, sales targets) and also more subjective measures such as whether the team worked well together, lessons learned and skills developed which could be built upon in future. It would be worthwhile to look at examples of businesses that can be judged ‘unsuccessful’ in some ways, but not in others. Moreover, the experience of running an unsuccessful business can be very valuable as long as lessons are learned – there are many real examples of entrepreneurs who have eventually been successful only after failure that could be used to illustrate this point.

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Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed by a single assignment connected to developing and implementing a business idea. You will need to: • Decide on an idea for a product or service and present it to potential investors. Your presentation will include: the range of ideas thought of in your group discussions; the final idea chosen and why; why you think it will be viable, successful and worth investing in [LO.2, LO.3] Prepare a business start-up and implementation plan for your business [LO.4] Put the business idea into practice and then write up: what decisions were taken and any changes made from the plan; how successful the business was and what you would do differently next time [LO.5]; how far your team have been able to be show entrepreneurial characteristics [LO.1].

• •

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Assessment information for assessors
Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments This unit must be covered by a single assignment, which is described in the How you will be assessed section, and exemplified within the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Sector-relevant purpose By its nature, any business enterprise idea can be considered relevant to business, administration and finance as long as it is for a real product or service, not a simulation. The enterprise must have some sort a purpose: it is not enough for it to be done in order solely to satisfy the assessment requirements; rather it must have some other purpose, eg a goal or target. Evidence structure Learning outcome LO.2, LO.3 Marking grid B Activity/section Group presentation Evidence Learner observation record, supported by hard copies of any slides, notes, handouts, etc Written evidence: start-up plan Written evidence: decisions taken, assessment of success of business Written evidence: entrepreneurial characteristics Learner observation record of learner’s contribution to the business

LO.4 LO.5(.2, .3)

A A

Start-up and implementation plan Implementation and review of business idea

LO.1 LO.5(.1)

A B

Level of demand The level of demand is exemplified in the unit sample assessment material (SAM). It would be appropriate for the final ‘live’ stage of the business in LO.5 to be run over a limited period of time (eg over a period of two to three weeks), although it could be run over a longer period. The implementation can be a single block or spread over an extended period of time (eg a certain number of hours every week for a term). However, centres may wish to extend this enterprise activity over a longer period with more hours allowed. This may make particular sense if centres are contextualising the delivery or assessment of other units within the learners’ business enterprise; in this case the enterprise activity can also make use of hours allocated to those units. Assessment duration The suggested guided learning hours (GLH) needed to complete is 15 hours per learner. Centres can structure this time as they see fit. The suggested GLH for assessment does not include time spent implementing the business idea in LO.5. Centres should note that total class assessment time may need to be higher to allow time for separate group presentations for LO.2/3.

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Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments Learners must be provided with full access to study all of the areas identified in the What you need to learn section of the specification. Controls relating to resources and supervision are contained within Annexe E of this specification. For the first part of the assignment, it will be necessary for groups to collaborate to collate the information into a single presentation. Each learner must take responsibility for presenting part of the presentation. Learners must be awarded individual marks for their own part of the task. Tutors must apply the relevant sections for each learner, and award marks to the individual, not to the group. This means that is possible for one group member to score highly on their part of the presentation while another scores less well on their part. Although work that leads up to the creation of the assessment evidence in the second and third parts of the assignment will be done as part of a group, the learner must produce their own evidence for assessment: the group will jointly contribute to discussion of the business start-up and implementation plan, but each person must write up a plan (see below Guidance for Assessment for guidance on how this can be managed). The plan must include information about all of the different categories listed in the What you need to learn section. For the third part of the assignment, marks are awarded not only for the written evidence submitted by the learners (Marking grid A) but also for the contribution made to the running of the business, as observed by the tutor (Marking grid B). Tutors will not need to be present at all stages, nor to observe every activity, but must take a holistic view based on what they see throughout the process rather than, say, at the beginning or end only. When assessing the contributions made, tutors must remember that even if the business has only limited success in meeting its objectives, it is possible for any (or even all) individual team members to make a significant and sustained contribution to the running of the business. One factor in determining marks for the contribution made by the learner is the degree of support and guidance required from the tutor. This refers to help provided by the tutor either because the learner has asked for it or because the tutor can see that it is necessary to intervene, for example to pre-empt problems, suggest ways forward when problems are encountered. This does not include more general encouragement or where learners merely want reassurance that what they are planning to do is sensible. Summary of unit controls Setting
Limited

Time
Limited

Resources
Limited

Supervision
Medium

Collaboration
Limited

Marking
Medium

See Annexe E for further information. Guidance for assessment It would make most sense for assessment to take place in three different stages (group presentation, start-up plan, implementation) after the relevant learning has taken place. Further guidance about the order in which assessment activities can be carried out is contained below. Groups should contain between 3 and 6 learners. Although LO.1 should be taught first as a necessary introduction to the theme of business enterprise, the assessment of this outcome comes towards the end of the unit, with the learners relating these traits to their own experiences. Learners could consider not only entrepreneurial characteristics they have been able to demonstrate but also those they have not.

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For the first part of the assignment, learners should be encouraged to choose their business idea as a group, but these should be checked by the tutor before learners begin work and they may need to guide them to a suitable choice. The ideas they come up with need not be for brand new products or services; they could be improvements or adaptations of existing ideas or simply taking an existing idea used in one context or location to another. This does not mean that each person has to come up with an idea, but they should make some contribution to the discussion, eg helping to develop an idea that someone else thought of, pointing out why an idea is not practical, etc. The idea will need to be developed into a proposition that can be presented to potential investors. This part of the assignment could be integrated with the delivery and/or assessment of Unit 5: Marketing, Sales and Customer Service, in particular the marketing principles and market research. For the purposes of the presentation in Unit 1, however, learners are not expected to have fully developed marketing plans, nor to have carried out primary market research or full costings. For the presentation, the ‘potential investors’ should preferably involve people external to the centre, such as a local employer. The investors could also include centre staff and selected learners. All-learner panels should only be used as a last resort. It could be given added purpose by being set within a scenario such as BBC’s Dragons’ Den; if so, it would help if the panel were provided with money (real or imaginary) to invest. For the second part of the assignment (the start-up and implementation plan), the learners can be shown models from which to work, and pro formas could be created for them to use and complete. As mentioned above in Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments, each person must complete a plan. They can continue to discuss the plan while they are writing it up, using each other as a resource, but tutors must take care to ensure that they are not simply copying from each other. Having learners do the start-up and implementation plan takes place after the presentation will allow them to make use of any feedback received at or after the presentation, which may impact on the plan they end up producing, and so the plan they produce may be different in some ways from the idea they have presented. If the idea does not change between presentation and planning, learners will be able to make use of ideas and initial planning that have already taken place during the first part of the assignment. As an alternative approach, centres could consider having learners produce the plan before the presentation: the advantage would be that learners might have a more clearly developed idea to present. The downside is that they would not be able to make use of feedback received during or after the presentation, which could result in a less well developed plan. For assessment of the third part of the assignment, learners must actually put the idea into practice; it is not enough for this to be a theoretical exercise. The business idea that they implement should ideally be the same one that they have already presented and planned. Although each learner will create their own assessment evidence, it is not necessary for each learner to have a distinct role within their group. It is quite likely that plans will have to be altered as soon as learners are faced with the practicalities of implementing them. If circumstances change or unforeseen problems arise, the original plan may need to be abandoned and a new one put into action; this does not mean that learners will have to complete another implementation plan. Credit will be given in assessment for learners’ ability to show why they had to make changes rather than sticking rigidly to a plan that is not working. The evidence for their decisions taken should be in writing but it could be in any appropriate format. Notes and diaries do not need to be submitted for assessment, only the final write up. When it comes to judging success, at this level, learners can limit themselves to holistic judgements about the overall success or otherwise, rather than being expected to analyse different stages and parts: the judgement of success may be subjective or it could be linked to something quantitative, eg whether they have achieved their sales targets. Decisions about how they measure success should be left to the learners themselves.

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Marking grid A
Mark Band 2 The learner outlines the ways in which their team have shown entrepreneurial characteristics, with examples given to support this. (3–4) A plan is produced. Information is complete but may not always be clear. The plan is generally realistic which shows that that the learner has some idea of what is required. (5–6) A detailed plan is produced. Information is complete and clear. The plan is realistic, which shows the learner has a good idea of what is required. 6 Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus The learner outlines clearly the ways in which their team have shown entrepreneurial characteristics, with convincing examples given to support this.

Mark Band 1

LO.1

Know the features of entrepreneurship

The learner outlines briefly the ways in which their team have shown entrepreneurial characteristics.

(0–2)

LO.4

Be able to plan a business enterprise

A basic plan is produced, although in several places information may be incomplete and lack clarity. Parts of the plan appear realistic but underdeveloped, which shows that the learner has a limited idea of what is required. (7–10) (11–14)

(0–6)

14

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Assessment focus Information is given on decisions taken when implementing the business, which shows how the original plan was followed or adapted. (5–7) They judge the success of the enterprise, giving some supporting evidence. They show that they can draw reasonable conclusions about what they have learned, with ideas about what they could do differently next time. (5–7) (8–10) (8–10) They judge the success of the enterprise, giving convincing supporting evidence. They show that they can draw well considered conclusions about what they have learned, with justified ideas about what they could do differently next time. 20 Total marks 40 Clear information is given on decisions taken, which shows clearly how the original plan was followed, with reasons given where it was adapted.

Mark Band 1

Mark Band 2

Mark Band 3

Maximum marks available

LO.5(.2)

Be able to implement and judge a business enterprise

Information is given on decisions taken when implementing the business, but limited reference to how the original plan was followed or adapted.

(0–4)

LO.5(.3)

Be able to implement and judge a business enterprise

They judge the success of the enterprise, giving limited supporting evidence. They show that they can draw limited conclusions about what they have learned from their experiences.

(0–4)

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Marking grid B
Mark Band 2 Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus The learner gives the presentation with some fluency. The original ideas thought of are listed, and specific information is given about the final idea agreed upon, with some reasons given for why it was chosen which make reference to its viability. Positive and relevant features of the final idea are explained. Overall, the audience can follow the learner’s presentation of information without much difficulty. (5–7) The learner works with others towards their goals, showing some degree of initiative, commitment and perseverance. Some support and guidance is required. (5–7) (8–10) The learner works well with others towards their goals, showing a good degree of initiative, commitment and perseverance. Only limited support and guidance is required. (8–10) 10 Total marks 20 Overall, the audience can follow the learner’s presentation with little or no difficulty. 10 The learner gives the presentation with good fluency. The original ideas thought of are listed, and specific information is given about the final idea agreed upon, with reasons given that show clearly why it was chosen in terms of its viability. Positive and relevant features of the final idea are explained clearly.

Mark Band 1

LO.2

Be able to generate and develop an idea for a viable product or service

The learner gives the presentation with limited fluency. The original ideas thought of are listed, and the chosen idea outlined in general terms, although it there may be limited reference to viability and why it was chosen. Positive and relevant features of the final idea are identified.

LO.3

Be able to present a business idea

Overall, the audience may find the learner’s presentation difficult to follow.

(0–4)

LO.5(.1)

Be able to implement and judge a business enterprise

The learner shows some ability to work with others towards their goals, showing a limited degree of initiative, commitment and perseverance. Frequent support and guidance is required.

(0–4)

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Assessment guidance
Using the marking grid • • Each internally assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total. In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B. Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s). The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus. If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band. If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band. If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band. Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking. A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark. Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts. Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

• •

• •

• •

• •

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Level 2 descriptors
Descriptor Basic Brief/briefly Clear/clearly Complete Convincing Detail/detailed Difficult to follow Explain/explanation Frequent support and guidance Meaning Limited to the fundamental features, elements or facts. Short, lacking detail. Well expressed, easy to understand or see. Containing information in all main parts of the plan. Believable, well argued. Showing thoroughness. A considerable effort is required to understand what is being said, and some parts are not clear. Provide reasons for a decision, feature, etc. The learner relies on the guidance and advice of the tutor to make progress. The tutor needs to direct significant aspects of the work to make progress. Vague, lacking specific information, details, etc. Mostly/or most of the time but not completely or consistently. To a high level or degree. Mentions the key elements, facts, features, etc. Missing information in at least one part of the plan. Give good reasons for something. Not well expressed/not easy to understand. Showing basic or incomplete knowledge, evidence, ability etc. The learner makes only occasional use of the guidance and advice of the tutor. Give a summary of the main points/features. Features that show why the idea is a good one. Moderate or average. Appropriate and practical. Key features about the business idea which will affect its success. At least two; to a certain degree, partial. The learner makes use of the guidance and advice of the tutor, and the tutor assists in some aspects of the work, but does not need to direct it. Precise, exact, detailed. Containing only cursory information which provides no more than on overview.

General/generalised Generally Good/well Identify Incomplete Justify/justified Lack clarity Limited Limited support and guidance Outline Positive features Reasonable Realistic Relevant features Some Some support and guidance

Specific Underdeveloped

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Descriptor Well considered With little or no difficulty

Meaning Showing good judgement, thoughtful. The presentation is wholly or almost entirely clear and requires little effort from the audience to understand what is being said. Either: a moderate effort is required to understand what is being said; or some parts are clear and other parts are less clear.

Without much difficulty

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
The following table identifies the PLTS that have been included within the assessment criteria of this unit. Skill Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Self-managers Effective participators When learners are … Generating ideas for a product or service [CT1]; putting their plans into practice, adapting them as required [CT6]. Reflecting on what they have learned from running a business enterprise [RL5]. Working in groups to implement their business idea [TW1]. Working towards achieving their business goals, showing initiative commitment and perseverance [SM2]. Persuading prospective investors of the merits of the business idea, presenting a case for action [EP2].

Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning.

Skill Independent enquirers

When learners are … Researching possible business ideas [IE2]; exploring the issues of the benefits of entrepreneurship from the perspective of society and the individual [IE3]; considering the influence of circumstances, beliefs and feelings on people’s entrepreneurial abilities [IE5]. Connecting their own and others’ preliminary ideas for a product or service to come up with an inventive idea to develop [CT3]; developing their business idea, trying out alternative approaches [CT5]. Assessing themselves and others at the end of the business implementation [RL1]; reviewing progress at the end of the business implementation in terms of what they have achieved [RL3]; inviting feedback from the investors to who they have presented the business idea, dealing positively with praise and criticism [RL4]. Reaching agreements and managing discussions to achieve results [TW2]; showing fairness and consideration to others while implementing the business idea [TW4]. Preparing to implement their business idea, organising their own time and resources [SM3]; dealing with competing pressures when trying to organise the activities involved in putting a business idea into practice [SM5]; responding positively to any changes that need to be made when putting the business idea into practice, seeking advice and support from the tutor when needed [SM6].

Creative thinkers

Reflective learners

Team workers

Self-managers

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Skill Effective participators

When learners are … Implementing their business idea, proposing practical ways forward, breaking these down into manageable steps [EP3]; identifying ways in which the product or service they have chosen will result in improvements for customers [EP4]; trying to influence others in their group when discussing which business idea to choose [EP5]; presenting a business idea to investors, which may represent a group choice of product or service rather than one that they personally wanted to choose [EP6].

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Functional skills — Level 2
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a variety of needs Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system used Manage information storage to enable efficient retrieval Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices Troubleshoot ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently for a complex task Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • text and tables images numbers records Writing their business implementation plan. Creating a presentation for prospective investors. Researching their business idea. When learners are …

Bring together information to suit content and purpose

Present information in ways that are fit Writing their business implementation plan, presenting for purpose and audience their business idea to prospective investors. Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, responsibly and effectively including storage of messages and contact lists

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Skill Mathematics Understand routine and non-routine problems in a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations Identify the situation or problem and the mathematical methods needed to tackle it Select and apply a range of mathematics to find solutions Use appropriate checking procedures and evaluate their effectiveness at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar routine contexts and situations Draw conclusions and provide mathematical justifications English Speaking and listening – make a range of contributions to discussions and make effective presentations in a wide range of contexts Reading – compare, select, read and understand texts and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments and opinions Writing – write documents, including extended writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and opinions, effectively and persuasively

When learners are …

Preparing a simple cash budget.

Preparing a simple cash budget.

Discussing ideas for a business. Presenting their business ideas to prospective investors. Working in groups to implement their business idea.

Preparing a presentation for prospective investors. Writing a business implementation plan.

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Specialist resources None. Reference material Books Bridge S – Understanding Enterprise, Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2nd edition (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) ISBN 0333984659 Burke R – Entrepreneur’s Toolkit (Burke Publishing, 2006) ISBN 0958239442 Burke R – Small Business Entrepreneur (Burke Publishing, 2006) ISBN 0958239442 Parks S – Start your Business: week by week (Prentice Hall, 2004) ISBN 0273694472 Pinson L and Jinnett J – Steps to Small Business Start Up (Kaplan Business, 2006) ISBN 141953727X Websites www.businesslink.gov.uk http://entrepreneurs.bankofscotland.co.uk/ challenge/entrepreneur_resources www.hsbcsme.reedbusiness.co.uk www.nfte.co.uk www.scottberkun.com www.young-enterprise.org.uk Government site offering information and advice on starting up and running a business Bank of Scotland’s Entrepreneur Challenge Service offering resources for small business Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship Essays on various topics, including innovation and creativity Young Enterprise

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LEVEL 2 UNIT 2: BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Unit 2: Business Administration
Principal Learning unit Level 2 Guided Learning Hours: 60 Internally assessed

About this unit

Business administration can offer you the opportunity to take part in a wide range of job roles across all industries and sectors. Whether you’re a senior manager or an office assistant you’ll be more and more likely to need good administrative skills, so learning and then developing these skills now will provide a firm foundation for success in any job you decide to go into. Good administrators need excellent personal organisation skills. Otherwise, tasks don’t get done properly, time is wasted, information can get lost and the business ultimately suffers. In this unit you’ll learn why good administration is so important and about the range of administrative tasks that businesses depend upon. Meetings provide structure to many organisations and supporting them is a key task: in this unit, you’ll have the chance to practise doing this. Part of being a good administrator is being able to communicate with colleagues and customers effectively. If you get an email or letter from someone that is unclear and contains lots of mistakes, you probably won’t feel very impressed – not just with the writer, but also with the organisation that they represent. This unit will help you understand better what is required in different forms of business communication.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 LO.5 Know the different administrative roles and processes in business Understand the importance of effective administration Be able to communicate effectively in writing Be able to plan and carry out administrative work safely Be able to organise and support a meeting.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Know the different administrative roles and processes in business You need to learn about the different jobs that require good administration skills: • • • • • • receptionist personal assistant sales or marketing assistant finance officer customer services assistant human resources assistant.

You need to learn about the range of different administrative tasks that need to be undertaken in an organisation: • • • • • dealing with visitors: receiving and welcoming visitors, creating the right image, meeting their needs organising travel and accommodation organising and supporting meetings managing time: working to timescales; managing own and other people’s diaries managing manual and electronic information: keeping and updating records; storing information in folders and filing systems in accordance with confidentiality requirements using telephone systems to make, receive and transfer calls providing information to internal and external customers managing routine financial transactions: processing orders, invoices, expenses.

• • • LO.2

Effective administration is important for a number of reasons: Understand the importance • to ensure consistency of effective administration • to make effective use of time • • to provide support for managers, teams, colleagues and departmental processes to provide effective service to internal and external customers.

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LO.3

Be able to communicate effectively in writing

You need to learn about the different methods of communication methods used in business: • written communication: emails; presentations; messages/notes; memos; business letters; agendas; minutes; reports oral communication, eg telephone conversations, face-toface conversations and meetings. advantages: speed; convenience (sending, storage); cost; resourcing/environmental benefits disadvantages: information overload; technological and computer literacy requirements for users; risk of sending information to the wrong person; hidden costs, eg data storage.

Electronic communication has advantages and disadvantages: • •

The style of communication used in business can vary in terms of how formal or informal it is. Some communication methods are more suited to formal or informal communication, which depends on: • • who you are communicating with, eg close colleague, manager, customer what and why you are communicating, eg to give or ask for information/opinions, to ask someone to do something, to give instructions, to apologise, to complain. choosing an appropriate method and style of communication using an appropriate format and accepted conventions in a way that creates a positive impression knowing why you are communicating and what you want to say expressing the message clearly making it clear what action, if any, you want the other person to take entering, editing, and formatting text checking for accuracy, grammar and spelling, and correcting mistakes managing information: using appropriate file names; saving documents in folders for easy retrieval; saving back-up versions.

Effective communication involves: • • • • • • • •

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LO.4

Be able to plan and carry out administrative work safely

Providing administrative support involves working with other people and to maintain good working relationships you will need to learn about ways of helping you manage your time and prioritise your work to meet deadlines: • • • • • • • • • checking deadlines deciding which tasks need to be done, eg using ‘to do’ lists deciding what order tasks need to be done in estimating how long tasks will take and setting yourself time limits identifying which are urgent and which are important tasks. computers printers photocopiers telephones.

Working in an office involves using different office equipment:

When you are working in an office you need to carry out work safely in accordance with legal and organisational requirements: • • • • • seating: positioning, adjustability and comfort using a monitor, mouse and keyboard: positioning and distance regular breaks and exercise safe lifting techniques following instructions for using office equipment.

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LO.5

Be able to organise and support a meeting

In everyday business, meetings are an important communication method providing an opportunity for information to be exchanged, ideas to be put forward and discussed, problems solved and decisions taken. Different types of meeting which have different purposes: • • • formal, eg annual general meeting, board meeting informal, eg team meetings, sales meetings external meetings, eg with customers, suppliers.

The administrator plays a key role in the success of meetings, and you will need to learn about the different administrative activities required to organise and support a meeting: • organising meetings:
○ ○ ○ ○

preparing an agenda arranging a venue inviting people to attend arranging equipment and resources to support meeting checking the room is set out properly and equipment is working ensuring copies of agenda and any other necessary documentation are provided taking an attendance list taking accurate records of meeting preparing an accurate record of the list of attendees, apologies for absence, action points, date of next meeting circulating record of meeting within defined timescale.

supporting meetings by:
○ ○ ○ ○

carrying out follow-up activities:

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance This unit is 60 guided learning hours (GLH) in length. Centres should allocate this amount of time within the timetable for its delivery and assessment. Unless otherwise stated, all of the content included in the What you need to learn section needs to be taught. Sometimes an ‘eg’ or ‘for example’ is included in order to show content that is indicative: in these cases not all of the examples will need to be covered (for example, because some may not always apply in a particular situation), and tutors can introduce other examples of their own that are relevant to particular situations and to the needs of their learners. Delivery guidance for LO.1 and LO.2 These learning outcomes are best delivered together, so that learners can appreciate the administrative activities that typically need to happen in an organisation together with the reasons why they are important. Learners will need to look at real examples of administrative functions within one or more organisation. It would be useful to use examples from both local and national organisations to show how they differ in terms of tasks and responsibilities. For example, a large organisation may cover a range of different administrative roles to support specialist functions such as reception, diary management, or processing orders, whereas a smaller organisation may have just one secretarial function to cover all the administrative needs of the organisation. Learners can also research administrative pathways to provide an insight into career progression opportunities. It would be useful for learners to share with each other any prior experience or knowledge of different types of administrative roles. At least one of the organisations that are studied must be one to which the centre has access. This could be one chosen by the learner or with tutor guidance, and there are advantages in selecting an organisation with a local presence as any investigations can be achieved through a visit or a visiting speaker from the organisation. Learners need to understand the role administration plays in contributing to the effective operation of organisations, irrespective of the size of the organisation. This can be achieved by investigating the links between different administrative tasks carried out for functions such as human resources, finance, production, customer service, etc. Learners could split into groups to investigate a different admin function in the centre, eg finance, human resources, customer services, and each group could feedback so that the whole picture emerges (this would also minimise disruption to the administrative staff). Learners need to develop their skills and knowledge of ways to process, store and retrieve information. They could investigate filing systems used in the centre library and if possible, the tutor could show examples of chronological, alphabetic and numerical systems, with exercises provided to develop practical skills. In order to organise business travel and accommodation learners need to be directed where to research information, such as on the internet for train timetables, flight times, etc.

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Delivery guidance for LO.3 It is not intended that this unit will be used to teach word processing, but learners need to develop skills to prepare routine business documents and are expected to be competent in basic word-processing skills. Tutor input will be required to explain the format of letters, memos and other standard documents. Examples of standard documentation used in business should be shown. Learners can work in groups with each group collecting documentation for a different purpose, for example to give or ask for information/opinions, to ask someone to do something, to give instructions, to apologise or to complain. They could present their findings to the rest of the group and assess the effectiveness of each of the documents in terms of the suitability for message, recipient and type of communication. Learners should have opportunities to practise their word processing skills using different styles and layouts. The importance of producing a well-presented and accurate business document needs to be stressed, as this is the professional image of the organisation. This learning outcome lends itself well to applying the principles of experiential learning. With external communication, in particular, planning is important, even if this only involves learners having thought about what they want to say before they start writing. Learners should be encouraged to review written communication before it is sent. Learners can check their own work for grammar, punctuation and spelling and can also check each others’ work also and have the opportunity to improve their work through rewriting. This will help them develop group skills of communication and working with other people. Storing and retrieving documents for amending at a future date is important and learners must be encouraged to keep copies of the original documents. In an office environment handwritten notes and messages are common and it is important for learners to develop their handwriting skills. Learners could practise taking notes to pass messages on, checking the message has been clearly understood. This will then provide tutors with the opportunity to introduce the pros and cons of electronic communication, and raise awareness of the growth and use of media such as blogs, personal messaging, text messaging and email. Delivery guidance for LO.4 Learners need to be familiar with the stages of planning: where are you now, where do you wish to be, how are you going to get there and how will you measure progress. They should be familiar with the tools and techniques available to make effective use of their time including todo lists, diaries, planning charts and schedules. Learners could carry out in-tray exercises relating to estimating time limits for a range of tasks, and case studies could help reinforce the importance of meeting deadlines and the need to be able to respond to changing work plans and still meet requirements through taking corrective actions. Learners should be able to determine their own strengths and weaknesses in relation to time management in terms of organising and planning their course work, or activities outside of their learning programme. They can carry out a time log activity over a period of a week and analyse the results of this to examine the most frequent reasons for reduced effectiveness in the workplace. Learners will need to be introduced to different types of equipment, (computers, printers, photocopiers and telephones), learn what they are used for, and the importance of using them safely. Relevant printing features will include the different types (laserjet, inkjet, colour, black and white, whether they are on a network), how to load paper, how to print documents. Also, demonstrating photocopying equipment can show the wider features (such as sorting, stapling) that the machine offers. Learners should be aware of the kinds of problems they are likely to experience with the equipment and how these should be dealt with. Learners need to learn how to use telephone systems to make, receive and transfer calls. Learners could role play telephone scenarios to practise the different communication skills needed when making and receiving calls and projecting a positive image both of themselves and the organisation.

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There are many different types of office equipment used for the administrative function, which is why only an exemplar range is mentioned in this unit, but this could be supplemented by more specialised equipment such as scanners and binders. Learners need to know the importance of following procedures when using equipment, and know the types of resource faults they are likely to experience with the equipment and how these should be dealt with. Visits to an administrative office such as the centre’s own or a local business would help learners investigate how the work area is organised and the types of equipment used to support activities. The health and safety issues relating to workstations and surrounding work area need to be highlighted, for example the factors to consider when sitting at a computer (chair height, distance from screen, glare etc). Delivery guidance for LO.5 Providing case study material may be beneficial to learners as it could give them the opportunity to plan for a mock meeting. Role-play scenarios would give learners the opportunity to practise conducting meetings in class and for other learners to give feedback on the organisation of the meeting. At all times learners should be encouraged to give constructive and positive feedback. It would be useful to show the learners video/DVD clips of meetings’ protocol and then let them practise recording information. The use of video clips would also provide the opportunity for discussion. Discussion may include identifying the meeting’s key points and planning considerations. Learners will need to be given opportunities to practise taking minutes of meetings by recording the proceedings and then word processing the notes. Tutors can provide examples of different formats for presenting minutes.

