Datu Kalantiaw

Rajah Bendahara Kalantiaw, otherwise known as Datu Kalantiaw (also spelled as Kalantiao) was one of the mythical characters in Jose E. Marco's Maragtas Legend which he composed for the historical fiction Las antiguas leyendes de la isla de Negros (The Ancient Legends of the Island of Negros). According to the legend, Datu Kalantiaw became the chief of Negros(or Aklan) two hundred years after the rule of Datu Bangkaya, one of the ten datus from Borneo. According to the Legend of the Ten Bornean Datus, the datus purchased the island of Panay from the Aetas for a golden salakot. After which, they established a confederation of barangays called Katilingban it Madya-as which divided the island into three sakup or provinces, each ruled by a datu ± Aklan (ruled by Datu Bangkaya), Iloilo (ruled by Datu Paiburong) and Antique(ruled by Datu Sumakwel). Two hundred years later, Datu Kalantiaw arrived at the island and proclaimed himself as the successor of Bangkaya as Chief of Madya-as and its territories. He adopted the title Rajah and established his capital in Batang (now Batan). As the third chief of Panay, he promulgated the Code of Kalantiaw ± a document listing 18 orders, and providing harsh punishments for every offenses. The said code was similar to those of the ancient world civilization including the Code of Hammurabi of Babylon, Code of Lygurcus of Sparta, Code of Solon of Ancient Athens and Code of Harmhad of Egypt. Kalantiaw ruled until 1435 when he was killed in a duel with Datu Manduyog, the legitimate chief of Aklan. Soon, the latter ruled the island.

The Code of Kalantiaw
The Code of Kalantiaw was a mythical legal code in the epic story Maragtas. It is said to have been written in 1433 by Datu Kalantiaw, a chief on the island of Negros in the Philippines. It was actually written in 1913 by Jose E. Marco as a part of his historical fiction Las antiguas leyendas de la Isla de Negros (Spanish, "The Ancient Legends of the Island of Negros"), which he attributed to a priest named José María Pavón. In 1917, the historian Josué Soncuya wrote about the Code of Kalantiaw in his book Historia Prehispana de Filipinas("Prehispanic History of the Philippines") where he moved the location of the Code's origin from Negros to the Panayprovince of Aklan because he suspected that it may be related to the Ati-atihan festival. Other authors throughout the 20th century gave credence to the story and the code.

Laws of Kalantiaw 
Article I - You shall not kill, neither shall you steal, neither shall you do harm to the aged, lest you incur the danger of death. All those who infringe this order shall be condemned to death by being drowned in the river, or in boiling water.  Article II - You shall obey. Let all your debts with the headman be met punctually. He who does not obey shall receive for the first time one hundred lashes. If the debt is large, he shall be condemned to thrust his hand in boiling water thrice. For the second time, he shall be beaten to death.  Article III - Obey you: let no one have women that are very young nor more than he can support; nor be given to excessive lust. He who does not comply with, obey, and observe this order shall be condemned to swim for three hours for the first time and for the second time, to be beaten to death with sharp thorns.  Article IV - Observe and obey; let no one disturb the quiet of the graves. When passing by the caves and trees where they are, give respect to them. He who does not observe this shall be killed by ants, or beaten to death with thorns.  Article V - You shall obey; he who exchanges for food, let it be always done in accordance with his word. He who does not comply, shall be beaten for one hour, he who repeats the offense shall be exposed for one day among ants.  Article VI - You shall be obliged to revere sights that are held in respect, such as those of trees of recognized worth and other sights. He who fails to comply shall pay with one month's work in gold or in honey.  Article VII - These shall be put to death; he who kills trees of venerable appearance; who shoot arrows at night at old men and women; he who enters the houses of the headmen without permission; he who kills a shark or a streaked cayman.  Article VIII - Slavery for a doam (a certain period of time) shall be suffered by those who steal away the women of the headmen; by him who keep ill-tempered dogs that bite the headmen; by him who burns the fields of another.  Article IX - All these shall be beaten for two days: who sing while traveling by night; kill the Manaul; tear the documents belonging to the headmen; are malicious liars; or who mock the dead.  Article X - It is decreed an obligation; that every mother teach secretly to her daughters matters pertaining to lust and prepare them for womanhood; let not men be cruel nor punish their women when they catch them in the act of adultery. Whoever shall disobey shall be killed by being cut to pieces and thrown to the caymans.  Article XI - These shall be burned: who by their strength or cunning have mocked at and escaped punishment or who have killed young boys; or try to steal away the women of the elders.  Article XII - These shall be drowned: all who interfere with their superiors, or their owners or masters; all those who abuse themselves through their lust; those who destroy their anitos (religious icons) by breaking them or throwing them down. 

