FOUR

BASIC QUR"t ANIC TERMS

By..

S. ABl~t A~LA liAUDL-nI

E~G L 1 S H R EN DE R.ING ·ABU AS ... ~D

~c PublicatiOns (Pvt) Limit~ ~E" ~tam ~ Lahore (pakistan)

coNTENTS' :

Preface

In trod det 10 ~

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..

Vll

...... .. ··1

...

F our Bali c Ter ma .. .,

Importo.nce

\Vhy the r.1isa.pprehensions The Consequences

: ... .. ... 1
..... 3
.... 5
..... 8
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Chapter 1: lLAII Dictionary !\1ennings

'.fh e r re ·Is J fl. mic Con cept The Cri terion for Godhood ~rJ 1 e Qur 'an i 0 A ppro.o. eh

Chapter 1: RABB

The Jeneral Meanings Qurtnnic Uses of the \\l'ord

F & lse Not ions 8. hou t Rububiyya 1&. Hazra. t X o.h' s Peop 1e

The " .. J\a.d People

The Thamnd .

The People of Ha.zrat Ibrlbim and

Nnmrod

Lot's People Shuf;aibts Peop1c

The Pharaoh and his People

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L (iii)

~.+ 10
••• 12
... ~ ~19
..... 20 .... 31
..... 32
.... 35
.... 35

.-. 38
...... 38
..... 40 -
.... 46
•• + 48
• I ~ 50 ....

61 65 71

•••

The Qurtanio~Use of the TtnJ!) . -{
. . ... .:_t
Qapttt 4: SEEN
Usage and Meaning ~"J
• ~ r '.I
YlIllt. aDd Second Bense ••• {Ii
The ThW Bento I •• ~
The Fout,li Scna"e · ~ ~ !l~
AI. a·"Comprehensive Term • + • I~~ ~) -

IN'TRO·DUC!ls;IO~

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. . .

."-r "sic Term.

'ue; BaM,. Dee. a.nd "lbie!~ are four ·terms baRe to the whole teachin·g of the ;Q,a-r'aa. Tb·rough. out itl pages. it :stresses ag.al.n and again that Allah Alinigb~ ia the Babb and the IliA; th&t there is. no ,1ak put He, nor is there any ·other ra.bb., nor ·doei He sb.&1'e with anyone else ~. ·quli-.tiea ed .. ,attributes

. im~~ 1" these term·s. . He, &ad ,He alome .ould Lhcrl1fr)f'e·be accepted as OIle""s IliA ·,and Ra'bb, aril! ~ trt..la ~,uld in the least_ be believ:ed to poss-eu

,

tile atlri·hut.cs "'''hieD L tlboee was imply. It also

demanu," thnt we should give oar lIibid«ft to Him and Him alone, and not ·to anyone else, and mak.e our .... exclusive to Him and reject a11 other elf-fns !

And to e,"cry Mcucnger '\1'e ordained ·before you (0 Pro-phet). tile message ,,·hich \";18 .gave ({Gt bimlClf and Cor othen) YU Doao' other t.h.a.n that ""There j. no lilA but

)lyae~(, ami ther.&fore give your 1164.11 to 1.1_ alone. U

L , ..

{Zl : 241

•••• nAnd. (they) ... ·cro Dot Ordered except to give their 'ibddG& to one IlL' ·Quly ; there is DO ilnl&. -t::tcept Bet (and) He il fre(!o of (the taint of) ,,·hat they attribute to Him by their shirl.: <,bAt Y, by •• socia-ting ethers ,,·ith Him j.D Hi, o:l-cl us i vc qua ll tics aacl .ttri bn t es). (9 : 31 j

Verily I this Brotherhood or the Ijrotlhets is. lingle · Brotherhood, and I am the RGWtof you all. wherefore give •. 3"0u.r ..- ,blrla" to ~I C 8.10 n ~. (21 : 9:l) .

..

2

Say to them (0 Prophet) ; "'auld )"OU bave me seek .. for '

rabb any other thaD Allah; nnd He the Bubb of everything

there is ~ (6 : 104)

So. who.socV'or yearns to meet bis Rabb~ let .!lim do good deeds, and ~ei ,bh:c. ~9.t ~ m~:t·pl)·~.is:: !: •. ~h.~,(tf Him .with that

of any other(;) .. , ·(1"8·~ t 10)···· " . .

An4 indeed 'we raised a lIcssr-nger in ever,)" people tha t

.. • .. ..I •• :. ~I • ", •

t hey sb JU ld ,;1'-,·0 theil' '~biida1t to ~\liD.l,l", lid~fa'b!;t~in aevc·rl' ly

f to m g 1 'f i n g it. tot J ~ 1t iJot 1 (16:.:1 G } . . .

Do th~y ~~i.sh for,Eomo delft, other than Allah 'a, (and

thi~s despite thr fact.' th~t to HjJJ) submij.s. .al] ~< ~ero j. in the Heavens an4 in or upon ~~ .~ar~b, ~ ... i1lingrS ~r UQwUl,

I • • • ... I.' ~ I ' •• ~ 1· I :. • • •

ins. and! all are to return unto Kiln f· (3.: S3) :.

.

t._ Literally·. Ibb ~·ord·CID apply to :III p~r.5oQ .wb~ commits. aay lOad of

"'II •

. tr.oqre,slotl'. III the· sense in which it is used in the Qur'iilD jt denOte:.

l p.n~D,.'ho tracsaresses,lbc: limits prescribed by ·his status as a creation

'* .

, of God, who . set~ himsel f u_p .ss •. ,"oj ~ ad n~~k.cs .the P'~.pJCI t,eat

!:lim. as IU~":.. ·Tbere are lh, t; degr-:es. of \faDJar:C.I~ion Or rebcll ion or • buml..D ~ejnl ... i!4~'Yi5. Oed.. The first is·:·th.t~ so far as the priOCipl!= 01. tbe tb In. is ccru:er •• d.·a ·p.DrIOD bel t ev es i It 0 be die nee to God I" be·j tie riaht course, bUI wben it couies to' deeds, be djsobcya, . ·ThiS is .k.rtOWD ·.i

".Ihq·{~). The ~tc~~d·il.lhat he 5b~u]d· &i~e up ·obedience to God a$'

• . I.. ...' . J'

matter or prio.':iple and· ci1h~r do ~'$ h~, p l~~~~.~ ,~~ o~~ ;,.~eODc .: eb.e

, ·w·..l '" ,' __ . . ..

(iD Ibo·so_li io wbicb ODe owes .~bedib~ t~o q~d~.. This is.l(Mfr (}Sj ..

. Tbe 1bird.it tllat Bot 0111,: doe I h' r'c.bel apiDit Ood. deoyiD,· Him aDd Ilia rilht to la.)' 4011f'8._bo·t.w for lOa.· but all. bejiof to make bb own law prevail ia. 1 he !aDd ~ I t is the person who reacbes t bi. ihi ttl· .It l&O who is • T., ... 1.14 DO person c~~ be... M lJ·miu or Allah ID tbe real aeue lIDless be; repudlatea 14ghco'. A. A .. Maududi

NtMf by ,I, rr"''''JJr

: PlOUI tbe po iDt of 'i ie w ai 1&$ t e.l pia i n I; J all thOle·1 M alUna 911 .be&d.s or ,tate ,,110 deliberately SlJbSlitUlcu any· porlioD or Islamic: by a:OD'IIIalIbJIlc.law fall naturally io the e&tclOry Dr TiJ,ItoDls~ DO matter bow much they mipt protest tbur devolion to I,lam aDd their protcuccl dcliro rOr the Ilory of .M ual ims~ I b ouah ia tbo latter· ce ... lb. Ilory lCtulUy IOU&ht. i, oDly that of tbC'·j r OWIl DOtioa. _ I aad the mol • • d. v ocatrd lit Orlen e i ther a re turn t D their pre-Ill ami e cui turD or abo

• adoptioD or lbe present day dteadtDt We.tom culture.. ·Abu. Aild

3-

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. -:: ~ ... r.'~. , .

.. . :.j .

Ray (0 ·l~rophot) ~ Tlu~ Injunct.ion laid - upon m.~ is to

" .._ •• ' I .. ~I •

. ,g j vn m y .otibaJ~ to A llnh t ,n nrl rr serve my accn ~exelual rely

. for II Im (39: 11) . , ..

. VerHy ~\_llnh i,~ my lr(l~tvt auf! j"~ YOllr'S too: therefore. gi l' co you t w (l r s hip ton i m . a 10 n ., - t h n t (t rill y is· the . 0 n 1 y

,

tl ~ 1) 5 t r Or i g h L 'P R t h - (3;- u 1 ) . .

~ , . .

. Tlie : versos q uotod . above nrc just ~ by l\ray of

exam 'p10, nnd not t he O~)_,I,"+' :.0)108 of their kind. ',\""hq .. soever runkos .morc . than it cursory stud·y· of the Qn·t'tftl :- will ~{16n·· rca lise tha t the ~ entire contents revolve round these four ·ttflUS only, and that the central idea of t11C whole book is thaL :

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.' I ......

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• \U:t h is t he 1~f1 ill; ~ ~ ud t he Ilr7it .;

, '

X o-ono c lse po,::·sr~!-L{,~'i t he ~ qu ~li t iea'

,£ I ,.~- . . . .

... i ni r,1 i~u. ·by t hcso t crm- ;

,

. _. . " .. h~l·(~forc· ·In:co·l'l: sh~ul tl . g i vo thci r

.. ~ .: I~I r- .:' ~. . .

. ·r! j m ri..ion70' f~dnu "'0-001$ d ef n sh O~ 1"<1 be

· with no share of.It for any Q\hcr~'

arid . ~tt(l butcs

. ,

~ib!idah to 'Him and

e1clusively ~or Him

Ilti;p·6rt ance

,'Jt should however be obvious even from the'

. ". - . .

quctauons . given that it . is essential for proper

comprehension of the teachings of the Qur~"Q .. fully to understand th~ ·i:~p1icatio~ 9r.t~e8e. fo.~r ·t ... ~~ , " TIle Qur~a~ will i~· fact lose its whole 'Peaning for anyone who does not: know what is meant by ,tli1l,

or rabb, what . constitutes 'ib~da.J&, and what the Qur'nn means when it uses the word dse.n. He will

. ., . ..

fc·il to learn \V ha f·. 'Pcz:u,hrd (belief in the One-ness of

Aliall In tile fullest sense) i$J or what constitutes,

. ~

its anti-thesis, thaWt is, shirk (the attribution to

others, either wl1011y or partially, of any of Allah's

4:

exclusive quali.ties or ·attributes). It ",-ill 'not 'be pOisible for ihi:n to make his 'iMaai. or bit deC'l~ excluaiv.e for Allah alone. And little better· than such "-.leo.plct.c~y ignorant man would be the ~. who hlll_li.a vague "idea. of wbat the terms i-m..p1r" because fa th3t C~IC tho whole . teaching of the

I

Qar·aD \\·111 remain vague-and ~.e"mpk:tc for him •.

and bet it 'his bcllcf and his conduet \\'itl fatal~~lr leave much to 'be desired. He will no doubt keep

• +

on reciting the words ,0£ tho Ksli,J&al" and even

explain that it _ means tIlat, there ia .DO ilia but All~h, .aad .l-:ct, 'in pra'cticc,~ .he will keep tTcati'ng moanY·IW.t)ther to be an ill;1, too. He will go thraagh

life· proclai;.ing tl)Q.·t there is no ra&~ but Allah~ .and yet for .0ll tllat there will be many whom he will be matin.: AS ralilis~ He will protest, ~d affirm,

. .

with ·all .eea-iousacss and 8io.eel!it~y~; tllAt he does

!lo·t ·give bis 'i'!iid·a~ to 'OU)t but Ajiah~ . .ad. w.ill "'" keep giving it to others unknowingly. If anyone even so much as 11ints tlltlt I1C 11&1 any ·other .tee ..

. 'i

he would f~l offended cruJugh to come to bIo·we

with the ae-cuser, and' 3·~t in practice, Ile Tn1 uDwittjngly 'be giving Ilis allegiance to many another deeR" No .. ono will ever bear him actnnlly use the words ililt or rabb in respect of any but in tile ·Bpeci6ct.ense in which tile words have been employedin the Qur'ant but 11e will be conducting himself a.

if he had ~any' an ilifh .. and many a rabb though without realising this just like the person wh.o

'"

never realised ~til he was spcpifica.!Iy told tllat he

had been uttering prose' nll his Ii fe It If someone

wOere to tell him in 80 many words that be- was giving his fibtidaA to others, and thus eommitting shirlz, he might resent tllis strongly and even quarrel viotently, but according to the criteria applicable 110 will unconsciously have been Jiving as a. worshipper of ot hers as an adherent of the deeM of others, without ever suspecting that that in fnct was the ClS~ •

..

Why the Mlsapprehenslons ?

The reason why the mleapprehensicns hinted at 'above have come into existence is L\ historical one, 'Vllen the Qur'an was first presented to the Arabs they 411 knew what was meant by i[,7h or mbb as both the words were - already current in their language. T·hey were not new terms, nor were any

. new meanings put upon them, ,T'·ley knew fully

\vell .bat the eou.nota.tions were and so, when it was said that AlIaIl alone is the nan; and the RQbb and that DO-one has the least. share in tho qualities and attributes which the words denote, they at one comprehended the full import. understood completely without any doubt or uncertainty as to what Bp~cifiealI1 !V4S being declared to pertain to Ahah excluslvoly and wllat was being hence denied to others. ThOse who opposed the precept were nry clear in their minds as to the implications of denying others than Allah to ~e iliAa or rabbs. in any IeDSe, while thOSE! whe accepted it knew equalJy well 1fhat they would have to give up by their acceptance and _11 at they would forgo.

6

Similarly, ihe words 'ibtld4" a.nd deeft. ,.,~~e in common

- use. and the pe.opie knew what waameu:Wby label. what state wall) ·i~plied l~y '~iY!lak (the state of being an 'czbd) what kind of conduct was referred to when the word 'ibldaA was 'used .. aud what was

. .

the sense of·th·c· ter'm dectt •. So, when they were

'told to give up the ·"'ibat1cih'of·~alr·.otbers and rcs,,"ve it exclusively for Alluh, andglveup all other' deena and enter into tho Deen of Allall only, they felt no difficulty ill concluding what the Qur~~ic d'a1t~ah (mossage) implied and tho .drastlc ~evolution·ln thclr

way of life it .SOUg.llt to bl~illg &~(;rq.t~. s ,

But as centuries passed, the real meanings of these terms gradually underwent subtle changes so that, in course· of time, ins.ead . of the full connotations, theycnme to stQnd~for' only, very Iimited meanings or ·restricted and rather va~ue concepts .. One .reason \V3S tho 'gradual decline of interest ill the Arabic language and the other that the words ceased to 11R.VO the aaDle .~meanln·gl for the Inter gen~ra~ioQs.;p%~~~~im8- that ~hcy had for the. o·rigmal Al'~:~s. to whom the Qtlr'an· had been revealed, It, is for these two .reasons that in the

. .. .

more .rccent Icxlcons an] eommentariea .. ~any of

the Qur'aoic word, begcn ·to. be .explained not by their origino.l aen..e but by what they had by then

oo~e to s.ta~d for, B.O~.t . . . ,

. . ~

~he . word ilaA.. as used in respect of oth·eFs than

OO~.1 came to be .synonymous \Vl~h··.ido)s or. gods;

. The word rabb came to mean only someone who bring. up or rears or leeds another or prOvides

. . ..

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for his worldly needs;

• • II • .;.

(lbcJdal~ began to be understood as tb,3· perform-

anc~ of a set of ~it\1a.ls of "vlorship' i ; ...

Deeil'1:b~gati tomeana religion, or belief in some

P: ecepts ;. and ~

.... , The word Tl..ighoat began to be translated to uican an idol or the JJevj1.

, .. ·Tll~ result obvlously was tllat "it became clifiicult

-for . l)COP·Jl~ to get ut 111.0 rea) message of the Q.u·r"&ll.

The Qur'an asks people not to regard any other tha» Allah as an ilih, People thought that since they had nct.ualJy giv .... 'l up· the worship of idols or of others regarded a··s gods, tl~y had fulfilled the requirements, although in practice tlle~i have in fact gone on frc~ti.l·g· others . as go"Cls', but without the least suspicion crossing their minds. that they were actually doing so. - TIlo·· Qur'an ]lae:l

.asked that:·me~··,:.slloul~l n'}t- acknowledge an}· other th~n God as rabb. -The .. people thought- t.hat since

they did not profess anyone· .elso to bo B rabb, th-ey ·had" complied : :with the full requirements of the coneept of Tau~kid.. True enough, theie 'oral professions or even thelrown unuersta~aing of tlieir ·beliefs and -actions·, denoted that for t'hem. Allah was the one and only Ra.bb,. but they littlo realised that by ·the~r aetions· they were Iastead according to· . many . an·othe;r : too the status of rab&~ . They protested that . they no .longer worshipped the idols. that"they uttered cursea enthe Devil, And prostrated themselve8~· ·before Al~ah· on1y, and 80 here too. ,they

.. ,

.. • : I • •• •

were doing all that the Qar'an requireci of t~m. And yet, how f.·r- they were from ~ that! All they did was to give up the idols shaped by the hand. of men, but not any or the other TtighootJJ, and as· for ·ibido1t, here too. c-x~pt (or· the formalities. generally associated with worship, the-y continued. giving it to many others besides Allah.. The same has be: .-11 the case with dCI!Jt.. To reserve it exclu .. sively for ' AIlnh came to mean to profess only th.e· 'rc~Jgion of Islam. T and Dot any of the ~r religions knoWn .. s sueb, aDd this ,,'"as all' that was required and whosoever. did this had satisfied the c.Iterion of exclusiveness, although when looked at from the wider connotation of the word deer: til majority fall far~ far short of the criterion.

The Coase.queDCCS

This being the . case, is it any woad · that,

. thrcugb the mist that has.· eome tlJ _round the precise sesse of tile four tenn in question, more . ~b&n three-.fotirtJuJ· of the tcachin.gs of the Qur'an, OT rather, the real spirit thereof,. have become

obscured, and tbi~ is the main cause of the shortcomings that arc to be seen in peoples' beJiefs and acts despite the (act that they have not formally given up the faith of I.lam but are still in it. fold .. It i. therefore of ut11\oat importance that in order to have a full and complete uliderstaadiug of the Qur'anic tr-aebmga an·d of their central idea, one should know, &1 a fund&JGeDtal to being • ,GOd MuaJitnt what these term~ .really mean.

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9

Although I have given explanatlona of these terms in many earlier writings, they are not enough to remove all the mlseeneeptions in peoples' minds, nor are they likely to satisfy everybody because. in the absence of full semantio explanatlone based 011 recognised Arabic usage, and quotations from the Qur'an itself, I might be taken as expressing my own opinion only, an' opinion which in any case will not appeal to those who differ with me on other isSUCSlI I shall therefore endeavour, in the forthcoming discueeione, to extensively quote the dictionary sense of the words. and not say anything which I cannot base either on recognised usage, or the Qur'an. The order, I shall follow will be Ilah, Rabb, lbadah, and Deen •

CHAPTER 1

--

ILAH

Dictionary Meanings

TIle root of .this word oonsists of tho three letters, aliI j, lti~~ (tJ). and ka (.), and the COD 0 0'" tations of various derivatives, B8 one finds in lexicons

I

are as follows : .

Became confused or perplexed.

Achieved peace and mental calm by seeking refuge with someone' I or establishing relations

I t.... ~ II A J •

Wlt~,~~ ..

'Became frightened of some impending mishap or disaster, and someone gave him the ne cesaary shelter.

Turned to another eagerly, due to the intensity of ilia feelings for him.

The lost offspring of the she .. camel rushed to snuggle up: .~o its mother on finding it.

Became hidden. or concealed. A lao, got elevated~

Adored, offeree] worship to.

If we rcfieQt upon these origina.l meanings, we can - gain the necessary idea. of how the verb came

.,. 10

. ~!I~' II,

...

11

to mean the ac~ of worship and tho noun to denote ·~the object of worship. There are four cousidereelons " to bear in mind in this connection :

I ~ foremost n~ong: t~e factors which engender a sclltiment of some degree of adoration for someone iB a person's OWZl: state of being in distress or need. He cannot even conoeive of worshipping someone unless he. has reason to believe thnt .somecne to be in a position to remove hie distress, to fulfil Ilia needs, to give him shelter and protect him in time of danger J and soothe his troubled heart,

2. It goes without saying that the above belief is

oil

accompanied by a belief &IS0 in the superiorfty

of th:e other in status, p~wer. and strength. ,

3. It i •. allfJ __ a ~atter of fact tha~ where any of the needs of a human being are met under ihe ordinary process of give nnd take, which takes place perceptibly before aneta. own eyes, it leads,

. to no sense of reverence, much less of adoration, , for the other. For example, if I should be in need of money and, having applied fort and been given a job, ant paid for it, linea the whole transactio)l would take place within the full ken of my senses, and I would be fully aware of tho circumstances ~ or the reason for giving me the

4 .

money, I would experience not tho slightest

desire. to .offer my employer any adoration. That sentiment o.riSCB only when there is some elemltlt of mystE)ry surrounding the personality, the po\ver, or the ability of tbe other to

12

fulfil peoples'" needs or to Influence events. That iR "I1Y the word chosen to denote an object of worship includes in its meanings the senses of

:mystery, perplexity, and superiority ill status,

..

etc .. ~"

4. Lastly~ it is only natural t.llat if one believes another to be ill a position to fulfil une.'s nee-ds, to provide shelter and protecbion, to sooth» <1 disturbed heart," and fil! it with pence and calm, one turns eagerly ,to tllat person as a mat.t cr of course,

We may therefore safely conclude from tllfl above that the connotation of tho word "iliil, includes the capacities to fulfil the needs of ethers, to give them shelter and protection, to relieve their minds of distress and agitation, superiority, and the requisite authority and power to do all these, to be mysterious in some ,vay or hidden from men's eyes,

and the turning of men eagerly to him,

" The Pre-Islamic Concept

Having discussed tho various literal senses of the word, let us now see whet the pre-Islamic concepts of iltrh were, and which of these tho Qur'an strove to reject :

And they have taken for their iliiltl others tha.n .t\llnh, that they mo.y according to theil' rockoning be a source of strength to tllsm (or that coming under their protection may confer security). {J9: 81)

And they have taken others than Allah as their l~lJh.8 boping that they wculd help when needed. (36:: 74)

13

From these two verses we learn that the Arabs of tho Jal~iliyyah (the pre-Islamic period of Ignoranc~ . believed that those whom they regarded as ildha were their patrons, would come to their rescue in time of danger or difficulty, and that by placing themselves under their protection they rendered themselves snfe from fear, molestation or

I ~

harm.

..

And when th-: Derrcc of your Lord had gone forth [anrl the time curno for· it3 cxoeuuou), rho ilLiha they used to i nvoko j ns tea tl 0 f .lllnh proved of no av ai I to them and cont ributcd only to their Doorn. (11:] 01)

.. And those whom the people call to instead of .Allah have not created aught .. but arc thcmscl yes creatures. Dead th~v are, and ·.Qot alive, 611(1 they kno w not when

~ ~ '.

they would be raised f~c)f their state j the rou l Win is the

One and Only uu: (16. 20. 21)

. .."

Invoke not; or pray to, Any iltlh along with Allah,

There is no il~!ll but lIc.2 (28: SS)

And those who, lnstead of praying to .. llln.ht. pray to Ilis suppose d assoc in tes UO but foJ low snpposl tions and idle guesses.. ( 10 : GG)

'I'hese verses point to three aspects. Tile first is that the Arabs used to address their prayers to those whom they regarded as their iliih», and invoke them in tinles of distress or for fulfilment of any of their needs. The second is that these ilahs included

~

2~ It should be borne ln mind that the word 11;;11 is used in the Qur"8n iD

two different senses, namely, tbe object Of. beiDII' etc •• to wbom worship ·is! aClualJy be ihg gi_ven, irrespective of whether I ishtly or wrone]y. and the BeiDI who is really worthy 01 worshJ p._ In thil verse, - the. word Is

used in the first ICDse Oft the fint oCClsioD aDd in the otbor sense OD ..

• •

th e second. A. A. Maud u di

14

~

not 0111)· Jinns, angels, ana gods. but dead jlll1111111S

too, as one can see from tho. second of the ~l)ove verses t The·. third is tIl ~ t they believed tha t these iliiha could hear their prayers and could come to tllcir rescue,

It ~CCUl.S desirable .to clear up one point; at this stage, about the nature of the prayer made to the

~

ilrih or ilj!t8 UJ1(1 tho help or aUCC(}11r sought of them.

