Submitted To: Mr.Ather Qureshi Submitted By:


Kashan Pirzada 2004-1-14294



Jan 1st 2009 Mr.Ather Qureshi Course Instructor Recruitment and Selection IoBM Karachi

Dear Readers:

Great ideas fuse into one another to give birth to one Great Idea. Similarly, behind every success lies another successful hand. First of all I would like to thank Almighty God, for helping me out and guiding me in the honest tracks of my findings. I thank Mr.Arshad Husain who imparted us the necessary knowledge. This report has enabled me to apply all that I studied in class and gave me the chance to enhance my knowledge. My parents too, for their constant support throughout the report and the numerous cups of coffee that they made for me during the nights that I spent working on the report. Kashan Pirzada 2004-1-1-4294



Jan 1st 2009 Mr.Ather Qureshi Course Instructor Recruitment and Selection IoBM Karachi To Whom It May Concern: This report on the MAJOR PROBLEMS AND FUTURE TRENDS IN RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION FACING AN ORGANIZATION IN PAKISTAN, has been prepared according to your guidelines and requirements. I have tried my best to utilize as many resources as possible in preparing this report. I hope that you will find this report complete and interesting. I will be more than glad to respond to any queries that you might have regarding my report.

Sincerely yours, Kashan Pirzada 2004-1-1-4294






MISSION STATEMENT...............................................................................................................................7 OBJECTIVE...................................................................................................................................................7 INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................................8 PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS (BRANDS).......................................................................................................11 INTERNAL ANALYSIS..............................................................................................................................13 SWOT ANALYSIS.......................................................................................................................................15 RECRUITMENT & SELECTION.............................................................................................................19 RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS....................................................................................21 SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION.............................................................................23 FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT.............................................................................................26 RECRUITMENT POLICY OF A COMPANY.........................................................................................29 RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION POLICY OF TAPAL PVT LTD................................................32 RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION METHODS USED AT TAPAL..................................................33 RECRUITMENT VS SELECTION...........................................................................................................34 MAJOR CHALLENGES FACED BY ORGANIZATIONS IN RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION ........................................................................................................................................................................35 MAJOR PROBLEMS FACED BY TAPAL IN RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION ......................36 FUTURE TRENDS IN RECRUITMENT..................................................................................................38 AND SELECTION.......................................................................................................................................38 TAPAL’ S FUTURE TRENDS IN RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION.............................................43 RECOMMENDATIONS.............................................................................................................................44



To provide a value added service to our customers with quality, reliable, and worldclass service. Customer satisfaction is our number one priority.

1.To transform our competencies into the best advantage for our clients.

2.To offer quality services with integrity, expertise and professionalism to enhances our client's operation.

3.To offer personalized services according to the clients need.



Tea is one of the most popular drinks in the entire world and the most widely consumed beverage in South Asia. The demand for tea in Pakistan is very high. With such a high consumer base, the competition is also very intense. Brands such as Tapal, Lipton, Brooke Bond and Supreme, being the leading tea makers not only compete with one another but also face intense competition from loose tea.

Tapal is a well known name in Pakistan. In 1947, it started business as a Tea leader and so celebrated its 55th anniversary in 2002. The journey of Tapal's remarkable success is the combined efforts of three generations. Adam Ali Tapal was the founder of the Tapal company. The saga of Tapal started with his formulation of a unique tea blend, which was later named family mixture, that led to the Tapal brand becoming a hot favorite, and eventually the largest selling brand. Taking a step forward from this humble foundation, Tapal moved up the ladder of success by innovating and introducing different tea brands to suit every taste and pocket, which were sold from its retail outlet in Karachi’s Jodia Bazaar. People from all parts of the city flocked to the outlet to purchase Tapal tea, and soon, the quality of Tapal teas became legendary. The company continued to thrive and grow under the management of the founders son, Fazullah A. Tapal, who initiated tea distribution to retail outlets around the city for the convenience of the people. Currently it is managed by the founder’s grandson, Aftab F. Tapal who has continued giving further strength to the foundations of quality laid by his family. 8

