# B.

Tech 1st Year 1st Semester Mathematics(M101) Teacher Name: Kakali Ghosh

**LECTURE-- 1 Vector algebra and vector calculus
**

Introduction : Vectors are frequently used in many branches of pure and applied mathematics and in physical and engineering science.

Scalar: A scalar is a physical quantity which has magnitude only but no definite direction in space. For example density, volume , temperature , work , speed, heat etc. Vectors: A vector is a physical quantity which has magnitude and is related to a definite direction in space. For example Velocity, Acceleration, Force etc. A vector is a directed segment of straight line on which there are distinct initial and terminal points. The arrows indicate the direction of vectors. The length of the line segment is the magnitude uuu r of the vector. For example, PQ is a vector directed from P to Q. P pQ r a

uuu r r Thus PQ = a .

**Ö Unit vector: A vector a whose magnitude is unity is called unit vector and is denoted by a .
**

Null Vector : A vector a whose magnitude is 0 is called Null vector, denoted by O . Equal vector : If two vectors a ( a ) and b ( b ) are said to be equal if they have equal magnitudes and same direction and denoted by a ! b . Addition of two vectors : Let a and b be any two given vectors.

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

r r a +b

B

O

r a

r b

A uuu r OB is called vector r b.

r r uuu r r uuu If three points O , A , B are taken such that OA = a , AB = b , then the vector r uuu r r r sum or the resultant of the given vectors and a and b and write as OB = a + r r

r

Subtraction of two vectors: We define the difference a b of two vectors a and b to be the sum r r r r r r of the vectors a and - b , i.e. a b = a (b ) Multiplication of a vector by a real number: Let P be scalar. Then P a is a vector whose r r r magnitude is | P | times that of a and direction is the same as that of a or opposite of a , according as P is positive or negative. Collinear vectors: Two vectors a and b are said to be Collinear or parallel if a = P b where P is a scalar. A system of vectors is said to be collinear if they are parallel to the same straight line. Coplanar vectors: A system of vectors is said to be Coplanar if they are parallel to the same plane. x y z r r r Linearly dependent and Linearly independent vectors: A set of vectors s uuu , uuu , uuu is | OP | | OP | | OP | r said to be linearly dependent , if there exist a set of scalars x,y,z,««not all zero, such that x a + y b + z c +«««..= 0. Otherwise they form a linearly independent set of vectors. Thus for a set of linearly independent r r r r r r vectors a, b , c ,.... if x a + y b + z c +«««..= 0 , then we have x = y = z = ««..= 0. Position vector of a point: The position vector (p.v ) of a point P with respect to a fixed origin O uuu r uuu r r r r in space is the vector OP . If OP = a , we write P ( a ) as the position vector of P is a .

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

P

r r b -a

Q

ar

r a

r b

O r r uuu r If a and b are position vectors of P and Q respectively , then PQ = b - a = p.v. Q ± p.v. of P. The position vector of the point P whose Cartesian coordinates are (x,y,z) is given by uuu r r r Ö Ö Ö r ! xi yj zk . Obviously | r | = x 2 y 2 z 2 where direction cosines of OP = x y z r r r ( uuu , uuu , uuu ). | OP | | OP | | OP |

Let OP makes EF K with the rectangular axes at O ( The figure above). Then cos E , cos F , cos K are called the direction cosines of OP and we can write uuu r uuu r uuu r x = | OP |cos E , y = | OP |cos F , z = |OP |cos K uuu r The unit vector in the direction of OP is given by uuu r OP 1 Ö Ö Ö uuu ! uuu ( xiÖ yj zk ) ! cos EiÖ cos FÖ cos Kk , r r j OP OP j Ö where iÖ, Ö, k are unit vectors along the coordinate axes and (x,y,z) is position of P w.r.t O.

¡

¡

¡

¡

Z

P

O Y

X

uuu r Projection or component of a vector on an axis : Let A be a vector and OX be an axis. A plane passing through A which cuts OX perpendicularly at P. Then P is the point of projection of A on OX.