If I feel thirsty, and call to my servant to give me some water, or am unwell and call for 0, doctor for treatment, my summons to them does not constitute d~t~a (lc.,))" tl13t is, it has 110 similarity to a prayer

. ..

sent up to a deity. nor docs this make either the

servant or the doctor into nn iia4.. Bot11 these are

. .'

. common, in everyday happenings, with nothing of

the supematural about them . However, if I should, while feeling thirsty or unwell, call to some saizi+· or god Instead of the servant or a doctor, that obviously would amount to treating. the saint or god as an iliih and to my .addrcssing ~ awii to himt. Addresaing a pr.Bryer to Q Mint! confined to his .grave hundreds or even thousands of miles :l'\vny3 clearly indicates that I believe him=-though dead-to be possessed of the power to listen to a prayer at such a distance or to otherwise being aware of things so far off or,

...

3. In point or ttriaciplet it makes no differeDce ir the distance were or a rc~ Ceat oDly. the .i,oilie.at poine being l.be act pr addresllcS a prayer to lome OiD D' W b,o ·1. dead add i I bel le vee to possess" CVbD. j n, 0 r pc rhap. boea use ot t h. t I ta ~e. 10 me IX tta ord Inlr Y p owert DOt on Iy 0 r bearic. tbe prayer but ~lIo. of granting it if be 10 cbOOUlt It is allo believed thlt the Dint may. if be CADUOt blm,eJr grant the prayer, pl. It up to (lod. with a rC"commcDdatJoD. A. At Maududi

15

.~

if one may USD the appropriate Arabic words, to be

both samee (c:---) and baseer (~)'. )fy action would clearly imply belief in their exercising such sway over the realm of creation as to be .able to have the water reach me or to rna ke me recover from my Illness. In the case of a god, my prayer would

~

mean that I believe him to possess power over water

and over hoa lth and sickness, and to therefore arrange, by ~uper~ntural means, to fulfil my needs. Thua, the basis on which a .prayer is addressed to someone

inol udes ueceesartly a con cept of his being possessed of some supernatural authority and power,

And~ verily t \V e dld des tro;r the plac~. of.. ~hich you aee ruins about you, and \rc showed them Our Sign. in diverse ways that they, might turn (aw4Y,from their wrong 'Way. to, Us). So why did not 'those whom tl~~y bad made their ililh', and presumed to ha crt .n.COC89 to 'Us, help thera in their hour of doom 1 Fer. frota helping, they abandoned them .. nd mad. the In 801 ~es !5 ~~ tJ. re s, expos ing tb e Ito 11 0 wness

of their falsehoods and fa bri:3 t ic =:i5t. . (46 : 27, 28)

And wherefore should I not, r;ivc. my worship to Him Who created U1e and to ''''han all of you will return 1

4. Literally" these wordl. which are Ictt.:llJy two o( AUall'l per.onal attributH, meaD. tbe All-Hea-riDa. tbe _AU"Seeina. respectively. (jod'. kDOW] edaa tranlCendl eyer yth io.. an d He i I a via reo revery t b In I lb at' II ht p pea i Di • nJ w·here ~. This it no t 1 b. case w' tJ:l H it ere a tu res, Ii hole capac I tlCI f u t besa respects are In' ere:y li~ i t.e d. To believe someoo D other thaa God tc have power to ph)'.ii.:aU,. h.car prayer offered out or his bearil1l or to lee I h I DIS ba PJ! e Co! DI· 0 -:1t of his Ii Uh t amo un ts to a l tr 1 .. butial to him power. which a:e GO~~1 only. and which He hal Dever liveD to any ot Hi. croaturci. ~A.M ..

, .

Sol The re'.roD~ bere 0 bv 10 asly is nO'-:. to crt DO l Oli ca1 0 r iDa ni mat e IOd ftt' ,bU1 to pritltl a.a.d ethers who c.:tsct:..! peDrJ'1C"~' worship and thus let . the_elv •• up 'is lair, i D oppoli tic:l to t't: 1· ~ ~ e J fait I A. A. Ma lid u(li

16

Should I take for myself 'l,lA, other thalli Allah \Vho~ should He Who is also Ar .. Rabman wish me any harm, will avail me naugli t by their intaro~s8JonJ nor will they be able to como to my reSCUQ 1 (35 = 22 .. 23)

And those who have taken others than Allah as. protcetors or helpers so-y t H\Ve do not worship them (':leapt tho- t t hey may br lng us closer to Him, ~ , AlIa h w j ll de cide

for them on tho Day of Judg~ment regarding that in which they differ a (39: 3)

And they worship other than Allah those who have

. .

power neither to harm nor benefit them, and they Bay that

thoy arc their intercessors with Him. (10 ~ 18)

"'hnt "·U learn from these verses is, firstly, that it W:1~ not that the Arabs believed their·ildhs to account for liic·,viloie of divinity among them .. selves or t hat there was no Supreme Being over and above tll'~lll!t Tiley quite clearly believed in the existence uf such n Being for whom t.hey employed the spcci.il proper name of ,,cAllah~ n As for their ildh«, their belief consisted essentia.lly of the cO~lcept that they enjoyed some share in the divinity'· of the Supremo God, that their word carried some weight with Him, and that, their intercession could result in some guins or ward oil some harm or loss, It was on. these grounds that they regarded them as flahs besides Allah and, considering their precept and practice, we may say that it was the belief about someone to have power to intercede with God, theact of eddresslng of prayers to him for help, the performing of certain devotions indicative of respect and reverence and adoration, and the making of offeringe, that constituted in their·terminology, the

. .

17

treating of him as iliill~

And God said: UDo not make two illAJ ; thero is but one ila4; Sot fear I.lc .1oDo.'· (16: 51)

And (ILrahim seid to them) : I f~ar not those YOll Ulociate with God. Any harm can come to me only ir . Ho should will it, and not otherwise [through a;r.;,y or aU "of your supposed goda). (6: 81)

(And said Had 's people to him:) AI! wg think of yon is that von are under th~ curse or somecne O~ .... thpr ol our

... .

il."'. (II! ts i>

According "to these verses, ·the Arab belief about

. their iltiAa was that if they should give them. any cause for offence or should otherwise be deprived of their favours and attentions, they would Buffer epidemics, famine, loss of life and property .. or other call\mities~

,

They made their religious 9cholars and rabbis their mbb$ instead of Allah,. and -Iesus son of lIary too into one) altbougb th()y had been told to worship but one ilah only, besides ,"~hom there is no ilul~ at all .. (9 ~ 31) .

Have you noticed the man who has made his selfish de.ires bia ilaA 1 Can you assume allY rcsponsibillty About . auch ,,-one 1 (25: 43)

And in this wile did the supposed gods of paganI make infa.nticide appea.r an approved act in thei:- eyes. (6: 138)

What! Havo they partnerl in godhood who have

eatablished for them some religion without saDction from

God 1 (4 Z ~ 21) "

Here we have yet another concept of ilIht very different from those dealt with above. Here there

,

is no element of· the supernatural. The uah here is

18

some human being, or man's own Bel~sh ego or selfish . desires. No· prayerS are offered to it, nor is it regarded as being in a position to will "Rny harm or benefit; to someone nor is it looked. to for help or succour. It· is an iLih in the sense that its dictates are accepted and obeyed to such extent that tllat whic h it declares to be permitted or prohibited is treated as such, aud it is deemed to have" an inherent . right to make us do or not do certain things, with no higher or superior authority "Whose approval might be neces .. sary for its 'orders or which might be appealed to ag8ri~8t them.

, The first verse we have quoted here (9: 31) speaks of religious scholars and rabble having been made into iZiM.· We get a very lucid explanation of this in Hadlth. Hazrat 'Adi h. Hatim once

..

asked the Holy Prophet, on whom be peace, about the verse, and in reply the Prophet told him that what was characterised as taking as ilcilt8 was the practice of accepting, as permitted or prollihited anything pronounced g~ such hy the scholars or rabbis, without ca.ring to ascertain what God had actually

said about it. '

. .

~s for the second verse, (25 : 43) the meaning is

clear enough. He who' obeys only the dictates of his selfish desires or inelinetdons or, rather regards

. . '

his personal views 88 the only law, in effect makes

his self his ildh instead of God.

, The last two verses use the word shura·kii (,:rr), which we have translated as supposed gods or part ... ners in godhood, but although the word ilak has not

19

been used, the implication clearly is that to trent 40Y beings, etc .• as ahuraka amounts, ·in effect, to believing them. to have a share in divinity. The import of these ver8~.is that those who regard any custom or rule or practice as permissible although it has no divine sanctlon, are guilty of treating the originators of the custom, ete., as having a share in divinity, i, e., or tre~tiDg them as ilah8.

Tbe Criterion for Godhood.

There is a clear logical inter .. connection between all the different concepts of iltih . set out above, Whosoever regarda ~DY other person or being to be hie helper or -patron in tho supernatural sense, or capable of so1ving his problems or fulfilling his needs, of hearing and granting his prayers, or of doing him harm or good, does 80 only because he believes that person or being to enjoy some measure of authority· in the management of the universe. Similarly, if

a person's avoidance of certain actions or performan-ce of others is governed by the hope or fear that they would win him the pleasure 'or displeasure of some other person or being, he does 80 obviouely because of belief that that person or being possesses some kind of supernatural authority in. shaping the affairs of men, 'As for him who believes in God and

yet turns to others for the fulfilment of his needs, he too can do 80 only because he believes them to haV"e 8om~ share in God's authority, And, lastly, no . different is ther CBS8 .of the person who accords the status of .Jaw to the commandments of someone

20

other than GodJ and binds himself: to obey the injunctions' or prohibitions of that someone, for he in effect thereby accords him .supreme authority .. We can therefore sa.fely conclude that the essence of godhood is authority. whether it' is conceived as sovereignty of a supernatural kind over the whole universe, or on tho basis that man is bound by God's law in his worldly life and tllat all of His Iujunctione are to be complied with because they emanate from

Him. ..

Tbe Qur'auic Approach

It is this very concept of Ruthority on the basia of which the Qur"an expends the whole force of its argument in f.cjc~~ing the claims to godhood of all others than God, ·8·no affirming it to vest exclusively in Him. It categorically asserts that there is only One Being in the heavens and tI10 earth 'Vho possesses and exercises oj) tI10 IJD\Vera and all the authority. All Creation is his, und subservient to Him, ull grace and blessings flow from Him alone, Ilia alone is the "rord. 411d in Him alone vest all power and autherity. Everything that exists, whether animate or inanimate .. is bound by the 'laws made by Him and is, to that extent, subservient and submissive to Him, willingly o~ unwillingly, No one besides Him is possessed of any .. such authority, ncr does anyone else dispose of the affairs of the universe. No one else knows the .eecrcts of the

Creation ~r its organisation or the manner of ita proper management. Nor, lastly, does anyone have the least share in' His Sovereignty and Authority.

21

.

Therefore, the only reality is that there -is no 1:liih

but He and, this being so, anything that men do on the supposition of, anyone else being an ilak. in any sense whatsoever is by its very nature utterly wrong, whether it be the act of praying to someone, seeking refuge. with him, turning to him with hope or fear, seeking his intercession wit 11 God .. or treating him as tho final au thor i ty. ...L\] 1 su ell rcla tion shi ps which people establiah with others .. ought to exist solely and exclusively with Allah Almighty, because He alone is the Sovereign of tho Universe. .

Let us now see the Qur'anic treatment of tilt) matter in some detail :

Aud 110 alone is the Il~7h in tho heavens and tho 11t7T, in the earth 1- und He alone 18 the ~\Jl, \VhiCt tho AH .. Knowing (that is, He alone possesses the '~isdum and the Knowl .. edge required COl" SOV~l'i .. dng such a Domain]. (43; Sol)

Can He ,rho creates, aud he w ho (lut:; not, L e a like t Have you not suuse t~ reallso this simple fact 1 .... And those w hom the LJcop I ~ pray to other than Allnh., UO Dot create anything and are themselves creatures ; your 1·',lh is only one lili'h. (16: 17 .. 20)

o Ma.nkind: C;o.ll unto mlnd the grace of 00<1 unto you; is theta any Creator bcaldes AJIah, to give you i ustenance from hca ven or ear th ; there is no ililh. hut He; how, then, are you deluded from Tru til 1 (35: 3)

Say (0 Prophet}: uThink_ you) if God took a\vay your hearing and your sight, and sealed up your hearts (that is; hardened them to the aceeptanco of any sensible precept) .. which iliil" is there, besides Alluh, who could restore them to you ~ u {6: 46)

And He is Allarr-tho God: no god thero is but He ; To Him. alone is due all praise. in this world and the ne:1t ;

·t

22

His alone is the Command and Sovereignty. and to Him alone \,"ill you be returned. Say (0 Proph~t).: uHave YOll ever thought that, if ~llah .hould make the night ca.tinue till Doomsday, wHich ilah is there besides Him who could bring you any light ¥ Do you· not hearken 1 tl Say (to them .. 0 Prophet): "Has it ever oeenrred to you that if Allah should make the day perpetuate over you till Doom •• day, who is the iZan other than He who oan give you back night that you may rest in it 1 Do you not·leo·I'~

(18 : 7()t-71)

Say (0 Prcphot}: "Call upon the others whom you ~ fancy, besides Allah; they do not own even an atom in the heavens or on oarth ; no ·.ort of share have they therein, nor is uny of them a. h-elper to God. No int.erce8sion.~&n avail with Him, except "here He himself permit it in any .. one's favour ... ., (54: 22, 23)

He (Cod) .ereated the heavens and the earth with Truth; He makes the night overlap the day, and the day" overlap the night ; .He has subjected the sun and the moon (fo l-Tis la,\r): e;Aoh. one follows a course for & time.

sppolnted .. t,'· TIc created you all from a tdn·gle person (that

. .

is. brought human life into existence) ; then created out of

him his mate; and sent down for yo~ eight head. of oattle in pairs: He makes you, in the' wombs of your mothers,

in .tagesJ one alter another,. in three vei Is of dtlrkne .. ; ... '

sueh i. God~ your Lord and Oreator;. to Him belong, a11 dominion; there i. no god but He ; how then. do you get turned another wAy 1 u (39: a.G)

Who is it '\tho hal created tho heavens and the earth. and who .endl do'Wn, rain fro·m the sky t . Yea, 1tith it W,eaUle to grow well-planted orcharda full of beauty and delight; it is not in your power to caU80 the growth of the tfeM in them. Can there be another god beside., God 1 Nay, tbey are a people who· swerve fr:om reality, Who hal made the oarth 6~m to Ii~e upon .. - made r:ive~ in _it! midlt, aet. thereon . ~ouDtaina immovab~e. and: made a ,.epr.r"ting

bAt" b~tween the t~o bodies of flowing w.:.tcr i Ca.n trhere be &nQth~r god be5ide:a Ood t NnYI DlO!t of them know Dot. Who U~ t~Il! to the (:!Iou]) distrened w hen it callH to Him, and who relje'Ve~ its guffedng~ and make! you (mAnkind) innsrit~ra: or the e8rtb-thnt is, gi-Ve"s you authority to uti1i!ze whit ia in it. fOT yoUr purpoft:s! Can there bo another god bssldcs. God 1 Little it j& that you heed~· lVho guides you tJrrougb. th.e depths of dArknoss on lo.nd and sea;: and who senda the wi tid, as heral~· of glad ti dings. of Hi,s M -ercy In t.he form of rain 1 Cen there be another god besides God 1-Righ is God above what they &:;I:Booiaoo with Him f 'Vho origin.e.te! CreatlOD, thea r~peattl it~ and who gives. you 8ustenance :frow Leaven and earth ~ Can there be another god bee-ides God? &YI uBring fOl'th your a.rgum.nt!~ if you be in the fight t j ~ (27: OO~64)

He (ie the .One) .to Whom balong' the dominion of tho heavene and the c&rbh-; no son ha.s He begotten~ nor hIlS He a. pOl ~~er in His dominion·'; 1 t is ·R e \Vho created D n thlags; And ordered them in due proportion. Yet hayo: people ta.ketl5' be.e.idea Hi~1 godll thQt~ can crea~ nothing but at~ thcm!elves createdt thAt h.&'te no control Oll'~t harm or good to themHlvt.t1; nor can the-y control Death nor Lifu DOC Reflutl'ecU on, (25 ~ 2 ~ 3)

To Him ia due tho rT~mal origin of the hea.ftn& a.nd the prt,hl Haw "an. He bave a ~Ull wh-en H-e- bad no consort 1 lIe it is ~~ho crentcd aU thillgB. and Hoe alone ~ fuU knowledge of.ll t·hings~ Tbllt is God. yout' Lord! No god there is bu.t Bel the Crcat.ol" of a.ll things; Thew. gh7B yonr wonhip to Him; And lie it is \Vho looks after ~tI= eafety ·and well-being of all. it;: 102J 103)

Yet are ~er.,. men who take (for 'Wol'8hip) othena huldE:8 God ... equals (with Him). They rael the- love for frhem which. they Mould for Go.d. If oftly the uDr5gbtBOUS. could b'Qt lee. Beheld, .they would 8C& the Penaity;: tthey thBn "WIll .. e} th~t to ~od belong. .11 powert and God will

~rong]y enforCe tbe. Pena I t" (2 ~ 18~) .

Say {O Prophet) : "Do J:'OU Q:I!B wna.t it fa you iDTol;;:e besides God 1 ·ShoW' tne ",l\aot it is Uwy have -ere. ted Oil earth, or have tb{':v u !p.:~:II."e in the hc.a~en:l!i l .•. And whe

, .

j~ more astmy tliau one who Invokes besides God sueb 11.8

wHl nn~Vier him Ilot (though h~ call to him till) tile Diiy of J ud geIrHm t ~ . (4 6 : 4) .5)

If there W["r'I~1 in the hc.ll ven and the: earth", other god:;. besides G{JdJ tbei-:.I would have been cunfusien in t·~t-1 :

But glory to Alla,iJ1 tho Lord of the Mi~hty Thron-e: lIi~lt lao He ~ hove th{Lt they nttranltc 10 Him, None there 11 wLo ca.D qu;.atiGU Hiru IOl" His acts, but thl.!y (cert;J.~ly) yet. w U} b~ qUeiI tioucd for t heirs, ( 2 t : .2'1':. 23)

No son did God h~.get ~ not los t here any god 0. kmg w i th Hirn ~ (if there W(;1'O mallY gods), behohl , ('.ch god 'r: auld ha \"e t ,,-k.en fl, ~:liy 'W ba t he had crea 1.["' tl and some wm~!J ta'ite lorded it over ethers ~ (23: 4Jl)

Say (0 .Pr~ljbt:t) : "Jf U.lcr~ harl been other j_r~dij ..... itb, Him .!II R. th~y sa y-beho ld .. til C'y \\ ould ~e rt ainly h.a H~ ~'2 ':.! gfu WRj!! for captutlng Hi~ 'I'hrot.c. CUory to Him r H~ is: high QlUOV& a It tb .. t theey say ~ - E xa 1 t ad and G rea t (be yond

measnre). (17: 42) '!"

It wj 11 he seen that there is one cent ral idea. runn illg t hrou gh all thes 6 V en el!·~.·u ntl th n t is t bat godhood and 'a uthority are ioextricably in tereonnected and are, in C5.Se~r.1} and significance, one and the same thing. lIe who has no authorlty (JUIl be 110 god, and it is but fitting tha.t he should not be SO~ And He Who bas a11 due authority, He alone can bet and ought to be, God,' because all the needs which one might refer to a &od~ or tho esperieneing of which mlght turn one's thoughts to someone supposedly gi(reu with divinity cnn on1y be fulfilled if th& person or being involved has in fact the power 'and the

25

. • : I

authority to be able to meet them. lienee, we LTIUst

'conclude lha t it is. meaningless to ·regard anyone· without the necc~s.ary power and n.uthority to have any psrt of god hood : it is .0. bsol c ~e Iy contra ry to rea SOD. . an d rea! tty to and ~ t is qui tc absurd as we- II as useless to turn to .~~ese for he1p ..

. . Th~··fuil·~rgument of the Holy Qut'an, based on thi 8 CCD tr a] idea wi II be C lear from tho fol1 0 win g promises and. the deductions w hi oh it· sets fOrth :

1.. The fulfilment of tho needs of human beings, . the remova.l of .their distress, the gt'D.nt to th em 0 f ref uge . or protce don, the . extension of any needed help or assistunee, their bringing up or preservation, and the acceptance of their pr 0. yers -Done of these lD.n. tters are 60 al m pre 8.& people aeezn to assume them to be and hence mistakenly regard them us within- the compcten ce of human beings. All are de penden t:r Inextricably and ultimately, UpOD the creative

_ power and the controlling and .managlng, authority being exercised over tho entire universe by its One . a.nd OD Iy Lord and. Aiaster.. Eyen the sm~11est need de pen de" for its faUU men t, on the combined resulta of·o vast multitude of factors. Take for example the provision of just on e g I ass of drin king water t or even j U5 t on of' grain of wheat used by men for food.. Neither would come about but for incalculable and m ult~a.rio118 and, in many cases" yet hidd en D.cti vi ty. on .the part of. the sUQ. and the earth a nd tho 0 Ce3Jl8 and the wlnds, Therefore ~

26

t he authority or powe:r which' is actually required for Iistenmg to our, prayers is no ordinary authority but" rathM" , super .. extraordinAry and unique authorit.y or power, Dot Jess ~h&n that required for oreating the heavens and earth and for ordering the movement of 'the heavenly bodiea and of the wiads and of causing rain, and 80 on-in short, that needed for governing the entire universe itself.

2.. This autho'rity'is indivisible. It is Dot possible, that .. while the control over creation , shou 1 d rest :wi t hone '& u thc)1'i ty ~ that of providing for i ts food, an d drink, should be wit h some-

I " "

, one else '; or that the sun should be under

the control of one authority and the earth thAt of another; or that while one has the pow~r to create, tha.t of preserving health 01' causing ill· ness should be possessed by another and that of ending life rest wlth still another. Had there been such division of authority and power,. there would certa.inly have been utter eonfuslon and chaos in the' universe : and it could never have ordered th e w ~y it' has been operating nl 1 a long. Hence, it is essentdal that' all tLuthority and po,ver should and does vest in one, central a uth ori ty, in One Soverci gn.

,

3. Since all authority and power vests in

one Sovereign only, with no-one else having the least sh are in it, i ~ must e q ually logi cally follO'w that godhood is' special and exclusive to Hi~ alone, and in this too there is absolutely no ahatet

, "

21

....

. Nobody 'ot.er than He has the power to listen to

men'. pluuta 'or . grant any of theil' pra.yers, gra~t :th:~ ftfuge anrl protection .. be. t veir hel per and. patnm~:.or do them good or barm. Therefore) whatever be anyone ~6 conccption of iliA,. there ill no ~ but He:!! 80 much 60 that there 'is no 118' even in the a pparen t 1y less im porta. n t senae . of someone being. cl086 eno~gh to God to·be 'able to intercede with Him~ N o-one has the 1east power or authority to .. interfere with His rule over Hia UIL~ verse 01" ~is w& ys,. and it is en ti rel y up to Him whether to accede to, or reject, a.llY intercession because no-one-c-unlike th-e viziers or mlnistera of earthly monarchs-e-occupiea any posltion. or status which would . lend' . \veight enough to hi! word.

,

..

It is also of ~e essen ee of th 6 Unity of the

. Sup~me. Authority tha.t all the various mudfeatatdons of ~overeignty or over-Iordahip should t ul~ateJy* be centered in one and only-one Sup .. reme Sov~ignt'and not even the tiniest factor

l'oof' sueh. ·a.uthori~y should' vest in anyone else ..

Since Gad is· the Oreator,. and no-one else hashad a ~.Ql'e ill.the act' of Cieat:ion, and since He alone is ·the Provider and no-nne else. shares this ~,ttri-

. . . .

bute with Him, and since He alone i5 the Control. Ier and Administrator -of the entire system_'of tbe

. I

U niverae, and there- is n one to share th ~ cap a,..

cities with Him, it follows tbat He alone should

also be the one to lay down the law, And thnt

. His word,' and no-one else's should 'prevail, for

thero is no .. rcaaon at all why D:DYoQ6 else should have n ·share here eiiher., JUst sa i~ also is wrong, in principle An~ ~n. faott . for anyon,,· else

I: .

