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[^

THE

CASTES AND TRIBES
OF

H. E. H.
o

THE NIZAM'S DOMINIONS

Z

BY

SYED

SIRAJ

UL HASSAN
College, Dublin,

Of Merton College, Oxford, Trinity

and

Middle Temple, London.

One

of the Judges of H. E. H. the
:

Nizam's High Court

of Judicature

Lr tely Director of Public Instruction.

Volume

I

BOMBAY
THE tlMES PRESS
1920

^

PREFACE.
great

''

^

^

This work was undertaken with
•'myself
certainly ""by a devoted band,

enthusiasm, jf
late

not

by

headed by the
travelled

Mr. Kale
the

of the

Educational

Department,
at
first

who

through

Domi-

nions and thus obtained

hand valuable information regarding

the

Tribes

and Castes that inhabit the

Hyderabad
I

Deccan

:

I

» followed them,
their

not everywhere but as far as

was

able, to check

investigations

and revise the

monographs
:

prepared

by

Mr.

Kale.

The

Fates were against us from the outset

a serious affection

of the eyes

ments

—made> me
:Jo

not to mention

my

official

and

numerous other engage-

despair of these pages ever seeing the light of day.
loss

A
last

more severe

was the sudden death
lay
I

of
If

Mr. Kale when
kind
friends

the

pages^of the draft

before him.

had not

come

my

assistance,
at

could not have consented to the publicadespite the gentle

tion of

the work

all,

and kindly pressure of

the Department of Finance which had entrusted
I

me

with the work.

am, however, hopeful that the material which has been collected
afford

may
D

others

an opportunity of contributing,

in

better

shape

^and form, to ethnographic literature.
I

must acknowledge
similar

my
in

indebtedness to the learned gentleman

who produced
complete,

work

Bombay,

for to

make

our

own

efforts

we

had

to look for help from the other side with regar(i

to such castes as the the
fronti^t
districts

"Ahirs" and
of

others,

who' are to be found
Nasik.
I

in

Khandesh and
the
various
is

would

have

acknowledged
borrowed; but
to

in

detail

monographs
I

from which

we

as

Mr. Kale

no more,

am

hardly in a position

do

so.

My
J.

thanks are

especially

due to

my

old and capable

friend

Mr.

E. Lee, who very kindly saw the work through the

Press; also to
as

Mr. Shawcross

for looking over

some

of the articles

they came from the

Typist.

A
me
of Dr.

word

of thanks to the eminent Surgeon Oculist

who

attended

will not

be out of place;
that
is
I

for

it

is

due

entirely to the great skill
all.

Duggan

am

able to read these pages at

No

further apology

needed to the readers of these monographs when
physical strain
douJ)t
I

they
Its

know under what
no

had

to bring out the work.
I

deficiencies will

be patent and

shall

always be gratea later edition.

ful for friendly criticism

which will help

to improve

o

'

s"s. H.

CONTENTS.
Page

I—Ahir
II—Andh
III—Are
Katika

:

...

,

1

8
12 15

IV—Banjara

V—Barai
VI—Bedar
VII.-Bhadbhunja

28
34 44 48
51

VIII—Bhamta
• •

IX—Bhandari

X—Bhat
XI—Bhatraja
XII—Bhavsar

53

56 60
66
77

XIII—Bhil

XIV—Bhoi

XV—Bhute
.

88
91

XVI—Bogam
XVII—Bprul
XVIII—Brahman

96

99
134
135
or

XIX—Budbudke
X>^—Burud

XXI—Chakla
XXII—Chanchu
XXIII—Darji

Dhobi

143

149 153

XXIV—Dasri

157 162
166
171

XXV—Devanga
XXVI—Dhangar
XXVlII—Dhor

XXVIII—Domara

177
185

XXIX—Erakala

XXX—Gavli
XXXI—Ghisadi
XXXII—Golia
XXXIII—Gond
.J
,
'.

196
201

204
...

^..

216
233

XXXIV—Gondhali

XXXV—Gopai

237

CONTENTS.
Page.
^

XXXVI—Goundala
XXXVIl—Hatkar
XXXVIII—Jain

240
...

248 256 273

XXXIX—Jingar XL—Jogi
XLI

278
286

,

Johari

XLII—

Joshi

290
297 300
303 '306
c

XLIII— Kachhi

XLIV— Kahar

XLV— Kalal
XLVI—Kapu
XLVII—Kasar
XLVIII—Kayasth

320 322 326
328

XLIX— Khatik
L

—Khatri
—Komti —
Kuruma

LI—Koli
Lll

332^
340
357

LIII—Kummara

LIV

362 370

LV— Kurmi
LVI—Lalbeji
LVII

380
383

— Lingayit

LVIII—Lodhe LIX Lonari

400

404
409
421

LX— Madiga
LXI— Mahar
LXII—Mala
LXIII— Mali

428 439
Gujarathi

LXIV—Mali
LXVl— Mang

447
450

LXV— Manbhao
LXVII— Mangala
LXVIII— Mang
or Barber

458
463
Garodi
'
...

469 473

LXIX—Maratha

LXX— Marwadi

(Bania)

LXXI— Mendicant

492
503

Telegas

CONTENTS.

Page,
,.

LXXII—Mochi
LXXIII— Mondiwadu

...

508
^515

LXXIV—Munur
LXXV—Muttasi

518
525

LXXVI—Otari
LXXVII—I^adma
LXXVIII—Panchal
LXXIX-J^angul

532
Sale
...

536 544
555

LXXX—Pardhi
L>gCXI.-Penta

...

558 562

LX:^XII—Perika

•.

...

565

LXXXIII—Pichakuntala

568
573

LXXXIV—Rajput

LXXXV—Sale
LXXXVI-5anyasi

577 582
585

UXXXVII—Satani
LX^XVIII—Singi

590 592
and Gurgva
...
... ... ...

LXXXIX—Sonar XC—Tamdi
kCI—Telaga
XCII—Teli
XCIII
or

597 603

Gandla
or

611

—Uppara

Gavandi

619

XCIV—Vaidu

624 627
635
641

XCV—Vanjari
XCVl—Velma
XCVII—Viramushti
XCVIII—Waddar

645

THE TRIBES AND CASTES
OF
H.

H.

,THE NIZAM'S DOMINIONS

Ahir
Origin

Ahir,

Ahir (Sansk-

Abhir)

a

large

pastoral

caste
re-

regarding whose origin there has been
presents

much

controversy.

Manu

them

as

descended from a Brahman and an Ambastha mother,

whilev
I

according to the

Brahm Puran,

they are the offspring of a
traditions current

Kshatriy^

man and

a

Vaishya woman. The

among

the

people profess to trace their descent from the

God

Krishna,

whose

gay amours with the gopis, or milkmaids of Brindaban, are
great lepglh
tions, in

set forth at

the
as

Bhdgwat and Hariwansha Purdnas.
their

These

tradi-

as

well

sub-divisions

Nandabansi,

Yadubansi

and
to

Goalbansi, evidently called after Nanda,
identify

Yadu and Copal, seem
in

them with the Gopas, who were mentioned

the Buddhist

Pali }ata\ds and

Hindu Purdnas,
neighbourhood

as

a caste of cowherds,
into

found

in

Mathura and

its

and settled down
era.

an

orderly

community long before the Christian

These claims of Ahirs
however,
borne out by

to

be the descendants of Gopas

are not,

evidence.

The

Va'su,

Markande^a and

Mats^a Purdnas mention the Abhiras with Valhikas and Vatadhanas
in

the north

and Shabaras, Pulindas and Vaidharbas
(II.

in

the south.

The Bhdgwat Puran

4-18) associates them with Kiratas, Hunas,
as

Andhras and Pulindas

the

tribes
tlsfe

purified

by Krishna.

In

the

Mahabharata (Musulparva VII)
or

Abhiras are "described as Dasyu,
in

free booters
e

who
carried

assailed

Arjuna
the

the Panchanada
of

De^h

(the

Punjab)

and

away

widowed wives

Krishna

and

Yadavas

whom

he was escorting from Dwarjca with immense

riches.

2
c

Ahir
pillar

The Allahabad
Abhiras
kingdom.
ally
as a

inscription of

Samudragupta

also refers to tifc

tr^e and places them on the
facts evidently

frontiers of

Samudragupta's

These

show

that the

Abhiras were originSociety,

a distinct tribe,
in

outside the pale of

Hindu

who dwelt
banditti

somewhere

the

Punjab

and combined the character of
is

with that of herdsmen.

This view

favoured by Professor Lassen,

who

describes the Abhiras as a non-Aryan pastoral race living near the
also

mouth of the Indus, and

by Ptolemy who noticed them

as occu-

pying Pataline, the country about Tatta on the InEus.

The w^rd
in

Abhira

'

is

first

given

as

a

synonym
it

for

gopa (cowherd)
r

the

Amarkosha (550 A.D.), from which
Ahirs, before

follows that the Abhiras, or
or

became incorporated

into the

Gopa

Goala

caste sometime

500 A.D.

History.
any
that
political

—The

Ahirs have not,

for

many
of

centuries,

been of

importance.

But

the

evidence

inscriptions

shows
and

a

dynasty of Ahir
In

Kings

once
at

ruled over

the
is

Deccan

Gujarath.
reign
of

a cave inscription

Nasik, reference

made

to the

an Abhira prince
inscription,

named Ishwarasena, son
at

of

Shivadatta.
in

Another
reign
bhuti,
as

found

Gunda and

dated

181

A.D.,

the

of

the
is

Kshatrapa Rudrasinha,
therein
as

speaks of his

General Rudradescribe*

who

called

Abhira.

The Purdnas
after

them

having
in

ruled

paramount sovereigns

the
in

Andhrabhrityas
Gujarath, they

and

the 8th century,

when

the Kathis

arrived

found the greater part of the country possessed by the Ahirs.
old fort Ashirgada.
in

The
im-

the

Khandesh,

testifies
its

to

their

former

portance and

still

retains the
is

name

of

founder

Asa

Ahir, or the

Ahir prince Asa, who

said to

have had 5,000 buffaloes, 5,000

cows and 20,000 sheep.

Immense numbers
their

of the

Ahir

still

cling to the

nomadic
of

life

of

ancestors.

Seeking

the

high

grazing

ground

Centnai

India and the Deccan, they form encampments on the pasture lands,

where they reside with
in

their wives,
is

families

and herds,
entirely

till

the grass

the

neighbourhood
from
their

exhausted,

subsisting

on the prt-

ceeds

cows

and

buffaloes

milk,

butter

and 'ghee.
matst which

The

houses

they use
to pieces

are constructed of large

bamboo

can be taken

and removed like

tents.

Ahir
Interiiar Structure

3

—The
his

Ahirs have 6 endogamous* divisions—
Lingabansi,

Nandabansi,
Guiar,
in

Yadubansi,

Goalbansi,
are

Ghosi

and

of

whom

the Nandabansi

found
trace

in

very

large Slumbers

these

Dominions.

The Nandabansi

their

pedigree to the

cowherd chief Nanda and
.

wife Yashoda,
into a

the foster parents of

Krishna.
sections,

These

are subdivided

large

number of exogamous

the names of

which appear

for

the most part to have re-

ference to locality rather than to descent.

A

few of these
are

sections
as

seem

to

be^ of
:

the

totemistic

type.

• specimens

The

following

given

Chiyanwale

Routre
Jangle

Mandalye
Kotwal Khandare
Kheryawale
Bhurewale
,

Chediwale
Barodiye

Kodiwale
Pariwale

Bhanoriye (bow)
Katariye (dagger)

Hinwar

(deer)

Moriye (peacock).
side.

The
is

section

names go by the male
i.e.,

The

rule of

exogamy

strictly

observed,

a

man

cannot marry outside the subcaste nor

inside the section to

which he belongs.
or, in

The

Ahirs exclude the section of both father and mother

other words, forbid a

man

to marry a

woman who

belongs to the same

section as himself or his mother.

Ordinarily, the prohibition extends

only

to

three

generations

in

the

descending
is

line

and

in

counting
included.

generations,

the

person

under consideration

of

course
his

Thus,

a

man may

not marry a

woman descended
from
his

from

own

pater-

nal or maternal grandfather, or

own

paternal or maternal aunt.
is

He may
married
a

marry two
first.

sisters at
is

the same time, provided that the elder

Polygamy
as

permitted and there
as

is

nothing to prevent
It is
is

man from marrying
for a

many wives

he can maintain.
first

unusual,

however,

man

to take a

second wife unless the

barren or

incurably diseased.

Marriage
according
to

Ahirs

practise
infant

both

infant

and

adult

jnarriage,

their

means,

marriage being deemed
if

the
tlie

more

respectable and adult marriages being resorted to only

parents

a

r

'

4

Ahir
cannot afford to get her married earlier
ft
life.
is

of the girl

Sexual
never-

licence

before marriage,
it

though not expressly recognised,
if

theless tderated,

being understood that,

a

girl

becomes pregnant,

she will disclose the

name

of her lover and he will

come forward
sect
is

to

marry her.
with
a
fine,

Intercourse with a

member
an

of the

same

punished

and that

with

outsider

by

expulsion

from

the

community.

The

negotiations leading to marriage are

opened by the father of

the bridegroom.

After the bride has been selected, the lyidegroom's
her house to ascertain whether her parents agree the point
is
is

people pay a

visit to
If

to the proposal.

settled to the

entire

satisi^actiqp

of

both

parties,

the

match

ratified

by the bride's
for the caste

father

provjfling

liquor for the bridegroom's party

and

people present on

the occasion,

and distributing parched paddy and gram among them.
is

This ceremony

known

as

Galikvchi.

Then comes

Sagai,

which

consists in the bridegroom's father going to the bride's

house with a
for

present of jewels,

clothes,

areca nuts and betel
a

leaves

the

girl,

and receiving from the bride's father
present
bridal
for
his

ring of

gold or silver as,
are

son.

These

clothes

and jewels

worn by

the
a
'

'"'
,

pair
is

on the wedding day.
called in to
fix

Sagai having been performed,

Brahman

an auspicious day for the marriage.

On

the day previous to the wedding, the ceremony called
is

Telchadhan^

performed by the relatives of both the bride and the bridegroom.
betrothed pair,
in their

The

respective houses, are each anointed sepa-

rately with

turmeric and

oil,

the bridegroom a

little

while after the
living.

bride,

and then bathed by married females whose husbands are
touch the feet,

The women
bridegroom
coloured
deities

knee and shoulders of the bride
at

and

with
in

their
their

fingers,

the

same time holding turmeric
are

rice

hands.

Offerings

made

to

the

tutelary

and the

spirits of ancestors,

who

are invited to

be present and

witness the ceremony.

On
relatives
ficently

the night of the

wedding day
is

a procession (karat) of friends,

and neighbours

formed, escorting the bridegroom, magniin

dressed and dagger^
music,

hand, to

^e
to

bride's

house,

with as

i

much show,

and noise as the means of the family permit. mother comes out

On

arrival,

the bride's

meet him,

waves an

Ahir

5

auspicious

light

round his face from a winnowing fan and makes a

spot of |ahdal

wood

paste and red aniline
is

powder (ktmkum) on
to

his

forehead.

The bridegroom
made
of
in

then

taken

the

wedding canopy
a

(mandap),

mango and
the
centre.

other

leaves

with

post

called
a

medha

planted

An

earthen

pot,

crowned with
leaves

burning lamp, and containing
meric,
is

rice,

areca nuts,

betel

and

tur-

placed at the foot of

this post

with some

mango

twigs.

The

bridegroom touches the booth with the point of
it.
.

his

dagger and enters

Here

the bride,

dressed in yellow clothes,

joins

him and both,
the
left

seated

side

by

side

on low wooden

stools,

the bride on

hand* of
by
aft

the

bridegroom,

make
in

offerings

to

Ganesh,

represented
ball

areca nut,

and to Gouri,

the form of a

cowdung
pair are

be-

daubed with vermilion.

The
mantras

clothes of the bridal

knotted

together and they walk seven times round the sacred post (medha),
the

Brahman

reciting

or

wedding hymns,

women

singing

songs, music playing and the assembly showering rice on the couple
ail

the

while.

The

seventh
is

circumambulation,

taken

only

on the

corftent of the bride's parents,

deemed

to

be the

essential

and binding

portion of the ritual, and to unite the pair irrevocably as

husband and
the

wife.

After

this,

the knot of their garments
their fees

is

untied,

Brahman

and the hajam (barber) receive
thi

and

all

the

men

retire leaving

bride

and

bridegroom
peculiar

to

the care of

the

women,
at

who
same
is

then

perform their

own

ceremonies,

playing
rest

the

time

various tricks on the bridegroom.
feasting

The

of the night

spent in

and merrymaking, the wedded couple leaving
morning.

for the bride-

groom's house early next
bridal pair

All through the ceremony

the

wear high crowns,

or helmets,

made

of leaves of shendt

(wild date palm).

Widows
the

are allowed to marry again.

It

is

considered right for

widow

to

marry her
is,

late

husband's younger brother or younger

cousin.

There

however,

no positive rule against her marrying
in this

an outsider and she incurs no social penalty by doing so; but
respect she forfeits
all

claims to the share

in

her late husband's pro-

perty or to the custody of Sny children sRe

may have had

by. him.

Under no circumstances can she marry her husband's elder brother.

The ceremony

in

use at the marriage of a

widow

is

called

Dharona

/
6
and
is

Ahir
a very simple one.

On

a dark night the bridal pair bathe
ties

and

put on

new

clothe^ and a

widow

their garments
is

in

a Jcnot.

A

feast, in

which

liquor plays a prominent part, pair retire to a room.

given to caste people,

after

which the bridal

Neither Brahmans nor

married

women
in

attend the ceremony.

For three subsequent days the^
this

bride remains

concealment, as to see her face during

period

is

considered unlucky by married

women. .On
If

the third day she puts

on bangles and

is

free from the ban.

the

man who
rui

marries

a

widow be

a bachelor,

he

is

first

married to a

or

madar plant,

[Cahtropis gigantea) and
witness to this marriage.

five stones are

placed near the plant to bear

Divorce

is

permitted, with the sanction of the Panchayai,
if

if

the

wife be proved unchaste or
disease such
as

the husband suffers from an incurable

leprosy or

impotence.

A

woman who
is

has

been

guilty of a liaison with a

man

of a lower caste,

turned out of the
rite

community.

Divorced

women may marry
matters
this

again by the same

aj

widows.
Inheritance
the

In

of

inheritance,

the

Ahirs
is

follow

Hindu law, with

exception,

that the father

the absolute

owner

of the ancestral property and the son cannot claim any portion

thereof during his lifetime.

Religion

—The
and

religion

of

the

Ahirs

is

of

the

orthodox

type in vogue among the
presents Kisanji,

Hindu

castes of the
interest.

same

social standing,

and

no features of special
Balaji,

Their favourite deities are
the
last

the

Goddess Bhavani,

of

which

is

worshipped with offerings of goats on the Dassera, or the 10th of the
light

half

of

Aswin

(October).

They

celebrate

Janmashtami,

or

the festival of the birthday of Krishna, with great circumstance.
fast
i»s

A
is

is

observed throughout the day and

at night a picture of

Krishna

painted on the wall and an offering of flowers and sweetmeats before
it.

made

The

fast

is

broken early next morning.
they employ

For
but

reli-

gious and ceremonial purposes

Goud Brahmans;

when

these are not available, any local Brahmag, either Maratha or Telugu,
is

called in for the purpose.

Besides the above mentioned gods, they

pay reverence to Khandoba, Biroba, Hanuman, the Goddess of Tuljapur and
other minor local
deities,

whom

they propitiate

with

a

\
variety
of
offerinjs.

•}

Ahir

7

They

also

make

pilgrimages

to

Tuljapur,

Pandharpur,
breaks out
kindle a
ficed

Jejuri

and other
the cattle,

sacred

places.

When

an

epidemic
.is

among

the usual practice fof the Ahirs
it

to

fire

and to throw on

the blood of goats and sheep sacriis

on the occasion.

A

swine

then buried alive with

its

head
it

remaining above the ground and the cattle are
till
it

made

to run over

is

trampled
of

down
the

to death.

Disposal

Dead

Ahirs

burn

their

dead,
west.

laying

the corpse on ,the pyre with

the head pointing to the
in

The
to

body

is

washed

clean,

wrapped

new

clothes

and carried

the

cremati<yi grownd on the shoulders of four

men.

Bodies of unmarried
alone remains
10th

persons ^f either sex are buried.

The

chief mourner

unclean for
death,
are

10 days.

Sradha

is

performed on the

day

after

when
to

caste people are feasted and presents of

money and
are

rice

made

Brahmans.
in

The
the

spirits

of departed
of

ancestors

pro-

pitiated

on any day

latter

half

the month of

Bhadrapad

(Stptember).

^ocial

Status.

In

the

point
all

of

social

precedence,

Ahirs
social

rank above Maratha Kunbis and
standing.

other castes of the
eat

same
an

A

Maratha Kunbl

will

kachi cooked

by

Ahir,
of

but the latter will take cooked food only from Brahmans.

Most

therj eat fowls and mutton and indulge in spirituous and fermented
liquors.

The
deal
in

hereditary occupation of Ahirs milk,
butter

is

to lend milch cattle

and

and ghee.

Some

of

them

enter

Government

service, mostly as police constables. to agriculture.

Of

late years a

few have taken

/

II

Andh
Andh

a cultivating

and hunting
parts of

tribe confined to the hilly tracli,

which include the Northern
western part of Adilabad.

Parbhani and Nander and the
to

They appear

be a very remarksble

people, with dark complexion, thick lips and prominent check bones.

They show, on
sembling that

the whole,

a

marked aboriginal type of

features,

re-

of the Gonds, while the
indicates
traces

fact of their entire occupation of

many
other

villages

of

savage

independence.

On

the

hand,

their

language,

customs

and religion are those of the

Maratha Kunbis.
totemistic

They show

respect to

Brahmans and have

their

sections
arises

modelled on those of the Maratha Kunbis.
must have been the original
affinities

The
of

question
tribe ?

—what

the

Origin

Possibly, the

Andhs
these

are a branch of the
hills

Gonds.
inroads

They
of
to
r

seem

to have

remained

in

when
drove

the the

the

Marathas overwhelmed

the

country

and

Gonds

the
the

Satpura ranges and the Adilabad highlands.

In course of time,

Andhs probably
tribe
in

forgot

their

original

connections

with

the

parent

and assumed the manners, customs, and language of the Kunbis,
they have
a
faint

whom

now become
recollection

entirely

merged.
forefathers

Beyond

that

their

came from
which

Mahur and
will

the adjoining districts, the
light
is

Andhs have no

traditions

throw

upon

their origin.

It

seems highly possible that the

word Andh
tion given

only a corruption of the Sanskrit 'Andhra', a designaancient

by the

Aryans

to

an aboriginal tribe
In the

dwelling

in

the

Andhra Desh (Wilson,

V

p.

190).

Rama})ana (IV. 40-

44) and in the Mahabharata, the Andhras have been represented as

Dasyus (non-Aryans) inhabiting the regions very nearly occupied by^
the

modern

Gonds.

It

may

be

believed,
in

therefore,

that

the

Andhras and Gonds

are cognate tribes or,

other words,

that the

Andh
Gonds were kn6\>^ by
view
is

9
in

the

name

of

Andhras

ancient times.

This

supported by
the

Manu
Medas
'

(X. 34-36)
being,
to
in

who
the

identifies

Andhras with
the

Medas,

term

'

opinion
J.

Maratha Brahmans, equivalent
Castes
,

Gonds.

(Dr.

Isamed " Indian Wilson's
of

p.

59.)

The

question of the origin of the

Andhs may, Andhs were
'

therefore,

appear to have two solutions

(i)

that

the
'

separated

from the parent
into

tribe

before
;

the
that

name
the
in

Gond

for

the

Andhras came

common

use

(ii)

isolated

branch was

renamed Andhra by the Maratha Brahmans,
t»ditional
list

consonance with the
'

of

the

Indian

castes

and

that

the

term

'

Andhra

passed

in

cogimon parlance

into

Andh by
being

the dropping of the "r."
of,

The

latter solution

appears to be more plausible, for instances
tribes

the

fragments

of

aboriginal

renamed

by

wanting
of

in

the ethnic history of the caste.

(Risley's

Aryans are not " The People

India", pp. 86-87.)

Internal
sulj-castes,
(I)

Structure—The
Andhs and
(2)

Andhs

are

divided

into

two

Shadu Andhs,

or the illegitimate pro-

geny of Andhs.

The two
Most

eat with each other, but

do not intermarry.

Their exogamous sections are based upon the model of those of the

Maratha Kunbis.

of them are of the territorial character.
trees

A
The

few

are totemistic,

bearing the names of
to the

and animals.

totems,

however, are not taboo

members bearing the
is

section

names.
hibited.

As

a rule,

marriage within the same section
sisters,

strictly

pro-

A

man may marry two

so also

may two
sister

brothers

marry two

sisters,

the elder brother marrying the elder the

and the
of
is,

younger

brother

younger.

Marriage
is

with

the

daughter
:

a maternal

uncle or paternal

aunt

permitted by the caste

it

however, disallowed with a maternal aunt's daughter.
daughters
takes

Exchange of
into

place.

Outsiders

are

not

admitted

the

community.

Marriage
infants, or after

The

Andhs

marry

their
If

daughters
a girl

either

as

they have attained puberty.

becomes preg-

nant before marriage, the father of the child
'caste Panchayat to get her nyurried

is

called upon

by the

immediately.

A
own

girl

bereft of

parents or relatives

is

married to a
in

man

of her

chc^ce.

The
cere-

Andlis celebrate their wedding

the Maratha fashion,

The

10

Andh
takes place in the bride's house,
pillars.

mony

after mid^iight,

in

a marriage

pandal of twelve

After the bridegroom has been brought

m

procession to the bride's house, the couple are
to face and,

made

to stand

face

a curtain being held
rice

between them, the Brahman
heads.
of

recites

mantras
side

and throws
side,

over
or'

their

They

are

then

seated
tied

by

kankanams,

bracelets

woollen thread,

are

on their wrists by a washerman
(ravireni)
is

and \vater from the blessed

vessel

poured over their heads from the top of the wedding
is

shed.
is
is

A

four-anna piece

afterwards dropped into the vessel and

claimed by the village patel,
permitted
in

who

is

usually an
is

Andh.

Polygamy

theory to any extent but
a

restricted in actual* life to as

many wives
to

as

man can

afford to maintain.

Widows

aft allowed

marry again, but not to the younger or elder brothers of their late

husbands.
night the

The
widow

ritual
is

of a

widow's marriage

is

very simple.

At

presented with a

new

sari and choli (bodice) and

bangles,
is

and the clothes of the pair are knotted together.

Divorce

effected,

with the sanction of the caste Panchayat, on the ground
adultery,
or

of

the wife's

the

husband's inability to maintsin her.
ritual

Divorced
In

women may

marry again by the same

as

widows.
to

matters of inheritance and succession,

the

Andhs conform

the usages of the local Hindus.

Religion
discerned
in

—No

vestiges

of

their

primitive

faith

arc

now
Hindu

the religion of the Andhs.

They worship

the

gods and employ Brahmans for religious

and ceremonial

purposes.

Their household gods are Khandoba of Jejuri and Bhavani of Mahur.
Ancestors, embossed on metal plates, are also honoured.

On Amhil
prepared

Dwadashi,

or the
is

12th of the lunar half of Chaitra (end of March),
offerings

Mahadeo
from

worshipped with
(Indian
millet).

of

amhil,

or

gruel

jawari

Besides

these

principal

gods,

Andhs

appease Mari

Ai

(the deity

who

presides over cholera), Sitala, or the
deities

deity of smallpox,
spirits,

and other minor

and a host of ghosts and

with animal offerings.
of

Disposal
burnt,

the

Dead—Bodies
buried
in

of a

married
lying

persons
posture,
is

aee

and

the

unmarried are

with

the head towards the south.

In cases

where cremation

resorted to,

the ashes are gathered on the third day after death

and thrown into a

^
Andh
rive?. II

The Andhs

observe mourning ten days for adults

and three

days for children, during which they abstain from any, food except
dal (pulse) and bread.

Sradha

is

performed on the

i3th day

after

death, on the lunar third of Vaishakha (April) and in the dark half
of

Bhadrapad (September).

The

deceased

first

wife

is

appeased by

the second in the form of

Social

Status

Manoi, a

vessel of water.

Socially,

the

Andhs

rank

below

the

Maratha Kunbis, and above the Dhobi (washerman), Navi
and
5II

(barber)
a

the

unclelin

classes.

They

will

eat

food

prepared by

Kunbi, though the Kunbi will not take food or

water from an Andh.

They

eat pSrk, fowl, mutton,

fish

of

all

kinds, venison, lizards, hare,
liquors.

peafowl an(? crabs and drink spirituous and fermented

They

do not

eat the leavings of other people.

Occupation

—The

majority

of

the

Andhs

are

engaged
of

in

agriculture and are good and industrious

cultivators.

Some

them

are patels

of

villages.

Many

of

them

are

landless

day labourers,
nests.

bringing firewood from the jungles,

and collecting wild bees'

'They
men

are'considered
in

bom

hunters and, as such, are
large

employed by

sports-

the

hunting of

and small

game.

They make good

watchmen.

The
the

following statement shows the number and distribution of
in

An^s

1911

:


Males
Females
1,258 1,347
7

Adilabad

Aurangabad
Bhir

J

10

/

Are Katika

Are

Katika, Katika,

Lad Kasab,
Katika,'
in

Kasai, Suryachelad, Arewaru,
in

a small Marathi-speaking caste of butchers fouud
of

almost
cruel

all

the

districts

Telingana.

Telugu,

means

and

refers
prefix

probably to the profession of the caste as bfttcheu, while the

Are

'

(Sansk.

'

Arya
to the

)

is

the generic

name by which

all

the

Maratha
Katika

castes are

known

Telugu people. Some derive the name
\aria\,
a

from

the

Sanskrit

word

knife.
'

Arekatikas

are

also called

Lad Kasebs
Lat
',

or

Lad

Butchers, the term
of a portion of

Lad

'

being a

variant of

'

the ancient

name

Modern Gujarath,

from which these people are supposed to have come original lyV

The

members of the

caste

dignify

themselves with

the

title

o

Suryachtf

Lad' (Lads descended from
their progenitor.

the sun), claiming Surya, or the sun, as

Origin—Regarding
legends are current.

the

origin

of

the

caste

a

variety

of

According
in

to one, they trace their descent

from

Dharma Vyadha,' who,
mutton to the people.

some Pouranic

time,

supplied meat and

Another legend makes them the offspring of
ordered by the gods to
kill

one Vithoba,
sprung

who was
a

a

sheep which had
god.
for

from

mole-hill

and caused

annoyance to the Sun

Vithoba carried out the orders immediately and was rewarded
the act with a knife,
the throat
a

wooden
and

block,

and a tripod.
in
it

Vithoba

cut

of

the

sheep

found

a

shaligmm

(fossil

ammonite), which he used for a weight.

Internal

Structure.-The
Sajjanam Katika,
or

caste

has

two
(2)

endogamous
Barki,
or

divisions— (1)

Suryache Lad,
descendants
of

Adjath Katika,
Katikas.
nor

who

are

illegitimate

the

Sajjaeam

The members
Besides

of these swb-castes neither take

food together
called

intermarry.

these,

there

is

one

more

divisio;j

Kurma

Katika,

who

are doubtless

men

of the

Kurma

caste, following

Are Katika
the batcher's calling.

13

the Katikas say they have only one
is

gotra,

'Ramashata Rana,' which
of their marriages.

obviously

inoperative

in

th<;

regulation

Their section names show a curious mixture of

wo

types

;

the one borrowed from the

Maratha Kunbis before

their

immigration into Telingana,
castes after their immigration.

and the other adopted from the Telugu

Exogamous

sections

:


Ghodker
Bhatnase

Namtawaru
3

Mirayalwaru

Nayamatbadi

Magdiker
Jamalpuri

Vankhare
Gouliker

Gomiker
Koyalker.
(Baahinia
it

Dapalker

The

are

tree

racemosa)

is

regarded

with

great

reverence and a branch of
ian)
in

is is

worshipped
prohibited
to

as

deoak (marriage guardmarrying
into

Jharriages.

A
the

man

from

the

se2tion,

or outside

sub-caste,

which he belongs.
uncle,

He may
or
elder

marry the daughter of his maternal
sister.

paternal

aunt,

He may

also marry

two

sisters,

but two brothers cannot marry

two

sisters.

Outsiders are not admitted into the caste.

Marr'^lge.
girl

Infant

marriage

is

practised
is

by

the

caste.

A

attaining puberty before marriage

excommunicated.
is

Girls are

not offered to temples or trees.
of

Polygamy

permitted to the extent

two wives.

The maniage ceremony
Some
of the
rites,

resembles that of the Telugij

castes in general.

however, deserve notice.

Two
with

branches, one of the saundad or shami tree {Prosopis spicigera) and
the a
its

other

of

the
to

are

(Bauhinia racemosa),

are

tied,

each

sweet

cake,

the

western
is

corners

of

the

booth

and

on
a

top a winnowing
the

fan

placed.

Previous to the wedding,
is

picture of

goddess Bhavani of Tuljapur

painted on
filled

a

wall,
oil,
is

and a lamp, made of a piece of cocoanut kernel
placed, before
of
it,

with

the wick

in

the lamp being re-trimmed by a stalk
is is

jaWari (Indian millet).

This ceftmony
girl

called

Tel Chadhai.

At

the time of the wedding, the
in his

only

dressed in

new

clotBes,

while the boy appears

old clothes, except for a

new

head-dress.

14

Are Katika
is

/
to' slay

After Nagvell}}, the bridegroom

made

a

sheep an4 the

bride to gather green herbs in which she finds a nose-ring previously

Ridden.

Widows
They
issue,

are

allowed

to

re-marry
of

and

divorce
In

is

permitted.
of

follow

the

Hindu law

inheritance.

default

male

females inherit.

Religion
(Saivaits)

—The
is

Are

Katikas

are

all

Vibhutidharis
aniline

and mark

their

foreheads with round spots of red
awcl

powder.

Ellamma
fast.

worshipped on Sundays

Tuesdays, when
are of
as

they observe a

Pochamma, and

other

malignant deities,

appeased
sheep

in

the

month of Ashadha

(July- August)' witl^ offerings

and fowls.

A

man

of

the

Kummara

caste

i%

engaged

priest at the

worship of these goddesses, while the

sacrificial

animals
of the

are killed
caste.

by a

Muhammadan

butcher and not by a
in at

member
great

Narsinha
are

and Mahadeva are also held
in

reverence.

Brahmans

employed
of

marriages and Jangams

funerals.
either » buried

Disposal
in

the

Dead

—The
a

dead

are

a sitting posture,

facing the east, or burnt in a lying pasture witk

the feet to the north,

according to the custom of the family of the

deceased.

In cases of cremation, the ashes are collected

on the third mourning
is

day

after

death and

thrown

into

river.

Ten

days'

observed for the married and three days for others.

On
rice.

th^ 3rd, 5th

and

1

0th days after death, birds are fed for the benefit of the soul of

the deceased

and Brahmans and Jangams are given
Status

Social
the caste
is

and

Occupation

The

occupation

of

that of selling the flesh of sheep
sell
it.

and goats.

They

also

manufacture liquor and

Some have
deer,

taken io agriculture.
fish

They
drmk

eat the flesh of sheep,

hare,

of

two kinds and

liquor

and shendi.
a

They do

not eat the leavings of any caste.
at
its

They have
disputes

caste

Panchayat with a chowdhari f
to
this

head.

Social

are referred
eat

council

for

decision.

They

from the hands of Brahmans, Komtis, Baljas, Kapus

and Munnurs, while Balijas, Kurmas and Goundalas eat \achi from ° them. t

\

IV
Banjara
Banjara,
(Carnatic)
Brinjara,

Lambadi, Lamane, Wanjara, Gohar Hetkeri
carriers,

grairj

and

salt

cattle-breeders and cattle dealers,
in

found

all

over the Dominions,

but especially

the

Districts

of

Warangalj and Adilabad, which abound no settledghomes, but lead a wandering

in rich pastures.
life in

They have

bands, each band being
implicit

under a hereditary leader styled naik, to
is

whom
as

obedience

yielded by the men.

Their camp, comprising a large number of
is

followers with their pack bullocks,
exercises complete authority over his
direits the

known

tdndd.

The

naik

men.

settles

caste disputes

and

movements of the tdndd when

travelling.

Tije
generally
energetic

men
a

are

fine,

muscular fellows,
of

of

medium

height,

with

Rajput

caste
of

countenance. long

They
and

are

strong

and

and

capable
is

enduring

fatiguing

marches.

Their ordinary dress
pagri,
or

the dhoti, a covering reaching to the hips, and a
several
folds,
in

turban
as

of

wound

round the

head.

The

women
men
of
in

are,

a

rule,

comely

appearance and as active as the

their

business

avocations.
rich
folds.
in

They wear
embroidery

a

lainga,

or

skirt,

coarse

cotton
in
is

prints,

work
or

and
scarf,

hung
of

from

the waist
texture,
it

ample

A

phad\i
(she

(odni),

a

similar

carelessly

thrown over

shoulders and

on the
bodice,

head, where

rests

on a

sort of a

horn or wooden comb.

A

or choli, with long sleeves

and

tastefully
is

embroidered
tied
at

in front

and on

the shoulders,
the ends of

covers the

bosom and

the back by bands,

which are ornamented with cowries, beads, and gaudyof
cotton.

coloured
9r brass

tassels

About

their

necks
strings

they

wear

a

silver

hasali

and a profusion of bead
Jiair.

with a pendant of

cowrie shells threaded on horse

On

thei? wrists they

wear brass
to

and horn bracelets, 10

or

]

2

in

number, extending, on eith« arm,

the elbow and sometimes to the arm-pit.

Brass or horn anklets with

a

16

Banjara
bells

jingling

are

worn on the

feet.

Their

movements

are

easy,

graceful

and

stately,

rendered slow from the quantity of ornaments
is

they wear.

The

hair

parted
silk

in

the centre,

combed back,

plaited

and profusely decked with
of silver plaited
in

and cotton

tassels.

Heavy

pendants

the hair hang over their cheeks.
ear-rings

The

well-to-do

women wear
Banjara
torn

silver

and

a

gold

or
till

gilt

nose-ring.

The

women seldom change

their clothes

they are tattered and

and are only renewed by new ones.

The

Banjara idndds are always on the move

;

but during ths
generally

four rainy months they

encamp on the
is

outskirts of villages,

on some dry spots where there

good grazing,
ropes.

their

pals

being

made

of
is

coarse

stout

cloth

fastened' with
;

Their

means of

carriage

usually the bullock

but

it

is

no unusual thing to see even
at their

cows laden with burdens, with young calves
their

heels.

One

of

best bullocks

is

selected

as

leader.

His horns and the

crest

of his pack saddle are ornamented with cowrie shells,

scarlet cloth,

peacock feathers and
chains and a

tassels of silk,

his

neck

is

encircled with brass

band

of scarlet cloth or leather,
as

to wTiich are fastened
a

numerous bells which,

he walks, give out
deified,

monotonous sound.
Balaji,

He
the

is

supposed to

be

being

devoted to

forms
feet

the protector of the herd,

and

is

termed Guru Bail.
difficulties

At

his

Banjaras

make

their

vows when

overtake them,
trust to his

and

in illness,

whether of themselves or of

cattle,

they

worship

for a cure.

As
the

soon as the march
vicinity
in

is

over, the cattle are let loose to

browse

in

and

at

night

they

are

tied

round

the

packages of loads
fire

a circle.

In the midst,

the Banjara lights the
loads his bullocks and

and goes to sleep.

He
their

is

up

at

sunrise,

proceeds to the next stage.

Names
is

and
to

Derivations
from
derive
the
it

—The
Persian

name
Berinj

Banjara

supposed

be
in rice'

derived

Armi

meaning 'dealer
merchant.
the

Some

from the Sanskrit Banij


and'"

The

Banjaras have other names, as Lamani, derived from

Sanskrit

Laoana

salt;

Wanjari,

from

Vana

Lambadi, from Lamban
long line or train
is

a

forest;

length,

which has probably reference
move.
Their
tribal

to the

in

which

their bullocks

name

gohar

a man.

Banjara
Origin

17''

^

TheoBanjaras

claim

to

be

descended

from

Mota
From

and Mola, the two brothers

who
of

tended Sri Krishna's cows.
the

Mota

sprang

the

ancestors

modern

Marwaris,

Matliura
visited

Banjaras and
prince's court,
feats,
in

Labhanas.

Mola, having no

issue,

once

a

with his wife Radha,

and there exhibited gymnastic
prince

which he was an adept.

The

was so pleased with

Mola

s skill

and so charmed with Radha's beauty and grace, that he
infant

gave them, as reward, three
they

boys of
of

different

castes,

whom

adopted as sons.

In

course

time the

boys grew up and

we?e married.
Banjaras.
j

Their progeny have been collectively known as Charan

This
^

account,

ascribing

to

the

Banjaras

a

mixed parentage,

appears
that

to

have been founded on
people, so varied
in

fact.

There can be no doubt
were
recruited
ties

thfse

their

characteristics,

from different races of Northern India' and bound together by
of
as

common

occupation.

The

Banjaras

are
In

alluded

to

by Arrian
Charitra,
fight
in

qpe of the classes of Indian Society.

Dashakumdr
of

a

work written by Dandi, mention
It
is

is

made
grain
in
all

a

cock

a

Banjara camp.

said

that

these
early

carriers
1

came
century.

into

the

Deccan with the Moghal armies

the

7(!h

Their

carrying trade has been noticed by almost
past three centuries.
as buying

European

travellers of the
in

Thus, Mandelso wrote of them
rice
in

1638 A.D.

wheat and
to

the markets of the
in

Deccan towns and

carrying

them

Hindustan
in

caravans sometimes of ten thousand
In the accounts of Sir
are frequently

animals ("Mandelso

Haris", p. 130).
in the

A.

Wellesley's campaigns
as

Deccan, they

mentioned

supplying his forces with

food and forage.

" Many thousands

of
for

them," says the
transporting

Abbe

Dubois, "were employed by the English
in

their provisions

the

last

war with the Sultan
to

of

Mysore " (" Abbe Dubois ",
their

p. 451).

" They seem

have derived

whole

origin

and organisation," remarks Mr. Lyall, "from the

long wars of the Delhi Emperors in the south, and the restoration of

peace and prosperity

is

breaking them up.

Neither trade nor their
"

tribal system can survive another generation of English predominance.

Internal
four

Structure
Mathura,

—The
(2)

Banjaras
(3)

are

divided
(4)

into

tribes— (1)

Labhani.

Charan,

Dhadia.

18

Banjara
not intermarry

who do
Mangs,

nor eat together.

The

*Dhalias,

or

Banjul
each

constitute the fifth class

and are attached
is

as musicians to

Banjara tdndd, 'although even their touch
other classes.
purest

regarded as impure by

Mathura Banjaras claim
coming
probably,
India
as

to

be of the highest rank and

blood,
in

their

name
their

indicates,

from

Mathura
mythical

Upper

and

tracing

origin

from

the

founder Mota, Sri Krishna's herdsman.

Their tdndds are

chiefly confined to the hilly tracts of the

Kinwat, Bodan and Hadgaon
,

Talukas, where they rear
season,

fine

bullocks and cows.

During the dry
commodities,

they

visit

different markets

and dispose of

their

returning, in the rains, to their head-quarters in the hills,
six

fhey

have

exoganjous groups

:

(1)

Chaupad,
which

(2)

Padwad,

(3) Basi, (4) Goli,

(5)

Khichkad,
to

(6)

Kakar,

differ

from those of the Charans
their

and appear

have been introduced
original

after

immigration into the

Deccan.
Sabade.
Bathada,
groups
into
is

The

surname of the Chaupads was supposed to be
sprang three different clans

From Padwad
(3)

(1)

Bharwat,

(2)

Antarvedi,

who do
and

not intermarry.

Each

of the ather

subdivided into families

— Basi

into

Basi and Barad,

Goli

Goli

and

Tatiria

Khichkad

into

Khichkad and Dhirbi.
fairer
in

The Kakar

group has become extinct.

Mathuras are
latter,

com-

plexion than other Banjaras and, unlike the
in

are neat

and cleanly
the sacred

their

habits,

washmg

their

bodies daily.

They wear

thread and do not eat animal

food nor food cooked by
to

any caste

except their own.
burning,
eating
are

At

their

meals they are very careful
if

keep a

fire

no more

by

chance

the nor

fire

goes out.

Their

widows
wear
girl

not

allowed to marry again,
or

are they

permitted to
a

bracelets

bangles

on

their
is

wrists.

Until

Mathura

attains the

age of puberty, she

required to retain, as a symbol,
in

cowrie

shells

and
their

betel-nuts,

tied

the

skirt

of

her

garment.

Mathuras have
in

own

bhdts,

or genealogists,

whom

they employ
is

the settlement of marriages.

Their important

festival

Gokul-

dshtami, or the celebration of Krishna's birthday, which they perform

with

great

pomp and

rejoicings

on the 8th of the
a

dark

half
is

of a

Shravan

(August-Sept?mber).

They^, speak

dialect

which

mixture gf

Hindi and Gujarathi.
in

The Charans
territory.

form the majority

of the Banjaras found

Hyderabad

The

origin

of their


Banjara

19

name
(2)

is

obscure. •
(3)

They have
(4)

five

exogamous

sections

(1)

Rathod,
Tori,
all

Panwar,

Chavan,

Badtiya or Vadtiya and

(5)

of the

eponymous

character, being the
first

names of

tlieir

founders*
their

Of

these founders, the
ancestor
offspring

three

were the adopted sons of

legendary

Mola
of

;

the fourth,

Badtiya, was believed to have been the

the

grand-daughter of
infant,

Panwar by

a

Brahman
in

;

Tori,
a

the

last,

while an

was found by Mola exposed

farm

and brought up by him
five

as his

own

son.

The development
is

of thesa

primary branches into several families
table given

illustrated

in

the genea-

ISgical

below

:

Rathor^

(

r

20

Banjara
Bhukiya (Bhutiya) son of Rathor.
c

r

Khandati

fviaig'na

Seven sons Dewashi (1)
(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

Five
(1)

sons

Laksee

Ramsee
Patalsee

(2) (3)
(4) (5)

Udha
Hadsee Donga

Tanisee

Karamsee
Urasee

Ana
Maigla).

{gotra

Watasee
r

(gotra Kooloth).

Barmawat, the son of Niyatji and the grandson of Badtiya, had no
issue.

He

got

a

son

by

the

favour
after

of

Khaja

Mohln-u^din

of

Ajmere, and named him Ajmirya,

the residence of
(3)

tke saint.
(4)

Ajmirya had
(5)

six

sons— (1)

Sailu,

(2)

Rama,

Babila,

Tota,

Manna and

(6)

Bhand, whose descendants have adopted Ajmirya

as their gotra.

Of
Badtiyas

the
or

five

original

Charan
chiefly

Banjara

clans,

Rathods

and

Vadtiyas
the

are

found
the

in

H.

H. The Nizam's
Districts

Dominions,

Rathods

occupying

Marathawada

adjoining Berar and the Badtiyas abounding in Telingana.
clans are said to have

Both these
of

come

to the

Deccan with the armies

Asaf

Jah,

the the

Vazir of Shah Jahan,
year

who campaigned

against

Bijapur
their

about

1630 A.D.

The Rathod

Banjaras,

under

naiks Bhangi

and Jhangi, had 180,000 bullocks, which formed the
in

army commissariat of the Vazir and,
grain and fodder,
rights

order to keep up the supply of

they secured from him the following prescriptive

engraved

in

golden

letters

on a copper plate :-^
;

" Ranjan ka pani, chappar ka ghas " Din ka teen khun maff,
" Aur jahan Asaf Jah ke ghore

" Wahan Bhangi Jhangi ke bail."

A
(roofs)
;

very free rendering of

this

inscription

would be

:

—(Bhangi

and Jhangi

may

freely

have) pots of water and grass for chappars

three murders a

day

will

be pardoned, (because) where Asaf

Jah's horses (cavalry) are, there (are) Bhangi's and Jhangi's bullocks.

This plate remains

in

the possession of the descendants of Bhangi,

who

are

still

recognised by the

Hyderabad

court

;

and on the death of

Banjara
the
representative
of
this

*

21

family

his

successor

receives
*

a

khiUat

from His Highness the Nizam.

Bhagwandas, the naik of the Badtiya Banjaras, was
have accompanied the army and asked
refused.
for a similar right,

also said to

which was

This

led

to a

feud

between

the

rival

clans,

which

gathered

strength
in

after

the

campaign

was over and the Charans

remained

the

Deccan.

returning from the

"One day when Bhangi Naik was Hyderabad Darbar with four followers, he was
by

attacked
followers,

in

daylight
all

Bhagwandas
men.

who,

with

a

number

of

killed

five

On

the Charans complaining to the

Nizam, they were told

to take their revenge,

which they

shortly did
fell

:

and headed by Narayan Bhangi, son of the deceased, they
pectedly on Bhagwandas
of his followers
in

unex-

such large numbers that he and one hundred

were

killed.

The

Badtiyas availed

(sic.

?) their

turn
their

and attacking the Rathods killed a number of them and took away
standard.

This standard

is

a yearly present from
'

H. H.
khddi
is
'

the
of

Nizam
sixteen
in

who
yards

gives
a

Bhangi's descendants eight
for

thans

of

than
of

a

new

standard.

This

standard

now

the

possession

the

Badtiyas,
it

though the

Rathods have made many
Badtiyas

attempts to regain

and the feud will

exist so long as the

remain

in

possession of it." (Berar Gazetteer.)
a

The Charans have
and are under the
however,
appear to

bad name

for

highway robbery and
the police.

daksuti
not,

strict

surveillance

of

They do

be hereditary criminals

and

have taken to

a

course of rapine and pillage owing to the decline of their original
trade.

They
it

are

now

settling
in

down
few

to respectable

means of

liveli-

hood and
will

may be

that,

a

years,

their criminal

propensities

be entirely repressed.

The Dhadis
hybrid tribe,
like

profess

themselves

to

be bards

and

genealogists

of the Charans, from a half

whom they are Muhammadan

probably an offshoot.

They

are

and half Hindu
worship
the

;

they observe
deities,

circumcision

Muhammadans,

but

Hindu

Specially the goddess Saraswati.

They

subsist by begging alms

from the Charans and singing songs

in praise of their

Charan ancestors

and the Emperors of Delhi.

It

is

believed that they embraced the

faith of Islam during the time of the

Emperor Humayun.

i

r

22

'

Banjara
f,

Marriage
inside the
section

A
to

man

cannot

marry

outside

the
also

sub-caste

nor
to

which he belongs.
(1)

He

is

forbidden

marry a
maternal

woman

belonging to his
section

mother's section,
(3)

(2) paternal or

grand-mother's
section.

and

paternal

or

maternal
sisters.
is

great

grand-mother's
brothers
to

A

man

may

marry

two

Tm'o

are

allowed to marry two
is

sisters.

Polygamy

permitted

any extent, but
Banjara

rarely practised.

girls are not usually
is

married under twelvj years of age.
tolerated on the understanding
th'at

Sexual licence before marriage
if

a girl

becomes pregnant her lover shall

come forward
means

to m9.rry her.

The
but
the

bride's price varies according to the
is,

of the briflegroom,
is

in

no case,

less than

Rs.

121/-.
is

Half the amount
paid

paid

at

betrothal

and the remaining half

when

the bridegroom

comes

to the bride's

house for the marriage.
for

The

proposal

marriage comes from the

father

of

the

boy

and, on the match being settled, belel-leaves and molasses are distri-

buted to the guests
betrothal,

in

token of confirmation.

Bada Guda, pr
and relatives
parties
visit

the
the

follows.

The

bridegroom's father
horoscopes
of

bride's

house.

After
to

the

the

have

been

examined and found

agree by an tstrologer, the bride's father, in

the presence of the caste Panchayai,
in

promises to give his dcjughter

marriage to the proposed boy.
distributed
to

Molasses {gur) and betel-leaves

are

the

whole iandd (encampment) and the assembly
quantity
of
liquor
is

disperses.

A
The

considerable

consumed on the
by both
parties.
It

occasion.

betrothal expenses are shared equally
is

The

marriage ceremony
in

performed

at

the bride's house.

takes

place at midnight

the months of Kartika, Falguna and Ashadha.

One day
has

previous to the wedding, the bridegroom starts out on foot to

the bride's village, accompanied by a friend or two.
in his

The bridegroom
carries a

hands a sword and a dagger while

his

companion

tobacco pipe.

On

arrival

they are

welcomed by

the bride's father

and are given separate lodgings.
four
posts

A

marriage booth,

supported on
over

of

palas

{Sutea

jrondosf)

and

covered

with

a

blanket, ss erected in front of the bride's house. a square of ground
is

Under
at

the booth

smeared with cow-dung and
one upon the other.

each corner are
the

piled

nine earthen vessels

In

centre

two

Banjara

23

w%oden

pestles of khair

(Acacia catedm) ate planted and decorated
leaves.

with bunches of
small stool
is

mango

By

the side of th» eastern

pos.t

a

placed.

The

following plan illustrates the arrancrement—
Pile

Pile

O
'

East post

West

post

O
Pile

Stool

Pile

Fridays and Sundays are regarded as auspicious days for marriages.
Prejrious
to

the

Vedding,
with

fJie

bride

is

seated on the stool,
oil,
is

rubbed

over

by

her

sisters

turmeric

and

and

bathed.

Then

comes
stool,

the*-*

bridegroom's turn and while he

being bathed on th e
(pettifall

a mischievous girl flings

round his neck the bride's lainga
as to

coat)
flat

and with
his

it

pulls

him backwards unawares so
is

make him

on

back.

Great fun

made
the

at

the expense of the poor boy.
pair

Dressed

in

wedding

clothes,

bridal

are

next

seated

side

by side on a bullock saddle near the
Ganpati and other
and
ties* their

posts.

After the worship of

deities,
in

the
a

Brahman
knot,
in

priest joins their right

hands

garments

which
fire

is

enclosed one rupee

given by the bride's father.
pestles
indica),

A

sacrificial

is

kindled between the

and fed with seven kinds of wood,
tendu
{Diosp\)ros

viz.,

mango (Mangijera
(Tectona
grandis),

'melanoxylon),

sag

palas
indica)

(Sutea

jrondosa),

nim

(Melia

indica),

tamarind
the
fire
is

{Tamarindus
well ablaze,

and hadh (Ficus hengalensis).
pair

When
side,

the

bridal

march seven times round the
tO'

pestles

and the
singing

fire,

keeping these always

their

right

the

women
time.

songs

and the
jeras

priest

repeating
are

mantras
as

the

whole

These
portion of

seven
the

(rounds)

regarded

the

binding
seats,

ceremony.

After the pair have resumed their
fire.

bhe priest makes

offerings of [sahi) grain to the

On

this occasion,

he

is

surrounded
all

by mischievous
sides,

lasses of the tdndd

who

pinch and prick him on
try

smear

his

body with cow-dung,

to

strip

him naked and

tease

him

in

every

way

possible.

On

the third day the whole tdndd

is»entertained at a feast, liquor in plenty being

consumed
;

at
if

the time.
is

A
a

Brahman
a

is

engaged to perfoftn the ceremony

but

one

not

available,

member

of the tdndd, supposed to trace his origTn from
acts as priest.

Brahman, wears the sacred thread and

The

bride's

I f

24
father

Banjara
has to

make

her

a

present

of

a

young bullock with pack

saddle, a complete set of ornaments and a sufficient
to last her for life.

number

of laingas

On
bride

the early morning of the fourth day,
set out

the
s

wedded

pair,

mounted

on the bullock,
departs

for

the bridegroom

encampment.

The

singing

blessings

on her

parents.
is

At some
given

distance,

the party stop for the day and a grand feast

in their

honour to the whole tdndd.

The

parting scene follows.

The

bride, with her eyes filled with tears at the grief of separation,
all

embraces
a rupee

her relatives and friends,
at last

who

each

jjfesent

her jyith

and

the pair are sent off with a heavy heart.

The
the
late

Brahman

receives Rs.

1-4-0 as the marriage fee (dakshani).

Widow=Marriage
Charan
Banjaras,

—Widow
widow
or,
in

marriage

is

alloweJ
to

by
her

the

being
in

required

marry

husband's
his

younger brother
If

default,

some other member of
is

family.

she persists

marrying an outsider he

made

to

pay to her former mother-in-law Rs. 60, or half the price paid for
her as a virgin.
pair being

The ceremony
to
sit

of a

widow-marriage

consists or the

made

face to face on a bullock saddle and to feed each

other
is

with

molasses

and

cooked

rice.

Divorce

is

recognised

and

effected by breaking a piece of straw before the caste Panchdyai

in

token of separation.
virtue
is

Unchastity

is

not tolerated

and a

woman
'.n

whose

in

question, has to undergo a solemn ordeal

order

to establish
a

her innocence.
of

A
caste

woman
is

detected
out
of

in

a

liaison

with

member

an

inferior
is

turned
in

the

community.
in

Female

infanticide

said to

be

still

vogue among them,

con-

sequence of the large sums of money required to ornament and clothe
the
girl

on her marriage.

Inheritance.
a tribal usage.

—The

devolution
is

of

property

is
first

governed
choice
to
in

by
the

The

youngest son
is

allowed the
a

shares
share.

and the eldest son

given

cow
to

in

addition

his

own

The
in

Banjaras are never

known

go

to law, but settle their

disputes

their caste

Panchdyat, presided over by the naikis

The
i

decision of the

Panchd^at

never disputed.
of

Religion.
type.

—The
silver

religion
is

the

Banjaras

is

of

the

orthodox
is

Their special deity

Kalika Devi, or Bhavani, whose image
in

embossed on

and

worshipped

every

Banjara

household.

Banjara

25

Once

a year her 'vvorship

is

celebrated with great

pomp and

cere-

mony by

the whole tdndd.
six

On

a

Tuesday
are

in the

month of Kartika
her,

(November-December),
and decapitated.

sheep

taken
left

before

wSshed

Seven bones from the

leg of each sheep with

twenty-one small heaps of cooked rice and molasses are offered to the
gotldess and subsequently eaten

by the
is

votaries at three meals.

On
are

the Dassera holiday the goddess

propitiated with offerings of black

ram and

liquor.

The
made

other

deities

honoured

by

the

tribe

Hanuman and
sweetmeats
their

£alaji, to
in

whom
the

offerings of flowers,

cows' milk and
of

are

Divali

holidays.

The memory
is

grf^t heroes.
in 'their

Shiva Bhaiya and Malha

Bhakayya,

perpe-

tuated

annual worship,

when

offerings of sheep

and goats are

made

to

them and afterwards partaken of by the devotees.
a notorious free-booter,

Matha

Bhakayya was

whose daring commanded the
be
still

respect of his community.

He
in

is

said to

worshipped before

the commission of crime.
a fcmple dedicated lo

Shiva Bhaiya was a great saint and has
Berar.

him

Guru Nanak,

the founder of

the Sikh sect,
a
visit,

is

held in the greatest reverence
honour,
to

and many Banjaras pay
at

in

his

the

great

Sikh

temple

Nander.

In

addition to these, the Banjaras appease minor deities,

such as Mari

Ai, Sitala Devi, Khanderao, and several others, with a variety of
offerings.

Homage

is

also
tribe.

done

to

Muhammadan
observe
in
all

saints

and

pirs

by the members of the

They

the

Hindu

festivals,

the most favourite with them being Holi

Falgun (March).

Men
prevail

and

women

throw aside

all

feelings of

modesty and give free vent
is

to their vicious

propensities.

Great licentiousness

said

to

on the occasion.
the

A

few

of the Banjaras,

who have

settled

down

in

Telugu

parts of the State,

have been brought under the sectarian

influences of Shri Vaishanava and Aradhi Brahmans.

They

are

in

other
other

words divided

into Tirmanidharis and Vibhutidharis

like

the

Telugu

castes.
in

The
generally

Banjaras have a strong belief

witch-craft.

Women
are

are

supposed to be expert
sicjjness

in

the

black

art

and

often

accused of having caused

to a person,
in
is

or brought calamity

on a family.

Witch-finders are employed
as a

divining thf

witches,

and a woman, denounced

sorceress,

secretly

done to death.

26
r

Banjara
a Banjara

Many

woman

has been tortured to death under this horrii

suspicion.

Brahmans

are

employed

for

religious

and
is

ceremonial

purp6ses.

The

oath most sacred to the community
tail

that of

Shiva

Bhaiya, taken while holding the

of a

Disposal

of

the

Dead

—The

cow. dead
are

usually

burnt,

but are occasionally buried

in a lying

posture with the

face downwards

and the head pointing towards the south.

Unmarried persons, persons

dying of cholera or smallpox, and children, are buried.

On

the third

day

after

death the ashes are collected

in a

heap with fwigs of the ^f

plant (Calotropis gigantea) and sprinkled over with sheep's milk.

The
with
10th

mourners
^rnalidd

thereupon
a
is

resort

to

a

well

where
and

they
rice.

are

f'id

or

mixture

of

gur

(molasses)

On
is

the

day, a feast

given to the caste people.

No
of

Srcdha

performed.

Widows do
Social
jaras
all

not

wear bangles

Status

—The

after the

decease of their husbands.
the

social

position

Charan

Ban-

may be determined by
castes except the

the fact that they eat from the hands of

Hindu

Dhobi, Hajam, Panchadayi, Jingar, and
while only the Mala, Madiga and' other
hands.

the lowest unclean classes,

impure castes eat from

their

They

eat

mutton,

pigs,

fish,

fowl, lizards and the leavings of high castes, and drink

spirits.

The

Mathura Banjaras rank higher than the Charans and
hands of Brahmans.

eat only

from the

These

abstain from flesh and wine.
are,

Occupation.
grain

—The

Banjaras

by

profession,

wandering

and

salt

merchants and,

in this

capacity, have rendered invaluvisit

able services to the country.

They

the most secluded

regions

and lone hamlets, collecting the small quantities of
and
other

grain, cotton,

wool
larger

commodities

obtainable,
carriers
is

and bring

them

to

the
in

markets.
of
scarcity

Their value, as

and collecting merchants,
incalculable,
for

times

and great demand,
in

no

other

means
the

could bring

the small
rail

stores

of

the outlying

hamlets.

With

rapid extension of
fast

and metalled roads, these industrious traders are
traffic.

disappearing

from

In

most of the Telugu Districts of
to

His Highness'

Dominions many of them are
Banjara^
rear

be found,

settled

t

down

as

village

and have taien to cultivation and cattle
animals

breeding.

'They

fine

and

take

them

to

different

markets for sale or turn them into pack animals.

The

poorer

mem-

. .

Banjara
bers of the tribe subsist

27
or being

by bringing wood from the jungles
Banjara

employed

as

day-labourers.

women

are

g(jod

at

needlein

work, make their
ful

own

laingas and bodices,
in

embroider them
to
suit

taste-

designs

and dye them
poorest

various

colours

their

peculiar
;

castes.

The

women
at

sell grass

and
look

fuel or
after

work
the
their

as labourers

but the

majority work

home and

dairy.

While
pro-

travelling,
visions,

they carry their

own

burdens,

chiefly

children,

utensils

and other chattels with them.
statement shows the number

•The following
Banjaras

and

distribution

of

m

1911

:


Males.

Hyderabad City
Atrafi

Balda

Warangal
Karimnagar

Adilabad
Iviedak

.

.

Nizamabad

.

.

Mahbubnagar
Nalgunda

Aurangabad
Bhir

Nander
Parbhani

Gulbarga

Usmanabad
Raichur

Bid ar

V
Barai
Origin
leaf sellers,
District.

Barai,
in

Tamboli

a caste of betel vine growers and betel

found

the Sirpur and Rajura Talukas of the
terms,

Adiltbad

The two
one

although used indifferently as the names
variation in the meanl'ng, Barai,

of the caste, disclose

some shades of

signifying

who grows The

the betel vine, and Tamboli, the seller of

the prepared leaf.

following passage, quoted from the Central

Provinces Ethnographic Report,
of the caste.

may throw some

light

upon the

origin

"

No
'

very probable derivation has been obtained for the
it

word
simply

Barai,

unless

comes from

bdri,

'

a

hedge or enclosure,' and
suggested
still
is

means
'

gardener.'

Another

derivation

from

barana,

to avert hail

storms,'

a calling

which they

practise in
is

Northern India.

Owing

to the fact that they

produce what

perhaps

the most esteemed luxury in the diet of the higher classes of Indian
society,

the

Barais

occupy

a

fairly

good

social

position
to

and the
effect

legend gives them a Brahman ancestry.
the
first

This

is

the

that

Barai

was

a

Brahman,

whom God
into the

detected in a flagrant case

of lying to his brother.

His sacred thread was confiscated and, being

planted

in

the ground,
"

grew up

first

betel vine,

which he was

set to tend.

Internal
is

Structure
is

In

the
into

Central
several
in
;

Provinces
sub-castes,

the

caste
of

very

numerous and

broken

mostly

the territorial type.
limited,

The number

of Barais

these Dominions being

they

have no endogamous divisions
different types,

but

their

exogamous

sections are

numerous and of

as illustrated

below

:


i

Territorial type

Burhanpuria (Burhanpur)
Rajurkar'" (Rajura)
*^

Wadaskar (Wadas)
Chitore (Chitor
in

Rajputana)

.


Barai
''

*

29

^

Titulary type
(store keeper)
'

Bhandare

Ghodmale (groom)
Aglave
Darve
(firebrand)
(a

Gond

sub-caste)

Totemistic type

Narale (cocoanut)

Kutre (dog)
Say^ale (porcupine)

Khokari

(fox)

Makuri (ape)

From

t!:ie

mixed character of
is

their

exogamous
group,

sections

it

may
of a

appear that the caste

mainly

a

functional

made up
recruits

number
different

of

immigrants
of
the

from

Northern

India

and
a

of

from
of

classes

population,

including

large

proportion

the non- Aryan element.

A
^s
the

man

cannot marry a

woman

belonging to
side,

his

own

section.

section

names go by the male
is

the

rule

prohibiting

marriage within the section
cannot marry any of his
but the rule in this case
first
is

supplemented

to the extent that a

man

cousins.

A

man may marry two
first.

sisters;

that

Marriage
of puberty,

he must marry the elder
before

Girls

are

married
five

they

attain

the
is

age
per-

usually between

and ten years.
as

Polygamy
as

mitted.

In theory, a
;

man may marry
he

many wives

he can afford

to maintain

in

practice, however,
is

rarely takes

more than two.

The
castes,

marriage ceremony

of the type in use

among

other local
are

especially

among Khaira Kunbis.
it
:

The

following

the

important stages comprising
1

The

worship of Mari Ai, or the goddess of cholera, with
of
goats.

offerings
in their

This

is

done by both

parties,

each

own

house.

2.

The

worship of Devak, which consists of the mango and
spicigera) leaves,

saundad {Prosopis

and of two big and

twelve small earthen ^ots brought ceremonially from the
potter's house.
>
:

3.

The

bridal

procession

—The

bridegroom

goes

in

proces-

30
r

Barai
sion,

*

accompanied by
to

his

friends,' relatives

and neighhe
is

bours,

the

bride's

village

where;

on

arrival,

formally received by the parents of the bride and lodged
in a

house known as jdnvdsa.
:

^

4.

Antarpdt

—At
is

a

lucky
stand

moment,

fixed

for

the

wedding,
cf

the bridal

pair

facing each

other in

front

the

bohold (earthen platform) under the wedding booth.
curtain

A

held between them and the

officiating

priest,

who

is

a

Brahman,
rice,

recites mantras,

wjiile the

assembled
on'

people
couple.
fastens

throw

coloured
is

with

turmeric,

the

The
their

antarpdt

removed
a

and
ties

the

Brahman
or

garments

in

knot
at

and
the

konkonum

thread bracelets on their wrists,
a string of black

same time putting
round the bride's
essential

beads (mangal
to

sutra)

neck.

This

is

deemed

be the binding and

portion of the ceremony.
5.

Tamhord:

— The
at

bridal

pair

are seated on the bohoJd are
living, _touch

and

married females,
feet,

whose husbands

th^

knees and shoulders of the pair with their fingers,
the same time a

holding
their

mango
as

leaf

and yellow
under
pair

rice in

hands.
is

Dhendd,
performed

described
the
bridal

Dhanojia
return
in

Kunbis,

and

procession to the bridegroom's house.

Barais allow a

widow

to

marry again and do not require her

to

marry her

late

husband's younger brother or any other relative.
is

The

marriage ceremony
locality.

of the type
is

common among

other castes of the

An

areca nut

offered to Maruti, representing the deceased

husband's

spirit,

and

is

subsequently placed on a low
in

wooden

stool

and kicked

off
;

by the new bridegroom
the nut*
are
is

token of his usurping the
spirit.

other's place

finally

buried to lay the dead husband's
side

The

bridal
in

pair

then

seated

by

side

and

their

garments
sari,

are tied

a knot.

The

bride

is

presented with a

new

new

bangles are put on her wrists and a spot of \unkum or red aniline

powder

is

made oh

her

foreheacj.

This concludes the

ceremony.

The

ividow

forfeits all claims to

her late husband's property.
first

A

bachelor marrying a

widow must

go through the cere-


Barai
nipny of marriage with
a

31

mi

plant

(Calotropis

gigantea).

Wh hen

a

widower marries
first

a virgin, a silver impression, representing the deceased

wife,
is

is

made and worshipped

daily

with

the

family

gods.

Divorce

permitted with the consent of the caste Panchayat (council)
if

on the ground of the wife's adultery, or
If a-

the couple do 'not agree.

husband divorces

his

wife merely on account of bad temper, he

must maintain her so long as she remains unmarried and continues
to lead

a moral

life.

^Religion._.In
usages of
all

matters

of

religion,

the

Barais

follow
is

the

orthodox Hindus.
of

Their favourite deity

Kurbhan,
Ancestral
the

adored
worship

inVhe form
is

an

idol

made
silver

of

sandalwood.

