A Presentation On Audio- Visual aids

Binsy Cherian I Msc Nursing, RVS College of Nursing.

If I hear I forget

If I see, I remember If I do, I know

ACCORDING TO KINDER´Audio visual aids are any device which can be used to make the learning more effective, more concrete, more realistic and more dynamic.µ

1. To provide a basis for more effective perceptual and conceptual learning 2. To initiate and sustain attention and personal involvement of the students in learning 3. To provide concreteness, realism, and life likeness in the teaching-learning situation 4. To bring the remote events of either space or time into the class room 5. To bring the meaningfulness of abstract concepts 6. To gain practical skills 7. To introduce opportunity for situational or field types of learning as contrasted with linear -order verbal and written communications.

1. Audio visual aids are means to an end, not in the end in themselves 2. Principle of preparation 3. Principle of proper presentation 4. Principle of response 5. Principle of evaluation

Auditory Aids

Visual Aids

Audio Visual Aids

Aid through Activity

Traditional Media (Puppets, Drama)

(Radio recording, Microphone)

(Television, Radio)

(Field trip, Exhibition)

Projected (OHP, Slide projector, Magic Lantern, LCD, Projector, Still and Motion picture Projector)

Non Projected (Charts, Flannel, Graphs, Black & White Board, Cartoons, Maps, Posters, Printed materials)

Non Projected Aids:

Graphic Aids y Cartoons y Charts y Comics y Diagrams y Flash Cards y Graphs y Maps y Photographs y Pictures y Posters y Printed materials

Display Board - Black Board - Bulletin Board - Flannel Board - Magnetic Board - PEG Board

3D Aids * Diagrams * Models * Mock Ups * Objects * Puppets * Specimens

Graphical aids:

It is the metaphorical presentation of reality. It makes the learning more interesting and effective as it creates a strong appeal to emotions. It uses symbols to portray an opinion, a scene, or a situation. A cartoon is a humorous caricature which gives a subtle message. In a cartoon, the features of objects and people are exaggerated along with generally recognized symbols. In short, a cartoon is a figurative and sub tile graphic aid. A cartoon has an instantaneous visual and a tickling message.

Many times, Cartoons in newspapers can be sarcastic and ridiculing. The main sources of cartoons are periodicals. Newspaper carry cartoon which are either political or social in nature. Special periodicals and magazines carry cartoons on science, management, economics and education. If a teacher is resourceful he/she can convert certain ideas into cartoons with little practice. Nevertheless, he can clip the cartoons from the periodicals and mount them for classroom. The cartoon makes use of Advantages: 1) Cartoon can be effectively used to initiate certain lesson. 2) Used to motivate students to start discussion 3) Can be used for making lessons lively and interesting. Personalized humor Fantasy Incongruity Satire Exaggeration

Precautions: 1) While using cartoons as instructional aides, the teacher ought to choose them judiciously and discriminately as they can injure personal feelings or social group.

Chart is the graphic teaching material including diagrams, posters, maps, and graphics which presents a clear visual summery.

Purposes of Charts: y y y y y y Showing relationships by means of facts and figures. For presenting the material symbolically To show continuity in process For presenting abstract ideas in visual form For showing development of structure For creating problems and stimulating thinking

TYPES OF CHARTS: y y y y Tree Chart Stream Chart Table Flow Chart

1. Tree Chart: A chart made in form of branches from the trunk of a tree such that represents the main idea while the branches represents various development, relationship of sub parts of the main ideas. E.g.: family tree


Stream Chart: It is a graphic aid showing the main thought, idea, concept in the form of a main river and it sub parts in the form of tributaries coming out of it. E.g. free hand drawing

3. Table Chart: Table charts are very valuable aid in teaching situation to show comparison, distinctions and constant between two or more things. Its size is 50x75 cm or <. It should caption in bold letters, with different features in different colors. E.g. numerical data, descriptive observations.