TAPAL MAKES TEATIME TERRIFIC Making a modest beginning over half a century back, today Tapal has become the largest, 100% Pakistani owned Tea Company in the country. It has modern tea blending and packaging factories, warehouses equipped with state-of-the-art equipment and a team of highly dynamic professionals headed by Aftab Tapal himself. He was the first to introduce soft packs in the country. He developed an entirely new brand and category- Tapal’s Family Mixture (the mixture of tea & dust). Mr. Aftab Tapal was the first to invent the highly successful brand Danedar Leaf Blend. In December 1997, Tapal Tea became the first Pakistani Tea Company to earn the ISO-9001 certification: a symbol of the highest international quality standards. Again in December 2000, Tapal acquired the ISO-9001: 2000 certification, making it one of the first few companies in the world to achieve this milestone. In addition to the standard requirements, the ISO-9001: 2000 certification system includes requirements for environment improvement, concepts of TQM (continuous improvement) with major emphasis on consumer requirements and satisfaction. Tapal’s success has left many astounded. No magic formula however, lies behind its growth other than hard work, dedication and of course unique blends and better quality.






TAPAL DANEDAR: Pioneer of the Danedar category in Pakistan, Tapal Danedar remains a favorite around the country with its grape-nutty appearance, rich golden color and strong refreshing taste. In fact its popularity is such that other companies have launched their own versions of this blend, but Tapal's remains the original and ultimate Danedar because of its unique color, aroma and taste. Today, Tapal Danedar enjoys the position of the "No.1 Tea Brand" in Pakistan.

TAPAL FAMILY MIXTURE: A unique combination of high-grown Kenya leaf and dust tea, Tapal Family Mixture is the pride of Tapal. Developed in 1947, it created a completely new category in the tea market. It gives a refreshing aroma of leaf and the strong taste of dust- together in one cup. It is the blend that started the Tapal success story and many other companies followed Tapal in introducing similar blends.

TAPAL SAFARI CHAI: Tapal Safari is made from the finest Kenya leaf teas and provides extra cuppage of great tasting tea to the consumer. Tapal Safari chai, with a safari theme, is aimed at adventurous people.



MEZBAN PREMIER DUST: A full-flavored dust that delivers high quality at a very economical price, Mezban Premier Dust is the blend for consumers who prefer tea with a strong flavor & taste. Originally developed for tea shops (dhabas), Mezban has become a favorite amongst household consumers as well. It is the most popular brand of tea in Sindh. The name of the brand itself is a characterization of the typical hospitality that is inherent to and a matter of pride for the people of Sindh.

CHENAK DUST: Highly popular in Sindh, Chenak is known for its extra strong flavor, color and taste. As a result of these features and high quality of tea it is No.1 in its category

TAPAL SPECIAL TEABAGS: The unique flavor of high grown leaves especially selected from the finest tea gardens in the world make Tapal Special Teabags a treat at any time. The combination of an extra strong blend with the convenience of environmental friendly metal-free tea bags has made Tapal Special an instant hit with consumers

TAPAL JASMINE GREEN TEA: Tapal Jasmine Green Tea is the most recent addition to Tapal Brands. Tapal Jasmine Green Tea is blended to perfection using the finest tea leaves and specially selected Jasmine to give a refreshing experience of light taste and soothing aroma. It is available in metal-free tea bags specially enveloped for extra freshness