"in

strong

force

and

impressions,

representing

departed ancestors, are placed among the family gods and worship-

ped every three years with
is

offeriflgs of

goats and fowls.

Reverence

also

paid

to

the

animistic

deities

of

Pochamma and Mari Ai.
his

Greater gods,
are
»

such as Balaji,

Anant, Shiv and

consort

Gouri,

vforshipped

under the guidance of Brahmans,

who

serve

them

as priesta

on

all

ceremonial and religious occasions, and act as their

spiritual advisers (gurus).

According
teristic

to

the

Barais

themselves,
in

their

special

and characfestival

deity

is

the
is

Nag,

or cobra,

whose honour the

of

Nag Panchmi
in this

observed every year.
:

The

following story related

connection deserves nntention *
there

"Formerly
the
their
five"

was no

betel

vine
the

on the earth.
great

But when
after

Pandava
at

brothers

celebrated

horse

sacrifice

victory

Hastinapur,

they wanted some,

and so messengers

were sent down below the earth
serpents serpents,
it

to the residence of the
it.

queen of the
king
of the

in

order

to

try
off

and obtain

Basuki,

the

obligingly cut

the top joint of his

little

finger

and gave

to,

the messengers.

This was brought up and sown on the earth
joint.

and pan creepers grew out of the

For

this

reason,

the betel

vine has no blossoms or seeds, but the joints of the creepers are cut

off'and sown,

when

they sprout afresh, and the betel vine

is

called
(the

Ndgbel

or the serpent creeper.

<Dn the day of
1

Nag Panchmi

* Central Provinces Ethnographic Report, pp.

9.

32
r

Barai
of the light half of Shravana). the Barais

fifth

go

to the bureja

wi^
is

flowers,

cocoanuts and other offerings,
in
it

and worship a stone which

placed

and which represents the

Nag

or

cobra.

A

goat

or

sheep

is

sacrificed

and they return home, no leaf of the pan garden

being touched on that day.
that a cobra will

A

cup of milk

is

also left in the belief

come

out of the pan garden and drink it."

The

Barais say that the

members

of their caste are never bitten

by the cobra, though many of these snakes frequent the betel gardens
on account of the moist coolness and shade which 4hey
afford.
in

Disposal

of

the

Dead

—The

dead

are

burned

a

lying posture with the
ried persons, of lepers,

head pointing
and of those

to the south.

Bodiej'of unmar-

who

died of smallpsx, cholera,

or snake-bite, are buried.
tenth

The

ashes and bones are collected on the

day

after

death and thrown into a river or stream.
is

On
of

the the

same day, Srddha
deceased,
to

performed
seven
balls

for

the

benefit

of

the are
is

soul

whom
adults

of

wheaten

flour

offered

and

subsequently thrown into a stream or tank.
ten

Mourning

observ&d for
Anqestors
in
«

days

for

and

for
in

three

days for children.

general

are

propitiated

the

months of Vaishakh and Bhadrapad.
of
social

Social
rank a
little

Status

In

point

standing

the

Barais

above the Maratha Kunbis and

eat food

cooked only by a

Brahman, while Maratha Kunbis and Kapus take food cooked by a
Barai.

The members

of the caste eat the flesh of fowl,
liquors.

fish,

deer,

goat and hare and drink fermented

Occupation
of the caste
is

—The
Pan

chief

and

characteristic

occupation

the growing of the pan plant or Piper Betle.
to trade, while others are found in

Of

late

years

some have taken

Government

service.
for
this

The

Barais also sell betel leaves and usually
leaves are sold
at

employ women
to

purpose.
at

from

1

2 annas per For
retail

hundred, or
sale,
bi'das

a higher rate

when

they are out of season.

are prepared,
nut,

consisting of rolled betel

leaves containing
a

areca
clove.

or

betel

quick

lime
1

and catechu,

and fastened with

These

are sold at from

to 2 for a pice.

The pan
The
and
/5dn

vine

fs

very delicata and requires careful cultivation.
are
treated
liberally
feet
witii

gardens

(Pan Maids)
enclosure,

manure
is

irrigated.

The

generally

eight

high,

sup-

Barai

*

33

t ported by pdngra (Er'^thrma indica) and nim {Melia indica) trees.
sides are closely matted with reeds to protect the interior from

The
wind
falls,

and the sun's rays.
it

Care
for

is

taken to drain

off

the rain as
the
plants

it

being
is

essential

the

healthy

growth

of

that

the

ground

kept dry.

The

joints of the creepers are planted in June-

July and begin to supply leaves in about five or six months'

time.

The
grass

plant being a fast growing one has
to

its

shoots loosely tied with

upright Qoles

supplied

by

pdngra

(Erythrina
it

indica)

and

shei)ri*{Sesbania cEg\)ptiaca) trees, while every year

is

drawn down

and coiled

*it

the

root.

Weeds
a to

are

carefully

eradicated.

Pan
in

leaves are plucked throughout the year,

but are most abundant
if

September and October, while
continues productive for from

garden,

carefully

looked

after,

8

10 years.

A
when

Pan Mala
ceremonially

is

regarded as sacred by the growers, and women,
unclean,
are

not the

allowed
present

to

enter

it

;

animals
that

found igside are driven out.

At

day the

castes

^e engaged

in rearing

the betel vine

in

these Dominions

are Tirgul

Brahmans, Ful Malis, Binjiodes and Lingayits.

VI
Bedar
Bedar, Bendar, Berad
of

the great hunting and, agricultural tribe the

the

Carnatic,
of the

identical

with

Boyas of Telingana
call

ana

the

Ramoshis
'

Marathawada.

They

themselves l<^Qnayamkula
children of ichiefs

descendants of

Kanayam," Dhorimkulam "

" and

Valmika Kshatriyas " Kshatriyas descended from Valmiki."
are

They

a wild

and
and

fierce

looking people,

of

coarse features
as

and dark

complexion,
dakaits.

bear

an

evil

reputation

highway robbers and
and

Their

predatory

habits

have been greatly repressed,

they are

now

largely

employed

as village
is

watchmen.

••

Origin,
of

—The word Bedar
many

derived from Byaderus, a corruption
hunter).

c

Vyadherus (Sansk- Byadha, a

The

origin of to

the tribe

has been the subject of

legends.

According

one they are
are

descended from the primitive
fabled
to

pair,

Kannayya and Kanakavva who
right

have sprung from the

and

left

eyes

of

Basvanna

respectively.
is

The Bedars
In

claim

descent

also

from Valmiki,

who

represented

the Purdnds as being reclaimed from his pernicious

and marauding habits by the divine sage

Narad.
states

But the legend
that

which

is

very

widely

current

among them,

from

the

thigh of the

dead king Hoti of the Solar race

was produced, by

the great Rishis, a black dwarf, ugly in appearance and ferocious in
habits.

Being

unfit

to

rule,

he was

driven

by

the

sages

into

the jungles to live on forest produce or

by hunting.

In his wanderings

he once met Menika, a
love to her.

celestial

nymph

of matchless beauty, and
:

made

Their union was blessed with seven sons

"

(1)


Bedar
from

35

whom

sprang the following seven great clans of Bedars, bearing
:

the names of their progenitors
(1)

Nishadas,

who

hunted

tigers,

bears

and wild boars and

ate the flesh of buffaloes.
(2)

Sheras,

who made

a

living

by

selling

jungle roots,

fruit

and sandalwood {Sanialum album).
(3)

Kavangriyaris,

who wore

long hair and had their ear-lobes

bored with large holes.
m
(4)

They

subsisted on the sale of
shells.
in

biold {Pterocarpus
Salikas, •
(5) (6)
(7)

marsupium) and oyster
as

who were employed
who made

day labourers

digging

wells and tanks.
lime and
salt.

Ksharakaris,
Ansaris,

who were fishermen and worked also as Sheshatardharis, who were hunters and fowlers.
these

ferrymen.

All

seven

clans

were

distinguished

by

their

respective

gotrq names or bedigd
^

(1)

Gojaldaru or Gujjar.
Gosalru or Gurral.

(2) (3)
(4)

Bhadmandalkaru.
Saranga

Gunda Bahsarandlu

or

Sarang Gauda.

(5) (6)

Tayarasamantaru or Tair Samant.
Pingal Rangamanya.
Rajadhiraj

(7)

(Maharaja).
traditional
tribe.

This elaborate organisation appears to be

and

to

have

no bearing upon the present

social

division of the

Early
and came
in

History
into

—The

Bedars

were

a

Southern

India

tribe

the

Deccan under
century.

their
first

leader

Kalappa Naik
at

early

the

sixteenth

They

settled

Adhoni

and

Dambala,
contention
Ismail

situated in the

Raichur Duab, which was then a bone of

between Krishna Raylu, the king of Vijayanagaram, and
Shah,
the

Adil

Sultan

of

Bijapur.

The
were
and

Bedars,

taking

advantage of the disturbed times, raided and plundered the country
far

and wide, so

that, for the ti*ie being, they*

tine terror

of the

surrounding
quest,

districts.

Partly

by colonisation
their

partly 4)y

con-

they

gradually

extended

territories

until,

under

Pam

r

36
Naik
1.

Bedar
r

(1674-1695), they founded a State, and fixed their capital

at

Vakinagir, two mrles west of Shorapur.
of

Pam

Naik was the bravest
the
in
last

the

dynasty

and helped Sikandar Adil
in

Shah,

of

the

Bijapur Sultans,

subduing his rebel nobles and

his

wars with

the Generals of Aurangzeb.

The

Sultan,

in

gratitude,
all

granted him
insignia

a

magnificent

jagir

and

conferred

upon

him

the

of

royalty

with the

titles

" Gajag Bahirand Gaddi Bahari Bahadur."
title

Pam
his

Naik styled himself Raja, a

which has since descended
dividing
it

to

successors.

He

organised the State,

mto provinces,
great
bu^It

over which he appointed Subedars.

He
the

was

also a

builder,
stately

and raised new
temples.
It

forls,

constructed roads and tanks,
his

and
of

was

in

time

that

kingdoms

Bijapur

and

Golconda were subdued by Aurangzeb.

In his successor,

Pid Naik
its

Bahari (1695-1725 A.D.), the power of the Bedars had reached
zenith.

He
the

strongly

resisted

the
in

power

of

Aurangzeb,

and
the

defeated

Imperial
field in

forces

pitched

battles.

At

last

Emperor took the
of Vakingira.

person

and besieged the Bedar strong-hold
but was reduced
It

The

fort

made

a galant stand,

ulti-

mately by Zulfikarkhan, the best of Aurangzeb's Generals.

was,

however,

retaken

by the Bedars immediately on the departure of
Naik

Aurangzeb.
Vakingira
to

Pid

removed

the

seat

of

government

from

Shorapur, which he founded on a

hill.

He

introduced

many reforms and
predecessors.

ruled the State in greater splendour than any of his

After a glorious reign of 31
later

years he died in

1726

A.D.
that
their

The
the

history

of

the

Shorapur

Rajas
they
of

is

blended with
as

of

Nizams of Hyderabad,
lords,

whom

acknowledged

suzerain

paying an

annual

tribute

1,45,000 rupees.

Though

brave,

they were not able rulers and were not infrequently

involved in the wars of the

Nizams with the Marathas and other
decline of the State had
internal

contemporary powers.

The

already com-

menced and was hastened by
and
reckless

dissensions,

mal-administration
revival

extravagance,
of

until,

after

a

brief
it

under

the

administration

Colonel

Meadows

Taylor,

was

confiscated

ont

account of the rebellion of the Raja '-Venkatappa
British

Naik against the
the

Government (1858),

and ceded to

H. H.

Nizam

in

1860 A.D.

Bedar

37
internal

Internal
is

S'tructure,— The
This
is

structure

of

the

Bedars

very intricate.

due, partly to the large area over
different

which they are scattered,
that

and partly to the

social

levels

have been formed among them.

Thus

at

the highest level are

the Rajas and rich landholders
the' style of higher

who

have, in every respect, assumed
is

Hindu

castes,

while the lowest level
to their

occupied
customs
as

by the bulk of the people who adhere
and usages and have few scruples
catj
in

aboriginal

diet

eating beef,

as well

and other ^inclean animals.

The

following endogamous groups

are found

among them
badar
or

:

(1)

Naikulu (Valmika) Bedars.

(2)
(3) (4)

Tanged Bedars.
Mangala Bedars.
Chakla Bedars.

(5)
(6) (7)

Neech Bedars.
Basavi Bedars.

Ramoshi Bedars.
Jas Bedars.

(8)
(9)

Bedars (proper).
the

Of

these,

Naikulu sub-tribe, called also Naikulu Maklus,

claim the highest rank and decline to hold any communion either of

food or of matrimony with the other sub-tribes.
the

To

this

sub-tribe

Bedar Rajas of Shorapur and other
are barbers

principalities

belong.

The

Mangala Bedars
the

and the Chakla Bedars washermen to
in

Bedar

tribes

and

have,

consequence
are

of

their

occupation,
abstain

formed separate groups.

Neech Bedars

known

to

from

eating fowl or drinking shendi,

the fermented sap of the wild date
sit

palm.
of
its

They do
leaves.

not touch the shendi tree, nor

on a mat made

Basavi Bedars are the progeny of Basavis, or Bedar

girls

dedicated to the gods and brought up, subsequently, as prosti-

tutes.

They form
by
regular

a

separate community comprising

(1)

children of
of

unions,

marriage,

between

the

sons

and

daughters

Basavis, (2) the children of Basatis themselves.'

While among
of

other

Bedar

tribes

Basavis

are

made

in

pursuance
there
is

vows

ot Ancient

family customs,

among Basavi Bedars

a rule

under which

38

Bedar
r

each family gods
as

is

said to

be bound
daughters
their

to offer

up one of
for

its

girls

to

thj

Basavi.

The
in

of

Basaois,
are

whom
to
is

husbands
swords or
taken,

cannot be procured
idols.

community,
girl

wedded

On

an auspicious day, the
to

to

be dedicated

m

procession,

the

temple,

bearing

on

her

head

a

lighted

lamp.

After she has been

made
is

to

hang

a garland round the

sword or the

idol, a tali (mangalsutra)

tied

round her neck and her marriage with

the sword or the idol
consort with any
herself.

is

complete.

She
he

is,
is

thenceforward, allowed to
not of a lower caste },han

man provided

that

A

Basaoi

girl is entitled to share,

equally with her brothers,

the property of her father or mother.
originally

The

euphemistic n,-me Basavi
to
is,

denoted

girls

who were

dedicated
but the
title

Ba^vanna,
at

the

deified founder of the Lingayit sect,

the present

day, borne by a

girl

dedicated to any god.

The

Ramoshi

Bedars

are

found

in

large
a

numbers
branch of

in

the

Marathawada

districts.

They

are,

no doubt,

Bedars

who
ment

appear to
in

have migrated to the Maratha country This view
into
is

after their lettlfr-

the Carnatic.

supported by a tradition which

states

that

they

came

Maharashtra

under

the

five

sons

of

Kalappa Naik.

In their features

and customs, but especially

in their

predatory tendencies, they have preserved the characteristics of their
race.

They .regard, with
Like

pride,

the

Raja

of Shorapur as the

head

of their clan.

their brethren in the Carnatic,
qualities,
filled

they were highly

valued for their military
his successors,

the

armies of Shivaji
soldiers.

and

and distinguished themselves as brave

During

the

last

century they gave a good deal of trouble to British officers,

but they
social

have now settled down

as

industrious
is

cultivators.

Their
their

status
is

among

the Maratha castes

very low,

for

even

touch
to
at

regarded as unclean by the respectable classes.
off all

They

appear

have broken
present

connection with the Carnatic Bedars and form
group.
'

an

independent
'

They

talk

Marathi
is

in

their

houses.
a

The word
of

Ramoshi

is

a local

name and
of

supposed to be
or ^of

corruption

Rama-vanshis

"descendants

Rama"

Ranwashis, meaning
lowest*" level

dwellers of foissts.'
the tribe.

Bedars (proper) occupy the

among

They

cling to their aboriginal usages,
animistic
deities.

eating

beef

and canion and

worshipping

They

Bedar
cany Margamma Devi on
their

39
in

heads

a

box, and subsist \,y beg-

^g

alms

in

her name.
as

The

Boyas,

the

Bedars

are

designated

in

Telingana,
to the
that

are

divided into (I) Sadar

Boy a and

(2)

Boy a, corresponding
It
is

Sadar
they

Bedars and the Bedars of the Carnatic.

also
(2)

said

have only two main divisions
the

(i)

Nyas Byadrus,

Gugaru Byadrus,

members

of

which

neither eat together nor intermarry.

The Bedars

are said to

be divided

into

101

exogamous

sections,

numbers of which are of the
not .appear to \fe respected.

totemistic type,

although the totems do

Marriage
marriage o4 two
elder
is

in

one's

own

section

is

strictly
is

forbidden,

The
and

sisters to
first.

the same husband

permitted, provided the
sisters

mVried

Two

brothers

may marry two
sister.

a

man may marry

the daughter of his elder

A
a feast

member

of a higher caste
fine to

may

gain admission into the Bedar

community by paying a
for
is

the tribal Panchd^at and by providing

the

members of the community.

On

the occasion,
to

the
a
is

proselyte

required to eat with them

and subsequently
After
the

have
he

betel -nut cut

on the
all

tip

of

his

tongue.

meals

required to remove

the plates.

Marriage

—The

Bedars

marry

their

daughters

either

as

infants, or after they

have attained the age of puberty.
are tolerated
girl

Sexual indisa

cretions before marriage
slight

and are condoned only by

punishment.
is

Should a

become pregnant before marriage
Cohabitation
is

her seducer

compelled to marry her.
girl

permitted,
is

even though the
recognised and a

has not attained sexual maturity.
as

Polygamy

man may marry

many wives

as his

means allow

him to maintain.

The

marriage ceremony of the Bedars comprises
in

rituals

which

correspond closely with those
suitable girl

use

among

other

local

castes.

A

having been selected, and preliminary arrangements and
concluded,
is

ceremonies

a

marriage

pandal of

five

pillars

of

shevri

{Seshania eBg\)ptiacd)
house.

erected in the court-yard of the bridegroom's
of the bride at the bridegroom's house the

On

the

arrival

bridal pair are seated on a platfAm, built, under the

wedding bower,

with ant-hill earth,

and are rubbed over with turmeric pasteTjy five

40
married
filled

Bedar
females.

f

Previous
set
at

to

the

wedding,

four

earthen

vessels,

with water, are
the

the comers of a square space prepared

outside

booth,

and
also

are
filled

connected
with

with

a
is

cotton

thread.
in

A
The
this

fifth

vessel,

water,

kept

the

centre

of
bridal

the

square,

and
their

covered
sisters,

with
are

a

burning

lamp.
to
in

pair,

with
to

seated
ablution.

opposite

lamp,

and made

undergo ceremonial

Dressed

new wedding

garments,

with their brows adorned with bashingams,
the bride and bride-

and the ends of

their clothes knotted together,

groom

are led immediately to a seat under the

booth and are

w^ded
pair, their

by Brahmans who hold an antarpdt

(a silk curtain)

between the

pronounce benedictory mantras and shower rice and grain over
heads.

Mangalsutra, or the lucky bead necklace,
tied, in the

is

hanied round

to

be touched by the whole assembly, and

presence of the caste

Panchayat, by the bridegroom round the bride's neck.
are

The

couple
then
to

then

led

round,

making obeisance

first

to

the

gods,

the
in

Panchas and

lastly to the elderly

relatives.

The ceremony
is

next

importance, and purely of a Kulachar character,

Bhrnnd, cele-

brated on the 3rd day after the wedding.
rice,
is

A

conical

heap ei cooked

crested with twenty

wheat cakes and a quantity of vegetables,

deposited on a piece of white cloth under the wedding pandal.
this sacred

Before

heap, frankincense

is

burnt and offerings of eleven

betel -leaves

and nuts and eleven copper coins are made.
this

After two
pair,
it.

handfuls of

food have been handed to the bridal

eleven

married couples mix the food with sugar and ghi and eat
the meal
is

After

over,

five

of

them touch, with

their

hands soiled with
are

food,
to cast

the bodies of the

wedded

pair

who, thereupon,

required
cele-

away the lumps

of food they held in their hands.
ritual

The

bration of the

Dandya

on the 4th day, and the bestowal of a
bring the nuptial proceedings to a

feast to the relatives close.
It
is

and

friends,

said that Bedars abstain

from drink during the four days

of the marriage ceremony.

Except among respectable families, a Bedar widow is allowed marry again, but not the brother of her deceased husband. She may, however, re-marfy the husband t>f her elder sister. The
to

price for

a

widfiw

is

Rs.

12

and

is

generally

paid

to

her

parents.

The

Bedar
ceremony
is

41

of

a, simple

character.

At
is

night

the parties repair to

nanuman's temple, where
sari,

the bride

presented with a

new white
has put

a choli (bodice)

and some bangles.
ties

After the
(a

widow

on these, her proposed husband
her neck.

pusti
to

bead necklace) about
bridegroom's
house.

The
feast

assembly
is

then

return

the

Next day a
the event.

given to the members of the tribe in honour of

Divorce.

— Divorce
A
it

is

recognised

by

those

who

allow

their

widows

to

re-marry.
if

divorced
latter's

woman

can

claim

alimony

from
If

hv

husband

be the

fault that led to the divorce.

a

woman

goes wrong with a

man

of a lower caste she

is

turned out of
is

her community.

Liaison with a

man

of a higher caste

tolerated,

and condoned only by a small
to

fine.

Divorced

women

are permitted

marry again by the same
Inheritance.

rite

as

widows.
the Bedars follow the
obtains

In matters of inheritance,

Hindu law.
Under
this

The
usage

usage

of

ChudaWand
is

among

them.
wives,
gods)

the

property

divided
girl

equally
(dedicated

among
to

provided

they

have sons.

A
of

Basavi

the

shares 'equally with her brothers.

Religion

In

point

religion,

the

Bedars

are

divided

into

Vaishanavas and Saivas.
incarnations of

The Vaishnavas
and
Shri

worship Vishnu and his

Rama

Vyankatesh.

The

Shivas
all

pay

homage

to

the
in

god Siva

and generally abstain from

work on

Mondays,

honour of the deity.

Some
to

of

the Bedars follow the
in

tenets of Lingayitism,

do reverence
as
their

Basava

the form of a bull,
favourite
a

and

employ

jangams
is

priests.
in

The
8th
of

deity

with
is

Basavi Bedars

Shri

Krishna,

whose honour
(the

great
light

festival

held

on

the

Janmashtami
special

day
deities

the
are

half

of
ar)d

Shravana).

But the

of the tribe

Hanuman
abstain

Ellama,
flesh.

worshipped

on

Saturday,
festivals

when

the

Bedars
in

from

Their

principal

are
in

Dassera

Aswin

(October-

November) and Basant Panchmi
are

Magh
goddess

(February-March), which

celebrated

with

great

pomp and ceremony.
(the

Pochamma
over

(the

smallpox

deity),

Mariamma

presiding

cholera),

Maisamma, Balamma, Nagamwia
minor gods and
spirits

(the serpent* goddess) and a host of

are

also

appeased with offerings of'^animals.

42

Bedar
of departed souls
is

The wotship

said to prevail
child-birth,
its

among
is

the tribe.
fivfe

Child=Birth
days.

A

woman,
is

after

unclean for
is

As

soon as the child

born,

umbilical cord the

cut
after

by the
birth.

mid- wife,

and
are

buried

underground
for

on

3rd

day

Brahmans

employed
of

religious

and ceremonial purposes.

Disposal
their

the

Dead

—The

Vaishanava

Bedars
in

burn

dead

in

a lying posture, while the Saivas bury them
face turned towards the
east.

a sitting

posture with the

Members

of

res-

pectable families perform Srddha on the

12th and

13th days,
the
is

and

generally conform to the funeral rites in vogue

amon^

Brahm^s.
not

Social
to

Status

—The

social

status

of

the

Bedars

easy

define.

The

great

Zamindars

and

Rajas

occupy

an"

eminent

position in

the caste and are looked

upon with respect, fvhile even
Village wells

the touch of the
are

Ramoshi Bedars
for

is

regarded as unclean.

open

to

them

water and temples are open to them for worship.

Concerning
jackals,

their diet they
lizards,
kites.

have few scruples
cats,
in

eating beef, pork, fowl,

rats,

wild

short

all

animals except snakes, indulge
not
eat
freely'
in

dogs

and

They

eat

carrion

and

spirituous

and

fermented

liquors.

They do

the

leavings

of

any caste.

Occupation.
to

—The

Bedars
service.

believe

their

original

occupation

be hunting and military

Peaceful times and the introducto take to agriculture.

tion of

game laws have compelled them
employed
as village

They

are also
their

watchmen and messengers and discharge
agriculturists,

duties of

faithfully.

As

a

few have

risen

to

the

position

great

land-lords

and

jdgirdars.

The
strong
is

bulk

are

either

occupancy and non-occupancy ryots or landless day-labourers.

Panchayat

—The

Bedars
of

have
the

a

tribal

Panchdyat

known

as

Kattd.

The head
in

Panchayat
and
social

called Kattimani

and has authority both
religious
for

religious

matters.

All

social,

and ceremonial points and disputes are referred to
and
judgments
passed

this

body
and

decision,

by

it

are

irrevocable

enforced on pain of loss of caste.
or of eating food from

A

woman

accused of adultery,
caste,
is

a
is

member

of an

inferior

expelled

from the community

arfd

restored anly

on her head being shaved

and the^rap of her tongue branded with a live coal of the

mi

plant.

.

Bedar
1% the case of the ?nan, his head and face are clean shaved.
are required to bathe and their bodies are sprinkled over with
spirits,

43

Both

some

upon which they become
:

purified.

Note
tolerated,

—Cohabitation
is

and

pregnancy
girl's

before

marriage

are

and condoned by the
compelled
to

marriage with her paramour.

Every woman

be tatooed.

Distribution.
distribution of

—The
in

following statement shows the number and

Bedars

1911

:

District

I

VII

Bhadbhunja
Bhadbhunja,
almost
are
all

Bhatb'nunja

a

grain

parching
the

caste,

found

in

the

Marathwada towns and
into

Hyderabad
and

city.

They

divided

two

classes

:

— Maratha
in

Pardeshi.

The
the

Maratha Maratha
and

Bhudbhunjas
Kunbis,

are,

no

doubt,

recruited

from

among

whom

they

resemble
require

appearance,,

customs,

habits,

and

consequently

no special
denotes,
are

description.
outsiders,

The
having

Pardeshi Bhadbhunjas, as their

name

come

into

these

Dominions

from

Northern
Bareilly.
a

India,

especially

from

Cawnpur, Mathura, Lucknow and

They

are supposed to

be descended from a Kahar father and

Shudra mother, thus ranking
are not to
sell

among

the

mixed

castes.

The Bhudbhunjas

be confounded
sweetmeats but
to

with the Halwdis, or confectioners,

who make and
Bhudbhunjas
Basant,

do not parch
Internal
the

grains.

Structure

—The
:

are

divided

into

following

sub-castes

Shri

Barelikade,

Kandu,

Chaktaina,
strictly

Kaithwar,

Guryar,

Bhadesia

and

Kanaujia,

who

are

endogamous.

All Bhudbhunjas style themselves as Kanojia
(section)

and allege that they have only one gotra
of

Kashyap.
is is

This

is

course taken

as

an

ornamental

appendage and

inoperative

in

the regulation of their marriages.
the precise form

No

information

available as to

Marriage

of

exogamy
are

practised

by the
as

caste.

Girls

married

both

infants

and

as

adults

between the ages of twelve and sixteen years.
sexual
for

In the case of adults,

intercourse before

marriage
to

is

tolerated,

and may be atoned
If

by payment

of

a

fine

the Panchdyat.
is

a

girl

becomes

pregnant before marriage, she
her lover,

called upon to disclose the

name
is

of

who

is

compelled

to take her to wife.
;

Polygamy

peris

mitted up to a limit of two wives
taken only
in

but

in

practice a second wife

the event of the

first

bemg

barren or suffering from an

mcurable' disease.

Bhadbhunja

45

The

marriage ceremony

is

of the type in use

among Jaiswar Teli
position.

and other Northern India castes of the same
initiative
is

social

The
emis-

taken by the father of the bridegroom,

who employs

saries to settle the

match.
is

If

the terms are agreeable to the bride's
is

parents,

the

marriage
a
feast

at

once agreed upon and the occasion
caste

celebrated

by
is

to

panchds and other caste brethren,

when
picious bride'4 of

liquor

provided by the father of the bride.
booth,

On
erected

an ausat

day,
house.

a

supported by

five

pillars,

is

the

At

the foot of the central pillar

are

placed leaves
an earthen

the

mango and

urnbar

{Ficm glomerata)

trees,

with

pot of water»topped by a constantly burning lamp fed with oil or ghi.

Near

the

lamp jav

grains are

sown on

a small earthen
is

mound

raised on

the ground.

On
rice
it

the
to

wedding morning, a man
the

sent with a present of

unhusked
party have
time.

bridegroom's

house,

and

the

bridegroom's

parched, the
the

women

of the house singing songs at the
starts

At

night,
its

wedding procession
to the bride's

from the bridegroom's
halt at a well.

house and on

way

makes a

Here

the bridegtoom dismounts from his horse and goes seven times round the well,
living.

accompanied by

five

married females whose husbands are
mother,

Every time he passes

his

who

is

sitting

on the rim of

the well with one foot hanging over the edge, he touches her head.

On

the completion of the seventh round, he goes to her and pretends to

suck her milk, promising, in the presence of the deity presiding over
water,
that
its

he

will

never

abandon

her.

The

procession

then

resumes

march towards the bride's house.

On

arrival,

the bride-

groom

is

conducted to a seat under the wedding canopy.

Here

the

bride joins him.

Kanyddan, the

gift of

the bride to the bridegroom

and

his

acceptance of her, takes place,

and the bridal pair wear

paper crowns on their heads and iron bracelets on their wrists.
or

Horn,
with

sacred

fire,

is

made,

round
six

which
times.

the

bridal
is

pair,

their

garments

knotted,

walk

This
side

followed

by

Smdmddn, when
with
a

the

bridal

pair

are

seated

by

side covered

sheet
in

of

cloth,

and the bridegroom takes a small cup of
witlf his right

vermilion

his left

hand and

han3 smears the colour
fftake
fire

on the parting of the bride's
the

hair.

This done, the bridal pair
circuit

seventh

round.

This

seventh

round

the

.

46
is

Bhadbhunja
f

deemed

to

be

the

binding

and

essential

portion

of

the

marriage ceremony.

A
than
is

widow may marry
usual

again and the ritual in use

is

less

meagre
is

among

other

widow-marrying

castes.
is

A

Brahman

employed

to recite mantrds and sindur (vermilion)

besmeared on

the forehead of the

widow.

She

is

not obliged to marry her late

husband's
practice
outsider,
it

younger brother,
is

should

such
If

a

relative

exist,

but

in

usual

for

her to her

do

so.

she

prefers

to marry

an

the

members of

late

husband's

family

may

tlaim

custody of her male children by him.

Divorce.

—Bhadbhunjas

allow of divorce for

adultery

with

a

member

of the caste and permit divorced wives to

marry again.

A

woman who

has a liaison with an outsider

is

excluded from the caste.
caste
his
if

Religion
to

In

matters

of

religion,

the

seem to belong
'

the

Saiva

sect

and

worship

Mahadev and
as

form
these

Bhairava,
are
not

Kanojia
available,

Brahmans
local

serve

them
are

priests
for

and,

Brahmans
their

employed
gods

religious

and ceremonial

purposes.

Among
Bhavani

minor

are

Khandoba, 'Narsoba,
animistic
deities
all

Hanuman,

of

Tuljapur,

and

the

of

Pochamma, Mariamma, and Maisamma.
and
festivals

They

observe

the fasts

of

local

Hindus and

make

pilgrimages

to

Tuljapur,

Pandharpur and Alandi.

Disposal

of

the

Dead

—The

dead
north.

are

burnt

in

a

lying

posture, with the

head pointing to the

The

ashes aie collected
river

on the third day after death and thrown into the nearest
stream.
ing
is

or

Bodies of persons that are unmarried are buried.

Mourn-

observed nine days for females and thirteen days for males.
tenth

On

the

day

after

death the chief

mourner shaves

his

head,

bathes and offers ten pindds, or oblations of rice, for the benefit of
the soul of the deceased.

On
is

the eleventh day the chief mournei
at

entertains the relatives of the
feast

deceased and other caste brethren
presented with a turban
for

a

and on the 12th day he

by

his caste

people,
tors,

who

raise

a
are

subscription

the

purpose.
of

Ances-

in

general,

appeased*
are

in
in

the
to

month

Bhadrapad
the
funeral

(September).

Brahmans

called

conduct

ceremony

Bhadbhunja

47
India
castes

Social

Status

—Among
including

Upper

the

Bhad-

bhunjas hold a social position which

may be

said to be respectable.

On

this

side of the country

they eat food cooked by a
/jac/ii

Brahman
from

;

while no caste except the lowest unclean classes eat
hands.

their

All

castes,

Brahmans,

eat

sweetmeats

prepared
(ish,

by a Bhadbhunja.
flesh

The members

of the caste eat mutton,
in

the

of

deer and hare,
eat

and indulge freely

strong

liquor.

They

do not

fow^.

Occupation.
to

—Bhadbhunjas
and

believe

the

parching

of

grain

be

their

original

characteristic

occupation.

Some

have

enlisted in^the native

army and a few have taken
of parching grain
is

to agriculture.

The

actual
is

work

usually done
is

by women.
in the
lire
is

The

process

a simple one.

A

clay oven

built
in

somewhat

shape of a bee hive with ten or twelve holes

the top.

A

lighted inside and broken earthen pots containing sand are put on the
holej.
stirred

The
with a
of

grain
flat

to

be parched

is

thrown

in

with the
it

sand

and

piece of

wood

or a

broom
the

until

is

ready.
of

The
grain,
seer.

wages

the

parcher

vary

according to

quality

the

millet costing half an anna

and gram three-quarters of an anna per

VIII

Bhamta
Origin
found mostly

and Occupation
in the districts of in

Bhamta

a

caste

of

pick-pockets,

Bir and Aurangabad, extending soufcito

ward

to

Latur

the

Usmanabad and
In their

Kalyani and

Humnabad

in

the

Gulbarga

Districts.

manners and language they resemble the

poorer Kunbis of these places.

They

are popularly

known

as Pathrods,
liveli-

or Patharkers (mill-stone pointers), as their ostensible

means of

hood

is

the

pointing

and repairing of mill-stones.
visit

For purposes of

crime, they assume various disguises and

great fairs and festivals,

where large crowds

of

men, dressed

in

their

gayest clothes,

and of
with

women decked

in

jewels, assemble.

With

their peculiar knives, or

pieces of broken glass,
strings of jewels

they rip open bags and pockets and cut the

worn by women and children and readily pass the
so that
if

pilfered articles to their accomplices,

a

Bhamta

is

caught,

nothing

is

found on

his

person and he has to be released.

Sometimes,

respectably dressed, they gain admission to the best of the community,

and while the unsuspecting victims are reposing
they are robbed of their valuables.
they travel
their
in

full

confidence

in

them

On

their

predatory

excursions

parties of four or five

and are often accompanied by

women and

children. are
early

The Bhamtas
ten years old,

trained

in

the

art

of

picking

pockets
is

and snatching jewels from unsuspecting

travellers.
if

When
in

a boy
his

he

is

taken to a
a

fair,

and

he succeeds

first

attempt

at

pilfering
If

goat
or

is

sacrificed

to

Mari Ai,

their

tutelary
in

goddess.
profession,

he

fails,

subsequently

shows
in

inaptitude

the
is

no one gives him his daughter

marriage

and he

degraded.

The Bhamtas

hold the arandi, castor plant (Ricinus communis),
is

m
a

great awe.

It

said that while
if

no

torture will extract

from them,
at

moan

or a tear,

they will,

threatened with a stick of arandi,


Bhamta
once confess
their
guilt.

49

Internal Structure
sions.

—The

Bhamtas have no endogamous
sections are
:

divi-

A

few

of their

exogamous

Pawar
Idur

Aundhe

Gawad
Sheke
Shirke.
rule of

Jadhava

Andgule
Marriage.

—The

exogamy

is

carefully

observed and a

man may

not maury a

woman
infant
is

belonging to the same section as himself.

Bhamtas practice both

and adult marriages.
no
limit to the

Polygamy
of wives.

is

per-

mitted and- in theory there

number

The

marriage ceremony

is

of the standard form.

After the bride has been
is

selected and the bride-price settled and paid, a lucky day

fixed for

the celebration of the wedding.

Previous to the wedding, goats and

fowls are killed as a sacrifice to the deities Mari

Ai and Tuljapur
a

Bhavani.
builloci,
.

A

procession

is

formed conducting the bridegroom, on

to the bride's house, where, on arrival, he goes straight to

the wedding canopy.
pair are
officiates

Here he

is

joined by the bride, and the bridal

made
as

to stand opposite each other while the

Brahman, who
recites

priest,

holds an antarpdt between them,
(millet)

mantras
feast

and throws jawari
the caste brethren

grains

over

their

heads.

A
at

to

concludes the ceremony.
again,

A
clothes

widow may marry
of
is

by an

inferior

rite,

which the
jaggery
takes

the

bridal

couple

are

knotted

together

and

(molasses)

distributed

among the assembly.

The ceremony
some temple

place

at night

and, after the wedding, the bridal pair have to pass the
in

remainder of the night, outside the village,

or grove.

Only widows
are living,

attend the ceremony, married women, whose husbands
it

deeming
is

unlucky to be present.

Divorce

permitted with the sanction of the Pancha^at of the

caste and divorced

Religion

women may marry

again by the same
religion,

rite as

widows.

Bhamtas are Hindus by

and look upon Mari

Ai

(the goddess

who

presides over cholera) as their special deity,
is

whom
and

they worship with offerings of goats and fowls. Reverence
to

also paid

Bhavani of Tuljapur.

Brahmans

are

employed
foray,

for

religio';^

ceremonial purposes.
4

After a successful

goats

are

sacrificed

50
to
in

Bhamta
Mari Ai and the booty
the pilfering expedition.
is

'

shared

equally by the band engaged

Disposal of the Dead

—The

dead are usually burnt, but are

occasionally buried in a lying posture.

The Srddha

is

performed on

the 13th day.

Ancestors

in

general are propitiated in the
liiird

month

of

Bhadrapad (September-October), and on the
half of

day of the

light

Vaishakha (May).

Social Status

Bhamtas,

socially,

rank immediately below the

Maratha Kunbis

:

barbers, oilmen and

washermen<eat kachi (cooked
and
fish

food) from their hands.
in strong drinks.

They

eat mutton, fowl

and indulge

IX
Bhandari
Origin

and
a

Internal
caste
of

Structure

Sanai^ad
of

Bhandari,
in

Shingade,
all

smedl

temple musicians found

districts

the Dominions.

A

popular tradition represents them

as

having

sprung front, the matted hair of the god Siva.

Bhandaris have no
are mostly of

endogamous

tlivisions,

while
of

their

exogamous
are
:

sections

the territorial type.

Some

them

Rahareker

Kotgir

Gangamale
Nalure
*

Kallale
Nagarpalli

Kandrollu

Nazampurollu.
a

Mari;iage.
section, but
sister.

—A man cannot marry
may be
their

woman

belonging to his

own

he may marry the daughter of
sisters

his maternal uncle or elder

Two

married to the same man.
daughters
is

Bhandaris

marry

as

infants.

A

bride-price,
tlie girl.

tanging from Rs.

10 to Rs. 40,

paid to the parents of

Previous to the marriage ceremony
deities

Khandoba and
is

other tutelary
the orthodox

are worshipped.

The
to

marriage ceremony

of

type and does not differ from that in practice

among

the higher castes.
is

Widows

are

allowed

marry

again

and

divorce
rites

recognised.

Divorced wives may marry again by the same

as

widows.
their

Religion
worship.

—Khandoba

and Bhavani are the chief objects of
in

Departed ancestors are honoured

the form of Virs * and
balls

Munj^as, +
vermilion,

who
or

are represented either
of

by earthen

smeared with
or

by engravings

human forms on

silver
in

copper.

They have
ghost
is

a strong belief in ghosts and magic,

and

sickness the
in

identified

and appeased.

Brahmans

are

employed

the

marriage ceremony and the worshiji of Satya Narayan.
* Virs are the
spirits

of persons

who

die in battle.

+ Munjyas ate

the ghosts of thread-girt,

but unmarried,

Brahman

lads.

52
Disposal of the

Bhandari

Dead

—The

dead are buried

In

a

sitting

posture with the face pointing to the east.
funeral ceremonies.

Jangams

officiate

at

the

Social Status
darzis, or tailors
;

Socially, they rank

below

telis,

or oilmen, and

they eat pork, fowl and mutton and drink spirituous

and fermented

liquors.

They do

not eat the leavings of other castes.

Occupation.
a pipe, samhal, a
at the

—They

are temple musicians

and play on the

sanai,'

drum, and cymbals, and blow the shinga or conch

worship of the temple deity.

They

also

make

leaf-plat;s and

cups.

They have

a caste

Panchdyat presided over by a mehataryd

or chaudhari.

'

X
Bhat
Origin.
logists

Bhat, Thakur, Shivachandi Thakur
Jsards found in the

a caste of geneaDistricts.

and family

Marathawada
'

Their

original

name was Thakur and

the designation
thera,

Shivachandi Thakur

was subsequsntly adopted by

probably to elevate their parent-

age to the go4 Siva, from whose third eye they claim to have sprung.

Regarding
that they

their

origin

very

little

is

known.

Their

traditions

say

came from North
as

India during the rule of the

Bahmani kings

and were employed
latter

bards to the noble Maratha families as the

rose into prominence.

The word
some
of the
it

'

Thakur

'

is

either

a

title

applied .to the nobles of Rajputana, or an epithet of the god Balaji
(Shri Krishna), and although
to

members

of the caste claim

be descended from the god

Balaji,

may be more

reasonable to

suppose that they were a branch of one of the Rajput clans bearing
the

name

as a tribal designation.

At

the present day, however, the
assimilated
origin

Thakurs have become

so

thoroughly

with the

Maratha

Kunbis that every trace of a separate
obliterated.

has been completely

Marriage.
exogamous

—Thakurs
sisters,

have

no

endogamous

divisions.

Their

divisions are the

same

as those of the

Maratha Kunbis.

A
in

man may marry two

but two brothers cannot marry two
aunt's

sisters.

A

maternal

uncle's

or

paternal

daughter
into

may be
caste.

taken
Girls

marriage.

Outsiders
infancy.

are

not

admitted

the

are

married

in

The custom

of offering girls to the temples or
is

gods does not prevail.
theory.

Polygamy
is

permitted without any limit in

The
two

marriage ceremony

analogous to that of the Maratha

Kunbis.
pleted,

After the wedding portion of the ceremony has been comtripod stands are placed on the bohola (wedding dais) to

serve as seats for the married couple,

where

all

the subsequent rites ^re

performed.

The Deoak

consists

of

the twigs of saundad

(Prosopis

,

54
spicigera),

Bhat
r

jambul (Eugenia Jambolana) and mango
brought

trees,

which

'are

ceremonially
the
village

from

the

woods
married

and

placed

behind
the

god

Maruti.
in

The

couple,

with

ends of their garments tied
repeating
the
all

a knot, go in procession to the temple,

the

way

the

unintelligible

word,

'

Gharyar,'
carrying

worship
'

Virs

(departed

ancestors)

and

return

home

the

twigs

comprising the Devak, which they place in the marriage canopy with
an
earthen

pot

containing

food

and

water.

Two
bride'
in

posts

of

salai

(Boswellia

thurijera)

wood, representing the

and bridefroom,
the form of an

are planted close to the

mandap, and mangalmatd,
them.

earthen pot,

is

installed near

The

marriage ceraiiony always
iha'i

takes place at night.

Thakurs of

Amba
is

Jogai state

their Deva^,

consists of a kind of creeper,
in

which

brought once for

all,

preserved

the house and

made

use of in subsequent marriages.

Sur-name
Pavar

DeVak

Edge

of a sword.

Chavan

Vasani,

a creeper

grown

in'

jaWari

fields.

Yadava and Jadhava
Each
some
section

A

dish of sandal-wood and moss.
is

has

its

own Deoak, which
Mongolian

either
is

a plant or
said to be

other object held in great reverence.
tribes

This usage
and points

peculiar to Dravidian and

to

the non-

Aryan

origin of the

Thakurs.
is

Widows
ceremony
in

are allowed to re-marry and divorce

permitted.

The

use at the marriage of a

widow resembles

that of the

Maratha Kunbis.
Inheritance and Religion.— The Hindu law of inheritance
followed by the caste.
type.
is

The
tJieir

religion of the caste

is

of the orthodox

Adi Chandi

is

patron deity.
is

All the gods of the Hindu
paid to the souls of departed
spiritual

pantheon are worshipped and reverence
ancestors.
religious

Brahmans

are

engaged

as

advisers

on

all

and ceremonial occasions.
is

Disposal of the Dead —The dead are buried and mourning
observed for II
offered in the

days.

On

the .'0th day after death,

oblations are

name

Occupation

of the deceased.

Sradha
chief

is

performed every year.
of

Begging

is

the

occupation

the

caste.

Bhat
Members

55

of the caste officiate as priests and genealogists to Hatkars,

Vanjaris and Kunbis. Social

Some

of

Status

them have now taken
socially

to agriculture.

Thakurs rank
sheep,
eat
kflchi

with

Maratha Kunbis.
and drink
of
spirits.

They
Pigs

eat

the flesh

of

deer,

hare,

fowl

are

avoided.

They

from

the

hands

Brahmans

and

Marathas.

Marathas eat
is

from their hands.
the

Their dress

similar to

that of

Marathas.

They do
is

not

wear the sacred thread.
for t»n

A Thakur woman,
fifth

after child-birth,

impure

days and'on the
*

day

after birth

Satwai *

is

worshipped.

The

goddess

of

pregnant and

lying-in

women.

XI
Bhatraja
Bhatraja, Bhab Murti,
in

Bhatwandlu— a

caste largely to

be found
Thej? are

the

Telugu

Districts of

H. H.

the Nizam's Dominions.
castes

hereditary bards of the

Velma and Kapu

and once had the

honour, like the Bhats of Northern India, of attending the fourls of the

Vijayanagar and Warangal kings, whose deeds they charited throughout the country.

The

title

of

Raja

is

said to

have been given

to

them

on

this

account.

They

are a very intelligent class of people and have
in

produced some of the most eminent poets

Telugu
mixed

literature.

Origin

The

Bhatrajas seem to be

a

caste,

recruited

from among Brahmans and Velmas.
this

Their legends tend to support
tells

view.

One

of

the

legends

how

Velma

<

fugitives

were given asylum by the Raja Prataprudra of Warangal and raised by him
and
caste,

to high local

commands
Brahmans,

in his

army.

The Velmas were
doubts

wifeless,
their

the

who

entertained

regarding
at

declined to perform any religious ceremonies

their

houses.

Prataprudra,

who was appealed

to,

offered
to

large

sums of money,
but

which induced some of the Brahmans
these

undertake the work,

Brahmans were degraded by the

rest of their

community

and
the

had

to take wives from

Kapus and

other low classes and

became

ancestors of the present Bhatraja caste.

Internal Structure
divisions,

—The

caste

is

divided into two endogamous
the latter being said to
is

Vandi Bhats and Are Bhats,
progeny of the former
;

be the

illegitimate

but the term

generally applied

to the Marathas,

and Are Bhats may be Maratha Bhats

who

have been

described
Bhatrajas,
sub-castes

in a

separate article, and have probably no relation with the
the subject of this report.

who form
do not

Members
-

of these

eat

together

ncr

intermarry.

It

is

stated

by

a

Bhatraja of Adilabad that
serve as ddsis

girls, for

whom

husbands are not procurable,
or

(hand-maids)

in

rich

Brahman

Komti

families

and


Bhatraja
the children, born of such women, are termed
admitted freely into the Bhatraja caste.
'

57
Krishna Pakshi
'

and

The exogamous

system of the caste

is

of

two

different types, the

one consisting of Brahmanical gotras, and the other also of eponymous
names,
the

eponym probably being
in
is

the

progenitor

of

the

family.

Both the types are
recent origin and

vogue

at present,

but the latter appears to be of
If

gradually displacing the Brahmanical gotras.

the

theory

of

a

Brahmanical

origin

of

Bhatrajas

be

true,

the
to
:

Bwhmanical ^tras were transmitted by the degraded Brahmans
their

progeny.

Section names of both types are given as follows

Gofws


Gautama
Jamdagni

Chardwaja
Kasyapa
Vashistha

Koundinya
Angirasa
Shri Vatsa

Atreya
Parashar

Vishwamitra

Exogamous

sections

Partigadpa
Parijat

Sarikunda

Muchan
Kapalwai
Jonalgada
Birolu

Dharpati
Janaparaja

Tarapandi

Neelkanthwaru

Tangalpalliwaru
section,

Marriage
caste
is

Marriage within the

and outside the sub-

prohibited.

A
two

man may marry two

sisters,

but two brothers cannot marry
sister
is

sisters.

Marriage with the daughter of a
first

allowed.

A

man

cannot marry any of his

cousins, except the daughter of his

maternal uncle or paternal aunt.
caste.

Outsiders are not admitted into the

Bhatraja

girls

are married either as infants or as
girls

adults.

It

is

not customary to offer
herself
is

to temples or trees.

A
only

girl

committing

excommunicated.
is

A

second wife

is

taken

Jn case

the

first

wife

barren or incurably diseased.

The

marriage ceremony

/

58
does
not
differ

Bhatraja
materially

from

that

in

vogue

among

Komtis.

Kansddan

(the formal

gift of the bride to the

bridegroom), and Pusti

Mittalu (the tying of an auspicious bead necklace around the bride's
neck) form
the essential
portions of

the ceremony.

A
with

Brahman

is

consulted in fixing an auspicious date for the wedding.

The

bride-

groom,
iron

at

the

time

of

the

Poh,

is

presented

guntam

(an

pan and

a Jjook of palm-leaves),

which symbolises the hereditary

occupation of the caste.

Widows
recognised.
matters
of

are

not

allowed
wife
caste

to
is
is

marry
expelled

again,

rtor

is

divogce
In

An

adulterous
the

from

the
the

caste.

inheritance

guided

by

Hirfdu
feldest

law. son

Failing male issue,
receives a

females are entitled to inherit.

The

cow

or a bullock as jethdng.

Religion

—The
is

Bhatrajas

are

almost

all

Vaishnavas,

worshipping Vishnu

in the

form of Venkateshwar, and following the

guidance of Shri Vaishnava

Brahmans

in

spiritual

matters.

Every

member
Mantra
with

of the caste

required to be invested with the AshtdkShari

(eight-syllabled

mystic

formula)

of

Vishnu,
wheel)

and
on
his

marked
arms.

Mtidrds

(sankha— conch

and

chak'a
at

Females worship the Gouri goddess
favourite

the

Dioali festival.

The
over
in

deity

of

children

is

the

god Ganesh,

who

presides

Arts and Learning.

Members
;

of the caste
deities,

have a strong belief
as

magic

and

ghosts

malignant

such

Maisamma

and

Pochamma,
are

are appeased on

Sundays by

sacrificing fowls.

Brahmans

employed on ceremonial and
Disposal of the Dead

religious occasions.

—The

dead

are burnt in a lying posture

with the head towards the south, and the ashes are collected on the 3rd

day

after

death and thrown into d

river.
is

Burial

is

resorted to only

when

the family of the deceased

too poor to bear the cremation

expenses.

Mourning

is

observed 12 days for the married and 3 days
the 3rd day after death, birds are fed,
of
til

for the unmarried.

On

and
rice

on the

llth

day

libations

water

(tilodal^)

and balls of

ipindas) are offered in the
is

names

of the dead.

The Sradha ceremony

performed once every year on the anniversary day.

Q^
is

the third day after the birth of a child the

Pamd

ceremony

performed.

On

the

12th day,

the barber pares the nails of the

Bhatraja
,•

59

•mother, on the 21st day she becomes ceremonially pure by bathing and
performing the

Gangd

puja, and the child

is

named.
beggars

Occupation.
reciting

—The

Bhatrajas

are

by

profession,

the deeds of heroes,
families.

and maintaining the genealogy of the

Kapu and Velma
cultivation

Of

late,

many

of

them have taken

to

and hold lands on various tenures.
service.

A

few have entered
free),

Government

Some

hold Inam lands (rent

which

are

mostly grants of an ancient date.
^

Social

Status.

In

point

of

social

status
kfichi

the

Bhatrajas

rank

below Kapus and Velmas.
Brahmaijs,

They

eat

from the hands of
Satanis

Komtis,

Ayyawars,

Belmas,

Jangams,
eat

and

Gollas.

»Kurma, Telaga Dhobi, and Mutrasis
and

from

their hands.
spirits.

They

eat the flesh of sheep, pig, fowl

fish,

and drink

/

XII

Bhavsar
(Titles
'

^
Rao.'
«•

Ji,'

'

Bhavsar,

Bahusar,

Bhausagar,

Bhavasagari,

Wannekar,
whose
seven

Rangari, Rangrez

the dyer and tailor caste of Maharashtra^'
neaitly

traditions say that they came originally from Gujaratha

hundred years ago.
they are
are

Many
and

of

them have

settled in Telingana,

where

known by

the popular designation
short,

'Vinnekar

'

(a dyer).

They

generally

stout

dress

like

the Maratha Kunbis and

speak the Marathi language.

Origin


in

Bhavsars

lay

claim
'

to

a

Kshatriya

origin

and

profess to derive their

name from

sprung

(lit.

moved) meaning
their
origin,

Bahusar,' Bahu arm and §ar " sprung from the arm of Brahma.'
relate

Regarding
Parshuram,
a

they

the

following

legend.

When
race,

fulfilment of his

vow, extirminated the Kshatriya

few of them escaped the general carnage

by taking

shelter in the

shrine of their patron goddess, Ingala Devi.

The

Devi, to save them

from destruction, deprived them of their sacred thread and enjoined

them

to betake themselves to their present occupations.
tailors,

Those

who

were furnished with thread and needle became

while others
neither
their

were supplied with dyes
physical
light

and

became

dyers.

But
throw

character,
their
'

nor

their

traditions,

any
to

clear

on

real

antecedents.
'

They

were
a

known

the

ancients as

Sindolaka

or the descendants of

Shudra father and

Bhanda mother.
Internal
divisions
are,

Structure

—Bhavsar
It

Bhavsdras

have

two

main

sub-

Rangari and Bhavsar Darji, or Chippalu
functional,
for

—which
them

however,

purely

members belonging
is

to

intermar^' and eat together.

Their exogamous system
a double series of

obscure and
a specimen

complicated.

consists of

sections,


Bhavsar
• of

61

which

is

shown below

:

Brahmanical Cotra
(1)

Family Surnames

Bhargava

Gudale,

Talkare,

Chotwe,

Shaivarkare,

Chitalkare.
(2)

Sutarawe, Tandre, Sotarage, Ruparange.

Anante, Malve, Meendarker, Rakade,

Jirse,

Male,

Gande,

Upare,

Nage,

Nakte,

Supker, Gambire, Patnekar, Dewatraja.
Ksheersagar, Tandule, Dhumale.

Modalker,

Yasuker,

Jamanker,

AIne,

Dhanker.
Rangdar, Bhojid, Vadse, Chalke.

Khemkar, Bhakare, Keenker.
Navale, Gadekar, Neeipanke.

Goje, Patangi, Banchode, Alne.
Basotkar,

Habare,

Ratnapalke,

Chavan.

Gujari.

Amburi.

Kalekar.

Pabamsi.
Malalkar.

Dholekar, Gujar, Pandane.

Bodke.

Although
series
is

it

is

held that, for the purposes of marriage, the gotra
it

taken into account,

is

not very clear whether the fact of

two

persons belonging to the same family, or bearing the same family name,

would operate

as a bar to their intermarriage,

notwithstanding their

gotras being different.

Such

a

case has not been
is,

made

out in the
point.

enquiry,

and further information

therefore,

wanted on the

The

rule of

exogamy

is

carefully practised, and a
of his

man

is

prohibited

from marrying a
degrees,
that

woman

own
of

section.

In matters of prohibited

overlap

the

rule

exogamy,

Bhavsars
is

follow

the

practice in use

among the Maratha Kunbis.
rule limiting the

Polygamy

permitted,

but there

is

no

number of wives a man mav have.
and
V

Marriagje.

—Among

Bhavsars, girls are married as infants,


62

Bhavsar
if

social reproach attaches to a girl's parents

she

is

not provided with

a husband before she has reached

the age of puberty.

The

cere-

mony

is

of the orthodox type, in practice

among

the

Maratha Kunbis
After the

and other Maratha castes of the same social
preliminary negotiations have been completed,
the

standing.

an auspicious day for
skilled
in

marriage

is

fixed

by

consulting

a
at

Brahman

such

matters.

The ceremony
nine
or

takes

place
the

the bride's house,
or

under a

booth
pillar,

of

eleven

posts,

muhurta medha,

wedding
hallov**t;d

being

of

umbar

(Ficus

glomerata).

To

this

pillar are fastened
trees

an axe, five cakes, and leaves of the five sacred

the

mango,

shami

(Prosopis

spicigera),

jamhul ^{Eugenia
religiosa)

Jambolana),
the

umbar (Ficus glomerata), and pipal (Ficus

whole representing Deva Deoaha, or marriage guardian
comprises
several

deity.

The ceremony
as follows
(1)
:

usages,

which may be

described

Mangani
is

or

Kunku Lavane
with
a
silver

(the

betrothal),

in

which the
and
the

maiden
has
her

presented

coin
or

and
red

sweetmeat

forehead

smeared with
:

kjunkum,
this

powder,

by

Brahman who
guests

officiates as priest

completes the betrothal.

The
after

are offered

pan supari, or betel-leaves and areca nuts,
to their

which they disperse
(2)

homes.
deities

The

invocation of the village and family

for

their
(2) (4)

blessing

upon the betrothed couple.
both propitiated
(5)

These

are (1)
flesh,

Bhavani and
(3)

Ellama,

with offerings of
(6)

Gorakha,
Bhavsars

Mahadeva,

Yankoba and
a

Narsinha.

The

also
is

worship the jungle grass,

usage the true significance of which

obscure at the present day.
(3)

Haldi Laoane,
in

or the smearing over with

turmeric.

The

betrothed pair,

their respective
oil.

homes, are separately rubbed over

with turmeric paste and
are living,

Five married females, whose husbands
with which »he boy
in
is

grind, ceremonially, turmeric,

first

smeared, a portion of this being subsequently conveyed
the bride's house and applied to her body.
curious

procession to

Before the wedding a
the
caste

Kulachar,

or

family

rite,

ist

performed by
pot
filled in

and
are

merits -special

description.

In

a

large of

with

water

arranged

wheaten cakes

and

leaves

makai,

alternate

layers,

Bhavsar
• which, having been sufficiently boiled, are distributed
of the caste

63

among

the wives

Panchas.

Each

of the matrons receives

two cakes and

gives jawari, or Indian millet, in return.
is

On

the

wedding day the boy
is

carried

in

procession
first

to

Maruti's temple,

where he

formally
is

received for the

time by the bride's relatives.
girl's

He

thence

conducted by both parlies to the
bride's mother

house, where, on arrival, the
his face

waves two cakes round

and washes

his feet
is

with water.
straight

On

alighting

from

his

horse,

the bridegroom

taken

to

tho wedding

platform,

built

under the wedding booth.

Here

the bride immediately joins hiro
in

and both are made

to

stand

face to iace,

bamboo

baskets containing ropes

used for drawing
viz.,

water

frcpi

wells.

The

ceremonies

that

follow,

Antarpdt,

Kank/ma bandhan, Mangalsutra, Kanyddan, Naoagraha Pujd,

Homa
who
ribes

and several others, closely resemble those current among the Maratha
Kunbis.
It

should be observed, however, that those Bhavsars
in

have

settled

Telingana

or

the

Carnatic

follow

wedding

peculiar to the respectable

members

of their adopted localities.
is

A
at

Bhavsar woman,

after child-birth,

unclean for ten days.
is

On

the 5th day after birth, the worship of the goddess Satwai

observed,
a

which

the

image

of

the
cot,

goddess

is

traced

on

grindsacrifice

stone,

laid near the mother's

and worshipped with the
is

of a goat.

The
1

child,

if

a male,

named on

the

13th,

and

if

a

female on the

2th day after birth.

Widow=Marriage
again, but

—The
in

Bhavsars

allow

a

widow

to

marry

do not requirejier

to marry her late husband's

younger or
consists

elder brother.

The ceremony

use at the marriage of a

widow

of the tying of the mangalsutra, or auspicious thread, round the bride's

neck by the bridegroom.
as
priest.

A

Brahman

attends the

ceremony and

acts

Widows may

witness the ritual, but married

women

are

on no account

allowed to be present on the occasion.

The wedded

couple sleep together during the night and early next morning repair
to

Maruti's

temple,

where they screen themselves from the public
return to the

gaze.

At

night they

bridegroom's house.

The

pro-

ceedings terminate with a feast to the caste people.

Divorce

Divorce

is

permitted on

the ground of the^ wife's
if

unchastity, or the husband's inability to maintain her, or

the couple

\

64
cannot get on together.
It
is

Bhavsar
effected, with the sanction of the casti

Pancha^at, by depriving the
her out of the house.
if

woman

of her

mangahutra and driving

The

divorce claims alimony from her husband
in

her innocence

is

proved

the presence of the head-man of the

caste.
rite as

Divorced

women
The

are

allowed to marry again by the same

widows.
religion

Religion

of

the

Bhavsars

differs

little

from
is

that of other castes of the

same
of

social status.

Their special deity

Ingala
or

or

Hingala
with

(a

form

Bhavani),

worshipped

on

Fridays
or

Tuesdays,

offerings

of

sweetmeat.

On

the

eighth

ninth of the light half of

Aswin (beginning
held,
at

of October), ^^^the grand

worship of the goddess

is

which

Homa
They

(sacrifice)

is

per-

formed, mogara or jasmine flowers (Jasminum Sambac) offered to the
deity and goats and sheep sacrificed to her.
also

pay devotion

to

Khandoba,
pantheon.
Kshatriyas,

Balaji,

Hanuman, and

the

greater

gods of the Hindu

Parsharam, the incarnation of Vishnu, and the slayer of
is

represented by a panja (metallic palm) and
In
this

is

adored

with the sacrifice of a sheep.

worship the Brahmans take
officiates as priest.

no

part, but the

head of the household

Animistic

deities,

including
are

Pochamma

(Sitala),

Mari

Amma, Maisamma
caste.

and

Ellama,

also propitiated
in

by the members of the

They

have a strong belief

ghosts,

charms and witch-craft.

In Telingana, the Bhavsars are divided into Shivas (Vibhutidharis)

and

Vaishnavas

(Tirmanidharis).

Some

of

the

Maratha

Bhavsars

are followers of the

Manbhao

sect

and are generally known by the
for their

name

of Bhavals
religious
is

:

these have

Manbhao mendicants

Gums.

On

all

and ceremonial occasions the assistance of Deshastha

Brahmans

requisitioned

by the

caste.

Disposal of the Dead
laid

—The
after

dead

are burnt,

the

body being

on the pyre with the head pointing to the south, and the ashes

are collected on the 3rd

day

death and thrown into the Ganges
is is

or any stream near by.
adults

Mourning

observed ten days for agnate

and the ceremony of Sradha

performed on the

12tii

day

after death,

when
wheat

libations of
flour

til

water (Sesamum indicum) and balls
for

of rige or

are

offered

the benefit of

the

deceased.

Children, before teething, and persons dying of cholera or smallpox,

Bhavsar
*
are

65
in

buried.

Burial

is

also resorted

to

the case of persons

who

become Bhavalus or
are

disciples of

Manbhaos.
of

Ancestors,

in

general,

propitiated

in

the

dark
of

half

the
of

month
water

of

Bhadrapad
with
til

(September),
(gingelly)

with

offerings
In

libations

mixed

seeds.

Telingana,

Tirmanidharis
is

are

burnt,

while
after

Vibhutidharis are buried.
.death and the flesh
(juice
is

A

goat

sacrificed

on the 3rd day

cooked and placed, with a vessel of shendi
on the spot where the body was

of

the

wild date palm),

cremaed

or buried.

Social

Status

—The
caste
in

social

rank

of

Bhavsars

is

respectable,

and Marathft Kunbis are said to eat
the

k.achi

from

their

hands,

while

members
eat
fish

of

the

eat

only

from the hands of Brahmans.

They

and the

flesh of

sheep, fowl, deer, hare and wild boar

and indulge freely

spirituous

and fermented
caste.

liquors.

Leavings of

other people are not eaten

by the

Occupation

—The
silks
in

general occupation of the caste

is

the dyeing

of cotton clothes,

and woollen fabrics and yarns
dyeing
are

for

weaving.

The

colotirs

used

mostly

of

vegetable
dyes.

origin

and

are obtained

by ingenious combinations of
indigo,

different

Safflower,
furnish

madder,

turmeric,

myrabolams

and

mango

leaves

beautiful tints of scarlet,

pink, rose, crimson,
in in

purple, yellow, orange

and green.
customers.

The
They

garments are dyed
are
first

pieces to suit the tastes of

steeped
to the

the

dung of cow-buffaloes,

washed and then submitted
pot or kpndi,

process of dyeing.

An

earthen
a cotton

two metal
straining

vats for the principal

dye becks and
the

bag

(zoli)

for

the

colour

comprise

simple

apparatus

employed

for the operation.

Some
of

of the Bhavsars are

now engaged

as tailors,

while a fev/

them have taken

to cultivation.

XIII

Bhil

Bhil— a non-Aryan
the

tribe,

inhabiting the hilly ranges

which form
Oil.

north-western

boundary

of

the

Aurangabad Subah.

the

eastern side they have for their neighbours the

Gonds and

the

Andhs
into

and on the western and southern sides they imperceptibly pass
the

Koli

and Wanjari
of

tribes.

They

are

principally

found

in

the

Talukas

Vaijapur,

Kannad,

Bhokardan,
to this to
tract

Aurangabad
from Khandesh,

and
to

Gangapur.

They probably came

which part of the country they are said

have been driven, on by the

firstly

by the pressure of the Rajputs, and
immigration from Northern India.

later

Muhammadan

A

considerable portion of the Bhils

have settled on the plains and taken to cultivation and farm 'labour.

Physical Characteristics
the
are
their

In point of physical

characteristics,

Bhils

display
built,

remarkable
tall

variations.

Those

on

the

plains

well

of

stature

and

generally

handsome
refined,

features,

original

type

having

probably

been

partly

by

intermarriages with the

low caste Hindus

and partly by the
hill

effects

of the salubrious climate of the plains.

The

Bhil, on the other

hand, has preserved
is

all

the characteristics of a pure Dravidian.

He

hardy and active, with dark complexion, prominent cheek bones,
nostrils
is

wide

and coarse features.

Like

his brother,

the

Gond
and
is

or the

Koli, he

noted for his truthfulness and simplicity, love of indepenspirits,

dence, excessive indulgence in ardent
tion

thriftlessness

detesta-

of

honest

work.

He

has his

own

dialect,

which

scarcely
is

understood by the inhabitants of the plains.
a

His national weapon
strip of

bow made
Origin.

of

bamboo, the

'

string

'

being a thin

the same

flexible material.

—The
'

name
'

"

Bhil

'

t is

supposed to be

derived

from
2).

theeOravidian

Billu

a

bow

(Wilson's "Aboriginal Tribes",

A

popular legend represents them as being descended from Nishad,

,

Bhil

67
Nishad was vicious and ugly
in

«
son of

Mahadev, by a human female.

and, having killed his father's bull, was,
to mountains

consequence,

banished

and

forests.

History.
races.

—The

Bhils

are,

indisputably,

one of the pre-Aryan
in

The

earliest

mention of their name occurs

the great epics
is

of the

Ramasana and Mahdbkdrata.
of bors, or plumes,
to

A

Bhil

woman
the

said to have

tftade presents

Rama,
In

during his wanderings

through

the

wilderness
is

of

Dandaka.

AdiparOa

of

the

Mahdbhdrata, mention
ordinary
skill,

made

of a certain Bhil,

who

attained extra-

in

archery

by placing before him a clay image of
art.
It

Drona, as
Bhil

his preceptor,

and thus practising the

was

a forester

who

mortally

wounded Krishna, having mistaken him

for a deer.

For ages, the Bhils have been known as daring marauders,
set at

who

defiance one and

all

the governments that tried to subdue them

by coercion.
the

They were

cruelly dealt with
several

by the Muhammadan and
times severely

Maratha governments and were
British.

punished

by the
a

Some

of the

Moghal Emperors, however, adopted
them
and
treated

policy

of

conciliation

towards
in
hill

them

kindly.

Aurangzeb
their

enlisted

them

a

sort of

local

militia,

by entrusting to
Narbada.

charge the whole

country

south

of

the

The

passes of the Satpura and the Ajunta ranges
care,

were committed
services.

to their

with

a

liberal

grant

of

land

for

their

His armies
difficult

passed unmolested through the Bhil country, which contained
passes,

and during the Moghal rule of the Deccan the Bhils remained

quiet or loyal.

With
truculent

the rise of

the
tribe,

Marathas,

they

appear

in

history

as

a

and lawless

committing

great

depredations

on

the

plains from their mountain fastnesses.

Expeditions against the Bhils

became

frequent,

but

in

every instance the soldiers of the Peshwas

were worsted
hill

in action.

The Marathas
resorted
to

never scored against the wily

tribes,

until

they

treachery.
it

Peace

having

been

concluded, the Bhils were invited to celebrate
a place near

by a grand

feast at

Kannad.

They responded

to the invitation

and came

down
were
liquor

to the plains in great numbers,

expecting a good time.
in

They

treated

on a lavish scale and indulged freely
liberally

the strong

which had been

provided.

Armed

bodies of men,

68

Bhil

,

kept hidden for the purpose, were soon on the helpless Bhils,

who

were then butchered without
of
Bhils,

distinction of

age or sex.