. to listen to obhe~$t prayers and ~X'pect to deliver

.~ .. :thein from dist.u~! a.nd be their protector.In just : :·-·;th~ same ~.IlY is it wrong fQr anyone else to be, . the absolute authority and. the lovereign and

. to· have nny in.txjnsic au·thority to legisla.to for mankind. Whether it be .creution, or provldlng > of·sustenance·t the ,ttiving or taking awny of llfe, . the orderi·ng of·the sun and tb e· moon and the h~vanly bcdles, the h~inging of·~hen.ight to over-: lap tb~ day and of t~·o day. to overlap the night,

··the orda.inhls· of r)eop~es~ destlnles and the appor....· tiunment of their lots .. or beiug ruler or monarch) or l"ying d Q wu the la w or ind i ca tin g the: right and the wrong" all are different fueets of n sjnglc. &~tocratic a.uthority and" sovereignty ",·bieb: is &b80l~tely indivisible .. If anyone regards the word of someone else to be d~BerviDg·~fobf;tdience without any sanction from·" ·God,:he is us much guilty of·the offence· of 8kirk as the one who prays to Or worships someone other than God. And·

·"if someone regards him.self -$8 the lord andmester and abso1ute monarch of" any part of.the. earth iD ~he political seaee, his act too amounts as much to a claim to godhoodas. it would it he were to toll people th Q. t he was their hel per nnd patron a~d gua.rd ian in ~h'o au pern a. tura~ lI~nse + c Th~ t

6.. Till. T'I~11~t teds t~m,p tId' ~ . It It.b ,t!lP,. 10 polnt,o the ra-c:1 Cb:U .u th-rm who :indul.p iQ :!1Il1c:b. pr~~ I:IDl hint Ollt in variably to . be lb = [ContJ.

29

la why the Qur'an empba_isea. wherever it speaks of creation or of the destinies of creatares or-the m&Dagement of the universe, that: ..

. .

, To Him· -belong·. the ultimate dispensation·

of men'. affairs (and of other things in creation

. . .

tool-His is the ·Kingdom ...

There is no 8har~r in Hia Suzerainty--·

All of which clearly shows tha~ godhood. i~clude. monarohy and rulership. And it is also 8tre~d that TawAaed necessarily requires that in this lense ' too no-one should be believed to have any share with God, c/:

Sa,. (0 Prophet) : 0 God 1 You are· the Lord of ali· tb. nom.IIlI; It is You w:bo Irant kingdom to whom You pliale; and ·take it away fro~ ~holDloever You· ... ill. ·It i. ~ou w:ho Confer hOnour 011 whomsoever Yo.u please. and

take ~ awa:j &om ,!,~amBoever You \filt (3: 26)

, High and Kighty is AIJ_b" the~True Sovere-i,n: there

f.DO iLIA but Hertha Lord or tho Sublimo Throne •

. .... ~ ... ...

. (13: 116)

Say (0 Prophet) : 1 leek refuge with Him who 18 Rabb of al11Dankind. the SOTon-ign of all mankind, aDd the IldA

of all mankind. (114: 1 .. 3) .

. ..

And then tJlera- is another verae which makes

the lloint even clearer: .

The Day when the aecretl of everyone of them. .111 be laid bare; when It will beoomo manifest to men tbat none

COllrd~ /l'Om p .. 28J

WOrlt Oopru,or. aDd exploitera of humin beID"~ anel the fartber tbe, are from beUet ID Ood, tbe mort thIs happeD.1 to bo the ca,et On ,the oth~r baad, .the more '. ratet il oOd·retraDI tbe .reater II hi. btneff. cenee toward. Dot oaly bls owa people bt.lt .veD toward. bll enemie ....

. AbuAsad

·30

. 'Of their .etiu M ]S hidden frilm· Gad 110 tho@" c:a.ll 1r!l~ 10 ou.t. ~ To whom· b&I~QP the 'IJotniD.io~ t.h~ Da,:- ., . Ac.. t,he .... ~ .. 111 in~i ... ei .. b]i be : ToO nODe. b~t. AU.h :.lo~; Allah WhgllB p~'ftr and .uth~~j tn.xiaoend ~~t ~f ~1 otk~~~ (48: 16)

This verse itt e:l:oel~antly eXplained in a .. 1Iadlth narrated ~y·lm~m Ahmad :(R) 'en ·the. authority of lIaz.r&i cAbdu~l8.h ibn 'Umar· (may ~U.h be p1e:u.ed with both) that,t on one occaaion the Holy ~het. (on whom be peace) stated~ jn the course of ~ 8erD'l:OIl:J that! .

God will tako' both tho, .he.a~ens' and ihe

. .

earth in His hand, and wlll proclaim to &U before .

Him;

I am the King ; I . aID the .·11ighty one : I am .the Self-exalted one; ·Where are-the .people w ho used to at y' e themse 1 ve~ k: n gs 1.l pan . the' (tarth, those who called thelD~elres mightYt a.nd who were 'their Majeities' ?

Razrat "Abdullah (with whom Al:ah be pleased) uarrntes that, while- the .Ho~y~· Prophet (peace be U pOD him) U~Q.S _ repeating· these wo: ds, hi s body trembled so much in awe of Al1ah Aloighty th.a.t we were really afraid tha.t he might fall from the, p .. 1pi~:1

.' ..

... I'"!', r •

_. ', . ' ..

'. .":'" .

·CHAPTER 2 -

RABB

The General Mea.ungs'

,The tbr~ _r:Jd~caIs· o"f ~h~.H :wo~d are . ~he letters JJ Y, ~ (r, b, b)" and the basic .. meaning is to bring up. . If we take .into account the wider meaning of tb~ ·root· word and ita varioua derivatives, we find

th&t . it h~1J Colla w jng connotations '; . .

(I) One who brmgs· up, rears,.. fosters or . nourishes I or jB reeponsih le for doing all or -: . ~~ .oJ;' mora than one of t hese ;

(2) Guardian," pat~ ; one who supervisee Or is responsible for· :~IT~ing· out improvemr.nts·:: '. . ....

.(3) One who occupies a central 01 focal position, w ho hi fUM] f g at hers P eop] e round himse If of his own or round whom people go.ther :of themae I ves ;:

(4:) Leader, he ad, chief i· or lord, one whose word is . ~~yed~ and whose supremac.y, or

-~-~~.,.......

7. w,· b.a~ ~ilicd ~ ~mC-rGQ (lx!~l>l" or UPoP. as OQ~ ftl14s. them lo

tIN:! lltl:i~D. and wbi ..... lIIul:ac.& Ma.'gdudl R1 'lJe ia ~bll: arilllll.l iO "eat detail because thC:1 may Ilot i..Qb::r.n the End.ub reader and la .uy (.;Il5e do no4; mMtel' e:'Cotpt" fo.r :some CrQ1I d!o~u btor .-:-Ot someoAtl b<:al eD find b:u; fault dmply bl!:r:a.u~ i l II M aul1na Maududi· who .{!!I: Ji;!lyi ne- some-

'thing. Abu As.ad

31

32

ovcrlordship &eXl;llowledged. and who has authority.to dispose of men or thingR ;

•• L

(5) Owner: maa.tet ..

Qurtllllie Usa or the Word.

In the Qur"an tbe word iI used in a11 of the above meanings" 8Omet·lmea hi only. 0I;l~ seaee, some-

~ . . .

times in t.wot and 80metimes in more. OT even all the

five, as the following examp]os will show ~

(n .Ann YoU~tlr (Joseph) aa.td {to PGtiph~rtg wif~1 ~he_n abe tried. to MIlune him) : ~f .. God lO1"bid f He. b my RQ~ ~n .. o J.I-I&~ T"T'rrtrid6d ·haUdsomely· COl" me (a.nd I .shal) not ll.b.a.VE' .os an iDgrate &inuer~ (12; 23)

(~i) (And Ihrnhim ~'d to hit "_ople:1 (Theae god~ whom you worship) th@~ ate enendea to me: not.so AUa.ht the llGbb or • n the .... orldt. Wbo OlMWd :me, Who gi ros me gutd&.n~8. Who giv-. me food and drink~ and \Vh~. when. I a.Dl in, restoros m~ to. he,'l] th. {2': 17 ~80)

(iU} And ther-e is D.ot any good thing e-xeept tbo..~ it COUles {rom AU.h. ·and ",henever any. R'l&h.p bef.alb you~ it h: to Dim yoo.·turll in your_.·:dtrt~·-; but. when He has re-movad it. thCta·~·~ .~ong you ,..ho &uutlir.te othe~ with- their R~ (a.e.. hlilovinq .],0 cout·ributed to your provision or health). (15: 63 .. 34)

0,.) A~k them {O~ P['()pb.e~): ShQuid I aeek &oy nWb o.thet than AHu.h and He the RabfJ of all creation t (6:: 165)

(v) He Ul the RQ:b6 or tho Ea;Bt a:c d the WCit; ther-e il

. .

8. Itrbny COtnm~nt.a.tol'1 hive uk." th~1 word. 31· used l'lltrel to me.J1J u ~'11er t I, and to refer to. Potipha r.. '. h01lRV~r.. hold drtTeut'>tty. A.~otdin¥ to illY lhfnkirtr: the pt"e-t'loun j'1AtIH~t1I ja Ttiited to Its imm~i.te aDtt';'I:CWlDt. ··AlIl.h" tGod) .1Id I thjn .. it is :unnl!~54T' ttraiDtna of the U!:tlC ~ !eek tG re-Ja te it" to :Ell f:'lIrlOn who I.s not mepI iGDtd: J.l an.

A4 A. M"l,Jdudl

,33

..

no deity but He, and 80 tako Him as ~ho ultim.ato Disposer and Arbi ter of all your .train. (73 ~ 9)

(vi) He i. the Boob o( all of you. and it i. unto Him that yOu .hall return. (11: 34) •

-

(vii) And then shall your return be to your R"bb.

, (3' ~ 7)

(viii) Say (0· Prophet) : Our B4bb wil l gather and then decide betwcon us, your group, and ours together, (34: 20)

(is.) And there js not an animal in the world, or Ii bird whle b Ries on two wlnga, but all form parts of oommunitiea like you; We have not omitted a~y detail about ,thom ·in the Book of destluy ; and thoy too will All be ·gathored unto their Rabb~ (-6; 38)

(xl And· the Trumpet shall be sounded when, behold. they will all rush out from their graveR (or wnerever their

. '

'·Last Remaiua·' be) towards their Rabb. (36: 61)

(xi) ThC"y (tho J eW8 and tho Christiana) made their Bcribes and their monks their rabbs instead of Allnb~

. '

(g : 31)

(xii) And (let us also &grec that) let not either of UB (that is either YOll tho people o( the Book, or wet the Musl ims) ta.ke anyone other than Alla.h- to be our rabb.

(3 : 6'J

In the last two verses, the actual word used in the original. is aTbab~ which is the plural of rabb, and whioh is employed in respect of those religious leaders, etc., whom different people had ralsed to tho position of final authority, whose word was unqueetloningly .. accepted as la~,·. and I who were regarded as having, so· to say, a sovereign, inherent right to lay down what might. or might not, be done •

.;.,..

(xiii) (And Yousuf laid to 'Jlis· t\vt follow prisoners) ;

As to one of you he (will bo freed and teinstllt '".1 and) will

(again) servo ltia ~ (lard. master) as wi_ ~r .... and to the one whom he tliought to be likely to be frMcI, bo said ~ ·'SIMlak Qr mo to you~. rabb (Pharaoh), your m ... te~ltl but Sataa made the' lll.n forget to mention him (YottIGf)·

. "

to his.rabb (Pharaoh., his master), (41! 42)

(xiv) And when (Pbaraoh ~B) mesaenger C~JD8 to Yousuf,

. I

he said: Go back to your rabb. [lord, Phareoh), and ask him

what transpired in: the case of the womon who cut thoir hands i .:verily (lie who is) my Raub (God) is fully aW.aTO of their w i lcs, (11: 50)

In the verses quoted at (xiii) and (xiv) Hazrat Yousuf .employed the word rabb ''in respect of the Pharaoh because. slnoe . the .Egyptians .~id in fact believe him to possess absolute sovereignty and the right to lay down the law and his word could Dot be questioned, this in . effect amounted to their treating him as their rabb in the full sense of the word, that is., 8. god. As against this, however) H.azrat Yousuf regarded Allah alone as tho Rabb, and made this clear by saying "My Babb:"

(xv) So (tho ~eCCo.n8) ought to worship the Rabb (lord. master) of this House ..... (T.be K.fnba) (that is,) He Who bas provided for their sustenance' and relieved t.hem of their foar and ensured thelr peace and safety .. (106 : 3t 4) ,

(s'Vi) Glorified be your Rabb (O' Proph~t).. tho (Rabbt te .. t) Fountain ... heAd of. ~Jl honour and authcrlty, Who is free of tbe ~~n~ f)t'. ,·n the (.u}t!J. and shorteomiDp ~y'.

attJ~t~·1I~~'J.;:·<l~:~=·1.*»··.. .' '.' .',' .

• • • ~ - .1: ... • •• :- _. • • • I - I" I I.-

(s.l'U)· Srt ~"lJo. ·to A~"'. tho R.ib (Master) . of ~... -

MightyThro.·,'Who·is·Cree.of all that they attribute to Him. (21 ;:~221

(xviii) Ask them (O* Prophet) : Who is the rabb (mastor) of the seven heavens lind the rabu (master) of the Mighty

. .

Throne 1 (13: 80)

35

._

(~ix) He Who is the RGbb (Malter) of 'he heavena aad tho earth, and what is between thom.,· aDd the Babb

(Master) o~.u. 'h~t the aU,n shines upon. (37: 6)

. ..

(xx;) And verily So. ja tho Rabb (Lord i Mal t er) 0. r Sirius also. ($3: 49)

Falle Notloas_boat Rubl7JJiyyah

The above examples clearly bring out the meanings of tho word mbb.t and we m~ now proceed to look a·t those· false notions whioh existed ~mong the misguided tribe. and people about rl~bllbiY'tlh (that is, the qualities and attributes of one who is a rabb) which the Qur'an sought to refute, and wh~t are the beliefs that the Qur'an advocates. This can perhaps best be done by taking up, one by one. the. cases of those particular nations or people who find meatiou in ~.he Qur'atl, and thus get a clearer idea of the wrongnotions which they entertained.

Hurat Niih'. People

The earliest of such people dealt with in the Qur'an wore those &q1ong whom Hazrat Nfih (Noah, peace be upon him) was railed as Prophet. It is clear from the Qufan that these people did not deny the existence Of God, cJ. the foUowiag com·t.

_. about hi. _by. ~ ~erl : . ,".

He is lNt' ~,iike aily of ,... .. '. _ly -....iii: .....

.. tabliall lUI -.:. hold OVetT JIMi..: ... " Gad had. ,,*tit.

wanted (to aena allY meas8oaer) ._;. :.oaid .Urely hW

I ,

(J hosen angela instead. (23: ' 2 ')

Nor did they deny that Allah was the Crea.tpr of·

. 1 (

the universe and the ·Babb in the first and : second .:

36

. aenaea of the word. AmODg the exhonations to them by Hazart N Qh were:

. . .

He .1a your RaM, .. ~d. unto Him sliall you be returned.

(11 : 3') Seek the forgiV'8UII of your Rabbi (Cor) verily He :ia Oft.Forgivjng. (71: 10)

Do you nat see how Allah has made tho seven heaveDs ODe abovo the other. and made the ~OO·D·. light in their mi~t·. and tho sun & (gioriOUl) lamp! And (it was) Allah · (~ho) created you from. the earth~ (71: lOt 16)

It is to be Dot:ed that no-one says in repJy that they do not believe ~lIah to be their Rabb or ·that

. .

He did not create the earth and the heavens and

themselves, or that He was not managing the ~&ir8 of the universe.

Nor. may it be added. did they deny Allahts beipg t~eir IliA either. That is w4y Hazrat Nub, in asking them to return to the 'vOyB of God, nid, "You have no ilah but Hen (7: 58), whereas if they

had believed otherwise .. what. he would have said would have been : t'Make. Allah your ilalt. Jt

" ..

This therefore naturally raises the question &8 to what in fact was the baslc dispute between Hazrat NOh and his people. and it seema from the Qur'an that th.ere were two main points of difference, as. follows': .J.'

(i) What Hazrat Nuh wanted was that they should give their worship, in the full sense' of the word, wholly to Allah, the Creator and Cherisher of ..

the universe (Rabb;al.'aalamcen), because He .: alone

..

was the Provider and the only Ilih. Theret. was

• 37

nG other being who could grant their p~ayers and give them aid and comfort, .'aild therefore He alone

deserved their full and entire. submission and euppllcation, cJ : 0' my people, ·give your 'ibaciah to Allah, (for) you have no ilah but He.· And I am a messenger unto you from the Rabb of all the worlds, and ~onvey to you the messages . of my RaM. (7 : 59, 60). The people, however, were adamant· that, notwith8ta~ding Allah's being the Babb of all the worlds, there were other gods too who had a Bha~ "in the affairs of the world, who too could answer some of tho prayers, and whom too therefore theY: o~uld and would continue to regard as iliAs, oj :

. And· they said: Abandon Dot yo.ur goda; a"b&ndon ntither W.dd nor. Suwa'i ~oither. Yagllth nor Ya'iiq. nor . Naar. (71: 23)

(ii) The other was that they regarded Allah as the BGbb only to .the extent 0.£ .believing in Him as the Creator. the Lord of the earth arid the heavens" and the Supreme regulator of the affairs of the universe, but did DOt agree that His Sovereignty extended also to such matters as .lllorality and moral prineiple.81 social relations, culture, polltlcs, and' other worldly affairs. They did not acknowledge Him

. as the only rightful and ultimate source of law in such matte:r~, in which they· aotuaJly beba-ved 8:8 commanded by ~heir chiefs and priests. Thus according to the~ the statuI of rab~a is that, ~in.' such matters, it was their word which was the law. Hazrat No.h 'protested that rltbubinaA was not a

. .

thing which could be split apart and distributed, and

~ .

38

th.t they must regard Allah as the Rabb in all the different ~e&ninga of the word, and follow all of His

~ .

law8 and commandments, conveyed through .~m-

se1f. &8 His accredited representative :

I am to you an apostle. ,,"orthy of all truatll So fear Godt and obey mea (26 ~ 107, 108)

The 4 Aad People

+

T~e next in line were the' And. They too did not deny the existence of God, or His being the llak, but at the same time they too believed in Him as tho P.abb to the same e·xtent: nnd in the same sense aa had Haz·rat N.tlh's people.: And 80 the points of

..

disagreement between them, and the Prophet sent

to them. Hazrat Had, were the same too:

l •

And to the I And (We sent) their brother (that is.

kinsman) Hild, wbo said to thC'lD:' '0' my people. g~ve your ~ibildal .. to Allah (because) there is no il~iA but Ho ; will

""

you not fear Him 1 ~" .... (~\nd) they said: "Havo )"OU come

to us to make us give &11 of our ~'bcldal. to Aliah alone, exclusively, and givo up those to whom o'tlr ancestors used to give theirs fU (1: 0,0, 70):

They laid : "'.~ If, 0011 Habb had VI ant ed t He \\!OU ld Ita ve &eDt. down angels (instead of y'0u1 " human like us) ".

(41 : 14)

.. These then· were the • And. who , refused to obey the oomm~nds of their R2bb~ who did not· obey Hil measengers, and who (instead) obeyed every de8poti~. transgre880r

(againlt Truth) (11: 59) ,

The Tbamiid

Then there were the Thatnud, the worst t~an8· gressors after the 'Aa.d. Basically, their deviation

39 .

,,~. the same as of tho people of Hazrat Nuh and

r the cAad. They also believed in the existence of' Allah add His . being the Iliih and the Babb but tIl.ey did not agree that He was the only ilik., th·at He alone wag wort~y of all 'ib6dal,:, and that lID wns Bahb in all the senses of the word .. They insisted th·at t~ere were others, besides Allafl-, who too could accept prayers, grant favours; and remove distress, and in moral and cultural matters they took their

. . .

ia.w from their chiefs and prlesta i..ns~ead of following

Divine guidance. It. W~9 ,this which made them into a tragically misled people· and brought down on them Allah's punishment. :

Aud (P' Muhammad) if they turn away (and do not.: listen to what you say) then 8&y to them: "I am warning you of ~ punishment tho like of that which visited tbe 'Aad and ~e Thamlid •. to whom Prophets came repeatedly telling them not to give their 'iblidaA to any but AUah. and whose only reply WILl = " I If our Rabb had wa.nted, He would surely have sent down angels, (but since He did net], we reject the messagowhich you bring tot H', (14: 13.14)

And to the ·Thamul! (we sent) their kinsman Saleh, who said to them, II to ~ my Peo pie = give your r ilu7da'h to A 11 all ; youhave no ifill. but He." .... IThey replied, ceO' Saleh. we bad great hopes of you (and now YQu· speak strangely); Do you mean to forbid us to give our ~'biIdaA to those to

. whom our ancestors used to give theirs i U (11: 61; 02)

When their kinsmAn Saleh said to them: "Do you not fear (God) ~ I am verily en apostle worthy of trust .•. wherefore fear God, and obey mo and not obey all the words of tr&D.8gro~or8 who cause 8tt~fe in the land and. who do not mend their ways. II (26: ~42, 143, 150. 151, l.a~)~

40'

The People of Hazrat Ibrahim and Namriid •

- .

Xcxt .~n inrportance are the pe~ople of Hazrat

Ibtlbim (Abraham, mAy peace be upon him), and the, significance of their case .is that it is commonly thought - tha~ their King, Namro.d (Nimrod), did not believe .in G04 but claimed himself to be God instead. ·'1~he fact, however, is'that he did believe in God .. and 0.180 believed Him to be the Creator .. nd the Regulator of the affairs of the universe, and

I .

. lIis. own claim to be a ra1;b was only in the third,

fourth, and fifth senses of the term, Another common misconception is that- these people . had no belief in God nor in his being the IlaA and the Rabb, although in fact their beliefs on these points were little different from those of the people of Hazrat Nilh and tile Thamud~ They did believe in the

existence, of God, and also ltnew Him 3S -the Rabb,

the Creator of the heavens and the earth, and tbe Supreme Ruler of the universe. Nor, for that mntterll did they deny His right to man's "'~rship.· \Vbere they were mist~n was in, regarding tbe heavenly bodies as partners with him ill rubtibiyyah in the first and second senses of the term and henoe in associating them with Go~ to that . extent. As for the third, fourth, and fifth meanings of the term, here it was their kings whom they treated 8S the rabb8~ 'The Holy Qur'an is so clear on these points that it is surprising how the misconceptions just mentioned originated and came to be eo widely accepted, Take for example the story of Hazrat Ibrahim's searoh for the truth as told in the Qur'an :

....

41

When night came upon him, he saw a star, and he laid, "This iB my mbb ; n but wherYtho attar set, be said to himself .. "1 do not like those who Bot. U . \Vhcn he ,0,1N the

shining moon he laid. 4'Thia is my tabu. U but when the moon also set. he said "II· my Rabb rJO!8 not gu:t<k 'nc,. I am afraid I too wlll become one of those who have gOIlG a.tray. It Then, when he saw the sun he said, "This is my rabb ; this "is the biggest (of them all) ; t. but when . the sun also set, he cried out, "0 t my people, I di8DU"JI al~ 'hOS6 whom you "J8ocEat~ W~~Jl God; 1 ~u'n away from them all and

I

'oward.! Hi.m who created thc· heav,ens and 'he earth. and I

• •

shall not be 0"1 those who aSlociate othnrs with Him t i

{6 : 77-80}

The portions italicised clearly show that the people among whom Hazrat 'Ibrahim (on whom .be peace) had been born did have Q,. conception of a Being Who had created the heavens and the earth and of His being tl Rabb as distdnct from the heavenly bodies. And 110W could it' be otherwise, considering the message of Hazrat Nub, and that other Prophets had continued to be raised after him, in narticular

. 4

among related or neighbouring people, the 'Aad and

the 'I'hamud. Orie can .therefore safely presume that H·azrat Ibrahim owed his belief in God as the Crea.tor to his own people, W·hat puzzled him, how .. eyer, . even at the tender age at which the above incident occurred, was the validity of the belief in the heavenly bodies 8S being partners in divinity and hence worth·y of men's 'lbadah alongwith GOd~1

9. It might be mentloaed, ia this conDectioD, that accordldS to arcbiteC'& tural cXClvatioQ$ in Ur-wbicb was Haz,rat IbrGhim9s borne-it seems

that the r:-eopl. of that area wonhippcd the mOOD. whom they caned [Con,d.