LOCATION OF FACTORY: Tapal has its two factories located in two main cities of Pakistan • Karachi • Lahore The location of both the Tapal factories has been strategically planned. The distribution set up is divided in between two regions- North and South. The north region includes Punjab and N.W.F.P, and the factory in Lahore caters to this regions needs. While the Karachi factory caters to the South region consisting of Sindh and Baluchistan. Mezban is distributed in the south while Danedar and safari are distributed countrywide. SUPPLIERS: Tapal relies on both local and foreign suppliers. As mentioned earlier, Tapal imports from different countries in different seasons in order to account for the climatic changes. The suppliers send samples to the Tapal factory where the tea tasters taste them. The product quality is approved by the Tea manager who is also a very skilled tea taster. Once the quality is approved, the company bids for it and finally buys it at the decided price. The filter paper and tags for Tapal are imported from UK while the outer cartons are made in Pakistan. Companies must also communicate with current and prospective customers, and what they communicate should not be left to chance. For most companies, the question is not whether to communicate but how much to spend on communication and in what ways. Companies must inform the consumers about the benefits of the product and carefully position products in consumers’ minds. To do this, they must skillfully use the mass promotion tools of advertising, sales promotion and public relations. Moreover, the companies should also make use of personal selling to increase its sales. Tapal places great emphasis on the promotional activities of its various brands. Its experienced marketing team has contributed over the years to the phenomenal growth of the brands and the company. In recent years, memorable advertising campaigns on the electronic media using TV and film celebrities have made Tapal a house hold name.


TAPAL MAKES TEATIME TERRIFIC In keeping with its progressive outlook, Tapal has already launched a new, contemporary corporate logo, in addition to updating the packaging of all its brands. A new corporate slogan “Tapal-Makes teatime terrific” has also been adopted and many other projects, as the development of new brands, are already in the pipeline. Over the years, Tapal’s advertising has been very much in line with the down to earth quality conscious approach of Tapal itself. One plus factor for Tapal’s advertising is its total conformity with its marketing objectives and market realities. Tapal’s advertising has been specifically targeted towards its buying segments. A hard sell, bold, non-glamorous approach invited raised eyebrows from various professional quarters. But as long as it kept producing unprecedented results, no one raised any objections. To make ads devoid of glamour and gimmicks of the computerized fad fashion in advertising was a bold and courageous step which paid dividends in the relish with which the consumer accepted the credible claims made for Tapal in soft, unexaggerated, simple everyday language. The successful mix of quality products, intelligent marketing, effective distribution, and promotional activities resulted in an initial outburst of a multiplication of sales in the mid 80’s which settled to a satisfactory average annual growth of about 60%. Tapal had initially taken the tea market by storm in 1987 when it launched Tapal Danedar. This move was hailed as a breakthrough in marketing itself, as Tapal managed to create an entirely new category. Tapal’s promotion again rose to high levels as the company took the decision to re-launch Tapal Danedar. The decision was a result of the fact that the market became saturated as other companies followed suit and Tapal Danedar came in the decline stage of the product life cycle. A fresh perspective was required. Tapal’s marketing team realized the importance of influencers and the new campaign now targets them instead. As Tapal decided to change its image, it targeted the younger market segment. They felt the brand wasn’t flashy enough as its green and yellow colors had faded with time. Therefore, to revive the brand, they changed the color to bright red. The new image was communicated to the consumers through a wide variety of media. This strategy did wonders for their brand image as Danedar jumped from number 3 or 4 brand to number 1 in the minds of their young target market. In order to augment this change, Tapal needed to do something radical. So their agency Avenue Concepts came up with the idea of associating Danedar with a Valentines Day promotion complimented by their new red color. The theme was a huge hit, and along with the 14

TAPAL MAKES TEATIME TERRIFIC catchy new video by pop-star Najam “Jaisay chaho jiyo”, the combination of these two associations became essential elements to make this re-launch one of the most successful ever in the history of Pakistan. This is quite an achievement considering the number of Multinationals around. MARKET: Tapal’s market consists of people with needs, their purchasing power and buying behavior. Different brands of Tapal cater to different markets. For example, Mezban caters to interior Sindh while Safari has been launched and is distributed at the national level. COMPETITION: Tapal faces two types of competition: • Brand competition: Tapal faces intense competition from Lipton, Supreme, Brooke Bond and ‘loose tea’. Among these the greatest threat to Tapal is that of loose tea. • Substitute Products: The substitutes of Tapal that fulfills similar needs of the consumer are coffee, caffeinated drinks and other hot beverages. Apart from these, Tapal also faces competition from soft drinks such as Coke and Pepsi, especially in the teenage market.