Large bodies

however,

still

remained and they soon took measures of

reprisal

and

terrorised the

Maratha

villages on the plains.

The Peshwas

proscribed them as out-laws and ordered that they should be put to

death wherever found.
or

A

Bhil caught anywhere was flogged to death,
official

hanged by the lowest Maratha

without
in

trial

or enquiry of any

kind. of

Great ingenuity was displayed
as
fell

corturiii'g

the

Bhil^
being

such
sub-

them

into

the

hands

of

the

Marathas

jected to cruelty of the most revolting kind.

The

favourite

method

adopted was to
to rip

slit

the nose, strip the ears, and, in the case of females,
chillies

open the breast and sprinkle powoered

over the wounds,

exposing the victim meanwhile to the hottest sun.

The

operations

were concluded
guns.

either

by burning the victims
of

at

the stake or on heated

The

heights

Antur,

twenty

miles

from

Kannad,
to

were
desof
as

especially selected and a large
truction,

number of Bhils were hurled
cliffs

every year

from the high
of

that

surround the

fort

that

name.

This policy

extermination

was vigorously pursued
It
is

long as the rule of the Peshwas lasted.
quently
the
of

astonishing

how

fre-

Bhils

fell

into

the

snares

cast
their

by the Marathas under
simplicity

promises

pardon,

and
It

how
is

often

and

faith

led

them

to

destruction.
in

on

record,

that

thousands

of

Bhils,

assembled

the

towns of

Kannad,

Dharangaon,

Chalisgaon and
greatest

Kopargaon under such promises, were annihilated with the
cruelty.

The

Bhil

country,

along with the other territories of the
in

Peshwas, was divided between the English and the Nizam

1818.
a con-

The

Districts of

Khandesh, Ahmednagar and Nasik, containing

siderable Bhil population,

were annexed

to the

Bombay

Presidency,

and the Talukas of Kannad,
restored to the
to settle the
at

Ambad, Bhokardan and Paithan
officers of

were

Nizam.
districts

The

the

two Governments deputed
suffered so cruelly

new

found the Bhils,
in

who had
of

the hands of the Marathas,
attracted

a state of exasperation.
the
British

The

Bhil

question

the

serious

attention

Government.
were

Their

depredations

had
in

become

so

serious

that

operations

directed against

them

the Ajanta and Gaotala ranges, where they

had

greatly

increased

in

numbers

;

they

were

at

that

time under

,

Bhil
leaders.

69
in

thi^y-two

tRe

chief

of

whom,

1819,
fort

was Chil

Naik.

Detachments were sent
other strongholds

into the hills

and the

of Baitalwadi and

were captured.
far

Chil Naik was taken and hanged,

but the Bhils

were

from being subdued and two new leaders,
loss

Jandhulya and Fakirya, fiercely ravaged the plains to avenge the
of Chil Naik.

A

military cordon

was drawn round the base

of the

Ajanta

hills for

about a hundred miles, and Jandhulya, Fakirya and
1821. 1822,
for
to

<1,200 of their followers surrendered in
quiet

After a few months'

there

was another outbreak
country

in

headed by the famous

Hirya.

The low
Jt

was harassed
in

some
try

time, but as force

had

failed,

was determined,

1825,
if

kind measures.

The
to the

Bhils
plains,

had been promised a
but they refused,
enlist

living

they would

come down
to

and attempts were now made
a

encourage

them to

and form

Bhil corps.

An

agency was established

near Chalisgaon and
of the

Major Ovans and Lieut. Graham induced many
in

Ajunta Bhils to form settlements and engage
were,
their

agriculture.
at

The

Bhils

however,

still

troublesome
about

and those

Kannad
h'l!,

recommenced
seven
miles

depredations
of

1830.

The Gaotala
as

north

Kannad,

became noted

one

of

their

strongholds

and a body of the contingent troops was ordered
the
at
hills

up

from Aurangabad to hunt them out of
ghat roads.

and re-open the
for six

The

troops

were encamped
It

Gaotala

months

and the
ghat

hills

were scoured.

was about
British

this

time that the
of
that

Outram
while

was constructed by the
in conciliating

officer

name,

engaged
ranges.

the wild hillmen of the Ajanta and Gaotala
at

A

force

was afterwards cantoned was

Kannad

for

several

years and a British officer
troops
a

stationed there as Bhil

agent.

The

were withdrawn about 1840 and the Bhil agency was abolished
later.

few years

When

measures of coercion were found unsuccessful, and
feelings

it)

was
of

repugnant to the
extermination,
it

of

the
to

authorities
resort

to

follow

a

policy

was

resolved

to

more humane measures.

The

policy with reference to the Bhils

was accordingly reversed and
marked with sympathy
Robertson.

the dealings with the tribe

became

distinctly

and kindness.

The

distinguished 'names

of

Ovans and
personal

Outram

are

associated

with

this

policy.

Under

their

70
influence,

Bhil

,

many

Bhils settled to a regular
in

life

as

policemen,

crlti-

vators

and field-labourers

the District of

Khandesh.

The same
in

policy of sympathetic treatment of the Bhils
District
settle

was inaugurated
every

the
to

of

Aureingabad
to

and

they

were

granted
as

facility

down

more peaceful occupations
as they

cultivators

or

village

servants.
it

Accustomed
to

were

to a life of strife and lawlessness,

was not

be expected

that

they would give up their predatory

habits so quickly and resist the temptations of crime
scarcity

when

pressed b^
acts

and famine.

They

desisted,

however,

ffom concerted

of lawlessness as long as measures of repression

were directed
tjie

against

the criminal portion alone, but, whenever the zeal of
to maintain the

authorities

peace assumed the character of a persecution of the

whole
case

tribe,

fresh outbursts of the Bhils took place.

Such was

the
at

in

1307 F.

(1898 A.D.) when an encounter look place

Bhamiri between a powerful gang of Bhils and the police.
serious
attention

The
long
that

of

Government was once more drawn
Bhils,

to

the

vexing question of the

and

it

is

satisfactory
in

to

record

once more the policy of repression was reversed
consideration of
spirit

favour of
that
their

the
their

the very root

of

the

evil.

It

was held

of

lawlessness

was

in

no small

measure due to

great

poverty, long suffering and want of honest occupation.

The

measures

adopted, with this view, by the Revenue and Police authorities, have

been

in

the direction of affording immediate relief to the tribe in order

to distract

them from crime.

Since 1310 F., some two hundred Bhil
to settle

families
turists

have been induced
total

down

in

the plains as agriculis

and the

number of

acres in their possession
in
all

now

over

2,556.

Taccavi grants, amounting

to

Rs. 9,360, have been

distributed amongst them, in addition to a grant of

Rs.
for

10,000 from
nearly

charitable

funds.
as
;

Employment
village

has

been

found

one

thousand Bhils,
the Police funds
of
in

watchmen, of

whom 315

are paid from
out

the

Revenue Department maintains another 300
Mr. A. C. Hankin, the Head of the
is

the village cess the

and many are employed by private individuals
District

same capacity.

Police,

whose distinguished name

intimately connected with every

measure of amelioration of the Bhils' condition,
aRention to the rising generation.

has paid particular

Under

police supervision no fewer

,

Bhil
than 215 lads have been sent to elementary schools.

71

Eight

new
four
the

schools
in

have also been introduced by the Police Department,
villages

the

of

Wadol, Savergaon, Kinhai and Jowla
rest
in

in

Kannad

taluka,

and the

Sondgaon, Basada, Majri and Nevargaon of

the

Vaijapur taluka.

The
for the

lads

attending

the

school policy

are
is

properly
yielding

clothed

and

well

cared

for.

This

excellent

the happiest results,

present Bhil

youths have taken admirare losing the recollecof

*ably to schooling and, sobered by
tion <)f

instruction,

the wild, state of their
as

ancestors.

Some
to

these

boys ate
castes
in

reported

smart

and

often

superior

other

low

intelligence.

Internal
the
Bhils

Structure

—The
as

term

'

Bhil
tribes

'

includes,

besides

proper,

several

aboriginal

of

the)

Sahyadri
or or

and Satpura ranges,
Gavits,

such

Khotils,

Pavras,
etc.

Varlis,

Mavchis
proper,

Dangchais,

Tadvis,

Nirdhis,

The

Bhils

the Bhils of the plains, are mostly found in the villages on the plains

and

in

their dress,

language and customs are scarcely distinguishable

from the low caste Hindus.
population of the

They

constitute

the bulk of the Bhil

Hyderabad Dominions,
in

other clans being scattered

only here and there
to the hills

very small numbers.

The

Khotils are confined

and

forests,

and barter gums and wax
and beef and are on

for the
this

produce of the

plains.

They

eat carrion
as

account regarde<l

by the pure Bhils
are small built

degraded.
flat

They

are great hunters.

The

Pavras

men with

faces and resemble

Konkani Kolis more

than Bhils.
their chiefs

They
from

claim to be originally Rajputs,

who were

driven

by

their

homes.

They

are mostly

husbandmen and

their

women
tracts

are stout and

buxom.

The

Varlis, though found in mountainous

are,

unlike Pavras,

tall,

dark and well-made, with somewhat
are usually unclad from the waist Bhils, stunted in
all

negrolike features.

Their

women
Dang

upwards.
in

The

Dangchis, or

body and dulled

mind, are the most uncivilized of
rats,
all

the Bhil tribes.

They
game

eat

monkeys,

small vermin and even cattle killed by
in

tigers.

They
as

wander about with bows and arrows
peafowl and hare.
found
in

search of such small
sacred.
are

They hold

the

tiger

The Tadvis
to

are

the

Bhokardan

Taluka.

They

believed

be

the

descendants of

Muhammadan

soldiers

who, during

the reign of the

72

Bhil
Aurangzeb
(1658-1707),
tall,

r

Emperor

contracted
fairer

'

intimacy
in

with

Kiil

women.
more

They

are

well

built,

complexion

and

refined in features than the pure Bhils.

Their weapons

are the

sword and the matchlock,
vindictive and quarrelsome

but

seldom the bow.

They

are very

and dislike hard work.

Though MuhamHindu
deities.
in
all

madans by

faith,

they have a deep reverence for certain

Their hereditary chiefs are
matters of difficulty.
to

Khan

Sahibs and are appealed to

The

Bhilalas, a

mixed

Bhil sub-tribe, are stated'

be

the offspring of Tiloli Kunbis,

whom
at

they /esemble

in,

every

respect.

They

celebrate their marriages

sundown.

Each
Tadvis,

of the above-mentioned tribes,

with the excq^tion of the
laiige

who

are

Muhammadans,

is

broken up into a

number

of

exogamous groups which show a singular mixture of varied elements.

Thus

the sections,

Waghia, Ghania and Pipalasa
trees.

are totemistic, being

derived from the names of animals and

Other

section names

such as

Jadhava, Pawar, Gaikwad, More and Salunke are evidently

borrowed from the Maratha Kunbis.
and
territorial

They

also

have

eponymous

sections, the former being the names of their founders

and the

latter

the names of favourite places.
tribes,

Like other

the

Bhils
the

scrupulously
section

observe
strictly

the

rule

of

exogamy,

marriage

within

being

prohibited.
it

Some

system of prohibited degrees also exists, although

cannot be

clearly defined

by them.

Marriage
and
as

The

Bhils

marry
ages

their

daughters

both

as

infants
infant
at

adults
is

between the

of

five

and

sixteen,

but

marriage
present

deemed
is

the more respectable and

the

tendency,

the

day,

towards the abolition of
to

adult marriage.
to
deities

Girls are
in

sometimes

dedicated

temples

or of

offered

and

such
price,
is

circumstances receive the

name

'murlyas'.
is

The

customary

ghun or deja, paid
liable to vary

for a Bhil bride,

Rs. 20, but the amount

according to the means of the bridegroom's parents.

Polygamy
of wives a

is

allowed, and the Bhils impose no limit on the number

man may have.
proposal for marriage comes from the boy's relations and

The
pecuniary

the marriage

may

take place after betrothal, but
of

it

depends on the
for

circumstances

the

parents

and may be postponed

Bhil
• years.

73
in

The

marriage

is

arranged
is

the
to
girl's

presence
fix

of

the

caste

Panchasat.
the

A

Brahman

consulted

the

betrothal

day,

boy and

his relations

proceed to the

house, give presents to
is

her and are entertained in the evening.

After the marriage
girl's

deis

cided on, the bride-price
given.

is

paid to the

father

and a feast

The

betrothal

is

witnessed

by the caste
or family
this

council,
priest
is

and the
next conthe

party leave next morning.
sulted
to
fix

The Bhat
;

the
is

wedding day
performed,

when

has

been

settled,

h^ldi
is

ceremooy

booths

are

erected

and

a

platform
in

raised at the girl's house.
to

On

the

wedding day the boy goes
on
his

procession

Hanuman's

temple,
his

wearing
sister

head

a

paper

ornament, called bashmgam and

follows him with a pot of

water containing a few copper coins.

After worshipping the deity,
sister.

the party drink the water that has been brought by the boy's
Intimation
girl's

of
;

the
at

boy's
sunset

arrival

at

the

temple
to

is

then

sent

to

the

house

they

all

proceed

the bride's
a

house and

are received
into

by

a

number of women each holding

pot of water

which some copper coins
a

are dropped, while one of the
of

women
a

waves

lighted

lamp

in

front

the

bridegroom

and receives

present of cloth.
is

The bridegroom
Brahman

stands facing the east,
is

a curtain
pair.

put up concealing the bride and a thread
officiating

twined round the
grain
is

The
thread

repeats

some

verses,

thrown,

and, at the auspicious moment,
is

when

the priest claps his hands, the
pair throw

severed, the curtain

is

withdrawn and the bridal

portions of the broken thread and garlands on each other.
tulations

Congraare
dis-

are
;

received;
strings

pan,

supari,

haldi

and

kpnku

tributed

yellow

and turmeric are tied to the wrists of the
is

bride and the bridegroom, and a feast

given to the caste.

On

the

next

day

the

couple
in

are

bathed,

the

boy's

mother

and

other

relatives

come

procession to the bride's house,
at

give her presents

and are entertained

two

dinners.
in

Two

or

three

days

after

the

wedding, the bride's relations go
bridegroom's father,
presents are

procession to the house of the
is

exchanged and a dinner

given.

With

this

the festivities terminate,

the yellow threads on the wrists
all

and necks of the bride and the bridegroom are removed and
of haldi are

traces

washed away.

74

Bhil

Widows
self

are allowed to marry again,
in

and

a

man

takes to him-''

three or four such wives
as a
virgin.

addition to the one

whom
with

he has
certain

manied

The widow

bride

is

presented
ties

clothes, and a bead necklace which the bridegroom

round her neck.

The ceremony

ends with

a

feast

to to

friends

and

relatives.

Some

of the Bhil classes allow a

widow
is

marry the younger brother of

her late husband, but the custom
nised,
rite as

not universal.

Divorce

is

recog-

divorced

women

being allowed to marry again by the same
r

widows.
Bhils admit into their caste

c

The

men

of the Kunbi, Mali,

Kumas

bhar and other castes ranking higher than their own.
Child^Birth.
possible.

—The
lines

child

is

named

as

soon

after,, birth

On

the 5th day after birth the mother and the child are
are

bathed,
side the

turmeric

drawn upon
is

a

raised
in

platform built outthe
centre of
five

house and a lighted lamp

placed

quartz pebbles.

Pieces of cocoanut kernel are arranged round the

pebbles and
sprinkled

the

whole

is

worshipped by the mother,
pinjar,

after

being
liquor.

with

haldi,

jawari,
is

or

red

powder,

and

In the evening a feast

given to the caste.

On
is

the twelfth day, the
is

mother worships Jaldevata or Satwai and another feast

given.

Religion

—The

religion

of the Bhils

a mixture of
his

animism
consort
certain
deities,

and debased Hinduism.
Bhavani, as symbols of

They worship Mahadeva and
terror,
in

and hold, as sacred to them,
offer sacrifices.

groves and parts of forests,
including Bhairoba,

which they

Local

Khandoba, Hanuman, Ai Mata and

Sitala,

are

propitiated with a variety of offerings.

The
the

tiger

god

Wagh Deva
at

has no image,

and

is

worshipped

in

headman's house

the

beginning of the rainy season.
a platform,

The

Bhils have no shrines, but raise
their deities,

round some old
of

tree,

on which
in

represented

by maunds

mud

with stones fixed

the middle, receive the devo-

tion of their votaries.

They make

pilgrimages to Nasik
is

and other

holy places, but their chief place of pilgrimage

Hanmant Naik's

Wadi,

a

few miles south
the
sainLs

of

Sangamnair,

on the way to Poona.

They

reverence

horse

and the dog

and

offer

mud

horses

to

Muhammadan

and

Khandoba.

Their
first

chief

festivals

are

Holi,'°Dassera and Divali, of which the

is

the occasion of

much

Bhil
drunkenness and* excesses, while
to the goddess
at

75
the second they the

make

sacrifices

Durga.

At

all

festivals

men perform
in

various

dances.

At one

of them, the

drummers stand
in their

the centre and the

dancers revolve in a circle, with sticks
alternately against the sticks held

hands, which they strike

by those

in front

and behind them.
and
sing

In

another,

men and women

join

hands and bend backwards

forwards, wheeling round and keeping time to the music.
or play

They

on a type of

violin

called chikflri, or pai, have a kind of
at

mstrument made out of a hollow bottle gourd with a reed inserted

one end, and use the dkol, or drum, Jafra, or tambourine and Im,
or kettle drum.

Th'e

Bhils

believe

in

ghosts

and departed

spirits.

They

are

also firm believers in witchcraft and

employ Bards, or
are
either

witch-finders, to

point

out

the
as

witches.

The

Baras

Brahmans,

or

other

Hindus such
but
diseases

Dhobis, Barbers,
their
skill

etc.,

and are employed
to

as doctors,

beyond

are

attributed

the

influence

of

witches.

When

the Bhils meditate plunder they consult the Baras

before taking any action.

The

Bhils of the plains employ

Brahmans

for religious and ceremonial purposes.

Funerals

The

Bhils

usually

bury

their

dead,

but,

if

means permit, burn them with the head pointing
arms stretched along either side.
with the usual distribution of alms
side,

to the south

and the

The
;

funeral

obsequies

commence
taken out-

after this the

body

is

washed and dressed

in

new

clothes

and a turban placed on
is

the head, the face being
laid

left

exposed.
is

In this condition the corpse

on the
is

bier,

some cooked food

placed by

its

side

and the
is

whole
laid
is

sprinkled with gulal.

At

the burial
in
its

ground the corpse

in

the

grave

with

some

food

mouth

:

the

body
all

then sprinkled over with water and finally covered with earth by

the mourners present.
tank, and,

The

party then bathe in the nearest river or

on returning to the house of the deceased, the bearers are
into

fumigated with nim leaves thrown
out.

a

fire

and liquor

is

served

On
the

the third
the

day

after

death some further ceremonies are per-

formed

for

bearers

and they receive a dinner.
shav*s
his a

On

the
to

1

0th
the

day

chief
spirit.

mourner

head

and
is

offers

cakes

departed

On

the 12th day

Kumbhar

called and a seven-

76
step ladder
set against

Bhil
is

the wall of the house so

thJit

the soul of the

i,

departed may climb to heaven.
this

The

priest

chants mystic verses on

occasion and a grand funeral feast brings the rites to a close.

The

wild

Bhils
spirits

bury

their

dead

without

form

or

ceremony

and

worship the

of their ancestors

by

raising a rude pile of stones
oil.

which, on festive occasions, they smear with red lead and
Social Status

Being

still

outside the

Hindu

caste organisation,

the social status of the Bhils cannot be precisely defined.
of the plains eat fowl, hare, deer,
fish,

The

Bhils

tortoises, pigs

and lizards and

indulge

in

liquors.

They, however, abstam from beef.

The
Bhiis

wild

Bhils have no scruples in this respect and eat carrion and cows.

Occupation

Originally
in

a

predatory

race,

the

have
treat-

been greatly improved

recent years by kind and conciliatory
to cultivation as a

ment and have taken largely

means of

subsistence.

They

raise coarse grain

and a few vegetables, such as gourds, &c.,
fish

which, with meat from the chase, or
are

from the neighbouring stream,
collect

rudely

dressed

for

food.

They

and

sell

fire-wood,

honey, gums, jungle
also serve as
as

fruits,

and mahua flowers (Bassia

latijolia),

and

watchmen

of villages, besides being frequently

employed

day and farm labourers.

All cases of

social

disputes and quarrels

amongst Bhils are settled by a caste council or Pancha^at headed

by a

nai\, under

whom

there

is

a deputy called pradhan.

The

naik's

authority

generally extends over ten or twelve villages or pals.

»

XIV
Bhoi
Bhoi

a generic term used as the designation of various classes
in

ivho are engaged
tic

boating, fishing, palanquin bearing and as domes-

servants.

In the

Hyderabad

Territory

it

includes several castes,
the

such a* the Bestas and Gunlodus of Telingana,

Machinde and
Bendor
of

Maratha, Bhois of Marathawada,

the

Bhanare and

the

Adilabad

District,

the

Gangamasalu

of the Carnatic and the Kahars,

who

are immigrants from

Northern India.

The
to

etym.ology of the

word

'Bhoi'
'

is

uncertain.

It

is

supposed

be a Telugu word, derived from
;

Boya,' the name of an aboriginal
fictitious

tribe

but the derivation appears to be

and has probably been and 'Bhoi.'
people.
bearers)

suggested by the similarity of the names 'Boya'
traditions

No
The
from
the

are

current

regarding

the

origin

of

these
or

Hindu
the

legislators

distinguish

the
or

Bhoi

(pattstika

Dhivar Kolis

(kaivartaka

fishermen),

the

former

being

offspring of a

Brahman

father and a

Nishad mother, while the
and an Ayogava mother.
'

latter

are descended from a Parasava father

At
all

the present day,

however, the name

Bhoi

'

is

used to denote

classes v/ho follow either profession.

The Bhoi
two

castes enumerated

above

differ

widely from one anBhois comprise
but

other in physical character and habits.
sub-castes,

The Telugu

Besta

and Gunlodu,
to

who

eat

together

do not

intermarry.

They appear

have originally sprung from the same

common
gamous
of land.

stock, but have subsequently become broken up into endo-

divisions

by reason of

their long occupation of different tracts

XIV-A
Bhoi
Origin
to

—Bestas
called

The
in

Bestas,

also

Parkitiwaru,
the

are

"mostly
Pr^si-

be found

the

Telugu

Districts

adjoining

Madras

78
dency.
the

Bhoi
(I

The

origin of

their

name
but
to

is

obscure.

Some

derive

it

from

Persian

"Behishti,"

this

derivation

seems
from

to
Suti,

be
the

fanciful.

The

Bestas

claim

be

descended

great expounder of the

Mahabharata.

Another legend

traces their destraditions,

cent to Santan,
of

the father of Bhisma by

Ganga.
of
as

These

course,

throw no light

upon the

origin

the sub-caste.

Their

physical characteristics tend to mark them

Dravidians.
to,

Marriage

—The
is

Bestas

profess

to

belong

one

gotra,

Achantra^a, which

obviously inoperative in the regulation of their

matrimonial alliances.

Their marriages are governed by a system of
family

exogamy

consisting

of

names.
:

The

following

are

some of

the typical surnames of the caste
(1)
(2) (3)


(8) (9)

Kattewadu

(stick).

Nasuwadu.
Shebelawadu.

Mamliwada
Gantawadu

(mango).
(bell).

(10)

Badawadu.
Allewadu.

(4)

Gundodu
Pusawadu

(ball).

(11)
(12)

(5)
(6) (7)

(beads).

GurebomoUu.
Pamparollu.

Chintawadu (tamarind).

(13) (14)

Duntiwadu

(pile).

Vemolollu.

The exogamous
Telugu
castes.

sections

are

modelled on those of the other

The

Bestas forbid a
is

man

to marry a

woman

of his

own

section.

No

other section
his niece,

a bar to marriage, provided he does
first

not marry his aunt,

or any of his

cousins except the
sisters,

daughter of his maternal uncle.

A

man may marry two
the elder marrying

or

two brothers may many two
sister

sisters,

the

elder
not

and

the

younger

marrying
Besta
;

the

younger.
are

Outsiders

are

admitted into the caste.

girls

married before they have

attamed the age of puberty

but sometimes, owing to the poverty of
is

her parents, a girl's marriage

delayed

till

after the

age of puberty.

Girls are not devoted to temples,
girl

or married

to deities.
is

Should a

become pregnant before marriage, her

fault

condoned by her

marriage with her lover, a fine being imposed upon her parents by the
caste

Panchasat.
from

Sexual
the

indiscretion

with

an outsider
relations

is

punished

by

expulsion
rfie

caste.

Conjugal

commence even
is

before

girl

attains

puberty, provided a special ceremony

peris

formed

on

the

occasion.

A

Besta

girl

on

attaining

puberty

'

Bhoi
*

79

ceremonially unclean for five days.
tically to

Polygamy

is

recognised theore-

any

limit,

but

is

practically confined to
is

two wives.
type

The

marriage ceremony
in

of

the

orthodox

and closely

corresponds to that
social

vogue among other Telugu
girl's

castes of the

same

standing.

It

takes place at the

house,

under a booth
consists of

made
a

of eleven posts.

The

central post,
is

muhurta medha,

gukr branch

(Ficus indicus) and

topped with a lamp which remains

burning throughout the ceremony.

The

marriage procession
as
priest

is

made

on horseback.

"

A

Brahman
Kan^dddn,
is

is

employed

to

conduct the

wedding

service.

or the formal gift of the bride,

by her

parents, to the bridegroom,

deemed
which

to
is

be the

essential portion of the

ceremony.
after the

" In

the f^laghali,

celebrated on the fourth day
in

wedding, the bridegroom, with a net

his

hand, and the

bride,

with a

bamboo

basket,
is

walk

five times,

round the polu.

The
The
to her

panpu which follows
are
final

very interesting as, therein, the young couple

made

to

enact
is

a

pantomimic drama

of

married
is

life.

ceremonial

Wadihiyam, by which the bride

sent

husband's house.

The

bride-price, varying in
girl's parents.

amount from Rs. 9 to

Rs. 12,

is

paid to the

Widow=Marriage & Divorce
is

—Widow
who
a

marriage

(Mar-mamu)

in

vogue.

The widow
is

is

not restricted in her choice of a second

husband, save that she

not allowed to marry her late husband's

younger or elder brother, nor any one
or her father's section.

belongs to her husband's
are admitted to all

The

sons of

widow

the privileges enjoyed
is

by the sons of a
night,

virgin wife.

The ceremony
being
previously
for the purchase

performed on

a

dark

the

widow
sum

bride
I

presented with a sari and choli and a
of bangles.

of Rs.

'/4

A

woman may be

divorced on the ground of unchastity,

the divorce being effected by the expulsion of the

woman

from the

house, a

little salt

having been previously tied

in

her apron and the
off

end of her garment having been removed from
divorced

her head.
rite

A
as

woman

is

allowed to marry again by the same

a

widow, on
her
first

condition, however, that her second husband refunds to

husband, half the exper^jes of her marriage as a spinster.

Inheritance

—The
made

Bestas follow the'Hindu law of inheritcjice.
a son-in-law,
is

A

sister's son,

if

entitled to inherit his father-

80

Bhoi
(

in-law's property, provided the latter dies without issue and the former

performs his funeral obsequies.

It is

said that the eldest son gets an

extra share, or jethanga, consisting of

one bullock and Rs. 25.
is

Religion.

—^The

religion of the Bestas

a mixture of animism

and orthodox Hinduism.
castes,

They

are divided, like other lower

Telugu
of

between Vibhutidharis or Saivas, who follow the

tenets

Aradhi Brahmans, and Tirraanidharis or Vaishanavas,
ledge Ayyawars as their gurus.

who acknow-

Their tutelary deity

is

Vyankatram, worshipped every Saturday

with offerings of sweetmeats and flowers, but the favourite and characteristic

deity of the Bestas
caste,

is

Ganga,

or the river goddess, v^orshipped

by the whole

men,

women and
the
rivers

children,

in

the are

month

of

Ashada

(July- August),
is

when

and

streams

fldSffed.

The

puja

done on the evening of the Thursday or Monday sub-

sequent to the bursting of the monsoons.
officiate

The
place

elders

of

the caste

as

priests.
in

They observe
evening
resort

a to

fast

during

the
the

day,

and
of

at

about
river

five at

the

a

on

bank

a
is

some
over

distance

from

the

village.

A

piece devices

of

gr'ound

smeared

with

cow-dung
a
fish,

and
a

four,

representing,
figure

respectively,

a crocodile,

tortoise

and a female
are

of

Mari Mata

(the goddess presiding over cholera),

drawn upon

the

ground over which sand has previously been strewn.
are

These devices

profusedly covered with flowers,

\unkvm, turmeric powder and

powdered limestone.
a large

In front of the figure of

Mari Mata

is

placed
flour
is

bamboo

tray,

containing a square pan
of

made

of

wheaten pan

and
filled in

a

turmeric
six

effigy

Gouramma.
in

The

flour
five

with

pounds of ghi,

which are lighted

lamps, one

the centre and one at each of the four corners.
in

In front of Gour-

amma, and

the pan, are placed six bangles, a piece of cocoanut, a

bodice, four annas,

some areca
is

nuts, betel-leaves,

catechu and chunam.
of four
length,
is

The bamboo
pieces of

tray

then rested on a

wooden frame made
each two feet
in

pmgra wood (Er^ihrim

indica),

and furnished with handles of
over,

split

bamboo.

After the worship
as

the priests,

and

as rnany of tKe
lift
it

male members

are able to carry the

touch the

bamboo

tray,

with the

wooden frame and

.whole into the flooded river,

plungmg

into the

water sometimes neck

,

Bhoi

81

deep.

After shendi (the fermented juice of the wild date palm)
all

has been sprinkled on
flood
to

sides,

the

bamboo

tray

is

thrown

into

the

be

floated

away by

the current.

After the distribution of

Prasad the multitude disperse.
goddess.

Women
the

are not allowed to touch the

At

the

Dassera

festival

Bestas

worship

their

nets,

which they always regard with extreme reverence.

When

epidemics

"pf cholera and smallpox break out, the Bestas make animal offerings
to t^e

Mari M4ta

or

Pochamma.

Brahmans

are

employed

for the

worship of the great gods of the Hindu pantheon.

Disposal of the Dead

—The

Bestas

bum
are

their dead,

with the

head pointma to the south, but persons dying before marriage are
buried.

Women

dying

during

childbirth
after

burned.

The
days

ashes

are collected on the third

day

cremation and thrown into the
for eleven
:

nearest stream.

Married agnates are mourned
five

the

unmarried for
after death.

days only.

Relations

are

fed on the

11th day

On
a
in

the Mahala])a day, rice, ghi and some
in

money

are

offered

to

Brahman
the

the
of

name
the

of

the

deceased
being
a

ancestor.

Ayyawars,
dhari,

event

deceased

Tirmaniattend

and

Jangams,

should

he

be

a

Vibhutidhari,

the funeral ceremonies.

Social

Status

Socially,

the

Bestas

rank

above the Dhobi,
classes.

Hajam,

Waddar,
is

Yerkala

and

lower

unclean

Their

social status

equal to that of the Mutrasis.

They do

not eat food

cooked by a Jingar or a Panchadayi but will do so from the hands of
the Mutrasi,

Golla,
far

Kapu Kurma and
their

other castes of equal

social
fish,

B

standing.

As

as

diet

is

concerned,
tortoise

they eat fowl,
lizard,

mutton and the
from pork.

flesh of the crocodile,

and

but abstain

They

indulge freelj- in fermented and distilled liquors.

They do

not eat the leavings of other castes.

Occupation

The, original occupation

of the caste
are

is

fishing
as

and

palanquin bearing, but
servants in prevails

many

of the

members
houses.

engaged

domestic

Muhammadan and Hindu
is

A

curious custom that

among them

that,

when employed

as palanquin bearers, they

have their food cooked in one pfitce, sharing equally the expenditure
incurred thereon
into
:

at

the time of meals the cooked food must be divided
portions

exactly
6

equal

among

the members,

no matter

what,

82
their ages

Bhoi
may
as
2

f

be.

Some

of the Bestas have of late years taken to
livelihood.

cultivation

means of

Bhoi

XIV-B Gunlodu


in

The Gunlodu,
river
rivers

also called

Nilbandhu, or the dwellers on the
parts

bank,

are

mostly

found

of
in

the the

country

where

great

abound.

Thus, they are found
Districts.

Nizamabad, Adilabad
Bestas but

and Karimnagar

They

eat

with

the

do

not
:

intermarry with them.
(I) (2) (3)
(4)

Their exogamous sections are

as* follows

Maikalwaru

(5)

(6)
(7)

Origin

—The
on
the

Nilbandhus give
:

a singular account of their origin.

The
his

story runs thus

—There was one
seashore

Narumani,

who had

a son by

mistress.

Immediately

on his birth the boy was exposed,

by

his

mother,
his
:

and when
to

full

grown was disowned by
fishing
in

by
sea

father,

but

commanded
bound him
'

subsist

the

since his profession
'

to the sea-shore,

his descendants

have been designated
or

Nil-bandhus
river

(nee/, water,

and bhandu, bank),
suggests
that

those

who

live

on

banks.

The

legend

the
great
as

Nilbandhus may be illegitimate descendants of the Bestas, the

Telugu

fishing

caste.

Their customs and usages

are

the

same

those of the Bestas and need no separate description.

Bhoi
differ

83

features

and customs they

markedly from the Telugu Bhois.

They

are divided into

two endogamous groups
eat together but

the

Maratha proper

and the Machinde
Mciratha proper

—who

do

not

intermarry.

The

may be

an off-shoot from the Maratha Kunbis,

whom

they closely resemble and from

whom

they are probably separated by
litter

having taken to the degraded occupation of fishing and
Tiie

bearing.

Machinde Bhois claim

to

be descended from Machindranath, the

chief disciple of

Gorakhnath, the famous founder of the sect of Kan-

phate Jogis.
sub-caste.

This, however, gives no clue to the real origin of the

Internal

,

Structure

—The
of
of

Maratha Bhois have a number
family

of

exogamous
are are

sections,
to
this

consisting

surnames,

many

of

which

common
some

caste

and the Maratha Kunbis.

The

following

of the

commonest

them

:

(1)

Adane
Lonare

(13)

(2)
(3)
(4)

Tamkhane
Landage

(5)
(6)

Nemade
Khandgale

(7)
(8) (9)

Dake
Wankhile

Hirawe
Jirange

(10)

(11)
(
1

Kesapure

2)

Jamdade

Marriage

Marriages within the surname are prohibited.
the daughter of his maternal aunt or of his
that of his iraternal uncle.

A

man cannot marry
though he
his

sister,

may marry
aunt's

He

rarely marries are

paternal

daughter,

although

such marriages

not

pro-

hibited by any tribal usage.

Two

sisters

may be
the

married to the same
is

husband,
to

or

to

two

brothers,

projjided

elder sister

married

the elder brother and the younger sister to the younger.

The Maratha Bhois marry
as

their

daughters Doth as infants,

and
sons

adults

between the ages

of' eight

and twenty,

and

their

84
between twelve and twenty-five.
is

Bhoi
*

Sexual intercourse before marriage
is

tolerated, but a girl

taken in adultery

punished with a small
is

fine.

If

she becomes pregnant before marriage her paramour

called upon

to

marry her, but

in

case he declines, she loses caste.
is

Polygamy

is

permitted.

In theory, there
it

no limit to the
to find

number

of wives a

man
than

may have and
one wife.

is

not

uncommon

a

man having more

^
father of the boy, as a rule, takes the initiative towards the

The

settlement of
girl
is

a

marriage.

At

the betrothal,

or

\^nhu laoane,

the

presented with a sari and the caste panch receiye, by

right,

Rs. 2 from the boy's father for k^usali or drinking.^
or

The DeOak,
saundad
are
tied,

marriage deity,
spicigera)

is

represented by

twigs of

the mango,

{Prosopis

and apta
a the

(Bauhinia racemosa),
pestle,
to

which
the

with

an

axe

and
of

wooden
marriage

milk
to

post the

(muhurta
marriage,

medha)
Virs

booth.

Previous

(ancestral

spirits)

and the goddess Bhavani of Tulja-

pur are propitiated by the sacrifice of a goat.
is

The

marriage procession

usually

made on

horseback, but occasionally on a bullock.

Pam-

grahana, or the
tial

gift of

the bride to the bridegroom, forms the essenIn other respects
it

portion of the ceremony.

resembles that

of

the

Maratha

caste.

A

widow may marry

again.
if

Divorce

is

per-

mitted on the ground of the wife's adultery, or
live in

the couple cannot

harmony.

Religion.

—Ancestral
of

worship

is

in

full

force and the souls of
of

the departed are propitiated every Saturday the family
;

by the elderly member
Virs,

the souls of

adults

are

called

those of

children
goats

Munjas

and

females

Manvi.

On

the

wedding

day

are sacrificed
are

in

honour of these

spirits.

The members
spirits,

of the caste
it

very scrupulous in the worship of these
that
if

for

is

firmly
live
in

believed

they

neglect

this

worship they will
pirs

never

peace
with

and happiness.
animal
sacrifices.

Muhammadan
Brahmans
are

are

also
for

duly

honoured
and

employed

religious

ceremonial purposes.

The dead
caste

are burned, but occasionally buried.

Mourning
performed
also

is

observed for 9 days,

and on the
are

10th day Sradha

is

and

the

people

feasted.

Sradha

is

celebrated

on

the

Pitra

Amawas\)a

day

and

on

the

A\shatriti\)a day.

Bhoi
«

85

,

XIV-D
Machinde Bhois

General Description
men, but are also engaged

—The

Machinde Bhois

are mostly fisher-

as palanquin bearers

and domestic servants.
of the caste use

The

females soak and parch grain.
for

The members

donkeys
the

carrying burdens

and are hence looked down upon by
B^ois occupy the

Telugu Bhois.

The Maratha and Machinde
castes as the

saVie social

rank among the Maratha

Telugu Bhois do
and sheep and

among

the

Telugu

caste.

They

eat the flesh of fowl

drink spirituous and fermented liquors, but abstain from beef and pork.

Manne'ss and Customs
the Talukas
cff

In the

Adilabad

District, especially in

Jangaon, Rajura and Shirpur, Marathi-speaking Bhois

are found, but these are entirely distinct in their manners

and customs
It

from the Maratha Bhois of the Marathawada Districts.
that the former are the descendants of those Bhois

appears

who came
Berar

with the

Maratha conquerors,

settled

with

them

in

the

and

Nagpur

provinces and subsequently emigrated to the neighbouring territory in

H. H.

tfjpe

Nizam's Dominions.

They

are

divided

into

two sub-

castes, Bendore and Bhanare,

who

are said to eat with each other but
into

not

intermarry.

These

are

broken

exogamous
local

sections,

which

consist of family

names resembling those of the

Maratha Kunbis.
marry the
sisters

A man

cannot marry a

woman

of his

own

section.

He may
sister

daughter of his mother's brother or his father's

and two
first.

may marry
infant

the

same man, provided the elder

is

married
caste.

Both
interfine.
is

and adult marriages are practised by the
is

Sexual

course before marriage
If,

tolerated,

but punished with a small before
marriage,
is

however,

the

girl

becomes

pregnant

she

required to disclose the

name

of

her seducer,

who

compelled

to

marry her by the caste council.

Polygamy

is

allowed.
sunin

Marriage.
down,
at

—The

marriage ceremony takes place towards
to

the bridegroom's house,

which the

girl

is

escorted

procession on horseback
is

by her people.
built

Under
with

the marriage booth
a

a

circular

platform

of

earth the

post

of

salai

(Bostcellia

thmijera)

planted

^jn

centre.

This
the

central

post

is

surrounded

by

earthen

vessels,

and

bride-

86
groom
facing

Bhoi
the
east

and

the

bride

facing ,the

west,

with

the

post in their middle,

are

wedded by

a

Brahman

priest.

A

man

of

the washerman caste provides threads for marriage bracelets, are
tied

which

by the

bridal

pair

on each other's
in

wrists.

On

the third

day,
in

the bridegroom dressed

the

bride's

clothes
after

and the bride

the bridegroom's are paraded in procession,

which they

are

mounted on the backs of
to the

their respective maternal
five times

uncles,

who

dance

accompaniment of drums and go

round the earthen
5,
is

platform.
girl's

The

'

bride-price

'

to the

amount of Rs.
is

paid to tKe

father.

Re-marriage of widows
night of

permitte'd

and celebrated
and
are

on

a

dark

any

month.

Women

are

divorced
rite

subsequentlj

allowed to marry again by the same

^s

widows.

Religion and Funerals
caste,
is

Khudbhan, the

favouri*; deity of the

worshipped every day.
of

The

other deities honoured are the

god

Mahadeva

the

Hindu pantheon
over

and

the

animistic

deity

Pochamma, who
are

presides

smallpox.

The

spirits

of

ancestors

also propitiated.
is

The dead

are either burnt

or buried.
is

When
into his
is

a person

on the point of death, ambil, or gruel,
is

poured

mouth.

Mourning
but an

observed for 5 days.

No
is

Sradha ceremony

celebrated,

image of the deceased

embossed on a meta[

plate and installed in the god's room.

Social Status

and Occupation


a

Their

social position

may be

determined by the fact that they will eat from the hands of the Kunbis,
Malis,

Dhangars

and

Kumbhars,
else,

while

the

Kunbis
of

will

accept

water only,

but nothing

from

member

the caste.

The

members
scaly

of the caste eat the flesh of goats, sheep, fowls, hares, deer,
fish
is

and scaleless

and great
fishing,

lizards

and drink

spirits.

Their
as

hereditary

occupation

palanquin bearing

and working

domestic servants.

Some
to

of

them have taken
social

to cultivation.

They

have

a caste

Panchayat

Distribution
distribution of the

—The
Bhois

which

disputes are referred.

following statement shows the number and
in

1911

:


Males

District

Hyderabad City
Atrali

Balda
...

Warangal

..

Bhoi
District

87
Males

Karimnagar

Adilabad

. .

Medak
Nizamabad

Mahbubnagar
Nalgonda
. .

Aurangabad
Bhir

Nander
Parbhani

Gulbargah

UsmaiAbad
Raichur
Bidar

:

XV
Bhute
Bhute, Bhope,

Aradhi— a
the

caste of religious mendicants, founded

on

tfie

worsfiip

of

goddess

Bhavani

of

Tuljapur,

in

^.the

Usmanabad
Marathas.

District,

and

originally

recruited
'

from
'

among

the

The etymology
'

of the
in

name

Bhute
is

is

uncertain.

The

word

'

Bhut

means

a

ghost

Marathi and

popularlj-

given to

these people as their designation,

probably on account of the weird

appearance they present to beholders while on their begging missions.

They wear
shells

a

long,

oily,

sombre gown, put on necklaces of cowrie
silver

hanging to their knees with

or

brass

pendants marked

with the image of the goddess Bhavani,
of rags
to
(f>6t)

and hold a lighted torch
they

in

their hands.

When
side,

dancing,
at

wave themselves
their

and

fro

and from side

to

touching,

the same time,

bodies with flames from the burning torch,
the
cries

and making a din with
goddess) and with the
tals
'

of of

'

Udeh, Udeh
their

'

(victory
(half

to

the

sounds
tuntune
to

sambals
fiddle).

drums),

(cymbals)
'

and

(one

stringed
'

The word
is

Bhope

is

supposed

be derived from

Bhup,' a king, and

the designation of those

Bhutes

who

are

actually

engaged

in

the

worship of the goddess

they say that ihey are so called because, like kings, they are allowed
to use torchlight

by day.
little
is

Origin

—Very

known regarding

the origin of the caste,

but the fact that a
of the

Kadam

family of Marathas are the hereditary priests
in

goddess and hold the entire village of Tuljapur

Inam, may

suggest the conclusion that the original founder of this religious order

was

a

Maratha

of the

Kadam

clan.

At

the present day, the family
priests

has developed into

fifty

branches.

These

help the pilgrims

who

visit

the temple of Bhavani,

by arranging
tp,

for their lodgings and

food, and claim the offerings

made

Customs

the goddess

by her devotees.

Bhutes admit into

their caste only

members from

the

:

Bhute
*

89

Maratha

and

Biehman
issue,

communities.
if

When
offer

a

Brahman

or

a
a

Maratha has no

or

his children

are short lived,

he makes

vow

that

if

he begets two children he will

one to the goddess
is

Bhavani and make him a Bhutya.

This child, when grown up,

taken to Tuljapur, where the head Bhute, or Patil
consent of the goddess to
the
string

Kadam,

obtains the

make him

a Bhutya, worships her

and puts
neck
of

of

cowrie

shells,

worn by himself,

round

the

the newcomer.
*fact

He

then admits him into his caste and makes the
If

known

to the

whole Bhute community.

the neophyte

is

poor,

he wears the badge of the goddess and begs
Internal
their

in

her name.
divisions

Structure.— Bhutes have no endogamous
sections

exogemous

are

the

same

as

those

of

the
is

Marathas.
forbidden.

Marriage bStween persons belonging

to the

same
is

section

Polygamy
of wives a

is

permitted and, in theory, there

no

limit to the

number

man may

have.
are

Marriage.
age of puberty.

Girls

usually
at

married

before
girl
is

they

reach

the

But the age

which a

married

depends

mainly upon the

ability of her parents to defray

the expenses of her

wedding, and no
his

social

penalty

is

inflicted

upon a man who allows
marriage ceremony
is

daughter to grow up unmarried.
standard

The
the

of

the

type

common among
consists
at

Marathas.
lotus

The Devak

(marriage

guardian)
is

of

a

flower.

A

mandap

(wedding booth)
stand under
it

erected

the bride's house and the bridal couple

facing

each other.
curtain

The

officiating

priest,

who

is

a

Brahman,

holds

a

(antarpat)

between

them

and

recites

mantras or sacred hymns, while the assembled persons throw coloured
rice over the

heads of the couple.

This

is

deemed

to

be the valid

and binding portion of the ceremony.

Widows
adultery.

are not allowed to marry again, but divorce

is

permitted,

with the sanction of the caste Pancha^at, on the ground of the wife's

Religion

The

religion

of

the

Bhutes
calls

is

simply the

average

Hinduism of the middle
Their special deity
is

classes,

and

for

no special remark.
is

Bhavani, to

whom

puja (worship)

offered

;

some

worship daily, and others ^jily on festive or religious occasions.
are

Brahraans

employed

for

religious

and

ceremonial

purposes.

90

Bhute
I

Among
Sitala,

their greater

gods are Shiva, Vishnu and Ganpati, while

theiij

minor gods include the cholera goddess Mari

Ai and

the

goddess
the
tnlsi

who

presides

over

smallpox.

Women

worship

(Ocimum

sanctum) plant and the umbar {Ficus glomerata) and pipal

(Ficus religiosa) trees.

Disposal of the Dead
in

—The

dead,

if

males,

are

buried

a sitting posture, with the face pointing to the east, and a
is

mound

of earth
in

built over their remains.

The

bodies of

women

are burnt

a

lying
in

posture.

Sradha and other funeral ceremonies resen^bje
the

those

use

among

Maratha Kunbis.

Social Status.
other
castes

Socially, the Bhutes rank with the Marathas and

of

the

same

social

standing.

They

are

fjperior
strings

to

the Gondhalis,

who

also recite religious songs

and wear

of

cowrie shells.

Occupation.
begging.
of

—The
leave

characteristic

occupation

of

the
in
all

caste

is

They

their

headquarters at

Tuljapur

the month

Margashirsha

(November-December)

and

wander

over

the
a

Deccan, going from village to village and from door to door, with
lighted

torch

in

their

hands,

playing

on

samel

(druffis),

tdls

(metal cymbals) and tuntune (a one stringed fiddle).

They smear
themselves

their

foreheads

with

pinjar

(red

aniline

powder),

cover

with

cowrie shells from head to foot and have a square breastplate (/aQ

hung from

their

neck.

While begging, they dance,

sing songs and

touch their bodies with the burning torch.

They

return

home

at

the

end of Jeshtha (June) and pass the rainy season with

their

families.

Of

late years

some

of the Bhutes

have taken

to agriculture.


4

XVI
BOGAM
Bogam,

Bhogam,

Varangana,
order
of

Kasban,

Kalawant,
girls,

Pathita
originally
;

DawMu,

Tawaif

—an

Telugu

dancing

attached to the temples of Siva and Vishnu as servants of the gods

most of them
or

novi'

earn

their

livelihood
'

by
'

singing
a

and dancing,
of

by

'prostitution.

The word

Bogam

is

corruption

the

Sanskrit

'.Bhogam,' which means a

Internal Structure
classes,

—The
'

'common woman.'
are divided into the
'

Bogams

two main
first

Hindu Bogams and Muhammadan Bogams,
by the
titles

being

distinguished
their

Sani

'

and

'

Nayaka Sani
'

attached to
'

names and the second by the

titles

Jan

'

and
:

Nayakan.'

The Hindu Bogams have
(J)

the following sub-divisions
(5) (6)
(7)

Munnur Bogam
Telaga
Balja
,,

Erkala

Bogam

(2)
(3)

Jakoluwaru

,,

Agamodiwatu
Bedar Patharadoru

(4)

Sani

,,

(8)

Munnur and Telaga Bogams

are recruited from the

Munnur, Kapu,
Balja

Golla, Telaga and other castes of the same social standing.

Bogams, otherwise known
are chiefly to

as Basvis, are Lingayits in their creed

and

be found

in

the Carnatic.

They

are also called

Linga

Basvis,

being devoted to the god Siva.

They

abstain

from eating

flesh or drinking spirits.

Erkala Bogams, also called Kalapuramwaru,
their origin

Kaikalaluwaru and Father Korwa, trace
of

to Urvasi,

one

the

heavenly courtezans.

It

is

customary among them,

when

dancing, not to wear jingling anklets nor plait their hair into braids.

The
origin

Jakoluwarus trace
of

their descent
is

from the nymph Menika.

The

the

Agamodiwarus

obscure.

The Bedar

Patharadorus

take their

name from

the Bedar tribe, from which they are recruited. Sanis

History
Apsaras

—The

regard

themselves

as

prototypes

of

the

(celestial dancers),

Rambha, Urvashi, Menika and Tilottama,

'

92

BOGAM
in

who dance
synchronous

the

celestial

court
of

of
the

Indra. great

Their
in

origin

was

with

the

building

temples

which the

Andhrabhritya,

Choi a, Kakatiya

and Warangal dynasties expressed
In the different services of the

their devotion to their sectarian gods.

temples,

the
or

duties

assigned
oxtails,

to

them
to

were
the

to

fan

the

idol

with
called

chamrds,

Tibetan

carry

sacred

light

Kumbharti,
carried
in

and

to

sing

and dance before the god when he was
lived,
as

procession.

They

now,
lands

in

free

quarters
its

round

about the temple and held tax-free

out

of

endowmenV

Their orders have been recruited from among the lower classes of

Kapus, Gollas, Munnurs, Mutrasis,
purchase.

etc.,

either

by admission or by

Their ranks are also recruited by

girls

who

are' devoted

by
in

their parents to the service of temples, in

pursuance of vows

made

times of sickness or affliction.

The

usage of attaching
in

girls

to

the temples,

for

the service of

the gods, has been

vogue

for ages in different countries.

"

To

the

temples of Venus,
attached

in at

Asia Minor, large bodies of hieroJulce were
once prostitutes and ministers to the goddess.
most
illustrious

who were
of

The

daughters

the

families

in

Armenia 'passed

from the service of the goddess Anaitis into matrimony with those
of equal rank,

and no

stain

adhered

to

them from

their former

mode

of

life.

In

Babylon, no

woman

of whatever rank
herself
in

could escape the
of

obligation

of

once
the

prostituting

the
of

temple

Mylitta."
Journ.
Ill,

(Dr.

Shortt,

Anthropological

Society

London,

1867-68.)

A
the

girl

to

be

prostituted

has to undergo, on or before attaining
of

age

of

puberty,

the

ceremony

marriage.

Hindu

girls

are
girls

usually
are

wedded
to

to the idols of Shri

Krishna and
In

Muhammadan
former

married

a

khanjir

or
is

dagger.

the

case,

a

marriage booth of 16 pillars

erected at the girl's house and, on an

auspicious day fixed for the celebration of the occasion,

the idol of
'

Shri Krishna

is

brought
girl
is

in

procession from the house of a
to stand before the idol
as
if

Satani
it

Ayyawar.

The

made
is

were

the bridegroom, a

curtain

held between them

and the

officiating

Brahman,

reciting the Mangalashtaka^^-^x marriage stanzas,

weds them
correspond

m

the

orthodox

fashion.

The

ceremonies

that

follow

,

BOGAM
Kapu
by the
or

93

in

every particular to those of a
girl
is

Munnur

marriage.

On
made

the
to

Nagveli day the
offer

seated

side of the idol and

puja to Gauri,

the consort of Siva.

Betel-leaves,

areca

nuts

and kpnkum (red powder) are distributed
girls,

to the

assembly of dancing
retire

who

sing

songs,
girl

and,
is

after

blessing the bride,

to

their

houses.

A

Bogam

sometimes wedded to a dagger, the cere-

mony resembling
^\(re regarded
widowhood,
immortal

the

one described above.
of
all

Married dancing
as

girls

by Hindu women
for

castes

never getting into

the

simple

reason

that

they

are

wedded

tO'

an

deity.

Inneritance.

—Among
the

dancing
of

girls,

property

descends
girl

in

the
a

female

line.

In

failure

issue

a

dancing

can

adopt

daughter, but not a son, for the transmission of property.
girl

An

adopted
time.

cannot share her mother's property during the

letter's

life

The

sons can claim only maintenance and marriage expenses.

Religion
Saiva sects

—The Bogams
their
is

belong both to the Vaishnava and the
observances do not
differ

and

religious

materially

from 'those of other Hindu castes of the same social standing.
favourite
festival

Their
of

Gokulashtami,

celebrated,

in

honour

Shri

Krishna, on

the eighth of the light half of
is

Shravana (August).
variety

The
and
the

image of the god
paraded with great

worshipped with
through the

a

of

offerings
all

pomp

streets.

They honour

Hindu gods, celebrate Ganesh Chouth
in

(the light fourth of

Bhadrapad)
festivals,

honour of Ganpati the elephant-headed god, and other
their craft

and worship the implements of
of

on Dassera, the
religious

light tenth

Aswin

(October).

They employ Brahmans on
'

and cerethe
per-

monial occasions and

Satani

'

Ayyawars

or

Jangams

for

formance of funeral

rites.

Disposal of the Dead.
occasionally burnt in
a

—The dead

are usually buried, but are

lying posture with

the head pointing to the

south and the face generally downwards.

Mourning

is

observed ten

days for married girls, while the unmarried are disposed of unmourned.

The

ashes of those burnt are collected on the third day after death and

either

thrown into a stream
is

ola

buried under a platform.
in

No

Sradha
on

ceremony

performed,

but

ancestors

general

are

propitiated

the last day of

Bhadrapad (beginning

of October).

94
Social Status
castes to

BOGAM

(

—The
rank

social

status

of

Sanis depends

upon the

which

they originally

belonged.
the

All Bogams, except the
(barber),

Erkala

and

Bedar,

above

Mangala

Chakla

(washerman) and other lower castes.
pigs,

They

eat the flesh

of sheep,

fowls,

fish

and

ghorpod
eat

(iguana)

and
the

drink

spirituous

and

fermented

liquors.

They

kochi from

hands of

Brahmans,

Komtis, Kapus, Velmas, Gollas, Munnurs, Mutrasis, Ayyawars and
Baljas,

and

all

these,

except

Brahmans, eat sweetmeats from

thefi'

hands.

Occupation
musicians.

—The
lessons in

Bogams

are

professional

dancers
djiily

and

The

singing and dancing are given

and

it

requires four or five years for a girl to

become

proficient in the arts.
girls

For

this

purpose,

good-looking

and

well-made

are

generally

chosen and,
to

along with singing and dancing,

they
or

are

taught

how

dress

tastefully

and

to

exhibit

abhinaya,

graceful

attitudes

and gestures, during the performances.

Commencing

their studies at

the early age of seven or eight, they are able to perform at twelve or
thirteen years of

age and continue dancing
girls

till

they are thirty or forty

years old.

Dancing

attached to temples are required to dance
priests

daily before the idols,

while the

are officiating are

and
to

offering
in

puja to them
public,

:

but the majority of these
are profusely
in

trained

appear

when they

ornamented with gold and jewels and

sumptuously dressed
along the centre,

silk

and muslin.

The
a

hair

is

divided

in front

combed back,

plaited into a single braid

and decked
small
brass

with jewels and flowers.
bells,

When
is

dancing,

string

of

known

as ghunguni,

tied
girls

around each leg immediately above

the

ankles.

Some

of

the

dance

with

exquisite

grace

and
is

lascivious

attitudes

and motions.
singers,

When
sitting

singing,

a

dancing

girl

accompanied by three men
or drum,

one of

whom

plays,

on a

tabla,

while the other two,
or
fiddles.

on either side of her,

play
the

on sarangis,

One
dancing

or

two old

women

join

in

music and keep time either by playing on cymbals or by clapping
their

hands:

these

are

girls

who have
Most

given
in

up

the

profession on account of age.

Their

""songs

comprise praises

honour

of f^indu gods and are set to a variety of tunes.
leis'd

of the songs are

in character,

relating to

some circumstance

or other of the life

Ti

BOGAM
(Krishna),

95
the favourite and most popular
their

of the amorous

Kannayya

god of Hindu females.
to

But they adapt the quality of

songs

the

place
a

and the audience before which they perform.
dancing
as
girl

The

earnings of

depend upon the renown and popularity

she enjoys,

as well

upon the rank and wealth of her employers.
valuable
presents
in

Frequently,

she

receives

money and

clothes,

bestowed upon her during the performance.

All

Bogams

live

in

concubinage.
large,

Some

of

them
eyes,

are

very

handsome, with regular

features,

intelligent

beautifully

small hands and ankles, so exquisitely turned as to merit the admiration of any, beholder.

Frank and gentle
all

in

appearance, modest and
in

courteous in

manner, possessing
gives,

the grace which the training
striking

the

Ars

A maris

they

form

a

contrast

to

the

ordinary

housewives,
to

who
in

are deprived of any kind of learning and allowed

grow up

ignorance and superstition.
the dancing girls are divided

With

respect to their occupation,

into twc4 classes, the

one comprising Kemchan, Patharkar and Rcimjani,

and the other Therker and Ranmals.
superior
in

The

former regard themselves

social
as

status
latter.

and will decline to dance or sing on the

same

seat

the

The

origin

of
is

these

names

is

uncertain.

Among dancing girls special reverence those who are consecrated to the service
from the endowments of temples.
with
a
If

paid to

Deoa

Dasis,

or

of the gods and hold

mams

a dancing girl associates herself

man lower

to

her

in

social

standing

she

incurs

instant

excommunication.

A
dagger.

Muhammadan

dancing

girl,
is

on coming of age,
initiated

is

manied

to a

Before a dancing
is

girl

to prostitution,

the Misi

ceremony
dentifrice

performed,

of

which the smearing of her
string

teeth

with

and the tying of a

of

glass

beads round her neck

form important portions.

The

sons of dancing girls and such of their daughters as are too

plain to take to prostitution

have formed a separate caste of

their

own,
are

governed by the same laws 6^ matrimony and
prevalent
wili

inheritance
description

as

among
in

other

Telugu

castes.

A

full

of

these
g

be found

the section dealing with the Telaga caste.

XVII
BORUL
Origin.

Borul, Burol

a very small caste of Banias found inlfhe
District.

Parbhani

and parts of the Bhir

In physical character they
in

resemble the Carnatic Banias, being short
plexion and coarse irregular features.
as

stature,

with -dark com-

Their tradition represents them

descended from Kashyapa Mahamuni, the son of Marichi.

They
their

can give no information, however, which will throw light upon
original
tribe.

habitat or tend to connect

them with any
that

existing
is

caste or

There

are

unmistakable

signs

the

caste

gradually

disappearing.

Internal
castes,
(1) Bail

Structure

—The
(2)

Boruls

are

divided

into

two sub-

Borul and

Ghod

Borul,
is

which
It

are endogamous.
is

The
Bail

true significance of

these terms

obscure.
the

said that the
for
riding,
or

Boruls

are

precluded from

using
is

ox

(bail)
to

any other purpose,
although
in

while the horse
these restrictions

taboo
not

the
to

Ghod

Boruls,

practice

do

seem

be observed,
give

nor are the animals held in any special reverence

which would

them a

totemistic character.

The
allege
that

Bail

Boruls form the bulk of the

caste in the Parbhani District.

Some

of

the

Boruls

that

(hey

have

only

one gotra,

Kashyapa, while others hold
of the Brahmanical type.
of

they

belong to thirty-one gotras
for the purpose

But these are inoperative

controlling

intermarriages
territorial

which

are
of

governed

by
names
(5)

surnames
are

mostly of the

type.
(3)

Some

the family
(4)

(I)

Chinchane,
(6)

(2) (7)

Rampurkar,

Khedkar,
(9)

Phatke,

Naswale,

Wagde,

Marriage
sub-caste.
IS
tar

—A man
It
is

Pike,

(8)

Tote and

Rajekar.
his

cannot marry within his section or outside

Marriage with the daugk^r of a mother's

sister or of a sister

not permitted.

allowed with the daughter of a paternal aunt
of
~

maternal

uncle.

Marriage

two

sisters

to

the

same man

is

1
.^

BoRUL
1

97
is

Recognised.

Polygamy

is

permrtted but

rarely practised,
first

a second

wife being taken only
incurably diseased.

in

the event of the
are

wife being barren or
to

Widows
by the

forbidden

marry

again

and

divorce

is

not recognised

caste.

Sexual indiscretions are met

with instant expulsion from the caste.

Borul

girls

are married

as

infants

between the ages of 5 and
if

12 years and social reproach attaches to her parents

she remains

unprovided with a husband before she reaches the age of puberty,

ine marriage ceremony corresponds precisely
the Deshasth
is

to that in

vogue among
patron deity,

Brahmans

of

the locality.
is

Balaji,

their
at

invoke4 before the marriage, which

performed

the girl's house.

Saptapadi, or the seven steps the bridal pair describe along the laja

homa,

or the sacrificial

fire,

forms the essential and binding portion
is

of the ceremony.

The

bride's father

required to pay a

dowry

to

the bridegroom.

Inheritance.

—Succession
religion

to property

is

governed by the Hindu

law of

inheritance.

Religion.

—The
is

of the Boruls presents no
is

features of

special interest.

Their favourite object of worship

Balaji, a form
at

of Krishna,
festival,

who

honoured, with great ceremony,

the Dassera

when

they abandon work

and pass

their

time in religious

service.

Offerings of flowers, fruits and sweetmeats are
this

made

to the

god on

occasion.

They

also worship other gods of the
festivals

Hindu

pantheon

and observe the Hindu
to

and

fasts.

They make
Deshastha
observances.
daily

pilgrimages

Pandharpur,

Tuljapur
religious

and
and

Benares.

Brahmans

are

employed

for

ceremonial

Women
to

pay devotion
(the cobra)

to the tulsi plant

[Ocimum sanctum)

and

Ndga

on the Ndgapanchami,

or the 5th of the lunar

half

of Sravana

(July).

Ancestral worship prevails
silver plates,

and images of
a
sanctified

ancestors,

embossed on

are set

up

in

part

of the house

and worshipped every day.

Disposal of the
posture, with the

Dead

—The

Boruls burn their dead

in

a lying

head pointing

to the south.

Mourning
:

is

observed

ten days for agnates

and three days

for distant relatives

the ashes are

collected on the third day after^^^eath and thrown into a sacred river.

Sradha

is

performed under the superintendence of Deshastha Brahmans,

\

98

BoRUL

on the 10th and 12th days, when balls of rice and oblations of water
are offered to the spirit of the deceased person. are appeased in the latter half of

Ancestors

in general

Social Status

Bhadrapad (September).

In point of social standing Boruls rank next to

Brahmans and above
eat

all

the Vaishya or Shudra castes.

They

will

food

cooked by

a

Brahman,
castes,

while

Brahmans

eat

sweetmeats
will

prepared by ihem.
kachi,
or

All
food,

except the Lingayits,
hands.

accept
of
this

cooked
strict

from

their

The members

caste are

vegetarians and abstain from animal food and

liquSir.
is

They wear

the sacred thread,

but no munja, or thread ceremony,
n

performed on the occasion.

Occupation

—The
in

Boruls

are,

by

profession,

shop-keepers,

money-lenders, and traders, buying goods wholesale in the towns and
selling

them

retail

the villages.

The

poorer
carts.

members

of the caste

work

as cartmen

and frequently hire out

Some

of

them have

taken to cultivation and hold lands on small tenures.

'

I

XVIII
Brahman

The Brahmans found

in

the

Hyderabad

Territory

are

divided
or

> into

three

great

classes

—the

Maharashtra or Maratha,
to their

Carnatic

Kanaddi, and Andhra or Telugu, according
Mahaj;ashtra
their ifame

locahty.

The

Brahmans rank among the Ranch Dravida and derive
from Maharashtra, a
Presidency,
tract

of country comprising portions

of

the

Bombay
several

ihe

Nizam's

Dominions
is

and

Berar.

They have
into a large

endogamous
of

divisions,

each of which

sub-divided
type,

number
a

exogamous groups of an eponymous
saint

the

eponym being
Maratha

Vedic

or Rishi.
in

The main
Nizam's

divisions

of
are

the
the

Brahmans

residing

the

Dominions

Kokanastha, Deshastha and Karhada.

XVIII-A
Brahman
Kokanasthas,
as

—Kokanastha
indicates,

the

word

are

the

residents

of

the

Konkan, the narrow
and
Ratnagiri

strip of

land lying between Broach on the north

on

the

south,
east

and

bounded

on

the

west

by

the

Arabian sea and on the
is

by the Sahyadri

ghats.
'

The
pure

sub-caste
in

also

known by
heart,

other names

—Chittapavan,
;

meaning
'

heart
'

(chitta

(chitd

— —

and

pdoan —

pure)

Chitapavan, or
pure),

pure from pyre
'

funeral pyre, and pdvan
',

and Chitpol, or

residents of

Chitpolan

the ancient

name
as

of Chiplun, in the Ratnagiri Collectorate,

which has been regarded
created

being their original settlement.

Being

by Parsharam, they
Parsharam.

are also called Parsharam Srishti, or the
origin

creation of

Regarding the

of

the Kokanasthas a

variety of opinions prevail.

Origin.

—Popular
titulary

tradition locates their original

home

at or

near

Ambajogai
have
their

in

the Bhir District of the Nizam's territory,
deity,

where they
fourteen

Y^geshwari.

It

is

said

that

100
Deshastha Brahmans of

Brahman
ii

^

different family stocks or gotras

accompanied

Parsharam

to tfie

Konkan and

settled at Chiplon, or Chitpolan of the

Pauranik times, and hence afterwards came to be called Chitpols or
(in
its

modified form) Chitpavans.

A
Sahyadri

legend

gives
relates

another
that

account

of

their

origin.

The

Kand

Parsharam,

defiled
for

by the slaughter of
performance of the
the sea

Kshatriyas,

could not obtain
for him.

Brahmans

the

Vedic ceremonies
the
strip

He, thereupon, recovered from
the

^

of

land

now forming
he

Konkan and made
from
fourteen
hills

it

over

to

Brahmans,
ashore
at

whom
the

resuscitated of

corpses
a

washed

foot

the

Sahyadri

after

ship-Wreck.

Since the corpses were
restored
{child

purified

on the funeral
the

pyre befo;:e being
of

to

life,

the

Brahmans received

name

Chitpavans

pyre,

and pdwan

pure),

pure from pyre.
first

This legend no

doubt reviiingly indicates that the
the

ancestors of this caste

came

to

Konkan by

the sea, and

was probably suggested by the physical
their light

characteristics of this
fine delicate features,

community,

complexion, gray eyes and

which

distinguish

them remarkably from the other
the

Maratha

Brahmans.
says,

Writing
it

about

Kokanasthas

Dr.

John

Wilson

" Perhaps

was under the patronage of the Sinhas
that

of Gujerath,
their

before the Christian era,
habitat.

they began to settle
fairest

in

present
of

They
races.

are

among the
are

(probably

the
for

fairest)

the

Hindu

They

greatly

distinguished

their

talents

and administrative capacity and are often the ministers

of the native states."

A
who
of

similar

testimony

is

given by Grant Duff
p.
77),

(" History
Sir

of

the

Marathas,"
thinks

Vol.

I.,

and
class

by
of

George

Clark,

them

the

cleverest

men

in the country.

The
from the

importance
rise

the

Kokanasthas

in

modern
as

history

dates

of

Balaji

Vishwanath Peshwa, and
of the

the

Peshwa's

power advanced many families
from
the
their

Kokanastha Brahmans emerged
in

Konkan
rule.

recesses

and settled
the

provinces brought
of

under

Peshwa's

During
prominent

whole
in
'-

the

17th

century
history

they

constituted

a

factor
f

the

political

of India.

Internal Structure.— The exogamous divisions or goiras of the

Brahman
sub-caste,
1.

101

with the families belonging to each, are given below

:

Kashypa

Gotra

...

Leie,

Ganu,

Gokhale,

Jog,

Lavate.
2.

Shandilya

Soman,
pule,

Gangal,

Bhate,

Gan-

Damle,
Bodas,

Joshi, Parchure.

3.

Vashistha

,

...

Sathe,

Oke,

Bapat,

Bagul, Dharu, Gogte,

Waze,
Sathye,

Bhambe,
Govandye.
4. 5.

Pongshe,

Kaundinya
Vishnu-vardhan

Patwardhan,

Phanse.

Kidmide,

Nene,

Paranjape,

Mehendale.
6.

Nittundan

,

...

Vaishampayan
bhoke.

Bhide,

Bhad-

7.

Bharadwaj

Achawal, Lone,
dhare,

Darve,

Gan-

Gungurde,

Ranade.

