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Chinese Imperial annals Chu Fan Chih and Sung Shih. It is also recorded in the Sultanate of Brunei's royal records as the nation of Maidh. This state was said to have been centered on the island of Mindoro. Mai according to Chinese records
1. In 1225, China's Chao Ju-kua, a superintendent of maritime trade in
Fukien province wrote the book entitled Chu Fan Chih ("An account of the various barbarians") in which he described trade with a country called Mai which was a prehispanic Philippine state. In it he said: “The country of Mai is to the north of Borneo. The natives live in large villages on the opposite banks of a stream and cover themselves with a cloth like a sheet or hide their bodies with a loin cloth. There are metal images (Buddhas) of unknown origin scattered about in the tangled wilds. Few pirates reach these shores. When trading ships enter the harbor, they stop in front of the official plaza, for the official plaza is that country's place for barter and trade and once the ship is registered, they mix together freely. Since the local officials make a habit of using white umbrellas, the merchants must present them as gifts.” “The method of transacting business is for the savage traders to come all in a crowd and immediately transfer the merchandise into baskets and go off with it. If at first they can't tell who they are, gradually they come to know those who remove the goods so in the end nothing is actually lost. The savage traders then take the goods around to the other islands for barter and generally don't start coming back until September or October to repay the ship's merchants with what they have got. Indeed, there are some who don't come back even then, so ships trading with Mai are the last to reach home. San-hsu, Pai-p'u-yen, P'u-li-lu, Li-yin-tung, Liu-hsin, Li-han and etc. are all the same sort of place as Mai.” “The local products are beeswax, cotton, true pearls, tortoise shell, medicinal betel nuts and yuta cloth. The merchants use such things as porcelain, trade gold, iron pots, lead, colored glass beads and iron needles in exchange.”
Kingdom of Tondo Tondo Kahariang Tundun or Kaharian ng Tondo (Kingdom of Tondo) 1st millennium–1589 AD Capital Religion Government Rajah - 1390- 1430-1450 - 1558-1571 Historical era - Established - Conquest by Spain Tondo Hinduism, Islam and Shamanism Rajahnate monarchy Rajah Gambang Rajah Lontok Rajah Lakandula High Middle Ages 1st millennium 1589 AD
Tondo, also referred to as Tundo, Tundun, Tundok, was a Philippine fortified kingdom whose capital was located in the Manila Bay area, specifically north of the Pasig river, on Luzon island. It is one of the settlements mentioned by the Philippines' earliest historical record, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. Originally an Indianized kingdom in the 10th century, Tondo initiated diplomatic ties with China during the Ming Dynasty, and thus became a dominant force in regional trade. Its regional prominence in trade and alliance with Brunei's Sultan Bolkiah in 1500 led to its peak age as a thalassocratic force in the northern archipelago. The first reference to Tondo occurs in the Philippines' oldest historical record — the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (LCI). This legal document, written in Kawi, dates back to Saka 822 - the year 900 AD. The first part of the document says that: “On this occasion, Lady Angkatan, and her brother whose name is Bukah, the children of the Honourable Namwaran, were awarded a document of complete pardon from the Commander in Chief of Tundun, represented by the Lord Minister of Pailah, Jayadewa.” The article mentioned that other places in the Philippines and their chiefs: Pailah (Lord Minister Jayadewa), Puliran Kasumuran (Lord Minister),
Binwangan (unnamed). It has been suggested that Pailah, Puliran Kasumuran, and Binwangan are the towns of Paila, Pulilan, and Binwangan in Bulacan, but it has also been suggested that Pailah refers to the town of Pila, Laguna. More recent linguistic research of the Old Malay grammar of the document suggests the term Puliran Kasumuran refers to the large lake now known as Laguna de Ba'y (Puliran), citing the root of Kasumuran, (sumur as Old Malay for well, spring or freshwater source. Hence ka-sumur-an defines a water-source). While the document does not describe the exact relationship of the chief of Tundun with these other chiefs, it at least suggests that he was of higher rank. Diplomacy with the Ming dynasty The next historical reference to Ancient Tondo can be found in the Ming Annals, which record the arrival of an envoy from Luzon to the Ming Dynasty in 1373 AD. Her rulers, based in their capital, Tondo were acknowledged not as mere chieftains, but as kings. This reference places Tondo into the larger context of Chinese trade with the peoples of the Philippine archipelago. Theories such as Wilhelm Solheim's Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network (NMTCN) suggest that cultural links between what are now China and the nations of Southeast Asia, including the Philippines, date back to the peopling of these lands. But the earliest archeological evidence of trade between the Philippines and China takes the form of pottery and porcelain pieces dated to the Tang and Song Dynasties. The rise of the Ming dynasty saw the arrival of the first Chinese settlers in the Philippines. They were well received and lived together in harmony with the existing local population — eventually