4. Flow Charts:

It is a graphic aid of system requiring presentation in the form of connected lower divisions of the system in boxes and line to show their relative positions with respect to the higher position in the system. E.g. organizational chart.

A comic strip is the graphic depiction in a series of pictures or sketches of some characters and events full of actions. A large number of comic strips depicting long continuous episodes are published in book forms.

ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR: Many educators support the use of comic strip for classroom instruction, because they believe: 1. 2. 3. 4. Comic strips fire the imagination of the children. Comic strip boosts the courage of children and builds up the spirit of adventure. Comic strips make communication detailed and vivid. Comic strip stimulates reality and thus involvement.

ARGUMENTS AGAINST Many educators decry the use of comic strip for classroom instruction, because they believe: 1. Comic strip misguides the children by depicting characters with supernatural powers divorced from a hard reality of life. 2. Comic strips hamper the development of language in children. 3. Classics brought out in the form of comics develop the tendency in children to ignore or bypass the original work. 4. Comics soon become obsession with young children and they tend to avoid serious study.

Precaution: 1. Therefore the tender must use with discrimination and only those related to biographies, social events scientific interventions and historical events should be used selectively for classroom instructions.


It is a simplified drawing designed to show interrelation primarily by means of lines and symbols, e.g. stick figures, geometry drawings, facial expressions. Drawings can be done by hand to convey a variety of ideas, concepts and situations. It can be better used for summery and review.

STANDARD OF A GOOD DIAGRAM: 1. 2. 3. 4. Technically correct. Neatly drawn in proper proportion. Well labeled and explained. It can be moved and seen from all angles.

MAPS: Graphic representation of the earth·s surface or portions of it are termed as maps. These are flat representations of earth·s surface, which convey the information by means of lines, symbols, words and colors.

IDENTIFICATION OF VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAPS: y Understanding and interpreting the key of index, tints, shadows and symbols.


The top every map is not north, but the direction of northern pole is north.


Relief maps: A raised-relief map or terrain model is a three-dimensional representation, usually of terrain. When representing terrain, the elevation dimension is usually exaggerated by a factor between five and ten; this facilitates the visual recognition of terrain features.

Historical maps:

Historical maps are those which represents graphically a succession of events, states, or an act

Distribution maps: A distribution map is a map that uses colors to show information such a population or housing prices

Geographical maps: A geographical map is the map which shows geographical landmarks.


A flashcard or flash card is a set of cards bearing information, as words or numbers, on either or both sides, used in classroom drills or in private study. One writes a question on a card and an answer overleaf. Flashcards can bear vocabulary, historical dates, formulas or any subject matter that can be learned via a question and answer format. Flashcards are widely used as a learning drill to aid memorization by way of spaced repetition.

Illustration made on heavy paper that is usually smaller than 21cm x 27cm. the illustrations are not bound, but are arranged in sequence.

Audience Size: y 5 to 15 people. Because the illustrations are small, no more than 15 people should be in the audience.

Advantages: Inexpensive, can be home made from local materials. Good way to present a ´changingµ message in areas where people gather.

Disadvantages: If out of doors, weather damage can occur. Constant supply of good educational material to put on the board is needed.


y y y y y y

The set of cards can be prepared on a single topic, put in a sequential manner, before starting the explanation. The story on each card must be familiar, in simple words and local terminology. Hold the cards at the chest level where people can see clearly, hold it against body and not in air, face different parts of the group to show the cards to all. Glance down at cards, as you are ready to explain and make sure to given correct information. Use pointer. Do not cover the matter with hands. Be enthusiastic and enjoy explaining. Important point should be written backside.

Flip Charts:

Illustration made on paper that is usually larger than 21cm*27cm; bounded together with rings or string. They flip over in sequence.

Audience Size: y 15 to 30 people. It depends on the size of the flip chart too.

Advantages: y Inexpensive, can be home made, and can be easily transported. Good way to give information in sequence; because they are bound, illustration stay in sequence.