8.

Gargya

,

...

Karve, Gadgil, Londhe, Mule,
Daslike.

9.

Kapi

,

...

Limaye,
Maeel.

Khambete,

Jaeel,

10.

Jamadagnya
Vatsa
,

Pendse, Kunte.
...

n.
12.
13.

Malse.
Bal and Behere.

Babhravya
Koushika

Gadre, Apte.

Bam,

Bhave,

Wad,

14.

Atri

,

...

Chitale,

Athawle,

Bhadbhole.

These 60 ancient
deriving their

families

have now developed

into 352,

some

names from the occupations they subsequently adopted,

such as Vaidya (physician), Kapse (cotton-dealer), Jamdar (treasurer),

Desh-mukh and Bhascime
localities

(sacred-ash

dealer),

and others from the
Shivnekar.

they resided

in,

such as Kelkar Kashiker,

A

few of the family surnames were probably based upon the personal
characteristics

of

the foundess,

such as Mahabale (mighty),

Vinode

(funny fellow),

Manohar

(charming), also Khule,

Aglawe, Vidwansa,

Khare, &c., &c.

102

Brahman
(

The

and past number of following table compares the present

family stock families belonging to each gotra or

:—

No.

I

Brahman
No.
II.
(i)

103
Prawaras.

Gotra sections.

Jamadagnya
Vatsa

...Bhurgawa, Chyawana, Atmawana.

(ii)

...Aurwa, Jamadagnya.
...

III.

(i)

Babhrwya

Vishwaraitra,

Awadala,

Babhra-

waya.
(ii)

Kowshika
Vishnu-vardhan
Nittundan Vashistha

...

Vishwamitra,

Aghmarshana.
Kutsu.

IV.

(i)
(ii)

...Angirasa,
...Trisadasya.
...Vashistha,

Pauru,

V.

(i)

Indra,

Pramada,

Bharadwaja.
(ii)*

Koundinya

...Vashistha,

Koundinya,

Maitra-

varuna.

VI.

(i)

Kashyapa

...Asita,

Kashyapa,

Avasar,

Naidhruva.
(ii)

Shandilya
is

...Asita,

Shandilya,

Daiwal.
bear the relaif

Marriage

also

prohibited between those

who

tionship of sapindds,
ancestor,

which extends
five

to

seven degrees
if

the

common

be a male and to

degrees

the
if

common
the

ancestor be a
progenitor,

female.

Thus marriage
is

is

only permitted

common

being male,
bride,

beyond seven degrees
five

either from the

bridegroom or the
if

and beyond

degrees from either of them

the

same be

a

female.

Marriage.
as

Infant marriage

is

the custom

among Kokanasthas,

among

other Brahmans,

the girls being married between the ages

of

8 and 13 and the boys generally between 12 and 20.
for

The

duty

of the selection of a bridegroom

a

girl,

or a bride for
default,
relations

a boy,

devolves upon the parents of each and,
relatives

in

their
all

upon other
is

or

guardians.

A
at

girl

deprived of
of her

allowed

by the
are,

shdstrds to marry a

man

own

choice.

Such marriages
attaining maturity

however, obsolete

the present day.
after

A

girl

before marriage
of

may be married
Sindhu).
pair

certain

prescribed

ceremonies
(horo-

penance

(Nimaya

After

the

jamma
lo

patrikds
all

scopes) of the bridal
logical requirements,

have been found
after the

satisfy

the astro-

and

bridegroom price (hunda), varying
is

from Rs. 100

to

Rs. 5,000, according as to whether the bridegroom

educated, or the son of a moneyed.man

or land-holder, has been agreed

1

04
is

Brahman
fixed for the

/

upon, an auspicious day
the

wedding ceremony
Falguna,

in

any of and

months

of

Margashirsha,

Magh,
in

Vaishakha,

Jaishtha.

The
man

marriage

is

celebrated
gift

accordance with the Brahma
clothed with a single

form, which enjoins
robe, to a

"the

of a daughter,

learned in Vedds,

whom

her father voluntarily invites

and respectfully receives."

(Manu.)
:

The
(1)
(2)

actual

ceremony comprises the following stages

Pun^avdchana

Nandi

—The Siddha— The
five
in

recitation of benedictory mantras.

^

offering

of

oblations

to

deceased

ancestors,
side,
(3)
(4)

on the father's and four on the mother's

order to procure their blessing on the.touple.

Grahamakha

—The
in

propitiation of planets.

.

Mandapa Deoatd
marriage god
deposited

Praiisbthapan

—The

consecration
their

of

the

and wedding booth deity on

being

the house at the north-east corner. verbal gift of the bride

(5)

A.

Vdkddn

—The

by her

father

or guardian.

B.

Vdgnishachaya
on both sides

—The

formal

consent

of

the

_

parents

to the marriage.

(6)

Simdnta Puja

—The

bridegroom's

welcome and

adoration

on the outskirts of the bride's village boundary.
(7)

Varaprasthdn
to

— The

starting of the

bridegroom

in procession
is

the

bride's

house,

where the marriage ceremony

performed.
(8)

Madhuparkr—The
token of holy
to the

offering of
to

honey and curdled milk

as a

welcome

the bridegroom on his arrival

bride's house.
interposition

(9)

Antarpdt—The

of

a

silk

veil

or

curtain

between the bridal couple,
flowers
at

who

stand with

garlands of

m

their

hands which, on the removal of the curtain

moment fixed for the marriage, they place round each other's necks, amidst the chanting of mantras,
the roar of the tom-tom and the cheer of the assembled,
guests
(10)

the lucky

and

relatives

of both

sexes.

Kanyddan and Kanya Prittgraha—The formal

gift of the bride to her husband, vyith other presents, and his formal


Brahman

\

.

105

\
acceptance of her from her father.
(11)

Kankana Bandhan

in

which each party

ties

a

piece

of

turmeric to the other's wrist.
(12)

Vivdha and Lajja Horn

—The
of
fire,

sacred

(ires

worshipped by

the bridal pair with oblations of ghi and parched grain.
(13)

Saptapaii
north
are

—The
the

pacing
sacrificial

the

seven

steps.

On
of

the
rice

of

seven

small

heaps

arranged and the bride, conducted by her husband,
in

walks over them, placing her right foot on each heap
turn,
J

each step indicating that the matrimonial
until,

tie is

being
is

strengthened
f)aced,

at

last,

after

the

seventh

step

the marriage becomes irrevocable.

(14)

Shesha Horn

—The

concluding

fire

sacrifice

which brings

the regular marriage to an end.

The

concluding ceremonies,
:

which

are

of

minor importance,

are

as follows

Sunmukha

—The

first

interview

between the bride,

decked

in

jewels, and her mother-in-law.

Vardt

—The

return

of

the

bridal

pair

in

procession

to

the

husband's house.

Laxmi Puja

—The

worship of the goddess Laxmi

the deity of

fortune and wealth.

Devak.othdpan and Mandapothdpan
riage

—The

dismissal

of the mar-

and wedding booth

deities.

The
her

bride remains chiefly with her parents, and occasionally
house,
until

in

father-in-law's

she

attains

puberty.

On

attaining

puberty

she

has

to

undergo the

Garbhddan Sanskdr (impregnation

ceremony), which entitles her to enter upon her household and conjugal
duties.

Cohabitation

before

maturity
is

is

forbidden

on

pain

of

prd})aschitta (penance).

Polygamy

practised, but only in the event

of

the

first

wife proving barren,

having

no male
If

issue,

or

being

incurably diseased.
caste

Divorce

is

not permitted.

the husband loses

the wife

is

permitted to \'w^ separately
of

but

cannot re-marry.
the

The

re-marriage

widows

is

strictly

prohibited,
all

widow being

required to pass an ascetic

life,

avoiding

sensual pleasures, prac

106

Brahman

I
(

i

tising

ceremonial worship, feeding Brahmans and making pilgrimages

to holy places.

Inheritance
the caste.

—The
in

Hindu law

of

inheritance

is

followed

by

Religion.

—The

religion
brief,
in

of

the

Chitpavans

is

of

the

Vedic
devo-

form and consists,
tion

performing Sandh^d

twilight

—morning
deities

and evening, and repeating the holy Gd^atri, the most

sacred text of the Vedas.

They worship
given
to

all

the gods of the

HinA
Their

pantheon,
patron

preference being
are

the

worship of Shiva.

Mahakali of Adiwara,

Mahalaxmi

of

Kolhapur
every
or

and Jogeshwari of
year.

Amba,

to

whom

they pay

homage Once

Every
fire,

religious
in

ceremony (sacrament) begins with a homa,
offered.

sacrificial

which oblations of ghi are

Women
is

honour
held
in

the

tuhi plant
reverence,
in

(the
as

"Sacred Basil")
the

daily.

The cow
the

great

symbol
on

of

Gayatri,

and serpent worship
or

prevails

every

household

Ndgpanchmi

lunar

fifth

of

Shravana (July).

The Kokanasthas
the

are

Smarthas

(upholders
the

of

Smriti) and

are
of

followers

of

Shri

Shankaracharya,

great

expounder

Adwailism (monism), which recognises
self,

" Prabrahma,"
of

or the supreme

as

the sole cause or
'

supreme
'

ruler

the universe and which the

identifies

Parmatma

'

with

Jivatma,'

supreme

with

the

individual soul.

Child=Birth.
for ten days.
artificially

—A

woman

in

child-birth
is is

is

ceremonially

impure
,!

When

labour begins she

taken into a room rendered
a

warm.
umbilical

The
cord,

midwife,

who
the

woman

of

any

caste,

cuts

the

removes

puerperal

impurities,

bathes

the mother and the child

and lays them on a
in

cot.

Both the cord

and the impurities are enclosed
mother
is

an earthen pot and buried.

The
two
|

given a mixture of saffron and ghi.
is

During the
castor
oil

first

days the child
being
given
is

maintained on cow's milk,
at

and honey
birth

to

it

intervals.

On

the

third

day

after

the
fifsl

mother

presented with cocoanuts and red
chilc|,»,

powder and
the child
is

for the
six

time gives her breast to the

When
who
is

days old

the father worships Sasto or Satwai,
,

supposed to

assist at child-

oirth

and to be the guardian of young children.

The

goddess

is

,

)
]
.

Brahman
wheat
flour

107 and a sickle with
Offerings
of
are

\
represented by

two
strips

dolls of
of

its

blade
betelto

painted with
leaves

chunam

(lime).

flowers,

and

nuts,

sweetmeats
is

and roasted

gram,
in

made

the the

goddess, and a vigil
1

kept during the night
is

her honour.

On

1th

day the mother bathes and
is

free

from child impurity.

The

child

named on

the 12th day,

when

friends

and

relations are enter-

tained at a feast.

4^uneral Ceremonies
death he with
sons,
his
if is

—When
the

a Chitpavan
laid

is

on the point
on the

of

removed from
pointed
to

his

bed and
south.

on

a blanket

floor,

feet

Immediately
their
in

after

death

his

any, jare
is

bathed and have

moustaches shaved clean.
cloth

The

corpse

'then

washed,

wrapped

and
is

carried

on

a

bamboo
body
is

bier to the burning ground.

A

funeral pyre
its

made and

the

placed upon

it

in a
is

lying posture, with

head turned towards
at

the south.

The
be

pile
a

lighted
at

by the chief mourner,
the feet
if

the head

if

the deceased

man, but
within

the same be a

woman.
for

Agnatic
days.

relatives,

seven

degrees,

observe

mourning

ten

The tones and

ashes are gathered on the third day after death

and consigned to a sacred stream.
of the departed are of

Funeral obsequies for the benefit
first

performed during the

thirteen days.

Oblations
it

cooked

rice are offered daily to the

disembodied

soul, to enable
attains

to

assume a subtle form which,
perfection on the

developing limb by limb,
is

full

13th day, and

able to
is

start

on

its

journey to the

region of the

Manes.

The

journey

accomplished by twelve stages,
is

extending over twelve months, and as each stage

reached Srddha

is
is

performed to impel the forlorn

spirit

onward.

Srddha ceremony

celebrated on an extensive scale on the anniversary of the day of
death, in honour of the spiritual

body

getting to

its

destination

(Garud

Puran).

The
Manes

ceremony

is

annually

repeated

afterwards.

The

departed

of ancestors are propitiated in the dark half of the

month

of

Bhadrapad

(August-September)

by

the

performance
is

of

Mahdla^a
of balls of to

or Paksha, the leading procedure in

which

the offering

cooked

rice

three to the three paternal ancestors and three
;

the

three
balls,

maternal

ancestors

th<i

rest

of

the

ancestors

receive

small

while the remote

ancestors
of*

receive

only oblations of

water.

Besides these, daily oblations

water are offered to the dead


f

108
Sandh\}d

Brahman
Wandanam.
Children

,

/

/
after

dying

before

teething

are

buried without ceremony.
are buried in
a
sitting

The dead

bodies of Sanydsis, or anchorites,
are perin that

posture,

and the funeral ceremonies

formed by
case.

their sons or disciples,

no mourning being observed

The
until
its

practice of sati
total

was
in

in

full

force

among

the Kokanasthas
of

discontinuance

the

administration

Lord William

Bentinck.

One

of the victims of the horrid practice

was Ramabai,

the wife of the

Peshwa Madhaorao.

Occupation.

—The
and

traditional

occupation of the sub-caste was
to

believed to be the one assigned by

Manu
in

Brahmans
;

\]) Yajan and

Ydjana

(sacrificing

assisting

sacrifices)

(2)

'Adhydyana and
Pratigraha
at

Adhydpana
(giving

(learning and teaching the

Vedas)

;

(3)

Ddn and

and

receiving

largesse).

The

Kokanasthas

follow,

present, any respectable profession that does not entail social disgrace.

Many

of

them have entered Government service and hold high and
posts

responsible

under the British
are

Government and Native
lawyers,
doctors,

States.

Among
As

them

there

eminent

eEgineers

and

journalists.

agriculturists

they
;

are

khots,

or hereditary

farmers holding
holders,
such
as

land on permanent tenure

there

are other tenure

Deshmukhs, Deshpandes, Patels, Mirasdars, Inamdars,
Mokashis and occupancy and non-occupancy
prospered
lenders,
in

Jagirdars and
also

ryots.

They have

other

professions

and are village accountants, moneynative
physicians,
Shastris,

cloth-merchants,

bankers,

Puraniks, Vaidiks and Bhikshuks (priests).

They
of the
footing

are strict vegetarians

and eat kcchi only from the hands
castes

members
as
their

of their

own

caste or of

of the same other
if

social

own.

Kokanastha

women,

like

Brahman

women, do

not touch servants of inferior castes and

they do they

afterwards bathe.

XVIH-B
Brahmam—Deshastha
(Titles— Pant,
and Patel.)

Rao,

Desai,

Deshmukh,

Deshpande,

Kulkarni

,'\

1

\

Brahman

109
the

\
The
Brahmans
Deshasthas,
in

who

form

bulk

of

the

Maratha
the Desh,

the Nizam's territory, derive their

name from
lying
to

or the highland tract

above the Western Ghats
rivers.

between the
earliest

Narbada and the Krishna
settlers

They

claim

be the

on

the

soil,

having
it

been

brought

from

Aryawartha

by
gift.

Parshuram from whom,

is

alleged, they received the land as a

They

are

generally

of

a darker complexion

than the Kokanasthas.
;

They have

four sub-divisions
;

(1)

Ashwalayan

(2)
;

Apasthamba

;

(3)

Madhyandinas

(4)

Kanvas

or Pratham-Shakis

deriving their names

from the Shakhas they follow.

The

first

two sub-divisions comprise

one endogamcjs group and have no matrimonial relations with the
other

two

suB-divisons.

The

Ashwalayanas

are

also

called

Rigvedis, the two together signifying that the members of the subcaste are Rigvedis of the

Ashwalayan Shakhas.

The Apastambhas
Yajurveda

belong to the Taitirya Shakha of Krishna
respect

(black)

who

the sutra of Apaistambha.

The Madhyandinas
religious

derive their

name from
at

the fact that they reckon day from mid-day to mid-day,
tirae

which

they

perform

their

ceremonies

and

offer

Sandhya,
are

i.e.,

their daily

adoration to the goddess Gayatri.

They

Shukla Yajurvedis (white) of the Madhyandin Shakha.
are

The

Kanwas
first

also
of

known

as

Pratham Shakhis because they are the

Shakha

the white Yajurveda.

Some
lost

of the

Deshasthas are
shakha,
they

Samvedis,

or

Samaka,

but,

having

their

special

now

intermarry with the Rigvedis.

Internal Structure

—The

exogamous

sections or

gotras of the

sub-caste are very numerous and are of the

eponymous type.

In the

Nirnaya Sindhu,
India
are

by Kamalaker Bhatta, the Brahmans of Western
as

represented

having primarily sprung from seven gotras

founded

on

the

seven

Rishis— Bhrigu,

Angirasa

(embracing

the

Gautamas and Bharadwajas),

Atri, Vishwamitra,

Kashyapa, Vasishta,

and Agasti, which have now branched and sub-branched innumerably.

Unlike the Kokanasthas, they have no surnames,

their family

names being based upon the place of their residence, or the calling
they pursue.

The

rule of

exogamy u

^the

same

as

prevails

among

the Kokanasthas.

In addition to one's

own

gotra, the

Madhyandinas

avoid

their

maternal

uncle's

goira

in

inatrimonial

alliances.

The

110

Brahman

/

/
his

Rigvedi Deshasthas, on the other hand, allow a man to marry
maternal
uncle's

daughter and the

Kanwas go

a

step

further
sister.

and

recognise a man's marriage with the daughter of his elder

Religion
either

In matters of religion,

the Deshastha Brahmans are
of

(1)

Smartha,

or

the

followers

Shankeracharya,
of

or

(2)

Vaishnavas, of the sect of

Madhwacharya, the founder
spirit

Dwaitism

(Duism), which identifies Vishnu with the supreme
existent cause of the universe,

as the pre-

and which separates the_ Jivatma from

the Paramatma, or the principle of life from the

Supreme Being.

A

few of the Deshasthas

are ShakKtas,

or the

worshippers of Shaktis

(female energies) and carry out their abominable practices in secrecy.

The Smarthas
evening, pay daily

perform

Sand\)a

devotion

every

morning
all

and
the

homage

to Piiras, or

Manes, and worship
the
five

gods

of

the

Hindu

pantheon,
Shiva,

especially

principal

ones

(Pancha))atan)
sectarian

—Vishnu,
is

Surya,

Ganpati and Devi.

Their
in

mark

vibhuti (cow-dung ashes),

which they smear
which,
after

three
is

transverse

streaks

on

their

foreheads

and

the

puja

over, they replace

by

a sandal spot.

The Madhvas pay
daily
in

devotion to Vishnu alone,
(fossil

worshipping him

the form of Shaligram

ammonite).
they
are

Unlike the Shri
friendly
is

Vaishanavas
towards
the

(followers

of

Ramanuja),
Their

disposed

Shaiva
(ochre)

sects.

sectarian
in

mark

a

smear

of

'

gopichandan

on

the

forehead

two perpendicular

linep,

running from the nose to the root
charcoal,
centre.

oFthe
a

hair,

with a central line of
turmeric patch at the

divided

in

the middle

by

circular
is

When

being initiated, a

Madhva

marked on the shoulders
shell,

and on the breast with the shankJia or conch

the

cha\ra or

wheel, and other emblems of Vishnu, the stamp used being of red
hot
or
iron.*

With Shaktas
(female
is

the
in

favourite

object

of
it

v/orship
is

is

Durga
all

Shakti

energy)

whose essence

considered

existence

concentrated.

The
Shri

patron deities of the Deshasthas
of

are Bhairoba

of

Sonari, Shri

Bhavani

Tuljapur

and

Mahur,

Khandoba^ of

Jejuri,

Narsinha and Shri Vyankat9sh of Tripati.
has
its

Each Deshastha family

own

family or patron deity worshipped with great ceremony

either on the

Paurnima

(the

'1

5th) of Chaitra (March-April) or on the

^

1

Brahman

1

1

\15th

of

Kartika

(October-Novembei).
the

The members
all

of

the

sub-

caste observe ^all

Occupation

—With

Hindu

fasts

and keep

their

festivals.

respect to their occupation,
into

the Deshastha

Brahmans may be divided
holders
include

two

classes.

(1)

Grinasthas or house-

and

(2)

Bhikshuks

or

religious

mendicants.

The

former
bankers,

Government

servants,

merchants,

money-lenders,

land-holders and village accountants.
as

Some

of the land-holders, such

Deshmukhs, Deshpandes and Patels, are hereditary farmers holding
Other are occupancy and non-occupancy
Pant,
ryots.

permanent tenures.
Their
titles

are

Rao.

Desai,

Sir-Desai,

Deshmukh,
Kulkarm,
(brother),

Sir-

Deshmukh,' Deshpande,
&c.

Sir-Deshpande,

Mokasi,

Pali!,

Their

aliases

are:

—Baba
Mama

(father),

Bhau

Dada
Aba,
the

(brother),

Kaka

(uncle),

(maternal

uncle),

Jatya,

Appa

and Anna.

The

Bhikshukas comprise Vgiidiks

(reciters of

Vedas), Shastris (expounders of the laws),
Purans),
gious
Joshis
(astrologers),

Puraniks (readers of the

Vaidyas

(physicians),
(religious

Haridasas
students).
as
all

(reli-

preachers)

and'

Brahmacharis
priests

The

Bhikshukas act as famjly
inferior

to their

own

caste

well to the
intoxicating
to their

castes.

They ar^

vegetarians,

abstain

from

liquors,

and eat only from the hands of those

who come up

own

standard of ceremonial purity.

XVIII-C

Brahman
Karhadas,
Karhatakas

—Karhadas
their

receive

name from

the

town of
rivers,

Karhad; situated on the confluence of the Krishna and Koyana
in

the

Satara_ District
is

of

the

Bombay

Presidency.

Their

earliest
in

settlement

said to

have extended from the town of Karhad
in

the
2).

south to the river
It

Vedawati

the north (Sah\}adri

Khand Adh.
numbers

was from

this tract that

the Karhadas appear to have spread over

different

countries

and

are

now found

in

considerable

in

the

Konkan, Kolhapur, Bombay, Zansi, Indore and Hyderabad.
Origin.

—The

Karhadas seem to be an

offshoot from the
in

Des-

hastha Brahmans,
'

separated from the main stock
of

far

early times.

In the Sah^)ddri

Khdnd

Skandha Pumna and

in

the Uttar

Khdnd

of

112

Brahman
1

(

f

Brahmdnd Purdna (Adh.

),

the Karhadas

are

said

to

have been

made by Parshuram from
out horrid practices.
hostile

a camel's bone,

and are accused of carrying

The

author of the Sahyddri
all

Khdnd, who showed
no

feelings

towards

rival

sub-castes,

doubt

based

this
kflra

legend upon the absurd derivation of the wotd Karhad from
or kflrahha

camel, and had

—bone.
master

According

to

another account,

they

are

believed to be
enjoined

descended from a disciple of Parshuram,
to

who was The

by

his

bring

flowers

of

Karhataka

(dhotra) daily for the worship of Nilkanth (the blue-necked Shiva).

regular

performance of his duty procured him the nickname,

Karhataka,

which

was

subsequently

transmitted

to

jjosterity

and

became the designation
Internal
into

of the sub-caste.

Structure

—The

Karhada Brahmans

are

sub-divided
five
is

22 exogamous groups, or
families
:

gotras,

which comprise more than
list

hundred

(surnames).

A

of

these

gotras

given below

No.

Gotra

I.

3

\
No.
Goira

\

Brahman
No.

1

1

of surnames

of each gotra.
19.

Koushika

50

20.

Kutcha
Vishwamitra
Naidhrava
...
... ... ...

6
1

2

1

.

22.

11

560

The^e

exogamous
the

sections

are

eponymous
saint or Rishi.

in

character,

the

eponym being

name

of a

Vedic

Intermarriages are
the
tions

forbidden between families not only bearing
the

same gotra but
(agnates),

also bearing
to

same pravara.
degrees,
uncle's
are

Sapmda
also

relain

extending

seven
maternal

avoided
is

marriage.

Marriage

with

a

daughter

allowed

by the

caste.

The

three sub-castes,
strictly

Deshasthas, Konkanasthas
:

and

Karhadas, were formerly

endogamous

but with the spread
is

of western education this rigidity of the caste

bond

being slackened,
are of frequent

and instances of intermarriages between
occurrence at the present day.

their

members

Religion
Shakhas,

—The

Karhadas

are

all

Rigvedis

of

the

Shukla

who

respect the sutra, or aphorism, of

Ashwalayana.
and
in

They

belong to both the Smartha, and Vaishnava

sects,

religious

and

spiritual matters

follow the guidance of Shri Shankaracharya, and

Madhwacharya,

respectively.

Their
also

titulary

deity

is

Mahalaxmi,

or

Ambabai, of Kolhapur.

They

pay reverence

to

Shanta Durga,
It
is

Mhalsa, Aja Durga, Vijaya Durga, and other local
believed
offered,
terrible

divinities.

that
in

a

few of the Karhadas

are

Shakti

worshippers

and

ancient times,

human

sacrifices to

Matrika and Lalita, two

forms of Shaktis.

The

blood-thirsty goddess claimed a sonif

in-law as the proper victim but,
of
the

one was not available, any stranger

Brahman

caste

was allowed.

The
was

ill-fated

Brahman was

lured into confidence, poisoned on the special day appointed for the

worship and, while
of the goddess.

in

his

deatj)

pangs,
is

sacrificed

at

the altar

The

following

an extract from a narrative comin

municated to Sir John Malcolm by a Karhada friend

1799 A.p.

114

Brahman
'"The Shakti
is

/
in

supposed
fiery

to

delight

human blood and
with
red

is

represented

by

three

eyes
in

and

covered

flowers.
in

This goddess holds a sword
other.

one hand and a battle axe

the
first

The
days

prayers of her votaries are directed to her during the
10th
is

nine

and on the evening of the
to

day a grand repast

is

prepared,

which the whole family

invited.

An

intoxicating
victim,

drug

is

contrived to be mixed with the food of the
o|ten a stranger

mtended

who

is

whom
lull

the master of the house has for several

months, perhaps years, treated with the greatest kindness and attention

and,
.

sometimes,

to

suspicion,

given

him

his

daughter

in

marriage.

As

soon as the poisonous and

intoxicating dri^g operates,

the master of the house, unattended, takes the devoted person into the

temple and leads him three times round the idol
himself before
it,

;

on

his

prostrating

the opportunity

is

taken of cutting his throat.
in

The
bowl,

blood having been collected with the greatest care
is

a small

first

applied to the
;

lips of this ferocious

goddess and then sprinkled
at

over her image
for the

a
is

hole having been dug

the

feet

of

the

idol

corpse,

it

deposited with great care to prevent discovery.
this

After perpetration of
to

horrid

act,

the

Karhada Brahman

returns

his family

and spends the night
praiseworthy
act

m

mirth

and revelry, convinced
his

that

by

this

he has propitiated the favour of

blood-thirsty deity for twelve years.

On

the morning of the followin

ing

day,

the corpse
idol

is

taken
put
is

from the hole
till

which

it

had been

thrown and the

is

away
made.
said
to

the following Dassera festival,

when
custom

a similar sacrifice
in

The

discontinuance of this horrid
arisen

recent

years
:

is

have principally

from the

following circumstance

—At
down

Poona, a young and handsome Carnatic
and oppressed by the scorching heat
the verandah of a rich
sect.

Brahman, fatigued with
of the sun, sat himself

travel
in

Brahman who
shortly
after

chanced to be of the Karhada

The Brahman

passed by and, perceiving that the youth was a stranger, invited him
to his house,

and requested him

to

remain

till

perfectly recovered from

the fatigues of his journey.

The

unsuspecting

Brahman youth

readily

accepted
with so
to

this

apparently kind invitation and
attention

was

several days treated

much

and kindne'js that he showed no inclination
also

depart.

He

had seen

the

Karhada Brahman's

beautiful

'^

'

Brahman

1)5

daughter and conceived a violent attachment for her.

Before a month
marriage.

had elapsed he had asked and obtained her
lived happily together
deceitful old
till

in

They
the

the time of the Dassera arrived,
to his original

when

Brahman, according

intention,

determined

to sacrifice his

son-in-law to the goddess of his sect.
feast,

Accordingly,

on the tenth day of the drug
into

he introduced an intoxicating poisonous
not,

his

son-in-law's

food,

however,

unperceived by his
contrived,

daughter.

She, being passionately fond of her husband,
this

unobserved, to exchange

dish for that of her brother,

who

in

a

short time i)ecame senseless.
his son's recf)very,
his

The unhappy Brahman,
to the temple, put

despairing of
to death with

carried

him

him

own hands and made

to his idol an offering of his blood.
this,

The
safety,

young Brahman,

[jerceiving

and

alarmed

for

his

own

effected his escape and related the

whole

affair to

the Peshwa.
to

The

infamous
(Trans, of
in his

perpetrator

with

others

was seized and put
Ill,

death."

Bombay L.

Society, Vol.
(pp.
his

pp. 86-87.)

Major Moore,

" Hindu Infanticide,"
sacrifice

196-198), refers to three instances of
notice

human

brought

to

by Vishnupant,

a

Karhada

Brahman.
This horrid custom, which was confined
families of Shakti worshippers, has probably
as to only a

few Karhada
abandoned,

been

totally

no instances of

its

occurrence have been recorded
are

for

many

years.

The Karhada Brahmans
class

remarkable

for

their

neat

and

cleanly habits and hospitable conduct.

They

are

a very intelligent

and have
poet

risen

to high

offices

under the present Government.
of

The

Mpropant and the notoriously brave Rani Laxmibai
this caste.

Zansi belonged to

XVIII-D
Brahman
Tirgul
or

—Tirgul
all

Trigul

—found
among

in

the Districts

of

the

Maratha-

wada and
Carnatic.

in

the Bidar, Gulbarga and Mahbubnagar

Districts of the

They

rank

the

fi,ve

Dravidas and generally speak
settled
in

the

Canarese

language.

Those who have

Maharashtra

speak Marathi,

although traces of Ihe

original

Canarese tongue are*

1

16

Brahman
discerned
in

still

their

intonation.

They

are,

as

a class,
all

strong and

well-made, with dark complexions.
Taitariya

They

almost

belong to the
gives

Shakha of

the
as

Black
it

Yajurceda,

which
fact

them

a

southern Indian origin,

is

a

well-known

that the followers

of the Black Yajurveda are

all

confined to Southern India (" Indian

Antiquities," Vol.

I).

Internal Structure.
groups,
of the
all

—They

have several gotras, or exogamous
as

of

the

eponymous
class.

character,

among other Brahmans

Panch Dravida

Their surnames are entirely the names
all

of villages the

which are found scattered
'

over the Canatic.
in

Thus

name
'

Pargi

'

is

derived

from a village
village

the
in

Mahbubnagar
the

District,
District,

Arankale

'

from
It
is

the

Arankal

Gulbarga

and so on.

generally believed that the Tirguls were

originally a branch of the

Telugu Brahmans, who

first

settled in the

Carnatic and subsequently
rently
in

came over

to

Maharashtra.

They

appa-

seem to derive

their

name from

the country of Tirgula which,
great

the

Pauranika times,
in

constituted

one of the

kingdoms of

southern India, for,
is

the

Ramayana,

the king of the Trigula country

mentioned as having attended the

Swayamwara

(choice

marriage)

of Sita

and was described
this

to

her by her female companion.
obsolete,

The
now

name
be

of

country has

become

nor can

its

locality

identified.

Occupation.

—The
Some

Tirguls mostly follow secular employments

and among them are found great Zamindars, Jagirdars, village pateh and accountants.
are
of

them have taken to
and
are
also

trade,

while others
in

eminent

Government

servants

found

learned

professions.

The

majority of them, however, are engaged in growing

betel-vines and are
it

deemed very

skilful in rearing these delicate plants

;

is

on

this

account,

and because of

their

tendency towards

culti-

vation, that they are generally looked

down upon by

other Brahmans.

XVIII-E

Brahman
History
Parbhani,
District of

Golaks,

—Golak Govar^lhans — found
in

in

the

districts

of

Bir

and Usmanabad and

the northern Talukas of the
to

Aurangabad.

They

are supposed

be the

illegitimate

7

i

Brahman
a

1

1

offspring of a

Brahman by

Brahman woman who was
classes
:

not his wife.

They

are divided into

two main

(I)

'

Deeraj,' or

bom

of a

woman who,
brother,

with the consent of her husband,
(2)
'

is

intimate with his elder

and

Jaraja,"

born

of

an

adulteress.

The

latter

are

further sub-divided into (1)

Kunda Golaks,
widow who

or the adulterous progeny

of a

woman who

has a husband, (2)

Randa Golaks, who

are descended

from the illegitimate son of a

has not shaved her head,
a

and

(3)

Munda
These

Golaks,
classes

descended from

widow with

her

head

shaved.

have now passed
into
their

into rigid castes

and do not
of

admit

newly

sprung

bastards

community.

Members

these differ<int groups neither interdine nor intermarry.

The Deeraja

claim the highest social rank
include

among

the Golaks and are believed to
of

among them
It
is

the

descendants

child-widows
four gotras,

who were
or exoga-

re-married.

said that

Golaks have only

mous

sections

—Washistha,
also,
(5)

Bharadwaja, Sankhyana and Vishwamitra.
such
as
(6)
(1)

They have surnames
Oute,
(4)

Dange,

(2) (7)

Nachane,
Samartha,

(3) (8)

Badave,
(9)

Bhale,
(10)

Mahajana,
(11)

Undawale,

Kakade,

Nimbalker,

Dhanwantari,

(12)

Chariker and (13) Chandi.
vances
they
entirely

In their religious
to

and ceremonial obser-

conform

the

customs

and

usages

of

the

Deshastha Brahmans.

Occupation
and
the

—The

Golaks

are

Rigvedis of both the Shakala
to

Bashkala

Shakhas,
village

belonging
accountants,

the

Ashwalayan

sutra.

They

are hereditary

astrologers,

money-lenders,
officiate

money-changers and
priests

cultivators.

They

also occasionally

as

to the

Kunbis.

A

few have entered Government

service.

XVIII-F

Brahman
Vidurs,
spring of a

—Vidur

said
to

Krishnapakshis,

Brahmanjayis

be the

off-

Brahman

father and a

Kunbi mother.

The members

of

the caste claim descent from the famous Vidur of the Mahabharata,

who was
the

begotten by Krishna

Dwaipayana

or

Vyasa,

a slave girl of

the king Vichitrawirya.

They

regard themselves as being higher than

Maratha Kunbis and a

little

lower than the Maratha Brahmans.

118

Brahman

,
,

Their marriages are regulated by exogamous sections,
surnames,

consisting

oi

and families bearing the same surname do not mtermarry.
sub-divisions and in matters of religion and

They have no
they

ceremony
are

follow

the

Maratha

Brahmans.

Their
Jejuri.

tutelary

deities

Bhavani of Tuljapur and Khandoba of

XVIII-G
Brahman

—Kanada

or

Brahman
They
of

— Karnatic
is

rank as the fourth of the five Dravidas living to the south
range.

the

Vindhya

Their name

derived

from the Carnatic
in

country, or the country of the Canarese speaking people which,

the

Nizam's
Bidar.

territory,

embraces the
appearance,

Districts

of

Raichur, Gulbarga and

In

their

physical

characteristics
in

and

dress,

they differ

little

from the Deshastha Brahmans, except
in

the turban,

which they wear lower and
are

a

less

rounded form.

Intermarriages

allowed between the Carnatic Brahmans and the Deshasthas on

one side and the Telugu Brahmans and the Carnatic Brahmans on
the other, so that the classification of the Southern India the Maharashtra,
respect

Brahmans

into

the
a

Andhra (Telugu) and
provincial
or
linguistic

the Carnatic are in this character

more

of

than

of

an

ethnographic one.

Internal Structure
the Shakal

—The

a

Carnatic Brahmans belong either to
to the Taitariya

Shakha

of the

Rigveda or

Shakha

of the

Black Yajurveda and are divided,
gotras or

like the

Deshasthas, into numerous
in

exogamous groups

list

of

which may be found
to

the

Dharma-Sindhu.

They allow

a

man

marry

his

sister's

daughter,
legislators

although such marriages are not sanctioned by the
(shastris).

Hindu
at

Their

tutelary

deities

are

Narsinha

Kuppu

and

Hanuman.

The
followers
of the

Carnatic Brahmans are divided into the sects of Shankara-

charya and Madhwacharya.
of

A

few only

are Shri

Vaishnavas, the
or
in

Ramanujacharya.
is

The

principle

matha,

monastery
the South

Madhawas,

the great temple of Krishna at

Udupi

\

Brahman
the

119
Besides
there
are

\

.

.

Canara
eight

district

of

Madras Presidency.
in

this,

subordinate

temples

which are

set

up images of

different

forms of Vishnu and which are placed under the superintendence of
eight san^asis
for

called

Wadiyarus.

Each Wadiyaru
monastery

in at

turn officiates

two years

as superior of the principal

Udupi.

Occupation.
culturists

—The
It

majority of the Carnatic Brahmans are agri;

and hold lands on various tenures

they also follow other
the

secular
that

pursuits.
J.

was

in

connection with

Carnatic Brahmans

Abbe

A. Dubois
justified

has

made

his sarcastic

remarks which are,
pp. 144-145.)

however, hardly

by

facts.

("Abbe Dubois,"

Almost aU the revenue
of this secf,

officers

under Tippu Sultan were Brahmans

who were

favoured by Tippu's government as the only

men
p.

of business in the country (Dr. Buchanan's
47).

" Journeys," Vol.
that

1,

Concerning

them Dr.

Buchanan remarks

they
is

were
said

very fortunate under the Vijayanagar Rajas.
to

Krishna Rayalu

have granted them a tenth of

his land revenue.

XVIII-H
Brahman
The Malvi Brahmans
the

— Malvi
numbers
all

are found scattered in small

over

Marathawada

Districts.

They

are immigrants from

the adjoining country and hence are called

Malwa and They Malvi Brahmans.
the Vajaseniya) of the

belong to the Boudhayana Shakha (included

in

Shukla Yajmveda and have eponymous sections of the same character
as

other

Yajurvedi

Brahmans.

Being

outsiders,

as

well

as

being

deficient in their

acharas, they are generally considered degraded by
are

the

Maratha Brahmans, and

not

admitted to the communion of
tutelary
deities
Jejuri.

food.

They
and

are

Shaivas and their

are

Bhavani of

Tuljapur

Mahur

and

Khandoba

of

Narsinha

and

Vyankatesh are also revered.
vators,

They

are priests,

shop-keepers, culti-

artizans,

astrologers

and jagirdars.

XVIII-I

Brahman
The Kasta Brahmans
tricts

— Kasta
few numbers
in the

are foi^nd in very

Dis-

of Bir and Parbhani.

They

call themselves Katyayani Shakhi


120

Brahman
trace their origin to

/
'

Brahmans and

Katyayan, the eldest son of the

/

sage Yadnyawalkya and his wife Katya.
plexion,
well-built
in

They

are dark

in

comin

frame and look like Deshastha Brahmans

appearance.

They

are looked

down upon by

the Deshastha

Brahmans

and are not allowed to the communion of food.

The

origin of this sub-caste

is

involved in obscurity.

They

are

the Shukla Yajurvedis of the
gotras mentioned

Madhyandin Shakha and have

the six

below

:

Gotra

PraVara
... ... ... ...
...

Bharadwaja
Kaushika

Angirasa,

Brahaspatya,

Bharadwaja.

Aghamarsana, Kaushika, Vishwamitra.
Avatsar, Kasyapa,

Kasyapa
Katyayana
Vashistha

Naidhruva.

Katyayana, Kiiaka, Vishwamitra.
Parasar, Shakti,

Vashistha.

Vatsa

...

Apnavan,
Vatsa.

Bhargava,

Chavana

Jamadagni,

Intermarriages between

members

of the

same goira and the same
and conduct
Their

praoara are forbidden.
the ceremony on the
tutelary deities

They marry
same
lines

their girls as infants

as the

Deshastha Brahmans.

are

Bhavani of Tuljapur, Khandoba of Ambadgaon,

near Paithan,
the

and Shri Vyankatesh.

They worship
are

all

the gods of
profession

Hindu pantheon.

Some

of

them

Shaktas.

By

they are priests, money-lenders,

money-changers and shop-keepers.

XVIII-J

Brahman
Pannase—also found
thus given
:

—Pannase
District

in

the

of

Bir.

Their origin

is

Origin

There was a Deshastha Brahman who had

in

a

dream
to

seen a store of wealth.

When

he awoke he actually went

the

place he had seen
surprise,

in his

dream and dug out the

earth, but, to his great

found there nothing but coal.
in

The

coal

he had thus secured

was kept

an open place for sale.
noticed this and

A

certain

Mahar

girl,

while

passing that way,
that

whispered

into

her mother's ear

the coal

was nothing but

go!(5.

The man

overheard her con-

\

Brahman
him and asked her
the
girl

121

Versalion,
girl

called the girl's mother to
for
in

to give the

to

him

Rs. 200 or
his

so.

Thus

was purchased and

kept

by him

shop.

Every piece of coal she touched was

changed
this

into gold,

which was afterwards disposed of by him, and by
a

means the man made
fell
in

great fortune.

The

girl

was

beautiful

and the man

love with her.

XVIII-K
Brahman

—Andhra
their

The Andhra
Madras,
Bellary,

or

Telugu Brahmans receive

name from Andhra
north
of

Desha, or ffelingana,

which extends from Lake Pulicat,
as

as far to the north

Ganjam, and westward

to

Tripati,
'

Kurnul,

Bidar

and

Chanda.

The name
'

'

Telingana

is

supposed to be derived from the Sanskrit word
the

Tri-Lingam
Shailya,
first

'

or

country

of

the

three

Lingas,

Daksharam,

Shri

and

Kaleshwar (emblems of the god Shiva), the temples of the
being situated respectively
the
in

two

the Godavari

and Kurnul

Districts of

Madras Presidency, and

that of the last

one on the confluence of
in

the Godavari and the Indravati Rivers near Mantahni

the Karimthe Nizam's

nagar District of the Hyderabad Territory.

In

H. H.
the

Dominions the term

'

Telingana

'

is

applied

to

country

which

embraces the Districts of Nalgunda, Warangal, Karimnagar, Adilabad,
Atrafi Balda,

Medak, Nizamabad and

parts of

Mahbubnagar, Bidar

and Nander.
History.

—Very
sage,

little

is

known

regarding
say
that

the the

entrance

of

Brahmans
first

into

Telingana.

Traditions

country

was

colonised by Brahmans under the leadership of Agasti,

a cele-

brated

Vedic

who
far to

penetrated through the defiles of the Vindhya

mountains, which are fabled to have prostrated themselves before him,

and advanced

as

the south
in

as

Cape Comorin
India which

(B.
are

C. 500).
supposed

The
to

earliest

Aryan

colonies

Southern
of

have

favoured

the

spread

Brahmanism

and

the

Brahmanic

influence

were those of Pandyas, Cheras and Cholas.

The Brahmanic
from

immigration into the south was further encouraged by the Sunga and

Kanva

dynasties,

who

ruled

Magadha

(the

modern

Behar)

122 178
B. C. 31.

Brahman
to

/ (

,

B. C.

On

the extinction of the

Kanya dynasty
(B.

the Andhrabhriiyas established their authority in

Magadha

C. 31)

and

in

course of time extended their sway throughout

Andhra Desh,
although,

or Telingana.

They were

great

patrons

of

Brahmanism,

Buddhism. during the earliest part of their rule, they had supported
It

was, however,

in

the time of the Chalukyas,

who succeeded
impetus.
of

the

Andhrabhrityas,

that

Brahmanism

received

a

great

The
and

Chalukyas were Vaishnawas,

built

many temples
Grants,
are

Vishnu

endowed

them

with

valuable

gifts.

on
still

copper-plates,

assigned by them to the learned Brahmans,
there
all

found here and
Thii oldest of
in

over the extensive country they once ruled.

these existing grants,
to
at

made by Shri Vijaya Raja Sarova

A. D. 338
was found

the priests (Adhwaryus) and students

(Brahmacharis),

Kaira

in

1837 A.D.

A

copper shasnam, recording an assignment
in

of

land to Brahmans by Pulakeshi

A. D. 489,

is

extant

in

the

British

museum.

The
They

Cholas,

to

whom

the Chalukyas gave way,

were

Saivaits.

erected magnificent temples to Siva and bestowed
for
their

liberal

endowments number

maintenance

upon the
in

priestly

class.

The

largest

of grants to
last

Brahmans were made

A.

D. 1078After the

1135 by Vira Deva, the

king of the Chola dynasty.

Cholas came the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal (A.

D. 1150-1325)
by
their

whose

zeal

for

the

sacred
the

order

was
'

amply
'

displayed

munificent

grants

and

grand
at

pagoda

temple

which

one

of

them. Raja Prataprudra, built
sovereigns the

Warangal.

Under the Vijayanagar
its

power

of southern

Brahmanism had reached

zenith.
his

Learned

Brahmans,

such

as

Madhwacharya (Vidyaranya) and

brother Sayanacharya (the commentator of the

Vedas), raised to the

throne of Vijayanagaram
great

one Bukka,
fall

who

afterwards

became

their

patron.

Since

the

of

the
in

Kakatiya

and

Vijayanagar

dynasties the influence of

Brahmanism

Telingana has been on the
still

decline

and the great temples

and religious establishments
to

to
it

be found over the country bear overwhelming testimony

what

was
Sir

in its

palmy days (Princep's "Antiquities," pp. 275, 279-280
Elliot's
;

;

William

Paper

in

the

Journal

of

the

Royal

Asiatic

Society,

Vol. IV

Professor Wilton's " Indian Castes," pp. 81-39).
for learning

For ages the Andhra Brahmfins have been renowned

'(

Brahman
Kumaril
Bhatta,

123

and

self-restraint.
;

who was

a

violent

opposer of
;

the Buddhists
jacharya,

Shankaracharya, the great vedantic reformer
the
first

Ramanudoctrine
;

who was
the

to of

inculcate

the
;

Bhakti

Madhwacharya,

founder

Dwaitism

Vallabhacharya,
;

who

originated the worship of Balgopal or the infant Krishna

and other

champions of Brahmanism, were
Internal Structure

all

—The
eat

Andhra

or

Dravida Brahmans.
the

internal

organisation of

Andhra
main
all

Brahmans
classes
:

is

very complex.

They may be

divided

into
(4)

four

(1)

Smarta, (2) Shri Vaishnawa, (3)
their respective sectarian beliefs.

Madhwa,

Aradhi,

based upon
different

The members
Smartas
are
are

of these
further

s^b-castes

do not

together.

The
They

sub-divided into Vaidiks and Niyogis.

followers of Shri

Shankaracharya.
Waidi}(_s
:

—The Vaidiks
their

are so called because they devote their
strictly

lives to the study of the

Vedas,

adhere to the vedic
try

rites in

the

performance of
laid

ceremonies and

to

live

up

to the standard

down by

the shastras, never accepting service nor performing any

menial .occupation.

The

spread

of

education

and

the

consequent
their course
in

innovations of the times have compelled
of living and

them
are

to

change

many

of the Vaidik
in

Brahmans

now found

Govern-

ment service and
ledge of the
certain

other
is,

respectable

occupations.

Their

know-

Vedas
of

however,

limited

to committing to memory
reciting
their

portions

these

scriptures

and

them

at

various

ceremonies.
recite

They

never pretend to

know

meaning.

They

and teach the Vedas and are greatly respected
of

as authorities in

matters

law

and

religion.

They do

not

intermarry

with

the

Niyogis, as the seculeirised Brahmans are called.

The Vaidik Brahmans
also

are

either

Rig Vedis

of

the

Shakal
are

Shakha, or Krishna Yajurvedis of the Taitariya Shakha.

There

Shukla (white) Yajurvedis among them, both of the Madhyandin
latter

and Pratham, or Kanva Shakhas, the
kyas
of
in

being called Yadnyawal-

Telingana.
as

These
the

classes are subject to the

same

restrictions

intermarriages
origin
of

Deshastha
is

Brahmans
thus

of

the
in

Maharashtra.
a

The

the
:

Yadnyawalkyas

described

legend

in

the Vishnu Puran
to

—Vaishampay^na,

a disciple of
in

Vyasa, once failed

attend the meeting of Munis,

and was,

consequence, guilty of

124
the crime of Brahmahatya
ciples to help

Brahman
(Brahman murder).

[

t

He

desired his dis;

him

in

the performance of the necessary penance
to take part

but
the

one of them, by name Yadnyawalkya, refused
expiatory rites
of his disciple,
that
;

in

Vaishampayana, enraged

at

this

wilful

disobedience

pronounced upon him a curse the
texts

effect of

which was

Yadnyawalkya disgorged the Yajna

he had learned from been meanwhile
blood-stained
trans-

Vaishampayana.
formed
into

The

other disciples having
(tittiri)

partridges

picked

up

these

texts

and retained them.
of

Hence

these texts are called Taitireya Sanhita

Black

Yajurveda.

Deprived of them
appeared to him
in

Yadnyawalkya devotedly
the form of a horse and

prayed to the sun,

who

granted him his wish "to possess such texts as were not
to his

known even

teacher." Because they were revealed by the sun, in the form

of a horse (vaji), the
are

Brahmans who study
Fifteen

this

portion of the Yajus
of
this

called

Vajis

(Vajaseniya).

branches

school
are

sprung from
thus

Kanva and

other pupils of

Yadnyawalkya.

There

two Yajurvedis

to this day, the black being considered the older

of the two.

The Vaidik Brahmans have
Nadu,
Nadu,
which
(2)
(6)

the following sub-divisions
(4)

:

(l)

Telga
Kasal

Wei Nadu,
Warna
ancestors

(3)

Murki Nadu,

Vengi Nadu,

(5)

Salu, etc., deriving their names from the localities in

their

had

settled.

These
said
to

distinctions

of

Vedic

Brahmins
in

into

nadus

(localities)

are

have been
chief

introduced,

quite recent times,

by learned men, the

among whom was
intermarryof
inter-

Eleshwar Upaadhyaya.
ing

The Nadus
rules

are prohibited from

among themselves, though

regarding

prohibitions

dining are not so strictly observed.

Ni^ogis
Telingana,
ants.

:

—Niyogis
of

(occupied)

are

the secularised

Brahmans

of

many
are

whom

are engaged as writers and village account-

They

almost

all

Black Yajurvedis of Taitireya Shakha.

In point of social standing they rank

below the Vaidiks, with

whom
:

they eat but do not intermarry.
(1)

They
(3)

are divided into four classes

Nanda Warik,
these, the

(2)

Aharayani,

Arwelu and

(4)

Pasarwailu.

Of

Arwelu

sub-caste forms the bulk of the Niyogis in these
'

Dominions.

The word

Arwelu

',

means

'

six

thousand

'

and
in

it

is

said that the primary ancestors of the

Arwelus were invested

one day

Brahman
with pataWarigiriships of
last

125

six

thousand villages, by Abu! Hasan, the

Kutub Shahi King

of

Golconda (A.D. 1672-1687), through the
the

Influence of

Akanna and Madanna,

Hindu

Ministers of the king.

In those days the office of a village accountant

was looked down upon,

and intercourse with them
tirely

in matters of

food and matrimony was en-

stopped by other members of the sacred order.

This account

probably relates to the Golconda Vyaparis, a branch of the Niyogis,
separated from the parent stock by reason of their conversion to the
Shri
in

Vaishnawa

faith,

for

the Arvelus,

as

a

sub-caste,

have been
territorial

existeace for

a

considerable lime and

appear to be a

group deriving

their

name from Arvelp Nadu, an

ancient division of

Vengi Desh,

the southern Telingana.

Some

of the Niyogi

Brahmans

are distinguished for their learning and are advancing in culture and
civilisation.

Shri
the
great

Vaishnawa Brahmans are the followers
founder of the Vaishnava sect.

of Ramanujacharya, are so

They

much

in-

fluenced by sectarial feelings that they have formed themselves into a separate
sub-caste.
or

They have two
(2)

sub-divisions

:

(1)

Vadhal,
eat

Vadahal
together,

Vadgal, and

Thingal,

Tenhal or Tengal, who
are

but do not intermarry.
different sectarian

They

distinguished from each

other

by the

marks on

their foreheads.

The Tenhals
being
in

follow the precepts of Manavala
followers
disciples
initiatory

Manumi and
these

the Vadhals are the
the
their

of of

Vedantacharya,

both

preceptors
differ

Ramanujacharya.

Their mantras

slightly

letters.

Thus

the mystic

formula of the Vadhals begins

with the name of Ramanuja,

while that of the Tenguls with the
their

name
at
is

of Shri Shailu.

The Vadhals have

principal

monastery

Narsinha Kshetra (Agobilam) and the chief matha of the Tenguls
at

Shri Shailya.
(2) (6)

Each

of these sub-divisions has eight branches
(3)

:

(1)

Madamba,

Andhrola,

Natapuram,

(4)

Gandi Gota,
(7)

(5)

Pancharatriya,

Ashta Gotri with eight
(8)

gotras,

Vighas with
four
are terri-

seven gotras,
torial

and

Niyogi Vaishnawas.
social

The

first

and the others

groups.

The Madambas
Andhrola
into
five

are

further

jub-divided

into

eight

classes,

the

and the Niyogi Vaishnawas
sect

into

seven.

The

Shri

Vaishnawa

was founded by

Ramanujacharya,

126
Bhasyakar,
to the

Brahman
Sliri

styled

about

the

middle of
is

the

twelfth

century.

According
Shri

Divya Charitra, he

said to

have been the son of

Keshava Achar and Bhuma Devi and an incarnation of Sesa.

He

was born
or

at

Perambatur, 25 miles west of Madras, and studied

at

Kanchi

Conjeveram,
faith.

where he taught
at

his

system

of

the

Shri

Vaishnawa
Vishnu
as

He

afterwards resided

Sri

Ranga, worshipping
his

Shri Ranganath,
life in

and there composed

principal

works

and spent his

devout exercises and religious seclusion.

The

worship of the followers of
his

Ramanuja

is

addressed

to

Vishnu and

consort

Laxmi and

their

incarnations,

jmages

of

those deities in stone and metal are set up in houses and are 'worshipped
daily.

The

principal

characteristic

of

this

sect

is

the

scrupulous

secrecy with which they prepare and eat their meals, being clad at
the time in woollen and silk garments.

The
advisers,

Shri
to

Vaishnawa Brahmans
higher classes
five

officiate

as

Gums,
initiate

or

spiritual

the

of

Hindus and
(Sansfiaras),

disciples

by

the

performance of

sacraments

of

which the two

most important are (I)

Mudhra Dharana,

or the marking of 'both the

arms with the shanl^ha (conch) and chakra, the emblems of Vishnu,

and

(2)

Mantropadesh, or the communication to the disciple of the
mantra of Vishnu.

8-syllabical

The

sectarian

marks of the Rama-

nujas are

two longitudinal

streaks of

gopichandan drawn from the roots
In the case of
a

of the hair to the

commencement

of the eye-brows.
are

the

Vadahals (Vadagais), the
line
at

streaks

connected by

transverse
or

straight

the the

root

of

the

nose,

while

the
a
is

Tenahals,

Thinguls.

connect

perpendicular

streaks

by

lotus-like a

design

upon the upper part of the nose.
streak

In the centre

perpendicular

of

red sanders.

They

also
for

besmear

their

breasts

and arms

with patches of

gopichandan,

which wooden stamps are used.
line

Women

have only a single upright

from the nose to the
the

hair.

Ramanuja was

the propounder

of

Vishishta

Dwait

philo-

sophy (qualified monism) as contrasted with Shankara's Adwaitism or
absolute

monism

(non-duality), or the doctrine of the absolute identity
soul with Brahti]a.
fictitious

of the individual

Ramanujas hold the
of
in

individual

soul

as

not

due to the

limitations

Ma^a
which

(illusion),
it

but

as real in itself,

whatever may be ihe relation

stands to the

Brahman
highest self.

127

The Aradhi
Shiva,

Brahmans
a

are

Shaivaits

and

worship

the

god

symbolised by

lingam which both

men and women wear

about their necks.

An

Aradhi on

attaining the 7th or 8th year of his

age

is

invested

with the sacred phalic

emblem when
to the

horn

is

per-

formed and oblations of ghi are offered
Lingayits,
entirely

god Shiva.

Though
they

they adhere to the caste system.
to the

In other respects,

conform

Brahmanical

rites

and practise the wearing of

the sacred thread and the performing of the
tion to the Gayatri,

SandhyaWandan,

or adora-

and observe

all

the Brahmanical sacraments.
is

They

bury their daad, a practice which
it

condemned by the

Shastras, and

is

on

this

account that they are not admitted by other Brahmans
of the

to

the

community
needs
of

food

or

matrimony.
classes,

They

minister

to

the

spiritual,

lower

by

whom

they

are

highly

respected.

The few Madhwas
emigrants

who

are

to

be found

in

Telingana

are
are

from the Carnatic.
in their

Like the Shri Vaishnawas they

extremely bigoted
of the

devotion and cannot bear even the mention

name

of Shiva.

They
the

are mostly

Rigvedis.

Like

the

Smartas,

Shri

Vaishnawas

and

the

Aradhi
or

Brahmans, they are either Rigvedis of the Ashwalayan Shakha
Yajurvedis of the Wajaseniya or Taitiriya Shakhas.
are

No

intermarriages

allowed
are

between

the

members

of

these

sub-castes,

although

they

not

uncommon between Smarta and Madhwa Brahmans.
some Samavedis among them.
are broken

There

are also

The Andhra Brahmans
supposed
to

up

into 161

gotras,

which are
viz.,

have branched
(2)

from

the

seven
(4)

primeval
(5)

sages,

(\) Bhrigu,

Angirasa,

(3)

Kasypa,

Atri,

Vashistha,

(6)

Agastya,

(7)

Vishwamitra.

These

gofras are grouped under eighteen
:

ganas, as illustrated in the following table


of

Name

of

Gana.

No. of Gotm.
17

Name
Kanwa

Gana.

No.

of

Gotra.

Jamadagni

2
3 5
...

Veethahavya

6 4
...

Mondgalya
Viroopa
IVishnuvardhan
...

Vainya
Gritchamada
...

2

13

128

Name

of

Gana

No.

of

Vardhriaswa

Gautama
Bharadwaja

Kapi
Haritha

Total

Brahman
the elephant figure and the thirty-three pots, and view,
shell
filled
is

129
a cocoanut

in

with

oil

and ghi,

the

reflection

of

their

faces.

The

elephant

then removed and the earthen pots forming the polu are

presented to the married

women whose
patomime of

husbands are

living.

Panpu

:

—A
doll

sort

of

wedded

life.

The
placed

bride

and the bridegroom are made to enact the parts of a mother and a
father with a
for their child.

The mock
made

infant
to

is

in

a

cradle of cloth and the young couple are
topics regarding the care of the child.

talk over various
is

This incident
guests.

attended with

great fun

and mirth among the assembled
:

Dand^a

In

which a barber and a washerman,
to the strain of

bearing

the

young coupte, dance
bride
I

music and, when they meet, the

and bridegroom sprinkle each other with bukka (red powder)

and other scented powders.

No
wise

bride price

is

claimed

in theory,

but

it

is

said that exorbitant

sums are paid

for girls

by bridegrooms who are

old, or cannot other-

get wives.

Religion.

—As

has

been described under the

articles

on the

Maratha'and the Carnatic Brahmans, the Andhra Smarthas worship
Panchayatanam, or the
and Devi.
tions of
five

gods Narayan, Shanker, Ganpati, Surya
all

They

believe that

deities are only different manifesta-

Para Brahma, or the supreme

soul.

The Andhra Madhwas,
the
is

like their Carnatic brethren,

stamp themselves with gopichandan, or a
obtained
in in
it

kind of
of

mud

of a sandal colour
in

Gopi Talao,

the tank

the Gopis

Kathiawar,

which

believed Shri
are
partial

Krishna
to

bathed with

gopikas

(cowherd

damsels).

They

the

worship of Vishnu.

As

has been

already

mentioned,

the

different

sub-castes of the Shri Vaishanava
different sectarian

Brahmans

are distinguished

by the

marks of sandal which they put on
Vishnu,
as

their foreheads.

Besides

worshipping

Narayen,

Shri

Vaishanavas

pay

devotion to twelve of their patron saints.

These
to

latter are

designated
a portion

by the name

'

Alwars

'

and are each said

have written

of the Dravida Pradhan, or

Tamil Veda,
supposed
to

chiefly designed for

Sudras

and women.

Ramanuja
last

is

be the

same
:

as

Yembiru

Manaru, the
(I)

of the Alwars.
*

Their names are
(2)
1

Mam

A! war

Poy Alwar

130

Brahman
(3) (5) (7)
(9)

Pary Alwar
Periy

(4) (6) (8)

Peedath Alwar

Alwar

Thirumang Alwar
Tirmudesh Alwar

Tondaradippadi Alwar
Kulasekhar Alwar

(10) (12)

Madhankavi Alwar
Kuratha Alwar.
days of
their

(II)

Tirupan Alwar

These

are worshipped on the anniversary

births

:

besides these there are other alwars, or saints, respected by the Shri

Vaishanavas.

Minor

deities,

such as

Pochamma,

Potraja,

Yelamma, Mutyala

ama and

others,

are propitiated

by the whole

caste,

Kumbhar

or

Bhoi being employed

as priest on the occasion of their worship.

There

are

some Shaktas (Shakti worshippers) among the Andhra
carry on their abominable practices
in
strict

Brahmans who

privacy.

XVIII-L

Brahman— Marwadi
The Marwadi Brahmans found
are
in

H. H.

the Nizam's Dominions

emigrants from Northern

India,

especially

from

Malwa

and,

as

such,
in

may be ranked with

the five Gauras,

whom

they almost resemble

their

customs and usages.

They have

six sub-divisions,

which are
six

grouped under one designation

" Chhannyati," meaning

castes.

Regarding

their origin,

it

is

said that

Maharaja Jayasingh of Jaipur
to

performed a horse
vast

sacrifice

(Ashwa Medha),
different

which he invited

a

concourse of

Brahmans from

countries

and requested

them to eat together.
compliance.

The Brahmans,

as a matter of course, refused

The Maharaja,
to

thereupon, forced the Brahmans of his
interdining,
as

own kingdom

be united by

and the

six

classes,

thus

brought together, have been

known

" Chhannyati Brahmans."

The
(1)

sub-divisions are

:


(4) (5) (6)

Dayama (Dahima)
Parikha.

Saraswat.

(2)
(3)

Gujar

Goud

Shrikhwad

Khandelwad.

Origin.

—Dayamas,
who was

or

Dahimas, claim to be descended from the

sage Dadhichi,

the son of

Atharwana and the grandson
Satyaprabha,

of

Brahma.

Dadhichi had a son by

his wife,

who

deposited

Brahman
the
child,

131

while

still

in

an

embryonic

state,
in

under

a

pipal

tree

(Ficus religiosa)

and joined her husband
the

heaven.
child

The
and

goddess

Maya

developed
after

embryo,
pipal
sons,

nursed
tree

the

named
was
the
sons

him
born.

Pippalayan,

the

under

which
married

he
to

Pippalayan
daughters
of

had
the

twelve
king

who were
From

twelve
sprung
at

Mandhata.

these

twelve

172 families of Dahima Brahmans, of which only 85 are extant
present day.

the

The Dahimas

belong to the Madhyandina Shakha of the white
five

Yajmoeda, with three and
sect

pravaras.

They

are

Smarthas by
deities of the

and *vorship Panchayatanam, or the

five principal

pantheon. '

Some

of

them

are very learned in the sacred lore.

Their

women wear
of

ivory
is

bangles.

Their tutelary deity
at

is

Dudh Muth,
in

whom
The

there

a temple

the

village

of
in

Mangled,

Nagor

(Malva), where a large

fair is

held annually
to

honour of the deity.

Parikh trace their lineage
are

the sage Parashara.

Like the
Shakha.
mostly,

Dahimas they

white Yajurvedis of the Madhyandina

They

are said to

have 103 exogamous
sect.

sections.

They

are,

Vaishanavas, of the Vallabha
after they

Their

women wear

glass bangles

are married.
are believed to

The Gujar Gowds
Brahmans of Bengal.
Shaiva
sect,

be an

offshoot from the

Gaur

They
to

are Shukla

Yajurvedis,

belong to the
the

and

minister

the

spiritual

needs
sage

of

Marwadi

Mahajans.

They

claim

descent

from

the

Gautama.
Their
tradi-

The
tion
is

Saraswats are rarely found

in these

Dominions.

that

Brahma had

a

daughter named Saraswati, who was married
a son

to

Dadhicha Rishi.

They had

became

the founder of this clan of Brahmans.

who was named The

Saraswat and
Saraswats are

Saivaits in their creed.

The Khandelwads
in the Jaipur State.

take their

name from the
53

village of
sects,

Khandela,

They

are divided into
in.

which are the

names of

localities

they dwell
the

Marriage

With

Chhannyati

Brahmans

the

eponymous

gotras are only nominal and their marriages are regulated by exoga-

mous groups, purely
marriages
are

of

the territorial

type.

In

other words,

inter-

allowed

between
)

parties

having

the

same

gotra

or

132

Brahman

eponym, but they are not allowed between persons having the same
surname.
Girls are married both before and after they have attained

the age of puberty, and adult marriage,

which

is

strictly

prohibited by
tribes.

the

Brahman
is

caste in general,

is

in

vogue among the Chhannyali
the

This

certainly

a

strange

departure from

orthodox usage and

gives credence to the story of their having been manufactured

by the

Maharaja Jayasingh some hundred and
price
is

fifty

years ago.
the
girl.

A

heavy bridemarriage

sometimes paid
is

to

the

parents

of

The

procession
riding
is

formed

at the

house of the bridegroom and conducts him,

on

a

mare, to the house of the bride.

There the whole party
for the
,.

entertained.

At

the auspicious

moment appointed

wedding,

the bride and the bridegroom are seated under the weddirig canopy,
a
sacrificial
fire
is

kindled before them

and appropriate mantras are

recited

by the

priest.

The young

couple walk seven times round the

holy

fire,

always keeping
or

their right

hands towards

it.

This forms the
are

essential

binding

portion

of
is

the

ceremony.

Widows
afford

not

allowed to marry again, nor

divorce recognised by the caste.
as

A
or

man may marry

as

many wives

he can
the

to

maintain.

Marwadi Brahmans

officiate as priests to

Marwadi Mahajanas,

trading classes, and other lower classes such as Sonar, Shimpi, Barbers

and others.
priests
to

Some
few

of

them are

traders

and

money-lenders.

As

the lower classes they are notorious for their rapacity and
of

greed.

A

them are eminent astrologers and learned pandits.

Internal

Structure

—The
and

section

names
as

of

the

Dayama
of the

Brahmans
exogamous

are

appended

may

serve

an

illustration

sections of the entire

Chhannyati
of

caste.

Name

of Gotra.

Name
Pathodya,

Family.

Gautamasa

Palod,

Nahawal,
Khatod,

Kumbhya,
Bussana,

Kand,
Bagdya,

Budadhara,

Bedwant, Bananasidra,

Lelodya,

Kakada, Gagwani, Bhuwal.
^^'5^=^

Ratawa,

Koliwal,
Jopat,

Baldawa,
Ithodya,

Rolanya,
Polgala

Cholankhya,
Nosara,

Namawal,
Abadina,

Ajasera,
Didiyel,

Kukada,
Musya,

Taranawa,^

Mang.

Brahman

133

Name

of Gotra.

XIX
BUDBUDKE
Budbudke
Telugu,

a very

low
their

class

of beggars,

speaking Marathi and

and

deriving

name from

the

bud bud

(gurgle-like)

sound of the daphada
for alms.

(a sort of

drum), which they beat while asking

They

are both

Hindus and Muhammadans.

Belh

classes

are periodical wanderers, going on their rounds of

mendicancy during
rains
set
in.

the dry season,

and returning

to their

homes when the

The Hindu Budbudkes
deities to the
right

obtain alms

by singing the names

of

Hindu

sound of a hollow brass ring which they wear on their

thumb.
their

They wear
heads.
In

a rudraksha necklace

and

a semi-lunar brass

plate on

matters

of

diet

they

have few fcruples,

and

eat the flesh of lizards, jackals, field rats,
a

wild and domestic hogs

and of animals that have died

natural death.

The Muhammadan

beggars, on their begging rounds, have a bag (jholi), a bell, and two
sticks.

To
;

one

stick

is

fastened the jholi and the bell, which rings at
is

every step
at

the other stick

kept to drive

away

the dogs that bark

them

at

the sound of the bell. Fakir,

They

are under a superior called
six

Gudusha
In religion

who

lives

in

Martur,

miles

from

Shahabad.

and ceremonials they conform

to the ordinary

Muhammadan

customs.

XX
BURUD
Burud,

Miyadar,

Myadar,

Medare


to

a

low caste of bambooin

workers and basket and mat-makers,
all

found under different names

parts of the Dominions.

They appear

be a heterogeneous group,

comprising members of different tribes, among

whom
'

there

is

probably

some
caste

infufton of aboriginal blood.
is

The name
is
'

Burud,' by which the

designated in Maharashtra,

of uncertain origin, and corres-

ponds

to the

Telugu word

'

Medare

and the Carnatic

'

Miyadara.'

The
and

customs and the social status of the caste are found to vary greatly
a fact which

in different places,
its

may be due

to

its

wide

distribution

consequent exposure to different social and religious influences.

Internal

Structure

—The
—By
mixed

Buruds have three main

divisions,
after

Maratffe Buruds,

Telugu Buruds and Carnatic Buruds, named

the countries they have long occupied.

No

intermarriage nor inter-

dining

is

allowed among the members of the sub-castes.
:

MaRATHA Buruds
these are regarded
as

Manu
caste,

and other ancient

authorities,

a

being the descendants of the

Kanishka, the son of a Kaivartaka father and a Kuravinda mother.
Several

legends
to

are

current
first

among

them

regarding

their

origin.