intermarrying with them such that today, numerous Philippine people have Chinese blood in their veins. This connection was important enough that when the Ming Dynasty emperors enforced the Hai jin laws which closed China to maritime trade from 1371 to about 1567, trade with the Philippines was officially allowed to continue, masqueraded as a tribute system, through the seaport at Fuzhou. Aside from this, a more extensive clandestine trade from Guangzhou and Quanzhou also brought in Chinese goods to Luzon. Luzon and Tondo thus became a center from which Chinese goods were traded all across Southeast Asia. Chinese trade was so strict that Luzon traders carrying these goods were considered "Chinese" by the people they encountered. This powerful presence in the trade of Chinese goods in 16th century East Asia was also felt strongly by Japan. The Ming Empire treated Luzon traders more favorably than Japan by allowing them to trade with China once every
two years, while Japan was only allowed to trade once every 10 years. Japanese merchants often had to resort to piracy in order to obtain much sought after Chinese products such as silk and porcelain. Famous 16th century Japanese merchants and tea connoisseurs like Shimai Soushitsu and Kamiya Soutan established branch offices on the island of Luzon. One famous Japanese merchant, Luzon Sukezaemon, went as far as to change his surname from Naya to Luzon. Alliance with Brunei (1500 A.D.) Tondo became so prosperous that around the year 1500 AD, the Kingdom of Brunei under Sultan Bolkiah merged it by a royal marriage of Gat Lontok, who later became Rajah of Namayan and Dayang Kaylangitan to established a city with the Malay name of Selurong (later to become the city of Maynila) on the opposite bank of Pasig River. The traditional rulers of Tondo, the Lakandula, retained their titles and property but the real political power now resides in the House of Soliman, the Rajahs of Manila. Confederation of Madya-as 1200s–1569
Capital Language(s) Religion Government History - Established - Conquest by Spain
Aklan Bisaya, Aklanon, Illongo, Hiligaynon Animism and Shamanism syncretized with Taoism Confederation 1200s 1569
The Confederation of Madya-as was a pre-Hispanic Philippine state within the Visayas island region. It was established in the 13th century by rebel datus (chiefs), led by Datu Puti, who had fled from Rajah Makatunao of Borneo. The semi-democratic confederation reached its peak during the 15th century under the leadership Datu Padojinog when it warred against the Chinese Empire, the Rajahnate of Butuan, and the sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao. It was also feared by the people of the Kingdom of Maynila and Tondo. It was conquered after the Spanish conquest in 1569 by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi and his grandson Juan de Salcedo. History according to folklore
According to local oral legends and the book entitled Maragtas, early in the thirteenth century, the datus: Sumakwel, Bangkaya, Paiburong, Paduhinog, Dumangsol, Dumangsil, Dumaluglog, Balkasusa, and Lubay who were lead by Datu Puti and their followers, fled to the sea on their barangays and sailed north to flee from the oppressive rule of Rajah Makatunaw, of Borneo and the destruction of the Srivijayan Empire. Until they reached Panay island. They immediately settled in the Aklan and made a trade treaty with the Negrito hero named, Marikudo and his wife Maniwantiwan who they wanted to purchase the land from. A golden salakot was given, as the Negritos relocated to the mountains while the newcomers occupy the coasts. Datu Bangkaya then established a settlement at Madyanos, while Datu Paiburog established his village at Irong-irong (Which is now the city of Iloilo) while Datu Sumakwel and his people crossed over the Madyaas mountain range into Hamtik and established their village at Malandong. Datu Puti, left them for explorations, northwards, after ensuring his people's safety. He designated, Datu Sumakwel, being the eldest, as the commanderin-chief of Panay before he left. By 1213, Datu Sumakwel invoked a council of datus to plan for common defense and a system of government. Six articles were adopted and promulgated, which came to be known as Articles of Confederation of Madya-as. Articles which historians have come to refer to as the first written constitution of the Philippines. The confederation created the three sakups (Sovereign territories) as the main political divisions, and they defined the system of government, plus establishing rights of individuals while providing for a justice system. As a result of the council, Datu Paiburong was formally installed as commander-in-chief of Irong-irong at Kamunsil, Sumakwel of Hamtik at Malandog, and Bangkaya of Aklan at Madyanos . Bangkaya ruled his sakup from Madyanos according to local customs and the Confederation of Madyaas' articles. The first capital of Aklan was Madyanos. Commander-in-chief, Datu Bangkaya then sent expeditions throughout his sakup and established settlements in strategic locales while giving justice to this people. After his election as commander-in-chief of Aklan, Bangkaya, transferred his capital to Madyanos for strategic and economic reasons and renamed it to Laguinbanwa. Bangkaya used his two sons as officers in the government of his sakup. He appointed Balengkaka in charge of Aklan, and Balangiga for Ilayan. Balangiga had twin sons, Buean and Adlaw , which Capiz (Kapid) was originally named before the Spaniards came.
