P. 1
Standar NDT

Standar NDT

5.0

|Views: 1,783|Likes:
Published by Abrianto
Dasar2 Non Destructive Test
Dasar2 Non Destructive Test

More info:

Published by: Abrianto on Jul 09, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/18/2013

pdf

text

original

High Electrical Potential Electrons + X-ray Generator or Radioactive Source Creates Radiation Radiation Penetrate the Sample

Exposure Recording Device

0

2

4

6

8

10

Definisi
Non Destructive Test; NDT adalah pengujian material yang dilakukan tanpa harus merusak bagian konstruksi (produk, material) atau obyek yang diuji untuk mengetahui cacat baik cacat luar maupun cacat dalam.

• Hasil pemeriksaan produk mengenai jenis cacat, bentuk, tempat yang diteliti, keadaan produk dan lain-lainnya harus dicatat secara tepat, dan langkah selanjutnya bagi produk yang lulus pemeriksaan, tingkat kualitasnya harus dicatat dan hasil pencatatan tersebut harus diberikan sebagai umpan balik pada bagian perencanaan teknik. • Bagian perencanaan teknik mengadakan pengaturan kualitas menurut data tersebut dan dilaksanakan untuk pencegahan cacat-cacat. Untuk memelihara dan menyempurnakan data tersebut agar selalu dapat menyiapkan standar pemeriksaan yang lebih sempurna.

Tujuan dan Peranan Pengujian
• untuk menjamin mutu (kualitas) dan kepercayaan terhadap kontruksi (produk, material), yaitu dengan cara memisahkan produk yang gagal. • penekanan biaya dengan mengetahui lebih dulu produk yang cacat, yaitu penerimaan bahan baku dan bahan yang diproses dari proses awal sampai akhir bahwa produk yang cacat diketahui seawal mungkin. • penyempurnaan teknik, yaitu menyisihkan produk yang cacat dilakukan lebih awal dan langkah selanjutnya tingkat kualitas dapat dipelihara dengan memeriksa data secara kolektif, sehingga kualitas dan teknik pembuatan dapat disempurnakan.

Peranan pengujian atau pemeriksaan dapat dikelompokkan menjadi tiga kelas, yaitu pengujian untuk :
• Keperluan pembuat; untuk menunjang usaha-usaha perbaikan kepercayaan, kualitas produk (material), perbaikan teknik pembuatan, dan pengurangan biaya pembuatan. • Keperluan pemakai; untuk kepastian kualitas saat pembelian, kepastian dan ketahanan kulaitas selama penggunaan, dan cara untuk memilih pembuat dan membandingkan hasil. • Keperluan masyarakat; untuk penilaian terhadap kualitas produk (material), jaminan untuk keamanan masyarakat.

Untuk menjamin kualitas dan kepercayaan, pengujian atau pemeriksaan harus dilakukan secara terus menerus sejak dari tahap perencanaan sampai dengan tahap pemakaian. Tahap-tahap yang harus dilakukan antara lain:
• • • Pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk penjajagan. Pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk penelitian dan pengembangan. Disain meliputi: – pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk pemilihan bahan – pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk pembuat – pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk penentuan persyaratan disain

• •

Material : pengujian atau pemeriksaan penerimaan. Pembuatan meliputi : • pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk cara pemrosesan • pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk pemilihan kondisi proses • pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk pengawasan kualitas • pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk proses produksi • Penggunaan meliputi : • pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk penerimaan • pengujian atau pemeriksaan untuk perawatan

Persiapan Sebelum Pengujian
• Kepastian dari standar yang digunakan. Di dalam pengujian atau pemeriksaan terdapat bermacammacam standar dengan spesifikasi yang berbeda-beda. Berhubung dengan hal tersebut, maka sebelum pengujian dilaksanakan harus ditentukan lebih dulu standar yang akan digunakan termasuk tahun penerbitannya. Kepastian tentang jadwal dan lingkungan pemeriksaan. Pengujian atau pemeriksaan produk menyesesuaikan jadwal proses produksi yang dibuat agar tidak menghambat seluruh pekerjaan dengan memperhitungkan kemungkinan adanya pekerjaan yang tidak memenuhi syarat yang akan memerlukan waktu tambahan untuk memperbaiki. Supaya tidak mengganggu pelaksanaan pemeriksaan, maka lingkungan pemeriksaan juga harus dipastikan lebih dahulu, agar pemeriksa dapat melakukan tugasnya dengan baik dan aman.