According

one story the

Burud was created by Mahadeva

for

the purpose of making

winnowing baskets

to hold the offerings with
celestial

which Parvati, on reaching mature age, was presented by the
matrons.

The Burud was allowed

to cut five

bamboos from

Parvati's

garden
for

;

but he over-reached himself and cut seven bamboos instead,
his

which offence he and

descendants were condemned to a degraded
his degradation to the
fruit

position.

Another legend ascribes

manufacture
she went to

of

a

bamboo

basket for Parvati's flowers and
full

as

worship the Wadh (Ficus indica) on the
June).

moon day
light

of Jesta (end of
real origin

These legends, however, throw no
'

upon the

of the caste.

]

1

36
will

BuRUD
It

be very interesting

to notice the curious

form of totemism

followed by the Buruds.
of trees,

Their exogamous sections bear the names

plants and animals,

whose

representations are set

up under
deity)

marriage booths and worshipped as
at

Deoak (wedding guardian
is

marriage ceremonies.

Similarity of worship
off

a bar to marriage,

and matrimonial alliances will be broken

if

the

two houses

are

discovered to pay honour to the same totem.

The

following section names will

serve

as

illustrations

:

Section name.

Devak (Marriage guardian

deity.)

Sonune.

A

branch of the apta (Bmhinia racemosa).

Wadtele.
Kate.
Pimpare.
Salunke.

Do.
Do. Do.

wadh (Ficm

indica).,
spicigera).

saundad (Prosopis

pipal (Ficus religiosa).

Do.

mango (Mangijera
kpmhada
(fowl).

indica).

Kombatkule.
Dukare.
Supkar.
Itkare.

The
Sup

flesh of the

Do.
(a

du\ara (swine).
fan).

winnowing

It (a brick).

Surwashe.
Bhale.

A A
section

stick of surya grass.

pod

of the hhal plant (a wild plant).
side.

The
outside

names go by the male
nor
inside

A
to

Burud cannot marry
which he belongs.
s

the

sub-caste,

the

section

Marriage
sister
is

with the daughter of the mother's brother or the father
allowed.

Two

brothers

may marry two

sisters,

provided

that the elder brother marries the elder sister.

Marriage

Daughters

are

married both

in

infancy

and

after

they have attained the age of puberty.
is

Sexual licence before marriage

not tolerated, and

if

a girl

becomes pregnant before marriage she
(penance)
to

is

required
her,

to

undergo
her
is

prayaschii

which
and

consists

of

bathing
brethren.

giving

cow's

urine

drink

feasting
is

caste

Polygamy

permitted in case the

first

wife

barren or

incurably diseased.

The
match
for

parents
their

or

guardians of the

boy look out
the

for

a

suitable

son

and

carry

on

preliminary
or

negotiations.

After the match has been settled,

the betrothal

Kunku Lavane


BuRUD
ceremony
choli
is

137

performed,

at

which the
is

girl

is

presented with a

sari,

a

and one rupee.

Liquor

then
the

brought
bride

and

drunk

by the

assembled people.

The
ring.

parents of

visit

and present the

bridegroom with a

After the village Joshi has fixed an auspicious

date for the wedding and for smearing the bridal pair with turmeric

and

oil,

offerings

are

made
in

to

the

village

and

family

gods

and

marriage booths are erected

front of the

houses of the bride and
a
in

bridegroom.

On
the

the

day prior to the wedding,
family,
bring,

married couple,
procession,
their

belonging

to

bridegroom's

characteristic

family Devak, with Pancbpallavi from Maruti's temple

and

instal

it

ceremonially on the central pillar of the booth.
is

The
his

same ceremcJhy
day.
friends

performed by the bride's people on the wedding
is

The bridegroom
and
relatives

escorted

to

the

bride's
is

village
in

by

and on the wedding day he

taken

procession

on the back of a horse or bullock
monies that follow are
the bridal
pair,

to the bride's house.
at

The

cere-

Antarpat,
are
;

which a cloth

is

held between

mantras

pronounced by the

priest

and rice

is

sprinkled over their heads
to the

Kan^adan,

or the formal gift of the bride or the tying of thread-bracelet's

bridegroom

;

Kankan Bandhan,
;

on the wrists of the couple
to

and Sade, or the return of the bridal pair
Antarpat
is

the
of

bridegroom's
the

house.

held

to

be the
days

essentia!

part

ceremony.

The ceremony

occupies
to guests

four

and on

each day food and liquor are provided
freely

and

relatives,

who
caste

indulge

in

drink

and often become
as
their

uproarious.
in

The

Panchayat

claim

Rs.
in

4

perquisite

the

ceremony,

and

spend the amount

feasting and drinking.
or pat
is

Widow-marriage
night,

allowed, and
In

is

always performed

at

the

widow

not being restricted

her selection of a second
late

husband, provided he does not belong to her father's or
gotra.

husband's
are

The
next

couple are seated side by
the
a

side

and

their

clothes

knotted

together,

tying
feast

of
is

the

knot

completing
caste

the

ceremony.

On
at

the

day

given
alive,

to the

people.

Married

women, whose husbands
the ceremony.

are

are

not

allowed to be present

Divorce

is

permitted, with the sanction of the caste Panchayat,
it

on the ground of the wife's adulterjl or misconduct, and

is

effected

138

BuRUD
Chiiti,

by a Soda
to
is

or divorce

deed.

Divorced

women

are allowed
for divorce

marry again by the same
jarkat,

ritual as

widows.
Adultery

The name
is

which
fines

means

separation.
is

usually

punished

by small

and the adulteress

required to do penance.

Inheritance

—The —A
the

Buruds follow the Hindu law of inheritance
his

and a sonless father's property goes to
having no claim.
not re-marry.

nephew, the daughters
provided she does

The widow
woman,
fifth

has

a

life

estate,

Child=Birth
ten

after

child-birth,
birth

is

held unclean for

days.
is

On
set

day

after

an image of the goddess

Satwai

up on a grindstone and daubed with red lead.

Near

it

pieces of moss (shewal) and prickly pear are laid, the

and worshipped by
and pulse.

members

of the household with offerings of bread
is

A

dough lamp

kept burning and the

women

of the house keep a vigil

and sing and converse the whole night.
the house
is

On

the

12th day after birth

smeared with cow-dung, the clothes are cleansed and the
Five pebbles are worshipped outside
is

mother and child are bathed.
the house and
in

the evening the child
religion of the

laid in a cradle
is

and named.

Religion

—The

Buruds

the ordinary form of

Hinduism

current

among

the

other castes of the

Maratha

Districts.

They
as

are mostly Shaivas
favourite

and worship, on Mondays, the god Mahadeva
Bhavani,

their

deity.

Khandoba,

Maruti,

Bahiroba,

Krishna and

Ram

are also honoured,

and a variety of offerings are
their

made on days
ranked
Shitala,
birs

sacred to them.
(spirits

Among
of

minor deities may be
ancestors),

and munfyas

departed
gods.

Mari Ai,

Mahasoba and

other local
to

The

well-to-do members

of

the caste

make pilgrimages
Deshastha
but

Alandi,

Jejuri,

Tuljapur,
for

Mahur
religious
officiate.

and

Pandharpur.

Brahmans are employed
at

and ceremonial purposes,

funerals

Jangams usually
in

Ancestral worship prevails and they have

their houses silver

and

copper embossed plates of

their

dead ancestors.

In

Aswin

(Dassera)

they pay honour to the implements of their craft.

Disposal of the Dead
in

—The
Thf

dead are burnt,

as well as buried

a lying posture with the

head pointing

to the south.

In the case

of cremation, the ashes are collected

on the third day

after

death and

thrown into a

river or tank.

chief mourner shaves his moustache

BuRUD
and beard.
pindas,
person.
is

139
0th day after death,

Sradha

is

performed on the
are offered
in

1

when

or balls of

rice,

the

name

of

the deceased

On

the

1

3th day, caste people are feasted and

some

charity

distributed for the benefit of the departed soul.

Persons dying of
five

smallpox or cholera,
are buried.

and children dying under

years

of

age,

Social Status

Socially,

the Buruds rank

below the Maratha

Kunbis, Malis, Hatkars and Wanjaris, from whose hands they accept

cooked food.
and
fish

They

eat mutton
in

and the

flesh

of fowl,

hare,

deer

and indulge freely

strong drink. of

Occup!ition.
that of

—The
mats,
articles.

occupation

the

caste

has

always

been

bamboo working,

but some of them have, of recent years, taken
as landless day-labourers.

to cultivation

and are engaged

They make
sieves,

bamboo
chairs,

baskets,

winnowing

fans,

cages,

cradles,

and other
or

They also make cane chairs and boxes.
:

Medare
taken
their

TelaNGE Buruds

—These

are supposed or

to

have
near

name from Mount Mahendra,

Mahendragiri,
their

Cape

Coqfiorin.

A

popular
of

legend
gratifying

regarding

origin

relates

how Mahadeva,
winnowing
in

desirous

the yearning
his neck,

of

Parwati for

fans, planted the snakes

from

heads downwards,

the

ground

on

Mount

Mahendra
into fans

and

how

bamboos
attendants.

grew

out of

them and were worked

by Siva's

On

one occasion, lovely apsaras (heavenly courtezans)
tain

visited

the

moun-

and captivated the hearts of the Siva ganas (Siva's attendants),
being blessed with sons and daughters
or

their unions

who were
of
their

called
birth-

Mendare,
place
;

Medare,

after

the

name

Mahendra
work

these inherited, as their profession, the

of their fathers,

and became the progenitors of the present Medare caste.
Internal
intricate

Structure

—The

internal

structure
'

of

the
'

caste

is

owing, doubtless, to the fact that the term
of
all

Medare

has

now
to

become the common appellation

classes

who have

taken

bamboo working.

As

for

instance,

there

are

Mang
may be

Medares,
;

or

Mangs who have adopted
Medares
as
;

the occupation of bamboo-workers

Tota

and so on.
the

The

following sub-castes
caste-j(l)

distinguished
(2)

constituting
(3)

Medare
(4)

Lingayit
(5)

Medare,

Chetti

Medare,

Medara,

Are

Ifledare,

Pachabadalwad

and

140

BURUD
Adi Kodku.

(6)

The

last

are the genealogists,

or gotra custodians,

of

the rest

of

the

sub-castes

and beg only from them.
and occupy the highest

Lingayit
social
level

Medares

are Lingayits in creed,

among

the community.

They

stand in hypergamous relation to the

other sub-castes.

Next

to these, in social

precedence, rank the Chetti

Medares,
but have

who
now
and

originally

represented

rich

and respectable

families,

separated themselves from the poorer

members
In

of the

community

formed

an
'

independent
chetti
'

sub-caste.

recognition

of their superiority the

title

is

affixed to their

names.

Are
social

Medares were formerly
pressure,

Maratha Buruds who,
where,
in

under

some
time,

emigrated into Telingana,

course of

they

adopted the customs and manners of Telanga Buruds and are now
completely absorbed into their adopted community.

Like other Telanga
of

castes,

the

Medares follow
gotras

a

double system
the
:

exogamous

sections,

one consisting of

and

other

of

family names.

Both the systems have been given below
Goiras.

1 .

Devakula.

BURUD
these
it

141

two systems

are reconciled
is

in

the regulation of their marriages,
force

is

certain that totemism

in

full

among

the Medares as has
its

it

is

among
in

the

Burud

caste.

Each Medare family

own

totem
its

the form of a tree, plant,
to

animal or some other object, which
their

members have
the

worship

at

marriages.

Thus,

members

of

Hanmanta

gotra pay honour to the pipal tree {Ficus religiosa) at
;

their marriages

members

of the Usikula gotra reverence linseed oil

;

and those of the Nagarsa gotra honour the serpent and abstain from
eating the snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina).
Infant marriage
is

is

practised

by the

caste, although adult marriage

still

in

vo"feue
in

among

the Medares

of the
to
for

Adilabad
26,

District.

A

price
social

varying
status
is

amount from Rs. 6
the
parties,
in
is

Rs.
the

according to the

of

paid

bride.

The

marriage

ceremony
the higher

performed

accordance with the usage current among

Telugu

castes,

Kanyadan,

or the giving

and receiving of

the bride, being the essential portion of the ceremony.

Polygamy

is

permitted, without limit in theory as to the number of wives.

Widows

may marry

again and divorce

is

recognised with the sanction of the

caste Panchayat, the breaking of a straw symbolising the separation.

A

woman

taken

in

adultery with a low caste

member

is

turned out of

the caste.

Religion.
divided,
like

—The
the

Medares

profess to be orthodox Hindus, being
czistes,

other

Telanga

between

Tirmanidharis

(Vaishnavas) and Vibhutidharis (Shaivas).
Mallikarjuna, a form of
officiate as priests at their

They

regard

Malayya

of

Mahadev,

as their special deity.

Brahmans

marriages and on other ceremonial occasions.

Pochamma, Mari

Amma
of

and Maisamma are among
each

their

minor gods,

whom
cheese.

the

members

household

worship on
of

Tuesdays and
rice

Fridays,

with sacrifices of

goats

and

offerings

cooked
and

and

The dead

are

burned

by

Tirmanidharis

buried

by

Vibhutidharis

and the ashes and bones of the burnt are collected
into

and thrown
the
funerals

a

river

or

under some

tree.

Jangams
funeral

officiate

at

of

the
is

Vibhutidharis

while

the

service

of

the Tirmanidharis
I ,

conducted by Ayyawars.

Social
in

Status

—The
than

social
in

status

of

the caste

is

low.

It

is

[jlower

Telingana

Mahai^ishtra.

The

village

servants.

142
barbers

BuRUD
and washermen,
will

not
a

defile

themselves by working
of the caste has
to

for

them,

and a barber shaving

member

bathe

subsequently.
is

They

live

on the outskirts of villages and their touch
of the higher castes.

deemed

a pollution
flesh

by members

They

eat

fish

and the

of swine,

fowls and lizards, and drink arrack and

other liquors.

MiYADARA,
Camatic Telanga
districts

or of

CaNNADA BuRUDS,
the

are

to

be

found

in

the the
their

Dominions.
differentiate

They
from
the

are

identical

with
to

Medares,

but

latter

owing
social

customs and usages having been affected by the
to
all

new

influences

which they are exposed.
rival

In the

Camatic, Lingayatism.has absorbed
to

sects

and religions, and Miyadaras are not an exception

the general rule.
into
their

The Miyadaras

admit members of the higher castes
a

community on the performance of
-s

ceremony

in

which
are

a betel leaf

cut on the tongue of the novice
is

and caste people
allowed
is

feasted.

Polygamy
is

permitted

;

widows
Infant

are

to

marry

again and divorce
the ceremony
castes.
In
is

recognised.

marriage

customary,

and

modelled upon
of
religion as

that prevalent

among
to

other Camatic
but

matters

they

profess

be Shaivayits,

worship

Venkatramanna

their

special

deity.

Margamma, Duramong
their minor

gamma, Maisamma, Polkamma and Mashamma
gods.

are

Brahmans
and
are

officiate

at

their
all

marriages
other
in

but

Jangams
and
posture.

are

their

Gurus

engaged

for

religious
sitting

ceremonial

observances.

The dead
in

are

buried
are

a

Women
Sradha
is

dying pregnant or

child-birth

burnt.
in

No

regular

performed, but caste people are feasted

honour of the deceased
is

on the 9th day after death.
of
the

Their social status

higher than that

Telugu Medares,

the village
their

barber shaving

them and the

village

washerman washing

clothes.

XXI
Chakla or Dhobi
Dhobi, Chakla,
the
Parit,

Agesaru, Warathi,
Telingana,
the

Madiyal,

Ramdu
to

washerman

caste
as

of
'

the

Marathwadi and Carnatic
washermen,
according

Districts.

Styled

Manjushar,'

Manu,

are ]jorn of a

Vaidehik father and an Ugra mother, and are
viz.,
in

pratilomaja, I.e.,
order,

born against the hair or grain,

an inverse

the mother being of the higher caste than the father.

Origin
origin,

and Internal Structure
Dhobis
appear
to


a

Apart

from

this

mythical

the

be

functional

group

formed

from members of the lower classes, a view which the physical characteristics

of

the Dhobis,
to support.

and

their

offices

as

priests

to the

animistic

deities,

seem

They

have, however, no traditions respecting

their origift,
this

nor will their exogamous sections throw any light upon

point.

Owing

to

its

very wide distribution, the Dhobi caste

is

divided into a very large number of endogamous groups, eighteen of

which
(1)

are^ given

below.
Chakla.
(10) (11) (12)

Ganji

Chakla.

Mota
Lingayit

(13)
(14)
,,

Marathi

or Parit.

Handi
Carnatic
,,

(15)

or Agesaru.

(16)
(17)
(18),

Barki

Boya
Bedar
to

These names

either

refer

to

the

country

which the sub-castes

belong, or to the castes from which they have sprung.
(I)

Telaga Chakla
'

represents the

Dhobi
'

caste of

Telingana.

The name
'

Chakla

'

comes from the word
j

sakia

'

which means

service

'

in

Telugu.

144

Chakla or Dhobi
(2)

Chippa Chakla
(tailor)

are

the

descendants

of

a

Chakla

father

and a Chippa
(3)

mother.

Turka Chakla

those Dhobis

who have

joined

the

ranks

of Islam.
(4)

Waddi Chakla
washerman.

of

the

Waddewar
of the

caste,

following

the

trade of a
(5)

Lambadi Chakla
s

—people

Lambada

caste,

following

the

Dhobi
(6)

trade.

Balija or Lingayit caste

—do

not follow

the occupation of

other Dhobis, but
(7)

wash only rumals

(large kerchiefs used as head-gear).

Agesaru
in

the

Carnatic

Chakla,

the

name

gwen

to

the

Dhobis
(8)

the

Carnatic.

Bundeli

Chakla

also

called

Hindustani

Chakla,

being

emigrants from Hindustan.
(9)

Barki

Chakla

—descendants
Chakla

of

a

Komti

father

and

a

Dhobi mother,
(10)
of the

are found in the

Nalgunda

District.
to

Parit or Marathi

the

name given

the Dhobis
t

Marathawadi

Districts.

(11)

Waddi Chakla

the

lowest

class

of

the

Dhobis; they
fitc.

wash the clothes of the unclean
(12)
ants

classes such as the
'

Mahar, Mang,

Lingayit Chakla

also called

Madiyal,' are the descend-

of

Madiyal Machaya, who washed the clothes of Basava and
of
a
his

was one

favourite disciples.
of the
:

Only

few

exogamous groups

into

divided are given below
(1) (2) (3) (4)


(5) (6)

which the caste

is

Gandamala.
Singaraj.

Padur.

Bappanna Konker.
Vastarla.
Chikori.
interest.
is It

Gondipurla.

(7)
(8)

Manipad.
divisions present

These
however,
division

no features of special
one
of

may,
subthe

be
of

remarked

that

them,

'Manipad,'
regulated

a

the

Erkala caste.

Marriages

are

as

by

other

Telugu

castes.

The Dhobis
is

say that they have only one goto,

Jalnul,'

which, however,

against the rule of
their

exogamy.
of
the

The Dhobis
higher
castes

admit into

community those members
from
their

who have been

ei;pelled

own

caste,

no


Chakla or Dhobi
special

145

ceremony being performed on the occasion.

It

is

said

that,

formerly, the Dhobis and the

Mangalas belonged
in

to

the same caste.

Once

a

Mangala went
in

to a

Dhobi's house

order to ask the Dhobi's
in

daughter

marriage.
girl

Nobody, except

the girl

question,

was

in

the house, and the
to the

informed the suitor that her parents had gone

reu to

wash

clothes.

The

reu
at

means

that

part of

the river

bank where the shaving operations
sidering
this

funerals

are performed.

Con-

to

be an

ill

omen, the Mangala departed,

and since

then the Mangalas have ceased to intermarry with the Chaklas.

JMarriage.
5 and
1

Girls are married

as

infants

between the ages of
12

2 'years.

Boys are usually married between

and 20.
to their

Girls are dedicated to temples, in fulfilment of

vows

or

owing

deformity,
is

if

husbands cannot be procured for them.

The ceremony
new
by
a

as

follows.

On
is

an auspicious day the

girl

is

dressed in a

sari

and choli and

taken before the image and
rites.
is

wedded

to

it

Brahman according
as his fee.
girl

to the

Five rupees are paid to the Brahman
after marriage

Cohabitation
puberty.

allowed

even before the

attains

The
Telugu
(I)

marriage ceremony
It

is

the same as

is

observed by the other
:

castes.

comprises the following rituals

Shastriya
(a)

A char— Lagnam— which
in

the

Brahman

priest ties a thread-bracelet
left

on the right wrist of the bridegroom and the
(b) Jilkerbellam

wrist of the bride.

the bridal pair put a mixture of cumin seeds and

jaggery

on each other's

heads,

(c)

Thalwat
(d)

—throwing

turmeric

coloured rice on each other's heads,
of the bride

Kan^adan

the formal gift

by her father

to the bridegroom, regarded as the binding
(e)
(f)

portion of the marriage ceremony,
bridal
pair

Padghattan

treading

by the
ties

on each other's

foot,

Pusii

—the

bridegroom

an

auspicious string round the bride's neck,

{g)

Brahmamudi

the ends

of the garments of the bridal pair are tied in a knot.
(II)

Deshachar


of

The
blessings

worship
are

Pinnamma,

Pochamma and

Nagulu,

whose
is

invoked upon the bridal pair and whose assistance
in

sought to avert any evil influenc('£

the ceremony.

146

Chakla or Dhobi
Stri
[a)

(III)

Achar—
or

Kotnam

Ulukhala

pestles,

mortars

and

grindstones

are worshipped,
the
potter's

(b)

Aroeni Kundalu

earthen pots are brought from

house and placed

and worshipped near the household

gods.

(IV)

Kulachar—

On
is

the last day, the ceremonies of (a) Nagoeli, (h)
(d)

Panpm,

(c)

Wappagintha and

Wadrbium

are performed,

whereupon the bride

sent to her husband's house.

Polygamy

is

permitted theoretically
d

to

any extent.

Widow=Marriage..

—A

widow may marry

again, but she cannot
ritual consists

marry the brother of her deceased husband.

The

of the

tying of a string of black beads (Mangulsutra) round the neck ci the

bride by the bridegroom,

and the presentation

to her of a cocoanut,
in

some
this

rice

and

date-fruits.
is

No Brahman
is

is

called
alone.

to officiate

at

ceremony, which

Divorce
for

attended by

widows
if

Divorce

allowed

the

wife

is

unchaste,

or

incompatibility of temper,
(pusti)

and

is

effected

by removing the lucky

string

from her neck and driving her out of the house.

A

divorced

woman may

marry

again

by the same

rite

as

a

widow.

Sexual intercourse with an outsider belonging to a higher caste may

be

tolerated, but that with

Inheritance

—The

one of a lower caste involves expulsion.

sons inherit

by equal

shares,

no extra share
any

being given to the eldest son.

Females can

inherit in default of
in

male

issue.

The

Religion
smear
their

usage of

Chudawand

prevails

the caste.

In matters of religion,

the Chaklas are Saivaits and
(vibhuti).

foreheads

with

sacred

ashes

They employ
call
in

Brahmans

for religious

and ceremonial purposes and

Jangams
(Julyis

to officiate at funerals.

On Mondays

in

the

month of Sravan

August),

Madiyal Machaya, the supposed founder of the

caste,

honoured, being represented by a round piece of stone daubed with

gem

(red ochre)

and besmeared with holy ashes.

In

the month of

Ashadha

(June-July),

Pochamma and Durgamma

are propitiated with

offerings of goats,

&c.
their

Disposal of the Dead._l[ie Chaklas bury

dead

in

a

Chakla or Dhobj
lying posture with the

147

head towards the south.

No Sradha
all

is

per-

formed.

On
is

the last day of the month of Bhadrapad,

the ances-

tors are propitiated,

when

libations of

til

water (gingelly) are poured

and charity

distributed in the

name

of the manes.
aficestors are

On

the 3rd of
in

the lunar half of

Waishakha, the dead

worshipped

the

form of earthen pots painted with red and yellow
of sweet dainties,

stripes,

with offerings
of.

which the worshipper subsequently partakes
their

The

Lingayit

Dhobis bury

dead,
If

if

married,

in

a

sitting

posture

with the face towards the north.
buried
in

the dead are unmanied, they are

a

lying
ijersons

posture

with

the

face

downwards.
are

Pregnant
in

women a:^
Social
clothes

dying of disease, or leprosy,

burnt,

the

belief that their burial

Status

causes drought.

Since

the

Chakla does

not

object

to
is

wash

which are considered ceremonially
His
all

unclean,
is

he

himself

regarded as being unclean.

social

status

therefore very low,
is

lower than

that

of

almost

those

whose touch

regarded

as

ceremonially unclean.

The Chaklas

decline to

wash

for barbers, since

the latter do not hold torches at their weddings.

The Chaklas

eat

mutton,

pork,

the flesh of fowl

and cloven-footed animals and are
also eat the leavings of the higher

strongly addicted to drink.
caste people.

They

Occupation.

—Washing
all

clothes

has been the traditional occuadhere.

pation of the caste and to this they
large

still

This

is

due

to the

demand which
is

classes

have

for their services.

The

village
for

Chakla

paid for his services in grain, the quantity of which,
is

every plough in the village,
plying their trade
in

fixed.

This
in
is

is

called haluta.

Dhobis

towns are paid

cash.
as follows
:

Their mode of washing clothes
are rinsed in

First the clothes

water and beaten.
in

They

are then cleansed with fuller's

earth

and steamed

earthen vessels,

After they are

all

thoroughly

steamed, they are again cleansed with soap and washed with cold

water

in

a

river

or

tank.

They
are

are

then

steeped

in

rice

starch
or
silk

and dried.

Finally

they

ironed

and

folded.

Flannel

clothes are not steamed, but only cleansed with

warm

soapsuds and

then washed with cold water.
in the

'i

worship of the minor, village gods, the Dhobi acts as^a

148

Chakla or Dhobi
and receives,
as
his

priest

perquisite,

the offerings,
is

or a part of the

offerings,

made

to

the
in

deities.

The Dhobi

also

useful

in

the

marriage ceremony,

which he shares the presents with the barber.
to

Some

of the Chaklas have taken
let

agriculture.

Some manufacture

lime and
fessions

donkeys for

hire.

A

few have adopted respectable pro-

and are Goverrunent

clerks.

XXII
Chanchu
Chanchu,
dwelling

Chanchukulam,

Chanchalwad

—a

non-Aryan

tribe

in the hilly tracts

which run
of

parallel to the Kistna river

and

form the southern boundary

the

Hyderabad Dominions.

They
com-

are a well-built race, shorter than the neighbouring Hindus, with

plexions varying
frizzly
hair.

from dark brown to black

and rather coarse and

Their physical characteristics are high and prominent
broad
noses

cheek

bones,

with

spreading

nostrils,

and black

and

piercing eyes.

Customs and Manners
most primitive character.
a

—The
in

habits of

the tribe

are

of

the

The men

are almost nude, wearing merely

piece of cloth round their loins,

while the more savage members
aprons
live
in

of the* tribe are said to cover their nakedness with
leaves.

made

of

They make
huts.

clearings are
still

the

forest

and

bee-hive

shaped
as

They

in

a half

savage state and are engaged

watchmen and guides

in

the mountain passes.

They speak Telugu
which

with a peculiar intonation.

Origin
states

Regarding
their
first

their

origin,

they

have
sons

a

tradition

that

ancestor

had seven
forest
tribes,
in

and

one

daughter.

From

the

sons

sprang

seven

one of them being the

Chanchus.

The

daughter was given
the
deity,

marriage to the god Krishna
the
progenitor
of

and had a son by
Krishna Chanchus.

who became
Chanchus

the

Internal

Structure
:

—The

ate
(2)

divided

into

four
(3)

endogamous groups

(1)

Telugu Chanchus,

Adavi Chanchus,

Krishna Chanchus, and (4) Bonta Chanchus.

The Telugu Chanchus The
chief distinc-

and Krishna Chanchus are beggars, and collect alms by dancing and
singing
tion

songs before the Hindus of the plains.
is

between the two

that,

while the former beg by blowing a

long horn, the latter obtain alrrs by ringing bells and playing on a

150

Chanchu
flute.

bamboo

Both
the

these

sub-castes

live

by

hunting
of

as

well.

When
feathers

begging,

Krishna
of

Chanchus

wear

crowns

peacock
the

and

garlands

beads.

The Adavi Chanchus form
in large

savage portion of the tribe and are to be found

numbers

in the

neighbourhood

of

Shri

Shailya

on

the

river

Kistna.

They

are
their

confined to the secluded parts of the forest clad hills
living

and obtain

by hunting deer, wild hog and hare with

their

bamboo bows

and arrows.
in

Some
tents,

of

them
which

visit

the villages of the plains and live
their

patch-work
bring
for

explains

name Bonta Chanchus.
flutes,

They

sale

bamboo seed

and bamboo

which they
^'

barter for grain to the villagers.

The
is

information

regarding

the

exogamous system of the
names
appear
to

tribe

rather

incomplete.

The

section

be

partly

totemislic as an

and partly
:

territorial.

The

following specimens

may

serve

illustration


Manulawaru.
Gogulawaru.
Maripallipapdi.

Nalabotawaru.

Myakalawaru.
Avlawaru.

Kudumuduwadlu.
Waregallingu.

Jalamuttadu

Kanyabainodu.

A

man may

not marry a

woman

of his

own

section

;

but he

may marry

tlie

daughters of his maternal uncle, paternal aunt or sister.

Marriage

—Chanchu
however,

girls

are married after they have attained
is

the age of puberty, and free courtship
Infant

said to prevail

among them.
as

marriages,
rule,

are

not

entirely

unknown though,

a

general

they are practised only by those

who have come

into

contact with the
carried

Hindus

of the plains.

Girls are occasionally forcibly
is

away and married.
a girl

Sexual license before marriage
is

tolerated,
if,

and

if

becomes pregnant her lover
is

required to marry her;

however, he declines to do so she
provided
that

married to some other man,
is

the

rule

of

exogamy

carefully

observed

in

the

previous liaison as well as in the subsequent marriage.

The

marriage

ceremony
girl

is
if

a simple one.
his
offer
is

The

bridegroom's father proposes for the

and,

accepted,; the

wedding day

is

fixed

and

a

hundred and one peacock feathers are delivered as the bride-price.

Chanchu
The
bride
is

151

brought by her friends and relations to the bridegroom's
in

house, where both the bride and bridegroom are dressed

white and
is

seated opposite to each other, while the intervening space

filled

by

drummers who beat the
great

tribal

drums

in

honour of the occasion.
after

A

deal
ties

of drinking and dancing follows,

which the bride-

groom

a string of black beads round the bride's neck.

The

bridal

pair then retire into a separate hut to

consummate
;

their union.

The

bridegroom

first

re-appears, and after him the bride

the pair are then

greeted by the

company

as

Widow=Marriage

—A widow may
to
his

husband and wife.
marry again, but she
is

not

expected t« marry her late husband's younger or elder brother.
special ritual
is

No
bridehis

ordained for the marriage of a widow.

The

groom brings the widow
tribal

house and provides a feast for

brethren.

Divorce.

—Divorce

is

permitted

for

adultery

and

a

divorced

woman

is

allowed to marry again.

Religion
sented by
village.

—The
small
is

favourite deity of the

Chanchus

is

Ganga,

repre-

a

stone set

up under

a

tamarind tree outside the

A sheep
tree

sacrificed to the deity,
rest of the carcase
is

one of

its

legs

is

suspended

from the
deity
is

and the

taken by the votaries.

The

worshipped only once a year.

The Chanchus

firmly believe

in evil spirits

and ascribe every sickness or calamity to

their

malevolent
religious

action.

Brahmans have not yet been introduced and
by a member of the
tribe.
in

all

functions are discharged

Disposal of the Dead
ture with the
is

—The
the
at

dead are buried

a lying pos-

head

to the south

and the face downwards.
1

Mourning
is

observed for

10 days.
is

On

0th day after death a goat
and,
after
it

sacrificed,

the flesh

offered

the grave

has

been

touched by a crow, the mourners bathe, drink liquor and return home.

No

Sradha

is

performed nor are any funeral

rites

observed afterwards.

Social Status.
stated.

—The
sects

social rank of the tribe cannot

be precisely

They

are

still

beyond the pale of Hinduism.

No
The

castes,

except Malas and Madigas, will eat from their hands.
of

influence

the great

Hindu

has

already

reached them and they

are

divided into Tirmanidharis and Vibhutidharis.

These

will not accept

food from the hands of Mangalas,? Chaklas and the lowest unclean

152

Chanchu
They
eat the flesh of
goats,

classes.

swine,

fowl,

field

rats,

mice

and

jackals,

and drink liquor

distilled

from the flowers of the mahua

{Bassia latijolia).

Occupation
and also
live

—The
forest

wildest of the Chanchus subsist by hunting

on

produce and

roots.

Their weapons are

a

bamboo bow and reed arrow
tamarind,
for

tipped with iron.
flowers
are

They

collect honey,
barter
of

wood
and
a

apples,
cloth.

mahua

and herbs, which they
settled

grain

Those who

on the

outskirts

villages

earn

livelihood

by guarding the crops and
to

cattle

of

the

village farmers.

A

few only have taken

cultivation.

XXIII
Darji
Darji,

Simpi,

Meerolu,

Chipollu

the

tailor

caste

of

the

Hyderabad Dominions

—descended,

according to ancient authorities,

from a Sudra father and a Bhanda mother.
to

Some
the

trace their origin
;

Chaun^aka Devi, the patron goddess

of

Devanga Koshtis

but the caste clearly appears to be a functional group, recruited from

among

the respectable

members

Internal Structure

—The

of

Hindu

society.

Darjis are divided into five sub-castes.

Namdeva

Darji,

Lingayit

Darji,

Marwadi

Darji,

Jain

Darji,

and

Jingar Darji.

The

last three divisions indicate

the castes from which

they are formed,

and have been treated

in

separate articles.

The

Lingayit Darjis

v^fere originally

members
its

of the Darji caste

who were
They
are

converted to Lingayitism after

foundation by Basava.

mostly to be found

in

the Carnatic Districts and have entirely consect.

formed
claim

to the
their

customs and usages of the

The Namdeva
saint

Darjis

descent

from the great Maratha

Namdeva,
in

who

sprang from a shimpa (shell) found by his mother Gonai
or

the

Bhima

Chandrabhaga

river.

They

include two classes, Telugu Chippolu
territorial

and Maratha Shimpi, based upon
'

distinctions.

The name
"

Chippollu
'

'

is

derived from the Telugu word chimpi meaning
their

to

cut

and refers to

occupation of cutting clothes.

In

physical

characteristics, the

Namdeva

Darjis appear to be originally of Telugu
in

or

Dravidian

origin

and to have,

later

times,

spread

over

the

Maratha country.

The Namdeva

Darjis have a double set of exo-

gamous groups, the one
names.

consisting of gotras

and the other of family

A

close examination of their gotra system lends support to

the theory of their

mixed

origin.

The
belonging

gotra system
is

appears to be ornamental

and the regulation
marriage of persons

of marriage

based upon family names.

The

to the

same

section

is

prohibited.

A

man may marry

the

154

Darji
sister.

daughter of his maternal uncle or elder

Two

sisters

may be
sisters.

married to the same man, but two brothers cannot marry two

Namdeva
of 5 and

Darjis marry their daughters

as

infants

between the ages
Rs. 30
is

10 years.

A

bride-price of Rs.

20

to

paid to

the parents of the

girl.

Polygamy

is

permitted, but rarely practised

on a large scale.

Marriage
includes
(1)
:

—The

marriage ceremony

is

of the standard type and

Choti Mangani

at

which

certain people,
girl

on behalf of the
a

bridegroom, go formally to the house of the
sari,

and present her with
ap.d

a choir and

some sweetmeat.

The

gods Ganpati

Waruna
girl

are next

worshipped by a Brahman

priest,

whereupon the

dons

the garments presented to her.
(2)

Badi Mangani or

betrothal

—ornaments

such

as

anklets,

bracelets and a nose-ring are ceremonially placed on the girl's

body by

the boy's people.
(3)

The

worship of Pochamma, or the smallpox deity

after an

auspicious day has been fixed for the wedding,

some married women,

bearing water jars on their heads, others carrying flowers, betel-leaves

and areca-nuts and some men taking a goat and
the

liquor,

proceed to
the
village.

temple of
goat
is

the

goddess,
its

situated

generally

outside

The

sacrificed,

head and one leg with some of the

liquor

being placed before the goddess.

The

goddess

is

then worshipped
her.

and the bride's wedding clothes, dyed with turmeric, are put on

The
day.

clothes are then taken off

and the company return home.

The

flesh of the sacrificed

animal and the liquor provide the feast for the
is

The same ceremony
Deoak

separately performed at the bridegroom's

house.
(4)

installation— twigs of the salai {Boswellia thurijera)
trees

and shami (Prosopis spicigera)
brought by married

and 9 new earthen vessels
marriage booth,

are

women

to the

accompanied by

tom-toms and music.

Two
is

of the pots are buried, with their mouths

open, near the sacred salai post, to which are tied the twigs of the
salai

and shami.

This

called

Devak.

One

earthen pot
oil

is

tied to

another post of the pandal, and covered with an
(5)

lamp.
bridegroom's

Bir

Procession— two m^n belonging

to

the

Darji
section,
in

155

each dressed to the waist
right

in

women's
left

clothes,

and grasping
are

his

hand a sword and

in

his

a

bhande,
the

taken

in

procession to the temple of

Maruti,

before

whom

bhandes are

placed.

The

procession

then

returns

home.

This

ceremony

is

separately performed at the bride's house also.

An
booth,

earthen platform having been erected beneath the marriage

the

bridegroom,

at

the

auspicious

moment,
the

is

escorted

on

horseback to the bride's house.

On

his

arrival,

women

of each

party amuse themselves by throwing coloured water and cotton seed
at

one another.

The

actual
all

ceremony corresponds

in
is

every respect

to that in

vRgue among

the

Telugu

castes.
his

This

followed by

Kanyadan

(the formal gift of the bride

and

formal acceptance of her
to

by the bridegroom) and Kard^an Bandhanam, or the lying
wrists of the bridal pair of

the

yellow bracelets, made of

five

threads in

the case of the bridegroom and four in the case of the bride,
a piece of turmeric

with

and a betel-leaf fastened

to each.

The Brahman
finger

then,

on behalf of the husband, places a ring on the bride's
ties

and

the

lucky

thread of

small

black beads

around her nect
or

On

the third day the Jhenda,

also called

Dhenda

Dand^a, and

Nagbali take place.
every day.

The

caste people are entertained with a feast
is

The

last

ceremony

that of

Mahadeoachi Gadi Pujan,
seat.
is

or the adoration of the

god Mahadeva's

On

the earthen plat-

form
cloth.

is

placed a bullock's saddle, which

covered with a white
is

A
it

square of rice

is

then formed and a water pot

placed

over

and worshipped.

All the people present then stand when
is

Arti (the great God's hymn)

recited

in

union,
seat,

25 areca

nuts

are

placed by each
terminates.

person present

before

the

and the ceremony

The

tying of mangalsutra forms the essential portion of
is

the

ritual.

This form of marriage ceremony

also
it

observed

by

those settled in the

Maratha country.
in

In

Telingana

differs slightly,

but closely conesponds to that
of about the

vogue among other Telugu

castes

same

social standing.

Widow=Marriage

—A widow
of

is

permitted to marry again, but

not the younger brother of her late husband.
follows.
In

The ceremony
bridegroom,
nuts

is

as
in

the darkness

the

night,

the
areca

sword

hand,

goes to Maruti's temple,

places

and betel leaves

156
before the god,

Darji
and proceeds thence
to

the bride's house.

There
stool,

he removes with the sword an areca nut placed on a wooden

which he then occupies.

The

bride joins him and

sits

by

his side.

With

their clothes knotted together they

salute the family
at

gods and
cind

elderly

persons.

Caste people are entertained

a

feast

the

ceremony ends.

Divorce
to re-marry

by the same

Religion
and Saiva

— —The Namdeva
Divorce
is

permitted, divorced
as

women

being allowed

rites

widows.
Darjis belong both to the Vaishnava
is

sects.

Their special deity
offerings

Chaundika, worshipped on
flesh

Ganesh Chouth with
offerings being eaten

of

sweetmeat,

aijd

win^-,

the

by the

votciries.

On
are

the same dciy they honour

the implements of their craft.
of

They pay

reverence to

all

the gods

the

Hindu pantheon.
occasions.

Brahmans

engaged on

religious

and

ceremonial

Disposal of the
sittmg posture,

Dead—The

Shaivas

bury

their

dead

in

a

with the face towards the east.
is

A

Jangam performs
it

the funeral rites and, after the grave a conch.

filled,

stands on

and blows

He

is

then induced to leave the place with presfents, and by

doing so indicates that the soul of the dead has obtained absolution.

The Vaishnawas
and burn
it

carry the

dead body, bathed and clothed
its

in white,
is

on a pyre with

head towards the south.

Mourning

10

days for a married adult and 3 for unmarried adults and children.

The
if

ashes are collected and thrown into the waters of the Ganges,
or into the nearest river.

possible,

On

the

10th day after death,

the

caste

people
i.e.,

are

fed,

and
his

the

ptrincipal

mourner

performs

kshoura,

he

shaves

head
first

and
year.

moustache.

Sradha
in

is

celebrated each month during the
are propitiated in the months of

Ancestors

general

Social Status

Vaishakha and Bhadrapad.

Socially, the caste stands

below the Kapus and

above the Mangalas (barbers) and Chaklas (washermen).
mutton,

They

eat

fowl

and

fish,

and indulge
is

in

strong

drinks.
still

The
cling,

original

occupation of the caste
a

tailoring, to

which they

and only
Their

few

of

them have taken
in their

to agriculture

and other

pursuits.

women

help them

work.

XXIV
Dasri
Dasri

a class of
'

Vaishnawa beggars, taking

their

name from

the

word

'

Dasa

or

'

servant of god.'

They were

originally recruited

from the Telugu castes and comprise several endogamous groups, the
principal
(1)

among which
BuWca
Dasri.
Dasri.

are

:

(6)
(7)

Chinna Dasri.

(2) (3)
(4)
(5)

Paga

Kangyadulu Dasri.

Dande

Dasri.
or Bhutte Dasri.

(8) (9)

Mala
Hole

Dasri.

Bhagwat

Dasri.
Dasri.

Kunchaloya or Telaga Dasri.
Dasris,
also called
in

(10) Dasris, of

Chanchu
are

Bukka
prepare

Kunkum
mixture

perfumers,

and

and deal

^un/ju

(a

turmeric

and

safflower),

udhatti (pastils), surma (antimony) and other aromatics and perfumes.

Dande

Dasris, or Pusalwads,

add the

selling of glass

beads to

their

occupation of begging.

Their traditions say that they were originally
for

engaged

as palanquin bearers

their

gurus,

talacharis

of

Kanchi.
their
first
is

Pleased with their devotion,
ancestor
lifted,

one of the gurus presented
the pole with

with

a

danda,
as

i.e.,

which

a

palanquin

to

be used

the badge of their mendicancy.

They were

also furnished with talam (cymbals), tambora (a sort of Indian violin),

sharikha (conch), ghanta (bell) and dioa (lampstand).

When
is

begging

they generally form a party of three.

The

lampstand
it,

placed on the

ground and two of the party dance around

one of them blowing

the conch and the other ringing the bell, while the third sings songs
in

praise of

Vishnu
'

to the music of the

tambora ending each couplet

with with

the

words

Govinda,
in

Govinda.'
hands.

On

Saturdays,

they
solicit

dance
alms,

lighted

torches

their

Sometimes they

taking on

their

shoulders

\aodis,

which contain images of Vishnu,

conches, shaligram stones, rudraksha, and other sacred objects, which
'

they

sell to

the pious.

In this capacify they are called

'

Kasi Kavdis

158
from
Kasi).

Dasri
of
ko^odis

(bearers

Occasionally

they

appear

in

the

disguise of Northern India Bairagis and try to act

up

to their disguise,

immitating

the

Bairagis
of

in

language
leaves
are
'

and
sell

manners.
medicinal

Their
drugs.

women
The who

make

baskets

palmyra

and

Bhagwat, or Bhutte Dasris,
obtain alms
in

low-caste wandering beggars,
'

by performing a

Bhagwat

dance.

A

man

is

dressed

female clothes, wearing tightly the

sari

and the choli, and carrying

a string

of jingling bells around each leg immediately

above the ankle.

Garlands of wooden beads are also worn round the neck and gilded
ornaments of

wood on

the head.

Thus

attired, the

man dances

before

an audience to the music of the mridanga (drum) and tcls (cymbals).

Some

of

them trade

in

small needles and glass beads and are, on that
:

account, called Bhutte Dasris or Pusalwads
police as criminals. the
'

they are watched by the

The Hole

Dasris seem to have connection with

Holers

'

of

the Carnatic and the

Mala Dasris with

the

Mala

caste of Telingana.

The Chanchu
tribe.

Dasris, or Krishna Chanchus, are

drawn from
groups
is

the

Chanchu

The

information

regarding

other

imperfect.

Internal Structure

—The
few

Dasris are divided into a number of

exogamous
Yerlondalu.

sections.

A

of these are

shown below
Anagondiwaru,

:

Gawiwaru.
Aditondalu.

Kavatiwaru.

Rawalwaru.
Battondalu.

Anagalundalu.

Amnaboyaniwaru.
Adiwaru.
Podilawaru.
is

Bumalawaru.
Foyaniwaru.

Poshetiwaru.

Poyaniwaru.
prohibited.

Marriage within the section
married by the same

Two

sisters

may be

man
his

or

by two uterine brothers.

A

man may
or his

marry the daughter of
elder
sister.

mother's brother, his father's

sister

Outsiders are admitted by them into their community,
in

provided that they are Vaishnawas
is

creed.

No

special

ceremony
is

ordained for the occasion, except that the tongue of the novice

branded with hot gold.

Marriage
adults.

Dasri

girls

are

married

both
girl

as
is

infants

and

as

In

the case of infant marriage,
until

the

not sent to her

husband's house

she

is

tvyelve years

old when,

on being pre-

sented with a white sari

by her

parents,

she goes to live with her


Dasri
husband.

159

Among some
house
until

Dasris, the husband remains with his wife at

her father's

she has become the mother of one child.
is

Sexual intercourse before marriage
pregnant her paramour
is is

tolerated,

but

if

a girl

becomes

compelled to marry her.
other

The ceremony
and includes
nuts
are
is
:

of the type in practice

among

Telugu

castes,

Vadi^am

at

which

pan

(betel-leaves)

and

areca

dis-

tributed

among

the castemen

and the sar-panch,
12 nuts.

who

called

gudi gadi, receives 12 betel-leaves and

Parthanam

the bride

is

presented with ornaments and a ring, and

is

brought to the bridegroom's house for marriage.

Lagnam

—tRe

bride

and bridegroom,
are seated
in

with

their

foreheads

adorned

with bashings,
fastened
in

the booth and their garments are
ties

a knot.

The

bridegroom

pusti round

her neck

and places

silver rings
in
this,

on her toes.
dandi,

Vatanamdalna

talam
are

and
placed

darati,
in

the

musical

instruments of their profession,

the bridegroom's

hands, and the bride sows seeds.

YataWandu

in

which

a feast consisting of

cooked meat

is

provided

for caste brethren.

The
Brahman.
daughter.

marriage

ceremony

is

conducted
take

without

the

help
for

of

a

The

bride's

parents

Rs.

80

as

a

price

their

The

bridegroom's parents have also to undergo

all

the

marriage expenses.

Widow=Marriage
cannot

Widow-marriage
of

is

permitted, but a

widow
parents

marry

the

brother

her

deceased

husband.

Her

receive Rs. 40, i.e., half the price paid for her as a virgin, and the

castemen present on the occasion are feasted.
If

a

woman commits
Panchayat, by

adultery with a

member

of the caste,

the

latter

is

required to pay Rs.

80

to her

husband and Rs. 40
compelled
of
a
to

as fine

to the caste

whom
with

he
a

is

marry her.
is

A
outis

woman
allowed

committing

adultery

man

higher caste
10.

casted and re-admitted only on payment of a fine of Rs.
to

She

marry

again

by the

same

rites

as

widows.

Sexual

licence on the part of a
instant

woman

with a

man

of a lower caste incurs adultery

expulsion from the caste.

A

man committing

with

a

lower caste

woman

is

also

outcasted,

and re-admitted only

on

160
paying a
fine

Dasri
and having
lines

his

forehead marked with sutak-namam, or

two

parallel

of

ochre,

drawn

to

the

roots

of

the

hail

and

connected by

a transverse line at the root of the nose.
is

The

distinction

between these, and the ordinary Dasris,
line running

that the latter

have a red

between the

parallel ones.

Inheritance
If

The

Dasris follow the

Hindu law
his

of inheritance.
inherits

a

man

dies

without

any

male

issue

son-in-law

the

property.

Religion
faith.

The

Dasris are

all

Tirmanidharis or Vaishnawas by

They believe in charms, sorcery, etc. Animistic deities, such Pochamma and Eliamma, are appeased in the month p{ Shrawan The goddess Pocharrima is reprewith offerings of sheep and fowls.
as

sented by a jar of water containing nim

leaves

(Melia indica) and

covered with a lighted lamp.
it

After

this

water has been worshipped
is

is

thrown into pure water.
of the caste.
for

This worship
are

designated Bonal by the
either
for

members
monial
their

Brahmans
purposes.

not

employed
or

cereas

or

religious

Ayyawars

Satanis

officiate

gurus (spiritual

advisers).

Disposal
posture,

of

the

Dead

—The
married

dead

are

buried
is

in

a

lying

with the head to the south.
a
sitting

The
and
of

corpse
in

borne to the
posture
to
if

grave

in

posture

if

a

lying
is

unmarried.

A

wheel

(c/ia^ra)

made

bamboo

carried
left

the

grave along with the dead body of a married person and
bier
after

on the

when
death

the corpse
a

is

consigned to the earth.
is

On

the 3rd day

square space

prepared

on the ground before the

grave, and the wheel,
is

which

is

supposed to represent the dead person,

placed on the spot and worshipped with offerings of goats and

fowls.

The wheel
is

is

then buried in the earth and the flesh of the
a Satani,

sacrificed animals

cooked by

who

attends at the funeral.

The

mourners partake of the food and return home.

Occupation
as

—The

Dasris collect alms,

in

an alms-basket known

bura-ka})a.

Some

of

them

catch

fish,

by

angling,

iguanas
of

(ghodpod), with nooses, and pigeons with birdlime.
late

A

few have

taken to agriculture and are pattedars.

Social
different

Status—The
The

social

status

of
is

the

Dasris

differs

for

sub-castes.

highbst

rank

claimed

by

the

Bukka

Dasri
Dasris,

161

next

to

them come the Dande Dasris, while the Bhagwat
are

and

Hole

Dasris

grouped
fowls,

among
fish,

the

lowest

unclean

classes.
lizards,

They

eat mutton,

pork,
rats,

the flesh of crocodiles,

jackals,

and jungle
castes

and drink

spirits.

They

eat from the

hands

of

all

except Dhers,

Mangs, Dhobis and Mangalas.
from them.

Malas

and Madigas alone accept

^ac/ir

They have
gudi
gadi.
is

a caste Panchasat, the

head man of which
assistant

is

called
gadi,
chief.
their

This

designatory

has

an

styled

kundi
of
his

who The

responsible for cMrying

into

force
refer

the orders
their

Dasris

seldom
if

go to law,

but

disputes

to

Panchm^ai, "and

any member disobeys he

is

put out of the caste.

XXV
Devanga
Devanga, Devangalu, Devra, Jyandra, Koshti, Devanga Sale,
Myatari

—a

widely

diffused

caste
'

of

weavers
'

found
is

in

every

part of the

Hyderabad Dominions.
'

Devanga
is

a Sanskrit word
it

whicfi

means

body

of the gods

'

and

applied to this ^aste since
Rishi,

claims to be descended from one

Devanga

who'' was created
for

by the god Mahadeva
and men.
from
are

for

the purpose of

weaving clothes
the
lotus

gods

The

thread

was obtained from

which sprang
the

Vishnu's navel.

Probably of Carnatic

origin,

Devangas

now found

scattered ail

over Maharashtra and Telingana.

Internal Structure
castes
:

—The
over
are
is

Devangas

are divided into three sub-

(I)

Devanga,

(2)

Hatgar and
the
other

(3)

Kodeku!

;

the

Hatgars
are

claim

social

precedence

two
the

divisions.
article

'They

Ling'ayits

by creed and

described

in

on

Lingayits
groups,

The
(1)

first

of these sub-castes

broken up into three

territorial

Telugu

Devangas,

(2)

Carnatic

Devangas

and

(3)

Maratha

Koshtis,

who

speak Marathi and have adopted the section names and

manners of the Maratha Kunbis.
sprung from the Devangas, oiz
(2)
:

Two
(1)

other branches

seem

to

have
and

Kurvina Shetti or
latter

Bili

Magu

Kumi

Sales

or

Jyandra,

the

of

whom do
sixty-four

not

castrate

their bulls.

The
sections.

caste

is

said to have,

in

Telingana,
section

exogamous
Maratha
Specimens

As

stated

above,

the

names

of

the

Devangas

are the

same

as those of the

Maratha Kunbis.

of both the systems are

shown below

:


Doifode.
Takale.

Maratha Sections
Pandker.
Asolker.

Bhandare.
Bharate.

Gosale.

Tadpuruk.
Kharge.

Tawalsing.

Khatavaker.

Upre.


Devanga
Maratha Sections
Kumtekar.
Taralker.
contd.

163

Golre.

Tigule.

Galande.
Latane. Dhotre.

Navale.

Redeker.
Burzare.

Narake.
Kharshe.
Falke.

Chinke.

Mehtre.

Ghate.

Mahader.
Dindker.
Bhairat.

Varole.

Gugle.
Fase.
^

Munekar.

Dhage.

Telugu Sections
Patwaru.

Gopwaru.
Matekawaru.
Palliwaru.

Natuwaru.
Govariwaru.

Madtalwaru.

Tamtuwaru.

Parmalwaru.

Konapatriwaru.

Katamwaru.

Yemalawaru.
between persons belonging
to the

Marriage.
to the

— Marriage
Two

is

forbidden

same

section.

sisters

may be married

same man

or

to uterine brothers.

A

man may marry

the daughter of his elder

sister.

The Devangas
a

marry

their girls as infants

and recognise polygamy

and, in theory at least, impose no limitation on the

number of wives

man may
In

have.
the marriage ceremony closely
other
local

the Carnatic and Telingana,

corresponds to that
social

m

use

among

castes
to

of

the

same
In

standing.

The

aoali,

or bride-price,
for

amounts
her

Rs. 30.
varies

Maharashtra the price paid
Rs. 50 to Rs.
type current
Antctrpat,

a

bride to

parents
is

from

100 and the wedding ceremony
the Marathas,
of

of the

standard
portion
is

among

of

which the

essential

which
in

consists

making the couple stand opposite
holding
a
curtain

to

each

other

bamboo

baskets,

between them,

and the wedding of them by the
rice over their heads.

recital of

mantras and the throwing of

Widow=Marriage
her husband's brothers.
a

A
The

widow
bride,
I

is

allowed to re-marry, but not
Telingana,
is

in

presented with
at

new

sari

and choli, and Rs.

J4 to buy bangles
ties

;

night she

is

taken to the matha, where the mathpati
the presence of the bridegroom,

pusti round her neck

in

who

is

seated by her side.

Castemen

164
are then
feasted.

Devanga
In the
in

morning the bride and bridegroom go
the evening.
this

to

some temple and return

Maratha Devangas engage
ceremony.

Brahmans
goes
at

for

the

performance of
in

The

bridegroom

night,

sword

hand

to the bride's house, with a following

of friends.
their

The

couple, having been bathed, are seated side
in

by

side,

heads brought
in

contact

by the

officiating

Brahman and

their

garments tied

a knot.

Divorce

—A

of

woman

is

divorced
of

for

adultery

and driven out

of the house before the

members

the caste Panchagat.
as a

She

is

allowed to re-marry by the same
Inheritance
the

rite

widow.

In the division of propyerty the Devafigas follow
inheritance.

Hindu law

They

give

an

extra

share

to

the

eldest son in the division of his father's prof>erty.

Religion
In

—The
they

religion of the

Devangas

is

orthodox Hinduism.

Telingana,

are

divided

into

Tirmanidharis

and

Vibhuti-

dhju-is.

In the Carnatic, they are mostly Lingayits, males

and females

worshipping the lingam, to which they daily offer food of which they
afterwards
partake.

Their

favourite
full

deity

is

Chaundamma,

or

Choundeshwari, worshipped on the
with offerings of sweetmeats,
fast for the

moon and new moon days
by women who observe
a

especially

whole day.
at

Sheep and goats

are sacrificed to the goddess

by Maratha Devangas
half of

the Dassera festival, or the 10th of the light
:

Aswin (October)
their craft.

on the same day they honour the implereverence
all

ments of
theon,
places.

They

the gods of the

Hindu
to

pan-

observe

religious
their

festivals

and

make pilgrimages

sacred

Among

minor gods are Pochamma, Maisamma, Mari
are

Ai, and Nagalu,

who

appeased with a variety of

offerings

in

times of sickness and epidemics.

Disposal of the
occasionally
burnt,

Dead

—The

dead are usually buried, but

are

and are carried to the grave or pyre attended

with music.

Lingayit Devangas bury their dead in a sitting posture,

with the face pointing to the east.
for the

Mourning

is

observed ten days
is

married and three days for others.

Sradha
general

performed on
propitiated on

the

12th day after death.

Ancestors

in

are

Akshattriti^a, or the 3rd of the light half of Vaishakha,

and on the

Pitra

AmaWasya,

or the last

day of Bhadrapad (October).

Devanga
Social

165

Status

In

point

of

social

status,

the

Devangas rank

below the
or
Telis,

agricultural

and shepherd

castes,

but above the Gandlas,
fowl,
fish,

Mangals and Chaklas.
drink
alcohol.

They
of

eat

pork
a

and

mutton
social

and
status,

Some

them,

aspiring

to

higher

abstain from liquor.
is

Occupa)tian.—Weaving
caste.

the

traditional

occupation

of
saris,

the
or

They make

a

variety

of

textile

fabrics

but chiefly

garments worn by
original

women.

Some

of

them have relinquished
agriculture,

their

occupation

and taken to trade,

carpentry

and

masonry.

XXVI
Dhangar
Origin.
the

— Dhangar—
Dhangar
meaning
the
'

the

shepherd

and

blanket- weaver

caste

of

Marathawada, which comprises the
Nander,
'

Districts of

Aurangabad,
of

Bir,

Parbhani,

Bidar,
is

Usmanabad and
derived by

a

portion

Adilabad.

The name
'

some from the

Scfnskrit

word

Dhenugar

'

'

cow-keeper'; but the etymology seems rather

fictitious,

for

Dhangars have never been known to tend cows.

On

the other hand, as shepherds, they form a distinct caste from the

Gaulis,

who

tend cows and other milch cattle.

The Dhangars
Kunbis,

have

no traditions which will throw light upon their origin.
character

In physical

and

customs

they

resemble

the

Maratha

which

suggests that they are formed from them.

Internal

Structure
:

—The

caste

is

divided
or

into

the following

endogamous

divisions

Khute Dhangars, Bargi

Hatker Dhangars

and Jhade Dhangars.
their

The Khute Dhangars
Hatker
are
'

are said to have received
of

name from
Bargi

\hutes, or the pegs
or

by means
are

which they weave
in

blankets.
article.

Dhangars
found
is

described

a

separate

Jhade Dhangars
of

in

the Adilabad

District.
is

The

origin

the

name

'

Jhade

obscure,

but the

word

a

general

term applied to other castes, such as Jhade Brahmans.
of these sub-castes
interdine,

The members
Maratha
type,

but do not intermarry.

The exogamous
as

divisions of the caste are of the

illustrated

below

:

Urade.

Dhangar
Marriage
section,
is

167
one's maternal
aunt's

in

one's

own

section,

as

well as

in

avoided.

A

man may marry two
Adoption
is

sisters,

and two brothers
to the

may

also marry

two

sisters.

restricted

members
:

of one's

own

section.

Outsiders are not admitted into the caste
is

a socially degraded

Marriage

man

re-admitted on payment of a

fine.

Girls are married both as infants and as adults, but
is

the former practice
girls,

deemed

the

more respectable.

Boys,

but not

are dedicated to

gods or temples.

A

girl is sent to

her husband's

house immediately after marriage, when presents of a goat and money
are

made

to her.

Cohabitation before puberty
first

is

tolerated.

Un-

married
all

meg

wishing to marry widows, are

wedded

to a ring,

the cereflionies of a marriage being performed on the occasion.
is

Polygamy

permitted, but

is

rarely practised on a large scale.

The

marriage ceremony of the Khute

and Khutaphale Dhan-

gars corresponds to that of the

Maratha Kunbis.

The

marriage of

the Jhade Dhangars
rite

is

celebrated at night and opens with the
father
of

Mangani
house

(betrothal),

in

which the boy's
a

goes to the
red
aniline
in

girl's

and marks her forehead with
presents
h'er

spot

powder and
which two

with

a

cocoanilt.

Mothawida
in

follows,

wooden
covered

stools are

placed side by side

the court-yard of the house,

with

white cloth

and decorated with designs of \unkum.

The

girl

and her maternal uncle are seated on them and the bridesari,

groom's father presents to her a

a choli, betel-leaves, areca nuts,

and dates.

Previous to the marriage,
sacrificing a goat to her,
is

Mari Ai
and a

or

Angana Devi
is

is

worshipped by

feast

provided
the
a
is

in

her

name.

At

night the gondhal dance

performed
is

in

name
post,

of the

goddess Bhavani.

A
of

marriage booth
salai

erected

and

called
to

mundha,
the
right

made
of

(BosWeUia

thmijera),

planted
are

the

entrance.

Twelve
two

earthen
of

pots
are

brought

from
water

the

potter's

house
near

and
the
a

these

filled

with
is

and
is

placed
seated

mundha.

The

bridegroom
five

bathed and

within

square formed by
is

earthen

pots

encircled with white wool.

This wool

subsequently removed and

fastened on the right wrist of the bridegroom.
separately
order,

The same
Then

ritual

is

performed by

the bride's

party

also.

follow,

m

the worship of the village and patron deities, the carrying of

168
the bride
adoration

Dhangar
enveloped
in

a

blanket to the bridegroom's
in
rite.

village,

the

by the bridegroom
the

the

temple of the village
marriage
dress

Maruti

and,

lastly,

wedding
in

The

consists of

garments dyed yellow
offered to the goddess.

turmeric water, which had been previously
Just after the

wedding, the pair are taken
under the booth

by the Brahman

priest to the earthen platform built

and seated thereon opposite each other,
them.

with a brass dish between

The Brahman
a

ties

their

garments into a knot and the couple

exchange garlands of mock

corals.

After

this,

each parson present round the This

waves

copper or silver coin,

according to his means,
it

faces of the

newly wedded couple and throws
called Sulagna.
celebrated.

into the ''dish.

ceremony
Dand\)a Rs.
a
is

is

On

the third day after the wedding,
to

A

bride-price

the

amount of Rs. 9
the
is

or

10

is

paid to the girl's parents.

Among

Khute Dhangars,
performed on the
fastens

curious ceremony,

called the Bir procession,
bir (spirit of

haldi day.

A
be

man, possessed by a
all

an ancestor)

round
parties

his waist

the images of the ancestors belonging to both the
;

to
his

\s'edded

saris

(female

garments)
In

are

tied

crosswise
stick

across

breast

and one shoulder.

one hand he takes a

and
starts

in

the other a

winnowing
five

fan.

He

makes

frantic

gestures and

running,

preceded by
in lies

men

facing him and striking on the

fan

with canes

their hands.

The moment he

reaches the temple

of Biroba,

he

prostrate on

the blanket spread for the occasion.
gets

Incense

is

burnt before him,

whereupon he recovers himself,
all

up

and returns home followed by

Widow=Marriage
ceremony
of

—Widows
a

the men.
are

allowed to marry again, the
resembling
are not
is

widow-marriage

closely

that

in

vogue

among

the

Maratha Kunbis.

Brahmans

engaged

as priest j. a

Among
virgin
to

the Jhade Dangars,

widow

bride

more valued than
is

and a bride-price ranging from Rs. 25 to Rs. 200
Divorce
is is

required

be paid to her parents.

pemiitted in cases of adultay.

The Hindu law
Religion
I's

of inheritance
is

—Khandoba
^eda,

observed by the caste.
favourite

the

god of the
light

caste

and

worshipped every Sunday and on Sat (the

sixth of

Margatheir

shirsha) day, with offerings of sweetmeats.

The

implements of
also

craft— scissors,

lavaki,

nat

and

tulai—aie

revered

on

Dhangar
Sat.

169
every household.
the

Vithoba of Pandharpur

is

worshipped daily

in
in

The Adilabad Dhangars

worship

Khudban,

form

of

a

wooden image bedaubed with

vermilion.

Other gods of the Hindu
Ancestral

pantheon are also reverenced by members of the caste.
worship prevails, and no marriage
died
in
is

celebrated

until those

who have
in the

the family since the
If
is

last

marriage are installed as gods

form of embossed plates.
is

any member of a Jhade Dhangar family
as

killed

by a

tiger,

he

worshipped

Waghoba

in

the form of a

stone set

up on the boundary of the

Child=Birth
for

—A woman
The
child

village.
is

after child-birth
is

ceremonially impure
12th day
after

severf^days.

named on

the
is

birth

and on the
Divali

15th day the goddess Satwai

propitiated.

At

the

festival,

sheep are worshipped by the caste.

Disposal of the Dead
unmarried
are

—The
is

married dead are burnt and the
to

buried,

with

the head
the

the south.

Mourning

is

observed for three days.
the dead body
food.
is

Among

Jhade Dhangars of Adilabad

washed, taken outside the house and offered cooked
well ablaze, the coffin bearers and

_When

the funeral pyre

other mourners bathe,

go

to a liquor

shop and, crushing mahua flowers

{Bassia latifoUa) with their feet, drink liquor and return to the house
of the dead.

Next day the mourners, men and women, go

to the

cremation ground, taking with them one winnowing fan, three pieces
of bread and one earthen pot.

They

collect the ashes

and bones with

the

winnowing fan and throw them

into the nearest river or brook.

They then
is

place on the spot the bread and the earthen pot, which

filled
is

with

water
at the

and

covered

with

mango

leaves.

A

small
trickle

hole

made

bottom of the pot so that the water may
thirst

out drc^

by drop and quench the

of the disembodied soul.

The

widow
and
all

of the deceased breaks off
return

her bangles and lucky necklace,

home

after

drinking liquor.

On

the third day

after

death the chief mourner gets himself shaved on the cremation ground

and

all,

after bathing

and drinking
is

liquor,

return to the house of the

deceased,

where

a

sheep

sacificed.

The head

of

the sheep
last

is

buried under the spot where the deceased breathed his
rest
is

and the

cooked and eaten by the household members.
is

The Sradha

ceremony

performed every year on the anniversary of death.

1

70

Dhangar
Occupation

—The

original

occupation of the caste

is

grazing
culti-

sheep and goats, and weaving blankets.
vators.

Some

of

them are
and

They

deal in sheep and goats and their wool,

sell

the

milk of ewes.

They

are often pjaid
to

by the
flock

cultivators,

who
their

greatly

value the sheep manure,

have the

penned on

farms.

They

are also

engaged

as

day labourers.
social

Social Status
that of the

—The

position of the caste

is

just

below

Maratha Kunbis.

They
and

eat from the hands of Kunbis,

Malis,

Hatkers,

Brahmans

Komtis,

while

Hajams,

Rangari,

Dhobis and other low

castes eat kflchi from the
fish

members
deer,

of the caste.

They
birds,

eat

mutton,
drink

fowl,

and the and

flesh

of

hare ^5nd some

and
a

spirituous

fermented

liquors.
is

The Dhangars
mehetraya
a

have

caste
all

Panchayat.
disputes
;

The headman
he
is

called

and

decides

social

especially

honoured on

marriage

occasion with the present of a turban.

xxvn
Dhor
Dhor

the tanner caste of the

Maratha

Districts,
in
'

numerous also

in all parts

of the Carnatic and, in a smaller number,

some
and

parts of

Telingana.
less

The name
this

'

Dhor

'

means

'

horned

cattle

is

doubt-

besto^ved upon

caste with
skins.

reference to their occupation of

tanning
their

and dressing

cattle

Very
a

little

is

known regarding

origin.

They appear
of

to

be

degraded branch of the great
country.

Chambhar

caste

the

Marathawada

This view derives

support from the fact that, in whatever country they are found settled,

they speak Marathi as their

home

tongue.

They

are robust
in
all

and

fair,

with well-developed chests and wide faces, and
they gave evidence of a Maratha origin.
is

their features
'

The Maratah
are

title

of

'

jhi

also affixed to their names.

Internal

Structure
:

—The

Dhors
(2)

divided

into

five

endo-

gamous groups
Dhor,
(4)

(1)

Range Dhor,
(5)

Budhale Dhor,

(3)

Kakayya

Chambhar Dhor and

Shadu Dhor.

The Range Dhors
name from
to
their

claim the highest rank and appear to be the original stock from which
the other sub-castes have branched.
the

They
'to

derive their

Marathi
of

'

rangvine
staining

'

meaning
hides.

dye,'

which

refers

occupation
offshoot

'

The Budhale
are

Dhors,

probably

an

from the Range Dhors,
jars,

so

called

because they make
oil.

hudhales, or leather

for clarified butter
:

and

The mode
is

of

making

a

budhale

is

as follows

—A

piece of leather

closely set

over an earthen mould of the size and shape of the jar required and
the joints are cemented with a paste the leather has taken the form of the

made from tamarind
mould and
jars

seeds.

After
is

solidified, the earth

removed from

inside.

These

leather

were extensively used
oil

as
;

convenient receptacles for carrying clarified butter and

on bullocks

but since the opening of railways, they have been replaced

by

tins,

and the budhale industry has almost died

out.