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Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed by a single assignment connected to business meetings, documentation and administrative skills. You will need to: • Plan the activities needed for a meeting [LO.4(.1)], and then organise and support the meeting [LO.5], creating an agenda and minutes for the meeting [LO.3] and using office equipment safely [LO.4(.2)] Create other business communication [LO.3], using office equipment safely [LO.4(.2)] Review administrative skills required in business: identify administrative processes that need to be carried out in an organisation and who carries them out [LO.1] and explain why effective administration is important [LO.2].

• •

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Assessment information for assessors
Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments This unit must be covered by a single assignment, which is described in the How you will be assessed section, and exemplified within the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Sector-relevant purpose The meetings and business communication produced must be created for a relevant purpose(s). This could be based on the learners’ own enterprise or it could be connected to some other real organisation. Alternatively, a case study could be used. Evidence structure Learning outcome LO.3(.1, .2) Marking grid A Activity/section Organising and supporting a meeting Evidence Written evidence: meeting documents (agenda and minutes) Written evidence: plan of activities needed before meeting Learner observation record: use of office equipment* Learner observation record: organising, support and follow up for a meeting Creating other written business communication Written evidence: (an)other business document(s) Learner observation record: use of office equipment* Review Written evidence: administrative processes and roles; importance of effective administration

LO.4(.1)

A

LO.4(.2) LO.5

B B

LO.3(.1, .2) LO.4(.2) LO.1, LO.2

A B A

* Only one learner observation record should be completed to cover both activities/sessions Level of demand The level of demand appropriate to the assessment of this unit is exemplified in the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Assessment duration The suggested guided learning hours (GLH) needed to complete this assignment is 12 hours per learner. Centres can structure this time as they see fit. Centres should note that the total class assessment time will need to be higher to allow time for each individual to take a turn at organising and supporting a meeting.

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Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments The learners must be provided with full access to study all of the areas identified in the What you need to learn section of the specification. Controls relating to resources and supervision are contained within Annexe E of this specification. Learners will need to work in groups in order for the meetings to take place. Each learner must take a turn at doing this. They must work individually to make the arrangements and to create the meeting documentation (agenda and minutes), and record non-documentary activities in some way, such as a diary or log. They should work individually to create the other business document(s), which can be related to organising the meeting or activities that happen after the meeting has finished. Each learner must create at least one further document (in addition to any emails sent): the communication method should be chosen by the individual or the group, not specified by the tutor. In the course of their work, learners must be use must be required to use as a minimum the following pieces of office equipment: computer, printer and photocopier. Summary of unit controls Setting
Limited

Time
Limited

Resources
Limited

Supervision
Medium

Collaboration
Limited

Marking
Medium

See Annexe E for further information. Guidance for assessment The meetings will need to be held for a purpose, and could be linked together (for example in the form of regular team/update meetings) or each meeting could have a different but related purpose. If the assignment is based on their own enterprise, the purpose could be connected with planning or setting up their business activities, or possibly follow-up activities after the business has finished, for example a second, improved enterprise activity (either real or notional). The assignment could also be based around a case study provided by the tutor, based on a scenario created by the centre. Using a real organisation would have the advantage that the meetings can be linked more easily to the review activity for LO.1 and LO.2. It would make most sense for the meetings to be spread over a period of days or weeks in order to make the assessment task of organising and supporting meetings more realistic, eg one or two meetings per week. If that is not feasible, then the organisation and arrangement-making (but not the meetings themselves) could be done simultaneously. To keep the assessment manageable, it is recommended that each group contains no more than four learners. The ‘other business communication’ could include documents that are produced for discussion at one of the meetings, eg a draft of a letter; the tutor could, if necessary, provide the stimulus for this, eg a series of letters from ‘customers’ that need to be replied to. Other possibilities include presentation slides or a report which will be discussed at the meeting, or documents created as a result of actions agreed at the meeting. If the meeting is connected to their enterprise activities, documentation could include a business plan.

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Evidence for learners’ ability to manage time effectively (LO.4, Marking grid A) comes from their up-front planning of the activities needed, eg lists of tasks, ordering and estimated time required. This evidence can be in any suitable format(s), but must be done in writing. Marks for LO.5 are awarded in Marking grid B based on the tutor’s observation of learners’ ability to organise and support the meetings, but supporting evidence will come from the documentation produced during the course of this activity (copies of emails, agendas, minutes, etc). Tutors will need to be present for most of the activities and must take a holistic view based on what they see throughout the process rather than, say, at the beginning or end only. Tutors will not need to be present for the duration of the meetings, but should see at least part of each meeting. If the tutor is unable to judge the completeness of the meeting records as they were not there for the whole meeting, they can check with other meeting participants. The ‘agreed timescales’ referred to in Marking grid B could be those that are set by the centre and/or those agreed amongst the groups. Centres can specify the essential activities required for the organising and supporting the meeting, but learners should have some flexibility about what else needs to be done so that have scope to make genuine decisions. It is important that the frequency of meetings is decided so that the meeting organiser is clear about what timeframe they have to work within both for organising/supporting the meeting and for carrying out the follow up activities. The frequency of the meetings can either be set by the centre or (within defined parameters) by the learners. The review, covering LO.1 and LO.2, can be presented in any appropriate written format and must be done individually. This should be based on an organisation that the learners have studied; if the meetings organisation has been contextualised within an organisation, then this should be the same organisation used in the review.

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Marking grid A
Mark Band 2 The learner identifies administrative roles and can identify different administrative activities that are carried out. The learner identifies administrative roles and can clearly identify different administrative activities that are carried out and what these involve. Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus

Mark Band 1

LO.1

Know the different administrative roles and processes used in business (3–4) The learner explains why effective administration is important, focussing on staff members affected. (5–6) The learner explains convincingly why effective administration is important both to staff members affected and to the organisation as a whole. (5–6)

The learner identifies administrative roles and can briefly identify different administrative activities that are carried out.

(0–2)

6

LO.2

Understand the importance of effective administration (3–4)

The learner states that effective administration is important, but shows limited awareness of why.

(0–2)

6

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Assessment focus The types of document chosen are appropriate for their intended purpose. The style, content and layout of the documents conform to some degree to standard document conventions. (3–4) The message is reasonably clear, although there may be some errors in the use of language, a few of which may be intrusive. The learner has reasonable success in using language and tone that are suitable for the message, recipient and type of the communication. (7–10) The learner shows reasonable ability to plan the activities connected to organising and supporting a meeting in a way that makes best use of the time available. (4–6) (11–14) The learner shows good ability to plan the activities connected to organising and supporting a meeting in a way that makes best use of the time available. (7–8) 8 Total marks 40 (5–6) The message is clear. There are few errors in the use of language and these are not intrusive. The learner has good success in using language and tone that are suitable for the message, recipient and type of communication, in such a way that it would create a positive impression on the reader. 20 The types of document chosen are appropriate for their intended purpose. The style, content and layout of the documents mainly conform to standard document conventions.

Mark Band 1

Mark Band 2

Mark Band 3

Maximum marks available

LO.3(.1)

Be able to communicate effectively in writing

The types of document chosen may not always be appropriate for their intended purpose. The style, content and layout of the documents conform, to a limited degree, to standard document conventions.

(0–2)

LO.3(.2)

Be able to communicate effectively in writing

The message may be unclear, and there are frequent errors in use of language, which may be intrusive. The learner has limited success in using language and tone that are suitable for the message, recipient or type of communication.

(0–6)

LO.4(.1)

Be able to plan and carry out administrative work safely

There is either limited evidence of planning the activities connected to organising and supporting a meeting or learners have limited ability to plan in a way that makes best use of the time available.

(0–3)

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Marking grid B
Mark Band 2 The learner uses office equipment safely with few difficulties. The learner uses office equipment safely, and without difficulty. Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus

Mark Band 1

LO.4(.2)

Be able to plan and carry out administrative work safely (2) Overall, the learner shows reasonable organisational ability. The meeting is arranged, with relevant preparations made. The necessary documentation before and after the meeting is produced and distributed to the relevant people. (6–8) Records of the meeting are reasonably complete, with most key points recorded. (3–4) (9–11) Records of the meeting are complete, with key points recorded. (5–6) (3) Overall, the learner shows good organisational ability. The meeting is arranged, with relevant and efficient preparations made. The necessary documentation before and after the meeting is produced and distributed to the relevant people, within agreed timescales.

The learner uses office equipment safely but with some difficulties.

(0–1)

3

LO.5

Be able to organise and support a meeting

Overall, the learner shows limited organisational ability. The meeting is arranged, with some relevant preparations made. Some of the necessary documentation before and after the meeting is produced and distributed.

(0–5)

Records of the meeting may be limited in terms of completeness, with some key points recorded

(0–2)

17 Total marks 20

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Assessment guidance
Using the marking grid • • Each internally assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total. In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B. Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s). The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus. If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band. If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band. If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band. Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking. A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark. Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts. Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

• •

• •

• •

• •

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Level 2 descriptors
Descriptor Agreed timescales Brief/briefly Clear/clearly Convincing/convincingly Efficient/efficiently Explain/explanation A few Few Few errors Frequent errors Good/well Identify Intrusive (errors) Limited Mainly Reasonable Reasonably Relevant people Some errors Some State Meaning Timescales set by the centre and/or the group. Short, lacking detail. Well expressed, easy to understand or see. Believable, well argued, well chosen. Done well and in a timely manner, and without unnecessary effort. Provide reasons for a decision, feature, etc. One or two. Not many. A small number of errors in one or more of the following: spelling, punctuation, grammar, syntax. Numerous errors in one or more of the following: spelling, punctuation, grammar, syntax. To a high level or degree. Mention the key elements, facts, features, etc. Errors that stand out prominently and interrupt the flow of the reader. To a small and incomplete degree; showing basic or incomplete knowledge, evidence, ability etc. Mostly but not completely. Moderate or average. Somewhat, fairly. The attendees of the meeting and the tutor; not people who do not need to see the documents. A moderate number of errors in one or more of the following: spelling, punctuation, grammar, syntax. To a certain degree, partial; not all. Assert, make a statement without evidence or explanation.

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
The following table identifies the PLTS that have been included within the assessment criteria of this unit.

Skill Self-managers

When learners are … Prioritising and planning the meeting tasks [SM3].

Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning. Skill Independent enquirers When learners are … Identifying and clarifying which activities need to be completed in order for the meeting to take place successfully [IE1]; planning and carrying out research into administration within an organisation [IE2]; researching the administration in an organisation, exploring its value from the perspective of different parts of an organisation [IE3]. Prioritising the administrative tasks by setting goals for what they need to do before the meeting takes place and afterwards [RL2]; reviewing progress after the meeting has taken place [RL3]; inviting feedback after the meeting from other participants on how well they have done [RL4]; evaluating their administrative skills after the reception and business travel tasks [RL5]. Carrying out the administrative tasks to support the meeting, collaborating with others [TW1]; adapting their behaviour depending on whether they are participating in, or supporting, a meeting [TW3]; taking responsibility for organising the meeting and ensuring it take place [TW5]; providing feedback to others on how well they organised and supported the meeting [TW6]. Showing flexibility when performing reception duties by responding as circumstances change [SM1]; showing commitment and perseverance in organising and supporting the meeting [SM2]; dealing with competing pressures while carrying out administrative tasks [SM5]. Proposing practical ways forward when organising the meeting, breaking down the necessary stages into manageable steps [EP3].

Reflective learners

Team workers

Self-managers

Effective participators

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Functional skills — Level 2
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a variety of needs Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system used Manage information storage to enable efficient retrieval Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices Troubleshoot ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently for a complex task Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • text and tables images numbers records Researching business roles that require administrative skills. Researching different business roles that require administrative skills. Using folders to store and retrieve email messages and documents. Using electronic diary systems for planning work. When learners are …

Using electronic information management systems while organising business travel and accommodation. Using office equipment and systems in a safe and secure manner.

Bring together information to suit content and purpose

Present information in ways that are fit Researching business roles that require administrative for purpose and audience skills. Evaluate the selection and application of ICT tools and facilities used to present information Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, responsibly and effectively including storage of messages and contact lists Using electronic diary systems and emails while planning and prioritising tasks and while organising and supporting a meeting.

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Skill Mathematics Understand routine and non-routine problems in a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations Identify the situation or problem and the mathematical methods needed to tackle it Select and apply a range of mathematics to find solutions Use appropriate checking procedures and evaluate their effectiveness at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar routine contexts and situations Draw conclusions and provide mathematical justifications English Speaking and listening – make a range of contributions to discussions and make effective presentations in a wide range of contexts Reading – compare, select, read and understand texts and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments and opinions Writing – write documents, including extended writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and opinions, effectively and persuasively

When learners are …

Taking part in meetings. Organising business travel and accommodation.

Preparing meetings documentation.

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Work experience Work experience connected to this unit would useful, especially in relation to using office equipment. Specialist resources Centres must have access to a range of office equipment and systems for learners to practise and develop their administrative skills, which may be in the form of a model office comprising a desk, computer, printer, telephone. However, centres do not need the more specialist types of equipment eg scanners, binders etc, which may be available in the centre’s admin office or through a visit to a local business. Reference material Books Burton S – Office Procedures for the 21st Century and Student Workbook, 7th Edition (Prentice Hall, 2007) ISBN 0132343436 Carysforth C – NVQ Level 2 Business and Administration – Student Handbook (Heinemann, 2006) ISBN 0435463330 Fleming I – Time Management (Management Pocketbooks, 2003) ISBN 1903776082 Foster P – Business Administration Level 2 (Pearson Education, 1999) ISBN 0582368642 Gutman J – Taking Minutes at Meetings (Kogan Page, 2004) ISBN 074943564 Websites www.cfa.uk.com www.hse.gov.uk The Council for Administration Health and Safety Executive: information on health and safety rights and responsibilities

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LEVEL 2 UNIT 3: PERSONAL FINANCE AND FINANCIAL SERVICES

Unit 3: Personal Finance and Financial Services
Principal Learning unit Level 2 Guided Learning Hours: 30 Externally assessed
(29 hours learning time and 1 hour for assessment)

About this unit

‘Money is only a tool. It will take you wherever you wish but it will not replace you as the driver’ – Ayn Rand, writer. Personal finances need to be managed. Some people can afford to employ their own accountant to take care of their finances, but most people need to know how to do this for themselves. In this unit you will learn about different types of money and the factors that affect personal financial planning. To manage money efficiently you will need to obtain advice and information, and so you will also study ‘financial services’, which include the main local and national sources of financial advice. You will learn how such advice can help you take appropriate financial decisions. You will also construct personal budgets, which will help you plan your future income and expenses, and explore how and why different people have different views about money. You’ll be introduced to the main types of financial products and services, and who provides them. The knowledge you gain will help you to make appropriate decisions when deciding to spend, save or borrow, to ensure you balance the risks you will face with the rewards that you will receive.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 Know the main types, features and sources of money Understand how sources of financial information and advice differ Know how to plan and manage personal finances Understand the main features of common financial products and services.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Know the main types, features and sources of money People and businesses earn, spend and deal with money. If people are to handle money appropriately, they need to understand what it is. You need to learn about the: • concept of money: whatever can be used in order to settle payments; the whole and its parts (eg £1 = 100p); concept of ‘legal tender’ types of money and ‘near money’: cash and its properties (portable but durable); cheques; debit cards and credit cards; credit; other types (loyalty cards, vouchers, travellers’ cheques, e-money, season and other prepaid tickets, savings stamps) key features of money: cash (watermark, metallic strip, signature, other security features, right to refuse damaged/old notes); cheques (how used, relationship to current account); credit cards (how used, length of credit, statement and payment); debit cards (contrast with credit cards as a method of purchase, role in relation to personal accounts); store and other forms of credit (types, availability, how accessed, typical costs) sources of money: banks and other lenders; state benefits; personal sources (earned income, inheritance, selling, borrowing and using savings).

LO.2

Understand how sources of financial information and advice differ

People use different sources of information according to the financial advice they need: • • • • Citizens Advice Bureau (free financial information and advice) banks and building societies (advice on own products and services) independent financial advisors debt counsellors and Individual Voluntary Arrangements (advice and agreements on how to repay large debts) and bankruptcy Department for Work and Pensions (advice on benefits and entitlements) publications, telephone and internet sources: eg Which?, National Debtline, www.moneyfacts.co.uk, www.moneyexpert.com HM Revenue and Customs (advice on personal taxes) Financial Services Authority (advice to help consumers get a fair deal through the ‘Money made clear’ website).

• •

• •

People have to decide whether such advice is suitable for them. To do so, they need to consider factors such as: • advice published or online: the objectivity, quality and degree of detail of the advice.

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LO.3

Know how to plan and manage personal finances

Going into debt is one risk associated with personal finance. People must be able to plan financially, including taking into account their income and basic tax liability. You will need to learn about: • the benefits of planning personal expenditure: to avoid getting into debt; to control costs; to avoid legal action and/or repossession; to maintain a good credit rating personal budgets (with regular and irregular income and expenditure), their construction and key elements: recording personal income and expenditure in an expenditure diary and using financial records such as monthly bills; handling budget surpluses and budget shortfalls, and having a simple contingency plan taxes: types – indirect and direct; current rates of personal taxes (income tax and national insurance); why governments levy personal taxes and how tax income may be used; the payslip with PAYE and other deductions and tax codes.

You need to learn about the different factors that affect ways that personal finances are managed: • personal circumstances: age, employment status, personal responsibilities, existing and expected financial commitments personal and cultural attitudes: personal consumer behaviour, eg necessities versus luxuries, ‘pay for the name’ or ‘value for money’; personal attitudes towards risk and reward and influence on borrowing, spending and saving; ethical beliefs, eg ethical investments, ethical banking; cultural factors, eg religious views on interest storing versus saving money: at home; in a bank or building society; investing in property/valuables/other products; influences on choice (safety/security, access, incentives offered, availability of information).

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LO.4

Understand the main features of common financial products and services

More and more people now use businesses such as high street banks and building societies to help them keep and control their money. These businesses offer many financial services to the public. You will need to learn about: • current and savings accounts: opening and managing; features, rewards and benefits; types of savings accounts and interest rates; calculations of interest and borrowing charges; paying and/or withdrawing money (at the counter; use of direct debits, standing orders and Bacs; use of ATMs and pin numbers; telephone/internet/postal banking) rewards and risks associated with using the main providers of financial products and services (banks and building societies; mortgage specialists; retailers, eg store cards, personal loans) judging risk and probability of loss against likelihood of reward for common financial products, eg premium bonds, fixed/variable/tiered interest rates, non-interest based investments such as Stock Exchange, property and ‘valuables’ obtaining foreign currency: dominant currencies (Euro, US dollar, symbols and denominations); key phrases eg ‘cambio’ and ‘bureau de change’, exchange rates and their effects; ways to obtain foreign currency and related costs, eg commission; calculating costs and amounts.

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance The purpose of this unit is to allow learners to develop their knowledge and understanding of personal finance and the main financial services that will influence them. Although all learners will be using money in their everyday lives, they will need to understand what ‘money’ is: money as a concept, its types or forms, its purpose and sources. Learners will be taught the main factors that affect personal financial planning, and be introduced to the main sources of information available to them at home, in their local area and nationally. They will learn the importance of planning finances (budgeting) in order to help them plan their future financial needs. Most learners will have experience of banks and/or building societies (for example, by using a current or savings account) or will need to use them in the near future. As a result, they will need to be taught about the nature, purposes and differences relating to such accounts, how they are selected, opened and managed, their associated costs and benefits, and the other financial products and services that may be important to them in the future. Learners will also study the basic ways that fraud and theft can be avoided both personally and organisationally. Delivery guidance for LO.1 Learners will have experience of money in their everyday lives. To achieve this learning outcome they will need to (accepting the inevitable constraints of confidentiality) focus on their own experiences of earning, spending and saving money, and to reflect on their present understanding of what money is and the characteristics that it has. Although there is a focus on personal finance, it may be beneficial also to consider their experience of how organisations with which they are familiar are affected by financial matters, such as selling goods, paying wages and salaries, and expansion through undertaking capital expenditure. There are potential links here to the Business Enterprise, Business Finance and Accounting, and Marketing, Sales and Customer Service in Business units. The wider their research, the broader their understanding will be. Actual case studies of individuals, families and known local and national organisations will enable learners to relate their learning to their everyday experiences, to appreciate that different features and sources of money vary according to circumstances, to discuss their findings and to appreciate the extent to which individual financial circumstances and needs differ. Delivery guidance for LO.2 Learners will need to be introduced to the different sources of information available to individuals, such as banks, building societies, publications and web-based sources. Visits to, or guest speakers from, these financial organisations will allow learners to experience the realities of financial advice. Group work and presentations – for example, where different groups present their findings on different sources – are likely to be valuable techniques to use. Research using the internet and paper-based publications is also appropriate: see ‘Reference material’ at the end of this unit. There are substantial opportunities here for developing communication (in particular, listening and reading) and teamwork skills and for promoting the use of ICT, and developing the skills of reflection and analysis because the learners are asked to decide the degree of appropriateness of information obtained.

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Delivery guidance for LO.3 All learners will in practice ‘budget’, even though they may not be familiar with the term. Learners can use their own experience of planning as a basis to reflect on the importance of personal financial planning in terms of, for example, avoiding getting into debt. Figures can be used to good effect by allowing learners to experience situations involving spending, saving and borrowing – in particular, those that lead to debts being created – and the related financial effect, so there will be opportunity both here and in budget construction to develop numberbased skills. Many learners will have part-time jobs, and others may aspire to become employed part-time: as a result, the information used should be linked with the realities of paying tax and receiving net payments, by for example considering the main types of pay and the typical contents of a simple payslip. Learners should be introduced to a reasonably formal budget construction and layout – for example, headings of ‘Inflow’ ‘Outflow’ (or ‘Receipts’ and ‘Payments’), ‘Net inflow/outflow’ and ‘Balance’. It is important for the learners to be able to draw conclusions, based on their calculations, concerning both deficits and surpluses, the latter acting as a good link to the later consideration of savings as well as to Unit 1: Business Enterprise. Decisions on financial services are influenced by the concepts of risk and reward, as well as by factors such as personal circumstances, ethics and culture. A discussion-based or case-study approach will be appropriate here to encourage personal views to be considered, discussed and shared. Delivery guidance for LO.4 Many learners will know banks and building societies from personal experience, but this experience will need to be strengthened and broadened by investigating a range of these organisations and additional providers of financial services, and the financial products they all offer. Even if learners already have relevant accounts, they should go through the experience of comparing and selecting from a range of actual products, and then completing real paperwork (which is usually readily available, for example in bank and building society literature). Decision-making skills can be developed effectively through, for example, comparing the features of different accounts. There will be a number of opportunities for promoting ICT through research into the financial institutions’ products, and to develop teamwork and communication skills. All learners will be familiar with the importance of taking care of their cash, but they are likely to be less conversant with wider issues of fraud and theft. Existing experience of, for example, part-time retail employment and how the organisation controls theft and fraud can probably be discussed to good effect, and a visiting speaker from (say) a bank will act as a suitable information source. Many learners may also have actual experience of foreign holidays, and therefore of using foreign currency. This experience can be used, together with appropriate case studies and/or for example websites dealing with overseas flight and hotels, to provide a meaningful personal experience for the learners. The consequences of borrowing could be considered within this learning outcome in order to more fully contextualise the main features of financial products. One suitable approach is to outline existing borrowers’ terms, conditions and costs, and use this information to explore the consequences of undertaking a major (but realistic) first capital purchase such as a car.

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Learning outcomes and assessment criteria
Learning outcome number LO.1 LO.2 Learning outcome The learner should: Know the main types, features and sources of money Understand how sources of financial information and advice differ Know how to plan and manage personal finances Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Identify the types, features and sources of money in everyday situations 2.1 Compare different sources of financial information and advice 3.1 Outline benefits of planning personal expenditure 3.2 Construct personal budgets that take account of personal remuneration 3.3 Identify the purpose, types and current rates of personal taxes 3.4 Identify factors that influence attitudes to risk and reward LO.4 Understand the main features of common financial products and services 4.1 Describe ways of managing current and savings accounts, taking account of costs, charges and benefits 4.2 Assess the risks and rewards associated with different types and providers of financial products and services 4.3 Choose between different sources of foreign currency based on exchange rates and related costs

LO.3

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Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed by an examination lasting one hour, containing a range of questions. The mark you achieve for this examination will be your mark for the unit. Learning outcomes — assessment weighting Learning outcome LO.1 Know the main types, features and sources of money Range of weighting (% age) 10–20%

LO.2 Understand how sources of financial information and advice differ

2–10%

LO.3 Know how to plan and manage personal finances

30–40%

LO.4 Understand the main features of common financial products and services

30–40%

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) Although PLTS are not identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning. (Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements.) Skill Independent enquirers When learners are … Exploring debt from the point of view of the consumer of the financial institution [IE3]; analysing and evaluating sources of financial advice available, judging their relevance and value [IE4]; considering the influence of cultural background on attitudes to debt [IE5]. Considering the merits of different products/services in a given situation [CT5]. Reviewing their own progress in becoming more financially aware [RL3]; evaluating their existing financial experience to inform their learning [RL5]. Organising time and resources when constructing personal budgets [SM3]; anticipating and managing risks when constructing personal budgets by building in contingencies [SM4]. Discussing issues of concern such as debt management [EP1]; proposing practical ways forward when planning expenditure, breaking these down into manageable steps [EP3].

Creative thinkers Reflective learners

Self-managers

Effective participators

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Functional skills — Level 2
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a variety of needs Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system used Manage information storage to enable efficient retrieval Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices Troubleshoot ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently for a complex task Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • text and tables images numbers records Bringing together cash inflows and outflows; creating records of financial products and services. Constructing budgets; constructing exchange rate tables; creating records of financial products and services. Researching into (eg) internet-based financial organisations, products and services. Researching into financial organisations, products and services, eg exchange rates, for the purposes of spending, saving and borrowing money. Researching into financial organisations, products and services. Preparing spreadsheet budgets. When learners are …

Saving and retrieving text-based and numerical (eg budget) information. Exploring issues relating to electronic fraud and theft; undertake safe practice when using internet and other relevant software/hardware.

Bring together information to suit content and purpose

Present information in ways that are fit Presenting individual budgets. for purpose and audience Evaluate the selection and application of ICT tools and facilities used to present information

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Skill Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, responsibly and effectively including storage of messages and contact lists Mathematics Understand routine and non-routine problems in a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations Identify the situation or problem and the mathematical methods needed to tackle it Select and apply a range of mathematics to find solutions Use appropriate checking procedures and evaluate their effectiveness at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar routine contexts and situations Draw conclusions and provide mathematical justifications English Speaking and listening – make a range of contributions to discussions and make effective presentations in a wide range of contexts Reading – compare, select, read and understand texts and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments and opinions Writing – write documents, including extended writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and opinions, effectively and persuasively

When learners are … Obtaining web-based information about financial products and services.

Dealing with budgeted figures; calculating interest and borrowing amounts; calculating commission on foreign exchange; interpreting simple taxation information. Obtaining budgeted information from existing spending and income statements; selecting relevant interest, commission and taxation percentages. Constructing budgets; calculating interest, commission and borrowing amounts and costs. Totalling budget columns and rows and cross-checking; checking the logic of interest, commission and borrowing calculations. Interpreting budgeted, interest, commission and borrowing results.

Using interest, commission and borrowing calculations to justify decisions budgeted, interest, commission and borrowing results

Discussing and exchanging information about financial organisations, products and services; discussing informally results of research with fellow learners concerning issues such as differing personal and cultural views of money. Reading and understanding literature from financial organisations.

Completing documents relating to financial products and services; creating budget statements.