Ana il was Ids own scorch for the truth ann His ObStH'vatinn {)f tho slara and the: moon and the sun and 0 r th e phon omenon 0 f their riaing and Sf t ting ~ which t helped uf oou rse or strengthened by Divinely ins pired in tu i U on, P to vid ed th ~ a.n!iw~r,.a n d. 1 cd him rightly to cone! ude that there is no l~(i.bb at all other th nn the Creator of the univorse.w Tha.t is

. the reason w by ~ when ]1 C ha d seen the moon to set, he h ~d said h c was v(:.ry much a.fraid that jf. hi ~ 1'abD, th r!.li is, A lln h A lmighty ~ did Hut give him Hia own guidance, he. too might fe..il to get at rea lity and be deceived by the heavenly phenomenon aa

.....

CcmtJ_!;om p. 41]

.. 4 N';I.nll:l.r. t' Jilt ne I an d nex [ to th ei I~ t U \\'a; 5 the sun. which wa, wor. s hj jJ ~cd. ~ n(j ...... 1 s c all ed II Sh am rnl~:'" _ t,. Hur:1t I bt~ h im'l i.':(IIu n l:ry had been f:..u.ntl'ed by u .K.lfl~ !,,:,!ljl:J Uranmuw, a 'YP·ord wblcb wa:51 arabicised hll1.o Nam rud, and th i:s word l iii. t I: r -I:Jrn'l:i to- be the t i lit": or the K ~ ngs in j II It tho same Wily aSt fo ~ examp le, m ueh J atcr I the !IIu~.cenaI1 -ot NinL m-ut- M IJ tk j ¥t h "'" (Gun ded III e .5! ate of H)'deriil bad 10 dla, C~1lII!I to "bill! ~ll cd N i zams. A. A+ Maud!udj

to, Mil-ulan .. ~.IIL.I~utlj hi:l.1, iD bis Ttifhlm-~J..Qur"al~ nbo dnU with tho p ~ 1M wh ieh p r.,n:::,dcJ ~ t).n.~(: at. to\:! why ~ si 11CC1 rue r bill' i3;Dd t.b..:: 51:! 'i 1:11; .of the be;iil.vl:njy bodi ea i.i Ii dai ~y Il beDome.aOrl. tbe: Q ur' oil D sa)' II, I I Whl!!n migh t ca me "UPOI1 h im, •• 11 ::Uld wt1y dUI I:LD-t H.IIzrat 1 bra Mrn IlIGtioe- the phenornen on ea rlll!!r : alld t Ill. order to w=l O"'~r lile poi at, tiu: ltory 'Wlt :n".LI de Q U t t boll he b wJ been born aD d hrouih t Q-fJ' ina C:I. V, .I.fJ cl 1 hal i.1 why be had mot s,-een the :5:! IU and the moon a nd the S IJD un til the event ~s.ar ib e:d nCC-l1 rr~d~ Th e f.a.-c: t, b Dw.;:ver, il tba t there are milD)' dail, OCCLlrrl!:'I:IICC:II wh leh one sees but wh ose s.i;;nl [\C31lCO II!;SC;lPCS ene I1I1UII at ,om!: momcut cheseu b 1 God I it su ddt'!nl;y uri k.c::!i on'::t and then, ilIta:r· wa"&1 1h~ whole Vlr..rl~ also li~tI the: :5IUme erplanatlon, Af~er .u. tbe: ap PIle: 1;1 not the 0 nly 11 ui t which. fall!. from a. tree. atld 1111 thl: Yllirloul!I fJui!s h:\~ 'Uf1!!l)' -·be.~n f:i!lUln& frDm trl:.e~:5I alto. all o1ber object' thrown up=-for God alone 1:: news how· longl and ye1 it was Id't to NewtoD to ill fer tht: l iii. w c-l Jrayi 11 ~ An~ $ur.e.ly ee-cae cae sa,.. tba' Newton had aot him!i$lr 'beraro \hat 1liC!Cl1 :IIIZ1] Ipplo or oth~r fruit to fI n froID .. trge. . A'IXl Mild

43

had been hundreds of thouaanda of others around him.

Whent Iater, he was ordained Prophet, and began his mission of calling men to God~ he ended one of hie discoursea to them with the words:

And why .'lIh ould I h 8 VP. ~ny fOUl ~)£ those. whom yOll &3sodaote with God whj!~ 'YOll you:.rseh·'o!!il feel none r. t ma.klng them IHi!9 as8ociBt~S o\"tln thollgTlIlo h.:..s glV6,n no sanction ,for making them sh ~rcrs in H 18 Div i.ni Ly + (6 ~ 81}

On other occasion s .. he sa.i d :

1 rcpudia.t~ aud l·ej.H~t all whom you pray to others than God (19 : 48)

1'1' 110 0 DIy Ntbb there .i ~ 110 \V]!O is the Raub of the heavens r.nu tho co.dh! FIe ""~l~o created tbeDl. Do you then give your ~ibdJa.h to ethers than Him. Wll0 hrL"-o not the l!.ligbte:at auLhol"ity or power to do you' RJly good or harm ! (11 : 56-60)

'rho are thesu you are gi\'lng rOUI' li/ji1drJ,l~ to ~ \Y{.IIlid you rather ,give It to ildM wholD you fancy as such r 1 r 'that. lla so, wha.t thiDk yon uf GOd. tile J:G.b:'" cf a~ I , ~tca'Lion ~ (37 ~ 85-87)

(As fQ r m.e and my feU 0 Vi' Ar U8UWS), lVC l~ a VC' n othiug B.t aU to do with you and all th08"C otlJE'll"! tUBll. An~h to w how yo~ give }"tmr .. ib~ d uh, ,\Ve rcjel:!t your W 4:t l a 8 false, aud there "tV.il J hencefo lot h eve r be en Iy }.tn. ~,red a nd hostility lwtweell you and us uuless and Ilntil J"'Ot.l. cballge your crsed and come to belie~e in Allah alone (BS tho I Ilti'" snd the RtlU) (60 :- 4)

It is clear fromthese words that those addresscd were not totally ignorant of aod nor dis.belieycd in Him or tha.t they had no idea of His being the'Rabb

44

of all erea tion and t he Jlal~. Where t hey went wrong w Do s iII ussigni n g to others the rol e of partners in godhood and, in the flrst and second sense of the term, in ll'Ub~7biyyah too, This is the reason Whyl in the wboln of the Qur~.(ln there is not a single addresB by. Hasrnt Ibrahim which would show that he had been trJing to convince his people of the existence of God or of His being the flaIl and the Ru.bl~. H is en tire effort 1 ay in em ph asisi ng t rut t God a 1 on c is the R abb and the I'iih ~ to the exclu sion of n 11 or any others in all the senses 0 f 00 th th., words.

. .

Consider J: for exam ple, - the argumcn t between him and Namrud, the hing, which is described in the Qur)nn us follows ~

Do you (O~ i.\h\ham·m.·Hl~} l~n:uv'i thu stcrv of the Que w ho .9.~·gu ed ,,.. i t·h 1 hrulriui rc gt.lnlJ Jl ~ II irn 'YlwII1 llJrahiin believed- to bo his Rabbl~( :lTgUl'U} because His kiog::ship~ a gin f to m Alia. h t (1 hi m, h 11 d gi vo n hi La pret(}l1~ ions i When Ibrahlm sald, 'llIrty Rabb i:l;. He in 'Vho~o power art! lifa and dell tb ~ n h(1 rep HO(l ~ J I t GO h n. v e. po WeT over life a:.rl death.· ~ The D 1 br~him sal d to him j t( Gra n ted tn8:-t t ha t h~ 50 ~ hut) A llah mak~R the l!!:UIL rig~ in the Ea.sL. so, ~lr you. are 1& rabb} cause it to rise in the W(ogt/' which completely uonpillsaed the disbe 1 ieve r. CZ: 258)

'I'he polemic here also a.ppears, from the way it is desori b tHJ ~ to It ave been not as to whether God exts ted or no t, b ut t1.S to who "it 'Was whom Ib r ahim rega. rd e d as his Rabb. Th c re sson wa.s,. firstly, that the. king came of a people who believe d in the ex is ten ee of God. Se con d] y, un less his senses h ad left him en tire 1y t he could ob viouBly not make so foolish a claim sa to be the ceeatoe or

-

the heavens and the earth or the one who mad,fJ the Sun and the moon to move in their orbits .. AU . he claimed wag that witb in his own domain he was tho rabbt And i·his claim, be "it added, was not in the:first and second sen ses of t b (\ term,· because rubimiyyah in those senses was attributed to the hea veuly bodies ; the 5eDSe~ in .w hi ch he c In.i rued to be rabb were the tbird, f au rt h t and fi fth, and tha t too wi thin. the con f nes of his ow n real m on] y... In o·ther weirds. wha.t his claim amounted to was; uI sm the lord of thia laud. At 1 its peo p 1 e are my bon dsmen. I am the sovereign b eca usc t bey a] l nc k~ now] edge me U 8 su eh, and, I:l y word is therefore ia w for them, There is no higher authority than mine .. "~

Jt is clear from the v~rsel..1ast_st:.ii~ "Dati· Ilia. :

~- .. . _- -_ -.f

claUn··~q.~olely- on~."ne pretensions he had ~given~"_.:~

. -~ ~ ~

himself for beiiig ~-irh(L.ki ng.. \ V hen, therefore II he

1e.a.rnt that a youth by the nama of Ibrahim (may

". ~aC't3 be upon him) beU.c~ ed ne it b ex in th~ J"ub lib; lIYa. hof· th.e ~~a ven 1 y bodies ~ th e su pern at ur al scns C nor in the king ~& -. in _~ th~~ tern para I and &0 ci a] sen so, he naturally felt 5urpriBed;··l.t.n{j~-€.zU._~~r him and asked as to who, .a.fter all, W~ the one wII-uth---b.e ;t.i;knowl~ edged as his Ro.bb.. Hasrat Ibrahim's first ans·'Wer. was ~ '~H e who has pow"er of lifo anti dea th .. t t But th e signi ficanee of this tr as lost U pOD the king t who countered with the claim that he too had the same power ~ he could cause any body to be put to dea th, and could spare 0 r the Ii r e of any body he c hose ..

Thon IIa.z~nt Ibrahim gave the second reply which, in effect, mean t ! ":·1 . ac knowl od ge on] y God as my

4.6

Rabb. For me He alone is the rabb in all the senses of the term, How en n there be 9. ny ru~tibiyyaA for anyone else when no-one else can alter in tho lea.8t the way the Bun rises or set~?'1 This argu meDt open ed the kill g ~ s eyeR, and he a. t onos re al j sed th 3 t Allah being the Sovereign of the universe, his own -01 a im to be .B rabb was not hi ng b 11 t 0. fa.lse pretension. However, his selfishness and vested fa·roily interoats overcame hi~ better sense and, despite the da.wning of Truth on him, he could not bring himself to climb down from tho high statua of being fully his Own mustet and to follow the path he ba.d been shown by God ts Prophet.· It is on this acccunt that, a.fter' r~co~~tiii'gthc-cft:ntt the Quean' sdds : 05"And Alla.h does not show tho Tight path to tra.n_pzr~t')l'3/' that is, after having seen the Truth" tll~ king ought . to have bowed to it but since he did not, and oliose

. .

instead to. continue his autocratic rule and pro ..

0] ai me d his word be the u 1 timn te 180 W f ag Il ius this own real interests, God ton did.not showhim further

- - .

light't. because He _.does -'not thrust His guidance on

anywho d'oes not sincerely seek after the truth.

Lors People

The next in hi st one 0..1 or der arc the peop Ie of Sodomt the ta~k of whose reformation was entrusted to Hltzrn.t Ibrahim's nephew, Lot (may peace be upon both). From the Qur~an we know about these people too that while they neither denied the existence of God nor His being the Creator 'and the Rabb in the first and the second senses of the word,

47

they refused to acknowledge Him as such ill tho third, fourth, and fifth senses, and also repudia ted the authority of the Prophet Lot as His trusted representative to lay down. the law for their conduct. What they wanted ,vas· to be left to do .as they pleased, and this w.~~ __ their real crime and tile reason for their bringing God's wrath upon their heeds. This is what the (~llr'an sa)'s about thorn :

When their kinsman Lnt said to them, ,uc'ViIl you not fear G od ~ Look l 1 am a trusted messengo r to yo u (from Gorl). 'I'hcrofn ro (believe wha t I S~ Y a ll(l ) t.r.~~ 1-0 A 1. vo yourselves from Divine wrath ~ and do as I tell you. I ask no reward for myself, boca use my reward lies 'with God, Do yout unlike tho whole of the rest of humanity, turn to hoys (for your sex ual 5n,tisfnct ion) and ic~ \'0 aside the \vi ves your Rabb has erea ted ro~ ~t~U for t h o purposo ! S urely ~ yon are the ""'0 r~t of , .. -rong-doers "'. (26: 10 l-l 06)

Obviously these words call have only been addressed to a people who did not deny tho existence of God or His being the Creator and tile Provider, And that is \Vl1Y they did not counter by asking '\VIlO wa.s GOLI, or 110\V COtI1(_1 He claim to be tile Creator, or 110\V did He become t.hcir llabb. \Vhat they did say instead was, "Listen. Lot, if you do not stop your preachings, :you will surely find yourself turned out from the land .. '· (26 : 167)

In another place, tho matter is put in the following words :

And (\v"'e sent) Lot (to his llcoiile as Our messenger and) when he said to thorn .. "Yon cornm it a n obscenity which no-one in the world 11RS ever ccmmi ttud before. \T ou

sa t isfy vour sexual urge with boys, ccnnnit highway

48

robberioll and openly induJge in obaceni,j~8 jn your gather. Ings". Their only' answer W.I : If you are 80 rigbt in what you MY, then bring down the wrath of Allah upon our heads ,. t: (29: 28, 29)

Can these words have been uttered by & people who did not believe in th" exiatence or God! ClearlYt their real. crime was not the denial of His being the tu« and the Rabb but that, while believing in Him to be both in the aupernaturaleonae, they. refused to follow His law and to 'accept the guidance of His messenger in the moral, social, and cultural spheres.

. .

.. .

,~ ,

·Shu'aib's People

,..

·Next come the people of Madyan and of Aika (the· ancient name of Tabuk), to whom Hazrat Shu'nib (peac~ be upon him) WQ,S sent as prophet. We know that these people were descendants of Razrat Ibrahim (on whom be peace) and so there can be nd question of th¢ir not knowing God of or not ·believing in him to be the Ildh and the Rabb~

They were in fact a people who had originally been Muslims but whose beliefs as also conduct had become corrupted through the passage of time. It would even appear from the Qur'an that they claimed to be believers, because Hazrat Shu'aib repeatedly says to them; "If you truly believe" ; '41£ you truly are believers." An examination of his discourses and of their answers clearly shows that they both believed in Allah and acknowledged Him as the llah and the 1.labb~ Lut went wrong on two points 11 Firstly, in the r~.i.pernatural sense the~" associated others with Him as also being ilah8 and

49

. .

nabb& and 80 did Dot give Him thoir 'ibjtiak· exclu ..

sively and, secondly, they held that His being the Babb did not extend ·to· His having authority to lay down the law .for regulating moral. aoeial, eecncmie and cultural behaviour; or th~y claimed freedom of aotion for ·themselves BO f~r as these spheres were concerned:

And to (thct .. people of) lfadyan We scnt their ·kinsman

. .

Shu'aib (who said to ~.bom) : IIO*' iny people, gjve your

....... ···f.tb.daA ·to. AllAh· (nlei·ne)1 for there is no ila.\' but He ; verily. there has come to ~tOU cloar guidance from· your RGbb.. 80 give people j Qst measure and wejght and do not deprive. them of theil' rightful due .. nor (by these means) cause mischief in the land after it has been purged of oorruptioD ;

,.' thie is th~ better COUflO for you If you be true b:elieversn. . And· if· .. group among you believo. in the gU.idalli.~ with .... , ... whiCh I have··been. sent, and another one not. then wait;

. ,

till G~ decidu be~We&il us, ~~~ He alone is the best of all

judges. (7: 85 .. 87)

.. (ADd Shu'aib said to them) : "iO' rpy people, give full

measure and weigh justly, end do Dot cause lou to people, :g.or go a bou t ere ati ng mi sohlo f in the 1 and ; the proB t left to you through God"8 grace is more beneficial for you~ if you (really) believe; and (of course} I am no guardian of your· morale u. All they could say was ~ "Does yo'Ur praying to God (in your own special way) give you 0' Shu~aibt the right to tell us to give -up tAole whose wotan ip hal come down from our ancealors, or tAtl' u'e do nOt. conduel our bUli nes« lransaelioPl8 48 IDe plealf!' You a fa indo ed the fo rbearing and·right.m,inded one] ". (11: 85 .. 87)

The words italicised bring out clearly that the error of these people Jay in misunderstauding the scope of God's rububiyyah, which they thought had

limited scope. .

50 The Phadoll and his People

Next; we come to the Pharaoh and his people, regarding whom there are even greater misoonceptiona ·than in the case of Namrnd and his people. The view generally held is that the Pharaoh not only denied the existence of God but himself claimed to be God, that is, that he had become 80 misled as to presume to be the creator of the heavens and the earth, and tllat 'hia people too were so bereft of. reason 8.S to unquestioningly subscribe to such claim. The Holy Qur'an and history both show, on the contrary, that there was little difference between his people and those of N amrud in regard to their beliefs about God as both the tut. and the Rabt»: The only difference was the existence of a racial bias against the Banl .. Israel which prompted the Egyptians. to refuse to openly acknowledge God as the lla" and the Babb, although they knew that He existed, as do also many a professing atheist in our own day.

The facts are that, after being vested by the ICing with high authority, Hazrat YOUSllf (on whom be peace) had striven to the utmost to bring the people to the path of Islam, and the impact of his efforts had lasted right down to the time of Hazrat

I

Mo.sB (peace be upon him). Even though every-

body had not come to embrace the true faith, there was nobody after Hazrat Yousuf's time entirely ignorant of God's existence or of His being the Bole Creator of the heavens and the earth. Not only that, but Hazrat Yousuf''s teachings bad also inouJcated in everybody the notion of His being both the'

51

~lah . and the Rabb in the supernatural sense,. 80 tha.t there was none who denied His existence. As to

l

those who had stuck to their beliefs, even their error

consisted in associating others with· Him .. And the impact of these teachings had not quite died out even till the time of llazrat ?Iusa (~Io8es, on whom be peace).,ll This faot is clearly proved by the speech made by a Coptio noble at the court of the Pharaoh, who had become a Aluslim but had not declared his faith openly and who, on learning of the Pharaoh's determination to have Hazrat Mus&. (on whom be peace) put to death, protested boldly

in the following words : r: •

Would you people kill a person for the reason only tbat he B&Y' that hiB RGb/) is AUab alone, and de.pita the fact that he comes to you with· manifest signa from your Rabb 1 If he lie~, then upon him be his Iies. And if he should be telling tho truth. then surely some of what he warns you against is bound to smite you. Verily, Allah does not guide aright any who exceeds all limits in lying.

------~

11. Ir OIlC were to believe in what is stated in th: Old Testament. it would

appear thaI about oDc·6.rrh or the population or Elypt hid come to aeee pt t ov 81 tbe tau r se or t fme. tbe C 4 i thor Hau D. t Youluf (OA who m be peace). The total Dumber or the Israelites who Jett ElYpt with Hazrat Milsa (aD whom be pelce) i. stated. to have becQ abou.t two mnuor. while the total populatioD or Egypt .cannOl at that time have beGn more tbaD a hundred mUUoQ. Unrortunately all tbeae t_,o mlllloa &ra rater ted to. in the Old Testa-meDt. as the children of ISrael. wbich seem. impo.:liibIe because, surely t t!Jc descendants or Ehe tweJyo

. IODI or Hazrat Yaqoob (Jacob. on wbczn be ptlce) caunot hav·c rileD to two million even in ab~ut four ce.aturie.. The only plausible iUrerC'Dce one can draw rrOm thil: is that a larle number or non-Israel's too had accepted the religion or the Israe]js---which. or COurse was. esscntjany~ the reUgion or Islam-aDd b.d ier, fbe country 81oD' witb the Israclis+ (The number, incid:entaUy II ,hows pojntedly the cJl:tcnt of tba IGbiigh work done by Hazrat Yousuf and bis lue:essors)~ A. A·. Maud~di

52

True, my people •. the J~Dd' j. yours, but who. 'will Ave us if Allah·. cbaatiletD"ut abould come down upon WI t I fear grievou.ly that' yoU. may ~uffe'r .. rate th~ like of that .which .overtook .tghty nations before, like tho people or Nub. the Aad and tile Thamud,. and others a~ter them (who wont wron.). ~ • And .there '1\"09.&180 the time that Ycusuf eeme to you with clear SigDR (from God) but you continued to harbour doubts; but when he died you said that Allah

would not send another prophet after him. • t And. is it not stt&ngep my people, that while I call you to the ~ath

, of salvation you eall Inc .to the one which leads to (the) :6n (of Hell) 1 What you would have me do is to, commit hlr. in rogard: ~ Allah,. and to associate those wi~1J ~bim .reg.rding whom. I'--kDow'" ~ot~.··f;;;!_ swe-_ ..... ,~~ "80- :p~ •

.... aci.te. ; My call to you is that YQU turD to the One~'(Ood) Who is the Mighty, and the Oft .. Forgiving f (40: 28·40)

This who1e speech bears witness that despite

the passing of' several centuries, the impact of the

w -

great personality of Hazrat Yousuf (on .. whom be

. . ---

. p~~ce) had. persisted and, due to his teaohiDgs. the

~gyptiana had not yet sunk 80 low in ignorance as to be entirely unacquainted with the existence of God or to ,Dot know Him as being the RaM and the IliA, or that He is the Lord and Master of all Nature and that His wrath is something to be feared, The last sentence in faot clearly shows that they did not. deny God's being the IliA and the RaM t'Qtally but that they erred in associating others with him.

The only thing which might tend to cast doubt on the above explanation is that, when Hazrat Miisa (on whom be peace) had announced to' the Pharaoh that he and his brother Hazrat Haroon (A-aroll, peace be upon him) had been sent to him as the

,

DleAsellgets of the Rabb-al~(aalameen (the Lord of the

worlds), 11e had .countered with the question, "And who might this Babb.al.'~lameen be 1" He had also ordered his minister, Himin, to build him B sky .. scraper tha.t he might look a.t Hasrat MUSlL ~8 flak

from its heights. had threatened to put Hazrat Miislt (on whom be peace) in jail if he took anyone other than him (the Pharaoh) as his ildh', had caused it to be proclaimed to all the people throughout the land that he 'was their supreme rabb {obviously lest their beliefs be affected 11Y Hazrat Mo.sa'ts teachings}. had told his nobles that he knew of no-one but himself to be their ildh, and 80 OD. U ttersnces like these might no doubt give the impression that he denied the existence of God altQgether, had no conception of Rabb·al·'aalameen, and regarded himself as the only iliZh (in the world),

The fact .. however" seems to be that his. whole attitude was inspired by his racial prejudices. Hazrat Yousuf (on whom be peace] had not only been the cause DC the spread of Islam, but the prestige of his high office had also been ,instrumental in the Israells'

, corning to occupy Or dominant position in the land which they had held for three or four hundred years. Then germs of Egyptian nationalism had begun to sprout, until at last the Israelites were dethroned from their position and a nationalist Egyptian dynaBty became the ruler. The new rulers did not stop at merely downgrading the Israelites. They also took deliberate steps to wipe out all vestiges of the times of Hasrat Yousuf (on whom be peace) and

to. revive - the _ civilisation 8Dd culture of their own former Age of Ignorance •. Therefore, when against this background .Hazrat lIo.so, an Israell, presented

'himself as messenger from God, they naturally . apprehended that the Israelis might recover their former prestige and dominance and they themselves lose their newly retrieved authority, It was because of these fears and the Egyptian '8 nationalist and racial prejudices and the consequent natural hostility

'between the two peoples that the Pharaoh attempt. ed repeatedly to confuse and perplex Hazrat M.usa (on whom be peace) so as to abort his mission. When, for example, he asked, "And who might this Rabb ... al-'aala~een.be ?'. It was Dot that he did not know what the words meant or 'Vho 'vas referred to. He certainly did know .. as his own words on other occasions show, For example, once, in trying to

reassure his own people that Hazrat MOsa (on whom be peace) was not a Divine messenger, he raised the

objection ! .