The Budhale Dh(Ms


Dhor
to tanning

172

have now taken

and curing

skins,

making dholaks (drums),

water bags, water buckets and other leather articles.

The Kakayya
Basava,

Dhors trace

their

descent from one Kakayya,

a disciple of
originally a
off

the founder of the Lingayit sect.

Kakayya was

Range
his

Dhor,

but

having

embraced

Lingayitism

he was cut

from

community and became the founder of a new sub-caste.
to their

In addition

own work

of staining hides,

the Kakayyas cobble old shoes
as the

and sometimes make new ones.
indicates,
is

The Chambhar Dhor,
probably
castes.

name

a

mixed

sub-caste,

evolved
It

by

marriages

between the Chambhar and the Dhor
position to both of them.

occupies a degraded
tan and jfain hides,

The Chambhar Dhors

make shoes and water buckets and water-bags.
are the illegitimate offspring of the Dhors,

The Shadu Dhors

by Dhor women who have

been degraded for some social offence.

Within these sub-castes,
tions,

there

are

again

360 exogamous
origin.

sec-

which appear

to

be

entirely of

Maratha

The

section
are

names are mostly of
totemistic,

a territorial or titular type; but a

few of them
the,

the

totem being revered by the members of

section

bearing
not
kill

its

name.

For

instance, the
;

members

of the
is

Kavale

section

may

or injure a

crow

so also a

Kavade

enjoined to pay devo-

tion to cowrie

shells.

Some

of the sections of the

Dhors

are given

below

:

Sonkavade (cowries)

Kavale (crow).
Bhokare.
Hivre.
Pulpagar.
Bhalerao.

Landge
Jadhav.

(wolf).

Kadam.
Gaikwad.
Sinde.

Kalyanker.

Savre.

Kharad.
Jogdanker.

Kharatmal.
Sabne.
Ingale.

Soneker.

Chougale.

Sherkani.

Darweshc.
Gajankushe.
8tc.

Vathar.

&c.

Dhor
The
belongs.
rule of

173

exogamy observed by

the

caste

is,

that

a

man

cannot marry outside the sub-caste nor inside the section to which he

Two
two
is

sisters
sisters.

may be

married to the same husband and two
sister's

brothers to

Marriage with a

or maternal

uncle's

daughter
the same

permitted.
section
as

Adoption
the adopter.

is

practised, provided the

boy be of

Both

infant

and adult marriages
is

are recognised for girls.
If

Sexual license before puberty

tolerated.

an unmarried

girl

goes wrong with a
is

man

of her caste

and becomes
pair,

pregnant, her seducer
£is

compelled

to

marry her and the

as well

the parents of the bride,
ftn

are admitted to pangat,
fine to the

or

communion

of food,

payment of a small
their

caste Panchayat.

The
in

Dhors do not devote
adultery with a
caste.

young women

to gods.
is

A
to

girl

taken

man
is

of an inferior caste,

expelled from her
is

own

Polygamy

permitted

and no

limit

set

the

number

of wives a

man may

Marriage

—The

have.
father of the

boy seeks out a bride

for his son

and arranges the match with her

peirents in the

presence of the caste

Panchayat and of a Brahman or a Jangam
having been agreed
is

officiating as priest.

This

to,

the

girl

is

seated on a low stool, her forehead
to

smeared with vermilion and clothes and ornaments are presented
Patron
saints

her by the parents of the boy.
are invoked to bless the couple.

and tutelary

deities

The ceremony
Brahman,
(Ficus
in

takes place, on an a

auspicious

day

fixed

by
of

a
guler

wedding
and

booth
other

made
varieties
in

of
of

branches
trees
in

glomerata)
of
the

the

courtyard
of

bride's

house,
in

the

Marathawada,
After
bride's

and
the

the

bridegroom's
has
arrived
are

house
in

the

Carnatic.
at

bridegroom
the

proto
sit

cession
side

the

house,

young couple

made

by

side,

surrounded by

five

pwts encircled with cotton thread,

their bodies

are smeared with turmeric

and

oil,

and they are bathed
are
tied

with

warm
their

water.
clothes

K(m\anas
are knotted

(thread

bracelets)

on

their

wrists,

together

and they walk, the bride

following the bridegroom,

to the

earthen platform,

where they are
curtain

wedded by
them,
recites

the officiating

Brahman,

who

holds

a

between
curtain

mantras and throws rice over their heads.

The

being withdrawn, the

wedded

pair exchange garlands and rice,

and

1

74

Dhor
to the family deities

make obeisance
feast
is

and elderly and

relatives.

A

grand

given to the assembled

guests

relatives,

and the cere-

mony

is

completed.

WidoW'Marriage
by a very simple
varying
in
rite,

—A Dhor widow
at

is

allowed to marry again
officiates.

which no Brahman
to

A
to

price
to

amount from Rs. 25

Rs. 50
the

is

paid for the

widow

her

parents.

On

a

dark

night,
a

bridegroom
of
a

proceeds

the
ties

bride's

house,

makes her
string of

present

complete dress

and

mangahutra, or a

beads, around her neck.

Early the next

morning, the couple repair to Hanuman's temple and, after worshipping the god, they go to the bridegroom's house.
are concluded

The

iproceedings

by

a

feast

to the caste brethren of the village.

A
wife's

widow

is

not allowed to marry her late husband's brother.

Divorce.

—Divorce

is

granted

on

the

ground

of
to
in

the

unchastity or barrenness,

or

the husband's
again,

inability

support her.

Divorced

women may marry

by

the

ritual

use

at

the

re-marriage of widows.

Inheritance
In

—The
him

Dhors follow the Hindu law of

inheritance.

making a

division of property,

the eldest son gets an extra share

(jethang) to enable

to support his

unmarried
to

sisters.

Religion
of the
is

—The

Dhors profess

be

Saivaits,

or the devotees

god Mahadeva,
to represent the

whom
god
;

they worship every week. but a small piece of ground

No
is

image

set

up

smeared

with cow-dung on which the devotees burn incense and offer flowers

and wheaten cakes covered with
at liberty

rice.

They

then

bow down and
Monday.

are

to parteike of the offerings.
in
is

Basava and

his disciple

Kakayya
Tolja
goats,

are held

the highest reverence and invoked every

Bhavani
sheep

worshipped on the Dassera holiday with offerings of
liquor.

and

Khandoba and

the

other

gods

of

the

Hindu

pantheon are also worshipped.

The

animistic

deities,

Pochamma,

Elamma, Mari Amma, and
sacrifices,

a host of others, are appeased with animal
officiating

a

Bhoi or

a

Dhobi

as

sacrificial

priest

at

the

worship of the deities
animals for his services.

and claiming the heads of the slaughtered

The Dhors

believe strongly

in

ghosts and

departed
,is

spirits

and

in

cases of sickness or disease an Erkala

woman
spirit

consulted to divine the cause.

Should a ghost or malevolent

Dhor
be suspected,
Erkala
has
it

175
with
prevails

is

immediately
Ancestral

propitiated

the

offerings

the
of

enjoined.

worship

and

images

departed ancestors, embossed or impressed on silver plates, are hung

round their necks.
chief
tan-pit

At

the Dioali festival,
trade,

the Dhors worship
tan-knife,

the

implements of
in

their

which are the
steeped.
In

and the

which
in

the

hides

are

the

Marathawada,

Brahmans, and

the Carnatic, Jangams, serve the caste as priests.

Disposal of the
posture,

Dead

—The

dead

are
east.

buried

in

a

sitting

with the face turned towards the

After death,

the

corpse

is

washed and
is

carried in a sitting posture to the burial ground.
in

The

corpse

seated
is

a niche

CMved
a

out on one side of the grave,

the forehead

smeared with Oibhuti,

lingam

is

placed

in

the

left

hand, bilawa leaves {Semecarpus Anacardium) and vibhuti are placed
at

the side, and the grave

is

then filled

in.

A

Jangam

stands on the

grave, shouts out the

name

of the deceased and announces that he has

gone to

ko'las,

or heaven.

The Marathawada Dhors
Sradha

observe mourn;

ing for 10 days, and perform

for the benefit of the departed

but

in

the

Carnatic, nor
is

where Lingayitism
memorial

prevails,

no mourning
after
in

is

observed,

any

ceremony

performed
dying

death.

Persons dying of smallpox or cholera, and
are burned.

women

pregnancy

Social
the

Status.

—Owing

to

their
to

filthy

occupation
in

and
the

habits,

Dhors have been condemned
and hold,

the lowest grade

Hindu

social system,

at the present

day, a rank superior only to the

Mahar,

Mang

and other degraded

classes.

They
the

are not allowed to

approach the temple premises,

nor

will

village

servants

defile

themselves by working for them.
barbers
rules

They

have,

therefore,

to procure

and washermen from
in

among

their

own community.
position.

Their
eat

on diet are

keeping with their degraded

They

mutton, pork, fowl, venison and the flesh of animals that have died
a
natural

death.

They,

however,

profess

to

abstain
also caste,

from

eating

beef
in

and the leavings of other people.

They
other
a

freely

indulge
the

spirituous

and fermented

liquors.

No

not even

Mahars

or Dhers, will eat food

cooked by

Dhor.

Occupation
currying
hides,

—The

hereditary, calling of the
leather
bottles,

Dhor

is

tanning,

and making

leather

buckets,

water^

176

Dhor
budhales, pakhals and other leather articles.

sacks,

They buy raw

hides of goats, sheep, bullocks, buffaloes and deer from butchers and

Dhers, and

soJik

them

for fifteen
its

days
hair

in

a strong solution of lime.
in

The

hide

is

then deprived of

and steeped

a

solution

of

pounded babul (Acacia arabica) bark,
emblica)
dressed,

amla or aonla (Ph^Uanthus
leaves.

and
is

tarvad

(Cassia

auriculata)

The

hide,
for

thus

bought by Maratha Chambhars, or Mochis,
curtictes.

making
skin

shoes

and other

The Dhors
Some
of

are

not

known

to

the

carcasses of

dead animals.

them make new shoes and cobble
In social standing,

old ones.
the

A

few

of

them work

as aay-labourers.

Dhors

are inferior to the

Maratha Chambhars

or Teluriu Mochis.

XXVIII
DOMARA
Domara, Dombari, Dotnri, Reddi Domara
tribe of
in

a

vagrant mongrel
chiefly

acrobats,

jugglers,

rope-dancers and tumblers,

found

the Ttilugu and Carnatic Districts of

H. H.

the Nizam's

Domiboth

nions.

They

are

identical

with the Kolhatis of Maharashtra,

of

them being associated with the same means of livelihood.
have the
evil

Both
and

tribes
,

repute of being highway robbers,

burglars

dakaits,

and are classed by the police among the criminal

tribes

of the Dominions.

History

These

tribes
in

wander about

in

small gangs throughout

the couotry and
leaves.

encamp

temporary huts of mats

made

of palmyra

The men

are ostensibly

engaged

in

making combs of buffalo
dolls

horns

and wood, brooms for weaver's looms,
occupations

and mattresses.
feats,

To

these

they

add the exhibition of gymnastic
tricks

rope-dancing,

tumbling,

conjuring

and

athletic

exercises.

In

these performances they are joined by their
are wonderfully
tight

women, some

of

whom
a as
in

expert

in

exhibitions
large

on a long bamboo pole or
the

rope.
are

To
their

attract

audiences,

women
and
are

selected
trained

acrobats

generally

smart

and good-looking,
In
their

the art from

childhood.

character,

these

women
them

are

very loose and dissolute, and the

men

not only encourage
their
a

in their

depraved habits, but subsist largely on

immoral gains.

Both the Kolhatis and the Domaras are
various
tions

mixed race composed of
the

elements
in

and
their

this

fact

accounts

for

appreciable

varia-

observed

complexion and features.

This variation of

type seems to be due to the intermixture of blood brought about by
the free admission of outsiders into the community, the prostitution of
their

women, and the kidnapping 'of
dancing
girls.

high-caste

girls

to

be brought

up

as

1

78

DOMARA

XXVIII-A
DoMARA
(Titles
:

—DOMAR
Ayya and
a
class,

—Appa,
as

Reddi.)
tall

Origin.
varying
usually
in

—The

Domars,

are
to

and

well-made,

complexion from wheat colour
short hip trousers

very dark.

The men

wear

made

of a coarse white cloth and, at

festivals, shawls, jackets
in

and lace turbans obtained by them as rewards
are attired
in

performances.

The women
name
'

gay clothes and deck

themselves with a profusion of bangles and necklets of cowrie shells.

The etymology
from the words
uncertain.

of their
'

is

obscure.

It

is

said
their

to ^be

derived
are

Dimari

and

Dulmar'

;

but

meanings

They

claim to be descended from one Motati
in

Kapu who,
Shri

being lame, was exposed,

infancy,
in

on a river bank.

Ram-

chandra and
child,

his wife,

journeying

a chariot, observed the destitute
his

took pity on him

and restored him
for this

limbs.

The
to

boy,

in

glee,

jumped, and was,

audacity,

condemned

follow the

occupation of a tumbler.

Another

tradition traces their desqent from

one Chinnamma,

who

exhibited
father

feats

before

a

king

who had
woman

imlost

prisoned her father.

The

was

released,

but the

her caste and had to take to prostitution.

Internal
castes

Structure

—The

Domars

are

divided into

two sub-

Telaga Domars and Are Domars.
a

Telaga Domars speak
or Maratha

Telugu and have

slang of their

own.

Are Domars,

Domars, appear to be originally Kolhatis
in

who

migrated and settled

Telingana.

Their home tongue

is

Marathi.

The members
or

of

these sub-castes

do

not interdine nor intermarry.
'sections

They have exogamous
type such as
:

of

a

territorial

eponymous

Karmachawaru.
Ramasaniwaru.
Rajakawaru.
Marriage
prohibited.
sister's
It

Padekuwaru.
Jopalliwaru.

Gujokuwaru.
persons

between
is

belonging

to

the

same

section

is

allowed between a man and

his maternal uncle's or

daughter.

A

man may marry two

sisters,

but two brothers

DOMARA
cannot marry

i

79

two

sisters.

Polygamy

is

permitted.

Adoption

is

rarely practised

by the

caste.

Marriage
Cohabitation
pregnant she
is

Girls

are

married both

as

infants

and
a
girl

as

adults.

is

tolerated

before

marriage,

but

if

becomes

is

called upon to disclose the

name

of her lover,
fine

who
caste
to

compelled
It is

to

marry her and to pay a heavy
girls to

to

the

council.

customary to devote
swords.
sit

temples and deities or
of
their

marry

them

to
girl

The ceremony
the
idol

dedication
patron her

consists

of

making the

before
a

of

deity,

Guda
The
as

Maisamma, and
Basavi
girl 'is

tying

tali

(mangalsutra)
to
girls

about

neck.

subsequently

allowed
of

follow
are

concubinage
admitted
to

her
full

profession.'

The progeny

such

the

privileges of the caste.

Adult

girls

are

sometimes married to men of
towards marriage
is

their

own

choice.

But usually the

initiative
is

taken by the boy's father.

A

suitable girl

selected and a bride-price of Rs.
father

20

is

paid to her

parents.

The

of

the
a

boy goes
choli.

to

the

girl's
is

house
ratified

and

presents

her with a sari and

The

betrothal

by

strong drink, of
caste council.
festive day,

which the

first

cup
is

is

given to the chief

man

of the

The

marriage

performed before Maisamma,
all

on a

when men

of the caste congregate from

parts to

pay

their devotion to the goddess.

The bridegroom

is

first

seated before
east
is

the goddess on

a

mat of shendi (wild date palm), facing the

and holding

in his

hand

a stick used for beating a

drum.

The

girl

next brought in procession and seated opposite the boy.
of glass beads
bridal
is

A
heads

necklace

tied round the bride's

neck and the clothes of the

pair

are
this

knotted.

Rice

is

thrown

on

the

of

the
is

couple and
killed the
after the

forms the binding portion of the ceremony.
are feasted.

A

pig

same day and the guests

On
in

the third

day

wedding, the wedded pair are conducted
house.
a
It
is

procession to
is

the

bridegroom's

said

that

widow

marriage

not

pwmitted.

But

if

widow

takes a fancy to a are

man

she remains with
into

him
caste.

as

his

concubine.

Her progeny

freely

admitted

the

A
days and

girl
is

on

attaining

puberty
period

is

considered

unclean

for

seven

kept during

this

in

a separate hut, with a piece of

1

80
by her
her
side.

DOMARA

iron

On
is

the

eighth day,
;

the

hut in which she lived

during

pollution

burnt

the

girl

then

bathes

and

becomes

ceremonially pure.

A
day

woman
birth

after child-birth

is

unclean for

six days.
oil,

On
is

the 7th
it

after

she

is

bathed,

goes to a well with

worships

and returns home with a
the same day and caste

jar full of water.

The

child

named on

men
is

are feasted in honour of the event.

Divorce


A

Divorce

permitted,

with the sanction of the caste

assembly, on the ground of the wife's adultery, or for incompatibility
of

temper.

divorced

woman

is

not

allowed

to
is

marry

again,

but she can be kept as a mistress.

Her paramour

cOmpelled by

the Panchdyat to pay to her husband the bride-price he paid to her
parents.

Elopements
tolerated and

are

general.

Adultery with
fine.

a

man

of

high

caste

is

condoned by a small
is

Social indiscretion

with a
caste.

man

of

low caste

punished with instant expulsion from the

Inheritance

In matters of inheritance, the

Domars follow

their

own

tribal

usages.

Sons and Basavi daughters share equal'Iy
If

in their

father's

property.

a

man

dies

without

male
the

issue,

his

Basaoi
to

daughters share his property.
his

Failing them,

estate

descends

married or virgin daughters.

Religion.
teristic

— Guda

Maisamma

is

the
at
is

favourite
night,
in

and

charac-

deity of the caste.

On
large

Tuesdays,

the month of
great
at

Shravana (August-September), the goddess

worshipped with

pomp and ceremony.

A

concourse
offer

of

Domars assemble

the shrine of the goddess

and

pigs,

fowls and sheep to her.

A

man

of the

Kummara

caste officiates as priest,

and while the grand

puja takes place,

Domar men

beat drums and the

women

sing songs.

The heads
bodies
are

of the sacrificed animals are claimed

by the

priest.

The

cooked and provide a

feast for

the

assembled
in

votaries.

EUamma
Their

and

Pochamma
deities

are

also

worshipped

the

same month.
and

other

are

Katayya,

Maheshwar,

Mutyalamma

Kankama, worshipped with
in tify

various offerings.

They have
are

a firm belief

ghosts
a

and witchcraft and Erkala
spirit.

women

consulted to iden-

malignant

The 'Domars have

recently

been brought

under the influence of the great sects and they profess themselves

DOMARA
to

181

be Vibhutidharis or Disposal of the

Saivaits.

Dead.—The
is

dead are buried

in a

lying posture,

with the face

downwards and the head
killed.

pointing to the south.

On
I

the 3rd day after death, a pig
at

The

flesh

is

cooked, offered

the grave

and subsequently buried underground.

On
killed

the

1th

day,
flesh

the mourners

become
it

purified.
is

Again
at

a pig

is

and the

cooked

:

part of

offered

the grave and buried under-

ground,
are

the remainder being eaten by the householders.
in

Brahmans
of
the

called

and presented with
their

rice

and money.

Some

Domars now bury
east.

dead

in a sitting posture,

with the face to the

Thetchief mourner shaves

his

moustache and the widow breaks

her bangles.

No

Sradha
are

is

performed by the members of the caste.

Ancestors

in

general

propitiated

on the Pitra

AmaWas^a

(last

day of Bhadrapad).
Social Status.

In point of social status, the

Domars rank very

low and accept food from the hands
the

of any caste except the Dhobis,

Hajams and

the lowest castes, while no castes except the Malas
their

and the Madigas will accept food from
flesh of

hands.

They

eat the

mice, cats, field
but
abstain

rats,

the mongoose, sparrows, squirrels, pigs

and fowls,
drink.

from beef.

They

indulge

freely

in

strong

They

eat also the flesh of animals that have died a natural

death.

Occupation
livelihood
of

—-As

has been stated above, the
of
athletic feats

Domars

earn their
prostitution

by the performance
their

and the
settled

some of

women.

Some

of

them have

down and

taken to

agriculture.

XXVIII-B

DoMARA
Origin
to a liaison

—KOLHATI
Their

Ancient authorities ascribe the origin of the Kolhatis

between a Shilindhru man and a Kshatriya woman.
belonged
the
to

traditions say that they originally

Northern India and are
other Northern

akin to the Bowries,
India
tribes.

the

Kanjars,
to

Waghris and
account,

According

another

they
for

claim
sexual

to

be

descended from Khatri

women who were degraded
Very
little
is

indis-

cretions with lower castes.

known, however, regarding

1

82
origin

DOMARA
and the etymology of the name they bear.
:

their

They
(2)
in

are

divided into three sub-castes
or
Potri

(1)

Pal or Kane Kolhatis,

Dukkar
all

Kolhatis

and

(3)

Dombaris.

They

are

found

the

Districts of the
tribe,

Marathawada.

The

Pal Kolhatis are a wandering

living in portable huts

made

of rousa grass,

and carried from
are
;

place to place on the backs of donkeys.
slovenly,

The men

lazy

and
of

while the
life

women

are

smart

and good-looking

many

them lead a

of prostitution and support the men.

The Dukkar
their

Kolhatis are a

fine,

manly people and derive

their

name from

occupation of hunting wild pig and breeding the domesticated pig.

They

are

a

settled

class,

cultivating

land

and

serving:'

as

village

watchmen.
and are
Kolhatis

The Dombaris
mixture

are a branch of the

Domars

of

Telingana

inferior

to the other

two

sub-castes.

The

Pal and Dukkar

speak

a

of

Gujerathi
is

and

Marathi,

whereas the

home tongue

of the

Dombaris

Internal Structure
of the

—The
the

a mixture of

Telugu and Canarese.

exogamous

sections of the tribe are

Maratha character, such

as

Gaikwad, Sinde, Pawar, Jadhava,
Intermarriage

Andhara,
section
is

Kachare
prohibited.

and

like.

within ^the

same

A
mcury

man may marry two
two
sisters.

sisters

and two uterine
with
a
sister's

brothers

may
is

also

Marriage

daughter

allowed.

Marriage

Girls

are

married

either

as

infants,

or

after
is

they

have attained puberty.
and condoned by
associated
girls live a

Sexual intercourse before marriage
small
fine.
If

tolerated

a

the
is

man

with

whom

she has

be of her own
very virtuous
are
life

caste,

she

married to him.

Married

but those
the

who

are likely to develop into
:

good

athletes

dedicated to

god Khandoba

these

remain
is

unmarried
as follows. of
is

and become

prostitutes.
is

The ceremony

of

dedication

A
is

pandal

erected in front of the hut and an
in
it.

image

Khandoba

installed

The

girl,

bathed and ornamented,
is

made

to stand before the deity her.

and bhandar (turmeric powder)
to

thrown over

Goats
in

are

sacrificed

the

god

and

the

caste

people are feasted

honour of the event.
is

The
house.

marriage ceremony

simple and

is

performed

at

the bride's

The
are

bride and bridegroom are seated side by side and their
tied
in

garments

a knot by the bride's mother.

Women

sing

DOMARA
songs

183
dho\a\
(drum)
as

and one of the men beats
in

a

all

the

while.

Brahmans have,
ceremony
Kunbis.
fifty
is

recent years,

been employed

priests

and the

being elaborated into that current among the Maratha
father of a girl receives a price for her, varying from

The

to

one hundred rupees.

Widow=Marriage
divorce
is

—Widows
If

are

allowed to marry again,

but
in

not recognised.

the couple disagree and cannot live
his claims over his wife,

harmony, the husband abandons
ing the price

on recover-

he paid

to

her father.

Adultery

is

severely punished

and

the

delinquent

woman
chief

has

her

head shaved

and her tongue

branded wijh hot gold.

Religion

—The
are

deity

of

the

Kolhatis

is

Khandoba,
light

to

whom

offerings

made on Sundays and on

the

6th

of

Margasirsa (December).

They worship Hanuman, Tuljapur Bhavani

and other gods of the Hindu pantheon.

Among

their

minor gods are

Mari

Ai

(the

deity

of

cholera),

Mhasoba,

Jotiba

and

Bahiroba,
the

propitiated with sacrifices of goats and fowls.

They observe

Hindu

ffstivals

and make pilgrimages to sacred places.

They have They

a strong belief in sorcery, malevolent spirits and the evil eye.
also worship

Muhammadan Pirs. Disposal of the Dead The dead

are buried with
is

the head
carried
is

to the north

and the face upwards.

The body

washed and

on a bamboo

bier to the burial ground.
;

No

regular Sradha

per-

formed
food
is

in

honour of the deceased
in the burial

but,

on the 3rd day
after a portion of

after death,
it

cooked

ground and,

has been

offered to and touched by a crow, the mourners eat the rest and return

home.

Ancestors,

in

general,

are

propitiated

on the

last

day of

Bhadrapad

and on the light 3rd of Vaishakha.

Social Status

The

social

rank of the Kolhatis

is

very

low.

They

eat

from the hands of

all castes

except Nhavis (barbers), Parits

(washermen) and castes

inferior

to

these,

while no one,

except

a

Mahar

or a

Manga,

will

eat from their hands.
is

They

also eat the

leavings of Brahmans.

Their touch

not regarded as unclean and

they

are

allowed to draw water from

wells

used

by the higher
rats

castes.
flesh

They

eat mutton, pork, fowl,

all

kinds of

fish,

and the

of

carrion,

and

are

addicted

to

strong

drink.

The Dukkar.

184

DOMARA

Kolhatis are said to add beef to this diet.

The
higher

Kolhatis

admit

into
in

their

community
standing,

members of
the

castes

than
is

themselves

social

and

person

thus

admitted
brethren.

required to eat the flesh of the pig with his adopted caste

Occupation.

—The

Kolhatis pursue the same occupation as the

Domars

of

Telingana.

The Dukkar

Kolhatis

are

reputed
police.

to

be

inveterate criminals and are vigilantly
of

watched "by the
as

Girls

higher castes are often kidnapped and trained

prostitutes

and
the

acrobats.
settled

Kolhati

women

are

expert

in

tattooing.
pursuits,

Some
but 'ihey

of

classes

have followed

agricultural

never

work

as

farm-labourers.

XXIX
Erakala
Erakala,
evil

Kaikadj,
as

Korwah

a

vagrant gypsy

tribe,

bearing
the

an

reputation

professional

criminals

and

infesting

country

between the Krishna and the Narbada
crime, the.country
is

rivers.

For the purposes of
sub-districts, to

divided into

districts

and

each of

which a gSng
gang
is

is

sent,

headed by a
is

nail^,

whose

authority over his

absolute and

who

always regarded with extreme reverence.

Ostensibly, the
labourers

men

of the tribe

work

as basket

and mat-makers, dayfrom village
to

and musicians,

while the

women wander

village as fortune-tellers
In

and

tatooers.

physical

appearance,

the

Erakalas seem to be non-Aryans.

Their irregular features, dark complexion and coarse,

unkempt

hair

may lead

to

the

conclusion

that

they

belong

to

the

aborigines
to

of

Southern India.
a

They speak

a mongrel dialect,

which appears
a

be

mixture of
first.

Tamil,

Telugu and Canarese, with

preponderance

of the

Their huts, generally funnel shaped, are made of date

mats and twigs,
of donkeys.

and are carried from place

to

place on the backs

The men
after the

are scantily clothed, wearing a piece of cloth

about the loins and a dirty old turban on the head.

The women
has

wear

saris,

manner of the Telugu females, and have brass
Their
extremely
girl,

bangles

on

both

arms.

untidy

appearance

become
is

proverbial,

so that a very dirty

with dishevelled locks,

called a

" Kaikadeen."
distributed
as

Widely
different

the tribe

is,

it

bears different names
in

in in

localities,

being
or

called
in

Erakala
Carnatic

Telugu,

Kaikadi

Marathi and
derive their

Korwah

Kurwi

districts.

The

Erakalas

name from

Emkd
as

—knowledge
be
great a
profession.

or

acquaintance
in

as

the

females of the tribe profess

to

experts

fortune-telling,

which they have adopted

The

derivations

of

the

names Kaikadi and Korwah are 'obscure.

1

86
Origin

Erakala

Regarding the
legendary

origin

of

the tribe,

several

stories

are
of

current.

A

account

tells

how Renuka,

the
in

wife

Jamdagni amd mother of Parshuram, while bathing naked
waters of the Ganges,

the sacred

was beheld by

a

Dher and, being thereby
in virtue

deprived of the power which she had possessed

of her chaste

and meritorious
water home.
to
his

life,

failed

to

turn the

holy sand into pots to carry

Jamdagni, observing the
a liaison with the

failure,

and suspecting

his

wife

be guilty of
son

Dher, had thfem both beheaded by

Parshuram,
to the

and thus the pure-minded and innocent
rage of a jealous husband.
wrath,

woman
mother and

succumbed
his

Parshuram implored
to /his

father to suspend his
to
life.

and

to

show mercy
the

by restoring her
desired

At
and

his

entreaty,
to

sage

relented,
in

Renuka's
in

trunk

head

be

brought

contact.
his

Parshuram,
mother,

his haste,

adapted the Dher's head to the trunk of
irascible

which so enraged the

sage that he cursed his son
vile

and doomed him to be the procreator of the

race of Kaikadis.

Renuka, who came

to

life

with

a

male head,

became,

under the

name

of Ellama, the patron deity of the tribe.

Internal Structure

—Owing
is

to the unsettled state ol the tribe,
it

and the wide range of country over which
structure
tribes
is

is

scattered,

its

internal

extremely intricate and complicated.

A

number of sub:

into

which the

tribe

divided,

is

given below

Erakala sub-tribes.
(1) (2)

Kunchal
Pungi
Butti
or

(brushes).

Pamb

(blow-gourd).

(3) (4) (5)
(6)

(basket).

Mide.

Gampa
Bidigal.

(basket).

(7) (8) (9)

Tatta.

Badigi.
Bal^ri.

Korwah
(1) (2) (3)

sub-tribes.

Kunchal.
Pungi.
Butti.

Erakala
(4)

187

188

Erakala
or Pathur

Kut Kaikadi
girls

Korwah

earn their livelihood by purchasing

and

prostituting

tliem.
sell

They

live

in

towns

and

are

reported to kidnap and

children.

Besides these there
carriers
;

are

the

Bidigal

Erakalas,

who
;

are

lime-

the

Gampal

Erakalas,
;

who

are basket-weavers

the Kothi
slings

Kaikadis,
for

monkey-showers

the
;

Bellari

Erakalas,

who make

hanging up cooking utensils

and several other sub-tribes.
:

Each
the

of the sub-tribes

is

divided into two. exogamous groups
tribes
tribes into

Korwah
and

and
the

Erakala

Satpadi,

Kaikadi

into

— —

(I) (1)

Kawadi
Jadhav

and and
,,from

(2)

(2)

Gaikwad.

The

latter

names
to

are
suit

evidently

bonowed

the

Maratha Kunbis, probably
Kaikadis dwelt.
cannot marry a

the community

among whom

the

The

section
of his

name goes by

the male side.

A

man

woman
girl,

own

section.

Thus, a Satpadi may not
into
is

marry

a

Satpadi

but

he can marry

the

Kawadi.

The

marriage of two
elder
is

sisters
first.

to the

same man

permitted,
cousins
is

provided the
not allowed,

married

The
in

marriage of

first

exception being
father
s

made

favour of a
to a

man marrying

the daughter of his
tribe,

sister.

According

custom prevalent among the
first

every

man has

a right to claim the
If,

two daughters

of his sister, as
is

wives for his sons.

being sonless, or for any other reason, he
girls is

obliged to renounce his claim, his right to the

valued and the

money paid

to

him by the parents

of the girls before they are married.

The

bastards

among

the tribe are not allowed to marry the legitimates
class divided into

and have, consequently, formed a separate
sections
(1)

exogamous

Kotadi and

(2)

Manpadi.

But the offspring of bastards

are not illegitimate,

and must marry the legitimate members of the

community.

The

Erakalas

admit

into

their

caste,

members

of

any

caste

higher to them in social standing.

Marriage

Marriage

is

either
in

infant

or

adult.

A

price

is

paid for the bride, which varies
(fourteen fourteens), rising

amount from Rs. 14 to Rs.

196

by a multiple of fourteen, according to the
If

means of the bridegroom's parents.
is

the

full
girl

amount (Rs.
Rs.
vary

196)
(five

agreed upon,
as
his

the maternal

uncle of the
is,
'

claims
to

70
as

fourteens)

share

(which

however,

liable

the

Erakala
bride-price)

189

which must be paid

to
in

him

prior

to
in

marriage.
asses.

The

bride-price

may be reckoned
least

either

cash

or

Half the
girl's

amount

at

must be paid before marriage, to enable the
her maternal uncle and to

father to
tions.

pay

off

make wedding
marriage,

preparain

The
and

balance
or
in

may be

liquidated

after

either

a
is

lump sum,
tolerated

by

instalments.

Sexual

license
girl

before

marriage

the event of an

unmarried

becoming pregnant,
caste

or having children, to take her to

Ker lover

is

called upon

by the

Panchdyat
for

wife.

Husbands may even be obtained

women

who have had
castes.

children before marriage
is

by members of the higher
girls,

Cpurtship
to

said to prevail
of
their

and

when

of mature age,

are
girls

married

men

own

choice.

In

fulfilment

of

vows,

are dedicated to temples

and sometimes

to trees,

the ceremonial

of dedication consisting of the girl's marriage, with all the usual rites, to the temple image, or to the tree

which represents the bridegroom.

Such

girls

subsequently

become

prostitutes.

The

Pathur

Gorwah
them

(Erakala prostitutes)

wed

their girls to a

dagger before

initiating

into thqir occupation.

On

an Erakala youth attaining a marriageable age,

his

parents

look about for a suitable bride.
the proposal
fixed for

A

selection having
girl's

been made, and
a

having been accepted by the

parents,

day

is

the performance of the

Agu Madu
them
in

(betrothal)

ceremony.

On
set

the appointed day, out for the
girl's

the parents of the boy,

with their relatives,
a

house,

taking with

new mat

of date

palm.

On

their arrival,

they spread the mat

the open, before the

house, and on this mat the bride's father and the

members

of the caste
is

Panchdyat (council) are seated.

The
final

question of the bride-price

opened and discussed and on

its

settlement (to the satisfaction of
paid,
as

both the parties) eight rupees
bride's father.
father

are

earnest

money,

to

the

Liquor

is

ordered

at the

expense of the bridegroom's
the
first

and distributed

to

the assembly,
of
it

cup being presented

to the girl's father,

whose drinking

symbolises the ratification of

the alliance,

which can on no account be broken.

On
bride's

the

wedding morning,
and
times
the

a

marriage shed
pair,
in

is

erected

at

the
are

house
five

betrothed
a

their

own
oil

houses,

smeared

with

paste

of

turmeric

and

and

are

then

1

90

Erakala
Towards evening, the
parents of the
girl,

bathed.

the father carrying
in

on his head a new earthen pot and the mother holding
a lighted lamp,

her hand

proceed

in procession to

the village tank or river.

A

twig of the pipal tree (Ficus religiosa) with five offshoots, previously

concealed under water,

is

searched for and,

when found,
is

is

worshipped

and placed

in

the

earthen jar.

The

jar

then filled with water
it

and carried back to the marriage booth, where

is is

kept covered, by
not allowed to go

the bride's mother, with a lighted lamp, which' out so long as the marriage lasts.
the

At
is

the auspicious hour appointed,

bridegroom,

dagger
arrival,

in

hand,
is

taken

in

pomp

to

the

bride

s

house where, on

he

joined by the bride coming from the

inner part of the house.

The
the
a

couple,

dressed in white,
left

are seated

facing

the
of

sanctified
rice

pot,

bride to the

of

her husband,

on

squares

drawn on

date

palm mat spread underneath the

bower.

The

consent of the caste Panchd^at to their

wedding having

been

solicited

and secured, the bride's father,
of
their

who

officiates as priest,

fastens

the

ends

garments

in

a

knot

and

ties

tila

(one

rupee) in the turban of the bridegroom.

This
of

tribal

ceremonial, which

forms
is

the

binding

and

essential

portion
oiz.,

the

marriage ceremony,
or the throwing of
their peurents

followed by certain Hindu

rituals,

Talwdl
first

turmeric-coloured rice on the
then by
the

wedded

pair,

by

and

weddmg

guests, and Pusti Miital or the placing of a black
girl's

bead necklace round the
ceremony continues
pair sitting
until

neck and toe rings on her toes.

The

the small hours of the morning,

the bridal

up

ail

the while.
lights

Next morning, the married couple are

bathed,

auspicious

are

waved round

their

faces

by married
Dand\)a and
the

females and milk and curds are given them to drink.

Wadibium
a curious

bring

the
is

celebration

to

a

close.

Among

Korwas,

ceremony
is

performed on the second day of the wedding.
in

The

bride

concealed

a neighbour's house
foot,

by her mother and the

bridegroom
in his

starting out

on

seeks her out and carries her

home

arms.

Widow-Marriage
Her

—A

widow

is

generally

required

to

marry

her late husband's younger brother, even though he be younger than
herself.

choice of a second tusband

is

not,

however, fettered

and she may marry an outsider, provided he does not come within the

'

Erakala
prohibited
rights

191

degrees
late
is

of

relationship.

In

either

case
ritual

she
in

forfeits

all

to her

husband's property.
simple and consists
in

The

vogue
in

at

a

widow marriage

dressing the

widow

new
feast

clothes, putting bangles

on her arms and taking her home.
ceremony.
is

A

to the relatives closes the

Divorce.
barrenness,

—Divorce

allowed

on

the

ground
is

of

the

wife's

or unchastity,

or disobedience,

and

effected

by turning

her out of the house \n the presence of the caste Panchd^at.
is

She
in

permitted to re-marry by the same ceremony as a
her

widow
to

and,

case she re-marries,
the
first

second husband

is

compelled

refund
latter

to

the^ amount, or a portion of the amount,

which the

paid

to her parents as bride-price.

Inheritance
of law, but

—The

Erakalas

very seldom

resort

to

the courts
In

have

their disputes settled

by the caste Panchdyats.
tribal

matters
of their

of

inheritance,

they

are

governed mostly by

customs

own.

In the absence of any
girl
is

male

issue,

daughters are said

to inherit

and the fact that a

dedicated to a temple and has

become
property.

a prostitute, does not debar her from inheriting the ancestral

Child=Birth
survives

—A
the

singular custom, of great antiquity,
is

which

still

among

Erakalas,

worth

recording.

The moment who

labour begins, the

woman communicates
dark room and

the fact to her husband,

immediately

retires to a

lies

on a bed, covering himself
is

with his wife's clothes.
side of the father,

When

the child

bom

it

is

placed by the

who

has his teeth daubed with dentifrice and his

eyelashes smeared with
cines are given to

lamp-black,
is

while

all

the

prescribed
his

medi-

him and he

not allowed to leave
is

bed

for three

days,

during

which period he
the

regarded

as

being

impure.

No
lies

attention,

on

other

hand,

is

shown
given
the

to

the

mother,

who

neglected except

on the ground.

She

is

no medicine and no food
following
story
to

bread.

The

Erakalas

tell

account

for this singular practice.

In days of yore, the donkeys of a certain
fields

Erakala used to wander into
crops.

and do considerable damage
for
this

to

the

Thrice was the Erakala punished

offence

by the

owners of the farms.

On

the fourth occasion,

the

damage wrought
afraid of

by the beasts

to the crop

was

so heavy,

that

the Erakala,

1

92

Erakala

a sound beating, took to bed, and turned the occasion of the confine-

ment of

his

wife

to his
It

advantage, by declaring that he was being
to this

treated for her.

was

event that the Erakalas ascribe the

introduction

among them

of couvade, of

known among savage
is

tribes.

Religion.

—The
layer
is

religion

the Erakalas

animism,

overlaid

by

a

very

thin

of

popular

Hinduism.
in

Their

favourite

and

characteristic deity

Elamma, represented

various forms and wor-

shipped on Fridays and Tuesdays with offerings of flowers and sweetmeats.

Among

the Korwas, the goddess

is

represented by an earthen

pot set up in a hut specially built to serve as her sanctuary.

Early

on a Tuesday morning, the

Korwa female who
and
fills

is

selected to officiate

as priestess of the divinity bathes

the sacred pot with water.
in a in

Incense

is

then burnt, flowers presented, auspicious lights, placed

shallow dish of palm twigs, solemnly waved and prayers offered
front of the goddess.

The
this

water contained

in

the sacred pot

is

then

distributed
votaries.

and with

water cakes are prepared and eaten by the

Pigs, fowls and goats are sacrificed to the deity on special
the slaughtered

occasions,

animals furnishing a feast to

hefr

devotees

after the sacrifice.

Among
may
be

the other animistic deities

that are

honoured by the
of

tribe,

mentioned,
a
deity

Pochamma,

the

goddess

smallpox,
are

and

Balamma,

of

vaguely defined functions,
;

who

appeased

with the offerings of ewes
presides

while to Mahalaxmi, the goddess
offered

who

over

cholera,

are

pigs

and fowls on the Dassera

Holiday (September).
dance)
is

At

the worship of Bhavani, a gondhal (sacred
altar.

performed and ewes are sacrificed on her

The

Erakalas are a spirit-haunted and ghost-ridden people and
to the

ascribe every disease or malady, every misfortune or calamity,
action ghost.

of

some malevolent

spirit,

or
is

of

some
by

troubled

ancestral

The
animals

influence of evil spirits
as
goats,
pigs,
in

averted

sacrificing to

them
an

such

fowls,
to

&c.

The
to

services

of

Erakala priestess are called
departed ancestors.

identify
is

and

lay

the ghosts of

When
:

a ghost

to
is

be appeased, the following
spread on the ground and
is

ceremony
a small
It.

is

performed

—Some

jawdri

earthen pot,
priestess,

surmounted'^ by a lighted lamp,

placed upon
facing
the

The

having

bathed

and

seated

herself,

Erakala
leimp,

193

becomes possessed and goes on playing on a musical
called
a

instru-

ment

tmgari
all

(a

sort

of

fiddle),

singing,

one

by

one, the names of
of the

the deceased relatives, until the flickering flame

lamp becomes steady.

The image
is

of

the deceased person,
silver plate

whose name has steadied the flame,

embossed upon a
is

which, being hung round the neck of the sufferer,
him.

supposed to cure
shells are also

Garlands made of pieces of leather and cowrie
in

worn

the

name

of

Ellamma by men and women
from
these
spirits

to

ward

off

evil

influences proceeding
In

and ghosts.
deities

addition

to

elemental

and departed

ancestors,

the

Hindu gods Hanuman, Rajanna and Mahadeva
in

are also honoured,

though

a scanty fashion,

by the

tribe,

more

particularly

by those

who have
villages

given

up

their

wandering habits

and

settled

down

in

and towns.

Brahmans have

not yet been introduced either

for ceremonial
tribal

or religious functions

which are discharged by
influence

their

priests.

The
the
like

growing
that

of

Hinduism
Erakalas
Telingana,

may
have
into

be

traced

to

fact

a

few

of

the
of

divided

themselves,

the

Hindu

castes

Namdharis and Vibhutidharis.

Disposal

of

the

Dead

—The

dead

are

usually

burnt,

but

occasionally buried in a lying posture, with the head pointing to the
south.
It is

said that the

members

of the Satpadi section bury their

dead and those of the Kawadi burn them.
at

The

ashes are either left

the place of cremation or thrown into a running stream.
is

Mourn-

ing
is

observed for

five days,

during which time the principal mourner
flesh.

regarded as unclean and abstains from
is

On

the

fifth

day
is

after

death, a swine
to
all

killed,

its

flesh

is

cooked and a funeral
of

feast

given

the relatives.
the

In

the
a

name
leafy

the deceased,

birds
is

are

fed

with

food placed on

plate.

No

Srddha
If

performed

for the propitiation of

the manes of the departed.

the spirit of the
in

deceased
ghostly

person
form,
is

is

suspected

of
plate,

having
with

reappeared
his

a

a

small
in

metal

image

engraved
festive

upon

it,

placed

the god's

room and worshipped on every

occasion.

Social

Status

—The

social

status

of

the

tribe

is

very

low.

No

castes,
13

other than the lowest unclean classes of

Mahar

(Mala),

194

Erakala
(Madiga), Chambhar, &c., will take food or water from their
all

Mang

hands, while they will accept food from

Hindu

classes except the

lowest unclean castes.
to enter

The members

of

the tribe

are not

allowed
scruples

the court-yard of great

temples.

They have few
pork,
scaly

regarding their diet
fish,

and will eat fowls,
foxes,
cats,

and scaleless
carrion
freely

field

rats,

jackals,

mongooses,

and
in

the

leavings

of

the

higher

castes.

They

indulge

strong drink and the tumult that ensues therefcom generally ends in a
fight.

Occupation.

—The

vagrant

Erakalas

are

professional

burglars

and highway dakaits

and are under the

strict

vigilance oi the police.

They commit
sharp
mitted,
iron

burglaries

by digging through the walls of houses with a
and,
after

instrument

the

depredations

have been comdis-

move away many
of

miles

from the scene of the crime,
very
quickly.

posing

or

secreting

the

plunder

Their

highway
ending,

dakaities are

marked with extreme violence and
in

ruthlessness,

not

infrequently,

murder.

They

are very

superstitious

and never

commence

their predatory incursions

unless the
is

omens

are favourable.

Their ostensible means of livelihood
date palm,
ropes and twines from

to

make mats and
fibres,

'baskets of

jungle

slings

for

hanginr

cooking

utensils

and

clothes,

and

ropes

for

drawing

water

and

tethering animals.

With

these commodities, the

women

of the gangs

wander from
collect

village to village and, under the pretext of selling them,

information

which helps the men

in

organising

crime.

The

Erakala females are petty thieves and as they go about begging from

door
can
so

to
lay

door
their

they

make
upon
and

away

with

pots

and

clothes

they
are
in

hands

unnoticed.

Sometimes
houses

they
situated

bold

as

to

open

plunder

locked

unfrequented lanes.

As
all

a fortune teller,
castes.
in

an Erakala

woman
in

is

in

great favour basket,

among
patron

the Telugu

She

carries,

a

date

her

deity

Ellamma,

the form of a small circular plate embossed with the
deity

cowrie shells.

She invokes

and,

as

if

acting

under

its

influence, tells fortunes

and reveals the future.

Sometimes, possessed
evil
spirit

by the goddess, she discloses the name of the
a

that haunts

family

and prescribes remedies

for

its

pacification.

Erakala

195

The
village

settled

members

of also

the tribe

are

peaceful

cultivators

and

musicians.
baskets,

They
mats

work
for

in

date

palm

leaves,

making
not

brooms,

and toys
their

children.
instincts

They have
and
in

yet

thoroughly

repressed

criminal

are

frequently

suspected of helping their
crime.

nomadic comrades

the

commission of

XXX
Gavli
Gavli
and
in

a

pastoral

caste found

in

all

the

Marathawada

districts

some
give

parts of Telingana.

The
their

Gavlis have no traditions and
origin,

cannot

any

account
are

of

nor

of

their
It
is

former
possible

settlement.
that

They
may be

strong,

dark and well made.

they

an offshoot

from the great Lingayit community,
cattle

differentiated

by keeping herds of
Structure

Internal
castes,

—The

and taking
are

to pastoral habits.

Gavlis

divided

into

two subterritorial

Nagarkar and Vajarkar, which are evidently of the

type.

The members
Each
some

of these sub-castes
is

interdine but

do

not inter-

marry.
sections,

of these

further divided into a

number of exogamous
:

of which are given

below

as

specimens

Khedkar.
Taitankar.

Khandarkar.
Katikar.

Punekar.

Baride.

Mardkar.
Nizamshai.

Nandarkar.

Aurangabade.
Bahirwade.
Godulkar.
Shahpurkar.

Avasekar.
Bhaganagari.

Hatdurkar.
Bajirao.

Jhade

(tree).

Ganjewale (hemp).
Divate
(torch).
(rag).

Dahiwade
Landge

(curds).

(wolf).

Langote

Goakhore.
Devrishi.

Paraswari.

Ambarkhane.
Sevate.

Mahankale.
Pathait.

Alankhane.

Bhakare.

Dhamkade.
Pharadkhane.
Atrunkarin.

Mongle.
Shelar.

Chankade.

Gavli
Marriage

197
practised

Infant

marriage

is

by

the

caste,

girls

being married between the ages of two and ten years.
is

Polygamy

permitted, without any limit being imposed on the

number of wives

a

man may have.

The

marriage ceremony

is

of the type

common
50

among other Lingayit
to

castes.

A

bride-price

varying

from Rs.

Rs. 200

is

paid to the father of the bride.

The

marriage takes

place

at night.

After the bride has been selected, the father of the

bridegroom goes to her house and presents her with jewels and
clothes.

new
in

On

this

occasion a feast

is

given by the bride's people

confirmation of the match.

On
in

the appointed day,

the bridegroom,

mounted
is

oi* a bullock,

goes

procession to the bride's house and

received at the entrance by the bride's mother,

who waves
hand

a piece

of bread round his head.

The

bride and bridegroom are seated on
left

low wooden
groom. and a
his
left.

stools,

the bride being on the

of the bride-

Five metal pots are arranged about them, forming a square,

man goes

five times

round them,
as

first

keeping them always on

right hand,

and then
is

many
the

times again keeping
circuits,

them on
the

his

Vhile he

making

he

encircles

pots

with a raw cotton thread.
in

Both Brahmans and Jangams are called

to conduct the ceremony,

who

recite mantras,
pair.

or sacred texts,
is

and

throw coloured rice on the bridal
binding
are tied

This

deemed
of

to

be the
pair

portion
in

of

the

ceremony.

The
placed

scarves

the

bridal

a knot and their feet are
right

washed with water and

milk.

The

bride's

hand

is

then

on the right hand of the

bridegroom and the father of the bride puts a rupee and a quarter
into her

hand, which she drops into that of the bridegroom.

This

completes the giving away of the bride {Kanyadan) and his acceptance
of her
off

by the bridegroom.

The two
is

sets of cotton thread are then taken

from the pots and one

tied

as

kflnkanam on the wrist of the

bride and the other on that of the bridegroom.

After Ganesh and
the
bridal
is

Kalash

(water

pot)

have

been
oil

worshipped

pair

are

smeared with turmeric and
officiating

and the ceremony
their

closed.
retire

The
to their

Brahman and Jangam claim

fees

and

homes.

Widow=Marriage
and impose no

—The

Gavjis allow a

widow

to

marry again

restrictions

on her choice of

a second

husband.

The

198

Gavu
is,

widow, before her marriage,
children,

however, required to give up her

both male and female, to her late husband's family.
in

The

ceremony

use at the marriage of a

widow

is

a very simple one and

closely conforms to that

among
as

the

Maratha Kunbis, both Brahmans
Divorce
is

and Jangams

officiating

priests.

permitted,

with

the
to

sanction of the caste Pancha^at,

and divorced wives are allowed

marry again by the same

rite

as

widows.
and ceremonial observances,
Like

Religion

In

respect

of

religious

the Gavlis generally conform to the usages of the Lingayit sect.
other Lingayits,

they wear a lingum, the phallic
it

emblem

of the god

Shiva, round their necks and worship

daily with offerings of flowers
lives,

and food before they dine.
with
this

No

Gavli, so long as he
his

can part Their

symbol without incurring expulsion from
is

caste.

special

deity

Mahadev, whom they worship on
fruit

festive

occasions
a

with offerings of flowers and
fast

and

in

whose honour they observe

on Mahashivratra, or the 14th of the dark half of

Magh
of

(April)

and on every

Monday
also
to

in

the

month

of

Shravana (August).

They

pay

reverence

Khandoba,

Naroba,

Bhavani

Tuljapur,

Ganapati and other gods of the Hindu pantheon, and make pilgrimages
to

Pandharpur,

Tuljapur,

Kondanpur,

Jejuri,

Alandi

and

Benares.
birth

They

call

in

Jangams, the

priests of the Lingayits,

at their

and funeral ceremonies, while Brahmans are employed to conTheir religion,
as
in

duct their marriages.
yitism
society
silver
in

fact,

is

a mixture of Linga-

and Hinduism,
of

practised

by the middle classes of Hindu
worship
prevails

Maharashtra.

Ancestral

strongly

and

and brass impressions representing departed ancestors are placed

the god's room and worshipped

by burning frankincense and camfruit

phor before them and with offerings of flowers, Child-Birth
for ten days.

—A

and boiled
is

rice.

Lingayit

woman,

after

childbirth,

unclean

On

the eleventh day, the mother and child are bathed
are

and

their

foreheads

smeared with mhhuti (sacred ashes) by a
impurity.
ties

Jangam and they
brings a

are then free from
it

Finally,
it

the

Jangam

new

lingum, worships
it

and either
till

round the child's
is

neck, or hands
old.

to the

mother to be kept

the child

twelve years

Disposal Of the

Dead._The

dead are buried

in a sitting pos-


1

1

Gavli
ture facing the east.

199
the corpse

When
its

a person dies,

is

seated

in

a

wooden frame (makhar),
it

forehead

is

smeared with

oibhuU and
After the
salt,
it,

is

carried to the grave
is

on the shoulders of four men.
it

body

lowered into the grave,
standing over the

is

filled in

with earth and

and

the Jangam,

mound

of earth raised over

blows

the conch shell, intimating that the soul of the deceased has reached

Kailas

(Shiva's

abode).

He

is

then

dragged down by the chief
is

mourner and paid

hii fees.

Mourning
is

observed

for

three

days

only and on the third day a feast
of the caste.

generally given to the

members

Social

Status.

—The
DiJfsha

Gavlis

rank

higher,

socially,

than

the

Maratha Kunbis, and are equal
have

to those groups of the Lingayits

who

undergone

no

(initiation

ceremony)

and

with

whom
strictly

Gavlis will eat both kflchi (uncooked) and pakk' (cooked) food and

smoke from the same hookah.

All kinds of animal food are

prohibited, and the members of the caste also abstain from indulging
in

strong drink.

Occupation
as

—The
at

large majority of the caste find

employment

cowherds and comparatively few have taken
buffaloes from Berar
at prices

to agriculture.

They

purchase cow

varying from Rs. 30 to

Rs.

120 and cows
in selling

from Rs. 20 to Rs. 60.

Their
in

women

help
sell-

them
ing

milk, butter, curds and

whey, and

making and

cowdung
to

cakes.

The

children tend the herds of cows and buffaloes

belonging
pasture.

themselves

and other people

and

drive

them out

to

Distribution
distribution of the
District.

The
Gavlis

following statement shows the number and
in
1

911

:

Males.
1,433
101

Females.
1,412

Hyderabad City
Atrafi

Balda

87
115
14

Warangal
Keurimnagar
...

124
•• ••

28
968
57

Adilabad

817
13

Medak
Nizamabad
Aurangabad
-^

••
...

68
1,096

73
1,031

.*

200
District.

Gavli
Vlales.

Bhir

Nander
Parbhani

Gulbarga

Usmanabad
Raichur
Bidar

a

XXXI
Ghisadi
Ghisadi, Baiti ^Kamara {'Baiti'
in

Telugu meaning

'outside')

wandering caste of iron-workers, polishers, tinkers and knife-grinders.

The name
'

'Ghisadi'

seems
to rub.'

to

be derived from
is

the

Urdu word

ghaisHE^',

meaning

'

Their origin

obscure.

The

Ghisadis

themselv^ say that they were originally Marathas, and separated from
the

pMent

caste

by reason
claim

of

their

having
to

adopted
their

their

present
habitat.
affinities.

occupation.

Others

Gujerath
light

be

original

Their
Their

traditions

throw

no
is

upon
but

their

original

home

tongue
as

Gujerathi,

they
are

speak

Marathi

and

Hindustani

well.

As

a

class

they

hardworking
generally

and
live

robust,

but quanelsome and fond of drinking.

They

in hut?, or pals,

of cloth, on the outskirts of villages,
their

where they
articles

find

work.
asses,

They
ponies

carry
or

clothing,

utensils
to

and

other

on

bullocks

from place

place.

Both males

and

females dress like the Maratha Kunbis.
knots and beards.

They

generally wear top-

Internal

Structure

—The
are of

Ghisadis

have

no

sub-divisions.

Their
closely

exogamous
resemble

sections

based

upon family
Kunbis.

names

which
are

those

the

Maratha

Marriages

regulated according to surnames.

Surnames (Marathawada),

Surnames (Telingana).
Poshinarwaru
Paingantiwaru

Pawar
Chavan Bhukya
Rathor
Salunke

Palakadawaru

Heerapuramwaru
Badapolawaru
Anvalikarwaru

Katker

Persons of the same surnames cannot intermarry.

A

man may

marry

two

sisters

but

two brothers cannot marry two

sisters.

A

202
niece

Ghisadi

may be

taken

in

marriage.

Outsiders

are

not

admitted

into

the caste.

Marriage
the caste.

Both

infant

and adult marriages are practised by

A

girl is sent to

her husband's house immediately after the
is

marriage ceremony.
are

Cohabitation before puberty
to

tolerated.

Girls

not

dedicated
is

temples.

A

girl

becoming
is

pregnant

before

marriage

expelled from the caste.
is

Polygamy

permitted theoreti-

cally to any extent, but

limited in actual life to not

more than two

wives.

The
among

marriage

ceremony
their

differs

in

different

localities.
,in

The
vogue

Maratha Ghisadis marry
the

daughters by

the

ceremony

Maratha Kunbis.

The ceremony among
of nine pillars,
cis

the Baiti
is

Kamaras

takes place in a

wedding booth

and

attended with

the killing of a pig and five sheep,
of the caste.
In other respects,
castes.
it

a sacrifice to the patron deities

conforms to the usage current among

the

other

Telugu

In general, a

widow
she

is

not allowed to marry again.

But

where
younger

the

custom

prevails,

may marry

her

late

husband's

brother.

Divorce.

—Divorce
woman

is

recognised and

is

effected

by

driving the

woman

out of the house.

No

expenses are recovered.
of a lower caste
is

Adultery on
punished by
it

the part of a

with a

member

expulsion from her caste, but with a

man

of a higher caste

may be

condoned by a small
Religion

fine,

—The
evil

or entirely overlooked.

religion of the Ghisadis presents no features of

special interest.

They themselves

profess to

be

Saivaits,

and worship
all

Balaji and Bhavani as their patron deities.

They pay
festivals.

reverence to

the

Hindu

gods, and observe the
spirits

Hindu

They have
is

a firm

belief in ghosts,

and witchcraft.

Maisamma
and wine.

appeased
are

by Telugu Ghisadis with
engaged
for ceremonial

offerings of flesh

Brahmans

and religious observances.

Disposal of the

Dead—The

dead are burnt, with the head

to

the north and the face downwards.

The

ashes and bones are collected

on the 3rd day after death, and thrown

into

any stream that

is

close by.
re-

Mourning
latives.

is

observed,
the

10 days for ?gnates, and 3 days for other
Baiti

Among

Kamaras

a

singular

custom ordains that

Ghisadi
the spot

203

where the body

is

burnt be marked with a stone bearing the

images of the sun and moon.
10th,

Funeral

rites

are performed of the Ghisadis

on the

11th and 12th days after death.
for their

Some

do

not

mourn

dead, and their

women assume widowhood

three days

after the

death of their husbands.

This singular divergence from the

orthodox usage

may be due

to the supposition that the spirit does not
until three

shake

off its

attachment to the dead body
is

days after death.

No

Sradha

perforrned by the

members

of the caste.

Rice and alms
>a the

are offered to Pitra

Brahmans

in

the

name

of the departed ancestors

AmaWas^a,
Occupation

or the last

day of Bhadrapad (Sept. -Oct.).
in

For eight months

the year they wander from
in

village to village

and work,

especially

iron.

They

prepare

all

kinds of ironware, which they sell in the bazars.

Social Status
fish

—They

eat the flesh of

goats,

fowls,

pigs,

and

and drink wine and shendi.

They do

not eat the leavings of any
all

caste.

They

eat \achi (uncooked food) from the hands of

castes,

except Dhobis,

Malas, Mangalas and Panchadayis, while only the

Malas,. Madigas and Erakalas will eat from their hands.

XXXII
GOLLA
Golla, Gulla,
Gullai
(in

the
caste

Carnatic),'

Gollewar,

Gavali,

Dhangar— a numerous
Districts,

pastoral

of

the Telugu and Carnalic
of

found

also

on the

eastern

outskirts

the

Marathawada
0uring the
for

country.

Dwelling generally on the

plains,

they move,

dry season, to the forest-clad hills
their flocks

which yield abundant pasture

and herds.

Etymology
word 'Golla.'

Opinions
derive
('go'

differ
it

regarding

the

etymology of the

Some

from the Sanskrit word 'gopal,' mean-

ing 'a keeper of cows'

—a cow,
'

and
'

'pal'

a keeper).
'

Others

hold that

it

is

a corruption of

Godlawaru

(grazier of cows),

GoUais

waru' (cow-herd) or 'Gurlawaru' (shepherd).

The

last

derivation

probably suggested by

the fact that the Gollas have, of recent date,

taken to tending sheep.

The
members

titles

of respect

which are afdxed
'

to the

names of the male
'

of the caste are
(elder).

Anna

'

(elder brother),

Ayya

'

(father)

and 'Boyadu'

Origin

—The

Gollas are not a homogeneous race, but are com-

posed of a large number of endogamous groups, the members of which
are found to differ from one another in their features

and complexion

and even
port the

in their

manners and usages.
to

Their traditions tend to supof different origin have

same view and

show how people

been linked together by common occupations and constitute the Golla
caste.

The Eja
by

Gollas of

the

Karimnagar and
sons,

Nalgunda

districts

trace their descent from the
truction to a
fire

god Krishna's
race.

who

escaped the desaccording

of the

Yadava

The

survivors were,

legend,
in

subsequently

grouped under divisions based upon the
their

manner

which they effected
fire

escape.

Those who were

red-

dened by the glow of the

were called Yera Gollas, the word


GOLLA
'yeta'

205

meaning

'red' in

Telugu
trees

;

those

who

lay concealed in the green
'paknati'

foliage of

umbrageous

were called Paknati,
implored
;

meaning
to

'green

branches';

those
as

who

the

god

Krishna

save

them, were
family

known
in

Puja GoUas

while others,

who

carried their

gods
;

baskets

(Telugu gampa) got the name of

Gampa
melee,

Gollas

and, lastly, the descendants of those

who

fought

in the

have borne the designation of Mushti Gollas.

Another
Kurvinal
in

tradition,

purely

of

a

local

character,

comes

from
as

the Atrafi Balda

district,

and represents the Gollas

having sprung from one Iranna, the son of the king Pidiraj of Dona-

kunda

in

*Telingana and

his

wife Padma.

Iranna,

and

his

brave

brother Kathanna saved the bovine race from a female goblin and

have been,

in

consequence, elevated to the rank of gods.

Internal Structure
the Gollas are divided

—The
:

number

of

sub-castes

into

which

is

unusually large.

A

few, deserving notice,

have been enumerated below
1.

Yera

or

Era Golla.
or

2.
3.

Sadnam

Boya Golla.

Yaya

Golla.

4. 5.
6.
7.

Paknati

Golla.

Puja Golla. Mushti Golla.

Modati Golla.

8. 9.
10.

Mudra Golla.
Sale Golla.
Sarsa Golla.

11.
12.

Adi Golla.
Gujarathi Golla.

13.
14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Ale Golla.
Pedwati Golla.

Manda Golla
Karne Golla.

or

Buchewad.

Yadava Golla.

Gampa

Golla.
to refer either to the physical type of the

These names appear
sub-caste,
as
in

the case of the Era Gollas, or to some traditionarj

206
function, as puja

GOLLA
and modati,
or to a legendary event, as

m

the case of

Musfiti and Paknati.

They have

also reference either to the place

from

which

the

members

immigrated,

or

their

descent

(probably

fictitious)

from a particular stock.

Gujarathi Gollas are an instance
of the latter.
their

of the former class and

Yadava Gollas

The Vera
their skin,

or
is

Era Gollas derive

name from

the colour of

which
the

more transparent than
of

that of the other
in

GoUa
the

tribes.

They form
Dominions.

bulk

the

caste

living

'H.

H.

Nizam's

Their

tall,

muscular frames, regular features and com-

paratively light complexions (sun-burnt
their foreign origin,

by constant exposure)
silent

indicate

although history

is

upon the exact period of
all

their immigration.

They

claim a social rank higher than

the other
to

sub-castes, except the Gujarathi

and the Adi,

who

are,

however,

be rarely met with
It
is

in the

districts.

customary among members of
girls to their

this sub-caste to

dedicate both
;

boys and

patron deities Mallana and Raj

Rageshwar

in

fulfilment of

vows they

may have made

to these
girls

deities.

The

girls

are also married to swords.

Such dedicated

are called Parvati

and Jogini and are known to lead loose
with

lives,

associating themselves

men

of their

own

caste, or of higher castes, but on no account of

inferior castes.

A

curious,

but ancient custom, forbids

Yera women

to

perforate

their
is

noses

and to wear nose-rings or head ornaments.
nor

The panot

neither
is

tamed

touched,

and the veneration with

which the bird

regarded by the members of this sub-caste, leads to
it

the inference that
In

might be the totem of the
districts

tribe.

Gulbarga and other Canarese

the

name 'Vera' has

been dropped and the members

of the sub-caste call themselves

Anam

Gollas, speak Canarese and have preferred the cultivation of land to
their original

occupation.

The Anam
be very

Gollas deal also

in

medicinal

herbs and roots and in their capacity of Wai-mandlus (mountebanks)
are popularly believed to
skilful
in

cupping and bleeding,

in

extracting guinea

worms, preparing embrocations and ointments,
for ordinary diseases.

feel-

ing the pulse

and prescribing

Their

women

are

engaged

as farm-labourers,

but will never stoop to accept service as

domestic servants.

The Sadnam,

or

Boya Golas

are

hypergamous

to

the

Era

GOLLA
Gollas to

207
maidens
in

whom,

it

is

said, they give their

maiiiage.

The
Their

members

of this sub-caste profess to abstain from eating fowls.

women do

not wear cholis or petticoats.

The Yaya Gollas

appear to be an offshoot from the Yera Gollas,
in

whom
little

they closely resemble
swarthier the
in

physical type,

although they
the

are

a

complexion.
of

They

maintain

Panchayat

system,
a

headman

which

is

termed chaudhari or Mehter.

At

wedding ceremony the chaudhari has the

privilege of placing the

first

spot of sandal paste on the forehead of the bridegroom, for
areca-nuts,

which
five

he claims betel-leaves, copper
(Jains

a piece of bodice cloth

and

as his perquisite.

The

Paknati Gollas are divided into two endogamous groups

Domatiwaru and Magdiwaru
which regulate

—based upon
ceremony.
a
in

the difference of the usages

their marriage

Before marriage, some male
are

members

(usually

nine)

of

Domatiwaru family

required

to

observe a fast for a whole day,

honour of their patron deity,
in

Mallanna
drink

in

Telingana and Chandramma
the

the

Carnatic,
If

and

to

ghi

at

time

when
it

the
is is

fast

is

broken.

any of them
his throat and,

declines to drink the liquid

forcibly poured

down

should he

fall
is

ill

thereby, he

given wine to drink and onions to eat,

and a ram
the
the

slaughtered and placed upon the pandal beneath which
is

wedding

to

be celebrated.

No

such

usage

obtains

among

members of the Magdiwaru

sub-division.

The

Paknati maidens

are, like their

Yera

sisters,

dedicated to deities and married to swords
live sub-

and trees and, under the designation of Parwati or Jogini,
sequently the lives of prostitutes.

The Puja
coarse and

Gollas are a dark complexioned sub-caste, possessing

indelicate features
that
their

and taking

their

name from
to

a

legend

purporting

ancestors

were

priests

the

shepherd

god

Mallana.
eat pigs

A

usage, evidently of a non-Aryan origin, requires them to
first

on the

day of the new year,

as an act of merit,

which

is

believed to bring them good fortime and happiness during the year to

come.

Like the Yera women,

their

females are debarred from per-

forating their noses

or from wearing nose-rings

and head ornaments.
to

The Puja women do
event,

not wear bodices,

owing

the mythological
in

which they

still

fondly cherish, that Shri Krishna,

one of

208
his

GOLLA
amorous
frolics,

bore away on the kolarnb tree (Stepheg^ne parvi-

jolia),

the garments of the milkmaids of Brindaban while they were
in

bathing, undressed,
this

the waters of the holy Jamna.

The members

of
is

sub-caste honour,

among

their deities,

the river Ganges, which

represented by small stones placed outside their dwellings and wor-

shipped, on a dark night,

by the eldest member of the community.

The Mushti
their

Gollas allege that they inherited their name from
distinguished for their- skill
in

ancestors,

who were

boxing.
of

The

Gujarathi Gollas profess to observe a high standard
is

ceremonial purity, drink water which

not exposed to the sun

s

rays

and claim, on
with

this

ground, to be superior to other Golla stb-castes,

whom
name

they neither interdine nor intermarry.
as

TTie Modati Gollas ('modati' meaning 'indigenous') appear,
their

indicates, to

be

a

group of local formation.
classes of Gollas,

They
to

earn their

living

by begging from the higher
in

whom
singing

they

stand

the relation of

family bards and genealogists,

and

extolling the history

and renown of the families of their supporters.
their
it

They

travel

from village to village under
'tulja'

popular
is

name

of

Tuljawad or Teljilodu, the word
from
tira

being,

said,

derived

chira'
it.'

which means
This
sari

'a

sari

with

patterns

of

dolls

em-

broidered on
their

they spread on the ground in front of
as a curtain at the

moveable

huts, or

hang

door and, assuming

various

disguises,

entertain

their

audience

by

dancing

and

singing

before the idols.

The

Pidwati Gollas,

also

called

Pusalwad
lead
a
in

(pedlars),

are

the
life,

lowest of the Golla sub-castes.