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Specialist resources None. Reference material Book Lowe J – Personal Finance Handbook, 2nd edition (Child Poverty Action Group, 2007) ISBN 1906076014 Other resources Money-go-round CD ROM Money power CD ROM Moneytalk CD ROM National Debtline factsheets (downloadable) Websites www.adviceonline.co.uk www.astute-investor.co.uk www.firsttrustbank.co.uk www.fool.co.uk www.ft.com/yourmoney www.getsafeonline.org www.home.co.uk/finance www.moneymadeclear.fsa.gov.uk www.moneysavingexpert.com www.moneyfacts.co.uk www.nationaldebtline.co.uk www.pfeg.org www.uk250.co.uk/Bank/index.html www.unbiased.co.uk Advice Online: independent financial advice Astute Investor First Trust Bank (personal finance) The Motley Fool: financial advice and information Financial Times Get Safe Online: government-sponsored site Home.co.uk: information about financial products Financial Services Authority Martin Lewis Moneyfacts Group National Debtline Educational charity UK bank websites Independent Financial Advice Promotion Ltd Basic Skills Agency Basic Skills Agency Basic Skills Agency National Debtline

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LEVEL 2 UNIT 4: BUSINESS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING

Unit 4: Business Finance and Accounting
Principal Learning unit Level 2 Guided Learning Hours: 60 Internally assessed

About this unit

Finance is important to us, and also to organisations. They need to record money received and paid, control their costs, buy equipment and other items, and to deal efficiently with all finances. Businesses use accounting to help them carry out these tasks. In this unit you will discover that differences exist between our personal finance and the finance of business. You will learn about jobs in finance and accounting, the sources of finance available to businesses, the importance of recording financial transactions accurately and efficiently. It is important for a business to try to forecast what is going to happen in the future and then to set targets. One technique used is to construct budgets. You will learn about the purpose and types of budgets, and explore the techniques used to construct them. This unit will show you how business people calculate key figures and construct financial reports. You will learn how computerised accounting systems and other ICT software is used to construct these reports and to help make financial decisions.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 Know the nature of business finance and accounting Be able to budget for a product or service Be able to manage transactions Be able to report on financial performance.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Know the nature of business finance and accounting No one can set up or run a business without adequate finance. Finance plays a key role in business, and is the foundation for the accounting function. You will need to learn about: • finance and accounting-related jobs, eg director of finance, cashier, finance clerk, financial accountant, management accountant, accounts clerk roles carried out in finance and accounting: obtaining and managing finance; recording, analysing and communicating financial information as an aid to managing a business. purposes: forecasting; financial reporting; to interpret profitability and liquidity; to meet legal requirements; to help save costs; for investment.

Businesses use financial information for different purposes: •

LO.2

Be able to budget for a product or service

In order to be successful, finances need to be planned. You need to learn about: • calculating the cost of a product or service: direct costs, eg raw materials, related labour costs; indirect costs/overheads, eg rent and rates the purpose of budgeting: to plan, control, motivate types of budget: sales, production, materials, labour, overheads; creation of master budget budgeting techniques: preparing budgets; variances and reasons for, eg overtime, absenteeism, wastage, price changes.

• • •

As part of their budgeting, business draw on different sources of business finance, which can originate either from inside the business or from outside. You will need to learn about: • • internal sources of business finance: trading income; profits; sale of assets; share or other capital from the owner(s) external sources of business finance: borrowing; trade credit; debt factoring and invoice discounting; hire purchase and leasing; grants and subsidies; venture capital.

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LO.3

Be able to manage transactions

A key role in business finance and accounting is to record financial information and then use it to create documents and records that are accurate and complete. You need to learn about: • financial transactions: the types of financial transactions in business; the role of financial documents in the sequence of recording and paying for goods and services creating accurate financial documents: invoices, receipts; trade and cash (settlement) discount; standard VAT and its calculation recording business transactions in the cash book: components (sales and other receipts, eg capital introduced, long-term loans, rent received; payments, eg to suppliers, overheads and other expenses, loan repayments, purchase of fixed assets; opening balance, closing balance); construction of columnar cash books.

Although some businesses produce financial documents and business reports by hand, many others use computerised accounting systems and other ICT software to automate some or all parts of this process: • manual and electronic methods for recording and processing financial information efficiently: accounting software; spreadsheets that record costs and revenues, cash receipts and payments, income statements and balance; advantages and disadvantages of electronic methods compared with manual methods.

LO.4

Be able to report on financial performance

Businesses need to be able to review financial performance over time and take corrective action if necessary. You need to learn about: • • constructing financial reports: profit and loss statement/income statement; balance sheet factors that need to taken into account: layout; corporation tax.

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance This unit is 60 guided learning hours (GLH) in length. Centres should allocate this amount of time within the timetable for its delivery and assessment. Unless otherwise stated, all of the content included in the What you need to learn section needs to be taught. Sometimes an ‘eg’ or ‘for example’ is included in order to show content that is indicative: in these cases not all of the examples will need to be covered (for example, because some may not always apply in a particular situation), and tutors can introduce other examples of their own that are relevant to particular situations and to the needs of their learners. The purpose of this unit is to introduce business finance and give an understanding of the role of accounting in business. Learners will explore key roles within business finance and accounting, the main documents and processes used by business and the range of uses to financial information is put. This will equip learners with skills needed to record simple business transactions, perform simple business calculations and prepare financial documents and basic financial reports. There will be opportunities to use real financial information. Although much of this information remains confidential, there are sources: for instance, published financial statements (which sometimes appear in an abbreviated simplified form, or which can be simplified). Although learners will meet key accounting and financial terms, concepts and ideas in the unit, the purpose is not to train them as accountants and therefore the ‘language’ of accounting needs to be introduced with that in mind. Accounting and finance involve communication and administrative skills, which link to the units in Unit 6: Teams and Communication in Business and Unit 2: Business Administration. There are very close links with Unit 1: Business Enterprise, in which learners need to persuade potential investors of the merits of a business idea. Delivery of this unit should be made in such a way as to acknowledge fully, and to utilise, the knowledge and understanding gained by learners from their study of the Business Enterprise unit. Wherever possible, therefore, this unit should be delivered in the context of Business Enterprise. It is important to note that if the assignment will make use of the learner’s own business enterprise, then during the teaching of the unit, where learners are practising financial plans, reports, etc, different examples are used. Delivery guidance for LO.1 This learning outcome acts partly as a theoretical basis for the other learning outcomes. It introduces learners to actual work roles in finance and accounting, and therefore the use of outside speakers (possibly from their own centre, such as a finance officer) is a suitable approach. Learners should discuss their own experiences of the influence of finance on organisations, for example through selling goods and paying staff. The learners’ centre, in terms of its financial and economic environment, might act as one suitable source for study. The centre can be used effectively in delivering the learning outcome, since there is likely to be easy access to non-confidential financial information such as the main accounting and finance-based roles. This learning outcome requires understanding of how businesses use financial information. Because of the variety of this information, using a range of businesses will give an overview of the use of information when forecasting and planning, reporting, meeting legal requirements, investing and cost saving. Individual or group research and presentations are effective methods for this.

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Delivery guidance for LO.2 This outcome introduces learners to simple business budgets and the main sources of finance. They will need to learn how to categorise costs as either direct or indirect. To do so, specific products or services should be used, and the product or service from Unit 1: Business Enterprise can act as a key source for learning here. External influences on product costs, such as VAT, should be considered and accounted for in the calculations. Learners will have some personal experience of budgeting, and this is a logical starting-point for the topic of budgeting. The purpose of budgeting can therefore easily be established through (for example) class discussion, and then placed firmly in a business context by providing an overview of the likely or actual budgets operated by the learners’ centre. In order to meet a full range of budgets, learners should explore a range of businesses to discover how budgets vary in nature, coverage and complexity. Learners need to consider how differences that exist in organisational structures and environments create different financial needs and situations. As a result, they should study a range of different businesses, for example, own centre (tertiary), large multinational (secondary), local council (tertiary), garden centre (primary/tertiary), local sole trader electrician or plumber (tertiary) in order to illustrate the key internal and external sources of finance and why these vary from business type to business type. It can be beneficial for learners to be set either individual or small group research tasks into a business’s sources of finance and to present findings to the whole class, giving the opportunity to further develop communication and ICT skills. Delivery guidance for LO.3 This outcome requires learners to consider financial transactions and documents. This should be taught bearing in mind the practical nature of this unit, and the requirement to prepare a simple invoice and receipt for this learning outcome. There are several issues for learners to consider: the purpose and content of each document; the extent to which the layout and content of a document can vary (and why); the importance of accuracy in words and figures, and the associated calculations; and requirements for completion. Real business documents should be used wherever possible, to illustrate these issues. There will be scope for learners to work as a team in identifying and selecting relevant documents. This learning outcome requires learners to create simple (but accurate) financial documents. There is likely to be some existing knowledge of invoices and receipts from work experience, and close links exist with Unit 5: Marketing and Sales in Business given the importance of documents when selling. One possible delivery method is to set up small groups acting as various businesses, the groups trading with each other and controlling their own documents. The importance of accuracy in calculation needs to be reinforced, and can be supported by discussions concerning the extent to which errors in documents affect the future of a business. Learners also have to learn how to record transactions in a cash book. This should be columnar, and learners therefore need to consider the influence of settlement/cash discount (allowed and received) and VAT. Learners should also be made aware of the range of cash receipts and payments – capital and revenue income and expenditure – and balancing techniques. For learners’ cash books and own documents, appropriate software such as Word, Excel or equivalents should be available. Group or teamwork on specific software is an effective learning method, because it will encourage discussion and review.

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Delivery guidance for LO.4 This learning outcome requires the construction of income statements and balance sheets. The use of actual business examples (simplified where necessary) will benefit learners by for example illustrating the differences in layout and content, and influences such as taxation on amounts and layout. Learners must understand the difference between ‘liquidity’ and ‘profitability’, profit and profitability, and cash and liquidity. These key features of any successful business link well with Unit 1: Business Enterprise and also Unit 5: Marketing, Sales and Customer Service in Business, for example when exploring the relationship between size of profit margin, price, market segment and advertising. Although they are not required to calculate ratios, it is suggested that an introduction to current and acid test, net profit margin and return on capital employed, will help learners more fully understand and more easily interpret given information. It also provides the opportunity to develop further ICT skills, by, for example, using spreadsheet calculations.

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LEVEL 2 UNIT 4: BUSINESS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING

Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit is assessed by an assignment based around a new product or service that a business wants to start selling. The business you use could be your own business enterprise, or a case study based on a real or imaginary business. You will need to discuss this with your tutor, who will – if your assignment is not based on a real business – provide you with the data you need. You will need to: • Plan for the selling of a new product or service. This will involve: calculating the cost of the product/service; identifying two relevant internal and two relevant external sources of finance that the business could use; preparing a simple cash or other type of budget [LO.2]; choosing a manual or electronic method for processing and storing financial information, giving your reasons [LO.3(.1)]; identifying the different finance/accounting jobs that the business will need and describing what roles they perform [LO.1(.1)] Manage transactions. This will involve: preparing an invoice and receipt; and recording transactions in a columnar cash book [LO.3(.2, .3)] Report on financial performance. This will involve: creating a balance sheet and either an income statement or profit and loss statement; commenting upon financial performance, making any necessary recommendations [LO.4]; identifying how this information on financial performance could be useful to the business [LO.1(.2)].

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Assessment information for assessors
Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments This unit must be covered by a single assignment, which is described in the How you will be assessed section, and exemplified within the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Sector-relevant purpose The three parts must be linked together so that the financial report is based on the plan and transactions. Any type of business and any type of product or service could provide learners with a sector-relevant purpose. Ideally, the product or service on which the assignment is based will relate to the learners’ own business enterprise or some other real business. Alternatively a case study could be used. See Guidance for assessment below for further information. Evidence structure Learning outcome LO.2 LO.3(.1) LO.1(.1) LO.3(.2, .3) LO.4 Marking grid A A A A A Transactions Financial report Activity/section Financial plan Evidence Written evidence: cost calculations, sources of finance, budget Written evidence: method of processing/storing information Written evidence: finance/accounting roles Written evidence: cash book, invoice, receipt Written evidence: balance sheet; income statement or profit and loss statement; comments and recommendations Written evidence: uses of financial information

LO.1(.2)

A

Level of demand The level of demand appropriate to the assessment of this unit is exemplified in the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Assessment duration The suggested guided learning hours (GLH) required to complete this assignment is 12 hours per learner. Centres can structure this time as they see fit. Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments The learners must be provided with full access to study all of the areas identified in the What you need to learn section of the specification. Any financial data provided to learners on which they base their calculations, budgets, etc, must be included with their assignment.

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Controls relating to resources and supervision are contained within Annexe E of this specification. All assessment evidence must be produced individually. More than one learner may, however, work on the same business, and if this is the case, can work together at the preparatory stages, for example deciding what information to put into the budget. The learners must demonstrate accurate and appropriate calculations in context. This means that the selected product or service, and budget, should be of sufficient complexity to allow an appropriate range of business-influenced calculations to take place. The learner will therefore need to identify, quantify and use all key financial information in relevant categories (for example, direct and indirect costs for the product cost exercise), consider how these costs and other financial information impinges on and affects the calculations, and indicate clearly that financial information which has been excluded from the calculations together with the reasons for the exclusion. Summary of unit controls Setting
Limited

Time
Limited

Resources
Limited

Supervision
Medium

Collaboration
Limited

Marking
Medium

See Annexe E for further information. Guidance for assessment Assessment can take place in three different stages (financial plan, transactions, financial report) after the relevant learning has taken place. Alternatively all of the assessment can all take place at the end of the unit. There are three main parts to the assignment: the plan; the transactions; and the report on financial performance. The different parts of the assignment could be done in a single format, or different parts could be broken into different stages and could be done in different ways, for example paper-based documents for the first and second parts, with presentation slides and notes for the third part. If a presentation is done for any part of the assignment, for moderation purposes, it is important to note that the written evidence created (slides, notes, etc) must by itself provide sufficient evidence of the learner’s knowledge and understanding; oral communication/presentation skills are not assessed in this unit. The business on which this assignment is based could be their own business enterprise or it could be a case study based on a real or imaginary business; if it is a simulation, then the data for recording and financial reporting will have to be provided to learners along with the case study. If the assignment is based on their own business enterprise and assessment takes place before any transactions can take place, then the second and third parts could be based on simulated information provided by the tutor. The business chosen could be a real business, such as a local employer who is thinking of selling a new product or service and has commissioned learners to produce a financial plan in order to decide whether to go ahead with the product or service.

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For the first part of the assignment, it should be emphasised that learners need to both calculate costs and identify sources that are relevant to the particular business. The same principle of relevance should also apply to selection and construction of the budget: for example, whilst a cash budget is likely to be one of the most important and relevant budgets for any business, other budgets (such as capital expenditure, production, labour cost) will feature for some business situations only. When giving a choice of recording method, learners should concentrate on a method that can be used for one recording or processing function, eg cost recording. Stronger learners will be able to give some justification in terms of advantages or disadvantages which make reference to the alternatives. The accounting/finance roles that they need to identify will be both those involved in managing transactions and in reviewing performance. For the second part of the assignment, learners should take care when creating an invoice to take account of VAT. The documents will need to contain real (or, if necessary, realistic) financial information. For the third part of the assignment, the choice of profit and loss account or alternative income statement will depend on the type of business. If it is a limited company, then it should include corporation tax. The recommendations will depend on the performance: if a product/service has proved to be profitable, the recommendations will be different from those that might be made if this has not been the case. The report should explore the actual or potential use of this financial information from key business perspectives such as decision-making regarding factors such as the need for further investment or the review of business liquidity.

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Marking grid A
Mark Band 2 Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus In the financial plan, the learner identifies finance and accounting jobs the chosen business needs, and describes briefly the roles performed by these jobs. (3–4) In the financial report, the learner describes the specific uses of information, showing reasonable understanding of its uses. (5–6) In the financial report, the learner describes clearly the specific uses of financial information, showing a good understanding of its uses. In the financial plan, the learner identifies finance and accounting jobs the chosen business needs, and describes fully and accurately the roles performed by these jobs.

Mark Band 1

LO.1(.1)

Know the nature of business finance and accounting

In the financial plan, the learner states finance and accounting jobs that the chosen business might need.

(0–2)

LO.1(.2)

Know the nature of business finance and accounting (3–4) In the financial plan the learner calculates the cost of a product or service to a moderate level of accuracy and completeness. Mostly relevant major sources of possible finance are identified and classified accurately as internal or external. (6–9) Using a suitable format and techniques, the learner constructs a cash or other budget for the chosen business, showing a moderate level of accuracy and completeness. (3–4) (5–6)

In the financial report, the learner describes briefly and in general terms the uses of financial information in the chosen business, showing limited understanding of its uses.

(0–2)

12

LO.2(.1, .2)

Be able to budget for a product or service

In the financial plan, the learner calculates the cost of a product or service to a limited level of accuracy and completeness. Major sources of possible finance are identified.

In the financial plan the learner calculates the cost of a product or service to a high level of accuracy and completeness. Relevant major sources of possible finance are identified and classified accurately as internal or external. (10–12) Using a suitable format and techniques, the learner constructs a cash or other budget for the chosen business, which is presented clearly and showing a high level of accuracy and completeness. (5–6) 18 179

(0–5)

LO.2(.3)

Be able to budget for a product or service

The learner attempts to construct a cash or other budget for the chosen business, which shows a limited level of accuracy and completeness.

(0–2)

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Assessment focus The learner selects an appropriate method for processing and storing financial information in the chosen business, with some justification provided for choice of method. The learner selects an appropriate method for processing and storing financial information in the chosen business, with clear justification provided for the choice of method. (5–6) The learner creates a cash book, invoice and receipt, which contains only relevant financial information, and presents the information to high level of clarity, accuracy and completeness. (10–12) The learner creates financial statements for the chosen business which demonstrate a high level of accuracy and completeness. (5–6) The learner comments in detail on specific aspects of financial performance. Well considered and clear recommendations are made, with clear justification given. (5–6) 12 Total marks 60 18 (3–4) The learner creates a cash book, invoice and receipt which contain generally relevant financial information, presenting the information to a moderate level of clarity, accuracy and completeness. (6–9) The learner creates financial statements for the chosen business which demonstrate a moderate level of accuracy and completeness. (3–4) The learner comments on specific aspects of financial performance. Clear recommendations are made, with some justification given. (3–4)

Mark Band 1

Mark Band 2

Mark Band 3

Maximum marks available

LO.3(.1)

Be able to manage transactions

The learner selects an appropriate method for processing and storing financial information in the chosen business.

(0–2)

LO.3(.2, .3)

Be able to manage transactions

The learner creates a cash book, invoice and receipt, presenting the information to a limited level of clarity, accuracy and completeness.

(0–5)

LO.4(.1)

Be able to report on financial performance

The learner creates financial statements for the chosen business which demonstrate a limited level of accuracy and completeness.

(0–2)

LO.4(.2)

Be able to report on financial performance

The learner comments on financial performance in general terms. Any recommendations are limited and generalised.

(0–2)

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Assessment guidance
Using the marking grid • • Each internally assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total. In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B. Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s). The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus. If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band. If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band. If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band. Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking. A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark. Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts. Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

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Level 2 descriptors
Descriptor Accurately Appropriate Attempts to Basic Brief/briefly Clear/clearly Consistently Describe/description Detail/detailed Fully (in) general terms Generally Good/well High level of accuracy/ completeness Meaning Without errors. Suitable/relevant to the organisation. Tries to do something but is only partially or not at all successful. Limited to the fundamental features, elements or facts. Short, lacking detail. Well expressed, easy to understand or see. Throughout. Provide information that includes relevant features, elements, facts, etc. Showing thoroughness. Completely. Characterised by general statements which lack depth and not related to specific uses. Mostly, but not completely. To a high level. Without no more than a few errors/omissions, and these can be considered minor, eg an error of addition (in a cash book); minor arithmetic errors in costing, rather than errors based on inaccurate cost assumptions. Consistently easy to read, understand and interpret. Mentions the key elements, facts, features, etc. Give reasons for something. Shows only basic ability or understanding. Containing a number of errors or omissions, some of which may be significant, eg inaccurate classification (in position and performance statements); calculating costs based on wrong assumptions; omitting a substantial cost (in a budget). Poorly presented and difficult to read and interpret. Largely accurate, but containing some errors/omissions, which may occasionally be significant, eg omitting an expense category or recording a fixed asset as a current asset (in a budget); inaccurate classifying of direct/indirect costs. Quite well presented, can be read and interpreted with some effort; likely to be inconsistent with some parts clear and others less so.

High level of clarity Identify Justify/justification Limited Limited (level of) accuracy/ completeness

Limited clarity Moderate (level of) accuracy/ completeness

Moderate (level of) clarity

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Descriptor Reasonable Relevant Relevant financial information

Meaning Moderate or average. Applicable to the organisation. Financial information that is relevant to the chosen business, eg VAT for invoices, corporation tax in profit and loss statements. To a certain degree, partial. Including details about the method and how it is used. Appropriate for the organisation and intended purpose. Showing good judgement, thoughtful.

Some Specific uses Suitable format and techniques Well considered

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
Although PLTS are not identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning. (Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements.)

Skill Independent enquirers Creative thinkers

When learners are … Considering the influence of circumstances on the methods used for recording financial information [IE5]. Asking questions about business financial documents, statements, sources and techniques to extend their thinking [CT2]; trying out alternative calculations and figures when creating financial statements, and following ideas through [CT5].

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Functional skills — Level 2
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a variety of needs Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system used Manage information storage to enable efficient retrieval Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices Researching into financial organisations, sources, documents and information. Preparing business financial statements. When learners are …

Saving and retrieving text-based and numerical (eg business financial statement) information. Exploring issues relating to electronic storage of business financial information; undertake safe practice when using internet and other relevant software/hardware.

Troubleshoot ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently for a complex task Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • text and tables images numbers records Bringing together business financial information; comparing business financial performance. Constructing business financial documents and statements, displaying numerical financial information such as functional budgets. Information from research into (eg) internet-based financial organisations, sources, documents and information. Researching into financial organisations, sources, documents and information, eg business tax rates, company reports, for the purposes of interpretation.

Bring together information to suit content and purpose

Present information in ways that are fit Presenting individual research findings on business for purpose and audience financial organisations, sources, documents and information. Evaluate the selection and application of ICT tools and facilities used to present information Judging the approaches used when presenting organisational financial information.

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Skill Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, responsibly and effectively including storage of messages and contact lists Mathematics Understand routine and non-routine problems in a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations Identify the situation or problem and the mathematical methods needed to tackle it Select and apply a range of mathematics to find solutions Use appropriate checking procedures and evaluate their effectiveness at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar routine contexts and situations Draw conclusions and provide mathematical justifications English Speaking and listening – make a range of contributions to discussions and make effective presentations in a wide range of contexts Reading – compare, select, read and understand texts and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments and opinions Writing – write documents, including extended writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and opinions, effectively and persuasively

When learners are … Obtaining web-based information about business financial organisations, sources, documents and information.

Dealing with business financial figures; calculating amounts and balances; calculating simple financial report figures and budgets. Obtaining financial information from (eg) existing business income statements. Constructing business financial statements. Totalling plan columns and rows and cross-checking; checking the logic of cash, profit and budget calculations. Interpreting results shown by statements and budgets.

Discussing and exchanging information about financial organisations; discussing informally results of research with fellow learners concerning issues such as differing personal and cultural views of sources of finance. Reading and understanding literature from financial organisations.

Completing financial documents relating to business; creating financial statements.

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Work experience There is no requirement for work experience to complete this unit, but learners would benefit from any experience gained in finance or accounting, for example to gain an insight into the roles that they play within an organisation, accounting methods, etc. Specialist resources Access to the following generic packages is required in order that candidates can appreciate their role in displaying, calculating and interpreting finance in business: • • • • internet word processing software spreadsheet software database software.

Access to specialist accounting software is not required for this unit, although centres might consider providing access in order for learners to experience, at first hand, how such software supports business finance and accounting. Reference material Books Barrow P – The Bottom Line: Business Finance Your Questions Answered (Virgin Business Guides) (Virgin Books, 2005) ISBN 0753509989 Cinnamon B and Helweg-Larsen B – How to Understand Business Finance (Creating Success series) (Kogan Page, 2006) ISBN 0749446684 Day J et al – An Introduction to Accounting and Finance in Business (Open University, 2006) ISBN 0749213132 Meckin D – Naked Finance: Business Finance Pure and Simple (Nicholas Breasley, 2007) ISBN 1857883942 Websites www.bized.co.uk Educational website including information about business finance and accounting, use of relevant software, breakeven analysis Tutorial on accounting ratios Online company reports website Companies House Guide to accounting layouts and ratios

www.blandon.co.uk/finance/topic2/t2tut1.htm www.carol.co.uk www.companieshouse.gov.uk www.osbornebooks.co.uk/pdf/layouts_and_ratios.pdf

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LEVEL 2 UNIT 5: MARKETING, SALES AND CUSTOMER SERVICE IN BUSINESS

Unit 5: Marketing, Sales and Customer Service in Business
Principal Learning unit Level 2 Guided Learning Hours: 60 Internally assessed

About this unit

Marketing is one of the most exciting and high profile business functions in which to work. The creative output from the marketing team, such as advertising and promotion, is often seen and experienced before the product itself, and remembered long after a product has been used. But behind the glamour of marketing lie sound business principles which influence the look and performance of the product, how much it sells for and how much profit it generates for the business, how and where it is sold, and how it is promoted. This unit will introduce you to all these aspects of marketing, and to the way that market research is used to provide the marketing team with valuable information. But marketing alone does not guarantee success – sales and customer service are other important functions that help a business to succeed, that produce income and make sure that customers keep coming back to your business rather than the competition. This unit will give you the chance to see how sales and good customer service can be achieved as well as practising your sales and customer handling skills with different customers. Making sales can be a challenge as potential customers can often find a good reason not to buy; this unit will give you a chance to learn how to get past this and make that all important sale.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 Know the principles of marketing Be able to carry out market research Understand how effective customer service is achieved Be able to handle customers effectively in a sales situation.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Know the principles of marketing You need to learn how organisations use the four elements of the marketing mix in their marketing plans to position their products and services to meet customer needs: • • • • product: what it is; how to make it appealing to customers price: how much to charge promotion: how to tell people about it (advertising, publicity, sales promotion) place: where it is going to be sold, (through distributors/agents/direct to the customer); method, eg via the internet, face-to-face, telephone.

You need to learn about the decisions that need to be made when creating promotional materials: • • • • LO.2 Be able to carry out market research type of promotional materials, eg poster, leaflet, advertisement, signage nature of the promotional materials, eg colours, visual features, text name of the product/service and company branding or logo.

A key responsibility of the marketing function in a business is to carry out market research in order to understand: • • • • • the market: size, trends, other quantitative measures customers: current or potential; who they are; where they are; what they want competitors: who they are; what they are doing. primary research, collecting new information: interviews, surveys, questionnaires, focus groups, observations secondary research, using information that is already available: published reports, sales figures. deciding what you questions you want your research to answer choosing a method you will use to find out these answers and deciding who you are going to ask planning how long it is going to take you collecting information interpreting results and identifying key findings using results to modify ideas as necessary.

You need to learn about different methods of market research:

The process of carrying out market research involves: • • • • • •

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LO.3

Understand how effective customer service is achieved

Effective customer service brings a number of benefits: • • • • promoting customer loyalty and resulting in repeat business attracting new customers reducing complaints and negative publicity contributing to the success of the organisation.

You need to learn about the difference between internal and external customers: • • • internal customers: team members, staff in other departments, line managers external customers: people outside the business who buy your products or services the connection between internal and external customers: how internal customer service can impact on levels of satisfaction of external customers. whether they are new or repeat customers individual characteristics, eg age, gender, income, education special needs, eg disabilities and impairments, speakers of English as a second language.

Customers can be grouped in different ways according to: • • •

You need to learn about the aspects of customer service that are important to customers: • • • • • • customer services policies meet their needs and expectations employees have a good knowledge of the products and services employees are responsive when dealing with queries employees are sensitive to diverse customer needs employees take responsibility for delivering effective customer service customers receive their statutory and contractual rights.

Organisations manage their customer service policies and procedures in different ways. Employees need follow customer service policies and procedures where they work in order to meet: • • • • • • customer expectations the aims, objectives and ethos of the organisation budgets industry standards competitor standards codes of conduct and legislation.