Disadvantage: y Deteriorate with constant use. Some artistic ability required if making homemade flip charts.

Preparation: y y y y y The first card of bunch should be giving brief introduction of the topic. 8 to 12 cards can be used in bunch. Each card should show a picture illustration in front side, conveying one idea at a time. The brief description or explanation of card number 2 should be written at the backside of card one, which can be seen by the teacher if she forgets. The picture used should be adopted to local condition and should be colorful.

y y

Leave enough borders so that it doesn·t cover the matter with the hand while holding. Use pointer while explaining details of picture on card.

Graphs: Graph is a visual teaching aid for presenting statistical information and contrasting the trend or changes of certain attributes.

Types of graphs: 


Bar graph: It consists of bars arrange horizontally or vertically from an origin base. It is useful in comparing and contrasting two variables or two groups. Line graph: The free hand smooth line to various points can be drawn indicating variables. The line may be straight or a curved line. Pie graph: it is usually shown on a disk (pie) or a circle divided into sectors of different angles to represent fractions or percentage of the division of a distributive nature. Pictorial graph: It is an outstanding method of graphical representation. Pictures are used for expression of ideas; they are more attractive and easily understood. Vivid pictures will be used to create rapid association with graphic message; each visual symbol used to indicate quantity.

Pictures and photographs: Pictures are the most commonly available graphic aids. Picture includes photographs, paintings etc.

Effective use of pictures: 


The picture can be flashed in front of the class & related questioned asked to initiate the sections. A series of pictures related to the lesson can be displayed in the classroom to arouse the curiosity and interest before the lesson begins. The picture should be large enough for the whole class to see it properly. The picture must have clear details for arresting attention and interest. The pictures should be related to lesson and meaningful to students. The picture should be authentic and identifiable. The picture should be able to build up proper learning environment. The picture must lead the class to some purposeful activity.

Posters: A message on a large sheet of paper, with an illustration and a simple written message on it. Standard size is 20µ*30µ.

Audience Size: No limit, because it is not necessary for everyone to look at the poster at the same time.


Inexpensive, easy to make. 

Require a minimum amount of time to prepare and use. Easy to transport



Demonstrate rapidly Can confuse the audience with too much or too little information. Need some artistical ability if making own posters. 


Advertising an event or product. To make instant appeal. To convey a single idea or few ideas. Giving a direction or warning. Suitable or client education, presenting scientific facts, showing safety measures and many other facets relating to health f or propaganda, popularizing symbol or sign. Simplicity, short message, colorfulness and eye catching figurative design are features of good posters.

Chalk board: A rigid surface painted green or black, on which one can write or draw with chalk.

Audience Size: y 10 to 30 people. If used with more, a large board is needed and careful audience placement is necessary.

Advantage: Inexpensive, can be home made, easily maintained, minimum preparation.


Transport can be difficult in remote areas. Limited to users artistic ability.

Points for effective black board work: 


The black board must be easily visible. Must have a matt surface and free from glare. It should be in good light so that work is seen without strain. The teacher should not stand in between pupil and blackboard. Letters and figures must be large.

Bulletin Boards: It is a surface of at least 1.5*2 meters. Into which stick pins can be placed. Drawings, photos and lettering can be displayed on board.

Audience Size: No limit because it is not necessary for everyone to look at the same time.



Excellent way to use actual materials in a real situation. Uses local materials. Easy to understand by people not used to look at illustrations. Good way to get audience participation.

Disadvantage: y Takes lot of preplanning an d preparation.

Flannel board: A piece of flannel, flannelette, terry cloth or felt cloth attached to a rigid surface on which cut out figures will adhere if backed with flannel or felt cloth, sand paper or glued sand. Standard size 1.5*1.5 meters.

Audience Size: y 15 to 20 people. Audience size depends on the flannel board.