They

sort

of nomadic

moving from place

to place

and

retailing,

villages,

glass beads,

sham

corals,

trinkets,

needles,

thread,

tape,

\un\um
at

(red

aniline

powder) and other
cities.

articles

which they procure

the bazars in the

Of

these

sub-castes,

only

the

Yera,

Paknati,

Adi,

Mushti,

Sadnam, Mudra, Puja, Kame, and
the hands of the Gujarathi Gollas

Gampa interdine. All eat from who are, as already mentioned,
Gollas.

regarded

as

the

highest

of

the

TTie

Modati,

Paykani,

Padapotolo, and

Manda Gollas
tribes.

subsist

by begging alms

of the

Yera

and other higher Golla


GOLLA
The' exogamous
sections into

209

which the sub-castes are broken up
totems comprise the names of trees,

are of the totemistic type.

The

plants cind animals and,
to the

it

has been ascertained, are generally taboo

members of the

sections bearing their names.

A

member

of

the Wankfl^alu section will not touch nor injure the wanka])alu (eggplant or brinjal

Solarium Melongena) nor eat
Shzishila

its

fruit.

So,
or

also,
kill

a a

member

of

the

section

will

not

touch,

injure

shashilu (serpent).

Some

of the sections are worth noticing as being
beliefs

of peculiar formation
1.

and possessing curious
section.

and usages.
to
this

The
, not

Shalandalu

—Members
—The
not

belonging

do

use turmeric coloured rice in their marriages.
section.

2.

Tffe

Kanya Sarolu
to
this

parents of a boy belong-

ing

section

will

make

the

first

proposals

towards the settlement of their son's marriage.
3.

The Surwala
into an

section.

—Members
i.e.,
It is

of

this

will

never

milk
little

empty

vessel,

they will put at least a

water into the vessel before milking.
4.

The Tanala

section.

essential

for

a

member

of this

section that, while on pilgrimage, he should bathe stealthily

in

tirtha

(holy-water) or,

in

other words,

he should

Brahmans and avoid attracting the attention of the Tirtha
paying their dakshina
(fees).

Should a Brahman detect
his fees,
it

him while bathing and demand
all

is

believed that
disappears.

the merit he acquires by his holy

trip

5.

The

Basutolu section.— Members

of this

worship the plant

basutolu,

from which they receive

their

name, on Sunor

days,

or at the
sell

commencement
a

of sowing operations,
offerings

before they

sheep,

with

of

flowers

and

sweet dishes.

The
exogamy
it

section

name descends

in

the
a

male

line.

The

rule

of

requires a

man

not to

many

woman
girl

of his

own

section, but

does not preclude him from marrying a

of his mother's section.

A

man may marry two

sisters,

two but two brothers cannot marry
sister,

sisters.

He may

elder also marry the daughter of his
sister.

or of h.s

mother's brother, but not of his father's

Marriage—Except among
14

the Puja Gollas,

who

practise both

210
infant

GOLLA
and adult marriages, the Golla
attained
girls

are

married before they
girls,

have

the

age of
in

puberty.

Boys and

as

has

been

already mentioned

connection

with the Yera Golla sub-caste, are

dedicated to temples and married to the deities Mallanna and Raj

Rajeshwar, such dedicated boys being called

Waghes
Signs
to

or Mallannas of
a
girl's

and

the
in
is

girls

Parwatis
father's

or

Murlis.

puberty

her

house forebodes

no good

her brothers,
a blanket,
girl

and she
her
is

immediately sent, with her face covered with
house.

to

husband's
allowed,

Cohabitation

before

the

matures
forty

on the performance of a ceremony,

when

seers

of rice are

cooked and caste-people are feasted, clothes and jewels
girl

being presented to the

and her husband on the
without
limit,

occcision.
is

Polyin

gamy

is

permitted

theoretically,

but

restricted
in

practice to
first

two wives, the second wife being taken only
barren,

case the

wife

is

or incurably diseased.

Marriage

—The
are

marriage ceremony

is

of the usual type.

Pro-

posals of marriage

made

to

the girl's parents

and,

if

they are

accepted, the bridegroom's father goes to the bride's house, and per-

forms Supa

Idam (ceremony

of betrothal).

In the presence ot the caste

Pancha\)at, he makes a turmeric spot on the girl's forehead, presents

her with wadibium and declares that he has approved of the has

girl

and
the

accepted her for his son.

In

the

Pedda

or

Gatii Idam,

boy's father pays to the parents of the
to

girl

the bride-price, amounting
sari

Rs. 12, and makes a present of a

new

and choli

to the girl,

the ceremony being concluded with a drink and a feast to the bride-

groom's
at

party.
a

The

Gollas
ring,
is

celebrate

the
a

Praihanam

ceremonial,

which
elderly
finger.

curved
relatives,

sanctified

by

Brahman
the
girl's

and

blessed

by
ring

solemnly
the

put
girl

on

right

hand
hus-

On

this

occasion,
gifts

receives

from

her

band-elect,
ritual

wedding
follows

consisting

of

jewels
that

and clothes.
at

The
Kapu

that

closely

resembles

performed

a

marriage and needs no separate mention.
gift of
is

Kanyadan,

or the formal

the bride to the bridegroom and his formal acceptance of her,
to

believed

be the

essential

portion

of

the

ceremony.

In

the

Nagbali ceremony, which
groom,

constitutes their

Kulachar, the Golla bridegoes
a

with a plough and oth^r implements of husbandry,

GOLLA
little

211

distance from the marriage booth and furrows the
sorts of

soil,

in

which

he sows navadhan^a, or nine
in

seed grains.
as

His young wife,
she would do
in

the meanwhile, brings him bread and water,

actual

manied

life.

The
monials
of ghi
is

Paknati

Gollas of the Carnatic have some curious cere-

among them.

During the course of the wedding,

a quantity

distributed in three vessels.

Two

of these are offered to the

parents of the
of the

wedded, couple, who
is

quaff their contents.
in

A

relative

bridegroom

required to drink the ghi
in

the third vessel.

On

the Nagbali
side,

day,
side,

the Carnatic,

the bride
polu,

and bridegroom,
of
a

seated

by
a
a

are

bathed
at

in

a

formed
the

jawari

square with
encircled

vessel

of water

each corner,

vessels

being
bath,

by

raw cotton thread.

The

parties,

after

the

exchange

their garments,

the bridegroom wearing the clothes of the

bride and the bride attired in those of her husband and, thus dressed,
fetch, in procession,
their

water from a village well.

This ceremony over,

maternal uncles mount them on their hips respectively and jump

and prance like horses, and as they cross each other the bridal pair
throw red powder {abhir and gulal) by the handful on each other's
person.

Puberty.
unclean
for

—A

Golla
or

girl,

on

attaining

puberty,

is

considered

eleven

thirteen

days,

and the ceremonial

observed

among members

of this caste
castes.

more

or less resembles that prevailing
this

among other Telugu
a separate

During

period,

she has to occupy
is

room,

fitted

for

the purpose,

where she

scrupulously

screened by a curtain from the evil
puppet,

gaze of strangers.
a

A

wooden
side

clothed and decorated, her
all

and

sword,

are kept

by her

and

are

constant

companions
for

throughout.
five

She

is

sumptuously
husband's
relatives.

feasted

the

time

the

first

days by

her

people and for the remaining days

by her mother and her
she receives her

On

the

fifth

day

after

menstruation,

first

bath.

A

female barber attends upon her on the occasion, smears her with

turmeric paste and oil, and pares her nails.

Married

women

present
last

her with bath and

wadibium.
is

On

the

eleventh

day,

she receives

her

then ceremonially clean.

Widow=Marriage.

—The Gollas allow

a

widow

to

marry again,

212
but

GOLLA
do
not

require

her

to

many

her

deceased

husband's younger
of her elder
sister.

brother.

She may, however, marry the husband

When
ritual

a

widow

marries again, the bridegroom

is

required to give her
first

parents half the exf>enses they

incurred on her
of
a

marriage.
of

The

ordained

for

the

marriage

widow

is

the

simplest

character.

The

bridegroom gives her a white

sari,

some bangles and

a pair of toe rings.

He

ties

a pusti round her neck and this forms the

binding portion of the ceremony.
friends

He

then provides

a

feast

to his

and

relatives

and the ceremony ends.
is

In the Carnatic, a

widow

bride, dressed in white,

first

led

by other widows

to a temple, and

thence,

after she has put

on,

with her

own

hands,

th^ 'pusti round
TTio
is

her neck,
pair,

she

is

conducted to the house of the bridegroom;
bathe and become husband and wife.

thereupon,

Divorce

permitted, on the ground of the wife's adultery or disobedience, and
effected as follows.
sari,

is

The husband

gives the offending

woman

a white

daubs red lead on her forehead and removes the upper garment
off

from
IS

her head.

This done she
in

is

deprived of

her pusti

and

expelled from the house

the presence of the caste P^anchayat.
rites

Divorced

women

are

allowed to marry again by the same

as

widows.

Adultery with a man of her
is

own

caste,

or with one of a
is

higher caste,

condoned by

a small fine

and the matter

hushed up.

An

intrigue with a lower caste

man does
instantly

not admit of such tolerance

and the adulterous

woman
Sunday
with

is

expelled from the caste.
of

Religion._The
worshipped
every

favourite

deity

the

Gollas
14th

is

Mallaiina,
of

and
offerings

on
of

the

light

Magh
milk

(January-February),

sweetmeats,

flowers,

and curds.

On

the Til Sankrant holiday, the god
is

when

the sun enters the

sign of Capricorn,

worshipped with great
of

pomp

in

every

Golla

household.

Garlands

zendu flowers

(marigold),

hung
to

over painted pots containing milk and curds,

represent the deity,
are
is

whom
member
is

red

lead,

sweet

dishes,

and flowers
dog, which
is

offered

by

every

of the community.

The

sacred to Mallanah,
curds,

fed
it

on the occasion.

A

loaf

coated

with

one

piece
third

of
is

is

thrown to

a dog,

another

is

offered to the son

and the

cast on the top of the house.

Another

deity,

characteristic

of

the

Golla

caste,

is

the

river

GOLLA
goddess
moonlight

213
with great

Ganga
night

(^erudu),
in

propitiated

ceremony on
In

a

the

month of Shravan
a

(July-August).

the
is

sheepfold situated outside the village,
plastered

square piece of ground
fine

clean

with

cowdung and adorned with

patterns
is

of

kunkum and lime-stone powder.
dered by
flint

Over

this

ground,

which

bor-

pebbles

and

surrounded

by green boughs,
is

a

small

bower of tangade-chellu twigs {Cassia amiculata)
goddess
is

erected.

The

installed in. the centre of the

bower, being represented by
water and

a branch of the rut plant (Calotropis gigantea), a pitcher of a

sharp-edged iron-blade resembling a knife.
consists

The

puja done to these
eldest

fetishes

mainly of animal

sacrifices.

The

and most by

respectable
the

member

of the community,
acts
as

called Saokar Lacha^y^a

Puja Gollas Palwancha,
sacrificial
it

the priest of the deity,

brings

forward the

animal
at

(sheep),

daubs

its

forehead

with red
of

lead and decapitates
the animal
is

one stroke before the deity.
its

The blood

sprinkled over the deity,
its

skin

is

interred in front of

the
It

bower and
is

flesh

is

cooked and partaken of by the devotees.
spend
the

said that

the

votaries

remainder

of

the

night

in

drinking,

singing and merry-making.

Women

generally keep them-

selves aloof from this festival.

Pochamma, Maisamma, Ellama, Nagalu and
gods and
sheep,
souls
spirits

a

host

of

minol

are appeased

by the Gollas with

sacrifices
is

of goats,
to

fowls
of

and sometimes buffaloes.
ancestors

Reverence

paid
dies,

the

decezised
in this

and, a

if

a

new
is

ancestor

and his
his

reappearance
is

world

in

spirit

form

apprehended,

image

stamped upon a metal plate and included among the domestic gods.

The

religion of the Gollas,

saturated with animism,

is

gradually

drifting towards Hinduism, under the sectarian influences of the Shri-

vaishnava and Aradhi Brahmans.

The

Gollas are divided between
all

Titmanidharis and Vibhutidharis.

They worship

the
in

Hindu gods
on religious
the

and observe

all

the

Hindu

festivals.

Brahmans are called
the

and

ceremonial

occasions

and

for
is

performance

of
in

Satya

Narayan worship.

Gauramma

honoured by females

the lunar

half of the month of Kartika (October-November).

Child-Birth

A

Golla woman

is

impure

for

twenty-one days

subsequent to child-birth.

A

female barber generally attends upon

4

2

1

GOLLA
as

her,

midwife, and cuts the umbilical cord which,
is

enclosed

in

an

earthen pot,

buried near the bed.
at

On
leafy

the third day after birth,
plates,

Purud

is

celebrated,

which

five

containing
are

small

heaps of cooked rice with lighted lamps on them,

worshipped

and

given

away

to

the

midwife.

On
with

the

twenty-first

day

the

mother bathes,
is

besmears the well

^un^um, draws water and

free from all ceremonial impurity.

Disposal of the Dead
in

—The

Gollas,

as'

a rule, bury their

dead

a lying posture, with the
filled

head turned towards the south. After the
the principal

grave has been

up,

mourner walks three times

round

it,

carrying an earthen pot of water on his shoulder*. At the third

round he drops the vessel on the ground and returns home, followed

by

all

the relatives attending the funeral.

On

the third day
till
it

after

death, the relatives offer food at the grave and wait

is

touched

by a crow, which
hovering
soul

indicates that the offering has

been accepted by the
for

of

tbe deceased.

The

Gollas observe mourning

their adult

dead

for ten or fifteen days,
til

and for children for three days.

On

the fifteenth day libations of

water (tilodak) and balls, of cooked
a funeral
feast
is

rice are offered to the

manes and
is

provided

for the

caste people.
last

Sradha

performed on the Pitra AmaWassa, or the
of September).

day

of

Bhadrapad (middle
the grave face

The

bodies of females

are laid
burnt.

m

downwards and those

of pregnant
is

women

are

It is

observed that the usage of cremation
is

deemed

the more

respectable and

frequently resorted to

by the higher

classes of the

Golla community.
Social
precisely

Status

—The
The

social

status

of

the

Gollas

cannot

be

defiried.

Erra,

Paknati,

Mushti,

Sadnam and Adi
culti-

Gollas are ranked with the Kapu, Velama, Munnur, and other
vating castes.

The Yaya

Gollas occupy a lower position, while the
other inferior groups are looked

Modati, Pidwati,

Manda and

down

upon

as

degraded castes whose touch causes impurity.
affect a

On

the other

hand, the Gujarathi Gollas

high standard of ceremonial purity,

and regard themselves

as

being higher than the other Golla castes.
flesh of

The

Gollas drink fermented and spirituous liquors and eat the
sheep,
deer,

goats,

fowls,

fish,

pigs

and

lizards.

They

eat

the

leavings of a

Brahman's meal.

.

GOLLA
Occupation.
the tending

215

—The GoUas

believe their original occupation to be

and breeding of cows, sheep and other domestic animals,
Unlike

the making of butter and the dealing in milk and milch cattle. the

Kurmas, they do not weave blankets, an occupation which they
to

deem degrading

them.

Many have

taken,

of late,

to cultivation

and trade, and by the acquirement of wealth have raised themselves to
great importance.
ers.

They

are both pattedars

and landless day labourtitle

A

few have bsen educated and, under the
hold eminent positions as

of

'Pillays'

(Madras),

Government

servants,

pleaders,

doctors and in other branches of the learned professions.

The GoUas

do not

w^^

the sacred thread.

Distribution
distribution of the

—The

following statement shows the number and
in

Gollas

1911

:


Males.

Hyderabad City
Atrafi

Balda

Warangal
Kstf'imnagar

Adilabad

.

.

Medak
Nizamabad

Mahbubnagar
Nalgunda

Aurangabad
Bhir

Nander
Parbhani
Gulbargah...

Usmanabad
Raichur
Bidar

XXXUI
GOND
Gond
descent.

a

non-Aryan

tribe,

whose

featu'res,

complexion

and

traces of totemism in their sections

mark them

as

being of Dravidian

They

inhabit the wild

and mountainous

tract of the

Adilabad

Q'anga river, District which, flowing in a line parallel to the Paina
turns

abruptly

northward

and,

running
into

between the Kinwat

and

Adilabad

Talukas,

sweeps

the

Wun
of
hill

District
territory

of

Berar.
as

This region, which once formed a portion of the

known

Gondawana,
dense
forests

consists

of

a

succession

ranges
or

covered
teak

with

of

salai

(BosWellia

thmijera),

sag

(Tedona
in

grandis), mahua (Bassia latifoUa) and other wild

trees.

Occasionally,
a

a mountain gorge, or on a hill side in an stands surrounded

open

spot,

Gond

village

by patches of cultivated land.

The

village consists

almost entirely of huts of wattled bamboos.

Character

Owing
and

to

their

secluded

jungle

life,

the

Gonds
first

are a very shy, timid

retiring race.

Towards

strangers they

assume an attitude of reserve and suspicion, but once they get over
their
is

shyness,

they

become very hospitable and communicative,
by those well acquainted with
their habits,

ll

generally reported,

that

where the Gonds have not come under the influence
tants of the plains,

of the inhabi-

they bear a high character for honesty and truthare,

fulness.

The men
show
is

however, strongly addicted to drink, are very
work.
In a

indolent and
village,
interest
till

a great dislike to methodical
at

Gond

one
in

struck

the sight of the males sitting idle,

with no

work,
all

while the females are toiling hard
kinds of indoor and outdoor work.

from morning

night at

Physical Characteristics
teristics

—The
flat

predominating physical characnose with
spreading
lips,

of

the tribe are,

a

short

nostrils,

black and sparkling eyes,

thick

and projecting lower

generally

scanty beards and moustaches and complexions varying from jet black

GoND
to dark

217

brown.

Of

a strongly built, muscular frame, capable of great
ft.

endurance, the male averages 5

4

in.

in height

;

both sexes possess

an erect carriage and a peculiar gait of long and fast strides.

Dress and Ornaments
strip

—The Gonds
long,
string

are scantily dressed.

A
and

of

cloth,

neeirly

a yard

passed

between the

legs

fastened, before
tied

and behind, to a

around the waist, and a rag

round the head, make up the complete dress of the male.
a

The

dress of

woman
round the

consists of
loins,

one long piece of white, or coloured

cloth, girt

the lower half of which hangs to the knees,

the ends being passed

between the legs and fastened behind, while

the upper \^\{

is

carried across the breast and over the left shoulder

which, bodice
in

however,
or

barely

covers

the breast.

The women wear no
is

petticoat.

Their

coarse

black

hair

collected

behind
wild

a

knot,

sometimes
is

artificially

enlarged

and

decked
chest,

with

flowers.

Tattooing

very

fashionable

and

their

arms

and

back are covered with most fantastic designs.
black and white beads and

A

mass of very small
to form a necklace,
in their

mock

corals,

worked

adorn their necks and large brass ear-rings are worn
ear-lobes.

distended

On

their

wrists

they

wear huge bracelets of pewter or

bell-metal.

Origin.
tions

—The
light

origin

of

the

Gonds

is

obscure and their tradi-

throw no

upon

their tribal

affinities.

"

The name Gond
Kond
or

or

Gund," says Mr. Hislop, " seems

to be a form of

Kund.

Both forms are most probably connected with the Telugu equivalent
for a mountain,

and therefore signify Konda Wanlu, or
must

hill

people.

This

name they

have

borne

for

many

ages,

for

we
of

find

them mentioned by Ptolemy, the geographer (A.D.

150),

under the
the

name

of

Gondaloi."

A
It

popular

legend

traces

the

origin

tribe to the

Pandav prince Bhimsen and the demon damsel Hedumba
is

of

Mahabharat fame.
simultaneously,

said

that

Hedumba gave
at

birth

to

five

sons

£md was so disgusted
infants to their
fate.

this

unnatural

event

that she deserted the
tion,

In their helpless condi-

they were found by

Mahadev, who took compassion on them
She took charge
only.
of the

and consigned them
infants, but

to the care of Parvati.
left breast

nourished them at her

Even the divine

nursing could not subdue their inborn tendencies towards cannibalism.

218
for these

GoND
monstrous infants begcin to imbibe, along with the milk, the

very

life

blood of Parvati's body which,

in

consequence, wasted day
its

by day.
confined

Mahadev, alarmed
the

at

her emaciation, divined
cave.

cause and
they

wretches

in

a

mountain

From

this

were

rescued

by Pedlingu,

a

renowned sage, them
their past

who,
history

henceforth,

became
them

their preceptor,

related to

and

initiated

into the

worship of

their forefathers.

The

four elder brothers

became
Satdeva
;

the founders of the four important sections of

^e

tribe

:

(1)

(worshipping 7 minor deities,
(2)

i.e.,

5 Pandavas, Kunti and Draupadi)
deities,
i.e.,

Sahadeo (worshipping 6 minor
;

5 Pandavas and
dejfies,

their

wife Draupadi)

(3)

Pachdeo (worshipping 5 minor
Chardeo
(worshipping

i.e.,

5 the

Pandavas)

;

(4)

4

Pandavas,

youngest being dropped).

The

youngest of the brothers was appointed,

under the name of Pardhan or Pathadi, the family bard and genealogist to his elder brothers,

on whose charity he was ordained to
its

subsist.

This legend, so absurd
are

in

conception, goes to illustrate
to
glorify
their
origin,

how myths
while
in

devised

by

aboriginal

tribes

process of transition into the

Hindu

castes.

The Gonds Gond or Gond,
Kolam, which

of
(2)

Adilabad
Pardhan,

are divided into six sub-tribes
(3)

:

(1)

Raj
(6)

Thoti, (4) Dadve, (5) Gowari,

are all

endogamous.

The

terms Raj

Gond and Gond,
calling
after
into

formerly used to distinguish the ruling classes from the bulk of the
people,

have now

become synonymous, the poorest Gond

himself a Raj
the

Gond.

This change was probably brought about
to

Raj Gonds had ceased

be

a ruling
is

power and had sunk

political insignificance.

A

tendency

still

observed among the upper
aloof

classes

of the sub-tribe,

to hold themselves socially

from the

masses, and a sort of hypergamy has sprung up between the two, the

former accepting the daughters of the latter in marriage, but showing
reluctance to give their
ies,

own

in return.

Some

of the

Raj Gond

familtheir

which belonged to the

Gond

Rajas,

have,

by reason of

long contact with the more civilized communities of the plains,
far

so
a

advanced towards Hinduism that they actually lay claims Rajput descent. They profess to follow the Hindu religion,
their ancient tribal

to

rele-

gatmg
for

customs to their women, employ Brahmans
practise
infant

religious

and ceremonial purposes,

marriage and

GoND
prohibit

219
These
facts
split in

widow-marriage and divorce.

clearly

indicate

that disintegrating forces are at
into

work, tending to
of

up the sub-tribe
course of time,
of the
I,

two endogamous groups, one
entirely

which may,

become
Gonds,
remarks:
prince

a

Hindu

caste.

Regarding the

origin

Raj

Mr. C. Scanlan (" Indian Antiquities," Vol.
"Concerning
their

page 54)
Rajput

origin,

it

is

said

that

while a

was once out hunting he espied

a goddess perched on a rock

enjoying the wild scenery of the country.
of

They became enamoured

each other and were blessed with a son,
his origin

who was

the ancestor

of the Gonds, and since he claimed

from a goddess and a

Rajput,

tLey

style

themselves Raj
or

Gonds and Gond Thakurs."
the
helots

The Pardhans

Pathadis

are

of

the

Gonds,

and

serve as genealogists and bards to the Raj Gonds, singing the

exploits

and great deeds of
violin

their rajas

and heroes

to the
is

music of a kind of
regarded,
is

called
as

hp^gri.

This musical instrument
distinction

amongst

them,

a or

mark of
have
is

which each Pardhan
his
left

bound

to

possess,

tattooed

on

fore-arm.

No

marriage

of

a

Raj Gond
is

celebrated, nor are his death rites performed, unless a
or to claim the

Pardhan

present to receive the marriage presents,

raiments of the dead.

The
minstrels.

Thotis, the bards of Pardhan, form a group of wandering

Their male members are mainly engaged
articles

in

making small

bamboo

and

in

selling

medicinal

herbs,

while the females

are skilful tattooers.
in

These

three sub-tribes,

resembling one another

every respect, appear to have once formed a single group, subse-

quently broken up on account of internal disorganisation, the Pardhans

being an offshoot of the Raj

Gonds and

the Thotis that of the Pardhans.

The Dadve
they work

formerly recruited the armies of the
as

Gond

Rajas, but

now

day labourers.
dwell
in

The Gowaris

tend milch cattle and

for this reason

villages outlying the hill tracts.

Their long

association

with the neighbouring Hindus,

has so far affected their

character

and customs,

that

they
off

are

often
their

found merged into the

lower castes of Hindus and cut

from

own

tribe.

Very

dark of skin and short of stature, possessing habits of the

most primitive character, the
pure Dravidian type.

Kolam

presents

a

fair

specimen of the
cottage on the

He

constructs his tiny

bamboo

220
crest of the highest hill,

GoND
and so migratory
is

he that on the

least

alarm

he
is

shifts his quarters to

the most inaccessible part of a mountain.

He
con-

very ugly

in

features

and

filthy

in

habits,

never bathing for days
vifhich differs

together.

He

speaks

a

dialect

called

Kolami,

siderably from the other

Gond

dialects.

In customs

and usages, the

Kolams resemble the Raj Goods,
and
submit
their

to

whose Rajas they pay homage
for

internal

quarrels

decision.

All

these

facts

taken together help to the conclusion, that thes6 sub-tribes are essentially

the branches of a formerly compact tribe,
represent the
original

of

which the Raj
derives
intjt'

Gonds

nucleus.

This
is

view
divided

support

from the fact that each of the sub-tribes

the same

exogamous

septs.

Internal Structure
sections of the tribe,
or families,

—The
s

following table gives the exogamous

with the founder's name, totem and sub-septs,
:

which each sept comprises
Found" ler


Totem.

Sept

name.

Names
septs,

of the subor families
sept.

sprung from the

Chitdeva
worshipping
deities).

(those
four

Sedm&kee

Tortoise,

croco-

Seedam,
kee,

Sedma-

dile and
por
(iguana).

ghor-

Tilanda, Naitam, ParSahakathi,

chaki,

Tekam,
Pusim.

Kowa,
Soyiim,

PAchdeo

(worfive

shipping
minor
deities).

ICumbhara.

Porcupine
Saras.

and

Ade,
Surpam,
Kinake,

Al£m,
Padram,

God^m, Madpati,
Karpetta, Maldongre, Jtmgna,

S&hadeo (worshipping six minor
deities).

Atra

Tiger.

Kotnaka, Pendor, Mandaleo, Salam, Kochala, Herekurma, Kulmeta, Kodopa, Veladi, Yerm4, Foorkoor,

Tolsam, Torya,

Raisidam, Uikya, ICadam,

Ged&m, Kadnee,
Korenga_
S^tdeo
ping
(worshipseven minor

Metrim.

Serpent and
porcupine.

Madave, Dhurve,
KoriCanh&k&, wet&, Knrsenga, Maraskola.

deities).

GoND

221

All the septs are clearly totemistic, although they do not bear
the

names of the totems associated with them.

The

totem

is

taboo
holds
injure

to the

members of the

sept to

which

it

belongs, e.g., a

Seedam
kill,

the tortoise in the highest reverence
or even touch
it.

and will neither

eat,

It

is

really noteworthy that

while the totems and
totemistic

the

founders'

names have been preserved,

the

neunes

of

the septs

have been dropped, and replaced by fabulous

titles.

This

indicates an attempt, pn the part of the
totemistic
titles

Hinduised Gonds, to convert
to their
sept

into a

eponymous ones and thus give colour
origin
side.

pretensions

for

mythical

of

an

orthodox
of

type.

The
is

name goep by the male
followed.
other sept

The
a

rule

exogamy
of his

strictly

Thus
is,

a

man cannot marry

woman

own

sept.

No

however, a bar to marriage, provided that he does not
first

marry his aunt, his

cousin, or his niece.

Marriage.
after the

—The

Gonds marry

their daughters both before
is,

and

age of puberty.

The

former
tribe.

however, preferred by the

more respectable members of the

Polygamy
of wives a

prevails and, in theory, there

is

no

limit to the

number

man may

marry.
If

Sexual indiscretions, before marriage,

are indulgently treated.

a girl

becomes pregnant before marriage,

she

is

called

upon

to

disclose

the

name

of

her

lover,

and he

is

forced to accept the

girl

as his wife

On

the other hand,

sexual
tribe.

indiscretion with an outsider involves instant expulsion

from the

Two

forms of marriage are recognised by the Gonds.
(I)

The more

polite

or

regular

form necessitates the consent

of the parents of both parties.

The

father, or gujurdian, of the bride-

groom takes the

initiative

and,

when

a

girl

is

selected

by him, he
proposal

proceeds, formally, to the house of her parents to
of marriage on behalf of his son or ward.
tiations

make the

In the preliminary nego-

the question of the bride-price (varying from Rs. 9 to Rs. 20)

takes

a

prominent part.

Every thing having been ananged to the
all

satisfaction

of both parties,

the male

members
at

repair to a liquor

shop and solemnize the betrothal with a drink,
bridegroom's father.

the expense of the

A

singular

custom requires every man before

drinking the liquor to cry out
involves social disgrace.

"

Ram Ram,"

an omission of which

The

caste people are then entertained at a

222
feast.

GoND

On

this

occasion,

the bridegroom's father contributes a cock
;

and the bride's father a hen
on the
girl's wrist

the boy's father places a pewter bracelet

and

this

completes the ceremony of betrothal.

On
under

the day previous to the wedding, the bride's family escort her to the

bridegroom's village where,
a shady
tree

on

arrival,

they

are

established

and are met,

towards

evening,

by the party of the

bridegroom.

As

a

mark of

greeting, gruel

and onions are exchanged
in

by both

parties.

The whole company
The

then goes

procession to the

bridegroom's house.

bride and bridegroom are next alternately
oil
is

smeared three times with a paste of
in

and turmeric,

and bathed
music,

warm

water.

The

rest

of the night

spent in feasting,
in

singing

and dancing.
a

Early next morning,
(Bassia

the courtjard of the

house,

canopy of mahua
leaves
is

latijolia)
it,

and
five
in

salai

{BosWellia
jars

thurijera)

erected

and,

underneath

earthen
the

of

water,

crowned with lighted lamps, are arranged
flour.

form of a

quincunx on a square drawn of jawari

The

following plan illustrates the arrangement

:

b

b

b
h.

b

Water

pots.

An
lid,
is

earthen vessel

full

of water,
hill
is

and covered with
in

a

concave
air,

placed on the cowdung

of the house,
left

the open

and

after

being solemnly worshipped

guarded by two
in

girls.

This

ceremony over, the bridegroom, dressed

cotton clothes

dyed yellow

with turmeric, armed with a spear and accompanied by music, which
IS

most discordant,

is

led by his relatives and friends to the

cowdung

hill,

one of the females bearing, on her head, a sacred lamp.
similarly
attired

The

bride,

and attended, joins him and the bridal pair

stand opposite each other near the consecrated earthen pot, the bride-

groom facing

east

and the bride west.

A

curtain

is

held between

them, and the bridegroom places his right foot upon a

wooden

stool,
it

placed

beneath

the

curtain,

the

bride

simultaneously

touching

GoND
with her' own.

223

Then

follows the essentia! portion of the ceremony,

when

the bridegroom, with his right foot resting on that of the bride,
little

puts an iron ring on the
is

finger of her right hand.

The

screen

withdrawn and the wedding procession returns to the booth, where
taken from the sacred earthen

the bridal pair are bathed with water
pots previously deposited.

After changing their wedding clothes, the

happy couple walk
ing
all

five

times round the pots, the sacred lamp burn-

the while.

They

afterwards

sit

side

by side on the

floor,

with their faces turned towards the east.

Grains of rice are then

showered upon
price
is

their

heads by the assembled guests.

The

bride-

then paid and a present of clothes

made

to the girl's parents.

A
is

feast to

the

caste, at the

expense of the bridegroom's parents, com-

pletes the marriage

ceremony.
a

The

bride's father, on his departure,

decorated with

garland of twenty-five

cowdung cakes with

a

sheep's leg pendant in the centre.

The
to

second form, representing marriage by capture,

is

resorted
to

by those Gonds,

who

are too poor to

pay the bride-price, or
is

bear the subsequent expenses.

This custom
it

in

full

force emiong
in

the Goilds of the hilly districts, though

is

dying out

the plains

owing
all

to the rigours of the law.

A

girl

having been selected, and

information regarding her daily

movements having been gathered,
and
In
lie

the friends of the

boy proceed
is

to her village,
visit.

m

concealment
an

close to the place she

expected to

the meanwhile,

elder relative of the bridegroom, generally his father or brother, goes
into the village,

and wins the assent of the headman to the match on
2.

payment of Rs.

He
all

then

joins

his

comrades.
in

On

the

girl

making her appearance, sometimes alone, but often
others,

company with
This
girl

he

falls

upon her

of a sudden and touches her hand.

effected,

the marriage contract

becomes irrevocable, even
this
is

if

the
is

escapes
offered
earnest.

from

his

hands.

Great resistance to

capture
chastised

often
right

by the women present,

and the man
at

in

Stones and other missiles close

hand are

freely hurled,

and the

man
to

is

often
a

severely
for
in

injured

;

but the custom
reception,

allows
in

the

women

accept
is

bribe,

more
tears

polite

and

such

cases the girl

borne away

to the boy's

house and there

married

in

the absence of her parents.

224

GoND
Widow=Marriage

—A
if

widow
alive,

is

required

to

marry' her
if

late

husband's younger brother,
falls

but, on his refusal,
is

her choice
In

upon an outsider, no
case,

restriction
all

imposed upon her.

the

latter

however,
late

she forfeits

claims to the custody of the
at

children
to

by her

husband.

Infants

the breast

are

allowed

remain with their mothers, on the express condition that they will
to their father's family
ritual

be restored
age.

on

their

attaining a marriageable
is

The

followed on a widow's re-marriage
in

of a simple

character.

Late
elect.

the evening, the the court-yard
a

woman
stool

goes to the house of her
is

husband

In

placed,

on which the
vvith oil

bridegroom takes
turmeric,

his seat.

The

bride bedaubs his

body

and

and bathes him with warm water, and with tHe remaining
herself.

water she bathes

Both of them

wear white clothes and
seats herself

enter the inner court-yard,
stool,

where the bride
ties

on a wooden

and the bridegroom

a

string

of

black

beads round her

neck

and smears red lead powder on her forehead.

The

proceedings

terminate with a feast.

Divorce

Divorce

is

very

common amongst

the

Gonds,

in

which both husbands and wives freely indulge.
daily occurrence.

Elopements

are of

A
if

woman

taking a fancy to a man,
is

simply runs

away with him, and

the aggrieved husband

a rich man,

he imme-

diately marries another wife,

and there the matter ends.

But should

the husband be
for

<.

poor man, he merely claims the bride-price paid

her.

as

a virgin,

from the paramour of the unfaithful wife, and

with

the

amount thus obtained
Divorced

he

is

at

liberty

to

marry

another

woman.
ritual

women

are

allowed to marry again by the same

as

widows.

Religion
flourishes,
tracts,
in

—The
its
it

religion

of

the

Gonds
the

is

animism,
of

which

pristine
is

vigour,

among
losing

inhabitants

the hilly
of the

although

gradually

ground

among

those

plains.
is

The

principal deity of the

Raj Gonds, Pardhans and Thotis
acknowledged
to

Phersaphen (great god),
universe, and
is

who

is

be the supreme

god of the

worshipped with great veneration and awe,
Jalgidar,

under the names of Zonkari,

&c.

The emblems

of

the

god vary with the
of small iron pieces,

locality

of the worshipper,

but generally consist
in

resembling arrow-heads, each a span

length.

GoND
corresponding
in

225

number

to the minor gods of the worshipper, which,
its

enclosed
are

in

an earthen pot, with

mouth closed by

a

bamboo

basket,

hung on a mahu€i

tree (Bassia latijoUa) at

some distance from the
officiates

village.

The

priest,

called hptddd

is

a

Raj Gond, who
pot.
tree

at

sacrifices to the

god and keeps guard over the sacred
allowed to cast a glance upon the

No woman
bearing
the

or

stranger

is

sacred pot, or to

go anywhere near

it.

Phersapen
ceremony.
It

is
is

worshipped once
generally on

a

year

with
in

great

pomp and

an

evening

the
is

month of Chait

(March-April) that a
at

sacrifice of goats

and fowls

offered to the god,
are

the foot

i»f

the sacred tree,

after

which the emblems

taken

down by
pole.

the priest,

who

is

clothed

in red,

and mounted on a bamboo

They

are then carried in procession,

headed by the Pardhans,

with music, to

some big

river or tank
is

where they are solemnly washed.

Close to the village, a canopy
a

erected for the occasion, under which
is

branch of the salai tree (BosWellia thurijera)
that
.

planted,

and

it

is
is

here

the

bamboo

pole,
is

bearing

the

sacred

arrow-heads,

deposited.
goats,

Frankincense

burnt before
sacrificed

these

emblems and cows,
officiating
priest,

and fowls are freely

by the

on
in

behalf of the community as a whole,

and of individual members
trouble.

pursuance
sacrifices

of

vows taken

in

times

of

Formerly,

human

were offered on
this.

this

occasion, but the rigours of
flesh of the slaughtered
is

law have
is

now

put an end to

The

animals

then

cooked and the rest of the
revelry.

night

spent

in

feasting,

dancing and

The
or

ceremonies are conducted with great secrecy
is

and no
the
tree,

Hindu,

Gond woman

allowed

to

be present.

Towards

dawn

of the following day, the emblems are taken back to the

and restored to their accustomed place.

Next
teristic

in

rank
of

is

Bhimsen, or Bhivsen, the favourite and charac-

deity

the

Kolam and Dadve Gonds,
wood, 4
ft.

represented

by

an

oblong piece of
oil.

mahm

in

length, and

daubed with sesame

With one end

fixed in
is

the ground
set

and the other covered with
in

peacock feathers, the god
the
village.

up upright,
twice
a

a

bamboo
in

hut outside

He

is

propitiated

year,

the

month

of

Vaishakha (April-May) and on Til Sankrdnf (when the sun enters
Capricorn), with offerings of goats, fowls and cows, which afterwards
'3

226

GoND

furnish a feast for the assembled votaries.

A

Kolam

priest presides

on

this

occasion

;

to the sound of a drum and cymbals

and

to

the

jingling of little bells

worn

in

a belt

round the waist, he dances and

sings

alternately,

in
is

honour of the deity.
carried to the

Every three

years,

the

symbol of the god

Godavari

river for ablution.

The
is

worship of Bhimsen, formerly confined to the Gonds alone,

fast

spreading,

and Hindus of

all

orders

now

hold

this

animistic

deity in reverence.

A

legend

is

already current

identifying this god
a seat in the

with the Pandav prince Bhimsen
pantheon.

and giving him

Hindu

This furnishes a good example of the unconscious recep-

tion of animistic deities into the ranks of the

Hindu

gods.
of

The Gowaris
in

reverence

Kanhoba,
a fast

an

incarnation*

Vishnu,

whose honour they observe
Shravan

on Jamndshtami, the 8th of the
In

dark half of
deities

(July-August).
a host
of

addition
spirits

to

the

principal
are of

mentioned above,

evil

and minor gods
the

appeased
cholera,

by

the

Gonds.
fever,

The
&c.,
in

former

include

goddesses
spirits,
all

smallpox,

and other malevolent
or another,
in

of

which must be conciliated

one form

order to avert
:*

calamities proceeding from them.

Among

the latter are
in a

(1)

Jangu

Rai Tad, a blood-thirsty goddess dwelling

dark and dreary cave,

near the village of Sakada in the Jangaon Taluka.
said to

The

goddess

is

have been wedded
is

to

Bhimsen

in

an adjoining cave and,

if

duly propitiated,

credited with bringing good luck to her devotees.

She once

insisted
;

on demanding human lives as the only
but,

sacrifice

acceptable to her

since the establishment of a vigilant police,
is

and the strong rule of law, she
kine
a
fire

quite content with the blood of

and goats.

The

terrific

form

of

Bhimsen

is

represented

by
is

burning constantly

in a

cave on the Dantapalli

hill.

The god
before

generally
of

invoked by offerings of animals, before the commencement
operations,
in.
It

agricultural
is

at
is

the

sowing

season,

and

the
fail

harvest

gathered

also worshipped
is

should the rains

and a drought continue.

Bhimanna

also

worshipped
It
is

at

Gololi,

m

the form of a shaft fixed in the ground.

rather curious that

the priests of these

two

cults never

meet.

Serpent worship prevails
fair
is

and,

in

the month of
the
serpent

Magh
god

(February-March), a big
at

held

in
if

lionour of

Kesalapur,

when

a

huge

sacrifice

GoND
offered at 'the altar.

227
and fowls are slaughtered
not satisfied until the altar

Thousands

of goats
is

on that day, and the blood-thirsty god
is

completely

filled

with blood.

The
belief

votaries

believe

that

not

a

drop of blood remains about the altar the following morning.

The Gonds have
supposed
to

a

strong

in

witchcraft.

Witches
;

are

hold

communion

with

the

dark

spirits

they

meet

them

in

the forest at night and dance and sing with them in a nude

condition.
religious

Brahmans
or ceremonial

are

not

employed by the Gonds,

either

for

purposes.

Disposal of the Dead

After death,

the

bodies of

persons

who
and

are married are burnt, and the unmarried, or those dying of small-

pox or cholera, are buried.
friends

On

the death of a

Gond,

his relatives
is

assemble

at
in

his

house,

where the body
is

carefully
bier

washed and, dressed

a white cloth,

placed on a
to the

bamboo

and borne by four men, not changing hands,

cremation ground.

The

chief mourner heads the procession, bearing in one

hand

a sling,

with a triangular
filled

bamboo bottom,
cowdung

in

which
and
in

is

placed an earthen pot
other
laid

with burning

cakes,

the
is

an axe with

the

head reversed on the handle. which
is

The

corpse

on the funeral
the pyre
filling
is

pyre,

kindled with the

cowdung

cakes.

When
and

well alight

the chief mourner performs

an ablution,

the

earthen vessel with water

walks

with

it

three times round the pile.

When

the

fire

has nearly burnt down, he throws the axe three times
it

over the pyre and, taking

with him, goes to a river or tank, followed
relatives.

by the bier bearers and other
to a liquor shop,
foot,
little

Having bathed, they adjourn

rub the mahua refuse with the big toe of the right
to

and apply the soot of the furnace
finger

their

forehead with the
sprinkles

of

the

right
after

hand.

The
sit

liquor

seller

them

with country

spirit,

which they

down and

drink.

This over,
house of

they leave the axe with the liquor seller
the deceased.
relative

and return

to the

On
into

arrival,

they are received at the door by a female

of

the

deceased

and
a

sprinkled

over
coal

with
has

water

from

an

earthen

pot,

which
all

burning

been

previously

thrown.

Next morning,
twigs,
visit

the relatives, male and female, holding

mango
spot

the burning ground.
burnt,

A

cow

is

sacrificed

on the

where the corpse was

and the

spirit

of

the

dead

is

228
invoked
present
to

GoND
accept
the
offering

and

be

satisfied.

Each

person

makes

five turns round the pyre, collecting the scattered ashes
tv^fig.

with the
drink,

mango

As

on the preceding day, the mourners bathe,
the afternoon of the third day, the male

and return home.

On

members
village.

of the family repair to a grove of

mahua

trees adjoining the

A
it

square foot of

ground

is

plastered

with cowdung and
rice,

before

are

arranged small

heaps of uncooked

as

many

in

number

as the minor gods of the deceased.
is

A

fowl

(a

cock or hen

according to the sex of the dead)

decapitated and the spot covered

with
is

its

blood

;

the head

is

left

before the heaps of rice and the body
relatives.

cooked and eaten by the assembled
resorted
to
for

The

Uquor shop

is

again
left

the

purpose of taking back the
rites.

axe formerly
cere-

there.
is

This terminates the funeral
for the

No

periodical

mony

performed
in

propitiation

of

departed souls, but dead
is

relatives are held

great reverence.
are

Burial

resorted to

in

cases

of

poverty.
that

Tombs
are

erected
to

over the remains of the rich,
their
at

and

those

esteemed,

perpetuate

memory.

Magnificent

tombs of the Bond Rajas may be seen
and also
in

Manikgad, neqr Rajura,

the vicinity of Jangaon.

Social
clearly

Status

—The
caste

social

status

of
a

the

Gonds
families,

cannot

be

defined.

With

the exception

of

few

who

have
of

been admitted
their abstaining

to a high rank in the

Hindu

social system,

by reason

from beef and employing Brahmans, they stand wholly
system.

outside

the

Hindu

No

orthodox

Hindu

will

ever

eat their food, or accept

water from their hands.

In matters of diet

they
fish,

are

not

very

particular.

They

partake

of
in

beef,

pork,

fowls,

field rats,

snakes, lizards and buffaloes

fact all

animal food.

They have no repugnance
died a natural
death
;

to eating the flesh of animals

which have
leavings of
of

but they will

refuse

to

eat

the

Hindus, even of Brahmans.

Although
from

wholly outside the pale
prejudices

Hinduism,
themselves,
castes,

they

are

not

free

caste

and,
the

amongst

have formed various

social

grades,

imitating

Hindu

as regards restrictions

on diet and matrimonial alliances.
the

As

has

already

been mentioned,

Raj
Thotis,

Gonds occupy
whose touch

the
is

highest

position,

and the

Pardhans

and

regarded

as unclean

and unceremonial, the lowest.

GoND
Occupation.
to

229

—The

original occupation of the
latter is carried

Gonds

is

believed

be hunting and agriculture, which
as

on by the method
of tillage,
neither

known

dh\)a or daha.
is

In this primitive

mode

plough nor hoe
seed by
the
earth

used, but the
in

men

cut trees,

burn them, and sow
in

small
gives

handfuls
proofs

narrow holes made
exhaustion,

the
in

ashes.
or

As
three

of
off,

generally
to

two

years, the

Gonds move

bag and baggage,

some

fresh patch of

land and resume their .operations.
rice,

The

crops they raise are jawari,

chillies,

maize and various pulses.
largest
assist

Cotton
labour

is

also

occasionally

grown.

The

share

of
in

the

field

devolves

upon
in

the the

women, whj>
harvest.

the

men

sowing, weeding and gathering

The
flowers,

scanty produce of their fields hardly suffices for their
it

maintenance and they consequently have to eke

out

by consuming

mahua

wild roots and
sort of

fruit

and

a

variety of jungle herbs.
in

Every household has a

rude oil-press,

which

oil

is

extracted

from mahua seeds and used for eating and lighting purposes.

The

Gonds have
ments,
flowers.

their

own

carpenters,

who make

rude wooden imple-

and

their

own

distillers,

who

manufacture liquor from mahua

The Gonds
at will

have, hitherto, been lords of the woodlands, roving
in

and enjoying perfect freedom

selecting land for cultivation
situation

and making

new

clearances.

But the

has
into

now changed.
force of
late,

The

forest

conservancy laws,

which have come

and the extension of metalled roads,
secluded tracts to foreign
settlers,

which have opened up

their

are interfering seriously with their
cire

dh^a

method

of

cultivation.

The Gonds

thus

being

com-

pelled to take to settled cultivation with the plough, and to exchange
their free life for the restraints of
is

an ordered existence.
it

This new

life

proving uncongenial to them, for

has created

new
is

wants, which

their scanty resources

cannot meet, and the result

that these simple

jungle people are
clutches of

gradually

being drawn more and more within the
of

the
all

wily

money-lenders

the

plains

and

are

being

subjected to

the evils of indebtedness.
especially the wild Kolams,

A
they

few of the Gonds,

have been

forced by later immigrants into the heart of the hilly forests, where
still

maintain their straightforward independence and manllneia.

230
These earn
their

GOND
living

by

hunting,

making

strong

and

durable

bamboo mats and
flowers,

baskets,
resins,
in

and

collecting

honey,

charoli,

mahua
which

bees'

wax,

gums and other
exchange

jungle products,

they barter to a hania,
saries of life.

for food-grains

and other neces-

Early History
is

Of

the early history of the

Gonds

very

little

known.

They
which

established

governments,
a

one of which ruled the
portion of

country

once
the

comprehended

the

Adilabad

District of

H. H.
D.) and

Nizam's Dominion,
Provinces.
capitals
It

and the present

Chanda
Ballal

District of the

Central

was founded by Bhim
Jangaon

(804

A.

had

at

MowjUa,
the
10th

and

at

Manikgada on the Wardha.

Khandakya

Ballal,

Raja,

transferred the seat of government to

Chandrapur or Chanda, which

he founded on the Zarpal

river in

1261

A. D.

The

legend

is,

that

Khandakya

Ballal

was

suffering grievously from leprosy, of which he
in

was completely cured by bathing
this

the

balmy waters of the
as

river

;

induced

him

to

select

the

site,

a

lucky

place,
ruler,

for

his

capital.

The town was
a
later

walled by Hirabai, the 12th
laid

who

also

built the shrine of
fort.

Mahakali and

the

foundation of the Chanda
subject
to

At

date the kingdom

became

the Bhoslas

of

Nagpur.

in 1743, the

Gonds

raised an insuuection,
principality
its

which Raghoji
dominions.
at

Bhosla

quelled,

annexing
principality

the

to

his

Another
about
tectural

Gond
miles

established

capital

Atnur,
archi-

40

west
still

of

Jangaon,

where
its

the

splendid

remains

bear witness to

former glory and magniof Kakatiyas,
years.
is

ficence.

A

Gond-Rajput dynasty, under the name
at

said

to

have reigned

Warangal

for

more than 400

The

kingdom became very powerful about the end of the 13th century,
but,

being involved

in

a conflict with the
it

Muhammadans,
in

its

power

continued to decline,

till

was

at last

swept away,

1424 A. D.,
kings.

by the generals of

Ahmad Shah

Wali, one of the Bahamani

Connected with the Gonds of Adilabad,

though not included
the

among them,
District,

are

the

Koitor or Kois,

who occupy

Warangal

extending from Bhadrachalam, on the banks of the Godavari,

down

to the

neighbourhood of Khamamet.

A

tradition prevails that

famine and internal disputes drove them to

this region

from the high-

GoND
lands of
Bastar,

231

on the eastern banks of the Godavari.

Both the
in

Gonds and

the Kois have a physical resemblance and are,

their

features, quite distinct

from the people of villages

;

but each of them
the pure

has a different tongue, the Adilabad

Gonds speaking almost

Gondi, while the Kois have
of

a

dialect
or,

with a great preponderance
in
its

Telugu words.

The

term Koitor

radical form, Koi, has

been supposed to be derived from \onda, the Telugu equivalent for
mountain,'
kph, meaning

but

it

s'eems

to

approach

more

closely

the

Persian

'hill.'

The Koi men
and the

are

dignified

with

the

title

of

Doralu

(lords)

wSmen

with that of Dora Sanulu (ladies).

The Kois

divide themselves into five classes

—Gutta Koi, Addilu,
The
Gutta,

Perumbo Yadu, Koi Kammar Vandalu and Dollolu.
or hill Kois, include the

Madu

Gutta, Pere Gutta,
rank

Vido Gutta, and
tribe.

other

clans

holding

the

highest

among

the

The Koi
reli-

Kammar Vandalu
gious
counsellors

are
or

Koi blacksmiths.
(genealogists)

The
of

Dollolu are the

bhdts

the

upper classes

and

have charge of the Koi

deities.

Koi customs

are not uniform, but vary

with the localities, although, in their essential character, they are not
distinct

from those of the Gonds.

Boys and

girls

generally

marry
are
after

when
in

of fair age.

Marriages, both by proposal and by force,
is

vogue.

A

widow

sometimes carried
while she
is

off
still

a

day

or

two

the

death of her husband,

grieving

on account

of her loss.

Elopements are common and husbands

are, occasionally,

murdered
stealing

for the sake of their wives.

More

disputes arise from wife

than

from any other causes.
of

The Kois pay
to

devotion

to

Mamila, represented by a stump
are said to

wood,

whom human
fail.

sacrifices

be

still

offered.

It

is

customary to propitiate the goddess

early in the year,

so that the crops

may

not
is

The Kolam god

Bhimsen

is

also worshipjjed.

Korra Razu

the deity which presides

over the tiger demon.

Wild dogs

are held in special reverence

and
held

even

if

they

kill

the cattle they are not injured.
flowers (Bassia latijolia) are

A
in

festival

is

when
the

ifypa or

mahua
is
it,

blossom.

When

new

crop
kill

ripe,

and ready to be
its

cut,

the Kois take a fowl into

the field,
for

and sprinkle

blood on any ordinary stone put ud
at liberty to

the occasion, after which they are

partake of the

new

232
crop.

GoND
The Kois have
if

a strong belief in the spirit world,- and
spirit

it

is

said that

they are not satisfied that the
the
spirits

of a departed person

has

joined

of

his

predecessors,

they

waylay

a

stranger, kill

him

during the night, sprinkle his blood on the image of
the corpse before any one

Mamila and bury

knows of

the event.

This

horrid practice has been on the decline since 1842,

when arrangements
custom

were made
prevalent
certain

to prevent

it.

In accordance with a very singular

among them,

the

Koi women drive the men

to hunt,

on a

day of the year, and do not allow them to

return, unless they

bring

home some game.
in

On

this occasion,

the

women

are said to be

dressed

their

husbands' clothes.
are
burnt.
in

Young
or

persons and children are
is

buried
cut off

;

others

A
then
the

cow

bullock

slain,*

the

tail

is

and placed
and

the dead person's hands and the body burnt
retire

;

the

friends

relatives
later,

and proceed

to

feast

on

the

animal.

Three days
in

ashes are rolled up into small balls

and deposited

a

small

hole

about two

feet

deep.

A
its

child

is

named on
placed
it

the

7th

day

after

birth.

Having washed the

child

and

on a bed they put a leaf of the
its

mahua

tree in

hands and

pronounce

name.

——

XXXIV
GONDHALI
Gondhali
to
in

a class of Marathi beggars,

musicians and dancers,

be found
the

in

all

the Districts of the Marathawada, but especially

District

of

LJsmanabad.

They

take

their

name from

their

professional

dance,

gondhal, the word being probably derived from
gondhal} which the Gon-

the tumultuous
dhalis
raiijp

row (Marathi equivalent

while performing the dance.

Their traditions say that

they were descended from the sage Jamdagni and his wife Renuka.

According

to another

account,

they are identical with the Maitriyas

of olden times, father and

who were

regarded as the progeny of a Vaidehika

an

Ayogava mother.

Internal Structure
castes
:

—The

Gondhalis are divided

into

two sub-

Kadamrai and Renurai, who

neither intermarry nor eat together.

These two

classes are distinguished from each other

by

their distinct
shells,
silk

badges (^ mendicancy, the former wearing a garland of cowrie and the
tassels.
latter

a

vweath of cowrie shells alternated, with small
the

Both are devotees of Bhavani,
at

consort
of

of

Shiva,

the

Kadamrais begging
which privilege
third class of
is

the

feet

(Marathi
to

k.adarn)

the

goddess,
is

said to

be denied

the Renurais.

There

a

Gondhalis, called Akarmasis, probably the illegitimate

offspring of the

above mentioned two sub-castes.
the same exogamous sections as those of

The Gondhalis have
the

Maratha Kunbis, from

whom

they seem to be separated by reason

of their having

adopted the occupation of begging.
:

Some

of their

exogamous sections are

Gaikawad.
Kapse.
Mali.

Jatal.

Hatkar.

More.

Lonker.

Rode.
Shirke.

Bamane.
Pawar.

Todker.
Khanhal.

Sonwane.

234

GONDHALI

A
brother.

man may

not marry a

woman

of his

own

section.

He may
mother
limit
s

marry the daughters of his

sister,

his father's sister

and

his

Polygamy
a

is

permitted,

there

being no rule

to

the

number of wives

man may

have.
girls

Marriage.
adults,
his

—Gondhali

are married
sixteen.

either

as

infants

or as

between the ages of three and
is

A

father receives for

daughter a price which

said to vary from. Rs.

25

to

Rs. 200,

according to the means of the bridegroom.

The
rites

marriage ceremony
are
in

extends over
the
are

five

days and comprises

which
bride
in

vogue

in

Maratha
smeared

castes.

On
this

thff

first

day,

the
oil,
is

and

bridegroom
houses

with

turmeric
the

paste

and

their

own
in

separately.
to

After

bridegroom
the

conducted,

procession,

Hanuman's temple,
i.e.,

worships

god and

returns,

bearing the Deoa\,
spicigera),

the leaves of the mango,

saundad (Prosopis
glowerata),
tied
to

palas

(Butea jrondosa),

umbar

(Ficus

and

mi

{Calotropis

gigantea).

These

are

ceremonially

one of the posts of the wedding booth.

Bhavani and other
relations

tutelary deities are propitiated with sacrifices,

and

and

friends

are feasted

in

their

names.

The

second

is

the actual

wedding day,

when

the bridal pair are

made

to stand face to face, either in

bamboo
rice

baskets, or

on leafy

plates,

and are sprinkled over with grains of
in

by the

priest.

The
in

remaining three days are spent
the performance of

feasting and

merrymaking, and
importcince.

such

rites

as

are of

minor

Widows
by the
caste.

are allowed to marry

again and divorce

is

recognised

Religion

—The
is

principal

deities of the

Gondhalis are Bhavani

of Tuljapur and
brate, with

Renuka Devi

of

Mahur,

in

whose honour they
falls in

cele-

pomp, the

festival of

Navaratra, which

the month

of

Aswin (September-October).
fire,

On

the

1

0th of Aswin, a Horn, or
are
offered

sacrificial

ignited,

oblations of

liquor

and goats

are sacrificed to their patron deities.
July),

In the

month of Asadha (Junedeities,

Man

Ai, Pochamma, Sitala Devi, and other animistic
with sacrifices of goats.
the
greater

are honoured

Besides these,

the

members

of

the caste worship

gods of the Hindu pantheon and

GONDHALI
observe
all

235
are

Hindu

festivals.

Brahmans

engaged on ceremonial

and religious occasions.

Disposal of the Dead .—The dead are
in

either buried, or burnt,

a

sleeping
is

posture

with

the

head

pointing
after

to

the

south

;

the
in

Sradha
general

performed on the
propitiated
in

10th
the

day

death.

Ancestors

are

month

of

Bhadrapad

(Augustespecially

September)
of

with oblations of water.
ancestors,' are

Spirits of ancestors,

female

appeased

with

sacrifices

and

offerings

of

flowers and fruits.

Child-Birth
for

—A woman
it

after child-birth

is

regarded as impure
her
lying-in

ten
is

days and
not

is

said

that

during the period of
cot,

she

allowed to sleep on a
at

because their patron deity,
the
fifth

Renuka, sleeps on a cot
Satwai,
dentifrice

Mahur.
is

On

day

after

birth,

the

guardian

of

infants,
girl

worshipped

with
is

offerings

of

and food.

A

on attaining puberty

held

unclean

for three days.

Social Status
Kunbis..
spirituous

Socially, the Gondhalis rank
flesh

below the Maratha
fish

They

eat

the

of

deer,

fowls

and

and

drink

and fermented

liquors.

They do

not eat the

leavings of

other castes.

Occupation.
sing

—The Gondhalis
deities,

are professional mendicants.
a

They
(a

and dance to the music of a drum, cymbals and and
solicit

tuntune

fiddle)
in

alms from door to door and from village to village,

honour of their tutelary

Renuka and Bhavemi.

But they are
a

particularly

engaged

for

the

performance of the gondhal,
at

tumul-

tuous dance in honour of

Devi Bhavani, celebrated

the marriage

ceremonies of the Maratha Brahmans and other Maratha castes.
these occasions,
at

On

the Gondhalis,
at night,

a choir of five men,

are entertained

a feast by day and

at ten,

they

commence

the dance, after

having worshipped the goddess and her lord Shanker,
sented
nuts,

who

is

repre-

by

a

metal

pot
a

containing

water,
the

betel
deities

leaves
are

and

areca

topped

with
stool,

cocoanut.

Both

installed

on

a

low wooden

covered with a bodice cloth, decked with beauti-

ful

designs in turmeric and ^an^um,

and overhung with garlands of

flowers suspended from a tripod of three sugar canes.
sists

The

puja con-

of the offerings of flowers,

the waving of lamps fed with ghi

236

GONDHALI
is

and the burning of incense and camphor and

held by the principal
cries of

member
'

of the household.
'

Each gondhal

is

opened with the

Udeh, Udeh

(victory to the goddess)

and begins with an invocation

to

Khandoba

of Jejuri, Tukai,

Yamai, mother Bhavani (Ai Bhavani),

and other minor and greater gods.

One

of the

band holds

in

his

hand a lighted torch
clothed
in

(the

emblem

of the goddess) and the precentor,
shell necklaces

a long oily

gown, and wearing cowrie
it

and

jingling anklets,

smears

with sandal paste and

kunkuw and makes
of

a

low obeisance before
of

it.

To

his audience,

composed

men and
from the
all

women

the household and outsiders,
other

he relates
singing

stories

Rama^ana and
the

mythological

stories,

and daiicing,
played
him.

while,
his

to

a

drum,

cymbals

and
stand

fiddle,

upon

by

three

companions,

who

behind

Often

he enlivens

his narrative

with humourous episodes and ingenious jokes

which he plays upon the torch bearer.
sionally kept up
till

The performance

is

occa-

the small hours of the morning.

The gondhal

ends

with a supplication for blessing to the goddess Bhavani.

A

few of the Gondhal is have now

settled

down and

taken to

agriculture.

XXXV
GOPAI
Gopal

a class of wandering athletes,

acrobats, mat-makers and

buffalo dealers, chiefly found in the northern parts of the
District.

Aurangabad
grass mats,

•Ouring their wanderings,
carry

they live

in

huts of

which they
buffaoes.

with

their

goods

and chattels on the backs of

Origin.
times,

—They
to

trace their origin to persons

who

were,

in ancient in

dedicated

the

god Kanhoba

of

Tisgaon
'

Madhi,

the

District of

Ahmednagar, and were designated

Bal-Gopals,'
are

after

one
:

of
(1)

the

names of Krishna or Kanhoba.
(2)

They
(3)

divided

into

Vira Gopal,

Pahilwan Gopal, and

Kam

Gopal. The Vira

Gopals resemble the Maratha Kunbis,
and earn
palm.
their livelihood

live in huts of date

palm leaves

by making mats from the leaves of the date
are acrobats, practising gymnastics and

The Pahilwan Gopals
They
drawers,

performing feats on a long pole, to the accompaniment of a torn torn,
or circular

drum.
tight

also

make mats

of date

palm
in

leaves.

The

men wear
Kunbi
Gopals,

while the
is

women

dress

the
as

Maratha
Gujarati

fashion.

There

one

more

division,

known

who

have, however, nothing in

common
of

with the above menthis

tioned sub-castes.
tight

The male
a

members
red
or

sub-caste

wear

white drawers,

large

white turban

and
tribes,

a

coloured

cloth over the shoulder.

Unlike the other Gopal

they wear

necklaces

of

white beads

and

ear-rings

of

brass

wire

with

white

beads strung on the end.
the
tight

They

earn their living by performing on

rope,

tumbling and exhibiting other feats of strength on

the ground, and by mat and basket making.
social

They occupy

the lowest

position

among the Gopal
Structure

tribes.

Internal
follows
:

^The section

names

of

the caste

are

as

238
Kala Pahad
(b

GoPAL

Dhangar

GoPAL
from
the-

239
is

Maratha Kunbis.
is

Their special deity

Kanhoba

of Tisgaon

Madhi, who
mony.

worshipped once a year with great pomp and cereand
religious

For ceremonial

purposes,

Brahmans are emrevere

ployed by the members of
of
their

the

caste,

who

also

the

spirits

dead

ancestors.

Disposal of the Dead

—The
in
1

dead are buried

in

a sitting posture.

The body

is

carefully washed, smeared with gulal (red powder) and

borne to the grave swathed

a sheet of white cloth.

The Sradha
in

ceremony

is

performed on the

0th day after death and ancestors

general are propitiated twice a year, viz., on the Akshattitiya, which
falls

on the

light

third of

Vaishakha, and on the Pitra AmaiOasya,

the last

day of Bhadrapad.

Social Status

Socially,

the Gopals rank below the Maratha

Kunbis, but far above the impure classes of Hindu society.
mutton, pork,
fish,

They

eat

fowl and the

flesh of hare,

deer and the iguana, and
not eat the leavings

drink spirituous and fermented liquors.
of other castes.

They do

Occupation.

In

addition

to

their

occupation

as

acrobats

and

rope-dcmcers, the Gopals deal in the milk of buffaloes.

They have
are

an

evil

reputation

as

inveterate

robbers

and

their

movements

vigilantly

watched by the

police.

XXXVI
GoUNDALA
(Titles
:

Ayya, Appa, GouJa.)
Kalal

Goundala, Gouda,

Idiga,

a
in

toddy-drawing and
all

liquor-

vending caste, found widely distributed

the

Telugu

.districts of

His Highness's Dominions.

Origin
According
Benares
originally
to

Regarding
the

their

origin,

several
are

stories

are

current.

Goud
parts

Puran,
of

they

said
India,

to

have come from
they

and

other
in

Northern

where

were

engaged

the manufacture and
as

sale of spirituous

liquors.

Another legend represents them
Rishi,

having

sprung from

Koundinya

who was

created by Parvati for the purpose of extracting and

fermenting the

sap of the wild
in

date palm

and thus supplying the
It
is

wants of gods and men
said
that

the

matter of intoxicating drinks.

the gods and demons were so delighted with the pleasant
title

beverage, that they conferred upon him the

of

'

Gouda,' or

"

the

head of mankind.'

A

third

legend describes

how Mannad
to supply

Shetli,

the ancestor of this caste, a drink of water

was created by Shiva

him with

when

thirsty,

and how, instead of water, the Shetti

brought the god the fermented juice of the shendi (wild date palm)
tree.

Shiva discovered

this

and,

in his

anger,

condemned the

offender

to the servile occupation of

a liquor vendor.

Several legends, more

or less grotesque in description,
light

are given which,
It

however, throw no

upon the
is

real

origin

of the caste.

seems probable that the

caste

a functional group,

formed from the members of other castes
This view

under the pressure of the demand for intoxicating drinks.
bears support from the internal
that
it

structure

of

the caste,

which shows

comprises several

independent groups.
caste
(2)
is

Internal Structure
groups:
(1)

—The

divided into six endogamous

Deva

Goundala,

Shetti

Goundala,

(3)

Mashti

GOUNDALA
Goundala,
(1)

241

(4)

Goundala,

(5)

Idiga and (6)
little
is

Laguwad.
regarding the origin
traditionally ascribed
,

Deva Goundala.
of the

—Very
(gods).

known
It is

name 'Deva Goundala".
members

to the fact that
to the

of this sub-caste supplied liquor

Devas

At
the

the present day they hold the
castes.

highest rank
(2)

among
Chetti

Goundala

The

Shetti, "or

Goundalas
title

are very

numerous and

assert that
their

the distinctive

Shetti

was conferred upon
of

ancestor

by

Raja

Prataprudra

Warangal,

for

'successfully

meeting and overcoming an invincible gym-

nast in a wrestling match.
(3)

The Mashti Goundalas occupy
the
(1)

the lowest position
five

among
:

Goundala

sub-castes.
(2)

They have
(3)

sub-divisions
(4)

Telia Idiga,

Kulla Jain,

Kada,

Ayanoti-

waru and

(5)' Jetti.

The members

of these sub-castes

do

not eat together,

nor intermarry.

The Ayanotiwaru and

Jetti

groups earn their living by begging alms from the

other sub-castes of liquor vendors.
(5)

The

Idigas rank lower, socially, than the Goundalas, but have
latter

been grouped with the
occupation.

by reason of

their

common
which

The word
tree,

'Idiga'

comes from

'Ita'

means a shendi
tree
for
its

and those

who make

incisions in the

sap are called

'Ita

Godlu', the two words
'Idiga'.

ultimately
is

passing into the term

The

sub-caste

said

to

have been recruited from among members of
especially

other castes,

from the Mutrasi,

Munnur and
called

Telaga
'

castes.

The

Idigas
'

have
'

a

sub-division
'

Thala

Idiga,' the

word

Thala

signifying

the head.'

(6)

The Laguwad
wear

or

Lagullawahdlu are so called because they
This sub-caste
is

lagus, i.e., short trousers.

is

also rein

cruited

from other castes

and

found

chiefly

the

Southern Districts of

H. H.

the Nizam's Dominions.

The members
groups).
i6

of the caste claim to have five gotras (exogamous
(2)

(I)

Shivansha gotra,

Shivanama

gotra,

(3)

Nishila

242
golra,
(4)

GOUNDALA
Surabhandeshwar and
(5)

Koundinya.

These
of

are

purely

ornamental

and have no bearing upon the

regulation

marriages,

which

are

governed by exogamous sections based upon family names,

the majority of
toteraistic,

which are

of the territorial character.

A
The

few only
totems,

are

being the names of trees and animals.
not

howtheir

ever,

are

taboo

to

the

members

of

the

sections

bearing

names.

The
within

rule of

exogamy
or

is

strictly

observed and a
sub-caste.

man

cannot marry

his

section,

outside

his

Marriage
is

with

the

daughter of a maternal uncle, or a paternal aunt,

allowed.

A

man

may marry two
Exchange
illaiam,

sisters

and two brothers
is

may

also mari./
caste.

two

sisters.

of

daughters

permitted
is

by the

The

usage of

under which a

man

allowed to bring up

his son-in-law as

heir to his estate,

obtains in the caste. father-in-law's property

The
if

son-in-law succeeds to
the latter has no male

the

whole

of

his

issue,

otherwise he shares equally with the sons of his brothers-in-

law.

A

son-in-law

can

also

perform

the

funeral

obsequies

on

behalf of a father-in-law

who

has no male issu;.
are

Women
their

of

higher castes

admitted by the Goundalas

into

community, no special ceremony being prescribed.