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LO.4

Be able to handle customers effectively in a sales situation

Thorough preparation is one of the keys to successful selling. You need learn about what this involves and the steps involved in making a sale: • being familiar with the product:
○ ○ ○ ○ ○

what it is, what it does, how customers and consumers use or experience the product its features and benefits the pricing the distribution method after-sales support and services

• •

knowing who your customers are common types of objections you may face:
○ ○ ○ ○

price timing features of the product itself brand or manufacturer making initial contact with the customer finding out what the customer wants presenting them with a solution overcoming objections closing the sale.

knowing the basic steps in making a sale:
○ ○ ○ ○ ○

You need to learn what is required when making a sale: • • • • a positive attitude: approachable, motivated to sell making the customer feel comfortable ability to overcome objections and close a sale verbal communication skills:
○ ○ ○ ○

listening skills ability to give information, describing a product/service appropriate tone of voice, pace and clarity ability to adapt your delivery depending on the customer effective body language, eg open posture, use of eye contact ability to adapt your body language depending on the customer.

non-verbal communication skills:
○ ○

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance This unit is 60 guided learning hours (GLH) in length. Centres should allocate this amount of time within the timetable for its delivery and assessment. Unless otherwise stated, all of the content included in the What you need to learn section needs to be taught. Sometimes an ‘eg’ or ‘for example’ is included in order to show content that is indicative: in these cases not all of the examples will need to be covered (for example, because some may not always apply in a particular situation), and tutors can introduce other examples of their own that are relevant to particular situations and to the needs of their learners. Delivery guidance for LO.1 Whether they know it or not, most learners will be customers and consumers of a wide range of organisations, products and services. As such, they will be targeted by these organisations and will have marketing mixes specially created to appeal to them as consumers. It may be worth exploring this approach to help learners understand the marketing mix is not just a list of four criteria to be learned, but the starting point for the construction of marketing plans – some of which will be targeted at them. This can be developed by getting learners to describe, using the variable elements of the marketing mix, products or services that they buy and consume, and identifying what it is about the product, as they perceive it, that appeals to them and has resulted in their purchase and consumption – what elements of the marketing mix have influenced their choice. Another approach would be to deconstruct a product, aiming to identify how the variables within each of the elements of the marketing mix have been brought together to arrive at the product being studied. When creating a marketing mix for a service, some businesses find it helpful to use an ‘extended marketing mix’, incorporating Ps for People, Process and Physical evidence. These are not necessarily additional, but a development of the P for Product, emphasising elements that are particularly relevant to a service. Centres may choose to introduce this topic to learners, but it is not a requirement and learners will not get additional credit for using this when completing their assignment. Learners need to be taught about different types of promotional materials. But what is meant by the term ‘promotional materials’? It can be anything that has been designed to support the promotion, advertising or marketing of a product of service, including posters, leaflets, signage and advertisements. Centres can also introduce learners to other promotional materials as appropriate, for examples, press releases, show-cards and other display materials used to promote product in retail stores, etc. Learners should be encouraged to collect as many examples of promotional material that they can find, especially that which relates to promoting products from exemplar organisations that sell a product or service similar to the one that the learner has chosen for their own assignment. Once a good collection of promotional material has been collected, it can be analysed to see how and why it has been developed. It can be by grouping type, by the kind of message, by the products that it is promoting, by the type of promotion, etc. Learners could also consider how effective they perceive the promotional material to be – does it appeal to them, or are there barriers that prevent the message from getting across to them? In this way learners should start to see that promotional materials can take many different forms – depending on the objective it is designed to achieve.

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Delivery guidance for LO.2 Market research is a subject that could easily take up an entire course of study. It would not be realistic to expect that, as a result of their studies and investigations for this unit, learners will become professional market researchers. Learners need to understand why organisations conduct and use market research, how they go about obtaining market research information and data, and what they do with the results of the market research. It is important to identify and understand why market research is being done – there needs to be an objective, a question to be answered, information that needs to be found so that the business can make plans, move forward with better products and services, or avoid potential problems. Whilst anyone can make a guess at these, by conducting market research, and interpreting the findings in the right way, a business can be more confident that they have data or information to help make the right decisions. Learners should be made aware that primary research is not a game. It is usually carried out by professional researchers and interviewers with a serious job to do. When carrying out their research, learners must also be aware that market research should not be used as a guise for selling. This is very bad practice and it undermines the integrity of the industry and makes respondents less helpful and more reluctant to take part in research. Even inexperienced market researchers should follow professional standards for conducting research. All marketing research should be carried out within the professional and ethical standards and guidelines of the Market Research Society. Delivery guidance for LO.3 There is a good chance that each learner will have been on the receiving end of customer service – whether they realise it or not. It would be worth exploring learners’ experiences in a range of different situations and getting them to investigate what made the customer service experience good or bad for them – and whether their experience of customer service has changed their views about an organisation, whether it has put them off or will encourage them to use its services again. How organisations provide customer service can be investigated using remote research, but field research in the form of visits will make the subject come alive. Learners should be encouraged to investigate the customer services provided by a range of different exemplar organisations. In this way they should be able to identify good practice and pick up ideas that will inform and improve their own understanding of customer needs and expectations, and how to satisfy these through good customer service. Exemplar organisations that sell a products or services similar to the one that they have chosen for their own selling activity should be included, so that they can discover the reality of customer service in the area that they have chosen. While the idea of being an external customer may be relatively obvious, the concept of internal customers can be quite challenging to some learners. To help understanding, start by focusing on the learner and trying to identify in which situations they have internal customers – at home, in the centre, in their leisure activities. Having got this far, extend the concept of internal customers to different organisations where external customers are apparent, and investigate how the two relate and how the performance of internal customers can impact on the overall satisfaction experienced by external customers. Understanding how customers, and their needs, can vary can also be quite challenging. However, the point can be illustrated quite explicitly by showing learners how they themselves can be grouped, or divided, by some of the different criteria used by sales and customer service operations. This approach, using the learners themselves, could be extended to investigate which aspects of customer service are important to them as customers. Organisations manage their customer service policies and procedures in different ways. The more different organisations the learners can see and experience the better their understanding of the most common, and the relatively specialised customer services that are being offered today.

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The obligations of organisations and employees towards customers may be dictated by industry standard, regulation or sometimes by an organisation’s mission statement, but it will be consumer protection legislation in all of its many forms that sets the ultimate standard. Learners are not expected to know the names and dates or have explicit knowledge of every piece of legislation designed to protect consumers – the objective should be that all learners understand that any organisation dealing with customers and consumers has obligations under the law. Legislation need not be a dry subject. The Trading Standards organisation produces a wide range of accessible material to put across the basics of consumer protection legislation, from the point of view of both business and the consumer. Delivery guidance for LO.4 Good preparation is the key to success in this part of the unit. Learners need to understand and practice the basic steps involved in making a sale. It may be helpful to learners to practise with a sales script something that they can learn and rehearse before being placed in front of real customers. This will give them confidence. They could work in pairs to practise and then review how well they have done, drawing lessons from this to apply the next time they practise, as part of the experiential learning cycle.

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Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed by an assignment based on the marketing and sale of a product or service of your own choice. You will need to: • Produce sample promotional materials based on market research you have carried out. This will involve:

creating samples of promotional materials and a plan that includes: a description of the product or service based on how it is positioned in the market using the four elements of the marketing mix [LO.1] providing market research to support your choice of promotional materials: research method chosen and why, questions, data and analysis [LO.2]

Study a business/organisation. This will involve: describing its typical customers and their needs and expectations, and assessing the effectiveness of the customer service it provides and explaining how it does or would benefit from providing good service [LO.3] Show you can deal with customers. This will involve you demonstrating your sales and communication skills and how well prepared you are [LO.4(.1, .2, .3)]; then assessing your performance and identifying things that you would do differently next time and why [LO.4(.4)].

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Assessment information for assessors
Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments This unit must be covered by a single assignment, which is described in the How you will be assessed section, and exemplified within the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Sector-relevant purpose Ideally, the marketing and sales activities in this assignment will be based on the learners’ own enterprise. Alternatively the product/service could be one that already exists. (See also below, Guidance for Assessment.) It would be best if the product/service which is being sold in the customer interactions is the same one on which the learners have created their promotional materials. (The customer interactions could also be assessed in the workplace, in which case the use of their own promotional materials will probably not be possible.) Evidence structure Learning outcome LO.1 Marking grid A Activity/section Promotional materials and market research Evidence Written evidence: sample promotional materials and accompanying plan Written evidence: market research method, data and analysis Study of an exemplar business/organisation Written evidence: needs and expectations of customers; assessment of service; benefits of good service Learner observation record: preparation* and customer handling skills Written evidence: assessing own ability/things to do differently next time

LO.2

A

LO.3

A

LO.4(.1, .2, .3)

B

Customer interactions

LO.4(.4)

A

* Preparation will be assessed indirectly during the interactions Level of demand The level of demand appropriate to the assessment of this unit is exemplified in the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Assessment duration The suggested guided learning hours (GLH) needed to complete this assignment is 14 hours per learner. Centres can structure assessment time as they see fit. This does not include time spent collecting market research data in LO.1 or information on a business/organisation in LO.3. Centres should note that the total class assessment time may need to be higher to allow time for separate observations of individuals in LO.4.

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Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments The learners must be provided with full access to study all of the areas identified in the What you need to learn section of the specification. Controls relating to resources and supervision are contained within Annexe E of this specification. For the first part of the assignment, learners may work in groups to decide on the product or service and to agree on the market research to be carried out. They can also work in groups for the market research survey but each learner must collect some of the group’s data and write it up individually and draw their own conclusions. They can work in groups to discuss the promotional materials that they will produce, but must work individually to produce them. In any one group individual learners may produce the same or different types of material. Learners may, if they wish, produce more than one example, but submit only one for assessment. In the second part of the assignment (studying a business/organisation), more than one learner can work on the same business/organisation, but work must be written up individually. Learners can work together when interacting with customers (ie as ‘colleagues’), but evidence must be based on individual learners’ interactions. The review stage must be completed individually. The customer interactions can take place face to face or on the telephone. Learners must demonstrate their sales skills with at least two customers. To provide sufficient evidence for assessment, the interactions must involve the learners overcoming objections. Summary of unit controls Setting
Limited

Time
Limited

Resources
Limited

Supervision
Medium

Collaboration
Limited

Marking
Medium

See Annexe E for further information. Guidance for assessment Assessment could take place in three different stages after the relevant learning has taken place: firstly the assessment for LO.1 and LO.2; then the assessment for LO.3; finally the assessment for LO.4. Alternatively, all of the assessment could take place at the end of the unit, but it should be carried out in the same order. Before learners begin the first part of the assignment, it is important that they and the centres decide whether the market research, plan and promotional materials they create in the first part of the assignment will be the same one that will be used for their customer interactions (see below for more detailed information on the context in which the interactions could take place). The plan that the learners create can be presented in any appropriate format(s). If a presentation is done for any part of this, for moderation purposes, it is important to note that the written evidence created (slides, notes) must by itself provide sufficient evidence of the learner’s knowledge/understanding; oral communication/presentation skills are not assessed in this unit. If the assignment is based on the learners’ own enterprise, then they may need to confirm together how the product/service is positioned before they can start on the assignment. If it is a product or service created by someone else, then they should not attempt to change its positioning. If the assignment is based on a service, learners may choose to use, or incorporate elements, from the extended marketing mix when describing how it is positioned (see Delivery guidance), but this is not a requirement, and marks should be awarded only to the aspects of the marketing mix covered as required content in What you need to learn.

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The aim of their market research is to produce data that can inform their development of promotional materials. Learners are not expected to become professional market researchers overnight. However, they should conduct their market research in ways that reflect professional methods and standards. Even if the results or conclusions that they draw from their research are weak or naive, their methods should be sound. The findings being assessed should focus on the promotional material that is developed as a result of the research. Learners need to make decisions about the development of promotional materials, and they should use the findings from the market research that they conduct to help them make those decisions and inform them as to the most suitable and appropriate materials to produce: one approach is to use the market research simply to help them generate ideas; another is to take this opportunity to test ideas and trial draft materials. The analysis of the market research should indicate how the results will inform the decisions made about the message, medium and presentation of the promotional materials. If this assignment is using learners’ own enterprise, then they may use the results of the market research to adjust the product/service’s positioning. The promotional materials may be in any form that is appropriate for the product or service chosen, within the resources available. Learners should be advised to concentrate on using information that they have produced through the analysis of the results of their market research, rather than trying to produce something that is a highly creative flight of fancy, but is not based on their research findings. To prepare them, it may be helpful to get learners to review existing promotional material that has been produced for their chosen product, or for an exemplar business/organisation that sells a product or service similar to the one that they have chosen so that they get some kind of idea of what is being used currently in the market. The business/organisation that the learners use in LO.3 should be one that sells products or services that are the same as, or similar to, those that they will be trying to sell in their customer interactions in LO.4. The preparation for selling should be relatively straightforward if the product/service should be the one on which they have worked in the first part of the assignment. At this stage, they may, however, need to decide on additional information that was not included previously, such as firming up information about pricing. If the product/service to be sold is not linked to the first part of the assignment, then it should be one about which there is clear information available, and this information will need either to be provided to the learners or found by them. The learner’s preparation will not be assessed directly, but rather during the interactions themselves: in other words, through the way they perform it should be clear how well prepared they are. The customer interactions could take place during one or several sessions. The context in which they take place could be connected to the learners’ own business enterprise (possibly as an extension to this activity if it has already finished). Alternatively, a scenario could be developed by the centre and assessed through a role play based on either a real or imaginary business, in which case, the ‘customers’ should not be learners in the same class. In either case, learners can make use of the promotional materials created earlier on. Centres could also use other real selling activities, including courses, qualifications, tuition services, membership to the library/sports clubs etc, food in the canteen, stationery, tickets for an event, extra curricular activities, support for fundraising activities, attendance at meetings, recordings of the choir, items produced by other courses, such as artwork, food, gifts, etc. It could also be done in a real workplace, for example through a part-time job or on work experience.

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The sales skills that should be assessed at this level are those used in routine sales situations: where the customer is expecting to make a purchase, but is uncertain about whether the product/service is the right one for them and so has objections that need to be overcome. Common types of objections that the learner could have to deal with include: price (too high); timing (not available soon enough or when the customer wants it); features of the product itself (performance, colour, shape, size etc); brand or manufacturer (customer has a preference for products with a particular brand or from a particular manufacturer). Learners may have to deal with customers who do not have objections, but they should not be assessed on those interactions. Learners may find it helpful to use and practise with a sales script, but, if so, it should be one that the learner has developed and prepared themselves. If objections do not arise naturally, then the tutor can play the role of customer. The review can be presented in any appropriate format or formats, but must be in writing.

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Marking grid A
Mark Band 2 Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus The plan includes a clear description of the product or service chosen. There is reasonable information on how the four elements of the marketing mix have been used to position the product or service. (3–4) The promotional materials are reasonable in terms of suitability and appropriateness of medium, message and presentation and are generally consistent with the market research. (3–4) The market research methods used are identified, with some explanation given for the choice of method. Questions to be answered are written and are reasonably clear. (3–4) (5–6) The market research methods used are identified, with a clear explanation given for the choice of method. Questions to be answered are worded effectively. (5–6) (5–6) The promotional materials are suitable and appropriate of medium, message and presentation and are consistent with the market research. The plan includes a clear and detailed description of the product or service chosen. There is good information on how the four elements of the marketing mix have been used to position the product or service.

Mark Band 1

LO.1(.1)

Know the principles of marketing

The plan includes a basic description of the product or service chosen. There is limited information on how the four elements of the marketing mix have been used to position the product or service.

(0–2)

LO.1(.2)

Know the principles of marketing

The promotional materials are limited in terms of suitability and appropriateness of medium, message and presentation.

(0–2)

12

LO.2(.1)

Be able to carry out market research

The market research methods used are identified in general terms. Questions to be answered are written but may not be clear.

(0–2)

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Assessment focus Data is collected, and is generally sufficient either in terms of quality or quantity. Results of the market research include reasonable analysis of data with reasonable conclusions drawn about the nature of the promotional materials required. (5–6) The learner gives a description of typical customers, with a reasonable description of their needs and expectations. (3–4) The learner comments on how effective the service provided was, providing examples which generally support their judgement. The learner explains how the business/ organisation does or would benefit from providing good customer service. (3–4) (5–6) The learner comments in detail on how effective the service provided was, providing good supporting examples. The learner explains clearly how the business/organisation does or would benefit from providing good customer service, giving clear evidence to support their explanation. (5–6) 12 (7–8) The learner gives a detailed description of typical customers, linking characteristics together, with a clear description of their needs and expectations. 14 Data is collected, and is sufficient in terms of both quality and quantity. Results of the market research include good analysis of data with well argued conclusions drawn about the nature of the promotional materials required.

Mark Band 1

Mark Band 2

Mark Band 3

Maximum marks available

LO.2(.2, .3)

Be able to carry out market research

Data is collected, although is likely to be limited in terms of quantity and quality. Results of the market research include limited analysis of data, with limited conclusions drawn about the nature of the promotional materials required.

(0–4)

LO.3(.1)

Understand how effective customer service is achieved

The learner gives a basic description of typical customers, with their needs and expectations listed.

(0–2)

LO.3(.2, .3)

Understand how effective customer service is achieved

The learner comments briefly on the customer service without judging its effectiveness. The learner briefly explains some of the ways that the business/organisation does or would benefit from providing good customer service.

(0–2)

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Assessment focus The learner is able to assess their performance at different stages of the process. They are able to identify specific things they could do differently next time, with some explanation of the benefits. (3–4) (5–6) 6 Total marks 44 The learner is able to assess their performance well at different stages of the process. They are able to identify specific things they could do differently next time, with a clear explanation of the benefits.

Mark Band 1

Mark Band 2

Mark Band 3

Maximum marks available

LO.4(.4)

Be able to handle customers effectively in a sales situation

The learner is able to provide a basic and general assessment of their performance. They have limited success in identifying things that they could do differently next time.

(0–2)

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Marking grid B
Mark Band 2 From the way that the learner interacts with customers, it is clear that there has been reasonable preparation for the sale. (3–4) The learner displays a positive attitude. They demonstrate reasonable communication skills They can find out what the customers need and can communicate the main features and some of the benefits of the product/service. They show reasonable ability to overcome objections and show reasonable confidence when trying to close a sale. (5–7) (8–10) (5–6) The learner displays a positive attitude. They demonstrate good communication skills. They can find out what the customers need and can communicate the features and the benefits of the product/service. They are good at overcoming objections, and can close the sale confidently and effectively. From the way that the learner interacts with customers, it is clear that there has been good preparation for the sale. Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus

Mark Band 1

LO.4(.1)

Be able to handle customers effectively in a sales situation

From the way that the learner interacts with customers, it is clear that there has been limited preparation for the sale.

(0–2)

LO.4(.2, .3)

Be able to handle customers effectively in a sales situation

The learner displays a positive attitude. They demonstrate limited communication skills. They can find out the basics of what the customers need and can communicate the main features of the product/service. They find it difficult to overcome objections and have difficulty closing the sale.

(0–4)

16 Total marks 16

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Assessment guidance
Using the marking grid • • Each internally assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total. In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B. Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s). The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus. If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band. If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band. If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band. Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking. A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark. Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts. Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

• •

• •

• •

• •

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Level 2 descriptors
Descriptor Appropriate Assess/assessment Attempt to Basic Brief/briefly Clear/clearly Confidence/confidently Consistent (with research) Convincing Describe/description Detail/detailed Difficult/difficulties Different stages (of the sales process) Effectively (closing sales) Meaning Acceptable and relevant in a given context, is likely to have the desired effect. Judge the extent or degree of something. Tries, but has no or only limited success. Limited to the fundamental features, elements or facts. Short, lacking detail. Well expressed, easy to understand or see. Remaining positive and not showing doubts. Not contradicted by to the analysis and conclusions of the market research. Believable, well argued, well chosen. Provide information that includes relevant features, elements, facts, etc. Showing thoroughness. Clearly has a problem doing something, may be unable to do or does so only after a struggle. Making initial contact with the customer; finding out what the customer wants; presenting them with a solution; overcoming objections; closing the sale. Able to find a solution to any problems, in an efficient and professional manner.

Effectively worded (questions) Questions that are well worded and likely to produce unambiguous answers. Explain/explanation General/generalised (in) general terms Generally Good/well Identify Limited List Main (features) Provide reasons for a decision, feature, etc. Vague, lacking specific information, details, etc. Characterised by general statements which lack depth and not related to specific examples. Mostly/or most of the time but not completely. To a high level or degree. Name or otherwise characterise, mention the key elements, facts, features, etc. Incomplete or having a narrow scope; shows only basic ability or understanding. Provide the information in separate, individual points. The most important features.

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Descriptor Quality Quantity Reasonable Reasonably Some Specific Suitable/suitability Unclear Well argued

Meaning How good the data or information collected is. How much data or information is collected. Moderate or average. Somewhat, fairly. Incomplete, not all; partial. Precise, exact, detailed. Technically adequate to perform a role, meets the requirements of a brief. Vague and poorly expressed – not clear and specific. Showing the ability to construct a convincing argument.

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
The following table identifies the PLTS that have been included within the assessment criteria of this unit.

Skill Independent enquirers Reflective learners Effective participators

When learners are … Carrying out market research [IE2]. Assessing their own contribution to achieving customer satisfaction, and identifying areas for improvement [RL1]. Trying to influence customers when demonstrating sales skills [EP5].

Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning.

Skill Independent enquirers

When learners are… Looking at the importance of customer service from different perspectives: the organisation and the customer [IE3]; presenting the results of their market research using evidence to support their conclusions [IE6]. Generating ideas for ways to promote their product [CT1]; using their market research to question people’s assumptions [CT4]. Setting goals with success criteria for the market research they are carrying out in terms of what answers they want to find out [RL2]; reviewing progress during the market research, making changes if necessary [RL3]. Working together to carry out market research, collaborating to work towards common goals [TW1]; reaching agreements on which methods of market research to use [TW2]. Showing commitment and perseverance in a sales situation [SM2]. Discussing issues that concern a potential buyer while demonstrating sales and customer service skills [EP1]; presenting a persuasive case for action when demonstrating sales skills [EP2]; identifying improvements for the customer in terms of a product’s benefits when demonstrating sales skills [EP4] and acting as an advocate for views that may differ from their own [EP6].

Creative thinkers Reflective learners

Team workers

Self-managers Effective participators

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Functional skills — Level 2
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a variety of needs Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system used Manage information storage to enable efficient retrieval Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices Troubleshoot ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently for a complex task Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • text and tables images numbers records Analysing the market research results. Carrying out and analysing their market research. When learners are …

Bring together information to suit content and purpose

Present information in ways that are fit Presenting the results of their market research. for purpose and audience Evaluate the selection and application of ICT tools and facilities used to present information

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Skill Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, responsibly and effectively including storage of messages and contact lists Mathematics Understand routine and non-routine problems in a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations Identify the situation or problem and the mathematical methods needed to tackle it Select and apply a range of mathematics to find solutions Use appropriate checking procedures and evaluate their effectiveness at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar routine contexts and situations Draw conclusions and provide mathematical justifications English Speaking and listening – make a range of contributions to discussions and make effective presentations in a wide range of contexts Reading – compare, select, read and understand texts and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments and opinions Writing – write documents, including extended writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and opinions, effectively and persuasively

When learners are …

Analysing market research data. Entering and storing their market research data.

Analysing market research data.

Preparing promotional materials for their product or service.

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Work experience There is no requirement for work experience to complete this unit, but learners would benefit from any experience gained in a sales or customer service environment in terms of finding out about how these are delivered in the workplace as well as developing their own skills. The assessment of LO.4 could take place during work experience. Specialist resources None. Reference material Books Evans-Pritchard J, Hancock M, Jones R, Mansfield A and Gray D – AS level Applied Business for Edexcel Double Award (Causeway Press, 2005) ISBN 1405821159 Fardon M, Nuttall C and Prokopiw J – GCSE Applied Business (Osborne Books, 2002) ISBN 1872962327 Johns T – Perfect Customer Care (Arrow Business Books, 1999) ISBN 0099406217 Websites www.businesslink.gov.uk www.instituteofcustomerservice.com www.marketingteacher.com www.mrs.org.uk www.skillsmartretail.com www.tradingstandards.gov.uk Business Link provides an easy to use support, advice and information service for local businesses. The Institute of Customer Service, the professional body for customer service. Marketing resources for tutors and learners. The Market Research Society, professional body supporting the market research industry. The Sector Skills Council for Retail. Trading Standards Central – a one stop shop for consumer protection information in the UK. The site is supported and maintained by the Trading Standards Institute.

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LEVEL 2 UNIT 6: TEAMS AND COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS

Unit 6: Teams and Communication in Business
Principal Learning unit Level 2 Guided Learning Hours: 60 Internally assessed

About this unit

It’s sometimes said that a ‘team’ stands for Together Everyone Achieves More – by working together on something, you’re likely to do it better, and more quickly, than if you all work on your own. This is true in all sorts of fields, and the chances are that when you find a job you will find yourself in some sort of team. Employers recognise the importance of teamwork and you should, too. Knowing how to work together will be important in your future career, and in this unit you’ll get the chance to learn more about team working and practise working together. Part of the skills of being able to work together is being able to communicate, and communication in teamwork is particularly important for the success of the team and the business. You will also learn about the other ways in which individuals can contribute in different ways to the success of a team.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 Understand the benefits of teamworking Know how individuals and team leaders contribute to teamworking Be able to plan and monitor team work Be able to work and communicate effectively in a team.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Understand the benefits of teamworking Teams make a difference to an organisation’s performance. Teamwork involves a group of people with complementary skills, working together to achieve a common goal. There are different types of team: • • • • independent or inter-dependent temporary or permanent directed or self-managed real or virtual.

You need to learn about the benefits of team working organisations, eg: • • • • • • • • LO.2 Know how individuals and team leaders contribute to teamworking making best use of people’s differing strengths increased motivation: shared vision and sense of commitment opportunities for creativity and initiative opportunities to stretch talents and take on new responsibilities better internal communication increased efficiency and productivity: less duplication of tasks, suggestions from team members for improvements less risk by sharing work opportunities for a more flexible workforce.

You need to learn about ways in which team members can contribute to overall effectiveness of the team: • • • • • • knowing their responsibilities within the team knowing the responsibilities of others being committed to the team’s success being willing to take collective responsibility supporting each other and respecting each other’s views being able to give and receive constructive feedback.

Different people contribute to teams in different ways. You will need to learn about: • Belbin team roles.

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Not all teams have leaders, but teams can benefit from effective leadership. The team leader’s role involves leading by example and often includes: • • • • • • • • LO.3 Be able to plan and monitor team work assigning work and delegating responsibilities setting objectives managing resources building relationships managing conflict mentoring and motivating monitoring performance and providing feedback helping the team/solving problems.

Planning and monitoring teamwork often involves dealing with problems/issues. You need to know about ways of doing this: • understanding the problem/situation, eg:
○ ○ ○

what you know and don’t know about it its complexity constraints, eg time, resources, laws considering different ways of dealing with it using techniques such as root/cause analysis, lateral thinking finding how other people have dealt with similar problems/issues

coming up with possible ways of tackling it, eg:
○ ○ ○

• • • •

deciding what action to take taking action checking whether or not you have been successful learning from the experience.

