P. 1
Semiconductors for Micro and Nanotechnology--Introduction Fo

Semiconductors for Micro and Nanotechnology--Introduction Fo


|Views: 943|Likes:
Published by apollobr

More info:

Published by: apollobr on Apr 19, 2007
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





3.1Calude Cohen-Tannoudji, Bernard Diu, Franck Laloë, Quantum
, Vols. 1 and 2, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1977)
3.2David K. Ferry, Quantum Mechanics, IOP Publishing, Bristol
3.3Neil W. Ashcroft, N. David Mermin, Solid State Physics, Saunders
College Publishing, Philadelphia (1988)
3.4Franklin F. Y. Yang, Introduction to Solid State Electronics, 2nd
Ed., North-Holland, Amsterdam (1989)
3.5Otfried Madelung, Introduction to Solid-State Theory, Springer-
Verlag, Heidelberg (1981)
3.6Peter Y. Yu, Manuel Cordona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors,
Springer Verlag, Berlin (1996)
3.7Manuel Cordona, Fred H. Pollak, Energy-Band Structure of Ger-
manium and Silicon: The

Method, Phys. Rev. 142(2) (1966)

3.8Dr. Jony J. Hudson, Private communication (j.j.hud-


Semiconductors for Micro and Nanosystem Technology


Chapter 4The


Electrodynamics has had an unprecedented technological impact on our
everyday lives. The phenomena that collectively belong to the field span
many orders of magnitude, and include long wavelength radio signals,
millimeter wavelength microwaves at airfields and in the kitchen, light all
the way between infrared, visible and ultraviolet wavelengths, and higher
still all the way to harmful ionizing radiation. As long as we consider the
free propagation of electromagnetic waves, one theory covers it all—a
remarkable discovery.
James Clarke Maxwell (1831–1879) culminated the search for a unified
electromagnetic theory that could explain all the effects of “electricity” in
one formalism. In truth, Maxwell’s formalism was correct but cumber-
some. Oliver Heaviside (1850–1925), a pioneer in his field, a great
admirer of Maxwell and a champion of the use of vectors, first formu-
lated the electrodynamic equations as we know them now. In parallel,
Heinrich Herz (1857–1894) did the same, and for a brief period in history
the one or the other name was associated with the equations. It was only

The Electromagnetic System


Semiconductors for Micro and Nanosystem Technology

in following the usage established by Albert Einstein (1879–1955), in his
seminal work on the photoelectric effect, that we now call the governing
electrodynamic equations the Maxwell equations. Einstein went on to
unify space-time electromagnetic theory in his work on relativity, result-
ing in a single expression for the Maxwell equations.

At interaction dimensions of the order of atomic spacings and smaller,
we have to also include the rules of quantum mechanics. We consider
both viewpoints.

Chapter GoalOur goal for this chapter is first to obtain a complete description of classi-
cal electrodynamics, and then to extend this model of radiation to a quan-
tum viewpoint.


Our road map is as follows: to state the Maxwell equations, quantify the
concepts leading to electro-quasi-statics and magneto-quasi-statics, and
to their completely static counterparts. Next, we take a closer look at
light, which is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum that ranges from
the near infrared all the way through to the near ultraviolet, by treating
both its wave-like and particle-like characteristics. There will be practi-
cally no “optics” here, and the interaction between light and matter will
appear only later in the book.

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->