The main strengths of Tapal are: • It delivers Quality • It is a very strong tea, which is why it is especially popular in the interior. INNOVATION: There are many firsts associated with Tapal. It was the first tea company to: • Market Kenya tea in Pakistan which is said to be the best tea in the world. • Develop an entirely new blend and category-Tapal’s Family Mixture (the mixture of leaf & dust). • Introduce Danedar tea in Pakistan. • Pakistani Company to get ISO 9002 certified. • The first tea company to use a third party distribution network.


TAPAL MAKES TEATIME TERRIFIC INNOVATIVE PACKAGING: Tapal is the first tea company to introduce soft packaging in Pakistan. This soft packing technology keeps tea fresh and packing costs economical. EXCELLENT SACHETS: Even though the product is fairly new in the market, yet Tapal special teabags have captured much of the market share. The reason for its popularity is its seal proof packing that keeps the tea fresh.

PACKAGING: Although Tapal is an innovator of soft packaging yet this has caused a few problems for the company. Tapal faces a lot of problems with its retailers regarding the placement of these packs as it is not possible to stack these soft packs one on top of the other. They also require a lot more shelf space. Another problem that Tapal faces is the reduced amount of promotion as compared to its competitors; Lipton, Supreme and Brooke Bond.

PRODUCT LINE EXPANSION: Tapal can increase its market share and gain a competitive edge by expanding its product line. It can do this by either introducing various flavored teas or other similar products such as ready made beverages. PRODUCT MIX EXPANSION: Tapal can also enter into altogether different line of products like biscuits or milk which are compliments of tea.


TAPAL MAKES TEATIME TERRIFIC The biggest threat any company faces are its competitors. The same applies to Tapal, which faces heavy competition from the leading brands, Supreme, Lipton and Brooke Bond. Competition is not restricted to capturing the market through the products only but also through promotional gimmicks.

GOVERNMENT: The instability in the political scenario is a major problem for the company. Secondly, heavy taxes such as the General sales tax imposed by the government are another major threat to the company. WEATHER: Since tea is grown naturally, weather plays a major role in its production. A bad weather could result in low production of tea. Therefore a lot of contingency planning is required in the production department. They have to maintain a certain level of inventory throughout the year so that they could meet the emergency requirements.




According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization”. Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers. A few definitions of recruitment are: • A process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applications from which new employees are selected. It is the process to discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement of staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force. Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the selection, which helps create a pool of prospective employees for the organization so that the management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool. The main objective of the recruitment process is to expedite the selection process. Recruitment is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a pool of qualified applicants for the future human resources needs even though specific vacancies do not exist. Usually, the recruitment process starts when a manger initiates an employee requisition for a specific vacancy or an anticipated vacancy.

• PLANNED I.e. the needs arising from changes in organization and retirement policy.



Anticipated needs are those movements in personnel, which an organization can predict by studying trends in internal and external environment. • UNEXPECTED Resignation, deaths, accidents, illness give rise to unexpected needs.

• • • • • • • • • Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organization. Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization. Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities. Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time. Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates.

• Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants



The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength and the strategic advantage for the organizations. Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time. A general recruitment process is as follows: • Identifying the vacancy: The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receiving requisitions for recruitment from any department of the company. These contain:
• •

Preparing the job description and person specification. Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees (Advertising etc). Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with required characteristics. Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates. Conducting the interview and decision making

• •



1. Identify vacancy 2. Prepare job description and person specification 3. Advertising the vacancy 4. Managing the response 5. Short-listing 6. Arrange interviews 7. Conducting interview and decision making The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i.e. the final interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities.