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In order to work effectively in a team situation, you need to learn how to plan and prioritise work and manage your time effectively: • how plan teamwork and monitor performance:
○ ○ ○ ○ ○

understanding instructions and work requirements setting/understanding team objectives agreeing roles and responsibilities, sharing out work setting individual goals that contribute to team objectives monitoring performance: ongoing monitoring; adjustment of plans; use of milestones in a 2x2 matrix as urgent/non-urgent and important/not important as high/medium/low priorities making daily/weekly ‘to do’ lists using electronic and manual diary systems and calendars estimating how long tasks will take and setting time limits dealing with interruptions to planned work anticipating problems and making contingency plans negotiating deadlines.

methods of prioritising work, such as categorising tasks:
○ ○

techniques that help you manage your time effectively, eg:
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

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LO.4

Be able to work and communicate effectively in a team

You need to learn about the skills and attributes that are needed when working in a team: • • • • showing a positive attitude: being committed to the team’s success; being willing to take collective responsibility being willing to participate: taking on a fair share of the work supporting other team members: being polite co-operative; letting others speak, showing respect communicating effectively: listening and speaking skills; non-verbal communication, eg body language, eye contact, gestures recognising and dealing with any conflict that arises, using appropriate strategies, eg:
○ ○ ○ ○

active listening trying to understand the issues from the other person’s point of view focusing on the issues rather than the person negotiating compromises and win-win solutions focusing on what is important being constructive, supportive and tactful focusing on actions/behaviour not personality being willing to accept advice listening to the message avoiding defensiveness accepting praise.

giving feedback to other team members:
○ ○ ○

receiving feedback:
○ ○ ○ ○

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance This unit is 60 guided learning hours (GLH) in length. Centres should allocate this amount of time within the timetable for its delivery and assessment. Unless otherwise stated, all of the content included in the What you need to learn section needs to be taught. Sometimes an ‘eg’ or ‘for example’ is included in order to show content that is indicative: in these cases not all of the examples will need to be covered (for example, because some may not always apply in a particular situation), and tutors can introduce other examples of their own that are relevant to particular situations and to the needs of their learners. Delivery guidance for LO.1 and LO.2 Factors that make teams work can be introduced through learners undertaking one of the many team activities that are available for use in the classroom. Discussion groups can then look at the benefits of effective teamwork. Tutor input is needed on the importance of goal setting and objectives; then learners can work in groups with each group investigating a different team and identify their purpose and structure. The teams could be from a local business or in the centre. Alternatively, learners could use teams they are involved in outside of studying, such as sports teams, cadets, orchestra, drama groups etc. Learners can present their findings to the rest of the groups and then have a group discussion on where they have seen effective teams, and agree their common features. Learners should also explore the characteristics of different team leaders, and this could be through activities such as identifying the attributes and qualities of well known leaders as well as the everyday responsibilities such as assigning tasks and handling conflict. It is important that the tutor stresses that an effective team needs to be a mix of capabilities and not just consist entirely of those with leadership skills. Learners need to understand the relevance of different team roles. Tutors can use Belbin’s Team Role Theory model to illustrate that in order to achieve the task a combination of team roles needs to be present, although a team member may display characteristics of more than one team role. This theory determines allowable strengths and weaknesses of each role and their contribution to the team. It would be useful for learners to undertake a ‘Belbin Team Role Analysis’ exercise so that they can identify their preferred roles – and this might be helpful when allocating tasks for the team activity. Delivery guidance for LO.3 Teams often work together to solve problems. ‘Problem solving’ here should be understood in its broadest sense as any issue or situation which requires action to be taken and where decisions need to be taken about what action to take, rather than simply following a set procedure. Examples could be given of bounded and unbounded problems together with systematic approaches to problem solving, for example define the problem, gather relevant information, look at the possible causes, identify possible solutions, work out the solution and monitor the results. Learners can practise this skill by applying techniques to a personal problem they may have such as money or relationship issues and produce a Fishbone diagram to help with problem diagnosis and identify which causes of the problem can be addressed.

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Learners need to be familiar with the stages of planning and the tools and techniques available to make effective use of their time in team activities. These include diaries, planning charts, and schedules, and tutors must ensure that learners have plenty of opportunities to develop these skills by practising the processing, amending and cancelling diary entries for both manual and electronic systems. Learners could carry out in-tray exercises relating to the prioritising of teamrelated tasks according to urgency and importance. Case studies could help reinforce the importance of meeting deadlines and the need to be able to respond to changing work plans and still meet team and individual requirements through taking corrective actions and negotiating a new agreement. In addition, learners should be able to determine their own strengths and weaknesses in relation to time management in terms of organising and planning their course work, or activities outside of their learning programme. They can carry out a time log activity over a period of a week and analyse the results of this to examine the most frequent reasons for reduced effectiveness in the workplace. Delivery guidance for LO.4 The delivery undertaken in LO.1 and LO.2 will provide the knowledge and understanding required when developing their skills in LO.4. It is important for learners to have plenty of opportunities for working in teams and/or groups. Exercises can be given to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of teamworking, including how to contribute, following instructions, and dealing with difficult people. Role-play scenarios could be used here. At the end of one a group activity, learners can be asked to review how they have performed. They can try to identify something that they would like to do differently next time. Conflict within teams can be introduced through a group discussion on ‘What is conflict?’ with learners drawing on their own experiences. The tutor could highlight that not all conflict is negative, and provide examples of instances when it could have a positive effect. It would be useful for learners to be able to have a guest speaker to explain how they prevent and diffuse conflict situations within teams. The guest speaker should be briefed to give examples of different sources of conflict (organisation based and team member based) and how they were resolved. In order to gather information, learners can prepare a checklist or questionnaire and participate in a question and answer session with the guest speaker. It is important that learners are able to identify situations where conflict may arise and give reasons why this has occurred. As well as case studies, learners can practise role-play exercises to develop their conflictresolution skills. Tutors should introduce the key features of the main types of behaviours which contribute to conflict within a team, including aggressiveness, assertiveness, avoidance, submissiveness. Emphasis should be focused on body language, in particular what to look for in other people’s body language (gestures, facial expressions, posture, eye contact), discover how to use body language to respond to other people, and look at effective and ineffective use of body language in different situations. Videos can be used which show examples of different behaviours and the interpersonal skills used to diffuse conflict. They could then work in groups to research articles and case studies of inappropriate behaviour in the workplace, and discuss the cause of the conflict. It is envisaged that within a classroom situation learners will be encouraged to develop teamworking skills to provide constructive and positive feedback on their peers’ communication skills. Different communication scenarios should be provided so that the learner can practise adapting the way they communicate to meet the needs of others. If learners are to give feedback to one another, care should be taken to ensure that they are fully versed in the types of feedback (positive, negative, constructive, destructive) and the art of giving constructive feedback before they are permitted to practise on one another. Learners should be encouraged to identify potential improvements in their own use of the communication techniques and team skills. Video clips and DVDs can show examples of good and bad communication skills when working in teams.

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Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed by an assignment connected to a business-related activity. You will need to: • Plan teamwork together. This will involve demonstrating your teamworking skills [LO.4], setting individual goals that contribute to the team objective, and planning and prioritising tasks [LO.3(.1, 2)] Work towards the team’s objectives. This will involve: demonstrating your teamworking skills [LO.4], managing your time using appropriate techniques and monitoring your own work [LO.3(.3, .4)] Review your teamworking activity. This will involve: assessing how effective you and your team were, including your own contribution to the activity and how you might have benefited from having a team leader [LO.2]; explaining organisations can benefit from organising work in teams, with reference to your own experience of the teamworking task [LO.1].

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Assessment information for assessors
Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments This unit must be covered by a single assignment, which is described in the How you will be assessed section, and exemplified within the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Sector-relevant purpose The team activity must have a business-related purpose. Ideally, the assignment will be based on the learners’ own enterprise or it could be connected to some other real organisation. Alternatively, a case study could be used. (See also below, Guidance for assessment.) Evidence structure Learning outcome LO.3(.1, .2) LO.4(.1, .2, .3, .4) Marking grid A B Activity/section Planning teamwork Evidence Written evidence: individual objectives; plan Learner observation record*: teamworking skills; giving and receiving of feedback Teamworking activity Learner observation record: time management and monitoring, backed up with written evidence Learner observation record*: teamworking skills; giving and receiving of feedback Review Written evidence: benefit of teamworking; team and own effectiveness

LO.3(.3, .4)

B

LO.4(.1, .2, .3, .4)

B

LO.1, LO.2

A

* Only one learner observation record should be completed which covers both activities/sessions Level of demand The level of demand appropriate to the assessment of this unit is exemplified in the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Assessment duration The suggested guided learning hours (GLH) needed to complete this assignment is 8 hours per learner. Centres can structure this time as they see fit, but to provide adequate scope for assessment, the teamworking activity must be one that takes more than one session to resolve. If assessment of the teamworking skills is integrated into assessment activities of another unit, the above time will only relate to the assessment of Unit 6; the activity itself can continue for the purposes of assessing the other unit(s).

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Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments The learners must be provided with full access to study all of the areas identified in the What you need to learn section of the specification. Controls relating to resources and supervision are contained within Annexe E of this specification. Although learners will need to work in groups at the planning stage and teamworking stages, each learner must present individual evidence relating to the goals, planning, time management and ongoing monitoring. The ‘teamworking activity’ could be a discrete problem or issue it or could be a number of tasks, which should be linked in some way (eg all being connected to a single purpose or forming a sequence of activities). To give the activity a meaningful purpose, learners must find for themselves how to meet the team objective(s); the team objective(s) could be set by the centre, by the learners or through a combination of the two. Summary of unit controls Setting
Limited

Time
Limited

Resources
Limited

Supervision
Medium

Collaboration
Limited

Marking
Medium

See Annexe E for further information. Guidance for assessment Groups should ideally consist of between four and six team members. Activities that involve research and organisational tasks (such as gathering information and making arrangements with clear deadlines) would lend themselves well to this sort of approach. If the assignment is based on their own enterprise, the purpose could be connected with implementing their business. The assessment for this unit could be integrated into the delivery and assessment of Unit 1: Business Enterprise. Failing that, it could still be contextualised within the same enterprise on which the learners have been working, even if assessment and delivery of these two units does not take place at the same time. Although unofficial ‘leaders’ may emerge during the activity, it is envisaged that the teamworking activity is not set up with a formal ‘team leader’ role. Learners may choose to agree individual responsibilities or they could be shared. However, it is recommended that centres try to avoid having everybody doing exactly the same thing throughout the task. Evidence of the learners’ planning can be in any appropriate format, but it should be in writing and include individual objectives, tasks and prioritisation. During the task, learners are expected to manage their time and monitor their own performance with reference to their plan. Evidence for this will be based on a learner observation record, but learners should also create written evidence, for example using their plan to tick off or annotating tasks, adapting or adding to the plans when required, keeping a diary, etc: this should then be submitted as supporting evidence for assessment. If no monitoring is observed by the tutor during the activity itself and there is no written evidence, the tutor should check afterwards, via brief one-to-one interviews between learner and tutor, in which the tutor asks the learner about whether/how this took place and then records answers on the learner observation record.

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During the planning and teamworking activity, marks are awarded based on the tutor’s observation of learners’ teamworking skills. Tutors will need to take a holistic view based on what they see throughout the teamworking task rather than, say, at the beginning or end only, although they will not need to be observe every activity from start to finish. They should take care to observe discreetly and not get involved in the team activity. It is important to bear in mind that individual learners’ ability to work and communicate in a team is not necessarily linked to the achievement of the group as a whole. Learners are also assessed on their ability to deal with any conflict that arises. Conflict can be understood in its broadest sense as including low-level tensions within the group. It may be that there was conflict, but it was unobserved by the tutor, in which case a post-task interview (group or individual) could be used to gather and record evidence. There is no need to artificially engineer conflict if the group is able to work harmoniously: if none occurs, the tutor can use a post-task interview to pose a hypothetical situation (eg, involving a new and uncooperative team member) and asking how they would have dealt with it. The marks for the giving and receiving of feedback covers feedback between team members, rather than from tutor to learner; however, additional feedback after the teamworking activity has finished might be valuable. Feedback between team members may arise naturally as the activity is happening. However, if there is an absence of evidence of feedback given and received during the activity, the tutor must ensure that it takes place afterwards. This could be done in a tutor-led group discussion. The review of the teamworking activity can be presented in any appropriate written format and must be done individually.

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Marking grid A
Mark Band 2 An explanation is provided which shows how organisations benefit, with examples from their own teamworking experiences. A detailed explanation is provided which shows clearly how organisations benefit, supported by well chosen examples from their own teamworking experiences. (8–10) The learner provides a good assessment of team effectiveness, with convincing judgements about specific aspects of the team’s performance and their own contribution given. They show good understanding of the team might be more effective with a team leader, with benefits explained clearly. (11–14) Individual goals are set, which are connected to team objectives. There is effective planning for the team activity, with good prioritisation of tasks. (8–10) 10 Total marks 34 14 10 (5–7) The learner provides a reasonable assessment of team effectiveness, with judgements about specific aspects of the team’s performance and their own contribution. They show reasonable understanding of how the team might be more effective with a team leader, with benefits explained. (7–10) Individual goals are set, which are connected to team objectives. There is reasonable planning for the team activity, with prioritisation of tasks. (5–7) Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus

Mark Band 1

LO.1

Understand the benefits of teamworking

Benefits of teamworking are stated in basic terms. There is little reference to the learner’s own teamworking experiences.

(0–4)

LO.2

Know how individuals and team leaders contribute to teamworking

The learner provides a limited assessment of team effectiveness, with basic and generalised judgements about the team’s performance and their own contribution as a whole. They show limited understanding of how the team might be more effective with a team leader, with a few benefits stated briefly.

(0–6)

LO.3(.1, .2)

Be able to plan and monitor team work

Individual goals are set, which have limited connection to team objectives. There is basic planning for the team activity, with an attempt at prioritisation of tasks.

(0–4)

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Marking grid B
Mark Band 2 Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus The learner completes the tasks in the time available, showing reasonable time management skills. There is some evidence of active steps taken to monitor their progress during the task. (3–4) The learner shows reasonable teamworking skills, and makes some contribution to the task. They show some ability to maintain a positive attitude, support team members and communicate. They show some ability to deal with any conflict situations that arise. If conflict does not occur, they have reasonable suggestions for how they would deal with it. (7–10) The learner gives constructive feedback to others. They show some ability to accept feedback from others. (3–4) (11–14) The learner gives constructive and perceptive feedback to others. They show a good ability to accept feedback from others. (5–6) 20 Total marks 26 (5–6) The learner shows good teamworking skills, and makes a clear contribution to the task. They are able to maintain a consistently positive attitude, support team members and communicate effectively. They are good at dealing with any conflict situations that arise. If conflict does not occur, they have appropriate and convincing suggestions for how they would deal with it. 6 The learner completes the tasks in the time available, showing good time management skills. There is clear evidence of active steps taken to monitor their progress during the task.

Mark Band 1

LO.3(.3, .4)

Be able to plan and monitor team work

The learner completes the tasks in the time available, showing limited time management skills. There is limited evidence of active steps taken to monitor their progress during the task.

(0–2)

LO.4(.1, .2)

Be able to work and communicate effectively in a team

The learner shows basic teamworking skills and makes a limited contribution to the task. They show limited ability to maintain a positive attitude, support team members and communicate. They show limited ability to deal with any conflict situations that arise. If conflict does not occur, they have few suggestions for how they would deal with it.

(0–6)

LO.4(.3, .4)

Be able to work and communicate effectively in a team

The learner gives feedback to others. They listen to feedback from others.

(0–2)

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Assessment guidance
Using the marking grid • • Each internally assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total. In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B. Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s). The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus. If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band. If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band. If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band. Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking. A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark. Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts. Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

• •

• •

• •

• •

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Level 2 descriptors
Descriptor Accept (feedback) Meaning The learner allows others to give positive and negative feedback, and tries to understand what they have done to create a particular impression. They accept fair comment gracefully even if they do not completely agree with it. Suitable/relevant and realistic. Showing that the requirements of the event have been considered. Decisions that are made are appropriate but it might be possible to improve upon some of them in order to better meet the needs and expectations of attendees. Judge the extent or degree of something. Tries, but has no or only limited success. Limited to the fundamental features, elements or facts. Short, lacking detail. Well expressed, easy to understand or see. Believable, well argued, well chosen. Feedback which aims to help. This will often aim to focus on any positives and suggest improvements. Showing thoroughness. Well thought out and carefully considered. Provide reasons for a decision, feature, etc. One or two. Not many. Vague, lacking specific information, details, etc. To a high level or degree. Incomplete or having a narrow scope; shows only basic ability or understanding. Showing good insight and self awareness. Moderate or average. At least two OR to a certain degree, partial; not all. Precise, exact, detailed. Assert, make a statement without evidence or explanation. Chosen in such a way that it provides support for the argument; a good example.

Appropriate Appropriately (planned)

Assess/assessment Attempt to Basic Brief/briefly Clear/clearly Convincing/convincingly Constructive (feedback) Detail/detailed Effective (planning) Explain/explanation A few Few General/generalised Good/well Limited Perceptive Reasonable Some Specific State Well chosen (examples)

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
The following table identifies the PLTS that have been included within the assessment criteria of this unit. Skill Reflective learners Team workers When learners are … Assessing team performance [RL1]; inviting feedback on their team performance [RL4]. Working as part of a team, collaborating with others to work towards common goals [TW1], showing fairness and consideration to others when giving and receiving feedback [TW4], and providing constructive support and feedback to others [TW6]. Planning and prioritising tasks for the team activity [SM3].

Self-managers

Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning. Skill Independent enquirers When learners are … Identifying and clarifying which problems have to be resolved in order to succeed at the teamworking task [IE1]; planning and carrying out research into the communication used by an organisation [IE2]; considering the influence of circumstances, beliefs and feelings on team performance [IE5]; supporting their self assessment of team effectiveness with reasoned arguments and evidence [IE6]. Working as part of a team, trying out alternative approaches [CT5] and recognising the need to adapt their behaviour and styles of communication with different team members [CT6]. Assessing themselves and others after a team activity [RL1]; preparing for the team activity, setting goals and success criteria for the task [RL2]; reviewing the progress at the end of the teamworking task [RL3]; reflecting on their performance as team member by evaluating these experiences to inform future progress [RL5]. Reaching agreements and managing discussions while taking part in a team activity [TW2]; taking responsibility for the team’s success, showing confidence in themselves [TW5]. Working towards goals as part of the team activity, showing initiative, commitment and perseverance [SM2]; dealing with competing pressures [SM5]. Working as part of a team, presenting a persuasive case for action during discussions [EP2], proposing practical ways forward [EP3] and trying to influence others [EP5].

Creative thinkers

Reflective learners

Team workers

Self-managers

Effective participators

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Functional skills — Level 2
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a variety of needs Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system used Manage information storage to enable efficient retrieval Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices Troubleshoot ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently for a complex task Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • text and tables images numbers records Preparing business documents suitable for different purposes. Researching factors that make teams work successfully. Storing drafts of electronic documents. Ensuring organisational procedures are met when working with word processing software to produce business communications. When learners are …

Using folders to store and retrieve business documents.

Bring together information to suit content and purpose Present information in ways that are fit Producing business documents that present required for purpose and audience information in a way that is fit for purpose and audience. Evaluate the selection and application of ICT tools and facilities used to present information

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Skill Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, responsibly and effectively including storage of messages and contact lists Mathematics Understand routine and non-routine problems in a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations Identify the situation or problem and the mathematical methods needed to tackle it Select and apply a range of mathematics to find solutions Use appropriate checking procedures and evaluate their effectiveness at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar routine contexts and situations Draw conclusions and provide mathematical justifications English Speaking and listening – make a range of contributions to discussions and make effective presentations in a wide range of contexts Reading – compare, select, read and understand texts and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments and opinions Writing – write documents, including extended writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and opinions, effectively and persuasively

When learners are … Sending and receiving emails while producing business documents.

Taking part in team discussions during the teamworking activities.

Researching characteristics of team leaders.

Creating business documents.

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LEVEL 2 UNIT 6: TEAMS AND COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS

Work experience Work experience connected to this unit would useful, especially in relation to preparing business documents and investigating communication. Specialist resources None. Reference material Books Leigh A and Maynard M – Leading Your Team (Nicholas Brealey, 2004) ISBN 1857883047 Lesikar R – Basic Business Communication Skills (McGraw Hill, 2002) ISBN 0071213074 Misteil S – The Communications Pocketbook (Management Pocketbooks, 2003) ISBN 1870471415 Websites www.businessballs.com www.cipd.co.uk www.managers.org.uk Team activities Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development Chartered Management Institute

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LEVEL 2 UNIT 7: RESPONDING TO CHANGE IN BUSINESS

Unit 7: Responding to Change in Business
Principal Learning unit Level 2 Guided Learning Hours: 30 Externally assessed
(29 hours learning time and 1 hour for assessment)

About this unit

‘It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.’ – Charles Darwin Change always occurs in business. There is no doubt that at some point you will face major changes at work, perhaps to your job role, the ownership of the organisation for which you work, your colleagues or to the way the work is organized. The purpose of this unit is to enable you to understand more about these changes and to develop your ability to respond in a way that is most rewarding for both you and for your employer. You will learn how change affects organisations, working from the external causes, such as technological change, through to the impact on the organisation and then on to the people whose work is affected. You will examine the ways people react to change, and learn how to manage your own responses to change so that you can be prepared to meet change as a challenge and an opportunity. You will also learn about ways of assessing the impact of change on people in a workplace.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 Know why and how change occurs in businesses Understand the impact of change on employees.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Know how and why change occurs in businesses A business interacts constantly with its business environment, which changes when any of the following factors change: • • • political: changes in government and government policy economic: economic growth, interest rates, level of unemployment, taxation changes, supply of resources social: population changes, eg ageing population, population movements; cultural issues such as attitudes to work, health, religion technological: uses of information technology; mechanisation; other new developments, eg communications, consumer technologies, nanotechnology legal: consumer legislation; employment legislation environmental: climate change; concerns over protecting the environment changes specific to the organisation or sector such as to suppliers, distributors, competitors and customers.

• • •

Changes in the external environment lead to changes to businesses such as: • • • • • beginning of new businesses closure of businesses re-locating all or part of the business re-structuring changes to job roles and processes and procedures.

Types of change can be identified in terms of how radical the change is: • • • • step change incremental change. directive organic.

And also in terms of how centrally controlled it is:

Keeping pace with change for a business has a number of advantages: • • • • • increased likelihood that business with survive business forms a better fit with its business environment advantages over its competitors increased chances of success better able to change again as need arises.

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LO.2

Understand the impact of change on employees

Change affects employees in a number of ways, for example: • • • • • • • • • • different role at work new location of workplace new colleagues and managers loss of familiar colleagues and managers different work processes and equipment job losses. fear, anxiety, stress excitement resistance support.

People react to change in different ways, for example:

There are different ways for employees to deal with the consequences of change: • • • • • • finding out why it is happening and what is going to change assessing the benefits and risks for self deciding how they feel about the changes trying to stay positive continuing to actively plan own career seeking support from others.

Keeping pace with change for employees has advantages, for example: • • • • • they may be more likely to keep their job they can develop new skills they may be ready to take advantage of opportunities which arise inside and outside the organisation there are psychological advantages if they can stay positive about the changes employers look for a positive attitude to change when employing people.

There are different methods of evaluating impact of change on employees: • • direct methods, eg observation, interviews, staff surveys indirect methods, eg measuring productivity, customer satisfaction, staff turnover.

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance The purposes of this unit are to provide opportunities for learners to learn why and how organisations change and to develop their own willingness and ability to respond in a positive and productive way to changes in business. Learning from all the other units can contribute to an understanding of business concepts which should assist the learners’ understanding of this unit: however Unit 1: Business Enterprise and Unit 5: Marketing, Sales and Customer Service in Business provide particular opportunities for curriculum links, for example relating to how businesses need to innovate in order to respond to changes in market; there are also clear links to Unit 2: Business Administration, particularly relating to the ways in which changes in technology impact upon administrative tasks and processes. Learning from other curriculum areas such as science, technology or history may also provide valuable stimulus material in the form of examples of predicted change or of human reactions to change. It is essential to give learners the opportunity to apply their learning to real organisations to help them engage with the fairly abstract content of the unit, view the issues from a range of perspectives, particularly those of employees and managers/owners of businesses and to practise making links between cause and effect. These need not be commercial operations: this unit is intended to include any type of organisation. Ideally the programme of learning could be based on the study of a range of local and national organisations going through change programmes. If the learners’ own school or college has undergone any recent change, this may provide opportunities to carry out activities such as interviewing some of the staff involved and assessing the impact of change on the employees. As this unit is to be assessed through written examination, the learners should be given some opportunities to practise applying the concepts from the unit to short case studies, in selecting from a choice of possible given answers to a question and in providing short written answers to questions. Delivery guidance for LO.1 The first section of this outcome is challenging to deliver because the causes of change can easily be confused with the effects of change. Simple examples using material with which the learners are already familiar should be used to build their ability to identify and discuss the external causes of change from an organisational point of view. It would be sufficient for the learners to study two or three changes under each heading (political, economic, social, etc) and in each case to then follow through the impact on an organisation so that the relationship between cause and effect is made clear, rather than attempt to comprehensively study a large number of elements of the business environment. The school or college in which this qualification is taught can be used as an example of an organisation responding to changes in the external environment. Further examples could be drawn from local or national organisations, from the commercial, public and voluntary sectors. For example, there should be good opportunities to link the teaching to press coverage of controversial changes to local organisations such as those affecting NHS Trusts at the time of writing. As the links between external factors, changes, impacts and advantages of change are a vital element of this unit, flow charts, networks or other forms of graphical presentation could be used to express the relationships between these various parts of the learning outcome.

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Games where learners play the role of business decision makers would also provide good opportunities for the learners to engage with this outcome and to ‘walk in the shoes of business leaders’. It might also be useful to contrast examples of organisations that responded to change successfully and have prospered as a consequence, and those that were unable or unwilling to respond and ended up going out of business or being taken over by more successful competitors. Delivery guidance for LO.2 The perspective of this outcome is from the employees’ viewpoint, which may be a slightly more familiar one for most learners. Where it has been possible to study a range of local and national organisations facing change for LO.1, these same organisations could be used to consider the impact of change on the employees for LO.2. As learners often respond well to a ‘personal interest’ story, they could interview or investigate profiles of people who have successfully negotiated a number of changes in their working lives, and finding out from them how they coped, and what they learned from their experiences. Where these opportunities for ‘real world’ learning fail to provide clearly-identified examples of some part of the outcome such as ‘resistance’ to change, it may be necessary to provide case studies so that the learners have opportunities to practise achieving the assessment criteria. Experiential learning could be used through reflecting on the learners’ own experiences of change in organisations of which they have some experience, such as part-time employment or membership of sports teams, and through evaluation of their own responses to these changes. If the learners have common experience of changes, such as from outdoor-challenge type activities or group projects, then this could provide valuable opportunities to learn through reflecting on these experiences. It is also quite likely that learners have seen changes within their own school or college, and they could be encouraged to reflect on how this has affected them and the people who work there. Role play could be used with participants taking on roles of managers/owners, employers with different viewpoints, Trade Union representatives and other stakeholders and negotiating the implementation of a controversial change within a business scenario. There would be a good opportunity to use a suitably-designed game based on steering a career through changes to illustrate the value of responding positively to change. This learning outcome involves the use of evaluation skills, and it is essential that the learners are familiar with the use of the different methods of assessing the impact of change on employees and also that they practise drawing conclusions from sets of simple findings. This could be provided through an investigation of the impact of recent or current changes within their own school or college in which the learners use staff surveys, interviews etc. Ideally this would be done before the period of change and after to enable comparisons to be made. If this is not possible this could be achieved through studies of local or national organisations mentioned previously or through the development of suitable case studies.

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Learning outcomes and assessment criteria
Learning outcome number LO.1 Learning outcome The learner should: Know why and how change occurs in businesses Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Identify changes that affect businesses 1.2 Explain the types and causes of change that affect businesses 1.3 Outline the benefits for business of keeping pace with change LO.2 Understand the impact of change on employees 2.1 Identify changes that affect employees 2.2 Assess the impact of change on employees and their reactions towards it 2.3 Identify ways of dealing with change 2.4 Explain benefits for individuals of responding positively to change

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Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed by an examination lasting one hour, containing a range of questions on one or more organisations. The mark you achieve for this examination will be your mark for the unit. Learning outcomes — assessment weighting Learning outcome LO.1 Know why and how change occurs in businesses LO.2 Understand the impact of change on employees Range of weighting (% age) 45–55%

45–55%

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) Although PLTS are not identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning. (Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements.) Skill Independent enquirers Reflective learners Effective participators When learners are … Exploring the consequences of change from perspectives of individuals and organisations [IE3]; considering the impact of circumstances and beliefs on attitudes to change [IE5]. Reflecting on own experiences of change in business organisations [RL5]. Discussing issues of concern when responding to change [EP1] Presenting a case for accepting change [EP2]; identifying ways in which change can bring improvements [EP4].

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Functional skills — Level 2
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a variety of needs Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system used Manage information storage to enable efficient retrieval Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices Troubleshoot ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently for a complex task Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • text and tables images numbers records Investigating the impact of change on employees and presenting their findings. Presenting findings following an investigation of the impact of change on employees. When learners are …

Bring together information to suit content and purpose

Present information in ways that are fit Presenting findings following an investigation of the for purpose and audience impact of change on employees of a business. Evaluate the selection and application of ICT tools and facilities used to present information

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Skill Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, responsibly and effectively including storage of messages and contact lists Mathematics Understand routine and non-routine problems in a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations Identify the situation or problem and the mathematical methods needed to tackle it Select and apply a range of mathematics to find solutions Use appropriate checking procedures and evaluate their effectiveness at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar routine contexts and situations Draw conclusions and provide mathematical justifications English Speaking and listening – make a range of contributions to discussions and make effective presentations in a wide range of contexts Reading – compare, select, read and understand texts and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments and opinions Writing – write documents, including extended writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and opinions, effectively and persuasively

When learners are …

Taking part in a role play of the negotiation of the implementation of change in an organisation. Taking part in group discussion based on own experiences of individual responses to change.