Inexpensive, easily made from local materials. Easily maintained and transported in remote areas. Figures can be used in different presentations. Figures can be used in different presentation. Ideal for showing ´sequence of eventsµ and reviewing lesson, as figures can be brought back on board.



Requires considerable advance preparation. Difficult to use outside. Some artistical ability is required if making homemade figures.



Collect the pictures light objects or make cutouts & back them with sand paper pieces. Display material on the flannel board in a sequence to develop the lesson plan. Change the picture or cutout as you talk to the client. Use the flannel board to create proper scenes 7 design relevant to the lessons. Flannel boards can be used to tell a story, interrelationship with different parts or steps of process.

Projected Aids:
Film or motion pictures: Color or black and white, 16 or 18mm cinema film, with sound projected on screen.

Audience size: 

30 to 100 people. Group can be larger than 100, but it is difficult to have discussion in larger group.



A film has movement. It can show processes, methods and procedures. It is three dimensional in its impact. It can create the impression of space and time. The technique of caricature & animation makes it possible to give meaning to abstract notions and scientific theories The sound track of film lends realism to the visual image in the form of genuine sound impressions. It admits the voice of experts, the performance of the specialist & aids atmosphere, mood and understanding.



There is complete exclusion of teacher from presentation. The machinery of presentation is cumbersome and not easily adapted to average classroom. Expensive in terms of preparation and projection.

Film strips: Film Strip is mostly 35mm film, color or black & white photographs in sequential order. Film strip projected on screen or on a wall. They use projector with film strip adapter. Film strips are in horizontal or vertical format.

Audience Size: y About 30 people. Though film strips can be used with more people, the educator can stimulate better discussion with group of this size.


Dramatize & get the audience attention. Show motion and thus helps to explain step by step and time sequence very well.


Very expensive, requires expensive equipment, electricity and dark projection area. Difficult to transport and operate.

The Epidiascope (Opaque projector): An Epidiascope projector, projects the image of a solid object. It often referred to as an opaque projector. The principle is ´bright light is concentrated upon an opaque object and the brilliantly illuminated image is reflected by a mirror through a very large lens on to a screenµ. An epidiascope can project a wide variety of material and makes the teacher dependent of standard transparent material.

Epidiascope can project: 


Flat pictures Post cards and photographs News items and illustrations Book illustrations Tables of statistics Handwork diagrams 

Pupil·s work Solid objects- watches, coins, nature study samples and geological specimens, maps.



Epidiascope has the ability to compel attention. It keeps the initiative of selection of material, and pace of presentation in the teacher·s hand. The preparation of material is simple and its preview for the purposes of lesson preparation presents no difficulty. The nature of material makes additions, amendments, alter action and substitution easy. Material can always be up to date.

Overhead Projector: The OHP is a versatile visual aid using a system of lens, mirror and lamp, transparencies are projected on to screen in a way that enables teacher to face the student while teaching.



Teacher can make eye contact while teaching. The OHP can be used in day light allowing the students to take notes, only bright light near the screen needs to be switched off. Prepared can be reused saving time during class. OHP is user friendly.


Keystone effect-projected material is wider at top than at bottom. OHP bulbs are expensive.

Guidelines for making OHP transparencies: 


Check display area of OHP and select transparency size accordingly. Leave margin of ½ inch to ¾ inch free on all sides. Plan layout of transparency. Phrases, key points not long sentences. Use 6-8 words in a line. Use lettering 2/5 inch for small group. Minimum ½ inch for large group. Use mor e lower case letters than upper case letters. Use dark colors. Framing is useful for (1) to attach flaps for masking. (2) to attach transparency layers.

Slides: 35mm film in plastic or cardboard mount 5cm*5cm. in color or black & white. They are projected on a screen or walls.

Audience size: y About 30 people, though slides can be used with more people, the educator can stimulate better discussion among a smaller group.

Advantage: y Dramatically less expensive than cinema film and slides once inserted in the projector, impossible to get out of the sequence. Can show photos of the real thing and show sequence in time. Battery operated projectors available. Relatively easy to transport.