. (And if he be & prophet). why have not golden bracelets

been sent down for him ... or why did not angels follow h.lm in procession t (43: 53)

Oansucb words have been uttered by a person devoid of any notion of God or the angels? On yet another occasion, the following words passed between him and Hazrat Musa (on whom be peace) :

. . .

,

+

_ ',Then said (the PharAoh) to him. : "'I ean only think that you have lost you~ reascn. n (To which) lili so. re plied .; iUY~ti· 'know very well that it it nODe other thnn the Lord ~ of the Worlds 'Who has &ent dow~ these manifest signs,

,55

. a.nd I (on my part.) believe that you, 0 Pharaoh. are doomed. u (17: 101. 102)

In another place in the Qur'an God describes the mental state of the PharaDh's people in the following words:

+

And when our ligna became absolutely ma.nifest to them, they said: uTbis surely is magic.'· Inwardly. their hearts had become convinced (tha.t it was not magiu but the Truth). but they refused to acknowledge this out of sheer milohief and wilful rebellion, (17: 13, 14)

Also:

'I'hen Musa Buill to them : "Woe unto you ; FOl1~C not

a lie against God; "for .( if you do) He will destroy you by chastisement; and whoever bas committed forgery bas , only suffered frustration.:I , On hearing whlcn they began

to dispute among themselves and held secret eounsels wherein it was said: uThia surely is a pair of mngici .. na aiming at driving you away rrom your land and .doing away with your cherlahed traditions and way or lifOI.·~

I (20! 6l.63)

They could only have begun to dispute, on being warned 'of Divine chastisement and of the punishment for forging. lies," because there still endured in their hearts some remnants of the notion of God's greatness and might and some fear of Him.

: But when the ruling racist nationalists spoke of a possible' polittcel revolution in case they adopted the faith of MUBIl-. (on whom be peace) and raised the spectre of fresh Israelrdomination over Egypt, their

.. hearts became hardened once again, and they una • . nimously decided to defy both the Prophets.

This pOint having been settled, we can now easily get At the real basis of the dispute between

HaZTs.t MOsB (on whom be peace) and the Pharaoh, see wherein la.y the Iatter's error and of his people, and in what sense did he claim to be ilah. and rabb. In this connectlon; the verses in the. Qurtan wblch appear to be relevant, are set out below:

. ,

1. On one oceaeion the war.mongers among the

eourtd era asked the Pharaoh :

"",·ould Jon gi V~ 'Muso. and his people free rein to fJprelld dj$ruptiun in the land to gjve up your iwh,s 1U (7 : 121)·

As against this, ·the one who had affirmed belief in. Hasrat MUBa (on whom be peace], said to the others;

\\'hat .yOl\ WBUt. is that I deny Goo. and as.woiate those. with. Him regarding' whom I have 00 valid proof (of . Any divino Htatw). (40.: 42)

When \VC study these verses against the background of what we know from arch.a.eologica.l research, we can only conclude tha.t both the Pharaoh himself and his people assoeiated some of thoir gods with the One God who is the .on 1y RafJbfl in the first and second senses of r1.l.biibiyyah, and gave their

I2. Some commentators have re.a.d ~lw w.Q~d 8811 If tJ I ika In verse 1: 117 as fli."~JiktJ on tbe ~U9~iliOJi only fhat the P~MII.Qh hlm-sel( cla..imed to be: tbe lord tlf the wor~d J and ha ve intM~J:et~d ~bt: word UMa to ~~;& Q WDnhll'+ In otl'lie.r wOlds .. they tJlll~iatc the verse to mean 1110 'r .... e up YOUrliltU and YOU'" WQ!sttip". HowevoI:r! in thCl "first pla.c=. this J"tadl:a', of .he word i:$ rare and t:"Mtrary to the ~.'enl::!l.l reading. In t~~ u¢ood. the wry :IIuppositlon on which It i, bu~d ii wrong.db iltlt{o-.. 1:1:1 the tbird. il#uJ (an. bc~ida won-hip .. m-C:iIID ,od-dU! .. !so .. :Elnd th~ word 'Wu in 1'au::t used in Ambia in. tho Ale: of 'Rco.raIlC::~ f..at tho .s.1l.P. W~ know 'ibJlt to 1hc .E1Y'plians It wu ~bl 8~t.I whic:b WItS. Che ,"upreru6 sod I whOPl they lClaUtd Ra;lo lind tbe word Pha.raoh a-ea:uaUy m"C:a.llt des..;c:nrJantt or incarnation" of R:III, 10 U.lt 1h~ Pllaraonl cl,Jqled to bl!!: Jncar..&l.iall;f ot 'bl SUD il)~ Ita. A~ Ar MaudlJJi

worshi p flo them on that basis, 0 bvio U B ly ~ it t 11 e Pharaoh had cl&ime~ to be god in the supernatural Ben se, that is, if he had presu m ed to be the ruler 0 f the en tire un i verse and believed in nunc oth er tha n himse If to be tho ilak an d th 6 rabb 0 f the en.rth an d the heavens, he would not have needed to worship any god at nIL

2. The Qurtan also reports the Pharaoh to have said:

(i) Tn. his n-nblt*K : ~1(A6 for me) I knu'W of TlO ilrih for JOU exec pi mysel f. ~ ~ (28: 38)

(ii) Tn HJl'lr~t )tu~a. [peace bo upcn him) : 'f If you take nnyo.ue other tbo.n me to be your iMh J sha ll surely tln'(nlt' you in prison." ~ (26: 29)

These words do not mean that the Pharaoh denied tile existence of any i1a71 but himself; He meant only t (J reject the call of Hazrat 11 JSDr (on whom be peace}, Thi~ call was to God not only aa th t' lliih j n the BU pern n t u ral sens e but also as the Supreme Sovereign and the ultimate Law-giver in all matters whether political, cul tUI al t or social, The Pharaoh on the other hand held that there was no iLl! but himself in politi cal and eu ltural and social matters, nnd a.t the same time threatened Hazrnt I\iilsa that ifhe took anyone else as his ilah in this sense he woul d lind himself in prison.

These verses also show, and this again js borne out b otb by h i's tory and a rchaeo I 0 gi cal d is cove ries, that the Pharcohs of Egypt did not stop Bot claiming absolute sovereignty butt by olaiming kinship' wi th gods, had alsc pretensions to a special sanctity, so a~

58

to further strengthen ·their hold over men's-minds

. fin d he arta, In th 'is, of course, th e y were not exc option a 1 t be ca use the rC ha. ve been many d YQ 86 ties which too have, besides assuming absolute sove .. reignty, laid claim to A. measure of dtvintty ~ and mndo it incumbent on their subjects to perform various a et s of worship before them, However, this was UCLlHl. Uy something of secondary importance only, bcca use the I1!;J 1 purpose was always to consalida-to t heir own authority and the claim lo llOS!3e38 a dezrec of divinity was only B means towards that end, And that is why the godhood of all these uyu8.stics came forthwith tu an end" in Egypt and elsew here, the moment their temporal ru Io ended .. If at all, the spiritual ovcrlordship was transferred to the new occupants of the throne ..

3. The 11 h arne It 's real r.laj m was' Dot to godhood in the spiritual, but in tbe poltticai sense. It was in the third, and fifth senses of rububiyyah that he claimed to be the overlord of Egypt and its people, to be master of the country and all. that there was in it, to the exclusion of an others and to have the absolute right to rule as he pleased. His alone was the supreme authority, and he alone the foun tai n- 11 c ad of all cui tUI al and so oial life in Dgy pt. N one else had th e right to speak. in these matters. and to say what people might do, and what they

. might not. The basis for the claim, according to the Qurt lin, Wa.B AS folIo WB ~

And the Pharaoh proe 1 a im IHl througho ut Egypt ~ j.j: A ttl I not the lorn of" tb lZ lund ~ ADd d o not th-e r il'tri in tl. ig

59

country Bow under me ~ Do you not all se-a t hils (and bel i eva in ",·hat) I iSY t I ~ (43 : 01)

This WAS the same basis on which Namrud had tested his claim to be n rabb-u(IIe huvlng pretentlcne of his own} disputed with Ibrahim as to He Wham the latter regarded as hi~ Rabb and on the baais only tho. t Allah had bestowed him with kingship't=-and on the same b1.8i~ too had the king who ruled Egypt during th6 time of Hazrat Yousuf (on whom be peace) held himself out as the ~'ablJ of

. his l' eople,

4. The real dispute which Jay between Hazrat ~ii.LAa. (on whom be peaee) and the Pharach and his nobles ~ atc., wall that the . former called the pea ple to believe in no-one as being in a.ny degree an il&k or a rabb, in any sense 0 r th cse terms, except Alla.h, th o Lord of the Worlda (Rabfl+al"'aalameen)~ Who alone w as the lliih a ud the Rabb in the superD at ur al sens e and in poli tical social and cultural m atters too. He alone was worthy 0 £ worship, and His Wom a lone was the lola w ~ H a. z rat M usa. ( 011 ~. hom be pc ace] also announced that it was none other than Allah ,Vho hall sent him to the Pharaoh and his people aa His representative, to make known His 'Com mand .. men ts through him. T he reins 0 f a. u thori t y sho uid therefore be in his hands and not in those of the Pharaoh (who, be it remembered ... was a rebel ag a.inst God) 4 And t his led the .p h ar aoh and his nobles, naturally. to claim that the two brothers (Hazrat . Musa., and Hazrat Haroon, may peace be

'upon both) wonted to we-possess them of their author ..

itv and. to rule over the land themselves" to root

..

ou t the exi stin g creed and eu It ure, and in stal I thei r

own:

And \Ve indeed sent J.hi~a with our Signs, ami clear tokens of author i ty to the Ph a.rall'h and hil3 nob )CI:1 but the people: 0 bRy~d th". WON of tho Pharaoh I tb ough he. (eertL\jn1y) was not in the rigll b. (II ~ 06) 91)

And \\" e 1.nd Irrev inns ly pu t P h araoh ~ ~ pe 0 P 1(; t 11 rough Blest; .0. nohle pToplu~t. had come to them) and s.'lid to them : '~.lla.ke over a.utborily over Alh.h~.fJ. cre"turer:; ttl me i I n.m to you ;R. Divino lles:acDgQt o.nd worthy of a.ll trust, and so be no t arrogant ega inst O-od .. for I Cfll nf,l; to you with uutho r~ ty (Vi h ich ir;) uianifcst. ~ ~ {44: 17 ~ 1 U)

(Allfl, 0 pooplu of Mukknh:) Verily \Ve have ,;ent to you a. mesee n g~r t w bu wi 11 bc.:&r wi tnesB OVEH' yon 1 in j U iii t th!::l aame w.Il.y that \\""c sent u. messenger to t.he "pharaoh; then. the Pheraoh tli!!,mL!::l,)'tHI lh~ uicsscnger, und (for- thi~) \Vt:l sci:u.:d hold of him most woeful ly, (73: 15J 16)

The Pharauh asked : 4 '(And~ if s·on do not il.t:'knolvledzc f':Iit.ner om· gods OJ' tho Royal family to he yuur ru.~1tl!p thiJIL w ho ~ aftur n U, is your.Ra.bb ~'!) wfh c same ~ j I rL"'p l i C~ d , M 1-l8.1l, ~ I \V ho ga ve everything t n ore a. ti on i hi own 1'!::li,iU Ii ur S trueture, ::I hn pe, [!;.nd ~uo li tie Et a.l~ d then ta ug h t rr .. un how to put the m to hip. '0 so, n cUt: 49, 50)

Tf be Ph "'TaO h a~ked I ~ ~ A I' d who rn igh to tlli~ R« bb ral .. ~aalamun (J...Q rd of the \Vol"ld,e) be ~ t ~ A nd ~fu.~a. rep I Led : ~~ Tho Lord 0 f the ha~ ve;n:e an d the II Borth ~ and w ha tc ,tul' i!! between thew ~1l you were only to baliove, II "Do J'ou hL'&a.r ~" tho. Phfllt'fJ..ll'h liI.~keu. those around hirn~ I~Thc Lord of aJI of you,' , fllh.b:u lillaa-, U~nd of All your [nod(1:Ce!l..s.[}f:ili too. n uThj~ (EWlf~stylr.:d Djvine) messenger," ~ ramarked th-e Pheraob, is verily & mad prmmu. n L4''l'ho Lord of th II }~n~ t and of the Wea e, I, retorted M ,iR.U.t ~(a ml of "U tbo. t iH L~ tw cen them if you only had t h$ t TU{'I urnle (8 to. nding)" . To which the PhaliWh could only replYj ~ ITaka heed, 0 ~ Musa.

·61

If yon dere t.o.ke II nyo no 0 the r tha.n me nil!! y{mr- it MI.. you certainly lih.all find yoursdf in prlscn. rI {20: 23~20)

Tile Pharaoh Q.3k.etl. ii Have you: come to lLS tl1::\t you ~hou]t1 driv:A Us ouL uf our Ieud, with (Lito 1101 f'J- or the threat of the ~se of} your mag~c;r 0 ).(usa. ?lI' flO: 57)

And the 1: h.a.:r aoh Sal d • j Le t.. me do wi th M li~:l IlR I wj~b -tu have him put to d~ath-I.LIl,l then Jet him l!.ull to his Ru.b~ to F:l\VC h"'njl for 1 l'cry much fear that be will chnllgc Y-OUi creed lUP di$tul'b Ute ~~oe of tile land, , ~ (40; 2t3)

Thoy (the Pharaoh ~Q nob 1M} said : i~Thuy (::\Iu1ta a.nd Harooa] are both {nothing but) magioin.ui who wish to drivfi you out of your land hy the force of thf!.ir- nl.ugit'J and to do .A,. way with your ZDQ.15t excel len t. way uf 1 i fo. !, (20 ~ 63)

The above verses hring out clearly the fa(;t that in the land of the Nile too there prevailed the very same misconception with regard to t"ubzlbiyyah ss had ~is.ted among other pooples of old, and that tho message of Ha.2rat MOs& and Hazrat Haroon (on w horn both be l)eacc} to the Egyptian s was also the same as of the prophets before them to their own respective people.

The Jews and CiJ [i s ti ans

Aft-cl' Pharaoh's people, the next in historical ordnp are the Israelites and those people who adopted the Jewish religion or Ch.riatia.nity. In their case, tbere can obviously be no question about their either not acknowledging the existence of God or not believing in His being the IliA and the RaM}. The QUT' a.n i tsel f a.ffirms tbeir bel ief in II im on the poin t and the question which therefore arises is of the parti en lar error for which they were characterised in the Qur'an. as t~thOBO who went astray". (I ~ 7)

62

A brief answer is :

Sa.y (01 M nhamm ad) ! "O ~ people of the Book : Do not e:s;:aggcrll,.t.e coJlt:crning ycnr f.!litn~ and a.dopt not tho wrong notiofil!l of ehose who .have gonll a~tra.y before: you, who m j sled man y 0 t hera, and themse l It-ra too strayed from the stra.ight path. n (:5 ~ 77)

From this" one may cone lud e that, in essen ee, the JC't't'B and Christians too were .guilty of the

< •

same error into which others had fallen earlier, and

th a 1- in thei r c ~~ s e this arose out 0 f exaggerated p iet y. Let u~ go into tho mQtter in Rome dotaU) with tb.e. help of the Qur\3n :

.. .

(i) A n4:the J ItW~ 9 .. i.d : I~ U z.ai~ (Ez:ra) iI ,on of G od, while

the Oh t'lSitian5J· :sa id, ~! ilia· (J esns] i.l!l son of Clod. "II,. (9: 00)

.

(H) I t 'Wa.~ ku.fr on the part of Chris tiona:l to say tb at

G od wn.~ tho ,l5R m eo a~ J esu.f3 son 0 f ~Mary ; t.ho ugh .1 e~u~ . had hi m self said ! for a. fact.) Ie 0' SOns or Israe It give yo ur j .MdaA to ~ 11 ch, Who i8 a. lso your Jf.a.bb and my Rabb. ~ ~ .

. (5 : 7.2}

(i ii) ''" erily those who said tha. t God 1& one of three t committed tufrj for there Is but one Il,U~ end t.ilel'"e is no.

iMh hll~ H.r.. l5: 73) .

(i v) And there wilt eome a. t lme (the Da.y of Judgment..) when God wi 1 L ask uO' J esus, son 0 r Ma l'Y ~ did yon toe 11 pco ple to ta.k~ you And you T mother .&5 ilaM beside:!!! M vself ?' ~ to whle h J esua wtll reply, ~ ~ G Jor y be to you r

~

How oculd I ha ve dared My t.ba. t \vhich 1 ho.d no r jgb. t to

utter! n (S: 116~

(,,} It is Dot fQr any person thBL, a.fter bcin'~ given the nQo1c: ~ ·and heir..g endowed with hiim"h.13 Bud lDv88tf:d· with

13.. Uttrl.UYt r~l.!. word mND1. wisdom ~ but wheB uttd in ~!~c:ncl;. (g • Prophet", :. h ml::an1· that &1'e1;!1.a1 wis.d om wb Ich CODles. a.uWtrI.flt.iCIlUy a.ft~ inVestment wi th tbl:l g:tlicc: or Propbt:. hood .. Imd wblch I::ubla. the P~het to uDdtrstlnd aDd lI!::I!:p ouud the im.pHca liola nnd req,uirema:at~ . of lh~ Djy.ir:u::·i~j..mctlonl.· . A. A. Maududi

pro phethoodj he shou ld go 8 bon t t~l ling people tog i vu up a od aml in8te.d gl ve tht'lir .a Ucgl;:'J;n~ and j ibJJa.h to him. FBI' mote fitting it i~ thtit ho shculd fi,Li.y: '·Believo firmly ill Allah .a & the Bo.bb (' n every sense of tho wor d), as yon find it w ri Lt.cn in I I is JJ ook, and as you learn 0 r you rse 1 vos and oo!ilr.ch others." Nor, a.g.1.itl. j~ .it ftll" .n.. prophot to tell thft peop le to reg ard the ange J s lU1 d the p I'O! ~b et s a~ ttl 6b". vtr 0'.1 in he unj 0' n Ii:, uJr to you .J. rt;E"l'" you h a. V' e be co me ~Iuslhn.s? (1: 79, 80)

Wh a.t we learn from thtl relevant verses is that th.e . firat error of tho J e 'v 9 an d Christ inns U' us to raise thAir Prophets, and aainte, and the angela, etc., to the status of divinity out of exaggerated regard r or them J to beli eve th em to have a say in the ordering of the u ni v erse and its eff airs J to wo rsh i p and ad dress til l! if. praye rs to th em t trent tb em as psrtnera in rubt70 i NYu han d in go d h ood ill the rmpern 0. tu ral Ben B e, and to bel i eve t hat th cy could remit their sins and come to their rescue and prote ct them from misf ort u n e and disas te.r~,

Their se-c-on d e rro r ] fJ. yin t heir ill ak iug e v en their sed b es nnd herrn i ts in t Q rabbs, besid es Co d {eJ.9 ! 31)t In other words, the people whose real function was to: expound God's In w t.o others, and ~o reform the people morally and spiritually to make their cond uct conform to Divine precepts were graduaUy assigned authority to determine, on their 0 wn, w hat V?" a s to be t re a ted . a s for hi dden and w b at as parmi t ted t wi tho u t re feren ce to ·w b a.t wa.s s~id in.· t he Book. T hey could for hi d any praeti ees they did not approve, and institute any others they fancied, Anti in this \'Iay both

JfJWS' and Christians fell into the aame two basic

. errors M that into which the people of Prophets Nuh and Ibrahim (on whom both be peace], the 'Aadites and the Thamud and the psople or ~fady.Qn and others had f all e n C8 rlier 4 Lik e them t they too made the angels and their religious lenders to be partners with God in R1lb~(biyyak in the supematural sense, and. in moral, cultural and political spheraa too. Anti so t hoy begun to tlLkc their cultural, economic, moral nnd pulit.ioal principles from human beings, disregarding the Divine Injunctions, until they rea.ched a. 8 tage a bout w hi ch the Q ur 1 an ;says :

H!:t.\re you noticed the peoplEi' who were given a. portion of the Book of G.odJl Lut who (fn~tc.o.d of 1Q~kin~ it t.he baR]!!! for their eonducc), believed in jib! and ~JgMot ? (4 : 5] )

Su.y (0' ~rulHlmma.d) : ('Shall I tell you who ~rc worse

. .

fI F'I to thei t ul thnalo fll te Wl t.h A U an than oven the j4Jig8_ lot

It i$ tb esc w 1..0 tlrn w the eurso 0 r G ud 1.l pon the;m j thotle

who mvitcd His \,'ra.th~ and of whom many wcro tUl"ned

j n to apes IImI s wi 110 Ly H is Com mand, and who ga"..('I" their wcrship to Mghnol ; they {tor& t.h., lownst in dC'grtm. and the fu I' Lhe::! l asti. y fro m t he straight path;" (5: 60)

The word jfbt is a comprehensive term for all myths and supcrstitlona, embracing such superatitious things as mnglc, the art of the occult, black magic, necromancy J witch-craft, soothseylng, divination, the belief in talism a.n~ or lucky stones or unlucky colours or numbers or natural phenomena,

14.. A Pdq. .c.cordiog to thlt QnrtlD lSI an~ wI:! 0 broaka :bii Cgvc.Dilnt witb ~ AUah' ... 'ti'ho !I::\l"C:fS the lies bc:hveeo Him aad Hi:s llrf3t lU'CI aud between. milD. and ma D. .:cd wbo crO:ale:51 mi..s.c::"~c:r upon ICQ.:rtb (q-. "O~a' ia :rufofllf-ul-Qlilt"a~, Vol. I, p. ti IJ reJa ti v. to 2-17~2.)~ A~ A. Ma udud ~

65

eto., or iu the influence of thn heaven ly bodies on h·umlLn n. ff airs. As for ti g/tool, th 18 te r map 1) 1 i es ttl every per son II or g roup of persons, or organ i S 0. ti on or mstirution which, instea.d of submitt.ing to God and His Injunctions, rebels against them and virtually sets up hi mself or i tS61 r as god i nste ad, 0 r is so s~t up by p~~ple. So when the Jews and Christians com mi t ted the two errors i ndi ea ted abo vet the resul t of the fi rst was that different kinds of supers ti ti one

• •

beliefs took hold of their m j nds and 0 f the second

that the-ir snrihcs and hermits" ctc., grarltlaUy came tu assume th e same rig h t to tell people \V hat to do and whR.t not as had been presumed by those who were open rc 4e 1 s againa t God.

The Mecca n Pagans

Last of all, we come to the Mec cans, to whom Prophet Muhll.mmnd (mny peaec be- upon him), was sen t as God ~ tIi Me8seng~r and to whom therefore the Qurtsll's message was Immediately addreeeed. \Vha.t W9.!S the nat ure of their error ? \ \i'" ere they ign or an t of God, or di (1 t bey deny His exis tence, an d was the Holy Prophet (on whom be l)ea.cel~ sent as God's .Messenger to make them acknowledge His existence ? o t did th sy deny His being the llith and the Rabb, and WDS it therefore the purpose of the Holy Qur'an to persuade them of His godhood and Rub{ibiY!lr1h ? Did they hold tha.t He was not worthy of worship and adora tion t or did t b f!J disb e 1 iev e His being n bl c to listen to their pta. ycrs and gr an t thei r I:JU pplica tions f Did they think that La t, 1\1,1. u at 1 and

66

Uzz.o. and Hubal and their other supposed gods were the re a 1 creators" III as terd" P 1 anners all d organisers an d ad wi nistr a t ora 0 r the un i V' erse and th e providers for nil the creatures in it? .\Vere their gods, Bccording to them t the so urees 0 f all Ia w and moral and soeia I codes? When we study the Qur~an,. we find al! such qu eeti on s answe red in the n~ga ti ve.. The pn g ri n s of.' A ra II is no t ~n ly aeknow 1 ed ged the existen ce of God but they also believed Him to be Creator, lind Mas ter of the universe as we 11 a~ of til elr 0 wn gods" and a.lso the flak and Rab~~ It was to Him that they addreeaed all their prayers in the last resort, w hen all el se f aiJ ed, an d they acknow led goo His rig h t to t l)cir worshi p and ad ora ti on. As for th cir gods,. th ey bel i-e v ed them ne ither to beth ei r OWn crea tors and m a t:1 Lers no r of th e u ni verse n or able to provide guidance in the BOCia I and moral affairs of life, cf~~_

(i) S!1Y to tLt! III 0 I Pr ophe tl ~ IlV hose iI the earth and all who are in it 1 Tel! me, jf JOu know. P TncIr ['"~ply will bo : lilt 11.11 b~iong~ to AHab/j Aak the-nl. then, ''':And &tiH you do not liRten ~ lot A:'i.kj .r;~Who is the Ra7Jb- of the SeVC'D heavens and of tlJo Migllty ThrQllc/" ant] t1l0Y wUI l5aY:ll I~rt iz A \~ah. n A~ them then, [oI'Al1d still yon do not rea r !' P Ask p I ~ \V h O~ i8 th ~ Soveroign ty over eT"~ry thin g ~ and who ia it wJ1oO· grants shelter but ngain~t whose di~pLeW!illre there it30 no protector 1 l.'cll me, if you know"" _4.nu .they ;,rEI say ~ j4A}Joh alone IHJ,.s this. BHriLutfl.' t As-k th~m then, h If that f::t a U so ~ ''''- hu t rn akca you.go a:st ra y 1'1' Th(J fact indc e-d Is til n t \\' e ] Lay B given t.hem the -I"l'ru t ~ but they practice felsehccd. {2J ~ S4.~O)

(ii) It iB IJ el All abj Who ~nu LIes YOll to travel OVer the la nd and t h-e sens ; you !.Ioard your sh ips and sa u on

6'7

~

them and rejoice at fllvouTiLhla wind, :"JId ~~~J all nf n.