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Specialist resources None. Reference material Books Ashwin A, Merrills S, Thompson R and Machin D – A2 Business Studies, chapters 26-29 (Harper Collins, 2009) ISBN 0007270380 Centre for Creative leadership, Gurvis J and Carlarco A – Adaptability: Responding effectively to change (Jossey Bass, 2007) ISBN 1882197925 Collins J and Collins J – Good to Great: Why some companies make the leap…and others don’t (Harper Collins, 2001) ISBN 0066620996 McFarland R K – The Breakthrough Company: How everyday companies become extraordinary performers (Crown Business, 2008) ISBN 0307352188 Websites www.bized.co.uk www.times100.co.uk Resources for teaching of business studies Resources for teaching of business studies

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LEVEL 2 UNIT 8: CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Unit 8: Corporate Social Responsibility
Principal Learning unit Level 2 Guided Learning Hours: 30 Internally assessed

About this unit

Organisations have a responsibility but also an excellent opportunity to make a difference through their actions. One way of doing this is to make sure that they act in a socially responsible way; this notion is called corporate social responsibility. Consumers are taking a greater interest in the role of organisations in society. This has partly been prompted by increased awareness of environmental and ethical issues. These issues include environmental damage and the way that staff are treated. Corporate social responsibility has often meant accountability in far away countries, but organisations are now finding that measures closer to home are also important. These sorts of issues have been highlighted in the media and the pressure on organisations to play a positive role in society is growing. Organisations are realising that if they respond to these pressures, there might be long-term benefits to their business. In this unit, you will learn about the concept of responsible business practice and explore how an organisation interacts with, and affects, the local, national and global community.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 Understand why organisations need to act responsibly Know ways in which organisations can demonstrate corporate social responsibility Be able to review and recommend improvements to business practices.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Understand why organisations need to act responsibly You need to learn about the pressures and benefits being placed on organisations to act responsibly: • • • the role of non-governmental organisations and pressure groups in raising awareness; the effects of negative publicity the increasing popularity of ethical consumerism, eg fairtrade, consumer boycotts; socially-responsible investment benefits, eg positive publicity, customer loyalty, staff recruitment and retention, benefiting from talents of diverse workforce.

LO.2

Know ways in which organisations can demonstrate corporate social responsibility

Organisations can demonstrate corporate social responsibility through responsible business practices and thereby minimise negative impacts. This will vary according to the organisation but may include: • environmental concerns: waste management; recycling; using sustainable resources; reduction of carbon footprint; avoiding unnecessary energy consumption; encouraging environmental good practice by consumers employees: promoting good health; staff pay and benefits; training and development; safe and secure working environment; ensuring diversity and equal opportunities, eg through staff training, recruitment and pay policies, diversity monitoring suppliers: treating suppliers fairly; choosing suppliers that promote responsible practice, eg fair working conditions, environmental concern, ethical trading consumers and general public: treating customers fairly and honestly; meeting the needs of vulnerable customers; promoting responsible consumer behaviour, health and wellbeing; helping local economy through choice of local suppliers local community: engaging with the community to understand its needs; financial investment, eg sponsorship, grants, charitable giving; non-financial investment, eg encouraging employees to act as volunteers or mentors, providing educational visits and work experience, promoting local groups; social inclusion by providing employment.

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LO.3

Be able to review and recommend improvements to business practices

You need to learn about the process of reviewing business practices in terms of assessing impact and recommending improvements, which will typically include the following steps: • gathering information:
○ ○ ○

choosing how to collect information, eg interviews, observations, secondary sources finding out what the organisation currently does finding who is affected by the organisation and how assessing positive and negative impacts identifying issues and coming up with ideas for improvements assessing ideas in terms of practicality and priority selecting best ideas explaining and justifying ideas.

analysing information:
○ ○ ○

drawing conclusions:
○ ○

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance This unit is 30 guided learning hours (GLH) in length. Centres should allocate this amount of time within the timetable for its delivery and assessment. Unless otherwise stated, all of the content included in the What you need to learn section needs to be taught. Sometimes an ‘eg’ or ‘for example’ is included in order to show content that is indicative: in these cases not all of the examples will need to be covered (for example, because some may not always apply in a particular situation), and tutors can introduce other examples of their own that are relevant to particular situations and to the needs of their learners. Delivery guidance for LO.1 It may be convenient to deliver this outcome alongside LO.2 so that learners can appreciate how corporate social responsibility issues brought to people’s attention and why it is beneficial for organisations to respond to them alongside the action that organisations take. It would be useful to look at the work done by one or more pressure groups, such as Friends of the Earth. These often highlight examples of environmental or ethical issues that they are campaigning or have campaigned about. Learners need to be aware of the increased pressure that such groups and consumers are placing upon organisations. Delivery guidance for LO.2 Learners will need to know about the ways in which organisations can show that they are acting responsibly in relation to the different issues. This learning outcome deals with their actions, and, implicitly, the benefits that their actions bring to others besides the organisation itself. This is best contextualised by using different organisations as they are likely to focus on different issues and, hence, different business practices. The list is appropriate for most businesses, but the balance between the groups may change. For example, if a local hospital were chosen, the interest group ‘customers’ would become patients, who could then be subdivided into, for example, inpatients and outpatients. Many organisations now publicise their efforts to be socially and environmentally responsible, and there is a wealth of material available: not only on their own websites, but also on those of organisations such as Business in the Community. Learners should not necessarily accept, at face value, the view given in an organisation’s public relations material, but the efforts placed on creating this is, itself, instructive. Again, local or national organisations may be able to help, particularly when it comes to the issue of how they can benefit from showing that they implement responsible business practices. Financial investment is usually easy to establish, and is often well publicised, for example on organisations’ websites or publicity material such as posters in shops and offices. Non-financial investment may be less easy to discover and more varied, for example, releasing an employee to help at an after school club and service on charitable committees and boards of governors. An excellent way of finding out about the investment that the organisation makes might be to talk to an appropriate member of staff. Many large organisations have websites dedicated to their corporate social responsibility which give information about how they have taken action to deal with these types of problems, although these may be less useful when it comes to issues that organisations are unwilling to acknowledge or respond to. Naturally, these issues will be relevant in different ways depending on the type, size and nature of the organisation. Case studies could be used to highlight ways in which the issues differ and visits to, or speakers from, local employers would be useful.

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Delivery guidance for LO.3 This learning outcome deals with the process of assessing impact and ways of making improvements. Learners need to be taught about the process of doing this, and will need to look at examples in class. Impact can be assessed at any time, but for teaching purposes, it may be most easily understood at a time of change, when there is a ‘before’ and ‘after’. This can be researched from sources such as the local media, particularly where a business has started doing something deemed controversial, such as a new factory, an enlarged facility or a new retail outlet. Visits to local organisations would also be useful; for example, to local shopkeepers after a new supermarket has opened. When considering the positive impact, other examples could be used, for example cultural diversity and the impact upon public services that results when organisations bring workers from elsewhere in the EU.

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Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed by an assignment based on corporate social responsibility in an organisation. You will need to: • • Research the organisation. This will involve: describing ways in which it is already acting responsibly [LO.2] Assess impact and make recommendations. This will involve: assessing the positive and negative effects of the organisation on a local community, identifying an issue that is relevant to the organisation and recommending steps it could take to show it is acting responsibly [LO.3]; and explaining the benefits of doing this [LO.1].

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Assessment information for assessors
Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments This unit must be covered by a single assignment, which is described in the How you will be assessed section, and exemplified within the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Sector-relevant purpose The assignment task must be set within a context that gives learners a purpose for completing it (which could be real or scenario-based), so that the information they collect will or could be put to some use. The organisation on which it is based must be a real one. Evidence structure Learning outcome LO.2 LO.3 Marking grid A A Activity/section Current situation Assessment and recommendations Evidence Written evidence: ways organisation is acting responsibly Written evidence: assessment of positive and negative effects, identifying an issue and recommending steps Written evidence: benefits of acting responsibly

LO.1

A

Level of demand The level of demand is exemplified in the unit sample assessment material (SAM). Assessment duration The suggested guided learning hours (GLH) needed to complete this assignment is 6 hours per learner. Centres can structure this time as they see fit. The suggested GLH for assessment does not include time spent gathering information on the organisation. Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments The learners must be provided with full access to study all of the areas identified in the What you need to learn section of the specification. Controls relating to resources and supervision are contained within Annexe E of this specification. More than one learner can work on the same organisation, and they can work together to collect information, but groups should be no larger than four. However, each learner must write their own evidence for assessment.

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Summary of unit controls Setting
Limited

Time
Limited

Resources
Limited

Supervision
Medium

Collaboration
Limited

Marking
Medium

See Annexe E for further information. Guidance for assessment The different parts of the assignment could be done in a single format, or parts could be broken into stages and could be done in different ways, for example a report and an article for the assessment and the current business practices, and presentation slides and notes for the recommendations. If a presentation is made for any part of the assignment, for moderation purposes, it is important to note that the written evidence created (slides, notes) must by itself provide sufficient evidence of the learner’s knowledge and understanding; presentation and oral communication skills are not assessed in this unit. The evidence created does not need to follow the order listed in the How you will be assessed section, although it would be most natural for the assessment to come before the recommendations and benefits. The assignment brief should make it clear which parts of the assignment are assessing which learning outcome(s). Evidence for what how the organisation is acting responsibly come in different places. When learners are ‘describing an issue’ in LO.2, this could be one that the organisation is not making any effort to address or one that it is already addressing but which has the potential for further action. The organisation on which learners complete the assignment must itself be real, and could be any type of organisation, public, private or voluntary. Larger organisations will provide greater scope for learners when completing the first and second parts of the assignment, but smaller organisations may also be suitable. The organisation must have a presence (office, outlet, etc) that is near to, or accessible by, the learners, irrespective of whether the organisation itself is a local, national or international organisation. It would make sense if the local community is one which is located close to where the learner lives or studies, because it would make it easier for the learner to gather information and make the task more meaningful to them. However, this is not mandatory: information could be gathered remotely and/or through visits. If a national or international organisation is used, learners need to consider its impact on a local community, not across all of its local communities. Although the learners themselves should have input into the choice of organisation, centres are responsible for ensuring that the organisation chosen meets the conditions outlined above. Learners can make use not only of published information, but also information gathered in other ways, for example from visits to organisations, interviews with their staff, interviews with customers and locals. Learners should seek permission first if planning to talk to staff or customers on the premises. It might be that the learner can make use of their work experience to gather information on the organisation’s activities.

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Marking grid
Mark Band 2 Specific benefits are given, although these may be rather narrowly focussed. There is some attempt to justify them the benefits. (5–7) Examples of responsible practices are given which describe what the organisation does. Examples are generally relevant. (8–10) Examples are given which describe clearly and what the organisation does. Examples are consistently relevant. 10 Specific benefits are given and considered broadly from different perspectives. These are clear and well justified. Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus

Mark Band 1

LO.1

Understand why organisations need to act responsibly

Benefits are stated in general terms and may lack clarity. Answers lack depth and may focus narrowly on one particular benefit.

(0–4)

LO.2

Know ways in which organisations can demonstrate corporate social responsibility (7–11) (12–15)

Examples of responsible practices are stated, with limited description. Some examples may not appear relevant.

(0–6)

15

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Assessment focus The assessment is specific. Examples are given, although it is not always clear how these support the learner’s judgement. The assessment is specific and detailed. A broad range of examples are given, and these are used convincingly to support the learner’s judgement. The learner shows well-balanced judgement in dealing with both positive and negative impacts. (12–15) An issue is identified and described clearly, showing good understanding of the issue with appropriate examples that relate clearly to the selected organisation. The learner makes clear and realistic recommendations about specific steps the organisation can take. (15–20) 35 Total marks 60 Both positive and negative impacts are considered, although judgements may lack balance. (7–11) An issue is identified and described, showing some understanding of the issue with general examples, but these may not always relate to the selected organisation. The learner makes realistic recommendations about specific steps the organisation can take. (9–14)

Mark Band 1

Mark Band 2

Mark Band 3

Maximum marks available

LO.3(.1)

Be able to review business practices and recommend improvements

The assessment is rather generalised, with a narrow range of examples given, which may not support the learner’s judgement.

The assessment may focus narrowly on either positive or negative impacts.

(0–6)

LO.3(.2, .3)

Be able to review business practices and recommend improvements

An issue is identified and described briefly, but this may show limited understanding of the issue, and there may be limited information about how it relates to the selected organisation.

The learner makes limited and generalised recommendations in the form of simple statements about steps that the organisation can take.

(0–8)

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Assessment guidance
Using the marking grid • • Each internally assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total. In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B. Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s). The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus. If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band. If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band. If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band. Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking. A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark. Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts. Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

• •

• •

• •

• •

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Level 2 descriptors
Descriptor Appropriate Broad range of examples Clear/clearly Consistently Describe/description Detail/detailed General/generalised Generally Good/well Identify Justify Lack balance Lack clarity Lack depth Limited Narrow(ly)/narrowly focused Narrow range of examples Realistic Relevant Simple Some Specific Well balanced Meaning Suitable/relevant. Examples that are varied and not all closely related to each other. Well expressed, easy to understand or see. Throughout. Provide information that includes relevant features, elements, facts, etc. Showing thoroughness. Not specific, not relating to a particular organisation. Mostly/or most of the time, but not completely or consistently. To a high level. Mentions the key elements, facts, features, etc. Give good reasons for something. Not giving due prominence to what is most significant. Not well expressed/not easy to understand. Basic and superficial. Incomplete or having a narrow scope; shows only basic ability or understanding. Concentrating on only a small number/a part of what is possible. Examples that are closely related. Appropriate and practical. Applicable to the subject. Basic, routine, straightforward. To a certain degree, partial. Relating to a particular organisation. Giving appropriate weight to most significant factors.

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
The following table identifies the PLTS that have been included within the assessment criteria of this unit.

Skill Independent enquirers Effective participators

When learners are … Supporting their explanation of the benefits of acting responsibly using reasoned arguments and evidence [IE6]. Proposing practical steps that the organisation can take to demonstrate it is acting responsibly [EP3].

Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning. Skill Independent enquirers When learners are … Exploring issues from the perspectives of different stakeholder interests [IE3]; analysing and evaluating information provided on company websites about their activities, judging its relevance and value [IE4]; considering the influence of consumers’ beliefs about corporate responsibility on their purchasing decisions [IE5]. Questioning their own and others’ assumptions about what constitutes responsible business practice [CT4]. Assessing organisations’ achievements in demonstrating that they use responsible business practices [RL1]. Discussing ethical issues that are of concern [EP1]; presenting a persuasive case for what an organisation can do to invest in its local community [EP2] which will influence the organisation and balance its needs against those of the local community [EP5].

Creative thinkers Reflective learners Effective participators

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Functional skills — Level 2
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a variety of needs Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system used Manage information storage to enable efficient retrieval Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices Troubleshoot ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently for a complex task Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • text and tables images numbers records Writing their report on their chosen organisation and the local community. Preparing a presentation on the environmental/ethical issue, illustrating their slides with relevant information. Researching information on an organisation in any of the learning outcomes, eg using company websites, information from pressure groups and non-governmental organisations. When learners are …

Bring together information to suit content and purpose

Present information in ways that are fit Writing their report on their chosen organisation and the for purpose and audience local community, presenting findings on an organisation operating in the global economy. Evaluate the selection and application of ICT tools and facilities used to present information

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Skill Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, responsibly and effectively including storage of messages and contact lists Mathematics Understand routine and non-routine problems in a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations Identify the situation or problem and the mathematical methods needed to tackle it Select and apply a range of mathematics to find solutions Use appropriate checking procedures and evaluate their effectiveness at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar routine contexts and situations Draw conclusions and provide mathematical justifications English Speaking and listening – make a range of contributions to discussions and make effective presentations in a wide range of contexts Reading – compare, select, read and understand texts and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments and opinions Writing – write documents, including extended writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and opinions, effectively and persuasively

When learners are …

Presenting their findings on an organisation operating in the global economy.

Researching either of the organisations chosen.

Writing their report on their chosen organisation and the local community, presenting their findings on an organisation operating in the global economy.

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Specialist resources None. Reference material Websites www.csr.gov.uk www.sustainable-development.gov.uk www.sustainability.com Government information on corporate social responsibility Government information on sustainable development Organisation that advises on sustainability

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LEVEL 2 UNIT 9: CAREERS AND EMPLOYMENT IN BUSINESS

Unit 9: Careers and Employment in Business
Principal Learning unit Level 2 Guided Learning Hours: 30 Internally assessed

About this unit

It is important to find a career that suits you. To do this, you will need to think about what you want from a job and plan how to get there. This unit will give you the opportunity to do this through researching different careers and producing a career plan. Getting a job can be a challenge, and making a good impression with your application and interview is all important. There’s no substitute for experience, so in this unit you’ll have the chance to practise applying for and being interviewed for a job. One of the biggest challenges in getting into many jobs is not having relevant experience. In this unit you’ll have the chance to solve this by doing work experience. How do employers know how well staff are doing? Most organisations now use some form of performance management to help them measure this. You’ll learn more about this and also about the rights and responsibilities in the workplace.

Learning outcomes
On completing this unit, a learner should: LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 Be able to use sources of job information Be able to plan for and set goals for their career Be able to prepare for and participate as an interviewee in an interview for a job Know how employment legislation, procedures and processes operate in the workplace.

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What you need to learn
LO.1 Be able to use sources of job information The employment market is competitive. You need to learn about the sources of information on jobs and careers: • • • • • • LO.2 Be able to plan for and set goals for their career school or college careers advisers company websites and career packs agencies and job centres newspapers: articles, job advertisements careers guidance software college prospectuses.

You need to learn about the steps involved in preparing a career plan to make best use of work experience: • a self-analysis of your current situation and future requirements, eg what you like/dislike doing, what you need and want from a job research to find a possible career that fits with step 1:
○ ○

specific job-related information what is required to achieve your chosen career, eg skills, knowledge, training, education, experience

• •

planning making short-term activities for the next two years which will help you access your career setting goals for workplace experience:
○ ○ ○ ○

deciding which skills and attributes are relevant for the job you will be doing where you are now: your strengths and weaknesses what to concentrate on: skills/attributes you want to improve or show you can do how to set goals that can help you do this

reviewing goals: assessing if you have achieved your goals; deciding what else you have learned.

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LO.3

Be able to prepare for and participate as an interviewee in an interview for a job

You need to learn about the preparation and process involved in applying for a job: • using a job description and person specification to prepare an up-to-date CV and covering letter or application form that addresses the requirements of the job following interview protocols, eg dress code, punctuality preparing questions to ask at interview and for questions you may be asked.

• •

You will also need learn about techniques and skills needed at interview: • • • LO.4 Know how employment legislation, procedures and processes operate in the workplace interview techniques: selling yourself, showing enthusiasm oral communication skills: asking and responding to questions, listening, voice clarity, tone and pace non-verbal communication: body language, posture, eye contact, facial expression.

Both employers and employees have rights and responsibilities. You need to know about the main areas: • • • • • contractual versus statutory rights health, safety and welfare legislation employment protection rights paid holidays and working hours anti-discrimination legislation.

You also need to know how performance management is used in the workplace: • • • • goal setting learning and developmental activities monitoring and appraisals performance-related pay.

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Teaching this unit
Delivery guidance This unit is 30 guided learning hours (GLH) in length. Centres should allocate this amount of time within the timetable for its delivery and assessment. The time spent on workplace experience, which learners will need to take part in order to complete the assessment (but not the learning) for LO.4 and the review of goals in LO.2, is not considered to be part of the guided learning hours for this unit. Unless otherwise stated, all of the content included in the What you need to learn section needs to be taught. Sometimes an ‘eg’ or ‘for example’ is included in order to show content that is indicative: in these cases not all of the examples will need to be covered (for example, because some may not always apply in a particular situation), and tutors can introduce other examples of their own that are relevant to particular situations and to the needs of their learners. Delivery guidance for LO.1 and LO.2 Delivery covering the different sources of information that can be used to access careers information (LO.1) can be integrated with career planning (LO.2), since they go hand in hand. A useful starting point is to ask learners to carry out a self-assessment. This could include their current experience of the workplace, qualifications and skills. CASCAID’s Kudos software is also a good starting point and can be used in parallel with the self assessment. These activities would help to generate ideas on occupational and career preferences and can be useful in helping learners to focus on realistic options before it comes to assessment. Learners will need to spend time becoming familiar with the information available on company websites and electronic or published career information. Most company websites will have a recruitment section and these can be a good starting point for gathering information on career opportunities. Visits to organisations or visiting speakers can also be a rich source of information on career opportunities for learners. At this level, they will not be expected to learn about different recruitment methods. Visits to organisations or visiting speakers (for example from employers, agencies or ex-learners from the centre) can also be a rich source of information on career opportunities for learners. Organisations that focus on graduate entry could be able to help: even though learners would not be able to apply in the immediate future, visits to or from such organisations could help focus learners on the longer term. In preparation for goal setting, it would be useful to review as a class the sorts of skills and attributes that are valued in the workplace, and encourage learners to think about what will help them in their career plan. It would also be extremely valuable to involve a local employer or workplace provider to talk to them about what they expect from their employees; if more than one can be involved in this process, there may be interesting opportunities to compare and contrast. Ranking exercises where learners decide on the relative importance of different skills/attributes in different types of job can lead to fruitful and interesting group discussions. Another starting point would be to use fictional representations, such as from television dramas. At this level, it would be useful to introduce the concept of SMART goal setting, but it is worth remembering that not all goals can be formulated in this way, but they need to know about the importance of setting goals that are at least specific and realistic. Learners can practise by setting goals related to other learning experiences in the school or college or personal goals for the future.

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Learners will need to be prepared for their workplace experience by learning how to record their experiences in some way, for example using a diary, for which they will need to be prepared (although the diary itself will not be assessed) and what to record. It is important that learners understand that it is much better to keep an ongoing record rather than leave this to the end. Centres can suggest alternative methods of recording experiences, such as video diaries or blogs. It is useful preparation if learners can practise the skills of recording experiences by completing a diary of their learning experiences in school or college so that learners understand which sorts of information is useful to record. After their workplace experience has finished, they should be given time to reflect on their workplace experience and to evaluate the progress they have made towards their goals. Talking through their progress in groups can be a useful way of helping to give learners a clear focus on the experiences they have gained in the workplace. Delivery guidance for LO.3 Learners will need guidance on the format and content of job application documents, above all the importance of showing how they have the skills, attributes and experience necessary for a job as outlined in a job and person specification. They should have some practice at completing an application form: real examples could be obtained from local employers. As well as using hard copies, it would also be useful to practise using online application forms that are readily available. An example or a template of a basic CV and covering letter could be used to provide guidance on what they should include in their own. Local businesses may also be able to help by providing examples of real applications made for particular jobs (with personal identifying information removed). As a starting point for interview preparation, learners could work in small groups to come up with basic questions they think they could ask at an interview. It is important to note that the unit content differentiates between interview techniques and communication skills; this distinction will also be seen when it comes to assessment (in assessment criteria and marking grids). Showing learners a DVD or video of a mock interview and asking them to identify the examples of good or bad practice can be an effective and fun way of introducing them to the importance of body language and interview protocols. As a confidence builder, learners should have the opportunity to practise basic interview techniques prior to the assessed interview; recording learners’ practice interviews for them to watch afterwards could help. Learners are likely to require guidance and regular feedback on their progress in order to develop their interview techniques and communication skills. The delivery of this can be linked to Unit 6: Teams and Communication in Business which covers ways of improving written communication. Delivery guidance for LO.4 Learners will need to have a broad understanding of the main categories of rights and responsibilities and of methods of performance management. Newspaper articles and topical television reports can be a fruitful way of bringing this potentially dry area to life. Learners could be encouraged to research and find recent and current examples of disputes or developments in key areas of employment legislation. Some learners, particularly those with part time jobs will have some experience of methods of performance management, an appraisal for example. Asking them to share their experiences will help to improve their understanding of the importance of performance management to employers and employees. At this level there is no need to go into the details, for examples about different types of appraisal or monitoring systems, but learners do need to know in outline how and why they are used.

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Assessment information for learners
How you will be assessed This unit will be assessed by a single assignment connected to careers and your future employment. You will need to: • Use careers information to produce a simple career plan, which includes information you have found out about a chosen career, a short-term plan to help you achieve this, and goals for your workplace experience [LO.1, LO.2(.1, .2)] Create job application documents, and then prepare for, and take part in, a job interview [LO.3] Use your workplace experience:

• •

to identify statutory and contractual rights and responsibilities of people in the organisation in which you are working; and describe which performance management methods are used and what they are used for [LO.4] to review what you have learned and whether you have achieved the goals you set in your career plan [LO.2(.3)].

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Assessment information for assessors
Instructions and controls for setting assessment assignments This unit must be covered by a single assignment, which is described in the How you will be assessed section, and exemplified within the unit sample assessment material (SAM). The assignment for part of this unit is connected to workplace experience. This could be in the form of a placement or it could be a part-time job that the learner is starting or is already doing, but centres will not be able to complete the assessment for this unit without it. The job applied for in the assessment of LO.3 must not be one that they have practised preparing as part of the learning for this unit. Sector-relevant purpose The assignment (and by extension the job in which learners will be doing in LO.4) must be relevant to the Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance. Evidence structure Learning outcome LO.1, LO.2(.1, .2) LO.3(.1) A Job application: documents Marking grid A Activity/section Career plan Evidence Written evidence: chosen career; plan; goals for workplace experience Written evidence: CV and covering letter or application form Written evidence: questions they think they may be asked and questions they could ask Learner observation record: interview and communication skills Written evidence: rights, responsibilities and performance management Written evidence: review of workplace experience and goals

LO.3(.2)

A

Job application: interview preparation Job application: interview

LO.3(.3, .4)

B

LO.4

A

Workplace experience*

LO.2(.3)

A

* This part of the assignment is based on the learners’ experience at work, but assessment takes place afterwards. Level of demand The extent of the career plan required in LO.2 is exemplified in the unit sample assessment material (SAM). The job applied for in LO.3 should be appropriate for a Level 2 learner: this should be a job that typically requires relevant Level 2 qualifications as a minimum. The job should be one in which learners would be expected to solve problems and complete tasks which are generally routine, but some of which may be complex. They would need to be able to work with some autonomy subject to overall guidance and supervision. Examples of appropriate jobs include: administrative assistant, marketing assistant or junior finance officer.

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Assessment duration The suggested guided learning hours (GLH) needed to complete this assignment is 10 hours per learner. Centres can structure this time as they see fit, but it is recommended that the job interview lasts no longer than 15-20 minutes. The suggested GLH for assessment does not include time spent in the workplace. Centres should note that the total class assessment time is likely to be higher to allow time for separate observations of interviews in LO.3. Instructions and controls for taking assessment assignments The learners must be provided with full access to study all of the areas identified in the What you need to learn section of the specification. Controls relating to resources and supervision are contained within Annexe E of this specification. All work must be completed individually; no group work is allowed. Although information for the assessment for LO.4 and part of LO.5 will be collected without supervision, the tasks must be written up under supervised conditions. Summary of unit controls Setting
Limited

Time
Limited

Resources
Limited

Supervision
Medium

Collaboration
Limited

Marking
Medium

See Annexe E for further information. Guidance for assessment It is recommended that assessment takes place in stages after the relevant learning has taken place rather than all at the end of the unit. See below for further guidance. Learners will benefit most from this unit if the assessment for LO.1, LO.2 and LO.3 takes place shortly before their workplace experience starts (unless this assignment is based around a job that learners are already doing). This will help prepare them for the workplace and should maximise the chances that it will be a mutually beneficial experience both for the learner and the employer. For their short-term career plan in the first part of the assignment, learners should focus on one career: this could be quite broad, such as ‘accountancy’, ‘sales’ or ‘human resources’, or it could be more narrowly focussed on a specific job and/or organisation. Their plan should follow the four steps listed in the What you need to learn section, and should include further study or qualifications where appropriate. Learners do not need to use all of the sources and types of information listed in the What you need to learn section for LO.1, only what is relevant. Their plan for how to access this career should be short term which can be understood as being approximately the next two years. Their short-term plan is not expected to necessarily take them up to the point where they are actually employed in this career (although it may do), but it should represent progress towards it. The goals that learners set for their workplace experience may relate not only to what the learner wants to improve, but also to what learner wants to prove they can do. For example, it may be that a learner thinks that they are good at time keeping, but they would have difficulty in coming up with evidence for this; they can therefore use their goal setting and workplace experience to gather evidence of their existing attributes/abilities which will be useful to them in future. The goals set do not need to conform to SMART principles, but they should aim to at least be specific and realistic.