Requires projection equipment, can be damaged, and requires either mains or battery to operate. Sometimes batteries are expensive. Requires darkened projection area. Limited appropriate slides are available.

Preparation of slides: 


Collect all available slides check them against a lighted lamp. Choose the slide relevant to your lesson. Arrange them in sequence and write a brief introductory note for each slide on a card. Create a dark environment, arrange screen and other facility. Adjust objective lens for proper focus. 

Make proper seating arrangements for the students within an area covering a sector of 60 degrees from center odf the screen

All the AV materials, three dimensional aids are nearest to living experiences. This side, such as models and Mockups are replies or reconstructions of the real thing. Advantages: 
To recreate things from the past or the future.         

To reduce the size of things. To make model of things too small to examine. To made model of things from faraway places. To explain difficult concepts. To show working parts. To attract interests attention. To promote increased learner participation. To show some selected aspect of the whole in a simple elemental way. To present an immediate sensation.


Time consuming. Requires extra talent.


Is the model necessary on case you make use of the original. Could some other device portray the idea more effectively? Is the idea appropriate for representation in a model? Is each part of the model mad to the same scale proportionate in size? Are the important details of construction correct? Could wrong impressions of size, Color and shape result from using this model? Does the model oversimplify the idea? If it is workable, will at standup under frequent use? If it is made locally, is the model likely to be worth the time, effort and money involved? If it is purchased, will the model be used often enough to justify the cost?

They are contrived experiences where reality is altered or simplified For teaching purposes. A simple classification of these aids is given below:-

MODELS: It is a life size miniature or cover or original size. They are substitutes for real things. Models are concrete objects made up of clay, pulp, cotton, cardboard, thermacoal, cloth, wood etc. models enable client to have a correct concept of the objects. Qualities of a model: y y Aqua racy Simplicity

y y y y

Utility Solidity Ingenuity Useful

Advantages: y y y y y It simplifies reality and direct, meaningful learning. Concretizes abstract concepts. Enables us to reduce or enlarge object to observable size. It provides correct concept of a real object eg. Dam , bridge. A working model explains the various process of objects and machines.

Types of models: y y y y Scale model eg: Dam or Project Simplified models eg: animal, birds, fish Cross sectional models eg: cross section of blood vesels Working model eg: Fetal circulation.

MOULAGE: Moulage can be made of plastic material to stimulate some life objects eg. Body which show evidence of trauma, infection disease and surgical intervention


Specimens are real objects taken from the natural setting. It is simple that shows quality or structure eg: section of lung. Objects are brought into natural setting in the class room to supply the type of sensory experience that will make instruction more meaniningful vivid and impressive. They make appeal to the senses eg: splints forceps and thermometer. Small size objects are specimens that can be mounted by pasting them with adhesive, nail, cello tape on card board. The collection of grains and seeds can be kept in small size bottles or polythene bags and stuck on the cardboard label and catalogs the objects and specimens. Advantages: y y y y y They arouse clients interest ij learning They involve all the five senses in the process of learning As they being real, and three dimensional things, heightens reality in the classroom. They make classroom teaching lively. Use of objects and specimens are very useful in nursing education.

Using objects and specimens: y y y Plan your teaching with certain simple and direct observation of the object or specimen being referred to. Ask questions to elicit more details o f the features of the objects or specimen under observation. Clarify and emphasis the important structural details of the objects or specimen under observation.

Puppets: One of the old and popular arts in Indian villages has be puppetry. Puppets can serve as an effective aid to learning. They can be made to illustrate lessons. Events of tales in an interesting and vivid manner, if they are accompanied by effective narratives. It is necessary to have a great deal action in puppetry as well as plenty of music and dancing. In writing or selecting a puppet play, the age, background and taste of the clients should be taken in consideration. A short puppet play is always preferable.