Every organization has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment processes from two kinds of sources: internal and external sources. The sources within the organization itself (like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions) to fill a position are known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from all the other sources (like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the external sources of recruitment. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT



The employees are transferred from one department to another according to their efficiency and experience. 2. PROMOTIONS The employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits and greater responsibility based on efficiency and experience. 3. Others are UPGRADING AND DEMOTION of present employees according to their performance. 4. RETIRED AND RETRENCHED EMPLOYEES may also be recruited once again in case of shortage of qualified personnel or increase in load of work. Recruitment such people save time and costs of the organizations as the people are already aware of the organizational culture and the policies and procedures. 5. The dependents and relatives of DECEASED EMPLOYEES AND DISABLED EMPLOYEES are also done by many companies so that the members of the family do not become dependent on the mercy of others.


1. PRESS ADVERTISEMENTS Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers and journals are a widely used source of recruitment. The main advantage of this method is that it has a wide reach. 2. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES Various management institutes, engineering colleges, medical Colleges etc. are a good source of recruiting well qualified executives, engineers, medical staff etc. They provide facilities for campus interviews and placements. This source is known as Campus Recruitment. 24

TAPAL MAKES TEATIME TERRIFIC 3. PLACEMENT AGENCIES Several private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of client companies by charging a fee. These agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment of executives and specialists. It is also known as RPO (Recruitment Process Outsourcing) 4. EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES Government establishes public employment exchanges throughout the country. These exchanges provide job information to job seekers and help employers in identifying suitable candidates.

4. LABOUR CONTRACTORS Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain close contacts with the sources of such workers. This source is used to recruit labour for construction jobs. 5. UNSOLICITED APPLICANTS Many job seekers visit the office of well-known companies on their own. Such callers are considered nuisance to the daily work routine of the enterprise. But can help in creating the talent pool or the database of the probable candidates for the organization. 6. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS / RECOMMENDATIONS Many organizations have structured system where the current employees of the organization can refer their friends and relatives for some position in their organization. Also, the office bearers of trade unions are often aware of the suitability of candidates. Management can inquire these leaders for suitable jobs. In some organizations these are formal agreements to give priority in recruitment to the candidates recommended by the trade union. 7. RECRUITMENT AT FACTORY GATE Unskilled workers may be recruited at the factory gate these may be employed whenever a permanent worker is absent. More efficient among these may be recruited to fill permanent vacancies.



The recruitment function of the organizations is affected and governed by a mix of various internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be controlled by the organization. And the external factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the organization. The internal and external forces affecting recruitment function of an organization are: FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT

The internal forces i.e. the factors which can be controlled by the organization are: 1. RECRUITMENT POLICY The recruitment policy of an organization specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation of recruitment program. It may involve organizational system to be developed for implementing recruitment programs and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people. 26


FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT POLICY • Organizational objectives • Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors. • Government policies on reservations. • Preferred sources of recruitment. • Need of the organization. • Recruitment costs and financial implications.

2. HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING Effective human resource planning helps in determining the gaps present in the existing manpower of the organization. It also helps in determining the number of employees to be recruited and what qualification they must possess. 3. SIZE OF THE FIRM The size of the firm is an important factor in recruitment process. If the organization is planning to increase its operations and expand its business, it will think of hiring more personnel, which will handle its operations. 4. COST Recruitment incur cost to the employer, therefore, organizations try to employ that source of recruitment which will bear a lower cost of recruitment to the organization for each candidate. 5. GROWTH AND EXPANSION Organization will employ or think of employing more personnel if it is expanding it’s operations