The center of government of the Confederation was Aklan, when Sumakwel expired and Bangkaya succeeded him as leader of Panay. Bangkaya was then replaced by Paiburong. Aklan returned to become the center of Confederation again, when Paiburong expired and was replaced by Balengkaka. Two Centuries later, after the barter of Panay, the capital of Aklan became Batan and of all Panay, when Datu Kalantiaw became the leader of Aklan. Antedating the ascent of Kalantiaw as leader of Aklan, there were numerous datus that became petty rulers in their own fiefdoms, and each claimed to be commander-in-chief of Aklan. One of them was Datu Daguob, who moved the capital to Capiz. Daguob was replaced by Hagnaya, who relocated to Mambusao the new capital. Dingandan then became chief and he moved the government back to Batan. Kalantiaw in 1399, invaded and captured Batan from Dingandan. Then, Kalantiaw raped Dacaylay, Dinagandan's daughter. Datu Bolinawan, the legitimate successor of Dinagandan, led a people's revolt against Kalantiaw. Kalantiaw was killed, but Bolinawan failed to regain control of confederation. However, Kalantiaw II and Kalantiaw III, children of the original Kalantiaw in his first marriage took over. The eighteen commands now known as the code of Kalantiaw was issued by Datu Kalantiaw III, on December 8, 1433. Commands some historians consider a hoax. Shortly after the proclamation of the tyrannic Code of Kalantiaw, Kalantiaw III was killed in a sword duel with Datu Manduyog, the successor of Dinagandan, who relocated capital back to Bakan in 1437. Chinese accounts To the Chinese, the people of Confederation of Madyaas were known as the Pisheya. This is a transliteration of the general geographical location of the Confederation of Madyaas, the Visayas islands. In 1612, the Chuan-chou gazeeter specifically reported that the Pisheya consistently made raids against Imperial commerce. Rajahnate of Cebu 1450-1565 Capital Language(s) Government History - Established Singhapala, Sugbu Malay, Cebuano Rajahnate 1450
- Treaty of Cebu (1565) Conquest by Spain
Rajahante of Cebu was a classical Philippine state which used to exist on Cebu Island prior to the arrival of the Spanish. It was founded by Sri Lumay or Rajamuda Lumaya, a minor prince of the Chola dynasty which occupied Sumatra. He was sent by the maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate. According to Visayan folklore, he descended from a native royal family who practiced Hinduism which ruled Cebu. Sri Lumay, was a native from Sumatra, who settled in the Visayas, and had several sons. One of his sons was Sri Alho, who ruled a land known as Sialo which included the presentday towns of Carcar and Santander in the southern region of Cebu. Sri Ukob ruled a kingdom known as Nahalin in the north which included the presentday towns of Consolación, Liloan, Compostela, Danao, Carmen and Bantayan. He died in battle, fighting with the tribal group known as magalos from Mindanao. The youngest of his sons was Sri Bantug who ruled a kingdom known as Singhapala, in a region which is now known as Cebu City, who died of disease and was succeeded by his son Sri Hamabar, also known as Rajah Humabon. Sri Bantug had a brother called Sri Parang, the limp, but could not govern his kingdom because of his infirmity. Parang handed his throne to his nephew Humabon and became the Rajah (king) of Cebu. Sri Parang, the limp, also had a young son, Sri Tupas, also known as Rajah Tupas who succeeded Rajah Humabon as king of Cebu. The phrase Cata Raya Chita was documented by historian Antonio Pigafetta, to be a warning in the Old Malay language, from a merchant to the Rajah and was cited to have meant: "Have good care, O king, what you do, for these men are those who have conquered Calicut, Malacca, and all India the Greater. If you give them good reception and treat them well, it will be well for you, but if you treat them ill, so much the worse it will be for you, as they have done at Calicut and at Malacca." In reality, this phrase is that of Kota Raya kita, an indigenous Malay phrase of merchants under the authority of Rajah Humabon, with a meaning in English of: "We (the subjects) are the Rajah's fortress": Kota (fortress), Raya (Rajah), kita (we). This Rajahnate was dissolved during the reign of Rajah Tupas by the forces of conquistador Miguel Lopez de Legaspi in the battle of Cebu during 1497.
Kingdom of Maynila Maynila, Seludong Kaharian ng Maynila 1500s–1571
The Kingdom of Seludong or Saludung, which after colonization became Manila, capital of the Philippines, was one of three major city-states that dominated the area around the upper portion of the Pasig River before the arrival of Spanish colonizers in the 1500s. The early inhabitants of the present-day Manila engaged in trade relations with its Asian neighbors as well as with the Hindu empires of Java and Sumatra as confirmed by archaeological findings. Trade ties between China became extensive by the 10th century, while contacts with Arabs reached its peak in the 12th century. During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah (1485-1521) the Kingdom of Brunei decided to break the Tondo's monopoly in the China trade by attacking Tondo and establishing the city-state of Seludong as a Bruneian satellite. This is narrated through Tausug and Malay royal histories, where the names Seludong, Saludong or Selurong are used to denote Manila prior to colonization. In the mid-16th century, the areas of present-day Manila were sultanates and they were governed by Muslim rajahs. Sulaiman II (also known as Matandâ) and his nephew, Sulaiman III, ruled the Muslim communities south of the Pasig River, including the Kingdom of Maynila, while Lakandula ruled the Kingdom of Tondo north of the river. These settlements held ties with the sultanates of Brunei, Sulu, and Ternate, Indonesia (not to be confused with Ternate in present-day Cavite). REFERENCES: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Philippines http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Country_of_Mai http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Tondo
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