Types of puppets: y y y Hand puppets- which fit in a hand like gloves and are operated from below by fingers Road puppets- Which are operated from below the stage by a combination of rods and strings. Marionettes and string puppets- Figures with movable limbs operated through strings.

Using puppets: y y y y Puppet actions should be accompanied by short dialogues which are easily comprehensive. A puppet show should not have many characters more than 4 at a time. Put in short duration songs and dances to arouse emotions. The main problem or question should be introduced in the beginning of the puppet show and answer come out at the end of it to keep interest and suspense.

Advantages: y y Puppetry has all advantages of dramatization along with providing amusement and entertainment. A puppet show can heighten the human emotion and capture attention.


In nursing, puppetry is used for health education.

MOCK-UPS: Devices which are imitations of real things without involving similarity of appearance, the non-functioning Parts that are unnecessary for understanding operational functions being omitted. 

It emphasizes the functional relationship between the device reality and its workability. Certain elements of the original reality are emphasized to make it more meaningful for the purpose of instruction of instruction. E.g. an artificial kidney to demonstrate dialysis

DIORAMAS: It is a 3 dimensional scene in depth in cooperating a group of modeled objects and figures in a natural setting. The diorama scene is setup on a small stage with a group of modeled objects, kept on the forehead, which is blended into a painted realistic background. A harvest scene, planting scene, a scene of school activities, scene from freedom struggle, a scene from man landing on moon are some of the examples of dioramas. It is a three dimensional arrangement of related objects, models and cutouts to illustrate central theme on concept. The object and models are generally placed in a big box or showcase with a glass it can be artificially lighted the human and animal figures should be modeled in clay to provide solidity and reality and also because of the perspectives and background painting. Eg. Stage diorama in religious festivals like Ganapathy, Navarathri etc.

Computer assisted instruction: Computer assisted instruction consists of theory, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.

USES OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION: In clinical practice 1. Admission, discharge, billing, transfer system allows nurses to obtain basic biographical information about the clients before they arrive to the unit. 2. Nursing documentation can be used for communication with physicians and other professionals In nursing education 1) 2) 3) 4) Drill and practice Tutorial programs Simulation Nursing research

In nursing administration: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Computerized patient classification system. Assignment to nursing staff Computerized inventory system Client billing system Diagnosis and report system Budget planning Personal record keeping Staff requirement calculation General computer application

Demonstrations: Demonstration is defined as visualized explanation of facts concepts and procedures General description: Using actual ingredients tools, or land, the education shows how something is done either at that time or soon thereafter, each audience member display his ability to do the new things.

Audience Size: y 1 to 30 people because it is difficult for an educator to follow up more than 30 peoples.

Advantages: y y Dramatic, less expensive than cinema film, excellent way to bring distant things to audience and to show time sequence. Better operated projectors available local photos easily made.

Disadvantages: y Easy to damage, easy to get out sequence and project upside down or sideways. Requires projection equipment, mains electricity or batteries and darkened projection area.


To demonstration procedures in the classroom and the ward. To demonstrate experiments and its uses. To teach the patient, a procedure or treatment which he must carry in home. To demonstrate different approaches in establishing rapport wioth the patients, so that the most effective nursepatient relationship may be established.

Dramatization: It is very potent method of keeping the classroom instruction lively and interesting. This makes learning easy and permanent. It involves motor activities for telling story. Many languages and social studies lessons can be

dramatized in the form of role plays. Advantages: 

It makes learning a pleasure as children love to act and show off. It involves children totally and they appreciate the lessons and remember it better. It develops the social skills required for them such as cooperation, coordination, punctuality and human relation etc. It affords the teacher and insight into the personality of the cient and know them better. It is very helpful in nursing education in selected situations. It makes student creative, sensitive and alert.