Persiapan Sebelum Pengujian
(lanjutan)
• Pemilihan pemeriksa dan alat yang digunakan. Pemeriksaan sangat tergantung dari pemeriksa, metoda pemeriksaan, dan alat yang digunakan, oleh karena itu harus didasarkan pada spesifikasi dan standar yang ada. • Persiapan benda uji. Sebelum melakukan pemeriksaan produk, harus ditentukan lebih dahulu cara-cara pengujian yang akan digunakan dengan memperhatikan perencanaan dan fungsi produk. Untuk penanganan produk hasil pemeriksaan, perlu dipelajari tentang cacat maupun letak cacat di dalam produk, dan dipersiapkan benda uji sesuai dengan persyaratan yang diperlukan, serta alat uji harus dikalibrasi terlebih dahulu sebelum digunakan.

NDT terhadap lasan, pada dasarnya memiliki 2 fungsi:
• Quality control, yang memonitor welder dan peralatan, kualitas, dan logam dasar yang dipergunakan. • Diterima atau diafkir suatu hasil lasan yang disesuaikan dengan fungsinya.

Tujuan utama Inspeksi las melalui NDT adalah keberadaan diskontinuitas. Sehingga diskontinuitas tersebut harus dideteksi, diidentifikasi, dicari lokasinya, ukurannya dan orientasinya.

Pertimbangan Pemilihan Metoda NDT pada Struktur Lasan:
• • • • • Karakteristik diskontinuitas Persyaratan mekanika perpatahan Ukuran komponen Kemampuan dibawanya peralatan Kendala-kendala lainnya: – Jalan masuk ke lokasi inspeksi – Geometri struktur (datar, lengkung, tebal, tipis, dll) – kondisi permukaan (halus, tidak beraturan, dll) – Mode inspeksi (preservice, in-service, kontinyu, periodik, sesaat) – Lingkungan (tidakj bersahabat, dibawah air, dll) – Waktu yang tersedia untuk inspeksi (cepat, intensif) – kehandalan – Aplikasi gabungan metoda pengujian – Harga

Metoda NDT:
Visual

Five Most Common NDT Methods
• • • • • Visual Liquid Penetrant Magnetic Ultrasonic X-ray

Visual Inspection
Most basic and common inspection method. Tools include fiberscopes, borescopes, magnifying glasses and mirrors. Portable video inspection unit with zoom allows inspection of large tanks and vessels, railroad tank cars, sewer lines. Robotic crawlers permit observation in hazardous or tight areas, such as air ducts, reactors, pipelines.

Visual inspection is useful for checking the following: Dimensional accuracy of weldments Conformity of welds to size and contour requirements Acceptability of weld appearance with regard to surface roughness, weld spatter, and cleanness • Presence of surface flaws such as unfilled craters, • pockmarks, undercuts, • overlaps, and cracks.
• • •

(a) Mirror on stem: may be flat for normal view or concave for limited magnification. (b) Hand magnifying glass (magnification usually 2–3´). (c) Illuminated magnifier; field of view more restricted than D (magnification 5–10´). (d) Inspection glass, usually fitted with a scale for measurement; the front surface is placed in contact with the work (magnification 5–10´). (e) Borescope or intrascope with built-in illumination (magnification 2–3´).

Gage for visual inspection of a fillet weld at a 90° intersection. Similar gages can be made for other angles. Dimension given in inches

Appearance Standards.