The external forces are the forces which cannot be controlled by the organization. The major external forces are: 1. SUPPLY AND DEMAND The availability of manpower both within and outside the organization is an important determinant in the recruitment process. If the company has a demand for more professionals and there is limited supply in the market for the professionals demanded by the company, then the company will have to depend upon internal sources by providing them special training and development programs. 2. LABOUR MARKET Employment conditions in the community where the organization is located will influence the recruiting efforts of the organization. If there is surplus of manpower at the time of recruitment, even informal attempts at the time of recruiting like notice boards display of the requisition or announcement in the meeting etc will attract more than enough applicants. 3. IMAGE / GOODWILL Image of the employer can work as a potential constraint for recruitment. An organization with positive image and goodwill as an employer finds it easier to attract and retain employees than an organization with negative image. Image of a company is based on what organization does and affected by industry. For example finance was taken up by fresher MBA’s when many finance companies were coming up. 4. POLITICAL-SOCIAL- LEGAL ENVIRONMENT Various government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have direct impact on recruitment practices. For example, Government of India has introduced legislation for reservation in employment for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, physically handicapped etc. Also, trade unions play important role in recruitment. This restricts management freedom to select those individuals who it believes would be the best performers. If the candidate can’t meet 28

TAPAL MAKES TEATIME TERRIFIC criteria stipulated by the union but union regulations can restrict recruitment sources. 5. UNEMPLOYMENT RATE One of the factors that influence the availability of applicants is the growth of the economy (whether economy is growing or not and its rate). When the company is not creating new jobs, there is often oversupply of qualified labour which in turn leads to unemployment. 6. COMPETITORS The recruitment policies of the competitors also affect the recruitment function of the organizations. To face the competition, many a times the organizations have to change their recruitment policies according to the policies being followed by the competitors.

In today’s rapidly changing business environment, a well defined recruitment policy is necessary for organizations to respond to its human resource requirements in time. Therefore, it is important to have a clear and concise recruitment policy in place, which can be executed effectively to recruit the best talent pool for the selection of the right candidate at the right place quickly. Creating a suitable recruitment policy is the first step in the efficient hiring process. A clear and concise recruitment policy helps ensure a sound recruitment process. It specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation of recruitment program. It may involve organizational system to be developed for implementing recruitment programs and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people.



• • • • • • •

The general recruitment policies and terms of the organization Recruitment services of consultants Recruitment of temporary employees Unique recruitment situations The selection process The job descriptions The terms and conditions of the employment

A recruitment policy of an organization should be such that:
• •

It should focus on recruiting the best potential people. To ensure that every applicant and employee is treated equally with dignity and respect. Unbiased policy. To aid and encourage employees in realizing their full potential. Transparent, task oriented and merit based selection. Weightage during selection given to factors that suit organization needs. Optimization of manpower at the time of selection process. Defining the competent authority to approve each selection. Abides by relevant public policy and legislation on hiring and employment relationship. Integrates employee needs with the organizational needs.

• • • •

• • •



• • • • • •

Organizational objectives Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors. Government policies on reservations. Preferred sources of recruitment. Need of the organization. Recruitment costs and financial implications.



At TAPAL our policy to always recruit the best person for the job regardless of their race, sex, marital status, creed, ethnic origin, religion, colour, sexual orientation, age or disability. We treat anyone who applies for a job with us as a customer. That means we aim to make our recruitment process fast, efficient and courteous, to give you the best possible information to help you decide about a job with us. We will make sure that the people who are responsible for recruitment have all the necessary skills and resources to be able to carry out their job efficiently, effectively and professionally. We will use selection methods appropriate to the vacancy and location and we will objectively assess candidates against pre-agreed criteria. These principles apply to all recruitment undertaken by TAPAL as well as consideration of local employment legislation when appropriate



• • For recruiting managerial/professional candidates, the Internet is the most popular advertising medium. Tapal regularly utilizes it’s internal resources (e.g., internal job postings and employee referrals) when recruiting both internal and external candidates

Different kinds of agencies are used to recruit for positions at different levels. • • Temporary and government agencies are used mainly to recruit non-management candidates. Employment agencies, colleges, and professional organizations are used more often to recruit managerial/professional candidates. Tapal uses behavior-based interviews to some extent when selecting employees and plan to use them more frequently in the future. This type of structured interview can be used to validly predict future behavior in dimensions (or competencies) critical to job success.