Types of dramatization: 

Role playing- student act out the characters based upon their own knowledge and impression of a small incident. Play lets- The players stage a small play lasting for 10 to 15 minutes with a script preparation and costumes. Pageant- the player presents a colorful enactment of a phase of history with the period costumes. Pantomime- the players present a scene in which characters are shout loudly with expressions and gestures but do not speak. Tableaux- the players neither talk nor they act, but they only pose different actions.

Experiments: An experiment is a learning activity in which student collects and interpret observations using measuring instruments to reach some conclusions. It can be used in science, math·s, social sciences and physical educations etc.

Steps of experiment: 

Objectives of the experiments Apparatus required Procedure or methodology Observation of data Treatment of observation or data Results or conclusions Precaution Ideas


The teacher can individually attend students while they are performiong an experiment. In group experiments, students learn to work with one another and this results in the inclusion of values of cooperation and coordination. Experiment helps students in manipulating piece of apparatus and instrument. With experiments, the students learn by doing and hence learn better. Experiments involve the element of investigation, discovery and finding out. Experiments builds scientific attitudes, observational powers and ability to draw conclusions Experiments makes students patient, regular and punctual.

Field trips: An educational trip is defined as an educational procedure by which the student obtain first hand information by observing places, objects, phenomena or activities and process in their natural setting to further learning.


It breaks monotony of the classroom and provides real life experiences. It furnishes first hand information to supplement and to enrich the classroom instruction. It provides opportunities in learning attitudes and positive values. It provides opportunities in learning and acquiring skills. Like observation, critical thinking etc. Students develop better understanding of the axiological factors of disease. Field trip arouse interest vitalize instruction thereby providing motivation. Offers an opportunity to apply that which has been taught to verify what has been learned. They serve as effective means of correlating the subjects of the curriculum. They provide opportunity to consider and to solve problems arising from individual and group participation in a natural social situation.


Field trip is time consuming. Careful planning is required. Transportation is a problem. Since the students are going out of college premises it is risk, safety precautions essential. If the group is too large, effective observation becomes difficult.

Audio visual room: It is always worthwhile to have a separate audio visual room in the school. The room should be planned to facilitate the optimum use of audio visual aids. An audio visual room should be spacious enough to accommodate about sixty students at a time.

Main factors: 

Acoustics- for proper acoustics, the wall must have straw boards and window heavy curtains. Lighting- The lights of the room should have facility of controlling these from a single switch to darken the room for projection. Wall sockets- Wall sockets should be easily accessible to plug in the audio c=visual equipment. Ventilation- a proper ventilation of the audio visual room should be provided with a few exhaust fans. Storage- for storing the audio visual material, wall cupboards and racks should be used. Seating- the seating arrangements using movable chairs should be done so that the students are seated in a sector of sixty degree from the center of the screen. Other- audio visual material for display should include chalk board, display cases, display boards, graphs, show windows, shelves.

Equipments: Epidiascope, slide projector, movie projector, tape recorder, video cassette player, television, models, computer, LCD projector etc. Material used: Chart paper, scotch tape, thumb tacks, sketch pens, marker pens, cello tape,brushes, paints, crayons, lettering stencils, scale, geometry box, scissors etc.

AV Aids helps in teaching and learning process when added with all methods of teaching; it motivates and induces the attention of the learner. Therefore AV Aids play an important role in teaching and learning process. It avoids boredom feeling and initiates enthusiasm for learning. It can be made more effective if different AV Aids are properly used according to their principles. Faulty AV Aid practice should be avoided as it hinders impartation of effective and qualitative education process.


y y y y y

K.P. Neeraja, ·Text book of nursing education· Jaypee Publishers, 2004. pg: 206 -230. B.Shankaranarayan, ¶Learninig and teaching nursing·, brainfull publishers, pg: 177 -189. B.T. Basvanathappa, ¶Nursing education, Jaypee, 2nd edition, pg: 262-282. K Park. Preventive and social medicine. 19 th edition Jabalpur, Banaradas Bhanot Publishers, 2007. www.google.com

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