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State of the Worlds Children 2008

State of the Worlds Children 2008

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Published by UNICEF Sverige
Rapporten ger en bred bild av hälsosituationen för världens nyfödda, samt av den grundläggande hälsovården för barn upp till fem år.
Rapporten ger en bred bild av hälsosituationen för världens nyfödda, samt av den grundläggande hälsovården för barn upp till fem år.

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Published by: UNICEF Sverige on Jul 08, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Source:Adapted from World Health Organization, Health and the Millennium Development Goals,
WHO, Geneva, 2005, p. 11.

Figure 1.9

extreme poverty
and hunger

Reduce child

Improve maternal

Combat HIV and
AIDS, malaria and
other diseases


Develop a global
partnership for

Target 2

Halve, between 1990 and
2015, the proportion of peo-
ple who suffer from hunger

Target 5

Reduce by two thirds,
between 1990 and 2015, the
under-five mortality rate

Target 6

Reduce by three quarters,
between 1990 and 2015, the
maternal mortality ratio

Target 7

Halt and begin to reverse,
by 2015, the spread of HIV
and AIDS

Target 8

Halt and begin to reverse,
by 2015, the incidence of
malaria and other major

Target 10

Halve, by 2015, the propor-
tion of people without sus-
tainable access to safe drink-
ing water and basic sanitation

Target 10

By 2020, achieve a signifi-
cant improvement in the
lives of at least 100 million
slum dwellers

Target 17

In cooperation with pharma-
ceutical companies, provide
access to affordable essential
drugs in developing countries

Prevalence of underweight
children under five

Proportion of population below
minimum level of dietary energy

Under-five mortality rate

Infant mortality rate

Proportion of one-year-olds
immunized against measles

Maternal mortality ratio

Proportion of births attended by
skilled health personnel

HIV prevalence among pregnant
women aged 15–24

Condom use rate of the contra-
ceptive prevalence rate

Ratio of school attendance of
orphans to school attendance of
non-orphans aged 10–14

Prevalence and death rates
associated with malaria

Proportion of population in malaria-
risk areas using effective malaria
prevention and treatment measures

Prevalence and death rates
associated with tuberculosis

Proportion of tuberculosis cases
detected and cured under Directly
Observed Treatment Short-Course

Proportion of population using
an improved water source, urban
and rural

Proportion of population using
improved sanitation, urban and

Proportion of population with
access to affordable essential
drugs on a sustainable basis


Health Targets

Health Indicators



Pneumonia kills more children than any other disease –
more than AIDS, malaria and measles combined. It is a
major cause of child deaths in every region. Children
with pneumonia may exhibit a wide range of symptoms,
depending on age and cause of the infection. Common
symptoms include rapid or difficult breathing, cough, fever,
chills, headaches, loss of appetite and wheezing. In young
infants, severe cases of pneumonia can cause convulsions,
hypothermia, lethargy and feeding problems.

In childhood, pneumonia and malaria have major overlaps
in terms of symptoms, the requirements for their effective
management and the feasibility of providing care in the
community. In effect, especially in very young children, it
may be impossible to tell whether a high fever, coughing
and fast breathing is evidence of either pneumonia or
malaria, and in such cases children often receive treatment
for both. Once a child develops pneumonia, a caregiver
must recognize the symptoms and seek appropriate care

Healthy children have natural defences that protect
their lungs from the pathogens that cause pneumonia.
Undernourished children, particularly those who are not
exclusively breastfed or have inadequate zinc intake, or
those with compromised immune systems, run a higher
risk of developing pneumonia. Children suffering from
other illnesses, such as measles, or those living with HIV,
are more likely to develop pneumonia. Environmental fac-
tors, such as living in crowded homes and being exposed
to parental smoking or indoor air pollution, may also play
a role in increasing children’s susceptibility to pneumonia
and its consequences.

Prevention is as important as cure in reducing child deaths
from pneumonia. The key preventive measures for children
are adequate nutrition (including exclusive breastfeeding, vita-
min A supplementation and zinc intake), reduced indoor air
pollution and increased immunization rates with vaccines that
help prevent children from developing infections that directly
cause pneumonia, such as Haemophilus influenzaetype b
(Hib), and with those immunizations that prevent infections
that can lead to pneumonia as a complication (e.g., measles
and pertussis). Vaccines to protect against Streptococcus
pneumoniae– the most common cause of severe pneumonia
among children in the developing world – will be increasingly
becoming available for infants and young children.

Since a large proportion of severe pneumonia cases in chil-
dren of the developing world are bacterial in origin – most-
ly Streptococcus pneumoniaeor Haemophilus influenzae–
they can be effectively treated using inexpensive antibiotics
at home, provided that families and caregivers follow the
advice they receive and treat the child correctly, including
returning for help as necessary. If these conditions are in
place, evidence from across the developing world suggests
that community-based management of pneumonia can be
very effective. A meta-analysis of results from nine studies
in seven countries, including the United Republic of Tanzania,
that investigated the impact of community-based case
management of pneumonia revealed substantial reductions
not only in pneumonia mortality but in child mortality more
generally. Trials resulted in a reduction of child mortality of
26 per cent and a 37 per cent reduction in mortality from

See References, page 104.

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