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There are different approaches possible for the job application and interview for the second part of the assignment. The most coherent approach would be either to a job that they have found out about in the first part of the assignment or the job that the learners are going to do as workplace experience in LO.4 or for centres to assess LO.3 last, after the workplace experience has been completed: this would allow learners to make use of what they have learned and been able to demonstrate during their workplace experience when making their application, and could be contextualised as being an interview to recruit recent work-experience participants into a permanent position within the organisation. Alternatively, the job could be one that learners find for themselves, for example a job from a local newspaper or it could come from a brief specially designed by the tutor. Whatever approach is taken, tutors will need to ensure that learners have a job description and person specification to work from. If the application is made using a CV and covering letter, learners can make use of previous versions that they have created for practice purposes, but they should customise them for the specific requirements of the job applied for. The interview can be done as a role play, and the tutor must complete a learner observation record. Other members of staff, local employers or a work-experience provider could take part in the interviews in the role of interviewer. The workplace experience, which forms the context for the assessment of the last part of the assignment, could be in the form of a placement or it could be a part-time job done over a longer period. The workplace experience must relate to some part of the Business, Administration and Finance diploma and therefore allow the learners to apply some of the knowledge and skills that they have developed or (if the workplace experience takes place early in the course) get a taster of the knowledge and skills that they will later focus on. Learners doing full-time work experience should complete this before they write their review. Ideally, this will also be the case for learners doing part-time work experience, but if this proves impractical, they may be able to complete this after at least half of the work-experience is finished. During the workplace experience, they will need to record their experiences in some way, for example using a diary (although the diary itself will not be assessed) so that afterwards they have the necessary information to allow them to write up their experiences. Learners can collect information about rights, responsibilities and performance management in the organisation, eg by talking to existing members of staff or a mentor or by finding examples of contracts (if available). There are a great many statutory and contractual rights and responsibilities that could be covered. There is no requirement to mention everything, but learners should make reference to some aspects of the broad categories listed in the relevant sections in What you need to learn. Similarly, there is no need to provide a comprehensive coverage of all types of performance management, only what is actually used within that organisation, which may include methods not covered within classroom teaching.

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Marking grid A
Mark Band 2 Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus

Mark Band 1

LO.1

Be able to use sources of job information

LO.2(.1, .2)

Be able to plan and set goals for their career (6–9) They review progress and lessons learned by assessing how far they have achieved their goals, with some supporting evidence. (3–4) (5–6) (10–12)

The learner produces a career plan which includes limited information accessed on a chosen career. They produce a short-term plan of activities and goals for their workplace experience, but in both cases these may not be specific or realistic.

The learner produces a career plan which includes information accessed on a chosen career. They produce a short-term plan of activities which includes specific information and which has some relevance to their career plan. They set specific goals for their workplace experience.

The learner produces a career plan which includes detailed information accessed on a chosen career. They produce a short-term plan of activities which includes specific information and which has clear relevance to their career plan. The learner sets specific and realistic for their workplace experience. They review progress and lessons learned by assessing how far they have achieved their goals, providing good supporting evidence. 18

(0–5)

LO.2(.3)

Be able to plan and set goals for their career

They review progress and lessons learned with limited reference to the goals set.

(0–2)

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Assessment focus The learner addresses some specific requirements of the job applied for. Conventions are followed, but with some omissions and inconsistencies. Appropriate style/register is used in some places. (5–7) They make some preparation for the interview, identifying a range of questions they think they may be asked, most of which are relevant to the job they are applying for, and basic answers to them. They identify a range of questions that they could ask. (3–4) The learner identifies employment rights and responsibilities, showing some understanding of the difference between statutory and contractual rights. The learner identifies methods of performance management, showing some understanding of how they are used. (6–9) (5–6) The learner identifies and categorises employment rights and responsibilities, showing a good understanding of the difference between statutory and contractual rights. The learner identifies methods of performance management, showing a good understanding of how and why they are used. (10–12) 12 Total marks 46 (8–10) They prepare well for the interview, identifying a range of relevant questions they think they may be asked and appropriate answers. They identify a range of relevant questions that they could ask. The learner addresses the specific requirements of the job applied for well. Conventions are followed, with few omissions or inconsistencies. Appropriate style/register is generally used.

Mark Band 1

Mark Band 2

Mark Band 3

Maximum marks available

LO.3(.1)

Be able to prepare for and participate as an interviewee in an interview for a job

Specific requirements of the job applied for are addressed to a limited degree. Conventions are generally followed, but with a number of omissions and inconsistencies. Appropriate style/register is used in few places.

(0–4)

LO.3(.2)

Be able to prepare for and participate as an interviewee in an interview for a job

They make limited preparation for the interview, identifying a few general questions they think they may be asked as well as a few questions they could ask.

(0–2)

16

LO.4

know how employment legislation, procedures and processes operate in the workplace

The learner identifies a few employment rights, but shows limited understanding of the difference between statutory and contractual rights or of employment responsibilities.

The learner identifies methods of performance management.

(0–5)

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Marking grid B
Mark Band 2 The learner shows a moderate level of interview techniques in terms of selling themselves and showing enthusiasm. They demonstrate a reasonable level of oral communication skills, showing the ability to answer simple questions and give acceptable answers to more unexpected or open-ended questions. Some aspects of non-verbal communication skills are likely to be good, but may not be sustained. (7–10) (11–14) The learner demonstrates a good level of oral communication skills, showing the ability to answer simple questions well and give good answers to more unexpected or open-ended questions. Non-verbal communication skills are likely to be good and sustained. The learner shows a good level of interview techniques in terms of selling themselves and showing enthusiasm. Mark Band 3 Maximum marks available

Assessment focus

Mark Band 1

LO.3(.3, .4)

Be able to prepare for and participate as an interviewee in an interview for a job

The learner shows limited level of interview techniques in terms of selling themselves and showing enthusiasm.

They demonstrate a basic level of oral communication skills, showing the ability to answer simple questions.

Some aspects of non-verbal communication skills may be adequate, but are likely not to be sustained.

(0–6)

14 Total marks 14

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Assessment guidance
Using the marking grid • • Each internally assessed unit has either 60, 75 or 90 available marks in total. In some units the marking grid has been split into two grids – A and B. Marking grid A contains all of the marking criteria for the unit except those which assess a learner’s performance in practical activities which are recorded as a learner observation record (see the Edexcel Diploma website for further information). These make up grid B. Centres must ensure that learners undertake appropriate assessment tasks to enable them to achieve the requirements of each unit’s marking grid(s). The basic principle is that this is a ‘best fit’ grid – ie the assessor must match the overall standard of work for an assessment focus to a band. It is NOT a hurdle approach, whereby the assessor cannot award marks from the next mark band if one item for an assessment focus from a lower mark band has been omitted, regardless of the quality of the rest of the work for that assessment focus. If a learner completes all they are asked to do in a band for an assessment focus, they can be awarded the full marks for that mark band. If a learner has clearly done more on one aspect of work for an assessment focus required by a mark band, the assessor should consider whether the learner can be awarded marks from the bottom of the next mark band. If a learner has completed less than required in any aspect of work for an assessment focus, or indeed omitted an aspect, then the mark moves down within the mark band. Marking is completely separate for each assessment focus – ie a learner can get mark band 3 on one assessment focus, mark band 1 on another etc, then all marks are added together for the unit total. It may be possible, depending on weighting of an assessment focus for a learner to pass a unit even if 0 has been given in marks for one assessment focus in the unit. Relevant Tutor Support Materials may contain further information relating to marking. A 0 mark should be used only where a learner provides no valid evidence. Any work that starts to address the requirements of the grid should normally be awarded at least one mark. Evidence generated for marking grid A will be moderated. This must be in the form of hard evidence which a moderator can reassess, such as learner produced written documents (eg short question answers, multiple choice question answers, materials from presentations, research notes), videos (dated) of practical activities or artefacts. Marks gained from marking grid A will be reported separately from those gained from marking grid B.

• •

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Level 2 descriptors
Descriptor Adequate Appropriate Assess Basic Categorises Clear/clearly Detail/detailed A few Few Generally Good/well Identify Limited A number of Most/mostly A number of Open ended question A range Reasonable Realistic Relevant/relevance A simple question Some Specific Sustained Unexpected question Well presented Meaning Only just sufficient. Suitable/relevant. Judge the extent or degree of something. Limited to the fundamental features, elements or facts. Puts in groups which share common features. Well expressed, easy to understand or see. Showing thoroughness. One or two. Not many. Mostly/or most of the time but not completely or consistently. To a high level or degree. Mentions the key elements, facts, features, etc. Incomplete or having a narrow scope; shows only basic ability or understanding. At least three. The majority with one or two left out. Many. A question which requires more than a yes/no answer. Three or more. Moderate or average. Appropriate and practical. Applicable to the subject. A question that is very straightforward or which requires only a yes/no answer. At least three; to a certain degree, partial. Definite and clear. Maintained over a period of time. A question that is not routine or easy to predict. Attractive and easy to read.

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Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)
The following table identifies the PLTS that have been included within the assessment criteria of this unit.

Skill Independent enquirers Reflective learners

When learners are … Identifying questions to answer in preparation for the interview [IE1]. Setting goals for their workplace experience [RL2]; assessing their workplace experience in terms of how far they have achieved their goals [RL1]. Proposing practical steps for their career plan [EP3].

Effective participators

Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning. Skill Independent enquirers When learners are … Planning and carrying out research into career pathways or workplace legislation [IE2]; preparing for their interview, considering what employers are looking for as well as what they themselves need from a job [IE3]; concluding which careers are suitable for them, supporting these with reasoned arguments and evidence [IE6]. Generating ideas for different career options [CT1]; questioning their own ideas about a suitable career [CT4]. Reviewing the progress they have made during the workplace experience and deciding what to do next [RL3]; inviting feedback from people involved in their workplace experience and dealing positively with it [RL4]; evaluating their experiences of the workplace to inform plans for the future [RL5]. Rehearsing their interviews, showing fairness and consideration to others [TW4] when providing feedback afterwards [TW6]. Seeking out challenges or new responsibilities when taking part in workplace experience [SM1]; working towards their goals set for their workplace experience, showing initiative, commitment and perseverance [SM2]; organising time and resources, prioritising actions while preparing for a job interview [SM3].

Creative thinkers Reflective learners

Team workers Self-managers

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Functional skills — Level 2
Skill ICT — Use ICT systems Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a variety of needs Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system used Manage information storage to enable efficient retrieval Follow and understand the need for safety and security practices Troubleshoot ICT — Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently for a complex task Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT — Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its meaning and purpose, including: • • • • text and tables images numbers records Researching occupations for their career plans, preparing CVs and covering letters. Preparing documentation for interviews, using text and tables to create CVs. Researching occupations for their career plans, making use of different information sources. Saving documents prepared for their job applications. When learners are …

Bring together information to suit content and purpose

Present information in ways that are fit Researching occupations for their career plans, preparing for purpose and audience CVs and covering letters. Evaluate the selection and application of ICT tools and facilities used to present information

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Skill Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, responsibly and effectively including storage of messages and contact lists Mathematics Understand routine and non-routine problems in a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts and situations Identify the situation or problem and the mathematical methods needed to tackle it Select and apply a range of mathematics to find solutions Use appropriate checking procedures and evaluate their effectiveness at each stage Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar routine contexts and situations Draw conclusions and provide mathematical justifications English Speaking and listening – make a range of contributions to discussions and make effective presentations in a wide range of contexts Reading – compare, select, read and understand texts and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments and opinions Writing – write documents, including extended writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and opinions, effectively and persuasively

When learners are …

Taking part in interviews as interviewee.

Gathering information from different sources to inform their career plan.

Preparing documentation for interviews; reviewing their workplace experience.

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Work experience Workplace experience is integral to this unit. For further information, see Assessment information for assessors, above. Specialist resources This unit can be delivered without specialist resources. However, there are specialist resources that are useful and relevant, for example Cascaid’s Kudos software. Reference material Books Anderson A, Barker D and Critten P – Effective Self Development: A Skills and Activity-based Approach (Blackwell, 1996) ISBN 0631200150 Fry R – Your first Interview: for students and anyone preparing to enter today’s tough job market (Career Press, 2002) ISBN 1564145867 Linn L – Landing your first real job (McGraw-Hill Education, 1996) ISBN 0070380619 Messina E N – Teenwork: Four teens tell all: A guide for finding jobs (Goodheart-Wilcox, 2005) ISBN 159070598X Narms J – Employment Law for Business students (Longman, 2007) ISBN 1405832762 Websites www.alec.co.uk www.careeesa-z.co.uk www.careers-gateway www.channel4.com/brilliantcareeers www.connexions-direct.com www.support4learning.org.uk Alec: employability skills advice Careers A-Z Careersoft Brilliant Careers Connexions Support4Learning

There are a number of industry-specific websites that have useful career information, for example: www.acca.co.uk www.cim.co.uk www.cipd.co.uk www.lawsociety.org.uk Association of Chartered Certified Accountants Chartered Institute of Marketing Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development Law Society of England and Wales

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List of annexes
Annexe A: Qualification codes Annexe B: Personal, learning and thinking skills Annexe C: Wider curriculum mapping Annexe D: Glossary of terms Annexe E: Internal Assessment of Principal Learning Units: Controls for Task Setting, Task Taking and Task Marking Annexe F: Learning outcomes and assessment criteria for each unit 281 283 289 291 295 303

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Annexe A: Qualification codes
The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) code is known as a Qualification Accreditation Number (QAN). This is the code that features in the DfES Funding Schedules – Sections 96 and 97 and is to be used for all qualification funding purposes. Each unit within a qualification will also have an NQF unit code. The qualification and unit codes will appear on the learner’s final certification documentation. The QANs for the qualifications in this publication are: 500/4186/1 500/4184/8 Edexcel Level 1 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance Edexcel Level 2 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance

These Principal Learning qualifications contribute to the following Diploma qualifications at the same level: 500/4924/0 500/4940/9 Edexcel Level 1 Foundation Diploma in Business, Administration and Finance Edexcel Level 2 Higher Diploma in Business, Administration and Finance

These qualification titles will appear on learners’ certificates. Learners need to be made aware of this when they are recruited by the centre and registered with Edexcel. Providing this happens, centres are able to describe the programme of study leading to the award of the qualification in different ways to suit the medium and the target audience.

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Other codes The codes below will be required when making entries for individual units and the overall Principal Learning qualification: Unit codes Each unit is assigned a unit code. This unit code is used as an entry code to indicate that a learner wishes to take the assessment for that unit. Centres will need to use the entry codes only when entering learners for their examination or coursework moderation. The cash-in code is used as an entry code to aggregate the learner’s unit scores to obtain the overall grade for the qualification. Centres will need to use the cash-in codes only when entering learners for their qualification award. Please refer to the Edexcel Information Manual, available on the Edexcel website. Please refer to the Edexcel Information Manual, available on the Edexcel website.

Cash-in codes

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Annexe B: Personal, learning and thinking skills
QCA — a framework of PLTS

A FRAMEWORK OF PERSONAL, LEARNING AND THINKING SKILLS 11–19 IN ENGLAND The framework comprises six groups of skills that, together with the functional skills of English, mathematics and ICT, are essential to success in learning, life and work. In essence the framework captures the essential skills of: managing self; managing relationships with others; and managing own learning, performance and work. It is these skills that will enable young people to enter work and adult life confident and capable. The titles of the six groups of skills are set out below.

Team workers

Self-managers

Independent enquirers

Reflective learners Effective participators

Creative thinkers

For each group there is a focus statement that sums up the range of skills. This is followed by a set of outcome statements that are indicative of the skills, behaviours and personal qualities associated with each group. Each group is distinctive and coherent. The groups are also inter-connected. Young people are likely to encounter skills from several groups in any one learning experience. For example an Independent enquirer would set goals for their research with clear success criteria (Reflective learner) and organise and manage their time and resources effectively to achieve these (Selfmanager). In order to acquire and develop fundamental concepts such as organising oneself, managing change, taking responsibility and perseverance, learners will need to apply skills from all six groups in a wide range of learning contexts 11-19.

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The Skills Independent enquirers Focus: Young people process and evaluate information in their investigations, planning what to do and how to go about it. They take informed and well-reasoned decisions, recognising that others have different beliefs and attitudes. Young people: • identify questions to answer and problems to resolve • plan and carry out research, appreciating the consequences of decisions • explore issues, events or problems from different perspectives • analyse and evaluate information, judging its relevance and value • consider the influence of circumstances, beliefs and feelings on decisions and events • support conclusions, using reasoned arguments and evidence

Creative thinkers Focus: Young people think creatively by generating and exploring ideas, making original connections. They try different ways to tackle a problem, working with others to find imaginative solutions and outcomes that are of value. Young people: • generate ideas and explore possibilities • ask questions to extend their thinking • connect their own and others’ ideas and experiences in inventive ways • question their own and others’ assumptions • try out alternatives or new solutions and follow ideas through • adapt ideas as circumstances change

Reflective learners Focus: Young people evaluate their strengths and limitations, setting themselves realistic goals with criteria for success. They monitor their own performance and progress, inviting feedback from others and making changes to further their learning. Young people: • assess themselves and others, identifying opportunities and achievements • set goals with success criteria for their development and work • review progress, acting on the outcomes • invite feedback and deal positively with praise, setbacks and criticism • evaluate experiences and learning to inform future progress • communicate their learning in relevant ways for different audiences

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Team workers Focus: Young people work confidently with others, adapting to different contexts and taking responsibility for their own part. They listen to and take account of different views. They form collaborative relationships, resolving issues to reach agreed outcomes. Young people: • collaborate with others to work towards common goals • reach agreements, managing discussions to achieve results • adapt behaviour to suit different roles and situations • show fairness and consideration to others • take responsibility, showing confidence in themselves and their contribution • provide constructive support and feedback to others

Self-managers Focus: Young people organise themselves, showing personal responsibility, initiative, creativity and enterprise with a commitment to learning and self-improvement. They actively embrace change, responding positively to new priorities, coping with challenges and looking for opportunities. Young people: • seek out challenges or new responsibilities and show flexibility when priorities change • work towards goals, showing initiative, commitment and perseverance • organise time and resources, prioritising actions • anticipate, take and manage risks • deal with competing pressures, including personal and work-related demands • respond positively to change, seeking advice and support when needed • manage their emotions, and build and maintain relationships

Effective participators Focus: Young people actively engage with issues that affect them and those around them. They play a full part in the life of their school, college, workplace or wider community by taking responsible action to bring improvements for others as well as themselves. Young people: • discuss issues of concern, seeking resolution where needed • present a persuasive case for action • propose practical ways forward, breaking these down into manageable steps • identify improvements that would benefit others as well as themselves • try to influence others, negotiating and balancing diverse views to reach workable solutions • act as an advocate for views and beliefs that may differ from their own

(See www.qcda.gov.uk/16953.aspx)
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PLTS Performance Indicator (suggested recording sheet)
Name: Date:
Level of success
1 = low, 5 = high

Independent enquirers Identify questions to answer and problems to resolve Plan and carry out research, appreciating the consequences of decisions Explore issues, events or problems from different perspectives Analyse and evaluate information, judging its relevance and value Consider the influence of circumstances, beliefs and feelings on decisions and events Support conclusions, using reasoned arguments and evidence Creative thinkers Generate ideas and explore possibilities Ask questions to extend their thinking Connect their own and others’ ideas and experiences in inventive ways Question their own and others’ assumptions Try out alternatives or new solutions and follow ideas through Adapt ideas as circumstances change Reflective learners Assess themselves and others, identifying opportunities and achievements Set goals with success criteria for their development and work Review progress, acting on the outcomes Invite feedback and deal positively with praise, setbacks and criticism Evaluate experiences and learning to inform future progress Communicate their learning in relevant ways for different audiences Team workers Collaborate with others to work towards common goals Reach agreements, managing discussions to achieve results Adapt behaviour to suit different roles and situations Show fairness and consideration to others Take responsibility, showing confidence in themselves and their contribution Provide constructive support and feedback to others Self-managers Seek out challenges or new responsibilities and show flexibility when priorities change Work towards goals, showing initiative, commitment and perseverance Organise time and resources, prioritising actions Anticipate, take and manage risks Deal with competing pressures, including personal and work-related demands Respond positively to change, seeking advice and support when needed Manage their emotions, and build and maintain relationships Effective participators Discuss issues of concern, seeking resolution where needed Present a persuasive case for action Propose practical ways forward, breaking these down into manageable steps Identify improvements that would benefit others as well as themselves Try to influence others, negotiating and balancing diverse views to reach workable solutions Act as an advocate for views and beliefs that may differ from their own

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Note to learner: The circled number represents an indication of your PLTS performance so far. Note to tutor: Indicate the level of success by circling the appropriate number during your feedback with the learner. 286
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Summary of the PLTS coverage throughout the programme
Edexcel Level 1 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance Personal, learning and thinking skill Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Self-managers Effective participators – required component; Unit 1 , , , , , , , , , , , 2 3 4 5 ,

– opportunities for development

Edexcel Level 2 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance Personal, learning and thinking skill Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Self-managers Effective participators – required component; , , , , , – opportunities for development , , , , , , , , Unit 1 2 3 4 5 , 6 7 8 , 9 ,

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Annexe C: Wider curriculum mapping
Study of the Edexcel Diplomas in Business, Administration and Finance provides opportunities for the learner to develop an understanding of spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural issues as well as an awareness of citizenship, environmental issues, European developments, health and safety considerations and equal opportunities issues. The Edexcel Diplomas in Business, Administration and Finance make a positive contribution to wider curricular areas as appropriate. The specification contributes to an understanding of: • • moral and ethical issues – for example, various moral and ethical issues are dealt with at Level 2 in Unit 8: Corporate Social Responsibility social and cultural issues – for example, differing attitudes to money are explored in the Unit 3: Personal Finance and Financial Services (both levels).

Citizenship issues Learners undertaking the Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance will have the opportunity to develop their understanding of citizenship issues, especially the key concepts of rights and responsibilities in Unit 4: Sales and Customer Service in Business (Level 1), Unit 5: Marketing, Sales and Customer Service in Business (Level 2) and Unit 9: Careers and Employment in Business (Level 2); and of democracy and justice in Unit 8: Corporate Social Responsibility (Level 2). Environmental issues Learners are encouraged to appreciate the importance of environmental issues in various units, most explicitly at Level 2 in Unit 7: Responding to Change in Business and Unit 8: Corporate Social Responsibility. European developments Much of the content of the Edexcel Diplomas in Business, Administration and Finance applies throughout Europe even though the delivery is in a UK context. European legislation is addressed at Level 2 in Unit 8: Corporate Social Responsibility. Health and safety considerations The Edexcel Diplomas in Business, Administration and Finance are practically based and so health and safety issues are encountered throughout the units. Learners will develop awareness of the safety of others as well as themselves in all practical activities. Learners will also explore health and safety issues across the business, administration and finance sector, particularly in Unit 1: Business Enterprise (both Levels) and at Level 2 in Unit 9: Careers and Employment in Business and Unit 8: Corporate Social Responsibility. Equal opportunities issues Equal opportunities issues are implicit throughout the Edexcel Diplomas in Business, Administration and Finance.

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Wider curriculum mapping Edexcel Level 1 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance Unit 1 Moral and ethical Social and cultural Citizenship issues Environmental issues European developments Health and safety considerations Equal opportunities issues Edexcel Level 2 Principal Learning in Business, Administration and Finance Personal, learning and thinking skill Moral and ethical Social and cultural Citizenship issues Environmental issues European developments Health and safety considerations Equal opportunities issues Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3 4 5

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Annexe D: Glossary of terms
There are some terms that you may come across in the specification, which have a particular meaning within the context of the Diploma. You are therefore advised to familiarise yourself with the definitions of the terms in this glossary. Term Additional learning Definition Units or qualifications that learners choose to include in their Diploma. Additional learning is complementary in character. It consists of further learning and can include national curriculum entitlement areas and/or learning options such as languages, music or science that relate to individual needs, interests and aspirations, provided these do not duplicate learning in Principal Learning and Generic Learning. Acquiring and applying, knowledge, skills and understanding through tasks set in sector contexts that have many of the characteristics of real work or are set within the workplace. Most importantly, the purpose of the task in which learners apply their knowledge, skills and understanding must be relevant to real work in the sector. Specify the standard a learner is expected to meet to demonstrate that a learning outcome, or set of learning outcomes, has been achieved. Assessment criteria should be sufficiently detailed to support a consistent judgement that a learning outcome has been achieved – there are no minimum or maximum number of assessment criteria that relate to each learning outcome. The criteria should not dictate the method of assessment to be used. A defined set of qualifications that have been combined according to a set of rules. The Diplomas are designed to support progression to further study, training and employment. A process that stresses the central role of experience in learning related to the world of work. Learners reflect on their experience, draw out and articulate lessons learnt (generalise), and then apply their learning to new situations or activities. Assessment tasks are set and candidates’ work is assessed by Edexcel. This is concerned with the short-term collection and use of evidence as guidance of learning, mainly in day-to-day classroom practice. Functional skills are core elements of English, mathematics and ICT, providing the essential knowledge, skills and understanding needed to operate confidently, effectively and independently in life and at work.

Applied learning

Assessment criteria

Diploma

Experiential learning

External assessment Formative assessment

Functional skills

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Term Generic Learning

Definition Generic Learning enables learners to develop and apply the skills and knowledge necessary for learning, employment and personal development. The Generic Learning component of the Diploma is made up of the following constituent parts: • • • • functional skills personal, learning and thinking skills a project work experience.

Generic skills

Generic skills are relevant to learning, training and working in all lines of learning and all sectors. They include functional skills and personal, learning and thinking skills. Tasks are set and marked against criteria provided by Edexcel and subjected to external moderation. Internal assessment is normally supervised and conducted under controlled conditions. The level at which a qualification or unit is positioned for accreditation. Levels are defined in terms of complexity, autonomy and range of achievement. The broad subject areas that each Diploma will cover. There are 17 lines of learning, including: Creative and Media; Information Technology; Society, Health and Development; Engineering; Construction and the Built Environment. The framework of skills, which will equip all young people for successful employment and lifelong learning. PLTS require learners to be: • • • • • • independent enquirers creative thinkers reflective learners team workers self-managers effective participators.

Internal assessment

Level

Line of learning

Personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS)

Principal Learning

Learning modules and units of assessment that the learner must include in their Diploma. Principal Learning includes a minimum of 50 per cent of applied learning and consists of knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes that support progress through the line of learning into the sectors concerned. Opportunities to develop and apply generic skills are also integrated into Principal Learning. A freestanding qualification within the Diploma.

Project

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Term Specialist learning

Definition Units or qualifications that learners choose to include in their Diploma. Specialist learning allows the learner to take up further, more specialist learning, within their line of learning. It consists of qualifications and units that will support progression across the range of progression pathways within a chosen sector, as identified and recommended by the employers and higher education advisers on the Diploma Development Partnership. This serves to inform an overall judgement of achievement. A report of the units and qualifications that make up a learner’s programme and achievement. It lists the learner’s units and grades for each of the components of their Diploma qualification and also records work experience and personal, learning and thinking skills. A component of the Diploma, which enables learners to utilise and develop their knowledge and skills in the actual workplace.