~ nd den there oom af3 tI. star my gs.]~~ and the ... ;1, vet bu. if'et; th~ ah i p Irom all :i!:id031 &n~ you. tl;m YO"1!'i~:;ri!l!l ~).ugh t

in B ;:iI trum ; you th an r-ra.y to Al Lob. J mOlt deT.Jnt 1 J ~ "'it~ hA!i.rtil!l filled with f&ith in Him only and fillS.. ·:.Deliver u.S frt)m this awl' m,· (IO Lord.) an,rl ge sb:t.ll b ~ "luu r t.ruly I gr&tefu] emil tu res. • J But when H~ h:.a.:J dell t-~l. "yO n from . the storm ~ there you go Dg"io,. turoiEl8 your· b~-ct upon t be Tru tb. 8. ml s pruading tebel1ion in t.he land.. (10: ~!t 23)

(i l i) And. .. b.ea d iaMtel!' over~ you 'While On tha .M. ~U trhofIB YOll wOl.hip 0 ~h01' than God rai 1 p~ - (aDd it it cel'tulnly He IiIIIlan~ Who deli vors you) .. b~ It .. hf:::J. Y OIl are safe ag&in upon Ut6 laud, you turn away lr:om H:'::'~ TrulYJ m an i~ 1;\ ra.nk ingtM tE!!! (17: 67)

As to the ir b alief s a bout their godH~ the Q ur' an brings ~hcse out in their own words" as i ollQ"i¥8 .1

. . .

{i) T hOBO wh-e. take othors I;h t;n God as pr.)t~~?r8 8&1 ~ fll \V.e only givn thorn of our worship· thAt. fuy- ~! btwg "WI e loser to OM (or J n tel"Cf!d R with Rim J~ t t {J9!: 3}

(ii) And they ij&y,. '''They (our golh) a.~ -aJT i!:~ereesson

with (~ot.l. :(I) (to: 18) . . ..

That they had no prete~8ion:s &~out their gros being in n.Iiy wa y en pa b le of pro vi din g gn ida. nco in th e affaire of Hfe~ ~ cleAr from the· f ollowina, verse -:

A .. k them. O· P!'~phet :. lI'Is' there any a.m.ong tbQMI yOu asso.cia.te with God ~ who wiU gnidt!! you to .... rd~ Truth 1!o~· •

(10 ~ 34)

B ut when the qu esti on is asked it. begets nothing

: ,I . '

. b ut "lenee. None dares &U8wttr that !At, or Mana ti

or U ZZ~ or any of the other gods provide guidance to right thinking and conduct, or teach the ways of [uatice, peace and harmon y, or provide knowlttd ge o f baslc rea li tics of the universe.. And BOr receiving

68

no reply, the Qnr~a.n makeR the Prophet (on whom be peace) add ~

(So mnch tMnIl for you god8. A B for} A 11 .. h J (H 0) indeed ,gnidu 10 Truth. And 10 t who is 'l"OTthi 6:1' of bfting oheyed~ He 'Who gnimB tDlI'8~h Truth I Or he wb 0 dOH noth1ng of the kind '? What i~ Wrong with yon f Why ean'lt you be RDsiblc: J and how do you. come to your baselea eom:~JusioD I (10::; 34)

This being so, we again com e up against the qocetion as to what was their real error a.bout rtd:JtibiyyaA which was sought to be removed through the Holy Prophet (on whom be pea 00)1 and for whlch purpose Allah teveal~' the Holy Qur'an. When we look into the Qur~an for an answer to t~ we find tba t mbhsir case too the baeic errors were the same two which had occurred n.mong those before them,. vjz,. ~

(i) ~ra. as godhood and rub iihiyya1l, in the superna.tura.l sense are concerned, tL.ey associ nted others with God; and t~ ought that .in aome 'W 3 Y or other the angel s, th e men oC pjety; and the heavenly bcdies, had also a share in the realm of cause a..nd eff~ct... And that ig w by t in ron ttcrs of worship. and m ak::ing BU pplioa tion B. and.seeking help, etc., they turned not only to God but also to those others they supposed to be gods.

(ii) As for mundane affairs like culture and poU. - tieR; etc .. :o they did not regard God all the Rabb with regard to Doh matters) but

69-

metMeait assigned the right to lay down the I BoW to their priests, their chiefst and the elders or their clans or tribes and followed their di eta tea ..

As to the first. error. here ia what the Ho ly Quean saya:

And there are .mung m lID romS who gi yl) their i: ibatlUrr to Al1a.h~ ... it we're t on thtJ VEl rrge ; if good befalls t.ht!! [II they are flll eontent ; bu.fi. if it. is try iog circumsLancezt th8Y turn a way-lOBcnI in tbiie. IJfo &ml the RI!!!X t- a sht!er a.nd utter 108s.. llheo" ha.ving turned away from AUah~ thay

oil

call to thnse w hB have no po weI" to do them tlither haem or

geod-e-and tbi3 iil straying !'&r indeed, fol" they eall those for help who.!N bein.g th UA snug h t brings mote loss than gain + How uacless i8 the (;illppoacd) he 1 por ~ and how evil a companion ~ (n: 11.13)

And inatead of Al1ah t.bf"y J2;iVH thvir- "'i.bJMk., to tho~e tv h c. ct\ use ~.I.lml nei thee profi t nOT harm, and they e laim they ~ re their in tceecsaora ow i th All., h + Ask the Ill .. O! Prophet, "Do you prc8ume Lo t..ell Allah of ~om8thing of which yon think no ill DO~ awaro.either' in the h~aven.s-or in the ea.rth ~ G loty be to BimJ Blld He is free of what they MOOOIa to with Uim. II (10: 17. IS}

Ba.y. (0' Prephet. :) 'IDa yoo. gi "e your ~,Wdal to tho3e other than AtlalL whu hayo power noith.e.r to do you aught of harm or of guod. v.·hile Allah ;s the AlIrUea.riQgt the All. Knowing 1!! (5: 76)

A ud when in diBtr-eas mn 0.. calls to his RaIN %" holeheBr~dly. but when He has be:stm:red Hi~ fHovour upon hlm, he :forgets tb. t; which had made him. pray to Him .. and begiDl to treat others .QS co- partnfl:l".'! with Him I Il8 if they too had & ;(5.11 are in h U ohange of forlune or all if thejr special PO~Cl"8 or at least intercession alone bra ughfi. it a-bout... thu. "to mialead othees from AllDh -I (True) Fa th~

(39 ! 8J

'10

I

And·any _gI)od thing of liro YOtl havf! ip. hut th-a bounty

of . AU.tl Qnd ..-.IIen ."Y barm befaJJ$ youJ it.. is to H im t ha.t , yOb addrcsa your pr~yer, but 'Wh O:!l lJ 0 lm~ turned ita wo. y from you] lhem ar~ :BI)]l1 & ;fI,.dl91lg you who l.P(::gjn to BiI!IBi gn

... ~h=lIe to otb.:7tl in your du l.ivol'~r.oo J to return in gtLl. t itude fOT Our favour, So be itt and do .hat you likt::t foi' socn will yQU know Ule: outeume, Theijie oro the p~uph: ,,,..lLU atlaribule to othel":}! onto of Ignorance, a. share in thA gl'anl.i.tlg of bountie.; whjcb Me OUTS~ wholly and solely. By God, (DB) you {w 110 do ~o) 'litHl ( one day) eer ta inly be t~kcn· to tB3k for t·h~ fob~hood. you commit, {16: 53~b6)

As for the second error" thiB is the charge whit:h the Qur:lan makes in proof of it :

And in this ,.. i6e lVO =t Ioe ma.ny a png& n t.he slK)" .i ng of their own ehHdtc.tl mude to look a worthy act by t hose they aBS{Jl!ja, ted with Ood, to lead them t-o the-II" Doom au d Cd us C

confusion in t heir I'e1jgion~ (II: 13S)

o bvio u sly, the ~ aaso elates' referred to here are not the idols or gods but those loaders and chiefs who bad made the kill in g of one's own ch il d ron seem like a noble act in the e~yes of ,th e Ilagan8,. and had thus contaminated this abominable act into the pure faith tho. t had come down from Hazrat Ibrahim and Hazrat Isma1il (may peace be upon both). And) Iurbher, these leaders are not characterleed here as ~as:3ociatcs~ in .. he sense of their being regarded .0.9 having a sny in the affairs of the universe, nor did the Pll_ga. ns worship or PTa. y to them. Certain 1 y ~ this was nut so. But they are dubbed as associates in rubiibiyyak and godhood because the pagaus treated t hem os ho.ving the absolute right to lay down the law, M they pleased, in cultural and social and

71

moral and religious matters ;

Rave th~y ta.kcn for thclDsekas sUPP0M;rl aJilsocEntel with God who 1JAV"~ giv~n thp'1fL laws in the w.y of De~nUt

11. a .... io.g no sa D orion from Ai lah ? { 4! ~ 2 1 )

'Ye shall discuss the full significance of the term deen later and comment also in detail on this verse, but what is clear hero i8 that laying down of the law by the lenders and chiefs in those matters which formed part of a6e.n:t and the pngane) acceptanoe thereof as binding codes did constitute, in effect, the lea.tl~rs and chiefs being treated as , assoelates with Allah both in godhoDd and in rububiyyah.

The Message or the QUl~aD

The foregoing detailed exposition of the misguided conceptiona of various pre-Islamic people make it patently clear that from earliest time~ to the revelation of the Qur"an~ none of tbos~ whom it mentions as- the tra.u.agresBoIs, the misguided, and the astray, actually denied the existence of God., or His being the Bahls and the flak. Allt however, went wrong in much the Same wa.ys in dividing the nttri .. bates of rubiibiyyaht in its five different senses, into two separate compartments.

Insofar a~ such attrlbutC'-s of Allah O,S HiB being the Cheriaher, the Provider, and the Protector and Helper of the creatures in the transcendental sense Were concerned, the people regarded them as something apa.rt from the, rest. And, although in this sphere they did regard Allah as the Supreme RabbI

72

they also believed that the angels and various gods, the genii, and. In visible forces, the stars. and other heavenly bodies, the; Prophets and saints and other holy men, also had different shares in this ,"UbiibiY!lalt.

As for the remaining attrfbutes, namely, Allah'e being thf.!! Supreme Sovereignt the Fountainhead of authority, the Supreme Law-giver, and the: Supreme Lord of all cren tion et e., the people either us signed these roles wholly to pnrticular human beings or, while assigning them to God in theorYt in practice treated the entire 1"Ubiibill1JU'A in moral, cultural, and political spheres as vesting in these beings.

It was for t.hc tu·.sk or removal of both these types of misconccpti OIlS th at. there were (Jrua.incd all t.he different Prophets from t.irue to time (may peace be upon them) and, Ilnully, Allah sent Muhammad (peace be upon him), U5 Ilia Just Prophnt. All of the Prophets caned to man to believe. that thCI'C was but one Rabbt that. is, Allah, in all of the various senses of the word, and that ru.bfi~iyyal~ wag not di visible nor was any portion of it available to arlY creature. The management and control of the uni verse, they em phasised, was centered in One Authority only, the Authority \Vho alone had created it. entirely to His own. Grand Design and purpofJet and \Vho exercised beth de jute and de./acta rule over all its affaire, and no-one hod any share ei ther in the crca tio nor the run ni n g of the uni ve rae. As th~ Centre of n,11 aubhnrity, God alone was and is the RalJbt in all tho senaes of the word, both in tranacendental matters and the temporal affa.irs of

73

mea, He alone was and is 'Worthy of nll worehlp, of being made the fa OUB 0 r all adore ti on and pray.e r .. He alone 1 is tens to &11 pra.ye I"B and He a lone is worthy of our relian ee and ea pab le of prov Idl ng for the needs of 411 too.. He alone is nt the same time the King; the Lord of the U ni verso an d th a 80 n fee of all law and auth9rity. and He alone has therefore the right to lay down wba~ is right nnd what is wrong and what ought or ought no t to be done. I t is in the very ns t ure 0 f t hi ngs a. miseon ce i vcd notion to thin k of rubfmiyyah as somethin s w b i o h.

could he split up into compartments. It is an esse n tia.]:I' and cxc 1 usive at tribute of 411 ah and, hence, Q bvious 1 y and necessarily i ndivisi b J~ ..

Th is call of the various Prophets (on whom be peace), is brought nut in the Qur'an in many a place, e. g. ~

Verily t yo ur .naM i~ A ilalt (a lon e)- H e '"V~ 0 ere B ted the h~a vans. and the earth in a ix days1 and then ea. to. bltshed Himself on the Mighty ThroD'o; He it iii \Vho tl rD.W:!! th-e ni gh t n.:e a vc il OYer the day, e Be II seekl ng the 0 thur in ra pi d $ucoeialon ~ the sun a.od tli.e moon! and the star~ ure al I su bserv Ien t to H ia L. W lind Cum munds ; V cri Iy lit. is poll t~n t that aU area.tioD. is Hiliil. and &.utbori ty too ves is in II im Iand Most. BlcB2ed is He, the Lord of a II the Wor lds,

(7 : lJ4)

As);;; th-em (0 I Prophet) ~ oC' Wbo b it wh·!)" pro v id ee '&U3- t"., I!l.nG~ fOT l'OU fro m the bCQ VODS and th6 t".11. rth' r ~ it Be in W hose po\ver are: hearing and sight, a nd Who brings fort h t be H\' i ng from the dead and tho dead from the 1 i ving, and \VElo rul~:I!I 8 nd regn]a tea Q Il nffBil'tl 1" ,II you ask) they w Il l say" '~I t ill Allah (Who dnas .. U tIiiB).' t A!.k them, then, "Whe:f'f;!:fa1'8,. thella do you pot. fear Him (~nd

'4

"llar.go your WAj'~) r It (Say): hSu~h i. AU.h~ your real }lr6bt~ aud trn01 and, np&rt rrom 'I'ruth ... ",bllt rem. ina. but error , a.nd ISO ~. h-or.efore- do yo u go t turned est tBY ?"~'

, "

(10 : 31. 32)

He (i {.. i:i \Vh tl) crca tc d th C lie n. vena and the ea.-roth in T 1"Ul-1l; II 0 i t i~ \Vho rna kt::H the nigh t nvn r] a p til!.! d ~y and th e d.l Y (J 1,~c .. 1 j).. p tho night t an d made the AU n .and the moon suhscrvicnt {h) His LMW), each One fol1owh .. g B course tEl an ~ p ~olu li('d U me . -. .• S uch is God, your Btl u~ ; His i8 the I~i ngdrl m J.l nd thc1"a 11\ no iltl'h bu t It D; and. why II then,. do yu u k~(I'I' get tling tUE neil :I W 11:/ t (3g : 5J G)

A Ilah it hi \V ho ma.de the nI,h t for you t ha t you ma.y find rest and pea08 in it, 'an d. th.o d .. y in w h ieh you. arc

cna b l ed to see ..• ,. So e h {~ Allah) your &,,~ Cr~ .. to:&' (If ."_, tbiog+ Thera. 1:!5 n~ i.llJ.lJ-. hut H8; Em \vhy 8Te YCl,:) deluded ioto strt\~'ltlg ~ .~ .... A Haoh it i~ 'Vho m~f!: the earth 1.1 place for you to lh'n nf'ld r-nl"!it upon I and th e Eky a t{wr o v cr you, lJ..nd g!.'ve yn U F-h n. p<H:) an d grHld ;;.!.h Ii !lIJ So at t1l 0. t I and prov id ed fOT your pr.:lv i s hm good a. nd who 1 n:?:n me fuod ~ IS 1.1 eh is Allah I you r Ra ~,IIb Inn r1:ll so! Llcsaed 1.:.2 H e t the Lord of ;II 11 tbe "',. or lds, He 81u ne Is tha Living ~ One); t her~ is no 1lali bu t. Be I a ud to Him nolo no then .e. d d ress all Y(IIU r prEioyarir

,~O : 81L-c6)

And Allah (It \"QS ,\Vbo} created you {nun dQy ...... He m ~:tge~ nigh L in to liE!.> y a nd d~ y j II to nigh t, and. rnado tho sun and the moon u be y n is Lu w ~ each f 0 llo wi ng i ts c ourse \1 n til an i1-I!poin b u. t i rne. Such iti A11a h, your Ra bb ; in H iUI ves tB. ~ 11 Sover e ig:n ty. w 1 \ i le t hns ~ ~'o u en 11 t 0 besldes Him P0:SS28Z no auch .u.utho1"ity ~ and if you can upon them, the y ben r n~ ~ your c III 1 ~ "'n~ if th.ey did they would no t make a.rl)i l!cply and! on tlu.:' D.:lY of Judgement. t.hl:oy will (to "i au d if c.)m fi turn J l (bu l) re pudla l e (a.Dd d iSC)lj:r n} your H..Ssooi~tlon of them with God. (35 ~ 11, 13Ll(}

And to Him belongs .a, II thn. t is in th-e hea vens and the earth ~ a.nd a 11 are sb je~ t 1y obedlen t and su b.e;l;tt y Ie nt to

75

Him ' •• h+He propOunds to you n. similit.ude f.rom your own (t:':J:p8d enee 1 ~ Bu any of you r &10 ves a. share in ow n [ng n ny of the thi IIgg .,hkh We have ~tQwod upon you t Do the:: h& ve eq u" 1 I'igh. ts wi th you il}l tho. 0 wner.8h 1 p o.nd usc of thew t.b ~n ga 1 D~ YOil fell r them as yuu fear yonr equa T ~ 1 Tbullo do. we expound argumehls to paint tho. -n:-ay to roali ~y to thOAO with wisdom and \1 nderstandIni t bu t Vi ron g. doe 1'3 m-e"Tnly"foJlow their own ba.s(l]ess notlon9 ...... +ThI2'1,cfo~ (or Pro phet, and those of .y ou .... ho haJ hr~t in him], se t yuur faoo 06toa.dUy and truly tD [Ju"! "Fajth. ; establlsh Dod \13 ha.ndiwork neoordlng to th~ Jlattorn on wbjQh He IH\IS made manJdnd; no oQunge Jet. thero be in the work w!'ought by' JJ i m . T h [$ Is the ~bB igh to and eorreet road, bu t .w lUI y ill mong mankiud know tbis not. {JO ~ 26~ 28, :2Ct • .lO)

A ud ~ (the wtong-drn:m3.) did not a pprccin to God (and B i. .Do ttrl bute &) in prop ~I' measure, and (tht) y will iSBC t ha. t J 00 thlJ D;liLY of JudgeJllEln1 H~ ,,,"in hold the 'Cartb in his tist .. And the he"lifeoe will be rol J od. up in His rigbt lla nd ; b lhi::i~cl j s He a rid f a.r & hove the" (~U ppcscd) pnr tnl!'lU they B~tro-cjij, to with Him. (39 ~ 67).

And praum a ll I.!1I due tn AHah nlcne, th& Rabb of the heavens and tho Rabb of tbe earth, ILDd Ratb of 1l]J tho W or Ida ; and to Hi m he longs all G r-ea tn"N~3 and 0 lory throughout the hea.veM nnd tho earth ; and He is exalted in Power. and the. All·Wiae. (4': 3-8,37)

He is the R~bb of tho heuvnns and th(l enrth anri whntCloT(H' is hAtw~~n th.e-m ; 10 give your 'iMdah to Him 1G "\. Prophet) and remain $te..,dfo.&t. in your worahlp of H.im'·~ (and) do you .know of aught like Hin.. i (19: 65)

And A j J a h (&IoDC ~ knows the h ldden fr-Ill i tj es 0 f t llo hea\"'cns aud the earth, And to Hhn are re(lI!'tT!'ed a ll lll~ttel'l!4- so give ymu ·ifJ.Adah to Him ~ alone) ~ and reJ y not u pen Q;ny but Him. (tl: 123.)

He 18 the RalW of the East and of the WEll!;~; No ihih there ia hot HOJ and &0 entrust aU yQUt" affafrs unto Him

,

(aloDe). (73: Q)

'16

Verily this brotherhood. of yourB (th at is,. of. 11 tnt!

Propbe t.~) is;j,. sing le brothel' hood, and I am your Babb" w here{ore gi va your j ib~ to M e. Men ho.vo n p])Ortioned ""ii~iwbi~yok and the duty of '~b.Jdah On their own (without any sanction from Us). and all of thoro will, ulthn.taly, return to U~. (21: 92:~ 93) ,

Obey tho t which has been B en t d uwn to you r rnm your Ball-fJ, B nd do II ot 0 h~y 0 t herB besl de! Him (aa an pposed protectors or gua rrl ia ns), (7: 3)

Biro. Y (0 i Propbctj : I ~O!" people of the Bo ok ~ l'ledge your creed to that whi-oh. is eommon ootwcoo. us and you_, tbat we do not givo. our libJdal ta &o.y bu"" Allah ~Dd tbat We:! . a.seoDiate none witb IOm.!" and that we do not make Q..lly ,hu.m.a.n being a. t'abb bel ides lUw. (~: 64)

Sny (0 I Prophet): I seck refuge with tbe: (&le) Jlab~· or all ru unkiud I the fSo h!) Mo tu,rch OV ~ raIl lll::..n k i nd, a.nd the (Sole) Iliih uf all. U tIl.: I ~3)

So whosoever looks Inrth tu mc-eting lrls 114bbr let him do pious dccda, Bnt! wMm:::luto not. nony with hls wo.nhip of Him. (lS ~ 110)

T he foregoing verses bring OU t ns olea rl y as possible that tho Holy Qur"an uses Tub11biyyah as 6}( acily 5 yn on y mo us wi t h S overc ign t y, and th e concept of R'1.fJb it presents is that Allah is the Absolute Monarch of edt creation, and its sore Lord a.nd-:~ls.gtert and, as 811ch ~

He is OIl r Cheri s her and P rovid e r and S ustaln or, and of all that constltutes creation;

I t is He Who ] 00 k s after all our needs, go vern 9 all our affairs, aud lS alone worthy of our cntrnsting all 0 ur afrail'J~ to His rllscreti on ;

I t is by virt no of this very at tribu te t hat f ai th in Him is the only right b~i9 on w hi eh to build up

77

the structure of 11 um an life in proper numner J an d attachment only to His central Personage is capsble of bring ing together differ on t in d i vid lllb] s and groups and forming them into an U mmah.

He alone is wortby of tbe r;i·b«dah~ and submission, and worship" of aU humanity and other creatur·c9 ; and .

He alone .is th~ 'Lord, . Master. and Ruler, of oursel vea. and all. else besides,

The pa.gans, whether Arabs or ntbp.ra~· have ~lway9 .... commi t ted the error" w hi ch contin ues even toda. y ,

of Bplitting up the comprehensive concept of rolnibigyaA into its five facets as it they could exist

....

separately or be· ·Vf)$t.ed in different beings. Th~

Qur'an gives moat coge~·t . and lrre"Iutable arguments that the Universe is one, and that there is no room in it at all for Supreme· Authority and i-ZLbiibi!IYcm vesting in any but the same Being. 'I'he very fB:~t th At the universe is sq.b [eet to on e 8~ pre we 14'W shows that nwiibiyyaA i8 reserved 80]C]Y for AHab:- \Vho alone brought the universe into existence. Therefors, whoever a.ttributea any portion of rublibigJr-lk to any but Him seeks but to depart from or ignore the ultimate fundamental RealitYt to tum away from the Reality of the universe, to rebel against 1"~ru th, and, by thua going agsan st w hs t ex: Lsts ~ on Iy brin gs Joss to himself and uJ timate disaster.