Workmanship standard for visual comparison during inspection of single-V-groove welds and fillet welds. Dimensions given in inches

Liquid Penetrant Inspection
• A liquid with high surface wetting characteristics is applied to the surface of the part and allowed time to seep into surface breaking defects. • The excess liquid is removed from the surface of the part. • A developer (powder) is applied to pull the trapped penetrant out the defect and spread it on the surface where it can be seen. • Visual inspection is the final step in the process. The penetrant used is often loaded with a fluorescent dye and the inspection is done under UV light to increase test sensitivity.

Magnetic Particle Inspection
The part is magnetized. Finely milled iron particles coated with a dye pigment are then applied to the specimen. These particles are attracted to magnetic flux leakage fields and will cluster to form an indication directly over the discontinuity. This indication can be visually detected under proper lighting conditions.

Radiography
The radiation used in radiography testing is a higher energy (shorter wavelength) version of the electromagnetic waves that we see as visible light. The radiation can come from an X-ray generator or a radioactive source.
High Electrical Potential Electrons + -

X-ray Generator or Radioactive Source Creates Radiation

Radiation Penetrate the Sample
Exposure Recording Device

Film Radiography
The part is placed between the radiation source and a piece of film. The part will stop some of the radiation. Thicker and more dense area will stop more of the radiation. The film darkness (density) will vary with the amount of radiation reaching the film through the test object. = less exposure = more exposure
Top view of developed film

X-ray film

Radiographic Images

Ultrasonic Inspection (Pulse-Echo)
High frequency sound waves are introduced into a material and they are reflected back from surfaces or flaws. Reflected sound energy is displayed versus time, and inspector can visualize a cross section of the specimen f showing the depth of features that reflect sound.
initial pulse back surface echo

crack echo

crack
0 2 4 6 8 10

plate

Oscilloscope, or flaw detector screen

Sound beam path in a flat testpiece being ultrasonically inspected with a shear wave from an angle-beam transducer, showing the skip distance between the nodes where the beam reflects from the surfaces Three positions of the contact type of transducer along the zigzag scanning path used during ultrasonic inspection of welded joints. The movement of the sound beam path across the weld is shown on a section taken along the centerline of the transducer as it is moved from the far left position in the scanning path (a), through an intermediate position (b), to the far right position (c).

Ultrasonic scanning procedures to detect longitudinal and transverse discontinuities in welds that (a) are not ground flush and (b) are ground flush

Ultrasonic scanning procedure for full-penetration groove weld (a) and double-fillet welds (b) in corner joints

Discontinuity Signals

Transducer scanning positions for distinguishing between weld metal flaws that are (a) vertically oriented and (b) in an inclined position

Common Application of NDT
• Inspection of Raw Products • Inspection Following Secondary Processing • In-Services Damage Inspection

Inspection of Raw Products
• Forgings, • Castings, • Extrusions, • etc.

Inspection Following Secondary Processing
• Machining • Welding • Grinding • Heat treating • Plating • etc.

Inspection For In-Service Damage
• Cracking • Corrosion • Erosion/Wear • Heat Damage • etc.

Power Plant Inspection
Periodically, power plants are shutdown for inspection. Inspectors feed eddy current probes into heat exchanger tubes to check for corrosion damage.

Pipe with damage

Probe
Signals produced by various amounts of corrosion thinning.

Wire Rope Inspection
Electromagnetic devices and visual inspections are used to find broken wires and other damage to the wire rope that is used in chairlifts, cranes and other lifting devices.

Storage Tank Inspection
Robotic crawlers use ultrasound to inspect the walls of large above ground tanks for signs of thinning due to corrosion. Cameras on long articulating arms are used to inspect underground storage tanks for damage.

Aircraft Inspection
• Nondestructive testing is used extensively during the manufacturing of aircraft. • NDT is also used to find cracks and corrosion damage during operation of the aircraft. • A fatigue crack that started at the site of a lightning strike is shown below.

Jet Engine Inspection
• Aircraft engines are overhauled after being in service for a period of time. • They are completely disassembled, cleaned, inspected and then reassembled. • Fluorescent penetrant inspection is used to check many of the parts for cracking.

Pressure Vessel Inspection
The failure of a pressure vessel can result in the rapid release of a large amount of energy. To protect against this dangerous event, the tanks are inspected using radiography and ultrasonic testing.

