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THE MORE CULTURED ORCHIDS 4.1. Genus Cymbidium 4.2. Gender Ca ttleya 4.3. Genus Phalaenopsis 5. PESTS AND DISEASES 5.1. Pests 5.2. Diseases 6. MARKETING 1. INTRODUCTION orchids have fascinated the world for centuries and h ave been regarded as mystical flowers, although some primitive peoples also have been used for medicinal purposes. In Ancient Greece were seen as a symbol of vi rility. The European fans for the cultivation of orchids probably began with the expeditions of the eighteenth century. Because of its beauty and the high cost currently reaching orchids, are a private and industrial crop for cut flowers an d ornamental plants and therefore has an economic importance worldwide. 2. GEOGR APHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE Some genera of the orchid family ar e the subject of major crops, it is nevertheless highly specialized crops. Its c ultivation is possible everywhere and is specially developed from the middle of last century because many interspecific and intergeneric hybrids were created an d successfully marketed by their breeders. Commercial exploitation for cut flowe rs and potted growing concerns about fifty genera whose cultivation is practiced in many countries. Among the major producers of orchids include: Brazil, China, Costa Rica, United States, Philippines, Indonesia, Netherlands and Thailand. Th e increased demand in industrialized countries provides an opportunity for the d evelopment of export markets in other developing countries in both Southeast Asi a and South America. 3. TAXONOMY AND MORPHOLOGY Orchids are monocots belonging t o the family Orchidaceae, the largest of the plant kingdom, as it has 700 genera with around 28,000 plant species distributed over the entire surface of the Ear th. If we add the large number of hybrids between species and even between diffe rent genres, we are in a field of enormous potential. This plant family is offer ed the most advanced features from the evolutionary standpoint, why is is in the process of diversification, a fact which is reflected in the abundance and species diversity. Orchids terrestrial, lithophytic, but most are epiphytes . Orchids are plants that commonly grow in Europe, with the exception of terrest rial orchids which is the root system below ground, they grow in open woods, mea dows, or even streams and lakes margins rich in humus. Most orchids are concentr ated in tropical forests where dense vegetation prevents the passage to light, f or this reason many of them have become epiphytes and are found in areas of rain and wet earth as the great forests of South America Australia, New Zealand, etc . The beauty of the flowers contrasts with its simplicity. The orchid flower is hermaphrodite, zygomorphic. trimers (three sepals and three petals) and a centra l column supporting the anthers and pistil called gynostemium. The two upper pet als are identical, but the lower lip, has become more striking in the structure of the flower, with its own colors, shapes and sizes that can be very different depending on the species concerned. Flowers can be single or in inflorescences a nd are pollinated by insects. Orchids have some playback features their own and sometimes imitate the forms of insect pollinators necessary for its disseminatio n and survival. The stamens and pistils common in other plants, have been merged into a single structure called the column, located in the center of the flower. The column has a pollen-bearing anther and stigma female secretes a sticky flui d to the interior of the flower. Insects are attracted by the nectar, and when e xiting the flower are impregnated with the pollen from the anthers. By visiting the next flower of the same species following the same itinerary and stigma rece ives the pollen, the pollination performed well. This is a very advanced mechani sm that involves a parallel evolution between orchids and insects visiting flowe rs. The fruit is a dry capsule with numerous small seeds without endosperm and e mbryo undifferentiated. Most orchids are two patterns of growth: • Growth monopo dial: have a single stem, which are born new leaves per apex, and among them are born the flower stem and aerial roots (Phalaenopsis).€• Growth simpoidal: psedo bulbos have several stems or sprouting from a rhizome. New stems grow from the b ase of the stem of the previous year, and usually the flowers are the new stem ( Cymbidium, Cattleya). 4. THE MORE CULTURED ORCHIDS 4.1. Genus Cymbidium

They are the most cultivated orchids worldwide thanks to its easy cultivation an d the large number of hybrids, the Netherlands and France being the major produc ing countries. It is an orchid pseudobulbs (organ located at the base of the lea ves and consist of aquifers and epidermis tissues devoid of stomata). Each pseud obulbs produce eight to ten pages long and narrow, vigorous roots. Its leaves ar e long and the flowers are grouped in clusters erect (20-80 cm and more), stems, rhizomes are processed in more or less air, the roots are fleshy, slightly bran ched and play an important role in the water supply: white tissue lining absorbs them both runoff and atmospheric moisture. There are two groups of hybrids, som e with large flowers and other miniatures. May be in both cases the flowers of d ifferent colors: pink, red, white, yellow, green, etc.. (Being all of pastel col ors.) Cymbidium varieties are classified according to their earliness, early typ es exist that begin to flower in November to the late starting to bloom in Febru ary-March. -Source: originates in Asia. Growing up in sunny habitats, from India to Japan and Australia. -Multiplication: • Traditional: symbiotic plantings and sowings asimbióticas in vitro. • Meristem culture: controls the health status o f plants (virus) and to obtain a homogeneous seed a bloom in a shorter time (usu ally after three years of cultivation). • Division of plants: used in potting. D ivide the plants that have spent several years in cut flower cultivation when th e plantation must renew or change of variety. They hold for 3-5 pseudobulbs and placed in pots of 14-16 cm. -Requirements soil and climate: there are two phases in its annual cycle of vegetation: • Summer period: apply a low night temperatu re (14 º C maximum) to force the formation of flower buds. The maximum daytime t emperature is 28 º C with normal lighting. Flowering is therefore triggered by t he photoperiod. Sometimes summer temperature is controlled by cooling-system. • autumn and winter periods: for flowering will be necessary to have a temperature around 12-15 º C. If the temperature does not rise excessively, the light must be high, 40,000 to 50,000 lux. In the case of excessively high temperatures, wil l be the fall of the leaves and flowering will be affected. The characteristics of the ideal substrate for growing orchids are good drainage , good water retention and ease of root penetration, as these are fleshy, fascic led. We recommend a pH of 5-6. The Cymbidium orchids are among the few terrestri al habit, not epiphytic. It is therefore relatively well suited to a number of s ubstrates. Cymbidium substrate for example: • Bark of conifers: 60%. • Turbid bl onde: 20% • Polyestireno granules: 20% in 1-2 cm layer to drain placed at the bo ttom of the pot. -Feeding: during the summer season (after flowering): 1 g / l f rom 1918 to 1218 in ten days. Once every six weeks should be incorporated trace elements. -Irrigation: Regular watering will, so that is always kept wet the sub strate, avoiding the puddles. We recommend daily spraying the leaves in summer. Cultivation in greenhouse works well in most coastal protected areas. "Bloom: we will proceed to staking of the floral branches, as the flower stems are taller than the foliage. According to the hybrids and the collection of flowers made fr om November to May. 4.2. Gender Gender Cattleya named in honor of W. Cattley Bar net, one of the first amateurs to set up a private collection of orchids. Under this denomination are intergeneric hybrids: • x Laeliocattleya. • x Brassocattle ya. • x Brassolaeliocattleya. They are epiphytic orchids with pseudobulbs (provi ding a defense against periodic drought), thick oblong leaves with midrib sunken , thin stems, elegant flowers grouped in two, three or more different colors: ma uve, pink, red, white, yellow and bicolor . The roots are thick, fleshy and surf ace development. Sepals free and equal, generally extended, broader petals than or equal to the sepals. -Source: rainforests of South America and Central Americ a€where they live as epiphytes. -Requirements soil and climate: a case of a plan t epiphyte or equatorial tropical climate requires heated greenhouse (17-18 º C at night and 28 º C for day, relative humidity 80%), being necessary to good ventilation in summer. Flow ering is determined by the photoperiod in some hybrids. These short-day plants a nd may advance or delay flowering. Photoperiodic treatment consists of 8-10 week s of short days (3-6 hours / night) with the temperature approaching 15 º C. Exa

mple of substrate used in Cattleya: • Bark of conifers (70%). • Peat (20%). • Po lystyrene or perlite (10%). It should be a porous substrate, easy runoff of irri gation water where the roots are sufficient air circulation. The pH should be be tween 5 and 6. -Feeding: soluble subscribers will be provided at low concentrati ons (10/14/1914 0.51o/oo of every 15 days). -Irrigation: abundant irrigation wil l, especially after applying soluble fertilizers to avoid excessive salinity. "T ransplantation: if the culture is done in small pots, can be transplanted to pot s of 12 or even 16. -Flowering: November to March. 4.3. The Phalaenopsis genus P halaenopsis grown are hybrids derived from a score of species. Are orchids witho ut pseudobulbs, have long roots and fleshy, with leaves similar to Cattleya. In the absence of pseudobulbs shoots emerge from the central rhizome monopodial and the leaves have some capacity to retain water. The leaves are dark green, speck led or mottled blue-gray. The flowers are grouped in clusters, borne in the axil s of the leaves. They can be colored: white, pink, mauve and yellow (the flowers can be striped or spotted). Occasionally if the apical meristem is damaged, eit her by decay or by mechanical effects, the plant can produce lateral buds to res ume growth, some species are more prone to this behavior than others. -Source: t ropical and equatorial areas of Southeast Asia and Australia. Usually grow at lo w altitude, so epiphyte, located at the bottom of trees with few leaves and gene rally near streams. Some species grow in lithophytic on rocks covered with moss. -Requirements soil and climate: they are more demanding plants Cymbidium temper ature. The optimum temperature for growth is 20-25 º C, after allowing 3-4 weeks at 10-12 ° C induces flowering. The ideal li ght is between 15,000 and 20,000 lux. You need a humidity around 60%. If the env ironment is drier, the plant undergoes drying and may cause the fall of the flow er, on the other hand, if the environment is too wet, fungal diseases may occur. The base substrate of peat and pine bark is most appropriate. In the case of po tting the size of this is very important. In a small potted plant is well-compac ted within the container and grow much better inside than in a larger pot. The u se of transparent containers has spread widely among producers of orchids, becau se on one side favors the plant because their roots are air and are accustomed t o the effect of light on the other hand allows the producer to observe at any ti me the state of the roots and be able to diagnose your condition. -Irrigation: i rrigation will abound. Spray exposed roots and plants in summer. -Multiplication : • In vitro: we need a specialized laboratory. • You can treat the plant once i t has blossomed with benzyladenine at 3000-5000 ppm, with the aim of inducing sh oots at the base of the inflorescence can be separated and cultured. 