. ~

CHAPTER 3

'IDADAH

Like the other two basic. terms aJready dealt wlth, the term ~ibadaA too haA several different mcanlngs, though all telated to each other, The basic concept implied by the root word, labd, is that of acknow]ed~g someone other. than oneself as holding supt~ma.(ry or enjoying overlordship and ~ (~£ abdicating one's freedom and independence in his fsvour, of relinquishing any resistance to or disobedience of hitn~. and of surrendering oneself tot~lli· tfi.hb authority. Since slavery or bondage too: R re tlrUiam·OJun t to aim j 1 a.r a tao tUB, tho fi rat sensa the word conveys to the mind of any Arab is of this

. very factor. namely. slavery or bondage.

. Ah~o~ since the prim Itty role of· & slave is to obey his master and carry out his wishest the word also carries the sense of submlsslon and obedience .. Next., a 9lt\r~ not only submits himself to the- will of his master physically, but mentally too he accepts his supremaey, and if be at the same time hD.SI feelings of gra ti t nde for h j a kin d nosaes a nd fa vou rs, he i" ilJ clin ed spnntaneouely to go out of his ~ay in extolling the master and in showing respect and regnrd for him. He ex presses and demoDlltrlltea

78

?9

his obliga.tion in many ways to Bhow hie deep atta.chment, ill a manner amounting almoeb to worshi p 81 thong h t 0 bv lously t this comes into p lay only wheDt in addition to physical bondage, there is mental attachment too.

There & re two at her senses .0.1 ~ 0 in w hi c h U l e word or its derivatdves are employed, but they Bore Sa cond a r Y t and hen ce it is no t n eeessar y to go in to

them at this It age ~

The Qur'iDlc Use or tb e Term.

On studying the Qut\\n we find that. the word is used wholly in the three senses explained above, except that on occaeion both t~e first and tho second aenses are ] m plied" on ot hers the second 0 III Y ~ on stnl others the third only and. in yet other p]a(:~St a 11 the t,hree. Here are exam pl r-s of usc in tho 11 rst and second senses!

(i) Then We sen t MUiR &nd ~ i~. brott\{~r H a roon, W j th dellr pro oil of the I r prophc thocd, to the Pharaoh and hi.i . no b lei, but they t.rnp.h: do them with di a.d aoi n beos U $0 of haugh ti DCli~ born of po w err ~ ~ ShOlll d we ~ ) ) they au id I

. 4<beUove in two m~r~ humans like ourselvee, and thAt too of tl nation whteh il! in bondage to UB r' (23: ~~·47}

(it) Anil tb1J Phareoh rcmlndod Mftl!!le. of having re!\:ed hhn from his ohl Jdh ood , (to which MullS; re plied): ,~ As for t be a hl iga tian you rem ind me of, i9 it no t. a fo.c t that h. pp.e-Dl:d only hac" Wile yon h.n d J1J a.d e the Bsn i Isr Ooflll your sIll Ve.B. (but £01" w liich flil,c ~ I rua y nelter h:lt. ve COme into your

household) ~ H {26·~ 18,22) ,

The words ':aabidoQn and ~abbadla employed res pe oti vely in the two versea im pl y bonda g c, au bm ission, and 0 bedicnce ~ When the P hareo h used

80

the first word in re:&pect of Harzrat MOsQ and Hs.zrat Haroon's nation, what· he meant \\"&8 that the Ba.ni Israel were iu banda ge to the EgyptiAns and flllly subservient to them. Andt when Hazz-at Mo.S8d(on whom be peace), used the second word in reply to the Pharaoh, he meant that the latter had enslaved tho Bani Israel and made them do his bidding.

(iii] O! you who l.u~Ji!\·e ! Ea.t of the clean &Il.d ,good thingi lVe ha vee bestow I3d on you rand render due ita titade to God, if you do truly givL! '1'badah to 111m alonn, (2: 1'12)

'l~he backgro u nd ~f this verse is th R t, in the pre-Islamic period, the Arabs [mposed varioua kinds of restrictions upon themselves in the m&tt~r of ea.ting and drinking, in deference to the dletatea of their priests or due to superstitions which ha.d come down from their aneeators. When, however, they embr,.ood Ialam, the Qur'an demanded that if the;{ now really felt that they owed 'ilMdaA to AJ1ah alone, they should forget all those restrictiOJU!t and eat without hesitation nll thab was permitted by Islam, The ide&~ cle&rly~ is that if they had now reaUy submitted theil' will to, tbn.t of God" they should shed all tho taboos imposed by their priests or anoestors, and iwtead observe only the Islamic injunctions in the matter of eating and drinking.

(iv) Bey (010 Prophet.): ShaH I teU you of a .rate wor.., than thb 1 It is tIt(:! fBte of tb.ose whom AUa.h placed tinder Hiff curse, who draw Hie. wra.th upon themselves, and. of whom mo.ny were t,.urlled into .£tope~ and swine, and ..,..ho :rend~d ~ibadaA. to fjghoot. (S ~ 60)

(v) And lVe sent Prophets unto 1111 the peoples (to' teadt tbam) to give theil' libUtUt to. Alilih fl Tl if not ta MgJwel" ••• n (16 ~ 36)

81

[v .) A nJ tht·rc fi W g(}OO t.idings lor tn O~ W ho: SM ve up J,

thu i~"MlJf1.h. of ta~hco.t cu~d udopted tha~ uC ~-\nah (hu!l:wad)~ .,

(19 : 1'7)

in all these three verses" 'iJJddak of tagoool means bondage to any or all of what ~hc latter term '

~tllnds for, that is, every state or authority Of leadership) etc .. _, which, in transgression again:it God, makes its own word prevail in the tlnd, whether by the usc of force or mtiznidation or through te.mptatiou and 80 on. And according to the Qur~un to submit to the dictates of all such autllorjty and

. ~ do its bidding amounts to no loss than tho oiibadalt of til g}60ot. 1ft

Now we come to some of the verses in which. the word ia UMd in the second sense only ~ t hs t of snbmis .. si on or 0 bedien De .:

(i) 0 ~ Sons ·of Ad.nn! did I not enjoin on yon tha-t. you do no t g i 'VC ' ibiidah to Sa ta n, fQ! be is YOlJ r a '1;'"0. wed ('"nemy ~ (36;: 60)

As everybody knows, no-ons reaUy worships Satan in the formal sense, and in fnet he is cursed by the whole world, and hence the above c-harge. which will be made upon mankind 011 the Day of Judgement~ means that people who obeyed the commands of the Devil and allowed themselves to

~ fr. N ilUll!lr in Egypt, and fitl u t to In I'.a.k;~ ta III we-re !J: tar ing rcCt!1'l t uamp11u .of T4gh'~OId~hI. Th..:rc ~Ja·.'of: been other.'!; be/or" else-where .. and tbi!l![Il!l iII.(t: mil; I.IY ancn.hll::t con rem por .:.ne"ou:;.iy. In!!! i::fD i 1 hf'i r WQlrd' t'l II:! 'i"Q. 11 :jjIp,iast It. l~lbl:51 Q n d iii vttkillS" p=r&onal i t) or secu [a r c!;I1 ts 1I!i: rhe btt let ItU~ ti YD forp:UIIiI UUI! ~ th~~ Uley wiU one :cby h.1'1,1 e ! 0 TC"t:n,1(:f" iIIIi:CO;JIl)l ~o ~ U~h, :abOnL of lin el.r·lhTy iillthorltY ... i";I.~L.tl!lljy .. bnULlty· from Min) for

• ~~ ~Jr ttiill.. It. bu Ailad

82

be misled to the path shown by him thereby in eif8'ct gs.ve their ,,:wadah. to him.

(i i) (And when it. win be lrhB Da.y ef J udgemen t" Cad wiU ;Bay) : ~JGa.tb-er togsth!!t all the wrong-deere lind th&ir 3MOciates) a,I!I a.lPj 0 the gods Dthe r than AUa.b to 'Who m 'hoy go vc their j ibUah and 8 ho 'W tbem to the doot of Hell. r.~" :11:1' And tJlCY will turn to one an othel' in dijlpu te, The wo~hippel'~ will .. BY, HIt is you wbo used to come to UFo fro m the right Mild (of p ower and author] t,) j I t Those worshi pped wit 1 reply t I ~Nay, (now YDU a. re blaming ua) but is jt no ~ tha. t you youraeI ve8 had no F&l th a.nd were in obatina te rehallion (to God).' l . (17 : 22t 23]1 27 Atm)

If we refte ct on the a ceus a tion and fJt1)B8- accusation . between those who g& v~ thel r lihadak and those to whoIQ it was glven, we find tha.t the latter do not here comptiae any gods or idols but those religious or other· ~ popul ar' i Iead era w ho came to the people in the garb of we Il- wishers or sa vioura of the nation

or Iiberatora, etc." and led them along the wrong pa thfo The referen ce is to people who put on san (.~i tied airs" and, while ol a.iming to be friendst caused misch ie f in the land. I t is blind 0 bedien ce

to au ch people that is here characterised as ~ibadah.

(i it) Thl'! Y (~J 8"1! :II nd Ch:dst ian!!) m sde their lco.~d men and priest.a thei r mhb& jnltea.d of All. h ~ and J ~8U! Bon of MGl'Y toQ, though they wcere not biddlMl ex.r.ept to g i ve theIr (iMrla.h to A lleh a.lone, (9: 31)

Here mak iug of the learne d men and priests .into rab~8 and the giving 0 f ~ibad aA to them does not mean believing the m to be gods; bu t making them the sole authority for deotdlng wha-t to do and w ha t not to do, and obeying their behests without

83

caring to look for any divine or prophetic sanction behind them. l"fhis ia the explanatiCtD which was given by the Holy Prophet himself (may paa~ be upon him) when9.on an occesion, the question was put to him. by a convert who had poo"'liou61y been a Christian~

Alt to the third SCDSe., of worship,. this has t·wo aspects e the first is that of performing one or more of the various rites of worship, such as bowing before

. tho person or thing, standing in his or itl presence with hands folded Q.CMf.:-; the breast.,. of offeri n g sa.crifices before it. etc4, irreape-ctive of whether the pen;oD1 eto., in vol ved is regarded as god in his own righ tor as someone a bIe to in tel cede w ilrh 4 me jor god or having a 8hare in the running of the universe under the control of tha.t god.

·The other is. to boliev., in the person, ete., a.s having control over the realm of cause and effect, and praying to him. invoking bim in times ot diBtress or trial .. and seeking his protection against danger or disaster.

Both kinds of acts amount, according to the Qur~3n,. to worahip, e.fI.~

. (i) S&Yt (OJ Prophet) ~ "'1 h&Y"6 been fO!'biddeon to worahip tho!5n whom YOll people wo;r.a.hip other thall: Allah now tha.t 1 ba:ve clear guid&QM frum my Ra.blt.:HI (4&:- 66)

(ii) (And Ibrawm oid to his pmplc): 'lAnd I part eompany .. ith :;0 rt a Ih) tu rn n u-ay £r0l11 }"'"Ou (all) and from tho~ whom you inyok-c other than Al1a.b~ and I IhaH t:'a)} on my Babb instead. ...... ~' And .. vhen he had tumlPd away from them and frotQ thooo t.hey wo~hipped. oth~r. thu.n

A Ua-h, We hlcS?:Cd him with 3 BOLl T!.Mq (Isaac) .••.•

(19 : 4.8, '9)

(.iii) And who i~ DlOIC astl"'ay th6Jl one who oa.lbi on thwm other than .t1.1Iah who win not make him any answ8r till DOODllilda. y and w ItO a rs in foct. 0118. Wa re 6Yfm 0 f being Invoked ; Bn~ wJ!e:n tht! people sba.ll he gath-ered on the D.y of Judgement, tnol!'e so ic-;-tlired wUl_ J,!!rn hostile to

. ~

th"f!In and wBl rUl]u(]inte t.h~.::i[' ac~ of wor.i!lhip. (46: 5 .. 6J

In all these three vers es, th e Q ur' an I tee If .clarities that by Jibiiaak here is meant calling on the e.Upp0900

gods or invoking the!n. for help, '

(tv) On tho Ij'llllct hand, they used to 'W'orabjp th-e jtnnil and many believed in them, (3': 41)

This worship .0£ JinD.S~·, (genii) is explained larer sa· f0110,,"5 !

(v) And eeme there are nmoog men who I:eek, the

pI'OtcctiDD of soma &mong the jlnns, (7]: B)

In other words~ to seek the protection of the jinns amounts to giving them worship and believing tha.t they have the power to grant such protecticn ..

(vi) On the Da..y when Allah wjll gat.ber thMll and the god. th~y llwd to- worsh~p othaf" than JUm, Bo, ",Ul aak the la.tter If'hetber it wal they "rho had mi~led the people or it -as. the ~p1e who bad the!lu~-e]~$ gone astray, And tb·ey win reply '.';G~ory be tD ym\ ! Uow could jt hu v-e been fit.titlg for n 8 to t.llk-e: (or prut ectoT$; others tJoeB id ~a. Y ou ~'I

(15 : 11~ 18)

The persons referred tu here as having boon worshipped are, obviously, the S;,1.lntly and the pious" while wor.sl1ip of thBm implies belief in their possessing BOnae of the attributes which arc actually divine and in th~jI being capable of listening to and

. granting the prayers .of someone far awaY:t and the

showing of respect for them in such m ann~r amounts to worship.

(vii} And 0 n the Da. y when Al1a.h 'tV ill gather tltem toge:tnor• .nd·w ill 3BY to th-c Q.Ilgah : ~'Are you those they wotsh1ppod ! ~ ~. and th~jr w j n repl y,. u a 10 ry be to YO" ! lVbnt. hsvo W~ to do with thlJm t It i'4 Yon Whom we nga.rd as our Protector. j, (34: tJ,O~ 41)

Here the {.ibiilah of tho angels meaoa their worship, for w hie h purpose their I do 1 s were kept in p Iaeea of wo rsh i p, an U VA rious a eta. 0 f worsb i p were gone t h to ng h in the ho pe cf pleasing them and winning their fa.vours and enlisting their help in worldly a.:ff airs,

( Y ill) And tho y used to war~hj PI nthe r t.han Allah .. tho:!., w hu ha.d DOt the power to do them ei t.her harm 01:' good! and USE!:d to soy, ~ LThe60 ·are nur intercessoza with God. ,. (10: IS)

(i1.) And those who ha Vf!I taken othetili t.hau God M their he 1 pere, an d sa y : I ~ W -a do .not pt]rfol'IIl a..attt of wonh ip to w8nI"s thein oacept that th8j' bri rig Uil nea rnesa to God.· J

(39 : 3)

Hero to 0 the partie ular acts of worship amount to .. ibJdah ~ and the p e.r tieD lar manner in which it did is also ind ica ted",

All the a. bove ex am ples 'ill ustrate t he use of

~ tho word lIibU an (or one or rna re 0 fits dcriva ti ves] in on e or other of the three sense 8,1 and we ha ve now to give some examples of the comprehensive use of the word, embracing all the thre-e. But b ... ,fore

.we do SOl" it seems desirable to be clear aboub One point.

86

In a] 1 the verses oited above, there is reference

,:."

to the worship of others than Allah.. Where worship

(JiMd'aA) implies bondage and BubmilJaiont those worshipped are, either the Devil. or those rebels against God who have become tig'hooU and who, instead of m3Jcing people give their obedience to God. make it exelusi ve for the mselvee ; or those leaders (whether pclitlcal of religious) who ignore til e injunctions of the Qur' an And make the P(\;O ple follow the ways devised by themselves)' Where

the word does mean worship-that ia~ performance of various rituals of ,worshi p~ ot,c.:....: thoSe worallipped happen to be eith6I" the saints or other pj~~8-:peo.Ptet or the Pro phets who were raised to tit.., B ta t us of godhood in varyin g degrees contrary to t heir own tML":hlngs ; or the angels or tho jinns 'who, through 8. misconception" were believed to have 0. share in divinity; or idols or imaginary powers or other physieal teI1Ies~ntation9 which became the objeots of worBhip through the insinuations of Satan. 'I'ho Holy QlJr'an pronounces all such gods or objectiJ of worship to be rals:e~ and their "worship~ to be \V rong, irr.cspeetive of whether it amonnts. to bond age .. or obedicnee, or the actual observance of the rituAl of wors hi Pol All, insists th6 Qur "an, are G od 's creatures and Hia slnves.. They have no right to be given an y kind of won hip, nor does this worshi p beget anything but &uatra ~iont and debasement, A]] ah alone :ia the Lord of all, whether it be theso gode

17.. ..J:.t the upln,rden of II.·KclDilUml'''a :IlDd II'IPbclubd .. ••• two lu::~ncat SOCll]ad,{ COUQipb. bo~b prefeJ'.red opeDl, to .Islam.. tho PGrl:! MlDlim~ bc:iDl ~ted &ad cvm m.aticned h memla of the- .:ouatry ..

Abu AKd

87

or the reat of ere a tdon, and He alone hall all the power and the authority sud, hence, He alone is deserving of worship in nny o£ the senses of the

word: .

(il Verily tholW you wouhip &1'8 Go<rs creatures like you, sc oaU the-nt, a.nd let them Dlr.k-e reply to you (thll. ... IS! gra.nt your pla.ycrn)t if you. arc ill tho right ...... And thuse to w hOlll you ('8 II besides Him) een Dei th!!'r help yon nOr. (for the IJlAt ter of tlla t} even tbem ~lve8. (7: 194. 197)

(ii) And they gay that RBhm:i1l (the GOd of Me:TCY) has taken a. sun ULLto Himself. }'ar 6000ve is RoO of sueh a. thin g 1 Th~ Y (t hn FHl ppn!! Ella sons] are, 0 etually, His ereo tu l' as W hom H.~ h 1lP- honou rml. (Ami), c t, del pi to thl s hOD QI1 r) they dare not open rhei r mouth on thoit own to m.&kc Il.ny subm~siou to Him. They only tlo as He bids. z10 knows what l!!l: "~i;jble to t.hern, and also what il!. hidden from th(.'1n. They caunct in terccde w jth Hi m in behalf ora nvon e (a ~, ~ 11) ~ ve w here If.e H ln~ ~l f ". isbea to accede iu any lnteTce8sJ.on. And t.hey aJ'u constantly in ~l\'8 of Hiro. (21: 26~28)

(iii) And the.y ha.ve. m ~de goddeM86 of ang6]~ 1 VO' ho are at.:to..ally oren t ures of Ar·Rahma~jo '.rho M-el'ciful God r

(43 : 19)

(i "T) Anu ~h~y ha vc II ssumc d sOIUa blood rela tionshjp betWtl en a ad and the liOD!, though the j inns know foI' th.D:u!:e"lv~ tbat they 'will Que dBY have to appear before Him to accoun t for their conduet. {37 ~ 15 S)

. (v) N~i ther did J CSUi consider ~t benea th hi ~ d igwty to be A ala V8 ot AHa h, nor do the angel..; and Wh0800\'"et' considers it benea 'th him to give hi m se1 f in bondage to All&h, (then where oan he escape. from H1m~ and) He will gil the l' t1.£ILi aU to H1Dl1.:elf. l4 ~ 172)

(v j) ThB Sun and ihl) )(000 _:both. follow co U1'1!Ie1J (cxaGtly) oom puted : ruJd the pla.nts and the tree~ both

88

(a 1 ike.) bow iu adora tit:lD and 8U bml Yion to A lla.h (thei T Crea tor)+ (~:5 ~ 61 6)

(vii) TJ10 le~CJl heavens aud the cBrtb, and nll beings. therein.. proe III i 01 His Glory; l here is. nat & thing hut celebratea His pruises , e~c~pt that YOLl underataud .it not. (17: 44)

(viji) And to Him belen g all baing. in the hoa \0 em end the: 8&l"thj Bud all aro IiIU bservlen t to If t~ commands.

(JD : 26)

(i.l:) And there is not 0. ere s.1. ure that In ove~ but He h.aa g.tlLli!.p of i w foreleck (tb&t lst coznplete control over it). (11 :~)

(~) fl'hcl'o j:Si not & single being in the boaveDI and tho earth but \\' ill come to (0 od) Most. Graotous as a. bonded a.la".. 0 i He d{}f':~ b..ke accoun t of the m (a.' I), a.n d h$i T num bared th em {.BoU) cx~~tl y . And ev eryone 0 f them will come t9 Hi m 8i Ilgly on thl!'l De Y of J udgemcu t. (19 -: 93-95)

(xi) S~y (0' Prophet) : ~IO Cod! Lord of P()V'~ (and RI11e). You Grant Power to whom You p]ca:is, and F5h~d Power ffun~ wb o m Y 00 please: Yon endue with honour whow You please, and You bring low whom Y{lU p]eas:c. In Y ()U~ hand i" [\J I Good I ~. V criJy • You hill loTtf (&11 th.,) power elver fI,,-erything. (3: 20)

H & vin g thus cl arifled en. tegori call y tha. t all who are worshipped besides Al1ah in any form were or are no more than HiB creatures and slaves with no power or authority of their own a.t a.]], the Qur'an demands of all human beings and jinns th at ~ibiida h m u st, in w h a tever form it take,. be reserved exclusively for AUa-h_ .. All bondage, submis .... lion, and worship should be to or of Him alone,

.....

1&. That i:I. 110 tcod. "0 como to a DY bt"illl ulllr::u A n.ah Will, u .0 ..

Abu Alad.

89

and there should: not be even the Iligbte9t semblance of these for. un yone 815-8 :

(j) AIi4. \V ~ sent a messe nger to .fI very peopl c '"It' i th tho m~.ala.~ thll t Lbcy give t bel r ~il;ifda.A to A 1 ~ ah and forbear (TOm gi v jog it to t~r11cat. (16 ~ 36)

. (li) Goo d tjding9 II.re £01'" thOBB l'P' ho tU!'Ded .. way I rum the ~ibj~daA of lti(1Aol:ll, and eurned to Allah inste.d. (39: 17)

(iii) Ditl I not enjnln upon you, Ol soua of Adam, .not to gi ve yo ur LiNd:~" to Sa ta.n, fot he h~ an D pll'iD flneOl·Y to . you~ but to 81 v8 i ~ to Me ill stead Bnd th air ia th~ a.traigh t pBoth f (36: 601 al)

[l v) T h-ey made the ir ) ea rned wen o.nd pri tsts in to Rabb3, al though they W09rt1 not. bid~en e-): oept to gi va their 'iblIdak. to AUnh alone. (9: 31)

(v) 0' yun wbo believe. llf you ha.vc reaUy mQdtl yonr_ "'ilxidc..\ eXci1,l8!v. for Us ~ then eB ~ W ith ontO hesitatfon of the clean and good lhiD~ \V 8 ha" 0 belLo",,' cd upon you I' and render gra t~t ude to God. {l: J 72)

In these verses the tibldak which is ordered to he reserved exclusively for God is that which amounta ·to bondage or slavery .ruid submission and obedience, and the i mpH en. tion oleae ly is tha t men are b ein g to ld to forbear giving their au bmiasion ~Dd obedience to tig1wot~ to Sat~~· to the priests snd rabbIs, and to fathers au d Corefa there, an d to give it instead to Allah alon 8 ~

(I) Say (0 ~ Pro pJH~t) : i iForbi dden it. hi lor me to .gi va my 'ibarlQ:A to those. to whom you. ca.! l instead of God. Clc-~l" ~igm. have I reoej~ed from my Lord .. &nd 1 havB ek() been bid~ to bow to the Win of the Lord of .. n tho Wor]d,/~

(40 ! 66)

...

.