Article XIII - All these shall be exposed to ants for half a day: who kill black cats during a new moon; or steal anything from the chiefs oragorangs, however small the object may be.  Article XIVThese shall be made slave for life: who have beautiful daughters and deny them to the sons of chiefs, and with bad faith hide them away.  Article XV - Concerning beliefs and traditions; these shall be beaten: who eat the diseased flesh of beasts which they hold in respect, or the herb which they consider good, who wound or kill the young of the Manaul, or the white monkey.  Article XVI - The fingers shall be cut-off: of all those who break anitos of wood and clay in their alangans and temples; of those who destroy the daggers of the catalonans(priest/priestess), or break the drinking jars of the latter.  Article XVII - These shall be killed: who profane sites where anitos are kept, and sites where are buried the sacred things of their diwatas and headmen. He who performs his necessities in those places shall be burned.  Article XVIII - Those who do not cause these rules to be obeyed: if they are headmen, they shall be put to death by being stoned and crushed; and if they are agorangs they shall be placed in rivers to be eaten by sharks and caymans.

Recorded List of Datus of the Philippines 
Datus of Pre-hispanic Panay o Datu Dinagandan - First ruler of Aklan, circa 1200 o Kalantiao - Ruler of Aklan in 1399. o Datu Paiburong - Ruler of Iloilo o Datu Padojinog - Ruled in the Visayas Region with his wife Ribongsapaw. More than seven hundred forty six years ago, around 1240, ten brave and noble rulers were believed to have landed in our shores. They came from the kingdom of Bornay (now Borneo), escaping the wrath of a wicked ruler Rajah Makatunao. They boarded on big ships, called balanghays, and set out to sea to find a place where they can live in peace and harmony. One moonless night on April 15, 1240, together with their families, warriors, slaves and counselors, they faced the unknown in quest of the Promised Land. Datu Padojinog was one of the said Datus.  Datus in the Maragtas epic o Irong-irong o Kalantiaw III /Rajah Bendahara Kalantiaw - Formulated the Code of Kalantiaw in 1433 (legendary, see related article). o Datu Puti - One of the 10 Bornean Datus to arrive in Iloilo before the Spanish colonial period. (legendary but may be based on facts, see related article)  Datus during Spanish colonization o Rajah Colambu - Chief in 1521 of Limasawa, brother of Rajah Siagu of Butuan . He met Ferdinand Magellan and guided him to Cebu on April 7, 1521. o Rajah Humabon - Ruler of Cebu who became an ally of Ferdinand Magellan. Enemy and relative of Lapu-Lapu. In 1521, he and his wife were baptized and renamed themselves Carlos and Juana after the Spain|Spanish royalty, King Carlos and Queen Juana. o Sultan Kudarat - Sultan of Maguindanao. o Rajah Lakandula - Ruler of Tondo, one of the last rulers of Maynilad. o Lapu-Lapu - Ruler of Mactan Island. He defeated Ferdinand Magellan in April 27, 1521. He is the Philippines' first national hero. o Datu Sikatuna - Ruler of Bohol in 1565. He made a blood compact with the conquistador Miguel López de Legaspi. His statue was found in Bohol where the blood compact is located when Legaspi is in the Philippines. o Rajah Suliman (also Rajah Sulayman) - One of the last rulers of Maynilad. He defeated Martin de Goiti, soldier fetched by Legaspi to Maynilad. o Rajah Tupas - Last Datu of Cebu, conqured by Legazpi.  Other Datus o Datus of Sulu o Datu Macabulos - Ruled with elders the town of Lubao, Pampanga around 1571. o Datu Pax S. Mangudadato - Modern datu and Governor of Sultan Kudarat (2001-2004) o Rajah Siagu - Chief of the Manobo tribe in 1521. o Urduja - Pre-hispanic female ruler in Pangasinan. (Legendary see related article) o Al Marhum Sultan Muhammad Gutierez Baraguir, (a lawyer by profession; Deputy Governor Cotabato Empire); 24th sultan of Maguindanao [1990 - 2000] o Sultan Hajji Datu Amir bin Muhammad Baraguir, 25th Sultan of Maguindanao

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