A Q X

O

P

Similarly , uuu take point of projection Q of B on OX. Then PQ is called projection or component of we r the vector A on the axis OX.

¢

B

¢

uuu r uuu r uuu r If A makes an angle U with OX , then component of A on OX = | A |Cos U .

Illustrative examples: 1) Show that the vectors i ± 3j + 5k , 3i ± 2j+k , 2i + j - 4k form a right angle triangle. Soln: Let a = i ± 3j + 5k, b = 3i ± 2j+k and c = 2i + j - 4k . We see that a + c = b, Therefore a,b,c form a triangle in a plane. Now |a| = 12 (3) 2 52 = |b| = |c| = 2 2 (1) 2 ( 4) 2 =

35

32 (2)2 12 = 14 21

@ | b |2 | c |2 14 21 35 | a |2 . Therefore the given vectors form a right angle triangle.

2.a) Show that the vectors (2,4,10) and (3,6,15) are linearly dependent. 2.b) Show that the vectors (1,2,3) and (4,-2,7) are linearly independent. Soln 2a) Let a = (2,4,10) and b = (3,6,15) Let x and y be two scalars , such that xa+yb=0 or, x(2,4,10) + y(3,6,15) = 0 or, (2x + 3y, 4x+6y,10x+15y) = (0,0,0) Equating from both sides, we get 2x + 3y = 0 4x+6y =0 10x+15y =0 Solving these , we get x= 3, y = -2, which are not all zero. Hence 3a± 2b = 0 Therefore the vectors a , b are linearly dependent. Soln 2b) Let a = (1,2,3) and b = (4,-2,7)

Let x and y be two scalars , such that

¤

¤

¥

¥

¥

£

xa+yb=0 Therefore x(1,2,3) + y(4,-2,7) = 0 Equating both sides, we get x + 4y =0 2x -2y =0 3x +7y =0

Solving we get , x = y = 0 Therefore, x a + y b = 0 , only if x = y=0. Thus the given vectors are linearly independent.

3) Show that the following vectors are coplanar: 3a ± 7b -4c , 3a -2b + c , a + b +2c where a , b ,c are any three non coplanar vectors

Soln: If the given vectors be coplanar , then it will be possible to express one of them as a linear combination of the other two. Let 3a ± 7b -4c = x (3a -2b + c) + y (a + b +2c) , x and y are scalars.

Comparing the coefficients of

a,b,c from both sides , we get,

3x + y =3 , -2x + y = -7 , x + 2y = -4 Solving the first two equations we get , x= 2 and y = -3 . These values of x and y satisfy the 3rd equation. Thus 3a ± 7b -4c = 2 (3a -2b + c) + (-3) (a + b +2c) Therefore the 1st vector can be expressed as linear combination of the other two. Hence , the three given vectors are coplanar.

Assignment:

1) If a = i -2j+2k then show that |a| =3 and direction cosines are 1/3 , (-2/3), 2/3

**2) Prove that the vectors (2,3,-6) , (6,-2,3) and (4,-5,9) form the sides of an isosceles triangle.
**

3) Show that the vectors a = (1,2,3) , b = (2,-1,4) and c = (-1,8,1) are linearly dependent and also show that the vectors a = (1,-3,2) , b = (2,-4,-1) and c = (3,2,-1) are linearly independent. 4) Determine the values of P and Q for which the vectors (-3i + 4j + P k) and ( Q i + 8j + 6k) are collinear. 5) Find the constant m such that the vectors

) ) r ) ) ) ) r ) ) ) r a ! 2 i j k , b ! i 2 j 3k , c ! 3i mj 5k are coplanar

**Multiple Choice Questions
**

) ) ) 1)The unit vector along the vector 2i j k is ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 1 1 (a) 2i j 5k
(b) 2i j 5k
(c) 2i j 5k 30 30 r r r r r r r r r r 2) If a ! 2 i 3 j k , b ! 6 i 9 j 3 k then a and b are (a) Coplanar (b) independent (c) collinear (d) none

(d) none

r r 3)If for two vectors a and b r )r ) r ) ) ) ) r ) ) ) r r r r r | a b mj 5ka ! 2i j k , b ! i 2 j 3k , c ! 3i | = | a b | , then a and b are (a) Parallel (b) orthogonal (c) collinear (d) none

**LECTURE- 2 PRODUCT OF VECTORS:
**

DOT PRODUCT

**Objective: Definition of Dot product
**

Angle between two vectors Projection Proof of Cosine formula.