00

• I • • I ~. I' :. I I',. ', .....::.... '.. ~,"': .~ ~ :'.: -. • '. • .' I •

. r , . (H)· AIrel y~llr J:~M) .ha .. p;~i4 ~:~.·d~l~ .:00 i:I';~ ... ~(( t .Bb.~l

hear your vra.p:rlL-·~n~ ~:iIi fo-r; 'thns.a- wh.iJ go·aga.inlit lay Gammaup8r -.th4.!Y wiU ~"u'rl:]Y· h..-.:tiung into. {th~ firf:.) of h-cll. r~

... .. , ' . . . (040. : 60)

(i j i) T h.~ 19 A Ui. ll:; trw,. 1l4irb of a Il : uf you, AU Power .... i.!IJ.: .IUs a.ll)ne~.a~~d .~U ~~~ tho~C'. Y<,m .c~U to: ot~(;f! than Rim, : ~~.~v C:l.~ .~~t: o~'J:~.~Yly ~\y..>r ~ ~f you call .to -t~~ln, tbey do

.: . .,UG \i ~t~n '·to ')'mn'l p~Cl;, v ~.r! a~d ir they could ~)8ten they

\\~(lltl~· not- hl..' :lh'~ to t\!-~fwIlJI·;Uld 011 the bay ,,[ ~Tudp;ement they 'wnl ~imply ·I-ep"Ucii""-to ytiur· bssoeia'tion of them with

God ~ f3S: 1:144). . ..

(iv) Say (0' Prophet) : ~'Do you' giv-e' '"ai'idull to· tboae. other: than·· AlI~h who bav~·pow~ .-to ... 10 you nr ithcr harm.

. '

. : : norgond, (~ht\r~:ls) ' . ..:\Huh· nlOIl(' - i::i . thftl- ·AIl,;~,,",fttg·~. AU ...

Knowing." (S: 7G) .: .. , . ;: ...

.: .. In those .veraes til o ~.D;lp'ha.sis ie en making .liibadaJt· ·-e;xclus1ve·: fGr:Allah:f in ·UtS sense of. worship, ··an~l·there ·is also evi~~~(~ 'that. tbe ~'~djng up of. llrayera to SOIIJeOne·:"j~· rt:i"so an act of t'lJa'riG·'h~ ·While t,he.· veues. :tl:utt·: precede. ·aBli· folJow·-·.thoae· quoted 'Shove speak: or.-these supposed gO~5 .who were treated .&S co-sherers with. ·Allllh, im···· n~:·. n.dJiibiyyah : .. in ~the

aupetna.tural,sensc:.· .: J-: .:.'_.: : .. :.~~: .

.. , It ahoultl" not,th-ere.foto·: be dHBft·ul~ for anyone

19'!"": .... r .... iu-·-3 ·d-OI:~~'....;..~-ot·.m~Il;; th~~ aU t:bt: pra~J~· ~il! . ~~ce~s~riJ~ : I:I~ .@r~~ted lhe ... : w!.1 . oik;~ ·wl~t-h::s;.' ··T~: Hcly::P'ropbet .iI; rcpt:'·rt~d 1:0 bDv·li~lta[ed·· en ·WU!! eecaslen tb at lily prilyc:r -e"Yer go CI. m5tll!!. E I Lt:I.e.r AJ11lh A.Lm4iJf11 &tanl s h. er He: bcuow.i IiIQmelh Lng b~lta-ma:f be: Ilftt'r some time-e-, Or · .. He ·~V(!rti loth!:! harLQ·of dls.u~ iMI~~:·It'1nu.u·"bcliDdentoOd. bow~

, .t,"cr ... af.ld ,tw pQi.Ql d~" :Qq~ .i).tW· . .a.a;y -.ilum=:t that Hu: l'f,9Je.r ID'Ln.t · be fQ.(' sOIll!:tbjog liood.· If .~~uld b.tJ; ,hc: b.eiJh:t: Gt d~tl."'it)'. for · .. elliLm·p,q. for ·l!Com~· ·miIIUld(·~ ·:{o;ol, t,D ·pray that Allah eDable bim to

:!IIed~·ce . ,he·· 'wife:: of' a hico.d· -or··to' ·ci;kt: It ;·hup ·~IOfil·· iii·:. ··bleck:~. m.:tl:Cin. U'IlD.ar:::lioll~ and ';0 (PD. AGd he ~tllh::.!.Y C:l.n "have 00 .rilbt

to fClCl !lJD,I.rateiuJ to /lUah fOr .not ~E'II.aU(J1 hiit Pr.ayer. ~ AIB.d.

........

. ; . 91·

with .even the, least .scnse to und erBt~~d th~t wh'mVcr th~ Q«r·~~~.~p.e~b.Q{~(t. ~ibJ4~h of Ati~~ ~~ it does not appear from the ::context th~t:.jt. ·la. ·.Used 6p~·cifi. oa,uy: - in one: _ or··o.th~r .. J.).f. i t~! t~~eE:. ~ijfere~ t: ecnses, it eneempassea all the. th'[.~· . na.~ely,.. ·b9nd~gel sub-. missio n, and worshi p~ . e. g t.·: .

. . - (iF" ar 1.I.v ~ T ,. ttl. Al h:i;h ;: .tt. ere ;i~ .uo ilJA Lilt. I; the:re lore -'. :.' . .gl" I01U Iwid4h .to)~e ~~Jo~e). r~n.: 14} .

.. .

. ., . Hi) . T hi~ i.e:: All U. j . your . RaM ,.~. tbeJ-c- .. i-." no. wa ~ I'U t

H~- th~. CI'.C!l:LU.r: of D.:ll tha:t : ~x,~~ . ~ th~refo~ ~iv o .~; on r . ·'biiduh to .. l.\j.J.1l (aJone)~:.alld, He ~t. iiS: ~bo ] t) ok s' af~~r .ever·y ...

thiug a~tl jt·~ noeda, . (6 : 102) .... ." . ..

• I •• ~: • :. ..,: • ':. I . -.. . . . ... .. i. ..' . .' .

(IH) ~~j lq,~_ Prophet] .. : ... .'.0 People, if JOU are . hi doul.t

... . M t 0 ~'h'a i J~'y··Ja 1i· 'ft, theo··lfl·i it be ele Il.l~ to ·j"o·u, t h& t (do

J:10t gh:c .I~l.~: "ihttdan :to those other than Anilh· to whom you ~ i'te ~\tU rs ; in& t~ad=~: I ~iv e lil ine ·to: Allah, \Vho caUiea . ~'f) u

CI . ~ ._

to t.I jet . and ' I have· bee n co m m &.n~ ed to be- of ~.u~ vei'.i5: t ~ n

.:,:; ;_Hiftl~/;~tfl1t~:~01} ." ... :.". :.,:::. . ..

- L~ i. ··ti*·t~"Pilos.e .t-o wh~- you· give :yuur lIiWdah .. others : lp.;"l1 . ..AI1a.h, they ~~ :notthiug, .~ut.- . ."tbil1g.~ -or ~:e~np who:a;L YQ~j hrtlfB:UJBl'.I!I and you yourselvea h~I.·~~· ·under .. f~1~6 ' ~QtlUIl·5:1 come to believe a~ invested with divinity ... ·Aiill.h Hjm~]f

~.

haB not SE:.Il.t down nny proof therefor. ~o Allah alone

belongs !It! Power und the RC.llIlll~ Cle~rl)' ·has He ord,a·il.led th&.t to none hut Him may one giva on'!!'. fibtidoA~ and t:.hat

t alene] i! the B tt'aigh t pa t,h. d 2 : 40) .

(v) And AUe.h alone knows t.he l"eaHtje! unseeu bi man ; with Iliru u Ione resta ulLhl.t.[)..te dispensat.ion ; therefo~ give you't' jiMdah Lo Iti m, nnd in Him alone 1)}alD.e your· r-eliJLm;~~ (11: 123)

{vj) To Him (Blane) belongs aU that is In front of us Q l' behind tt~ or ill bE;!ltween ~ nor i ij YOllI' Rrabb gi von t o ·J.a.fz~'" of memory: Ha .is the Rab~ of the heavens and t~w e.a.rth and whlltevet' .i.e, in between ; thel'eIote a:i"ra 'your

92

iMdaA 1.0 Him alone-. a.nd ~ep IteadJut-' in &ucb ~iMda1t. alone + (19 ~ {\4:. 63}

(v it) So, w bese "i.s hK to meet HilS RQ'bb ~ t.~n Je' hlm. do p loua deech, n nd not m ~x u p the 'ibldn.h of hi~ I llfIhb wUh tha.t of .nny Qtilor. (18; 110)

~ . . .

There tru 1y seems not. th e 8] igh test reason for

tn.k in g the wo rd 'i bad a h- 80S used in these verses to have only one or: other of the three senses, of wcrshi Pt b(Jndaget or SoU bmission. Actua.Uy.t the Qur~.ii pu t.s i ts whole d'awah and it! import in verses like these and, obviously, its whole dfawah is none other tb an th at. our bondage, our submission, and onr worship. should all be for Allah, wholly and ;e~l~b'. Th erefore, the restriction of the meaning of the term, in th e above verses, to ju s t a ny On e of the three

..

sensee amountB to placing' a limita.tion on the d#;au:an

of the Qur' a nand th e Iogioal resu It. of this would be th 11 t t b ose w ho em b race the J sln mio f -1ith with such a restricted' understanding of the Qur'anic dCau~a.h will be able to achieve only a sub-standard cow .. p 1 i anee with it s pre copts and will rem ain ~def ecti ve in their Imln.

·CHAPIER 4

DEEN

Usage aDd Meaning

Like ~e three terms. already d_ealt wi.th~"· the £-oUttht and last -of the bnaie Qur'9.nic te'm~t· namely, aeen, had d iff oren t .con notl\ti ana a.mong· t Le A rsbs ~ and their use of it And its various derivabives "' ~volved ro~nd one or other o'f the. following four .~"c·~eepts· or relatioullhips .. etc., ~amplF ~

: ...

.l~ Dominance, or away" on the part ~l: someone

in autholitv ;

..

.2. Obedience, servitude ... or worship. on the part of the one :sub,mittiDg to the RQthority;

3~ . Laws, rules or regulations or code i~~o&ed:r and required to be observed, in tf:..~ context

of t};te above·relationship ; 'and .

. / . .

,. ea.mng to account (for obedience or nOD-

obediea ee to ~h e A uthori ty or for com ... pl.lance oe non-compliance lfith its dictatos], passing j udgement, and pronoWl(~g rew axel or punishmenz.

The word had not, however, a,t/tained the sta.tu,.;,; of & formal term as- such beforo the revel 9.H~Jn of tlh:

Qur'nn, The Arabs were riot vpry c~~a: in their·

93

.

minds &S to the eencepta involved nor were their

ideas lofty in this centes t and tha t is tbe ·teuon why the word ba.d not found .its wuy into the terminology of any systematio· and recognised school of thought. It Was in the Qur~n.n in which, obviously be-uause the word w e.~ pa.rt i c U] Dr] y a ui ted to its purpose, tha.t it ',Y.Q.8. given 'Very clear- cut and defin~e

. connotattone, and-it was this &~peet whiohmado the word one of the most importAnt .iu the Qur'.aD.i.c ter:mino]ogy. In thl;t terminology, :it·stAnds for ~ihe entire wa.y ·of life. ofwbioh the compOsite fautors are!

1. . Sol'"l"l'f'lj gil ~ Y a nd 8.U preme au thod t y ;

2~ . Oh&dl.eDce .Docl suhn:twion to luch authority;· .

3+ 'tbe ·sY8tern of th~ught and Q..ction ~Ita bliihfld th~ngh~·

the exer.oi!lc or"th&t 'Autho.rjty ; arid· .

~. Retribution ·Jlil!tt.,d aut" by tll •. &uth~it1' i8 aonaideradon .. of· loyal ty and 0 bed ient!a t.o H I or r-e-bel1j on and

trllnREreltion aga. i :1;1!1t tt, . ' I

. .

.. Anll. as in other ·oases·l.the Qurta.n employs the

term, on di.fferell.t· occasions, in one or more of the nbove lou·r MII&~9t but where th.c blt~tion i.1 to Itnply the whole way· of life; it ·U8e1 the. definite

~ . .

article '.ar before the word, to m~e it, read···fj.l-Det.nt

. . .

Examples of. such dif£~nt uses' are all foIJ~W8 :~

. .

first", Second StIIM

I t is A] l~ b Who lU'.1 made. th. fI.r~ ae • ~la.r p:r.ee

.. tor you: .nd the r:&-y &- OQt10py. and hal· given JOU .ma.pe -and whnt a. piece of work it ia ·I-~nd haa provlclcd for yo ur p;:l1IWna~C~ thingi puro a.nd w holcsDme ~ suoh· ~ An::J..h~ you Lord~ Sa Giory be to AllBhl the l.rOrd of the Worl~. He il the LivIng (One) ; the,.. i! no god bllt 1[6 i.

95

., ....

. " . .

, 80 n ddn=~ yaul' prayera to 1iimJ tnlll:.ing you r d" r. i!: n f!X~lusj V C

.:. ::. fW Rint,.·.: P~.iM :W·~. to· AJlah·j, ~.the: L&ril .. l}{ thc··;·'\'u~lJ.~·.:

. . , , .. :.:'; .... ; .:. .: .. : ~ ,... . .... 64 ~ GiJ):

j.~.~ • : -, • ~ ", - ,',,':. '1 t ,«. • _.:: .... : ':'i,-: "l

.' t.. . ~~y (q ~ ~.¥ll~(d.ad):;.: ~tl b~ lfO·, i.~eh; hi~d~ri i in.: g i "...,: ··m s .. 'ib~· t~: :~~~ ·iro~~ ~ ,,11-iY· !Ii:r.:.c it cC £.clll31vU it) ·Hi m:·. ' .[1 riil

.:( .~i~.~~.~,.~~:l~Jb~:~~~ ~f~J~}~; n~~'I~~~.L.~~v.qUt, ": ·r.~ ,Say .. : .. : ..' ~ ~~ ~~.n~~~~~~) :~ .~,'J\ i::.1~q:~ :~Cl :~~:~!?~ })~\·~.'.~Y.:i~dM-~ .

. • .. 0 ··!MtLkfrig"ivy dh:n ciclu,[o:i.l\Te _fu.l' H . .tlU ; (a.~d Rt .. ~or ·)~~u~) ~ gi~e:

· . . .:: I. " ",' - ; -:. I ::- .;.... - • :'~;',,' • ~." __ • : I .,' - •

· .. ~ ~ tn-: whoc V(!t·· ·ot w t. .. t"SlJf' vt r yo~ m 8.~'" wrs h to gi ve i ~

.. to· (if ·-you: ; *in· not, . ! is ion· ·tb·· me b-.1 t ·~1M\? t'ri: co'~ t~n'u~ . in , ..... n)lf, ;,y1'ODa-·. wa~ii}~ ,~~ c. ~ )":.' And.a:!f for:: thoatt.) :.wh.o·':·"t-e·. ·~:"'-ef\,d

-' ~.\ .-""l.n " ~,~ :" ~ Co ..,r . . . . .

. :. <.~~~~ ~¥.;~.9~6.~~~~ ~.:sJv~~: ~~i1:: j"'bifda~~' til '4k~ ···and·' " who .. t.u:m ~~ ~ Ua.~, :~~~':l'~ .. '. ;t~t0 (~lrrc~y~~:nJ'"l. g~~.~ ·~~in;~ {or-. them .. (~ : ·11 ~ ·14 ·&t17j' .. .

. . :: : I': : . .:.,

V ~riiit5Va ha v.c sent dowD to yo~ (0· M.u~.~zn.~d) .. ~.

Book 'W itb Truth; Lhe refol'er • like yo-t n r~ tU!iI<ei01U5ive "f ru:.

;.'~1 Al}~h, . ,~.~: ;~~~p-. !4~:~!~,:+.l.a~&.·.·.,·~"fk 1 ~~~

, :.: . ~n~~~~.r, t,o .~~ (~~~.i!~D1: ~1~~)~. (3t;: 2~3)

-. : .t ... \ ... :. }9 ... ff-j~ .~~l~g~.a.~l ·t~~~ .liS.· In :tbe ·oo&l',fjna . .and

· ,.h~ -Elan an~ ~.tI.7J .. J4. «lgb.t~uUy) .His alGll.~ .. · .,",·DV ·ha it

'. . I . __ I. '.. .. ,*

~I"'~ ~ ~~~!,},~~~. r~~.,~!:r o~ ~~t:~ . ~~, \t ~y yaa should·· fear }Hm

~ ,. (B1~~~)J .. ~~~.: 6,~) :.' ":--.. ;.;...': .. :.... ' . : ..... ~. ..

I I' I.... -' .

.. ::,~.T .! r.'~ I.~~ ,(tbo ~~o,":~1Jj;"~J,' w:irit· ··somo dte,,·· oLm,r . than < ., Allah '8 •. and thi~ daapitc tb" follet that. to Hiiti.··.rif:iut,.. .; ,· .. '. .. 6t!\'1t'ft1i.,:Wjnrt.gli ~bt ·nnW~l1~b~Iy,;~~.if. "i~~: o~~·~~ -.:and

.. :tlili .. g. )luit: 'eomiitu If! tb ~. u 0 ~ ~~n'.~ t ~ nil to: . .H.i~ . i -. ~ ~ .. ibA. t

. ~:. :thCY.· ~·aTi'·(Bj1j),~~~~ftl:f:· . .(3 .: .83) . . .. '.. . .

,. : ~ ... . .. :., . . ... .:.. ,.. ..

:: :.- .... ,~ :ADd tfie1 ~~ ~ 'bidden 8i~~pt th.a_t ~·b~.·· giv·~ . t~ir : ~ "jM(l~ . to· ·..-\118.1)';. ~ikiDg·~·.iit~ir· ·~tn.· ·e.J:cl~h'e. ,for Him

. f8~d Hti¥t· aloQ-li-r~(·:: ,'I .: ~} ., .. .... .. .

.... in alt··tho ·:ab~~~. examples . the word ha.~ been .. eti;lployed·· :to '~gniry .. the vesting. of· th~ Sup·reme .actl!9t·l t y . ~n . .411 ah alone ~ tad t a eknowl edgczn en t of that fa et,. and. oom p lcte UD q u(;~t.i on ing 0 bed ien r. c a~; 11

, . .

.96

8ubmissicJll t~ tllat ~uthority. The making of oT&e'!s d(~n exclusive for AlIa.h means that oneshould not treat anyone .other than AlJa·h aa having the ultin: J.te· authority t domain. and rulersh i I} over the

_--. universe, and should ·so make one's obedience o.nd STlblru~on. exclusive for Him tha.t there is no asaoeiatien of . anyone else with Him in tbis respect. ''''"hat is required is that there, Rhould not ~. even the sHghtest element of asscciatdon and treatment ·of anyone. else as having -8~vereignty or auth.ority and he-ing entitlod to obedience and submission 818 of

Independent right .. 2Q .

The jhlrd Sense

Say (~.)" It''J.h.~mmad) : ~·If you 8Uff'Ct from· &Il] doubt~ :t~ t r,) the- deta.illi) or validity or r&tioonUty of my dNA" then 1 e t it be k 0.:) wn to. you th~ tId e not gi \i.e my ~ib4dah to Myl!n~ other than Alb.b, 110 \VIto (having &101l(, the pOwer in this 1'~gLtrd) ·CQ..QS~~ you to dlc ~ and I hj\ve be~n bidden to b:~ of the believers (;n Him), and to aat my conduct and ccerse wholly .Q.ofl solely aeconl.!ng to the DUJa. and not. to

lO+ The jm~liCllticn here il that .any ,ubrniSllOO to an1on~ ather t~Dn AJJ3:!:. i.ho"'J~d .only b~ in rH.UlH1DClI -of alHI il). .ocnfo.rmity wilh 'the ObCsUCDCI IIIIlJ,J $.1Jb-m~ui~n due e,cl-wi\'e1y to llrlUt and wttb s.c:rupUiOLl! r"2~rd for

t b e ti:n~ t$ p rescr jbe-d. by It j m. A ;[)ytb in, dOGe by a $0.1) i D obc dience to :h; command, of hti f'alhr::r, by a wife tl) thooe o{ hc:t tn,li$b1n-d. by a. Ibt·t or !llie,vult to. thOle cf his. master, ·ilDd aU othor m.a~~fC.ili:iUioDI of ·obedftt\oai: consthute, noawHhsuuuHcl tho- g.(ltCil"fl.of the relatlOA-8hip ir i~ purs.u3ll-Cc of AUa.D':-> f!)jullctlon, BDd witbin th~ limits- pre.act..ibed -, by Him, suhmlsalon 10 Him iii practi<..:e am], u such .:tctJ: Qr ~ih4.thh. tt~ bO'ili'e .... er I t h(:y rio JJ.Ot sa t ;~f!P' th is cdt!i:! ri ce, a od obe[!i~ncc il Jendetcd to J~rr:::eun(: a_ .. If 1t .. vas- r..h.te·tt) him n! <.( rlld.;;p(:[)'~.Jllt t~gllt. lh-er ~mOu.Dt ,Q il!1 • .!"nll rcheH .-vn i);;!;;a i nst A I t-I. h' S COnlolnatl-ds. r a ZiI. state f-ouoded 3:"Jd ·r~n in: accch dan ce wi th HI1: Law,·it i~ the retta.I(.I\U duty of e.VCfY M;:;,fim tb obQY t'hr; stare and all Hs. c ... Hnmaod1, Hit h not sO fOUGded 8QQ run, ttl1:n it is sin to -ottl!Yr A. A. Mau:duli1i

97

becon1~ one of tho&EI wbo n~cia to: ·~thm with AU.b.

. (10 : 104-103)

Attthority veati!l in AUah .Ione. (And)]U. has Oom~ 1'!1 nnded t,h."to we do not gi vo ~ 1i6d.fcil to .. oy except H;m.; tb.ia is the Des», :right and proper. (11: -lOt

And to Him belong an who are. i Q the hoa v.en:lil B nd the eartb r An ~ re au b~uH~~iebt to lit 10. • • • He hu pro .. pounded to. you a Shlliliturio from yonr own (I!%perjence). I s any of your s!;,b re s a p.l Tt·ner wi. .. h yon in the ilq.Qoty WEI h~vl!! conferr@od upnu YOII ~ J~ )'ou lQab thl(tDl equal vart·ncl:"ili in youI' oW.Ll~l·~hip of )"Qur ~!lCs8ioAi r . ~. The

, truth i:i that tbf'C:fII nu~guhlcr.1. peoplo foUow their owo wrong and baselesa not ioQ..9~ Idcaa a n~ do&ita .... it hOt] t proper . knowledg-o •. , se : you. (0" MUMmmAd} kL yOUl'" r,:u:.t Ht.r-aJght upon the IJuJlt. and follow tile nuturnl courso meant by Allah for men.:tl It .lili· not tight thnt ~'n.b ti . DfJ1ilD. be lnterfe-red. wiUl. This is tho: right and prope-l" De.e:n: and yet m a.ny Go peiap le kae w this not,

(30 : 26~ 28, 29 I; 30).

The a.dulte~:II .... nd the ad",dt~reN. let. them both b., siTEln a J;luDdred ~~rlpel eaclt" .. ~ let not pity overCome you in B. rna. ttOl" of All&h ~I D.~U: .. . .. (24: 2)

In Alla.b!a w-n, the: nuJtlbet of months hal! always been twcl \T(J tn .Il yeAr. from the· day He cn&ted the heav-eD.8

11, What is meant is ~b.at .it b: Allab aleee Who ha a..at14 .SI1U. and. provlde4 fot' &i.s .$ustebaD.'-e and ot her1 of ht8 neCilh. tbllt tblJt j:l 110 loCI .but HO:l ~Ild tbal ~:c- Ucml:l i!i .man 1:51 M.lte.r .aG:d w oaly .u~ar['l)' ·riihtl~lly d.osenrlns or hit wonh fp. T.btrt:fol"Cl, It would be IUy d accordance wilh thii: Dl.tUf.ll fuel that .man .&.bo",ld b~]im~ .ta.d hoba~

.. . ~

as only AUab':!I cr-eataflllll.lld &ervlllDt :::u;1.I1 ~,a:DrOoIU!1 elsc:"llt .U.

. . . . A. A.Ma.udLldt

·.2l. AduH~. in !5Jll1l, i$ the ((m:u:nls!i:l-on or the .lexual act btlWilCla • mile Q~ a {"'Ind. aoe married toO .f!,'lc.h othC!r~ Tb.o ft~ ·tb.t ·it bu beta: commlimd tbrOllIh: mutual COtil3t..D t is no mitiQ:lllioD at ~,ofJeQcc.. Tha pUD~~hueD t bQ"~ pu:g'tlri~ il thl. t ilJ. the case or pc:rSOD;t wbo arc wmarried. 1.11 ~c: calt: at ill ;Qlilrrtc-ti· p~r.slOIl (wbo w.ould b3"" JUI RltO-d Ut ctlmmit adUUl:fY)t the pLlDfs,hm=:r.u 18; lh~l he t)f. Ibt be atoned to.

[eo.td~

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