Summative assessment Transcript

Work experience

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Annexe E: Internal Assessment of Principal Learning Units: Controls for Task Setting, Task Taking and Task Marking
This annexe should be read in association with the latest edition of the Joint Council for Qualifications document ‘GCSE, GCE, ELC, Functional Skills, Principal Learning in the Diploma and Project Qualifications – Instructions for conducting coursework’, available from the JCQ website, www.jcq.org.uk

Section 1: Introduction
It is a requirement of the Criteria for accreditation of Diploma qualifications at Levels 1, 2 and 3 that: ‘Internal assessment [of Principal Learning] must normally be supervised and conducted under controlled conditions to ensure reliability and fairness.’ Further guidance from the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency has identified three stages of assessment for which control must be specified: • • • Task setting Task taking (controls on time, resources, supervision, and collaboration) Task marking.

Further to the areas specified above, this annexe in collaboration with the individual specifications also sets the parameters for: • • • • guidance and support; submission, revision, re-working; the involvement of parents/carers; malpractice; and the authentication of learners’ work.

This annexe details the controls that normally apply to all Edexcel Principal Learning internally assessed units. However tutors and assessors must also apply any specific controls or additional requirements that may be identified within the Assessment information for assessors section in individual units. There are three levels of control that can apply to each stage. High control Medium control Limited control Where the assessment requirements are tightly prescribed. Where the assessment requirements are specified in terms of parameters that allow consortia some flexibility to suit local circumstances. Where the assessment requirements are specified in terms of broad parameters that allow consortia to determine the details of the assessment.

It is the responsibility of the consortium to ensure that internal controlled assessment for Principal Learning is conducted and marked in accordance with the requirements specified by Edexcel and conducted in line with the JCQ Instructions for conducting coursework.

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Section 2: Edexcel Controlled Assessment Profile
In Edexcel’s internally-assessed Principal Learning units, some aspects are subject to medium control and others have limited control. The table below shows the standard profile for all Edexcel Principal Learning internally-assessed unit specifications. Individual unit specifications will indicate where a divergence has occurred from this profile.

Aspect
Task setting Time Resources Supervision Collaboration Marking

Level 1
Limited Limited Limited Medium Limited Medium

Level 2
Limited Limited Limited Medium Limited Medium

Level 3
Limited Limited Limited Medium Limited Medium

Section 3: Assessment controls
3.1 Task setting Limited control Edexcel will publish, as part of its tutor support materials, at least one model assignment for each internally assessed unit. It is recommended that these model assignments are used in the assessment of each unit. However in order that these assignments can best meet learner interests and local needs they will include guidance for tutors and assessors to show the ways in which they may be adapted and contextualised. If the tutor decides to either adapt or write their own assignments then each assignment must meet the following conditions: • each internally assessed unit must be assessed through a single coherent assignment which addresses the overall theme of the unit to emphasise how the different learning outcomes all relate to each other. Each assignment may be broken down into a series of related tasks assignments must have an applied work-related context across all tasks, assignments must address all learning outcomes and assessment criteria, and must give access to the full range of marks the evidence produced must conform to the requirements published in the How you will be Assessed section of the relevant unit specification in some units the marking grid is divided into parts A and B. All tasks which will be marked against the A grid must generate learner evidence that can be re-assessed at a later stage during internal standardisation activity or external moderation where tutors decide to set their own assignments, another person, who understands the requirements of the specification, must check that each new assignment is appropriate for the line of learning and the level, and also that a new assignment will allow candidates full access to the marking criteria. This is especially important when a new tutor/assessor is required to produce assignments. Suitable people may include a Domain or Lead Assessor. This review process must be documented and the evidence of the review must be made available for the external moderator if requested

• • • •

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if the assignment is to be produced outside the teaching institution, for example by a supervisor at the learner’s work experience placement, then the tutor or assessor at the teaching institution responsible for that unit, must sign off the assignment for validity before the learner attempts the assignment.

In addition to these requirements, further guidance on writing assignments is provided in this specification, in the section ‘Assessment and grading of the principal learning specifications’. Complexity If the level of complexity of the evidence required is not already identified within the specification, then an indication can be assumed from the amount of time set within the specification for the production of the assessment evidence, considering the level at which the specification is being taken. The expectations of what a Level 1 learner can accomplish in 10 hours are far different from that which can be expected from a Level 3 learner in the same time period. Unless it is otherwise specified, learners should be set a task of equivalent complexity, whether they are expected to achieve marks at mark band 1 of the marking grid or mark band 3. 3.2 Task taking (controls on time, resources, supervision, and collaboration)

If not specified within the unit, it is to be assumed that tasks or the whole assignment will normally be attempted at the end of the learning process. Time – Limited control Each unit has a time for assessment allocated. This is defined as ‘the time to be spent generating evidence for assessment’, and covers all tasks and/or aspects of the assessment which carry marks in the unit marking grid. Activities to support the assessment such as setting up equipment or researching data are not included in the time allowance if they do not carry marks. While it is not a requirement that this time should be observed to the minute for internal assessments, it should be taken as strong guidance and variance should not normally be by more than plus or minus 10%. Learners given significantly less time may well be disadvantaged in relation to the quality and breadth of work they can produce, while those given significantly more may well be disadvantaged by an excess of time spent on assessment rather than learning. Resources – Limited control Unless otherwise stated in the individual unit specification, learners are entitled to have full access to all resources seen fit for purpose by the centre tutor/assessor. Any specific resources (eg equipment, published material) required or prohibited for assessment will be detailed in the individual unit. Supervision – Medium control Learners must normally be supervised by the centre tutor/assessor whilst producing evidence for the summative assessment activity, unless otherwise stated in the individual unit specification. Supervision is defined as normal classroom/workshop/studio working conditions, with the tutor/assessor being present in the same room whilst the summative assessment evidence is produced by the learner, but not requiring examination conditions.

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Where supervision is relaxed: • because it is not possible to directly supervise the activity that is required to produce summative assessment evidence, eg researching data, then the tutor/assessor must authenticate the learner work following the process identified in the section headed ‘Authentication’; or because the most suitable environment for producing the evidence means the tutor/assessor cannot be present, eg work experience, the tutor/assessor must ensure an appropriate person supervises the evidence production. All such evidence must be authenticated (see Authentication below) and, where this covers performance evidence, a signed learner observation record must be completed with enough reliable information to allow the tutor to accurately assess the evidence (see 3.4 Task marking below).

It is not permissible for summative assessment evidence to be produced in the learner’s home environment, without the direct supervision of their assessor. Due to the nature of producing an artefact, its production as part of the summative assessment will often be dictated by the availability of materials, equipment etc, therefore it may well be produced outside of the centre. However, the assessor must be confident that the work is that of the learner. In order to be confident, Edexcel requires one of the following situations to apply: • • the work is carried out under the direct supervision of the teaching centre assessor. This is the most desirable option the learner demonstrates to the teaching centre assessor equivalent levels of skill in each of the processes included in the production of the final artefact. Ideally this would be in the course of the regular teaching/learning programme, but exceptionally, if the assessor feels a skill has been assessed at a level beyond expectations, the assessor may require the learner to repeat that skill before authenticating the work.

If the artefact can only be produced remotely, for example during work experience, the assessor must have enough reliable information to allow them to both accurately assess the outcome and have a signed learner observation record from an appropriate person who directly observed the learner producing the artefact. An ‘appropriate person’ is defined as someone with a supervisory role within the workplace (or equivalent), and who has the required skills. This person must not be a family member, and must record and supply the required information for the assessor. Collaboration (Group work) – Limited control Some units may require learners to work as part of a group. In other units, unless it is specifically forbidden, tutors may choose to have learners working collaboratively. When producing assignments which require or allow learners to work in groups, tasks must be written to allow each group member to fully meet the requirements of the assessment criteria. Learners must not have their assessment opportunities reduced by the poor performance of other group members. Where this becomes apparent the tutor or assessor should intervene, or provide suitable alternative activities which do not greatly add to the learners’ workloads. Group tasks should not rely on the performance of individual members of the group to allow other group members to meet all of the assessment criteria. It is important that each learner is assessed on their individual contribution to the achievements of the group. Where several individuals contribute to a single piece of work, individual contributions must be clearly shown on the work to enable external moderation to take place. This can be indicated by learners or through the tutor’s annotations.

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Guidance and support At the start of the assignment learners will often be required to plan out their programme of work. The tutor/assessors should agree these plans and where appropriate agree milestones where they can monitor learners’ responses. Appropriate intervention is to be encouraged to ensure learners have every opportunity of success. However, if the planning process forms part of the assessment criteria, care must be taken to ensure that the plan remains the learner’s own work. Within some unit specifications, the level of assistance given to a learner is a discriminating factor used to decide a learner’s positioning within the marking bands. To aid the assessor in selecting the appropriate level of assistance given to the learner a glossary of descriptors is included in the units and should be used for guidance when marking the learners work. In some cases, where a glossary doesn’t exist, the following definitions should be used: • • Assistance – The learner has to be guided and advised to make progress, and responds to ideas suggested. The tutor/assessor needs to direct significant aspects of the work. Limited assistance – The learner suggests ideas for themselves, but makes use of guidance and advice from the tutor/assessor to make progress. The tutor/assessor assists in some aspects of the work, but generally does not direct it. Independently – The learner develops ideas themselves, using the tutor/assessor as an advisor rather than as a director. The tutor/assessor facilitates the work but does not need to direct its progress.

It is expected that all learners should develop as independent learners, but this does not mean that they should not be given any support in order to be able to research, write up and complete their reports. The hallmark of the independent learner, whatever the level, is knowing when and whom to ask for support in helping to carry the work forward. All learners must be fully and equally briefed at the start of any task or assignment about the requirements of that task, including how they will be marked. They should be given the opportunity to ask any questions in order to clarify the requirements. Once the assignment is under way, the tutor should respond to questions and requests for advice, but should normally refrain from intervening unasked. Responses can advise the learner on such matters as further sources of information, and can point out where further work is needed, but must always stop short of actually stating what to write. In some units the amount of support and guidance a learner may receive in the course of carrying out the task or assignment is specified. This occurs, for example, when differentiation between mark bands is achieved in part by the support the learner needs to complete a practical task safely. Tutors or assessors must always intervene where matters of health and safety are concerned. When this happens, the assessor should make a judgement about the appropriate marks that can be applied to the learner’s work in the light of the intervention, and attach to the work a record of the intervention and justification for the marks awarded. 3.3 Feedback, re-working and submission

All Principal Learning awarding bodies are required to follow the instructions for feedback, re-working and submission specified by the JCQ Candidates are free to revise and redraft a piece of coursework without teacher involvement before submitting the final piece. Candidates should be advised to spend an appropriate amount of time on the work commensurate with the marks available.

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Teachers may review coursework before it is handed in for final assessment. Provided that advice remains at the general level, enabling the candidate to take the initiative in making amendments, there is no need to record this advice as assistance or to deduct marks. Generally one review should be sufficient to enable candidates to understand the demands of the assessment criteria. Advice may be given in either oral or written form. Having reviewed the candidate’s coursework it is not acceptable for teachers to give, either to individual candidates or to groups, detailed advice and suggestions as to how the work may be improved in order to meet the assessment criteria. Examples of unacceptable assistance include: • • • • detailed indication of errors or omissions advice on specific improvements needed to meet the criteria the provision of outlines, paragraph or section headings, or writing frames specific to the coursework task(s) personal intervention to improve the presentation or content of the coursework.

As indicated above, a clear distinction must be drawn between any interim review of coursework and final assessment for the intended examination series. Once work is submitted for final assessment it may not be revised: in no circumstances are ‘fair copies’ of marked work allowed. Adding or removing any material to or from coursework after it has been presented by a candidate for final assessment will constitute malpractice. Where coursework is submitted in digital format there may be instances where the construction of the e-coursework does not attract any marks, in which case this construction may be done by the teacher instead of the candidate. If a candidate requires additional assistance in order to demonstrate aspects of the assessment, the teacher should award a mark which represents the candidate’s unaided achievement. The authentication statement should be signed and information given on the Candidate Record Sheet. Teachers must keep live coursework secure and confidential at all times whilst in their possession. It is not acceptable for teaching staff to share coursework with other candidates. There may be occasions when a learner needs to retake a task or assignment. This is acceptable at the discretion of the tutor, but the assignment should normally be set in a different context so that the learner is not repeating exactly the same tasks which they have had the chance to practise beforehand. Individual units will have further guidance where appropriate. Authentication All candidates must confirm that any work they submit for assessment is their own. Where learners are required to gather information and resources, tutors or assessors should take the opportunity to discuss authentication and plagiarism at the outset. Where learner observation records and practical activity logs are required Edexcel will provide exemplar pro formas. Centres may choose to develop their own documentation, but they must record at least the information contained within the exemplar pro formas. Once the assignment has been completed the assessor may need to interview or test the learner on their understanding of the information and/or the resources that they have identified and used. This may be necessary if, for example: • • the assessor needs to confirm the authenticity of the work the unit marking grid carries marks for information and/or resource gathering.

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It will be up to the centre assessor to decide on the appropriate format, although the activity should be of a ‘closed book’ nature. If the assessor decides to interview the learner, the assessor is required to question the learner regarding their information or resources until the assessor is sufficiently satisfied with the authentication. Whilst the interview is in progress the learner should not have access to the information or resources unless the individual unit specifies otherwise. It can be either a group or individual interview. If the assessor decides to test the learner, the assessor is required to follow the usual testing format, with learners working in silence, and placed in a manner so that they do not see other learners’ responses. The questions are at the discretion of the assessor, as is the length and timing of the test. Learners are not permitted to view the questions prior to the test and should not have access to their work during the test unless the individual unit specifies otherwise. The documented outcome could be either notes following an interview with one or a group of learners and signed by the assessor, or marked test papers. Each candidate is required to sign a declaration before submitting their coursework to their subject tutors/assessors for final assessment, to confirm that the work is their own and that any assistance given and/or sources used have been acknowledged. Ensuring that they do so is the responsibility of the candidate’s centre. It is also a requirement that tutors/assessors confirm to the awarding body that all of the work submitted for assessment was completed under the required conditions and that they are satisfied that the work is solely that of the individual candidate concerned. Where assessment is supervised by someone other than the tutor, additional confirmation is required from the person who has supervised the assessment. All tutors/assessors who have assessed the work of any candidate entered for each component must sign the declaration of authentication. 3.4 Task marking (standardisation and marking) — Medium control

Marking Edexcel requires all consortium assessors to use only Edexcel authorized documentation in the assessment of its Principal Learning internal assessed units. All Edexcel Principal Learning internal assessed unit specifications have mark descriptors, and these must be used when assessing learner work. Consortium assessors must not try to re-interpret the mark descriptors, or use any other unauthorised publication which aims to do so. If written evidence and artefacts are completed under the supervision of someone else (see Supervision above), this person may comment upon what is produced, but only the tutor can allocate marks. Where performance evidence is observed by someone other than the tutor, this person must record their comments on the learner observation record. It is then the responsibility of the tutor to judge this evidence and allocate marks. Standardisation All Principal Learning awarding bodies are required to follow the instructions for standardisation specified by the JCQ. Centres should use reference and archive materials (such as exemplar material provided by the awarding body or, where available, work in the centre from the previous year) to help set the standard of marking within the centre.

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Prior to marking, a trial marking exercise should be undertaken. Teachers mark the same relatively small sample of work to allow for the comparison of marking standards. The exercise can take place at appropriate stages during the course and has three beneficial effects: it helps to bring about greater comparability in the marking standards; it may identify at an early stage any teachers whose standards are out of line with that of their colleagues; and it alleviates a heavy marking load at the end of the course. Where the work for a unit has been marked by more than one teacher in a consortium, standardisation of marking should normally be carried out according to one of the following procedures: Either a sample of work which has been marked by each teacher is re-marked by the teacher who is in charge of internal standardisation – normally the Domain Assessor; Or all the teachers responsible for marking a component exchange some marked work (preferably at a meeting led by the Domain Assessor) and compare their marking standards. Where standards are found to be inconsistent, the discrepant teacher(s) should make adjustments to their marks or re-consider the marks of all candidates for whom they were responsible. The new marks should be checked by the teacher in charge of internal standardisation. Following completion of the marking and of internal standardisation, the coursework must be retained within the consortium and not returned to the candidates. Consortia should retain evidence that internal standardisation has been carried out.

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Annexe F: Learning outcomes and assessment criteria for each unit
The following sections state the learning outcomes and assessment criteria for each unit that are presented on the National Database of Accredited Qualifications, NDAQ. Each section outlines the intermediary stage in generating the marking grid from the learning outcomes via assessment criteria.

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Unit title: Level 1 Unit 1 Business Enterprise
Learning outcome number LO.1 LO.2 Learning outcome The learner should: Understand what makes a product or service successful Be able to generate and develop an idea for a product or service Be able to test an idea for a product or service Be able to present a business idea Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Describe a product or service 1.2 Explain what makes it successful 2.1 Generate ideas for a product or service, reaching agreement to select a workable idea for development [CT1, TW2] 3.1 Collect market research data [IE2] 3.2 Interpret market research data 4.1 Communicate a business idea to an audience 4.2 Present a persuasive case for investing in a business idea [EP2] LO.5 Be able to implement and review a business enterprise 5.1 With support and guidance, collaborate with others and work towards the goal of implementing a business idea [TW1], showing commitment and perseverance [SM2] 5.2 Take decisions when implementing a business idea 5.3 Assess how successful the business idea has been [RL1] PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements. Key IE – independent enquirers CT – creative thinkers RL – reflective learners TW – team workers SM – self-managers EP – effective participators

LO.3 LO.4

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Unit title: Level 1 Unit 2 Business Administration, Teams and Communication
Learning outcome number LO.1 LO.2 Learning outcome The learner should: Know administrative processes used in business Be able to produce simple business documents Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Identify administrative processes 2.1 Manage information 2.2 Select appropriate formats for business communication 2.3 Communicate in writing using appropriate language LO.3 LO.4 Be able to plan and carry out administrative work safely Be able to work as part of a team 3.1 Organise time and resources [SM3] 3.2 Use office equipment safely 4.1 Work as part of a team [TW1], showing fairness and consideration [TW4] 4.2 Communicate in a team situation 4.3 Deal positively with feedback [RL4] 4.4 Assess team effectiveness [RL1] PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements. Key IE – independent enquirers CT – creative thinkers RL – reflective learners TW – team workers SM – self-managers EP – effective participators

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Unit title: Level 1 Unit 3 Personal Finance and Financial Services
Learning outcome number LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 Learning outcome The learner should: Know the main types, features and sources of money Understand the importance of avoiding debt Know how to plan personal finances Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Identify the types, features and sources of money in everyday situations 2.1 Explain why it is important to avoid getting into debt 3.1 Identify how sources of financial information and advice can be used to help make financial decisions 3.2 Construct simple budgets for personal use LO.4 Know how to choose and use current and savings accounts 4.1 Outline how to open and manage current and savings accounts, taking account of the account provider’s information requirements, costs, charges and benefits 4.2 Select an appropriate current account and a savings account, based on the account’s features and calculations of interest 4.3 Outline common security measures taken to protect against fraud and theft

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Unit title: Level 1 Unit 4 Sales and Customer Service in Business
Learning outcome number LO.1 Learning outcome The learner should: Know the role of sales and customer services in a business Know how organisations provide effective service to customers Understand the importance for organisations of providing good service to customers Be able to interact with customers Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Outline the functions of sales in a business 1.2 Outline the functions of customer services in a business 2.1 Identify customer characteristics 2.2 Identify the features of effective customer service 3.1 Explain the importance of effective service to customers to a business 4.1 Prepare for the sales process 4.2 Communicate with customers in a sales situation 4.3 Use selling skills to influence others [EP5] 4.4 Answer routine customer enquiries PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements. Key IE – independent enquirers CT – creative thinkers RL – reflective learners TW – team workers SM – self-managers EP – effective participators

LO.2

LO.3

LO.4

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Unit title: Level 1 Unit 5 Careers and Employment in Business
Learning outcome number LO.1 LO.2 LO.3 Learning outcome The learner should: Be able to use sources of job information Know the skills and attributes required in the workplace Be able to prepare for and participate as an interviewee in a job interview Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Find out job information 1.2 Compare job opportunities 2.1 Identify skills and attributes required at work 3.1 Communicate information in job application documents 3.2 Identify questions to answer [IE1] in preparation for the interview 3.3 Communicate as an interviewee LO.4 LO.5 Know how to set goals for work experience Be able to record and review experiences in the workplace 4.1 Set goals for work experience [RL2] 5.1 Assess how successful workplace experience has been [RL1] 5.2 Interpret feedback received from the work experience PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements. Key IE – independent enquirers CT – creative thinkers RL – reflective learners TW – team workers SM – self-managers EP – effective participators

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Unit title: Level 2 Unit 1 Business Enterprise
Learning outcome number LO.1 LO.2 Learning outcome The learner should: Know the features of entrepreneurship Be able to generate and develop an idea for a viable product or service Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Identify entrepreneurial characteristics 2.1 Generate ideas for a product or service [CT1] 2.2 Compare ideas in terms of viability 2.3 Select and develop a business idea LO.3 Be able to present a business idea 3.1 Communicate a business idea to an audience 3.2 Present a persuasive case for investing in a business idea [EP2] LO.4 LO.5 Be able to plan a business enterprise Be able to implement and review a business enterprise 4.1 Plan the start-up and implementation of a business idea 5.1 Collaborate with others to work towards the goal of implementing a business idea [TW1], showing initiative, commitment and perseverance [SM2] 5.2 Take decisions when implementing a business idea, adapting plans as required [CT6] 5.3 Assess how successful a business enterprise has been, evaluating experiences to inform future progress [RL5] PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements. Key IE – independent enquirers CT – creative thinkers RL – reflective learners TW – team workers SM – self-managers EP – effective participators

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Unit title: Level 2 Unit 2 Business Administration
Learning outcome number LO.1 Learning outcome The learner should: Know the different administrative roles and processes in business Understand the importance of effective administration Be able to communicate effectively in writing Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Identify roles in business that carry out administrative tasks 1.2 Identify different administrative tasks LO.2 LO.3 2.1 Explain why effective administration is important 3.1 Select appropriate formats for business communication 3.2 Communicate in writing using appropriate language LO.4 LO.5 Be able to plan and carry out administrative work safely Be able to organise and support a meeting 4.1 Manage time effectively 4.2 Use office equipment safely 5.1 Organise a meeting [SM3] 5.2 Support a meeting 5.3 Carry out follow up activities for a meeting PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements. Key IE – independent enquirers CT – creative thinkers RL – reflective learners TW – team workers SM – self-managers EP – effective participators

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Unit title: Level 2 Unit 3 Personal Finance and Financial Services
Learning outcome number LO.1 LO.2 Learning outcome The learner should: Know the main types, features and sources of money Understand how sources of financial information and advice differ Know how to plan and manage personal finances Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Identify the types, features and sources of money in everyday situations 2.1 Compare different sources of financial information and advice 3.1 Outline benefits of planning personal expenditure 3.2 Construct personal budgets that take account of personal remuneration 3.3 Identify the purpose, types and current rates of personal taxes 3.4 Identify factors that influence attitudes to risk and reward LO.4 Understand the main features of common financial products and services 4.1 Describe ways of managing current and savings accounts, taking account of costs, charges and benefits 4.2 Assess the risks and rewards associated with different types and providers of financial products and services 4.3 Choose between different sources of foreign currency based on exchange rates and related costs

LO.3

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Unit title: Level 2 Unit 4 Business Finance and Accounting
Learning outcome number LO.1 Learning outcome The learner should: Know the nature of business finance and accounting Be able to budget for a product or service Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Identify accounting and finance roles involved in financial processes 1.2 Describe the uses of financial information LO.2 2.1 Calculate the cost of a product or service 2.2 Identify internal and external sources of business finance 2.3 Apply relevant budgeting techniques in the preparation of a simple business budget LO.3 Be able to manage transactions 3.1 Select an appropriate method for processing and storing financial information 3.2 Create financial documents 3.3 Record financial information in a cash book LO.4 Be able to report on financial performance 4.1 Create financial reports 4.2 Interpret financial performance

PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements. Key IE – independent enquirers CT – creative thinkers RL – reflective learners TW – team workers SM – self-managers EP – effective participators

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Unit title: Level 2 Unit 5 Marketing, Sales and Customer Service in Business
Learning outcome number LO.1 Learning outcome The learner should: Know the principles of marketing Be able to carry out market research Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Identify the components of the marketing mix 1.2 Create promotional materials LO.2 2.1 Select an appropriate market research method 2.2 Collect market research data [IE2] 2.3 Analyse market research data LO.3 Understand how effective customer service is achieved 3.1 Describe customers’ needs and expectations 3.2 Explain how organisations benefit from good customer service 3.3 Assess the effectiveness of services provided to customers LO.4 Be able to handle customers effectively in a sales situation 4.1 Prepare for the sales process 4.2 Communicate effectively with customers in a sales situation 4.3 Use selling skills to influence others by dealing with objections [EP5] 4.4 Assess own customer handling skills [RL1] PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements. Key IE – independent enquirers CT – creative thinkers RL – reflective learners TW – team workers SM – self-managers EP – effective participators

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Unit title: Level 2 Unit 6 Teams and Communication in Business
Learning outcome number LO.1 LO.2 Learning outcome The learner should: Understand the benefits of teamworking Know how individuals and team leaders contribute to teamworking Be able to plan and monitor team work Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Explain the benefits of effective team working 2.1 Assess own contribution to effective team working 2.2 Assess a team’s effectiveness [RL1] LO.3 3.1 Set individual goals that contribute to team objectives 3.2 Plan and prioritise work tasks [SM3] 3.3 Manage own time in a team-based activity 3.4 Monitor own performance LO.4 Be able to work and communicate effectively in a team 4.1 Work effectively in a team towards goals [TW1], dealing with any conflict that arises 4.2 Show consideration and fairness to other team members [TW4] 4.3 Provide constructive feedback to other team members [TW6] 4.4 Respond positively to feedback provided by others [RL4] PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements. Key IE – independent enquirers CT – creative thinkers RL – reflective learners TW – team workers SM – self-managers EP – effective participators

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Unit title: Level 2 Unit 7 Responding to Change in Business
Learning outcome number LO.1 Learning outcome The learner should: Know why and how change occurs in businesses Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Identify changes that affect businesses 1.2 Explain the types and causes of change that affect businesses 1.3 Outline the benefits for business of keeping pace with change LO.2 Understand the impact of change on employees 2.1 Identify changes that affect employees 2.2 Assess the impact of change on employees and their reactions towards it 2.3 Identify ways of dealing with change 2.4 Explain benefits for individuals of responding positively to change

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Unit title: Level 2 Unit 8 Corporate Social Responsibility
Learning outcome number LO.1 Learning outcome The learner should: Understand why organisations need to act responsibly Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Explain the benefits of acting responsibly, using reasoned arguments and evidence [IE6]

LO.2

Know ways in which organisations 2.1 Describe responsible business practices can demonstrate corporate social responsibility Be able to review and recommend improvements to business practices 3.1 Assess the positive and negative impact of an organisation on a local community 3.2 Identify a relevant issue that the organisation could address 3.3 Recommend steps an organisation can take to demonstrate it is acting responsibly [EP3]

LO.3

PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements. Key IE – independent enquirers CT – creative thinkers RL – reflective learners TW – team workers SM – self-managers EP – effective participators

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Unit title: Level 2 Unit 9 Careers and Employment in Business
Learning outcome number LO.1 LO.2 Learning outcome The learner should: Be able to use sources of job information Be able to plan and set goals for their career Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Access careers information 2.1 Identify steps required to achieve their chosen career [EP3] 2.2 Set goals for work experience [RL2] 2.3 Assess work experience against goals set [RL1] LO.3 Be able to prepare for and participate as an interviewee in an interview for a job 3.1 Produce job application documents 3.2 Prepare for an interview by identifying questions to ask and answer [IE1] 3.3 Demonstrate interview techniques 3.4 Communicate as an interviewee LO.4 Know how employment legislation, procedures and processes operate in the workplace 4.1 Identify statutory and contractual rights and responsibilities 4.2 Describe methods of performance management

PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in the assessment of this unit. By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. Annexe B of this document lists the personal, learning and thinking skills and their elements. Key IE – independent enquirers CT – creative thinkers RL – reflective learners TW – team workers SM – self-managers EP – effective participators

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DP020652 – Specification – Edexcel Diplomas Levels 1–2 in Business, Administration and Finance Principal Learning – Issue 3 – April 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010

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