Definition:

The dot product of a and b, written as a.b, is defined by a.b = a b cos where a and b are the magnitudes of a and b and is the angle between the two vectors.

The dot product is distributive: a.(b + c) = a.b + a.c and commutative: a.b = b.a Knowing that the angles between each of the i, j, and k vectors is /2 = 0, we can derive a handy alternative definition: Let, u = ai + bj + ck v = xi + yj + zk then, u.v = (ai + bj + ck).( xi + yj + zk)

/2 radians (90 degrees) and cos

=>u.v = (ai + bj + ck). xi + (ai + bj + ck).yj + (ai + bj + ck).zk The angle between any nonzero vector and iteself is 0, and cos 0 = 1, so i.i = 1 etc., Hence, u.v = a x + b y + c z This means that for any vector, a, a. a = a2

**Finding the angle between two vectors
**

We can now, given the coordinates of any two nonzero vectors u and v find the angle them: u = ai + bj + ck v = xi + yj + zk u.v = u v cos u.v = a x + b y + c z => u v cos =ax+by+cz between

=> = cos-1 o (a x + b y + c z) / ( u v ) p To get used to this method check out this applet What would happen if one of the vectors was the null vector 0, from (0,0,0) to (0,0,0). This is the only vector without a direction and it isn't meaningful to ask the angle between this vector and another vector. How does our method fail if we try? One of the main uses of the dot product is to determine whether two vectors, a and b, are othogonal (perpendicular). If a . b = 0, then either, a is orthogonal to b, or a = 0, or b = 0.

Projection

It will often be useful to find the component of one vector in the direction of another:

We have a given vector a, and we want to see how far it extends in a direction given by the unit vector n. The distance is d, which, from simple trigonometry we can calculate as,

d = a cos U => d = n a cos U => d = a . n

Proof of the cosine formula

You have two sides of a triangle, a and b, and the angle in between, C, - the problem is to find the remaining side c. You kill the problem by recalling the cosine formula: c2 = a2 + b2 - 2 a b cos C but have you ever seen a proof? The proof by geometry isn't very friendly but with vectors it takes all of 3 lines (using the second triangle above): c.c = (b - a).(b - a) => c2 = b.b + a.a - 2a.b => c2 = a2 + b2 - 2ab cos C

**Finding the distance between two places, along the surface of the Earth
**

From the latitudes and longitudes of two places on the Earth together with the radius of the Earth we can determine the position vectors of the two places with the origin at the centre of the Earth. If you have two points on the circumference of a circle then the radius of the circle times the angle (in radians) subtended by the two points at the centre of the circle gives the arc distance between the two points. Using the dot product we can find the angle subtended by our two position vectors, multiply by the radius of the Earth, and hey presto we have the great circle distance.

**WORKED OUT EXAMPLE:
**

r ) ) ) ) ) ) r 1) Find the angle between a ! 2i 2 j k and b ! 6i 3 j 2 k .

Solution: We know that a.b = a b cos U where a and b where a and b are the magnitudes of a and b and U is the angle between the two vectors. Now a = 2 2 2 2 ( 1) 2 =3 , b = 62 (3) 2 2 2 =7 a.b =2.6+2.(-3) + (-1).2 =12 ± 6 -2 =4 r r 4 4 a.b ! ! ! 0.1905 and U = 790 approximately. Then cosU = ab 3.7 21 r r r r 2) If | a | = 3 and | b | = 4, then find the values of the scalar Q for which the vectors a Q b r r and a Q b will be perpendicular to one another.