5. PESTS AN D DISEASES 5.1. Pests, Aphids (Aphis fabae) are small insects that attack leaves , young shoots and flower buds by sucking the sap and inject toxins. Outbreaks a nd buttons are deformed and in the case of the buttons, the opening of the flowe r and leaves are distorted or difficult does not open well. They can also be vec tors of diseases, especially viruses. In the colony are wingless and winged spec imens corresponding to males and females. In the chemical control is recommended to contact or systemic insecticide. "Thrips: These are small insects from 0.5 t o 5 mm. that attack leaves, buds and flowers of orchids, which produce deformati ons on. Scrape the tissue and suck sap. The leaves and flowers fade and stain. W hen they attack the flower buds, they may fall out or deformed flower. They can also facilitate the attack of bacteria and fungi and be vectors of virus. To con trol insecticides can be used as Diazinon and Malathion.€Red Spider (Tetranychus ) live in colonies on the leaves of orchids, scraping and feeding on the sap. Th e leaves become chlorotic and then white. In the summer it developed rapidly. Being a very tough pest to use a sulfur-based chemistry or a pyrethroid. "Scale insects: insects are mobile little whitish filaments present on the back. They t end to attack more in warm and somewhat dry. To control can be applied insectici des like Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos and Malathion. 5.2. Cymbidium Mosaic Disease pot exvirus (CyMV) Symptoms produced by this virus on each of the genres are: • In t he genus Cymbidium: at first appears a diffuse mosaic internerviales small disco lored spots on young leaves. Then grooves extending regularly over the surface o

f the blade in orange bands on both sides of the sheet. About Flowers necrotic s treaks on the petals or sepals. • In the genus Cattleya: Symptoms on leaves are fully developed and irregular spots older leaves turn yellow and end up falling. In this genre is where the flowers symptoms are more severe. • In the genus Pha laenopsis: first produce discoloration on the underside of the leaves on a growt h path, becoming necrotic tissue. The leaves end up taking a yellow color and ev entually fall. On the flowers sometimes causes small pinpoint spots of black. "O dontoglossum ringspot tobamovirus (ORSV) This virus causes abnormal pigmentation varies in intensity even on different flowers on the same infected plant. The u niform color of the petals and sepals, especially in the pink cultivars, striatu m appears discolored or crooked lines, by contrast, darker, plus flower may show deformities. The number of scapes and flower size are reduced and the lifespan of cut flowers decreased. -Control of the virus: It should take the following pr ecautions: "Acquisition of healthy plants. "The tools used for cutting flowers a nd roots during potting or dividing the pseudobulbs should be sterilized in a 2% solution of formaldehyde and 2% sodium hydroxide for 7 seconds. You can also us e trisodium phosphate (377 g / l of water) or by applying heat to 200 º C for tw o hours. "The pots should be disinfected, not being reused never substrates. -In fected plants must be destroyed. "You must keep strict control of pests. "Orchid s must be sufficiently spaced to avoid healthy plants are in contact with the in fected. He advised the disinfection of hands during the handling of the plants o r use disposable gloves. -Pythium: at the root cause of dark decay of normally dry. In the air there is a general weakening due to malfunction of the root. In addition, the plant is not rooted to the substrate, as it is released. In the control is recommended carbe ndazin, Benomyl, Thiophanate, tebuconazole + triadimenol. -Cercospora and Rhizoc tonia: The leaves and stalks are rounded and elongated lesions observed, some wi th sharp edges where the tissue dies and becomes dark brown. When the attack is very severe, it can affect the entire leaf and the plant dies. To control can be applied carbendazin, mancozeb, ziram and Propineb. "General control of pests an d diseases: • Acquisition of healthy and vigorous plants. • Keep work areas clea n. • Irrigation is not excessive. • adequate and regular fertilization. • Regula r use of fungicides. • Apply insecticides only when necessary. 6. MARKETING The packaging of the inflorescence should be careful, usually takes place in cardboa rd boxes filled with cellulose wadding. Flowers usually come in small boxes with transparent stem placed in a tube with water. This will get an excellent preser vation, which can range from fifteen days to three weeks. The Cymbidium "miniatu res" in pots are increasingly grown as flower pots, as they are excellent indoor plants. The conservation of the cut flower of Cattleya ranges from 8 to 10 days . The Phalaenopsis are sold in clusters of 7-8 flowers in bloom at least. The co nservation of this cut flower between 15 and 20 days. Is being developed increas ingly growing potted plants, and which has a long bloom indoors.

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