Both recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process. The differences between the two are: 1. Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization WHEREAS selection involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts. 2. The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organization WHEREAS the basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the various positions in the organization. 3. Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more employees to apply WHEREAS selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of the unsuitable candidates. 4. Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources WHEREAS selection is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidate through various interviews and tests. 5. There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment WHEREAS selection results in a contract of service between the employer and the selected employee



Recruitment is a function that requires business perspective, expertise, ability to find and match the best potential candidate for the organization, diplomacy, marketing skills (as to sell the position to the candidate) and wisdom to align the recruitment processes for the benefit of the organization. The HR professionals – handling the recruitment function of the organization- are constantly facing new challenges. The biggest challenge for such professionals is to source or recruit the best people or potential candidate for the organization. In the last few years, the job market has undergone some fundamental changes in terms of technologies, sources of recruitment, competition in the market etc. In an already saturated job market, where the practices like poaching and raiding are gaining momentum, HR professionals are constantly facing new challenges in one of their most important function- recruitment. They have to face and conquer various challenges to find the best candidates for their organizations. The major challenges faced by the HR in recruitment are:

Adaptability to globalization – The HR professionals are expected and required to keep in tune with the changing times, i.e. the changes taking place across the globe. HR should maintain the timeliness of the process Lack of motivation – Recruitment is considered to be a thankless job. Even if the organization is achieving results, HR department or professionals are not thanked for recruiting the right employees and performers.



Process analysis – The immediacy and speed of the recruitment process are the main concerns of the HR in recruitment. The process should be flexible, adaptive and responsive to the immediate requirements. The recruitment process should also be cost effective. Strategic prioritization – The emerging new systems are both an opportunity as well as a challenge for the HR professionals. Therefore, reviewing staffing needs and prioritizing the tasks to meet the changes in the market has become a challenge for the recruitment professionals.


The major problems faced by tapal in recruitment and selections of candidates are as follows:

Shortage of qualified applicants

• Competition for the same applicants • Difficulty finding and identifying applicants • non- turning up of candidates at the time of personal interviews • Backing up at time of joining • Wrong references.


This not only maintains the vacancy in the organization but also consumes a lot of time and money.



The following trends are being seen in recruitment and selection: • OUTSOURCING The HR processes are being outsourced from more than a decade now. A company may draw required personnel from outsourcing firms. The outsourcing firms help the organization by the initial screening of the candidates according to the needs of the organization and creating a suitable pool of talent for the final selection by the organization. Outsourcing firms develop their human resource pool by employing people for them and make available personnel to various companies as per their needs. In turn, the outsourcing firms or the intermediaries charge the organizations for their services. Advantages of outsourcing are: 1. Company need not plan for human resources much in advance. 2. Value creation, operational flexibility and competitive advantage 3. turning the management's focus to strategic level processes of HRM 4. Company is free from salary unsuitable resumes/candidates. negotiations, weeding the

5. Company can save a lot of its resources and time


“Buying talent” (rather than developing it) is the latest mantra being followed by the organizations today. Poaching means employing a competent and experienced person already working with another reputed company in the same or different industry; the organization might be a competitor in the industry. A company can attract talent from another firm by offering attractive pay packages and other terms 38

TAPAL MAKES TEATIME TERRIFIC and conditions, better than the current employer of the candidate. But it is seen as an unethical practice and not openly talked about. Indian software and the retail sector are the sectors facing the most severe brunt of poaching today. It has become a challenge for human resource managers to face and tackle poaching, as it weakens the competitive strength of the firm.