Rail Inspection
Special cars are used to inspect thousands of miles of rail to find cracks that could lead to a derailment.

Bridge Inspection
• The US has 578,000 highway bridges. • Corrosion, cracking and other damage can all affect a bridge’s performance. • The collapse of the Silver Bridge in 1967 resulted in loss of 47 lives. • Bridges get a visual inspection about every 2 years. • Some bridges are fitted with acoustic emission sensors that “listen” for sounds of cracks growing.

Pipeline Inspection
NDT is used to inspect pipelines to prevent leaks that could damage the environment. Visual inspection, radiography and electromagnetic testing are some of the NDT methods used.

Remote visual inspection using a robotic crawler.

Magnetic flux leakage inspection. This device, known as a pig, is placed in the pipeline and collects data on the condition of the pipe as it is pushed along by whatever is being transported.

Radiography of weld joints.

Macam-macam Jenis Cacat

Macam-macam Jenis Cacat (lanjutan)

COMPARISON OF VARIOUS NDT METHODS.

Applications of magnetic particle testing and other methods of testing for surface and subsurface flaws • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. Burst NDT methods application and limitations Ultrasonic testing method Normally used for the detection of internal bursts. Bursts are definite breaks in the material and resemble a crack, producing a very sharp reflection on the scope. 273 Ultrasonic testing is capable of detecting varying degrees of burst, a condition not detectable by other NDT methods. Nicks, gouges, raised areas, tool tears, foreign material, or gas bubbles on the article may produce adverse ultrasonic test results. Eddy current testing method Not normally used. Testing is restricted to wire, rod, and other articles under 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) diameter. Magnetic particle testing method Usually used on wrought ferromagnetic material in which the burst is open to the surface or has been exposed to the surface. Results are limited to surface and near surface evaluation. Liquid penetrant testing method Not normally used. When fluorescent penetrant is to be applied to an article previously dye penetrant tested, all traces of dye penetrant should first be removed by prolonged cleaning in applicable solvent. Radiographic testing method Not normally used. Such variables as the direction of the burst, close interfaces, wrought material, discontinuity size, and material thickness restrict the capability of radiography.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

2. Cold shuts Liquid penetrant testing method Normally used to evaluate surface cold shuts in both ferrous and non-ferrous materials. Indications appear as a smooth, regular continuous or intermittent line. Certain castings may have surfaces that are blind and from which removal of excess penetrant may be difficult. The geometric configuration (recesses, orifices, and flanges) of a casting may permit buildup of wet developer thereby masking any detection of a discontinuity. Magnetic particle testing method Normally used for the evaluation of ferromagnetic materials. The metallurgical nature of 431 corrosion-resistant steel is such that, in some cases, magnetic particle testing indications are obtained which do not result from a crack or other harmful discontinuities. These indications arise from a duplex structure within the material, wherein one portion exhibits strong magnetic retentivity and the other does not. Radiographic testing method Cold shuts are normally detectable by radiography while testing for other casting discontinuities. Cold shuts appear as a distinct dark line, or band, of variable length and width, and definite smooth outline. The casting configuration may have inaccessible areas that can only be tested by radiography. Ultrasonic testing method Not recommended. Cast structure and article configuration do not, as a general rule, lend themselves to ultrasonic testing. Eddy current testing method Not recommended. Article configuration and inherent variables restrict the use of this method.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

3. Grinding cracks Liquid penetrant testing method Normally used on both ferrous and non-ferrous materials for the detection of grinding cracks. Liquid penetrant indication will appear as irregular, checked, or scattered pattern of fine lines. Grinding cracks are the most difficult discontinuity to indicate and require the longest penetration time. Articles that have been degreased may still have solvent entrapped in the discontinuity and should be allowed sufficient time for evaporation prior to the application of the penetrant. Magnetic particle testing method Restricted to ferromagnetic materials. Grinding cracks generally occur at right angles to grinding direction, although in extreme cases a complete network of cracks may appear, in which case they may be parallel to the magnetic field. Magnetic sensitivity decreases as the size of grinding cracks decreases. Eddy current testing method Not normally used for detection of grinding cracks. Eddy current equipment has the capability and can be developed for a specific non-ferrous application. Ultrasonic testing method Not normally used for detection of grinding cracks. Other forms of NDT are more economical, faster, and better adapted to this type of discontinuity than ultrasonics. Radiographic testing method Not recommended for detection of grinding cracks. Grinding cracks are too tight and small. Other NDT methods are more suitable for detection of grinding cracks.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