r r r r Solution: The vectors a Q b and a Q b will be perpendicular to one another if r r r r ( a Qb ) . ( a Qb ) = 0 r r r r r r r r i.e a.a Q a.b Q b .a Q 2b .b =0

r i.e | a |2 - Q 2 | b |2 =0 i.e 32 - Q 2 42 = 0 9 2 i.e Q ! 16 r r @Q ! s 3 4

; Express F in the form F ! F1 F 2 where F1 is

**r Ö Ö j Ö j 3 ) Given two vectors E ! 3i Ö, F ! 2i Ö 3k
**

parallel to E and F 2 is perpendicular to E . Soln: The vector

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

is parallel to E for all values of the scalar Q , since

r

( QE ) v E = Q ( E v E )= Q 0 ! 0

r

r

r

r

r

r

**r Ö Ö F2 = xiÖ yj zk r r r r Since F2 is perpendicular to E , therefore, E . F2 =0 3x-y = 0 or, y=3x r Ö Ö Ö Therefore F2 = xi 3 xj zk
**

Let Now F ! F1 F 2

Therefore,

r r Ö j F1 = QE = Q ( 3i Ö )

r

r

r

Ö Ö Ö Ö j Ö j Ö Ö Therefore, 2i Ö 3k = Q ( 3i Ö )+( xi 3 xj zk )=(3 Q +x) i +(3x- Q ) Ö +z k j Ö

**Ö j Ö Equating coefficients of i , Ö , k from both sides , we get ,
**

3 Q +x = 2, 3x- Q = 1, z=-3 Solving first two equations we get, x=1/2,

Q

= 1/2

Therefore y=3/2

r r 1Ö 3 Ö Ö j Therefore, F1 = ½( 3i Ö ) and F 2 = i Ö 3k j 2 2

Assignment: (1) Find

) ) ) i 2j k . r r r r r r (2) If E , F , K be unit vectors satisfying the condition E F K ! 0 , then show that ) ) ) a vector of magnitude 11 perpendicular to the plane of vectors 2i j k and

r r r r r r 3 E .F F .K K .E ! 2 r r r Ö Ö Ö r Ö Ö Ö and c ! 2i Ö k , then find the vector E which satisfies Ö j Ö (3) If a ! i j k , b ! i j 2 k r r r r r r E .a ! 2, E .b ! 1 and E .c ! 5 r r r r Ö r Ö (4) If E ! 2iÖ Ö k , F ! iÖ 2 Ö 2 k , K ! 3iÖ 4 Ö 2 k , then shopw the projection of E K in the j Ö j j r 17 . direction of F is 3

**Multiple choice question:
**

Ö j Ö j (1) The angle between the vectors the vectors 2iÖ Ö k and iÖ 3 Ö 5k is

(a) 450 , (b) 900 , (c) 00 , (d) none. Ö Ö Ö Ö (2) The value of p for which the vectors i 5 Ö pk and pi 2 Ö 3k are perpendicular is j j (a) 5 ,(b) 0 , (c) -5 , (d) 3 . Ö Ö (3) The component of vector iÖ 2 Ö k on the vector 4i 4 Ö 7 k is j Ö j (a) 19 , (b) 19/9 , (c) 9/19 , (d) 9 . r r r r r r r r (4) If a b c =0 and | a | =3 , | b | =5 , | c | =7 then angle between a and b is T T T (a) T ,(b) , (c) , (d) . 3 2 4

**LECTURE-3 Cross Product: Objective: Definition
**

Finding normal vectors Some properties of cross product .

Definition

The cross product of a and b, written a x b, is defined by: a x b = n a b sin U where a and b are the magnitude of vectors a and b; U is the angle between the vectors, and n is the unit vector (vector with magnitude = 1) that is perpendicular (at 90 degrees to/ orthogonal to/ normal

to) both a and b. But there are two vectors that this could be - one on either side of the plane formed by the two vectors), so we choose n to be the one which makes (a, b, n) a right handed triad.