Many big organizations use Internet as a source of recruitment. Erecruitment is the use of technology to assist the recruitment process. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae i.e. CV through e mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CV’s in worldwide web, which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements. Advantages of e-recruitment are:
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Low cost. No intermediaries Reduction in time for recruitment. Recruitment of right type of people. Efficiency of recruitment process.



The buzzword and the latest trends in recruitment is the “ERecruitment”. Also known as “Online recruitment”, it is the use of technology or the web based tools to assist the recruitment process. The tool can be either a job website like naukri.com, the organization’s corporate web site or its own intranet. Many big and small organizations are using Internet as a source of recruitment. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae (CV) through an e-mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CV’s in worldwide web, which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements. The internet penetration in India is increasing and has tremendous potential. According to a study by NASSCOM – “Jobs is among the top reasons why new users will come on to the internet, besides e-mail.” There are more than 18 million resume’s floating online across the world. The two kinds of e- recruitment that an organization can use is – • Job portals – i.e. posting the position with the job description and the job specification on the job portal and also searching for the suitable resumes posted on the site corresponding to the opening in the organization. Creating a complete online recruitment/application section in the companies own website. - Companies have added an application system to its website, where the ‘passive’ job seekers can submit their resumes into the database of the organization for consideration in future, as and when the roles become available.

Resume Scanners: Resume scanner is one major benefit provided by the job portals to the organizations. It enables the employees to screen and filter the resumes through pre-defined criteria’s and requirements (skills, qualifications, experience, payroll etc.) of the job. Job sites provide a 24*7 access to the database of the resumes to the employees facilitating the just-in-time hiring by the organizations. Also, the jobs can be posted on the site almost immediately and is also cheaper than advertising in the employment newspapers. Sometimes companies can get valuable references through the “passers-by” 40

TAPAL MAKES TEATIME TERRIFIC applicants. Online recruitment helps the organizations to automate the recruitment process, save their time and costs on recruitments.


Giving a detailed job description and job specifications in the job postings to attract candidates with the right skill sets and qualifications at the first stage. E-recruitment should be incorporated into the overall recruitment strategy of the organization. A well defined and structured applicant tracking system should be integrated and the system should have a back-end support. Along with the back-office support a comprehensive website to receive and process job applications (through direct or online advertising) should be developed.

Therefore, to conclude, it can be said that e-recruitment is the “Evolving face of recruitment.”

There are many benefits – both to the employers and the job seekers but the e-recruitment is not free from a few shortcomings. Some of the advantages and the disadvantages of e- recruitment are as follows: ADVANTAGES OF E-RECRUITMENT ARE: • • Lower costs to the organization. Also, posting jobs online is cheaper than advertising in the newspapers. No intermediaries. 41

TAPAL MAKES TEATIME TERRIFIC • Reduction in the time for recruitment (over 65 percent of the hiring time).




Tapal is considering the implementation of the above mentioned trends as per requirements and when needed so that it can enhance its recruitment and selection process and make it more effective.




Better recruitment and selection strategies result in improved organizational outcomes. The more effectively organizations recruit and select candidates, the more likely they are to hire and retain satisfied employees

• Tapal should plan to increase their use of computerized resume screening in the future. New technology allows organizations to screen literally thousands of resumes in a fraction of the time it takes to screen them manually

Tapal should consider the use of testing or assessment methods extensively in their selection process. These structured approaches to assess skills, abilities, and knowledge can significantly reduce the candidate pool by eliminating those who fail to meet the minimum job qualifications.

• Tapal should consider using the combined interview approach i.e. a combination of Biographical, Behavioral and Situational Interview for its selection process as this is the ideal approach. • Organization has to understand what will be the deliverable of the profile. What is exact job profile? This is the first issue to be freezed rather than recruitment. Pay right to the right person commensurate to his/her experience, qualification, key skills and track record.



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