4. Heat-affected zone cracking Magnetic particle testing method Normally used for ferromagnetic weldments. Prod burns are very detrimental, especially on highly heat-treated articles. Burns may contribute to structural failure of article. Demagnetization of highly heat-treated articles can be very difficult due to metallurgical structure. Liquid penetrant testing method Normally used for non-ferrous weldments Material that has had its surface obliterated, blurred, or blended due to manufacturing processes should not be penetrant tested until the smeared surface has been removed. Liquid penetrant testing after the application of certain types of chemical film coatings may be invalid due to the covering or filling of the discontinuities. Radiographic testing method Not normally used for the detection of heat-affected zone cracking. Discontinuity orientation and surface origin make other NDT methods more suitable. Ultrasonic testing method Used where specialized applications have been developed. Rigid standards and procedures are required to develop valid tests. The configuration of the surface roughness (i.e. sharp versus rounded root radii and the slope condition) are major factors in deflecting the sound beam. Eddy current testing method Although not normally used for the detection of heat-affected zone cracking, eddy current testing equipment has the capability of detecting non-ferrous surface discontinuities.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

5. Laps and seams Liquid penetrant testing method Compatibility with both ferrous and non-ferrous materials makes fluorescent liquid penetrant the first choice. Liquid penetrant indications will be circumferential, slightly curved, intermittent or continuous indication. Laps and seams may occur individually or in clusters. Foreign material may not only interfere with the penetration of the penetrant into the discontinuity but may cause an accumulation of penetrant in a non-defective area. Surface of threads may be smeared due to rolling operation, thereby sealing off laps and seams. Fluorescent and dye penetrants are not compatible. Dye penetrants tend to kill the fluorescent qualities in fluorescent penetrants. Magnetic particle testing method Magnetic particle indications of laps and seams generally appear the same as liquid penetrant indications. Non-relevant magnetic indications may result from threads. Questionable magnetic particle indications can be verified by liquid penetrant testing. Eddy current testing method Not normally used for detecting laps and seams. Article configuration is the restricting factor. Ultrasonic testing method Not recommended for detecting laps and seams. Thread configurations restrict ultrasonic capability. Radiographic testing method Not recommended for detecting laps and seams. Size and orientation of discontinuities restricts the capability of radiographic testing.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

6. Gas porosity Radiographic testing method Radiography is the most universally used NDT method for the detection of gas porosity in weldments. The radiographic image of a “round” porosity will appear as oval shaped spots with smooth edges, while “elongated” porosity will appear as oval shaped spots with the major axis sometimes several times longer than the minor axis. Foreign material such as loose scale, flux, or splatter will affect validity of test results. Ultrasonic testing method Ultrasonic testing equipment is highly sensitive, capable of detecting microseparations. Established standards should be used if valid test results are to be obtained. Surface finish and grain size will affect the validity of the test results. Eddy current testing method Normally confined to thin-wall welded pipe and tube. Penetration restricts testing to a depth of not more than one quarter inch. Liquid penetrant testing method Normally confined to in-process control of ferrous and non-ferrous weldments. Liquid penetrant testing, like magnetic particle testing, is restricted to surface evaluation. Extreme caution must be exercised to prevent any cleaning material, magnetic (iron oxide), and liquid penetrant materials from becoming entrapped and contaminating the rewelding operation. Magnetic particle testing method Not normally used to detect gas porosity. Only surface porosity would be evident. Near surface porosity would not be clearly defined since indications are neither strong nor pronounced.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->