Like in the definition of the dot product where we pulled U out of a hat and said it was the angle between the two vectors without any way of finding it, so we need a way of finding n for out definition of the cross product to be any use. Again the i, j, k vectors come to our rescue, giving us an equivalent definition: let, a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k then, a x b = ( a1 i + a2 j + a3 k) x (b1 i + b2 j + b3 k) The cross product of any two parallel vectors is the null vector since sin 0 = 0, and also ixj=k jxk=i kxi=j and j x i = -k k x j = -i i x k = -j Using these, we can eventually find: a x b = (a2b3 - a3b2)i + (a3b1 - a1b3)j + (a1b2 - a2b1)k That's our equivalent definition. If you're familiar with determinants you may see this can be written more conveniently as,

| i | a1 | b1 j a2 b2 k| a3| b3|

**Finding the normal vectors
**

Using the equivalence of our two definitions, a x b = (a2b3 - a3b2)i + (a3b1 - a1b3)j + (a1b2 - a2b1)k = n a b sin U

you can now find n To get used to the cross product try out this cross product applet

**Some Properties of the Cross Product
**

(1)The cross product is anti commutative: axb=-bxa (2)The cross product of parallel vectors is the null vector, in particular: axa=0 (3)Also | a x b | is the area of the parallelogram formed by a and b,

a = a b sin U

**Worked out examples:
**

r r r r r 1 avb Ö Ö (1)Find the unit vector perpendicular to both r r ! ( 3i 5 Ö 11k ) 2i j k and j avb 155 r r r 3i 4 j k . Find also the angle between them.

**r r r r r r r r Solution:Let a = 2i j k and b = 3i 4 j k
**

iÖ Ö j r r a v b ! 2 1 3 4 Ö k

Ö Ö 1 =(1-4) i -(-2-3) Ö +(8+3) k j

1

Ö Ö =-3 i +5 Ö +11 k j r r @ a v b ! ( 3) 2 5 2 112 ! 155

r r avb 1 Ö Ö j ( 3i 5 Ö 11k ) Hence the required unit vector is r r ! | avb | 155 r Now | a | =

2 2 (1) 2 12 =

r 6 , |b | =

32 42 (1) 2 ! 26

**So the required angle between the given vectors is
**

r r ¨ 155 ¸ ¨ | avb |¸ 155 1 sin 1 © r r ¹ = sin 1 © © 6 26 ¹ ! sin ¹ 156 ª | a || b | º ª º r r (2) Show that a v b

r r
! a b a.b
.

2 2 2

r2

r

r r Solution: We have a v b

r r
! a b a.b

2 2

r2

r

2

r r r r , a.b !| a || b | cos U r r a 2. b

2

r r r a v b
= a v b
. a.b
=

2

r

r

r

r r a b cos U

2

r r r r = a 2 .b 2 a.b

r r «Q| a |2 ! a 2 » ½

r r r r r r r r r (3) Prove that a v b c b v c a
c v a b ! 0

r r r r r r r r r Solution: L.H.S = a v b c b v c a
c v a b

r r r r r r r r r r r r ! a vb a vc b vc b v a c v a c v b r r r r r r r r r r r r ! a vb c v a b v c a vb c v a b v c ! 0

r r r r «Q a v b ! b v a » ½

Assignment:

Ö Ö j (1) Find a vector of magnitude 9 which is perpendicular to both the vector 4i Ö 3k

and

Ö 2iÖ Ö 2 k . j

r r U 1 r r (2) If a , b are unit vectors and U is the angle between them , show that sin ! | a b | 2 2

Ö j Ö Ö j Ö (3) Find a unit vector perpendicular to each of the vector 2i Ö k and 3i 4 Ö k and obtain the sine of the angle between them.

**Multiple Choice Questions:
**

r r r r Ö (1) If E ! 2iÖ 3 Ö 4k , F ! iÖ Ö k , and then E v F is j j Ö Ö i 2 Ö k j Ö Ö j Ö j Ö , (d) none (a) iÖ 2 Ö k , (b) i 2 Ö k (c) 6 r r r r r r (2) If E .( F v K ) = 0 , then the vectors E , F , K are

(a) coplanar , (b) independent , (c) collinear ,(d) none