Marriage
"girl's

Infant
is

marriage

is

practised

by the

caste.

If

a

marriage
attains

delayed by reason of poverty, or any other cause,
the

and she and
to

age of puberty,

she
is

is

dedicated to a temple
theoretically,
in
all

remains

unmarried.

Polygamy
marriage

permitted,

any

extent.

The
to

ceremony

conesponds
the
other

essential

particulars

that

prevalent
standing.

among

Telaga
to

castes

of

the
are to

same

social

The

negotiations

leading

marriage
inspection

opened by the father of the boy,
the
girl's

who

pays a

visit of

house.
is

If

his

proposals

for

marriage

are

accepted, a local

Brahman
if

engaged

to

compare the horoscopes
is

of

both parties and,
for the

they are found to agree, an auspicious day

fixed

performance of the wedding ceremony.
t)o/r,

No

price

is

generally
is

claimed for the bride, but sometimes
said
or
to

amounting to

Rs.' 50,

be paid
are

to her

parents.

Mcirriage pandals,
parties
in

consisting of 6

8

pillars,

erected

by both

front

of

their

houses.

GOUNDALA
The
actual
(1)

243
rites
:

ceremony comprises the following

Mailapolu.

—A
at

square

piece
its

of

ground
is

is

daubed

clean
filled

wilh^owdrung, and
with water.
thread.

each of
are

corners

placed a vessel
a

These

vessels

encircled

seven times by

cotton

Within the square
stools.

are seated the bride and bridegroom on

two low

They

are

smeared with

turmeric

and

oil

by

a

female of the barber caste and subsequpntly bathed with
(2)

warm
grains

water.

Mafyal Polu.

— Rice

ana

jaWari

(millet)

being

spread on the ground and the bridal pair being seated over them on

two wooden

stools,

the feet of the bridegroom are

washed by the

father of the Bride,
(3)
in

Madhupark-

her mother pouring water on them the while. o mixture of jaggery and curds is placed

—A

a

concave piece of cocoanut kernel and
his father-in-law.

is

offered

to

the bride-

groom by
(4)

Kanyaian.

—The

formal
latter's

gift

of

the

bride

by her father

to the

bridegroom and the

formal acceptance of her.

(5)

Lagnam.
is

—The

bride and bridegroom being seated face lo
officiating priest.

face, a screen

held between them by the
repeated

Auspithrown

cious

verses

are

and grains

of jaWari or

rice

are

over their heads, both by
(6)

Brahmans and by the assembled
couple place
handfuls
of

guests.

Jira

Gudam.

—The
his

cumin-seeds

mixed with molasses on each other's heads.
(7)

Pada-ghattanam.

—The
right

bridegroom
foot

first

touches

the the

left

foot

of the bride with

and,

subsequently,

bride

places her left foot upon the right foot of her husband.
(8) (9)

—The —Thread Kankanams.
Tila Bala Biam.

couple are

made
a

to

exchange
root

rice.
at-

bracelets,

with

turmeric

tached to each,
(10)

are tied on the wrists of the bridal pair.

Mangalsutram.

—A

necklace

of

black

beads

is

tied

around the neck of the bride by the bridegroom,
ance of the priest.
(11)

under the guid-

Brahmamudi.
in

—The

ends of the garments of the wedded
officiating
priest.

pair are fastened

a knot

by the

(12)

Mangalarti.

—Auspicious

lights

are

waved

round

the

happy couple by females whose husbands
(13)

are alive.
star

Arundhati Darshanam.—The

Amndhati

is

pointed

244
out to the married couple

GOUNDALA
by
the

Brahman

priest.

The
performed

important

ceremonies
fourth

of

Nagbali and Panpu,
the

which
not
fully

are

on the

day

after

wedding,

do

differ

materially from those of the

Kapu

caste

and have been

des-

cribed in the article on that caste.

Widow=Marriage
she
is

—A widow
in

is

allowed

to

marry again, but

not

expected to marry her

first

husband's younger or elder
the

brother.

The ceremony
as

vogue
a rupee

at
is

marriage of

a

widow

is

known

Oodki,

in

which

given to the widow-bride

for

the purchase of bangles and toe-rings.

On

an auspicious day,
to the

in the

evening, people on behalf of the

widower go

TVidow's house,

present her with a white sari and jewels and bring her at nightfall to

the

bridegroom's
ties

house.

The

bridegroom,

after

giving

her

a

sari

and choir,

the pusti round her neck.

The

proceedings conclude

with a feast to the friends and relatives of the newly married couple.

Divorce

Divorce

is

permitted
if

on the

ground

of

the

wife's
It

adultery, or barrenness, or
i*;

the couple cannot live in harmony.

effected simply

by driving the woman out of the house before
Divorced

the

caste Panchayat.

women
woman

are allowed to marry

again by

the

same

rites as

widows.

A

taken

in

adultery with a
is

member

of her

own

caste, or with

one of a higher caste,

punished only with
of a lower caste,

a fine of

Rs.

10.

If

she goes wrong with a

man

she

is

expelled from the caste.

Inheritance
heritance.

—The
uncle.

Goundalas follow the
in

Hindu law

of

in-

Females

inherit

default of any male issue in the family.
a
sister's

Under

the usage of illatam,

son succeeds to the property
as

of his maternal

Among

the Goundalas,

among

the other
in
full

lower castes of Telingana, the custom of chudaWand obtains
force.

Something extra

Religion
little

is

said to

be given

to the eldest son.

In

matters

of

religion
castes.

the

Goundalas
are

differ

very
into

from

the

other

Telaga

They

divided

Tirmanidharis and Vibhutidharis, or the worshippers of Vishnu and
Shiva,

under the guidance of

their

respective sectarian

gums,

Shri
to of

Vaishnava and Aradhi Brahmans.
the worship of Shiva,

Preference

is,

however, given

whom

they adore under the peculiar name

Surabhandashewar,

or-

"the god Shiva sprung from a toddy pot."

As

GOUNDALA
the story goes, Shiva once fell in love with Sara Devi,

245
the wife of

Maila Goud, a man of the Goundala
the lovers

caste.

On

one occasion, while
his appearance,

were together, the husband suddenly made
in

and Shiva,
suspicious

confusion, concealed himself in a pot of shendi.
pot,

The
dis-

husband boiled the contents, but, on opening the
it

covered that
of the
versal

contained only Shioa

Lmgam,

or the phallic symbol

god Shiva.

This was regarded

as a miracle

and led

to the uni-

worship of the deity among the caste.

Katamayya, or Kattam
is

Raja, the supposed guardian of palm groves,
verence by the

held

in

special

rein

members

of

the caste.

According to the legend

vogue among »he Goundalas, Katamayya was created by Mahadeo,
from his necklace of rudraksha
(ElcBocarpus

Ganitms),

to

kill

the

demon Gajasura, who
Koundinya.
the

infested the shendi groves belonging to the Rishi
is

Katamayya
of

represented by a piece of stone, set up at

bottom

an

untapped

shendi tree,
in

and
of

is

worshipped with
Shravan
(AugustOfferings
deity

great

pomp

and

ceremony

the the

month
sun

September),
of

especially

when

enters

Magha.
to
is

sweetmeat,

flowers and

milk

are

made

the

and

a black ram*, screened from the god by a curtain,
it.

sacrificed before
sacrifice
its

Maisamma

is

appeased

in

each shendi grove by the

of
is

a bull-buffalo.

After the animal has been slaughtered,

blood

collected

in a bowl and sprinkled on each shendi Pochamma, Durgamma, Mari Amma, Mutyalamma, and

tree.

Idamma,
other local
offer-

minor deities,
ings of fowls,
is

are duly propitiated on Fridays and Sundays, with

sheep and other animals.

A

man

of the

Madiga

caste

employed

in

claims the the worship of these animistic deities and
to

offerings
firm

made
in

them

as

his

perquisites.
in

The Goundalas have
of
is

a

belief

witchcraft
that

and

the

existence

the

spirit

world.

Every disease

cannot be cured by medicine

attributed to the

baneful influence of

some malignant

spirit,

or

spiteful

witch,

and an

Erakala
the

woman

is

employed

the spell of to pacify the spirit, or to avert
caste
in

witch.

Brahmans serve the
while

religious

and ceremonial
at

observances,

Jangams

(Lingayit

priests)

officiate

funeral

ceremonies.

The Bandi

or swing festival, Sidi (literally cart and ladder),

is

held annually by the

members

of the caste in

honour of Mallanna.

246

GOUNDALA
the top of a long pole
is

On

fixed

a

cross

beam,

with'

iron

hooks

attached by ropes to both
flesh of

its

ends.

The

hooks are thrust into the
its

the votary's back and the pole, bearing

burden,
car.

is

raised

aloft in the air

by several men

sitting

on an open temple
is

when
three
sus-

the pole has attained a perpendicular position, the car

moved
are

times round the temple.

Sometimes two or more devotees

pended simultaneously from the beam and, with swords and
their

shields in

hands,

make

a

pretence of fighting with one
of
still

another.

This

horrid practice has,

late,

entirely

ceased

in

the Khalsa Districts,

but

it

is

said to be

prevalent in the Paigah illaquas.

Disposal
dead,

of

the

Dead

—The
if

Goundalas usually
they cannot
the
affofd

burn
to

their

but occasionally bury them
expenses.
In

pay the
are

cremation
collected

the

former case,
after

ashes

and bones
into

on the third day

death

and either thrown

the

nearest river or tank, or buried under a taroad tree {Cassia auriculata).
If

burial

is

resorted to,

the married

are placed
east,

in

a

sitting

posture,
are

with

the
in

face

pointing

towards

the

while

the

unmarried

interred

a lying position, the
south.
for

with the face downwards and the head
is

turned

to

Mourning
days
for

observed

for

ten

days for the
children.

married

and

three
is

the

unmarried
the Pitra

and

No
the

Sradha ceremony

performed.
rice

On

AmaWas^a

day (midfor

dle of September),
benefit of

and money are offered to Brahmans
ancestors.

the departed

A
is

metal pot,

painted externally
first

with turmeric and red lead, represents the deceased's

wife and,

under the name of Jagdi Muntha,
if

worshipped by the 2nd wife,

living.

Occupation
occupation of
silcestris)

—The
of

Goundalas
the
it

still

follow

their

ttaditional

extracting

juice
into

of

the

wild date palm {Phoenix

and fermenting
the sale

a spirit popularly
are

known

as

shendi.

Shops

for

this

liquor

almost

exclusively

owned by

members
after

of this caste.

The

wild date palms are tapped generally
is

mid-day

and the sap

collected

early

next

morning.

The

quantity of juice extracted from a single tree varies from one to two

pounds.

The

Idigas,

on the other hand, tap both the wild date and

the

palmyra palms.

The

juice of the latter

is

largely used in the manu-

GOUNDALA
facture of sugar

247

and intoxicating

liquor.

The

Idigas

use

a

sort

of

leather sling in climbing

palm

trees.

Owing

to the extensive sale of

fermented liquors, the Goundalas are as a well-to-do class of men.

Some

of

them amass large fortunes and are regarded
of the village

as

prominent

members
are

community.

The
a

poorer members of the caste

engaged

as palm-tappers.

Only

few of the Goundalas have

taken to cultivation.

XXXVII
Hatkar
(Titles.— Naik,
Hatkar, Bargi Dhangar
in large

Rao.)
_

a cultivating

and hunting

caste,

found

numbers

in

the Districts of Parbhani and

Nander

;

they are also

found

in

the Adilabad and Bidar Districts where, howeift^r, they are

comparatively rare.
of

Of

a strongly built, vigorous frame and generally

a

dark

complexion,

with

a

bold

and haughty demeanour,

the

Hatkars show a marked difference from the Maratha Kunbis.
the

Like

Welammas,
in

they appear to be a foreign race,

who

immigrated

and settled

the country in very early times.
recruits

The
this

armies of Shivaji
caste

were composed of
said of them,

mainly

drawn from

and

it

is

"The

most trusted of Shivaji's foot-men and, many of

the bravest

Maratha Generals, among
belonged to
a
this

whom

the

Holkars were the

most distinguished,

tribe."

The "Ain-i-Akbari"
and domineering

describes the Hatkars as being

proud,

refractory

race of Rajputs, living
forces,

in

the Basim Sircar and, with numerous armed

occupying the

forts

Origin
Marathi
'

—The

and controlling the surrounding
'Hatkar'
is
'

districts.

word

popularly

derived

from

the

hat

obstinacy,

and

'

kar

doer,

meaning obstinate. no
light

This
origin
their

derivation appears to be fictitious and throws
of

upon the
and

the caste.

The Hatkars have no
and the time of

traditions

of origin,

original affinities

their immigration are lost in obscurity.

Regarding these people Captain FitzGerald, once an Assistant
Commissioner
in

Berar,

made

the following observations

:


prior

" They

(the Hatkars) declare that they emigrated

from the north

to this part of India
to the

many

years ago, supposed to
of the

be some time

Nizam becoming Subedar

Deccan on behalf
to

of the kings

of Delhi.

But the "Ain-i-Akbari" seems

suppose that the Hatkars
the

were

driven

westward
all

across

the

Wardha by

Gonds.

The

Hatkars are

Bargi Dhangars,

or the shepherds

with the spears.

Hatkar
The
general idea
is

249
were twelve
tribes of

that, originally, there

Bargi

Dhangars,

who came down

from Hindustan, and that from them the

country about Hingoli (the Parbhani District)

was called Bar

Hatti,

which, the Hatkars say,

is

a corruption of the

words 'Bara Hatkar',

or the country of twelve Hatkars.
families.

At

present there are only three
all

To
Poli,

one or other of these families

the

Hatkars about

Berar,

Hingoli, etc., belong.
(2)

The names
Muski."

of these families or clans

are:

(I)

Gurdi,

(3)

" The Hatkars say
pedition,

that they

formerly,

when going on any
long

ex-

took

only

a

blanket

seven hands

and a bear-spear,

and that oi.^his account they were called 'Bargir,' or Barga Dhangars.

They would appear
of the

to

have been

all

footmen.

To

this

day the temper

Hatkar

is

said to

be

obstinate

and quarrelsome.

They

will eat

with a Kunbi.

Customs.

— " The

Hatkars bury
in

their

male dead,

if

death has
corpse
is

not been caused

by a wound

the chase or in battle.

The

interred sitting cross legged, with a small piece of gold placed in

its

mouth.

.If

a

male Hatkar

dies of a

wound

received

in

battle,

or in

the chase, they burn the corpse, the feet being placed toward the east,

so that obsequies

by

fire

are clearly

an honourable distinction.

All

women who
by

die in child-birth are burnt, others are buried.

"Widows may,
a

on the death of

their

first

husband, marry again

pat marriage.

History.
Hatkars.
robbery,

— " The
in

Naiks of Hingoli and Berar were principally

The
but

duty of a Naik was to keep the peace and prevent time
they became the breakers of

law and

the

dakaits of the country.

Some

of them, about the year

1818, were
to

very

powerful.

Nowsajee Naik Muski's army gave
under Major Pitman,
in his

battle

the

Nizam's Regular Troops,

before

Umerkhed.

The Naik was

beaten and he was besieged

stronghold of

Nowa,

with a garrison of five hundred Arabs.
assault sent to
after

The
1819.

place was carried by

a very

stout resistance

in

Nowsajee Naik was

He

Hyderabad, where he died. " The power of the Naiks was broken by Brigadier Sutherland. hanged so many, that the Naiks pronounce his name to this day

with awe.

To

some

of

the Naiks he

gave money, and told them

250
to settle

Hatkar
down
in certain villages. at

Others,

who

also

came

expecting

money, were

once hanged.
to

" Brigadier Sutherland would appear
leaders
that

have hanged only the
date.
In
this
to,
if

did not

come

in

before
of

a

certain

way
not

died

Lachaman Naik, Gardi
to,

Hatah,
;

who was

next

equal in power
clan

Nowsajee Naik

also the

Naik of Jamb whose

name

is

Poli."

Physical Characteristics

" Most of the Hatkars do not permit

the removal of the hair on the face.

They
to

are fine, able-bodied men,

and have a most wonderful resemblance

each other, which may be
I'iheir

accounted for by the constant exclusive intermarriage of
great
families.

three
in

They

are
stuff

independent
of

in

bearing,

pretentious

character,
inhabit,

and are the

which good

soldiers are

made.

They

generally

speaking,

the hills on

the

northern

banks of the

Painganga.

Their villages are placed

like

a line of outposts along

our frontier with the

Hyderabad

territory."
is

This account of the caste
day.

substantially

correct to the present

The Hatkars, although called Bargi Dhangars, have common with the shepherd or pastoral tribes who keep
weave
blankets.
relations of the

nothing

in

sheep and

The
the

Hatkars with the Holer caste (the Dhers of

the Carnatic) appear to bear a close analogy to the connections which

Welammas have
a

with the

Mala

caste (the

Dhers of Telingana). The
Holers and
should a
section,

Hatkars have the same section names as

thfe

Hatkar and

Holer,

both

belonging to the
village,
it

same family

happen to

live in the

same

is

incumbent upon the Hatkar
tie

to attend the
(a

marriage ceremony of the Holer and to

the JeVa-deVal{ the

bunch of twigs representing the wedding deity)

to

wedding
of
their

post.

&)nceming the Welammas,
especially

it

is

known

that

some
to

families,

those of the

Rachelu
before

section,

have

pay the

expenses

of

a

Mala marriage

they

celebrate

their

own

weddings.
are ing

The Welammas,

like the Hatkars,

have a

fine physique,

endowed with vigour and energy,

possess an arrogant and over-bearfor

demeanour and were once highly esteemed

their

soldierly

qualities.

The

points
in the

of

resemblance between these two races are

very striking,

absence of any precise evidence,

however,

it

1

Hatkar
would 6e treading on
risky

25

ground

to ascribe a
differ

common

origin to these

two
in

tribes

who,

at

the present day,

widely from each other

their customs,

usages,

and language.
divi-

Internal
sions
;

Structure.—The Hatkars have no endogamous

but their exogamous sections are numerous, some of which are
:

shown below
(1)

Satapute,
(6)

(2) (7)

Marke,

(3)

Devakate,
(8)

(4)

Katagunde,
(9)

(5)

Shirane,

Hakke,.
Shilgar,

Mundane,
Shimpe,
(17)

Mundhe,
G^ode,
(18)

Devare,

(10)

Navate,

(11) (16)

(12)

(13>

(14) Shinde,

(15)

Dhone,
gandia,

Waghamode,

Suranare,
others.

Salgar,

(19)

Doti-

(20)

Tarange and many
names (^u/w)
castes.

The
among
them
titular
is

section

are

formed

after

the model

common

the

Maratha

They

are not totemistic,

but a few of
or the

are

eponymous, the others being

either of the territorial
in

type.

The
him

section

name descends
of his

the male line.
section.

A

man

forbidden to marry a
restrict

woman

own

No

prohibited

degrees

in

the selection of a

girl,
first

provided he does not
cousins,
aunt.

marry his niece, his aunt, or any of his
daughters
of
his

excepting

the

maternal

uncle

and paternal
to

The Hatkars
also

permit the marriage of

two two

sisters

the

same man and

the

marriage of two

sisters to
is

brothers.
limit

Polygamy
number

allowed without any

being imposed on the

of wives a

Marriage
by the
caste.

man may
infant

have.

Both

and
of

adult

marriages
as

are
as

practised
girls

In

fulfilment

vows,

boys

well

are

wedded

to

Khandoba,

their patron deity,

and are not allowed
called
murlis of

to

marry

afterwards.
prostitutes,

The

girls

are

subsequently

and become
lead
a

while the

boys,
life.

under

the
is

name

Waghes,

depraved and immoral

Adultery

regarded with abhorrence,
expelled from the caste.
differs
little

and a

girl

committing an indiscretion

is

The
in

marriage ceremony of the Hatkars

from that
of

vogue among the

Maratha Kunbis.

On

the

conclusion

the

preliminary negotiations between the parties,
the

and on the

nativities of
is

young couple being found

to agree,

an auspicious day
first

fixed for

the performance of the wedding.

The

ceremony,

in

connection

with marriage,

is

Pamoate,

or the distribution of

pan

(betel-leaves).

252

Hatkar
father of the
In

The

boy goes

to the bride's

house with some ornaments
invited
for

and clothes.
occasion,

the presence of the caste people,
are

the

these

presented
;

to

the

girl

by

a

Brahman,

who
the

presides over the ceremony

pan-supari and sugar are then distributed.
fee)
is

daJ^shana

(the

prescribed

paid

to

the

Brahman,

and

assembly

disperses.

Marriage booths sup[>orted on posts of umbar {Ficus glomerata),

jambul

(Eugenia

Jambolana)

and

salai

(BosWellia

thurijera),

are

erected by both parties in front of their houses.
are

To
plants,

the salai post
consist
viT.,

bound

the

emblems
and
the

of

Deva-Devakalu,
of
five

which

of

a

wheaten
(Bauhinia

cake

twigs

sacred

maula
(Acacia
glo-

racemosa).

mango

(Mangrfera

indica),

hioar

leucophyl&a).
merata),

saundad (Prosopis spicigera)
in

and
five

umbar (Ficus
married

which are brought

procession

by

women
is

from
an

the Maruti
earthen

temple of the village.

Beneath the pandal

built

platform,

8

ft.

square

and generally nine inches
is

in

height.

This over, the important ceremony of Haldi
the bridal pair, paste and
oil,

performed,

at

which

in

their respective houses,

are

smeared with
five

t'jrmeric

and are bathed underneath the booth by
worship of the family
the
birs

married
the
per-

women.
formance
In

The
of
of

and village
kplachar)

deities,

gondhal

dance

(a

and
order

the

procession

honour

(ancestral

spirits)

follow

in

and

precede

the actual

wedding.
the

On
friends

wedding
relatives,

day,
escort
at

the

bridegroom's
to

party,

composed

of

and

him

the

bride's

house.

The

bridal

procession

stops,

first,

the

Hanuman

temple,

where the

brideat

groom

is

given a formal

welcome by the

bride's father,

and then

the entrance to the bride's house, where the bridegroom alights from the

horse
is

and

is

conducted
out

direct

to

the

wedding canopy.

The
facing
it.

bride

brought

and

both

are

made

to

stand

each other, the bride under the arboui

and the bridegroom outside
officiating priest,

A
at

curtain

is

held between them

and the

usually a

Maratha Brahman,
the

recites benedictory verses

and blesses the couple,
on
their heads.
is

same time throwing turmeric-coloured

rice

The
raised

assembled guests shower rice over them
amidst the cheers of the

and the curtain

men and

the singing of the

women.

The

Hatkar
bridal pair,
girt

253
by
side facing the east, are

who

are after this seated side

round seven times by raw cotton thread, care being taken that the

thread does not touch their bodies.
the

While

this

process
virgin

is

going on,

bride's

father

ceremonially

makes over

his

daughter to
gift of

the bridegroom
virgin bride).
post.

this

ceremony
thread

is
is

known

as

Kan})dddn (the

a

The

girl's

then removed and tied to a wedding
a Warati, or a

In the

Kan\ana Bandhanam ceremony,
caste, fastens bracelets of

man

of

the

washerman

woollen thread on the wrists

of the bride and bridegroom.

The

bridegroom, thereupon, taking the
pair,

bride in his arras, or

by the hand, ascends the platform, where the
stools,

seated or%

wooden

perform horn

(sacrifice)

and are presented
in

with clothes,

money, &c.

The

second day passes

feasting

and
are

sporting on the banks of a stream,

where the newly married couple

taken in procession.

The

marriage generally ends on the third day
presents are given to the bride and

with Sade,

when wedding

the

bridegroom by their respective fathers-in-law, after which the happy
pair
are

conducted

in

procession

to

the

bridegroom's house.

The

marriage expenses amount to from Rs.

100 to Rs. 500.
allowed to marry again, but
in

Widow=Marriage

—A widow
is

is

not the brother of her late husband.

Except

the

month of Pausha

(December-January) the ceremony
sunset and sunrise.

performed on any date between

On
by

a dark night, the

widow
sari

bathes, puts on

new

bangles and toe-rings, and wears a
suitor.

new

presented to her by her

Seated side
their

side, the pair are

married by a Brahman,
their

who
knot

bedaubs

foreheads with \unkum,
(auspicious
essential

ties

garments

in

a

and puts a
the

mangalsutra

string

of black of

beads)

round
is

widow's neck.

The

portion

the

ceremony
heads.

the

knocking together of the widow's
rest of

and her husband's

The

the night they pass together in the bride's house.
repair to

Early next

morning they bathe and stealthily
they spend the
house.
his

Maruti's temple, where
to

whole day,

returning

by night
first

the

bridegroom

s

The widow's

children by her
is

husband are claimed by
divorced

relatives.

Divorce

permitted,

the
a

woman bemg

allowed to re-marry by the same

rites as

widow.

Religion
special
interest.

The

religion of the Hatkars presents no features of
is

Their favourite object of worship

Khandoba,

to

254

Hatkar
offerings of flowers
to
this

whom
In
spirits

and sweetmeats are made every Sunday.
they

addition of

deity,

pay

homage

to

Bhairoba

and the
in

their

departed ancestors,
observe
all

whose images they keep
festivals,
in

their

houses.
or

They
in

the

Hindu

among which

the Holi,
in

Shimaga,

March and

the Dassera
are

October, are held
as priests

great

importance.

Deshastha Brahmans

employed

and serve

the caste in their religious and ceremonial observances.

Child=Birth

—The

impurity of child-birth lasts for twelve days.
the child
is

On

the

12th day

after birth,
in

named and

a feast

is

pro-

vided for the caste people
attaining

honour of the occasion.
pollution
for

A

girl,

on

puberty,

remains

in

nine days.
a stream, in a

Funerals

—The
as

dead are burned head

by the side of

lying posture, with the

to the south.

Some

of the families of

the Hatkars bury their dead, the corpse being laid in the grave the legs crossed
tice

with
prac-

and the face turned towards the

east.

The
to

of cremation,
introduction

Mr. A. C. Lyall observes, appears
is

be of
the
is

recent
caste.

and

gradually
dying,
after
is

becoming universal
mixture of curds
is

among

When
in the

a

person

is

a

and Water

placed

mouth, and
in

death the body
to the

washed and, being
ground
the

wrapped
shoulders

up
of

clothes,

carried

burning

on the
funeral
it.

his

relatives.

The

chief

mourner

leads

procession and

fires

the pile after the corpse has been laid upon

After the pyre
bathes
in a

has burnt

down he circumambulates
all

it

five

times,

stream and returns home, followed by
after death,
is

the relatives.

On

the 3rd

day

the ashes are collected and thrown into a

stream and food

offered at the burning ground for the benefit of the

deceased.

On
with

the same day,

the pall bearers have their shoulders
feast
is

besmeared
is

ghi

and

a

provided
in

for

them.

Sradha

performed on the anniversary day and

the months of Vaishakha

(April-May)
violent deaths

and

Bhadrapad

(August-September).
in

Persons

dying
set

are worshipped

the form of images which are

up

in

the houses.

Social Status and

Occupation

In

point of

social

standing,

the Hatkars rank with the Maratha Kunbis, with

whom
pork,

they exchange
hare,

kachi (uncooked) food.

They

eat mutton,

fowl,

lizards,

deer

and

fish

of

all

varieties,

but abstain from beef,

she-goats and

Hatkar
the leavings of other people.
vators
In

255

occupation, the Hatkars are culti-

and hold land-tenures of

different grades.

They
raiats

are patels of

villages,

deshmukhs, occupancy and non-occupancy

and landless

day-labourers.

The Hatkar
the

males and females dress and decorate

themselves

like

Maratha Kunbis.

The men do
is

not

wear the

sacred thread.

Their home language

Marathi.

xxxvm
Jain
Jain

a religious sect supposed to have been originally evolved

from
the

Buddhism
latter

and

owing
In
later

its

elevation

to

the

suppression

of

faith.

times
in
its

it

leaned

towards
of
tjfe

Brahorthodox

manism,

to

which
its

it

conformed

recognition

pantheon and
them,
priests.

deference to the Vedas, to the

rites

derivable from
as ministrant

to the institutions of caste

and

to

the

Brahmans

This was rather a

political

move and probably saved

the

Jains from the persecution of the

Brahmans,

who
of

successfully opposed

and ultimately expelled the once potent
country.

faith

Buddhism from

the

Origin and History
in
is

—The

origin of the Jain faith
all

is

involved
It

the obscurity

which enshrouds

history of remote antiquity.
first

said to have been

founded by Rishabha Deva, the
identified

of their

Tirthankars,

who
in

is

by

some with
;

the

king

Rishabha,
evidence
of
is

mentioned

the

BhdgWat Purdna
of

but

no

direct

adduced
faith

m
a

corroboration

the

statement.

The
to

influence
sixth
it

the

as

popular

religion

may be
till

traced

the

or

seven

centuries

A. D. and
its

continued

the twelfth,

when

reached the

zenith of
ful

prosperity and included,
of
India,

among

its

votaries,

some power-

sovereigns

such
in

as

Kumarpal

of

Gujarath,

Amogha

Vaisha of Tandai

Mandalam

Malabar, Kuna Pandya of Madura,
of Kalayani in Gulbarga.
Jains, diffused throughout
their

Vishnu Vardhan

of

Mysore and King Vijala
monuments of the
to

The

noblest architectural

India,
to
this

and the splendid temples sacred
period

Tirthankars,
their

belong

and bear overwhelming testimony to

influence

during this time.

The power

of

the

Jains

has

since been

on the

decline and the sect scarcely numbers at the present day more than
a million people.

The

Jains

are

found

in

considerable

numbers

in

Hyderabad

Jain

257
into

Territory.

They

probably

came

these

Dominions
they

from
greatly

Gujarath,
patronised

Marwar and Southern
by the ruling dynasties
;

India,

where

were

but the date of their immigration

cannot be ascertained.

Tenets.

—The

Jains

deny

the

divine

origin

and

infallibility

of the Vedas, reverence certain saints called Tirthankars

who

acquire,

by practices of self-deniil and mortification, a
of

station superior to that
life.

gods

and

show extreme regard
and quoted
are

for

animal

The Vedas
the

are admitted
trines

as an authority, but only so far as the doc-

they ti^ch
of

conformable to Jain tenets.
Tirthankars,
or
Jins,

They admit
but
confine

existence

twenty-four

their

reverence to the last two,

Parasnath and Mahavira or Vardhaman.
is

The

Jin

is

regarded as a veritable deity and

endowed with

divine

attributes.

He

is

Jagat Prabhu (Lord of the World), Kshina
acts),

Karma

(free

from bodily or ceremonial

Sarvadnya (omniscient), Adhish-

wara (Supreme Lord), Devadhi Deva (God of Gods), Tirthankar (one

who

has

frossed
nature),

the

worldly
(entitled
all

ocean),
to the

Kavali

(the

possessor

of

a

spiritual

Arhat

homage

of

gods and men),

and Jina (the victor over
statues of the Jinas,
in

human

passions and infirmities.

The

usually of white or black marble,

are enshrined

the temples of the sect.

Name.
1.

Emblem.

Born.

Died.

Vrishabha.

Name.

Jain

259
it,

to

sweep the ground before they tread upon
lest

and do not eat or

drink in the dark,
Jatis

they should swallow an insect.

Most

of the

act
art.

as

physicians,

and pretend
Jains

to

skill

in

palmistry
professions

and the
of

black

The
Some

secular of

follow

the

usual

the

Hindus.

them

are

engaged

as merchants
;

and bankers and

form a very opulent portion of the community
half of the mercantile

it

is

said that

more than

wealth of India passes through the hands of the
their

Jain

laity.

Although

objects

of worship

are

the

Tirthankars,

they do not deny the existence of the

Hindu
a

gods,

but pay their

devotion to

some

of

them.
last

They
]ins

visit
is

temple daily,

where the

image of amy of the
three times,
in

two

erected,

walk round the image

make an
saint.

offering of

fruits

and flowers and sing praises

honour of the

The

Jains have five great places of pilgrimage,

to

which large
:

bands of pilgrims resort every year.
near
Calcutta,
in

These places
sanitarium
in

are

Parasnath,

Mount Abu,
Himalayas,
last

the

of

Rajputana,

Chanin

dragiri,

the

Girnar,

Gujerath,

and Satranjya

KathiawSr, the

being the most popular among them.

The

prin-

cipal festivals of the Jains occur in the

month
their

of

Bhadrapad, during
to

which

most

of

them

fast

and

devote

time

reading

reli-

gious books in temples.
last

The

days of the birth and the death of the

two Ththankftrs
Internal

are celebrated with great

pomp.
had
for
its

Structure

Although the

sect

aim the

abolition of the caste system, the Brahmanical influence has prevailed

and the Jains are

now broken up

into

numerous sub-castes, some of
divisions.
:

which are

territorial

and others occupational

The

follow-

ing sub-divisions
(1)

are

met with

in

these Dominions
(10) (11) (12)

Oswal.
Agarwal.
Porwal.
Jaiswal.
Srimali.

Gujar.

(2) (3) (4) (5)
(6)

Kambhoja.
Bogar.

(13) (14)
(15) (16) (17)

Panchama.
Chaturtha.

Khandelwad.
Swahitwal.

Harad.
Shri Srimali.

(7)
(8) (9)

Lad.

Shrawagi.

Neve

or

Newad.

260

Jain

Of
rest

these,

the

first

ten appear to

have come from the north and the
are all endogamous.

from Southern India.
is

They

Each

of these

divisions

further split
a
list

up
of

into eighty-four

exogamous
to this

sections of the
article.
in

eponymous type,

which
so

is

appended
from

These
their

endogamous

groups

differ

widely

one
a

another

physical appearance, manner and usages, that
of each in detail
is

separate description

necessary.
tall,

Oswals

are

handsome men and derive

their

name from

an ancient village called Osian,
in

the ruins of which are to be seen

the neighbourhood of Jodhpur.

They

are almost all

Shwaitambar

Jains,

and were converted

to the Jain faith

by

Jinadattasuri, the forty-

fourth teacher from Mhavira.
priest,

A

legend, however, says that a Jain
visited

named Ratna Prabhu
for

Suri,

the

village

(Osian)

and

begged

alms,

but was

given

nothing.

Raja Oppal Deva was

reigning there and the enraged Yati caused the death of the Raja's

son

by snake-bite.
life,

On

the pacification of

the

saint,

the boy

was

restored to
of the

but the king had to give consent to the conversion

whole

village to the Jain faith.

This event

is

said to have

taken place on the 8th of the light half of Sravana Samvat 282.

Agarwals

a

few have embraced Jainism and are not bigoted,
with the Vaishnava Agarwals, the offspring

for they intermarry freely

being regarded as belonging to the religion of the father.

Porwals

are

said

to

have embraced Jainism some seven hunin

dred years ago.

There are very few found
derive
their

these Dominions.

ShraWagis

name

from

the

term

'

Shrawak,
Nath,

or follower of the Jain religion,

and trace

their origin to

Nemi
in

a

Yadu

Bansi Raja of Dwarka.

They

are very

strict

their reli-

gious observances and carry the reverence for animal life to a ludicrous
extent.

They do

not

employ Brahmans
Digambaras,

for

religious

or

ceremonial
after

observances.

They

are
at

do not

eat

food

sunset
enter-

and
tain

light

no lamp

night,

because of the great regard they
are regarded
as

for

animal

life.

They

superior in rank to the

Porwals.
Srimalis
first

are

immigrants

from

Gujerath,

where

they

were

converted to Jainism.

They

intermarry with the

Oswals and do

not differ from

them

in

their

religious views.

Jain

261

S/irt,

Srimalis,

Khandelwads, and Jaiswals

are

found

in

very

small numbers in the State.

All these classes have been fully described
the

in

the

report

on

Marwadi Banias.
in

They

are

the bankers,

traders,

shop-keepers

and money-lenders
form the
v^fealthiest

the towns

and villages of the Dominions and

portion of the community.
chiefly

Swahitwah

are

found

in

the

Maratha

Districts

and

have the appearance of Maratha Kunbis, from
bably originally recruited.
sect of Jains

whom

they were pro-

They
in

profess to belong to the

Digamber

and are

strict

their religious observances.
(1)

They

are

divided into two sub-castes

Swahitwal and

(2)

Setwal, based
cloths

upon the
and
are

jiifference

of occupation.

The

latter

weave bodice

cloth

merchants,

shop-keepers

and

money-lenders.
they
regulate

The
their

former

are

tailors.

Unlike the orthodox

Jains,

marriages, not

by

their traditionary eighty-four gotras,

but by family

surnames of the Maratha type.

The

surnames are

:

Lavhande.
Degaonker.
Swahitkar.
Burse.

Ghodke.
Chakote.
June.

Sangawar.
Bhagwati.
Kalyanker.

Gajare.

Annadate.
Sonatakle.

Ambekar.
Belavker.

Maisker.

Hudekar.

Mallavker.

Wakale.
Ghante.
Ukhalker.
Baratker.

Panchwadker.
Satalker.

Alande.
Jogi.

Kursale.

Bhunde.
Kalak.
Dolas.

Bondare.
Pahinker.

Intermarriages within the same section are avoided.

A

man may

or elder sister. marry the daughter of his maternal uncle, paternal aunt

The Swahitwals marry
the standard marriage

their
in

daughters

as

infants,

and observe

ceremony

vogue among the higher Maratha

262
castes.

Jain

The

preliminary negotiations are conducted by the parents of the

couple and, after they have been satisfactorily arranged, an auspicious

day

is

fixed

for

the celebration of the wedding.

A

formal

visit

is

paid by the bridegroom's people for the purpose of seemg the bride,

and
or

presenting
confirmation
the

her
of

with
the

clothes

and jewels

by

way

of

betrothal
visit

match.

The

bride's

people
a

also

and

inspect

bridegroom
at

and present him with

turban.

Marriage
in oil,

booths are erected
their

both houses and the bride and bridegroom,
are

respective

houses,
the

smeared
the

with
bride

turmeric
also

paste
a

and
part

the

bride

after

bridegroom,

receiving

of

the paste prepared for the bridegroom.
tion of the deity presiding over

DeOa
is

Pratishtha

(tJie

installa-

weddings)

performed

at the

temple of

Parasnath, or Mahavir,
(the

when two

brass jars,

representing Parmeshti
silk

wedding

deity),

are placed

before the jina,

bracelets

are

tied on the wrists of the

assembled guests, and round spots of sandal
foreheads.

paste

are

made on

their

On

the

distribution

of

panbrass

supari, the assembly breaks up.

Next morning, the ceasecrated

pots are taken

in

procession to the house
the

and deposited before the
starts in

family

god,.

On

wedding morn, the bridegroom
and

pro-

cession on a bullock or a horse to the bride's house

halts,

on the
fitting

way,

at

Maruti's temple, where he
bride's
party,

is

ceremonially accorded a
nuptial

welcome by the

with presents of the

dress.

On
and

arrival

at

the bride's door,
s

the bride's father waters his mount
his

the

bride

mother

bedaubs
milk.
east,
in

forehead
the

with

k.urikum

(red

powder)

and

offers

him

Under

wedding

pandai,

the

bridegroom stands facing the
clothed
to
in

the bride being opposite to him,

gay

attire

and decked

jewels which have been presented
silk

her

by

the

bridegroom.

A

cloth

is

interposed
at

between

them, auspicious stanzas are chanted by the priest, and

the end of

each stanza turmeric-coloured rice
the heads of the bridal couple.
are seated on the seats

is

sprinkled by the assembly over
curtain
is

The

removed, the couple

upon which they were formerly standing, and
is

a

fine

cotton

thread

wound around them
next

thirteen

times.

The
of
the

Kanyadan ceremony
encircling

is

performed,

two bracelets made

thread being

fastened

one on the bride's wrist and the
Their garments
are

other

on that of the bridegroom.

knotted

to-


Jain

263
is

gether,
tied

the- bridegroom

wears the sacred thread and manguhutra
neck.

around the bride's

These

rites,

from

Antarpat

to

the

wearing of manguhutra by the bride, form the essential portion of the
ceremony.

The ceremony

concludes with a feast given to relatives
is

and friends.

Widows

are allowed to marry and divorce
inferior rites,

recognised.

Both widows and divorced wives marry by
garments of the bridal

in

which the
a
feast
is

couple are knotted together and

furnished to the relatives.

Polygamy

is

permitted and

a

man may
taken

have as
in

many wives
is

as "he can afford to maintain.

A

woman

adultery

expelled from the caste.

In addition to the Ththankars,

the Swahitwals worship the tutelary deity
is

Padmakshi, whose temple
gods are accorded

said to be* situated at

Warangal.
are

The Hindu
their adult

due reverence.
observances.
collected
stream.

Brahmans

employed
burn

for religious

and ceremonial

The Swahitwals
Jain

dead, the ashes being
into

on the third day
In pursuance of

after

death

and thrown

a

sacred

injunctions,
to

they do not perform the

Sradha ceremony, but, contrary
days.

them, they observe mourning for ten
all

Their

social position

is

high and

castes,

from the Maratha

Kunbis downwards,
tarians

eat

k^chi

from

their

hands.
garlic,

They

are

vege-

and abstain from radishes, onions,
and
liquor,
in

assafoetida,

clarified

butter

addition to flesh.

Bogar

—the

Bhopal Jain

Kasars,

bangle

dealers

and braziers,
their

claim to have originally been Kshatriyas, but were
patron

doomed by

goddess Kalika to the low occupation of a k^sar
are to

(brazier).

They
wada
Bogar,

be found

in

small numbers in the Carnatic and Marathafive

Districts.
(2)

They have

endogamous

divisions:
(4)

(1)

Chaturtha
(5)

Pancham Bogar,

(3)

Pancham
of

Jain,

Harad and
to

Apastamb Harad, the members
not to intermarry.

which are said

interdine but

They

profess to follow the standard
in

exogamous

system of the Jains given

the

list

at the

conclusion of this article.

But

this

seems to be nominal,
sections,

and marriages are actually governed
the
are
territorial

by exogamous
valent

mostly of

type.

Those

pre-

among

the

Maratha Bogars

Halge.
Chilwant.
Kathole.

Vibhute. Dahibhate.

Kolape

264
Deware.

Jain

Satpute.

Warade.
Bede.

Chingare.

Vannere.
Mangulker.

Dahatonde.
Helasker.

Ghase.

Aher.

Dabhe. Kemker.

Mene.
Husang.
Bhandare
Anuker.
Katie.

Adamane.
Tambat.
Pede.

Lokhande.
Bedare.

Bhujabale.

Some

of

these

section

names,
titular

such
in

as

Bhujabale,

Dahibhate,
is

Dahatonde and Admane, are
bited

character.
or

A

man

prohito

from marrying outside the sub-caste,

inside

the section,
his

which he belongs.

He may
is

marry

the

daughters of
also

maternal
sisters.

uncle, paternal aunt or elder sister.
Infant marriage

He may
caste,

marry two

practised

by the

the girls being married

between the ages of two and twelve years.
but
is

Polygamy

is

allowed,

not practised on a large scale.

The Bogar
vogue

marriage
local
fire,

does

not

differ

materially
or

from
seven

that

in

among

the

Brahmans,

Saptapadi,

circuits

around the

sacrificial

being deemed the binding portion of the

ceremony.

Widows

are

allowed

to

marry

again,

and

divorce

is

permitted on the ground of the wife's unchastity,

barrenness or
as

ill-

temper.

Divorced wives re-marry by the same
are

rites

widows.
devotion
to

The Bogars

Digambar

Jains

and confine

their

Parasnath, one of the Tirthanl^ars.
is

Their favourite object of worship
fifteenth
of

Kalikadevi,

called

also

Padmakshi, honoured on the
light

Falgun (February) and on the third of the
offerings of

of

Asadha
Hindu

with pan-

sweetmeats and flowers.

The gods
are

of

the
at

theon are also duly honoured.

Brahmans

engaged

the marriage

ceremony.

The dead
generally
of

are burned in a lying posture on a

funeral

fire

made
are

cowdung

cakes.

Children dying prior to teething


Jain

265
third
is

buried.

,The ashes are collected on the
river.

day

after

death and

thrown into a pond or a

Mourning

observed for ten days,

and on the tenth day after death balls of
the benefit of the dead.

flour or rice are offered for

On
is

the twelfth

and thirteenth days

after

death,

the Sradha ceremony

performed and caste people are fed

In this last rite the

Bogars diverge from the general tenets of Jainism.

The Bogars

are vegetarians

and rank

socially

below the Brahmans
Previous to the

and above the agricultural castes of the

locality.

marriage ceremony, the male members of the caste are invested with
the
caste

sacred

thread.

Social

disputes
a chief

are

referred

for

decision

to
is

a
a

council,
in
<•

headed by

called
origin

mehetarya.
of
the

There

saying

Marathi

regarding

the

caste

'

'

Panch

Panchal Ani Sahawa Bhopal " which means that the goddess Kalika
first

created
;

five

Panchals,

viz.,

Sonar,
sixth,

Lobar,

Sutar,

Tambatker

and Silpi

and then she created the

the Bhopal caste.
in

Kambhoja
as

are

chiefly

to

be found
Nagpur.

Telingana,
say

extending
that

far

north

as

Benares

and

Traditions

they

came
was
day.

originally from

Kambhoja Desh

(the country of

Kambhoja) which
at

sitifated in

Southern India, but cannot be identified

the present

The

almost Dravidian features of the

Kambhoja

give support
to

to their

southern origin.

These people were probably converted

the faith between the ninth and twelfth centuries, during which Jainism
flourished in Southern India in
first

its

full

vigour, having been introduced

in

Malabar, by the king

Amogha

Varsha,

early

in

the ninth

century,

and subsequently patronised by

the princes of Conjevaram,
are Jains of the

Madura and Mysore.
sect,

The Kambhojas
to the doctrines

Digambar

and

strictly

adhere

and tenets of

their religion.

As

far as

any information goes, the Kambhojas have no endogam-

ous divisions. Their

exogamous system

is

of the
all

eponymous type, being
the Jains of India have

based upon the eighty-four gotras into which

been theoretically broken up. But the Kambhojas of Hingoli allege
that their marriages are regulated

by exogamous
titular

sections,

which are
of

a

mixture of
are noticed

territorial,

eponymous and

names.

Some

these

below

:

Mukerwar.
Kandi.

Somashet.

Todal.

.

.

266
Kariwal.

Jain

Arpal.
Tyaral

Waral
Yambal.
Mahajan.
Yarmal.
Marriages
maternal
within
uncles,

Madrap.
Mashta.

the

same

section

are

avoided.
sisters

Daughters

of

paternal

aunts

and

elder

may be

married.

Two

sisters

may be married
marriage
is

to the

same man.
caste,

Infant

practised

by the

the

girl's

age being

between
amounts

two
to

and

twelve
is

years.

A

bride-price,

which sometimes

Rs. 400,

paid to the

girl's parents.

After the bride has been selected, the parents of the bridegroom

go

to her

house to see her and present her with clothes and jewels.
also visit the bridegroom
in

The The
front

girl's parents

and make him

presents.
in

marriage ceremony takes place
of

a

wedding pandal, erected

the

bride's

house,
planets.

and

made
marriage

of

nine very

pillars
little

representing

the

nine

The

shows

divergence from the orthodox usage current
of

among

the higher castes

Hindus

of

the

locality.

Previous to the wedding,

Padmawati,
after

their tutelary goddess,

and Parasnath, are invoked.

Immediately

the Antarpat ritual, the bride and the bridegroom stand face to face, the

bridegroom holding a pusti (mangalsutra)
the

in

his
after

hand and the
the
priest

bride
recited

sacred

thread

;

these

they
rite

exchange
is

has

appropriate mantras.

This

supposed to constitute the

binding portion of the ceremony.
the Naghali ceremony
senting the
in
is

On

the 7th day after the wedding,

performed,

when 84 heaps

of rice,

repre-

84

traditionary goiras of the sect, are arranged in a square

which the bride and bridegroom
and to pronounce
are
all

are

made

to

sit

by the

officiating

priest

the

gob as.
to

Widows
recognised.

not

allowed
is

marry
there

again,

nor

is

divorce
to

Polygamy

permitted,

being

no

limit

the

number

of wives a
girl,

man may

have.
is

A
this

on attaining puberty,
is

unclean for eleven days.
in

During

time she

smeared daily with scented unguents, bathed

warm

water and given nourishing food.

On

the eleventh day,

she has to
is

undergo

purificatory

rites.

The

Pvnyawachana

ceremony

Jain

267
over a line of live coals and

performed,

'

after

which the

girl

steps

becomes ceremonially pure.

A
the
in
fifth

woman
day

after child birth

is

impure

for

twenty-one days.

On
pit

after birth, five

pebbles are placed on the rim of the

which the umbilical cord was buried and around the pebbles are
in

grouped,

heaps,

cotton

seeds,

unhusked

rice,

wheat,

millet

and

udid (a

variety

of kidney bean

Phaseolus Mungo).
fills

After these

have been worshipped,, the midwife
and sings a song,
long
the
refrain

a
is,

pot

with them,

dances
live

of

which
the

"

May

your baby

and jump like a frog."

On

twenty-first

day

after

birth,

the mother ^^oes out,

worships the rim of a well, round which she
filled

walks three times,

and returns home with a pot
is

with water.

On
rites

her return the child

placed

in a

cradle and named.
carefully observing
all

The Kambhojas
of the sect,

are orthodox Jains,

the

and worshipping the twenty-four Tirthankars,

fourin

teen Ashtakas

and fourteen Jalmals.

A

grand

festival

is

held

honour of the divinities from

the 4th to the

14th of the light half of

Bhadrapad (September).
situated near Calcutta.
religious

They make

pilgrimages to Samet Shikhara,

Bhattdrakas, or Jain priests, are engaged tot

and ceremonial observances.
are burned in a lying posture, with the

The dead
to the south.

head pointing

The
into

ashes ate collected on the third day after death

and thrown
days.

a

sacred river.
is

Moutning
in

is

observed fot thitteen

No

Sradha

petformed
are

honour of the deceased.

The Kambhojas As feimented drink.
Hindu
caste,

vegetarians

and

abstain

fiom

flesh

and

they are believed to be outside the pale of the

their social status

cannot be determined.

They do

not

eat at night,

nor

do they

kindle a light for fear that

moths may be

attracted by the flame and perish.

They do

not eat kachi from the

hands of any Hindu caste.

They

ate shop-keepers, cloth merchants,

and

retail

dealers.
a tradition that they
call

Newad Jains—have
these
'

came from

Mewad

into
title

Dominions.
'

They

themselves Sawaji and have the

Sa

attached to their

names.
divisions, but their

The Newads have no endogamous
sections are

exogamous

numerous.

A

few

of these ate


268
Dagoja.
Phulade.
Ikshwak.
Jain

Dolchipure,

,

Chandre.

Khapre.
Kare.

Rawul.

Gore.

Marriages are avoided within the same section.
to the prohibited relationship,

With

regard

which supplements the

rule of exogamy,

they are guided by the same laws as the other local castes.

A
Rs.
1

Newad
is

girl

is

married

as

an

infant,

and

a

bride-price
in

of

,000

paid to her parents.

This enormous increase

the

bride-price

is

due

partly to the paucity of girls

among

th«Tn and partly

to the fact that they are

debarred from intermarriages with the parent

stock,

from which
place
first

they

have long been

isolated.

The
over

ceremony
ten

takes

at

the

bridegroom's house and extends

days.

On

the

day, Parasnath, Saraswati and other household gods are

invoked to protect the couple from harm or evil during the ceremony.
Offerings of wheaten cakes

and milk are made

to

the

deities

and

the caste people of the neighbourhood are feasted in their honour.

The

bride's party, on their arrival at the bridegroom's village, are accom-

modated
to the

at

the

latter's

house.

After

all

the

ceremonies

previous

wedding, such
and

as

Deca\arya, Haldi and Airani Kundalu, have
preliminary

been performed
pleted,

all

arrangements

have been comhis
at
s

the bridegroom, dressed in yellow,
is

with a red turban on
streets.

head,

paraded on horseback

through the
the door
bride's
is

On

arrival

the entrance door of his house,
party

shut,

the bridegroom
inside

standing

outside

and

the

party

standing

the

house.

Then

follows a curious dialogue between them.

The
his

bride

makes enquiries regarding the bridegroom's whereabouts,
and
his

religion

ways
is

of living,

to

which the bridegroom responds.

Q,

— What

your religion?

What

saints

do you adore?

your guru'^
times a day

What
do you

religious

book guides you?

Who How many

is

offer prayers ?

Upon whom do you

bestow

your affections?

A.

Sandhata

is

my
is

religion,

and
i

1

honour

Arhanta
a

(saints).
reli-

Nighranta

my gum, and

have studied

million

Jain

269
to

gious books.

I

offer prayers
is

the

whole world
of

the object of

God my

three times a day,
love.

and

Q.

— Lord —

men

!

will

you please give me information regarding
?
is

your parents, your country and your ways of living

A.

Beautiful

damsel

!

Hindusthana

is

my home

and

Sa
a
!

my

name.
I

Mounted on
like a

a noble charger and

armed with
clan.

sword

roam

Kshatriya warrior of the

Moda

O

maiden

of

charming teeth and the graceful form of the swan, adorn
in

yourself

your choicest jewels,

wear around your neck

a

garland of pearls drawn from the head of an elephant,

and

be prepared

for the

wedding.
the

The
is

dialogue
to

ends
the

and

door
booth,

opens.

The bridegroom
is

conducted
the

wedding
he
has

and

made
with

to

stand

before

bride.
is

After

been

invested

the

sacred

thread, antarpat

held between them, and the pair are

wedded by

the Jain priest reciting benedictory mantras.

The Kankan-bandhan and
ties

Kanydddn ceremonies follow,
mangakutra
last
riti<al

after

which the bridegroom

the

(a string

of black beads) round the bride's neck.
after

This

forms the binding portion of the ceremony,

which

the marriage

becomes irrevocable.
are

The Newads
Padmavati
are

Jains

of

the

Digambar
of

sect,

Parasnath
to

and

their

favourite

objects

worship,

whom,

every Friday, they offer wheaten cakes and milk, which the devotees

subsequently consume.

A

girl,

on attaining puberty,

is

said to

be ceremonially impure

for sixteen days.
fication of the

On

the
is

16th day, the Garbhadan ceremony (purigirl is

womb)

performed, and the

allowed

to cohabit

with her husband.

All Jains have a firm belief
pacify
evil
spirits,

in

magic and charms,
in

and they
as

ghosts

and witches,

the

same way

other

Hindu

castes

do.
are burnt in a lying posture,

The dead
to the south.

with the head pointing
in

The

corpse

is

washed, dressed

dry clothes, and borne
(Ficus glomerata), the

to the cremation ground on a bier of galer

wood

bearers uttering the

word 'Arhan,'
pyre of

all

the way.

The dead body

is

placed on a funeral

cowdung cakes and

the chief mourner.

270
walking three times round
it,

Jain

sets

fire

to

the pile.

The

ashes are

collected on the third day after death and thrown into the nearest river
or lank.
for

No

Sradha
if

is

celebrated,

but the adult dead are mourned
if

10 days,

they are agnates, and for three days

cognates.

The Maratha Kunbis and
hands of the members of
this

the lower classes eat k.achi from the
;

caste

they may, therefore, be ranked

above the Kunbis, and below the Brahmans, but, being outside the
pale of Brahmanism, as stated above, their rank
in

the

Hindu
flesh,

social

system cannot be definitely stated.
garlic

They

abstain

from

wine,

and onions.

In matters of food they observe all the restrictions
in

imposed upon Jains

general.
traders and deal

•:

The Newads
and gold.
List

are generally rich

chiefly in silver

showing the Jain gotras

and
Totem.

totems.

No.

Gotra.

1

Jain
Gotra.

271

No.
26.

272
No.

Jain

XXXIX
JiNGAR
Jingar,

Karajkar,
Darji,

.

Lohar,

Chitrakar,
etc.

Chitari,

Dalsingar,
caste,

Fambatkar,
regarding

Nakash

Maistri,
is

a
at

widely

diffused

whose

origin very little
light
is

known

the present day.

Origin.^-No
the

thrown upon the origin of the Jingars by

synonyms

given

above,

which
taken

obviously

refer

to

different

occupations
fortune

which

they

have

up
of

as

the

vicissitudes

of

demanded.
to

The
the

members
or

the

caste

themselves
i.e.,

claim

be

Arya

Kshatriyas,

Somavanshi

Kshatriyas,

Kshatriyas

sprung

from

moon,
in

and give the following
:

legend

from the Brahmand Puran

support of their claim

"The

gods

and sages were once engaged

in

performing a

sacrifice in

Brihadaranya,

when Janumandal,
Brahmadev's

a giant,

the grandson of Vritrasur,

endowed with
with
the

blessing

and

made

invincible,

appeared

object of obstructing the sacrifice.
In Shiva's rage, a

The
fell

gods and sages from
his

fled to Shiva.

drop of

his

sweat

brow

into his

mouth,

assumed

human

form

and

was

called

Mauktik
defeated

or

Muktadev.

Muktadev fought with Janumandal

and

him.

The

gods

and sages, pleased with his powers, enthroned him as their king and
retired

to the

forests.

Muktadev married Prabhavati,
by

the

daughter

of the

sage Durvas,
of eight

whom

he had eight sons who married the

daughters

other

Rishis.

He

left

the

charge

of

his

kingdom to
penance.
the sage

his sons

and withdrew with

his

wife to the forest to do
slighted

In

the height of their power,

the sons one day

Lomaharshen,

who

cursed them, saying that they would lose

their royal

power and
in

their right to

perform

Vedic ceremonies, and

would wander
curse,

misery.

Muktadev,

on coming to know of the
his

implored Shiva to

have mercy on
its

sons.

Shiva could not

recall the sage's curse,

but, to lessen

severity,

added

that

Mukta-

dev's sons might perform the Vedic rights stealthily, that they \vould
18

274
be known from
eight
callings
:

JiNGAR

that

day forward
or

as

Aryakshtris and would follow

chitrakars

painters,

suoamakars

or

goldsmiths,

shilpkars
lohars

or

artists,

patakars or

weavers,
or

patoehars or silk workers,

or

blacksmiths,

mritikakafs

potters

and

dhatu-mriti\a\ars

or metal

and earth workers", ("PoOna Gazetteer.").
their

This theory of
the personal
light

Kshatriya origin derives some support from

appearance of the members of the caste.
feati/res,

They have

complexions and delicate regular
of the

while some of the

men and many
is

women
and
of
It
is

are remarkably

handsome.
the

This type
Dominions,
of
the

singularly
in

uniform
the
heart

persistent

throughout
or

whether

Telingana
a

on

the

outfkirts

Marathwada

districts.

plausible

conjecture that the Jingars

are an offshoot of the

Aryan
society

race,
is

and the degraded position they

now occupy
Internal

in

Hindu

due

to

their

having
all

adopted the
castes.
a

occupation of saddlers, which

is

condemned by
certainly

Hindu

Structure.

it

is

remarkable

that

caste

so widely diffused should
differences of
differs
in

have no endogamous divisions based upon

locality.

The

character

of
In

their

exogamous
districts,

divisions

different parts of the country.

some

the

cafete

recognises

8

gotras

:

Angira,

Bharadwaj, Goutama, Kanva, Kaunail

danya, Vasishta, Shandilya and Kausik,

of

which belong

to the
are

Brahmanical system.
neglected
type, the

In other districts these

Brahmanical golras
of

and marriages

are
of

regulated by
are
:

sections

the

Maratha

names

of

some

which

Nidhankar.
Borkar.

More.
Ingale.

Wankher.
Sumase.
Chavan.
Khangle.

Pimpale.
Darule.

Kapse.

Chormare.
Dorle.

Dhade.
Yendhe.
Dharpawar.
Kalbande.
In either case,
section
is

Durgkar.

Nagare.

marriage between persons belonging to the same

forbidden.

No

other

section

is

a

bar to marriage, pro-

.JlNGAR

"2>5
of his

jided

,lj;^at

a

man
his

does, not

marryany
aunt
or

fii-st

coiisins,

teitcepf 'the

.daughters

of

paternal

maternal

uncle.

A

man may
first

marry twp
,],Clot

sisters,

provided he marries the elder of the two

but

otherwise.

,.,[,

Marriage

—The
is

Jingars

marry

their

daughters

as

infants
g^rifl's

],b|€!tween

the ages of 5 and
if

12 and

social stigma

attaches to a

parents

she

not provided with a husband before she rfeacheS'the

age. of puberty.

Polygamy

is

recognised so

far,

that

if

a

man's

first

wife

is

barren he inay take a second.

)

The
a spot of
i!sents

marriage ceremony

is

of the standard type.
takes place
;

A

few days
mates

before tR^ weddirig, the

Mangani

the boy's father

red aniline

powder (/jan^um) on
sari

the girl's forehead and ptesaris

her with a
five

new

and Rs.

2,

and her mother with two
this

and

pieces of bodice cloth.
at

On
is

occasion a feast

is

given

by

the bride's father,

which

liquor

provided by the father of the
ratified,

'bridegroom.
celebration

The match
of

being thus

a

date
a

is

fixed

for'

the

the

marriage

by

consulting

Brahhnan,

exfiert

in the* science of astrology.
!

After the usual ceremony of Tel Haldi
at

has been

gone through, and a marriage booth has been erected'
at

the house of the bride as well as
are

that of the bridegroom, offerings
consist-

made

to family gods,

and the deoak (marriage guardian),

ing of five earthen pots and leaves of the
spicigera)
is

mango and saundad
the

{Prosbpis

ceremonially
is

deposited
at

tmdet

wedding

canopy.

'This ceremony

performed
'

the houses of the bride

and brideis

groom separately.
biiilt

On

the wedding morning,

an earthen platform

at the

house of the bride.
is

At

sunset, the marriage procession

formed

at the

house of 'the
the
bride.

bridegroom and makes noisy
There,

progress to the

house
the

of

under the wedding canopy {mandap),
to

bride
the

and bridebridegroom

groom are made

stand

opposite

each

other,

facing the east, and' after the holding of the ajttarpat between the bridal
pair

and the
ties

recital of appropriate

mantras (wedding
bracelets
of

texts) the

family
strings)

priest

kankanatn

(cotton

thread

with

woollen

on the wrist of each.

The ceremony
of'
fire):

Kan^adan follows and

the

bridegroom receives a present
in-!aw.

money and
is

clothes from his fdther-

Finally horn (the sacred

ignited and the bridegnoom

276
taking the bride in
his
priest

JiNGAR

arms,

walks

five

times round

the

fire,

after

which the family

invests

him with the sacred thread.

The

married couple then leave the

mandap and go

to

the part of the

house where the family deities have been placed.

They worship and
;

make

offerings

to

these and
is

bow

before the elders
to

this

concludes
essential

the marriage.

Antarpat

deemed

be the binding and

portion of the ceremony.

When
ceremony
bridegroom
five

a

girl

is

sent to her husband's house for the

first

time, a

known
is

as

Mursada

takes

place.

A

relative

of

the
sari,

sent to the bride's house with a present of a

new

pieces of bodice cloth (khana) and a quantity of uncooked articles

of food (shidori).

The

bride's father takes the

uncooked food, mixes

with the articles some of his
this

own and

has the mixture cooked.

With

food he entertains his relatives and other members

of the caste,

including the Panchayat, after
village,

which the

girl

leaves for her husband's

accompanied by
of

all

the guests present at the feast. the party
stops,

On
treated

the
to

boundary

the

girl's

village

and

is

liquor at the

expense of the bridegroom.
returns

Pan-supari
the
girl

is

therf distri-

buted

and the party

home,

bidding

farewell

and

leaving her to pursue the journey with her escort.

Among
of the

the Jingars, consummation does not take place until after

the girl has attained puberty

and the Garbhadan ceremony

(purification

womb)

has been performed.

Widow-Marriage
widows
the
to

and

Divorce

—The
in

Jingars

allow

their
as

marry again by the same form and

the same manner

Maratha Kunbis.
nor

A
is

widow
.she

is

not restricted in her choice of a
to

second husband,

required
relative.
if

marry
is

her

late

husband

s

younger brother or any other

Divorce
the wife

permitted, with the

sanction of the caste Panchayai,

is

adulterous or

if

the

couple do

not agree.

Religion
local

—The
whom

Jingars

are orthodox

Hindus and worship

the

Hindu

divinities

with offerings and sacrifices
is

common among

the

people.

Special

reverence

paid to the

god Mahadev

ana the
the

goddess Ingala,

they regard as their patron deities.

Among
local

gods

are

Khandoba,

Bahiroba,

Hanuman and

other

minor

deities.

On

the 8th day of the light half of

Aswin, the goddess

JiNGAR

277
caste, with offerings of
votaries.

BhavanL

is

worshipped by the members of the

ripe plantains, also sacrificed

which are afterwards eaten by the
on
this occasion.

Goats

are

Brahmans

are

employed

for religious

and ceremonial purposes and incur no disgrace on that account.
Ancestors
in

general

are

propitiated

in

the

latter

half

of

the

month of Bhadrapad (September) and also on the
light

third

day of the

half

of

Vaishakh (May).

Disposal of the Dead

—The

dead

are burnt in a lying posture,

with the head pointing to the south.
third

The

ashes are collected on the

day

after

death and thrown into a river or stream near by.
are

The
when

bodies qf children and of those that die of smallpox
buried,

generally

bradha

is

performed on the
(rice

1

0th

day
of

after

death,

they

offer

pmdas
is

balls)

for

the

benefit
all

the

departed soul.

Mourning

observed for ten days for

agnates.

Social Status

—The
to

social

status

of the caste does not admit

of precise definition.

Though

their

appearance, customs, and habits
the higher classes of
a

seem

to

entitle

them

a place
to

among

Hindu
are

society,
isolate'd

the latter refuse

give

them such
impure

position.

They

and

disliked,

and

considered

even

by the lowest
reason alleged
that working

castes,

who

will not eat food

cooked by a Jingar.
in social

The

for this degradation of the caste
in leather is

estimation

is,

condemned by
to

all

respectable people and the Jingars, as

saddlers,

have

touch leather.

The members

of the caste, however,

will eat cooked food only from the hands of Brahmans.
fish,

They

eat

fowl, and mutton and indulge

in

strong drink.

They wear the

sacred thread.

Occupation
saddlery
;

The
the

characteristic
for

occupation

of

the

caste

is

but

as

demand
and

saddles has
that

declined,

they have
are,
at

taken to other pursuits
the

crafts

pay

better.
tailors,

They
painters,

present

day,

goldsmiths,
in

carpenters,

wood-

carvers, farriers, carvers
are also

metal, and stone and silk workers.

They

engaged

in casting

metals, in making figures of clay and cloth,

and

in

repairing boxes,

padlocks and watches.
disputes are settled

The

Jingars have a
of

caste council

and

their social

by the meetings

the caste people.

XL
JOGl
Jogi,

Yogi

(Sanskrit)


is

a

class

of

religious

mendicants

whose
Tfie

principal object of worship
sect

Siva, under the form of Bhairava. a

was founded by Gorakhnath,

contemporary

of

Kabir,

who

flourished early in the fifteenth century

and

is

now

recognised as an

incarnation of the

god Mahadev.
are to

It

is

said to include tweliJe orders,
rings

of disciples,
of
different

who

be distinguished from one another by
in

materials,

which they wear

their

ears

as

religious
in

symbols.
these
(1)

Of

these twelve groups,

only two,
in this

as

being numerous

Dominions,
Jogis,

have been

treated

article.

They
(2)

are

:

Davre
are

who

belong to the Navanath Sect, and
jogis.

Ravals,

who

Adinath Siva

Both of these
the

sects

seem

to

have been
.at

originally recruited from

among
into

Maratha Kunbis and have,

the

present

day.

developed

independent castes.

XL-A
Davre
Davre
from
the
Jogi,

Jogi

Davre
a

Gosavi,

Bharadi

derive

their

name
on

dabara,

small

drum

shaped

like

an

hour

glass,
in

which they play when begging
of

or singing religious

hymns

honour
sort

Bhairava.

Their name

Bharadi'

comes from bharad,
to

a

oi

gondhal dance, which they are called upon

perform

at

the copi-

mencement
which the

of the marriage

ceremony of
is

their

Kunbi

disciples,

and

jp

'Trident'

of

Nath

worshipped,

under their
in

superinsaint.

tendence, by the house-holder and songs are sung

honour of the

The Davre
These

Jogis

admit

to

their

community

only

Maratha Kunbis

and members of tho^e
are

castes higher than themselves in social standing.

mostly children,
of a

dedicated by

their

parents

to

the
is

god
pet-

Bhairava

in fulfilment

vow.

The ceremony

of initiation

Joci

279
Bhairava,
at

formed generally
novice,

at

the temple
is

of

Sonari,

when

the
is

male

or female,

eight years of age.

A

pious Bharadi

called in and the neophyte,

squatting before him,
rings,

has his ear-lobes
inserted
in

bored with

a

knife

and mudras, or brass

them.

The

guru gives to the convert a shingi, or hornpipe, and a dabara,

pr small
collect

drum, and enjoins him not to eat with low-caste people, to
in

alms by singing hymns

honour of Bhairava, and

to

perform

the bharad the
is

dance only

in

the houses of their spiritual disciples.
in his

At

same time he whispers
him through

ear the mantra or sacred word,

which

to guide

life

and which must never be divulged to any

one.
Intertt^l

Structure
(1)
;

—The
members
is

Davre Jogi
or

caste has three endoga(2)

mous divisions:
and
(3) Sali

Davre proper

Bharadi,

Mend

Jogi

Mali

the

of these can neither intermarry nor

interdine.

Each

of these as

further divided into a

number

of exoga:

mous

sections which,

shown below,

are of the

Maratha type

(1)
(2)

Wagha.
Jadhava.
Shinde.

(7)

Devgune.
Kasar.

(8)
(9)

•(3)
(4)

Wable.
Rajle.

Chavan.

(10) (11)

(5)
(6)

Gaikwad.
Dharde.

Wamane.

As
own
his

a rule, a

man may

not marry a the

woman who
of
his

belongs to his
paternal
aunt,

section.

He may

marry

daughters

maternal uncle, and his

sister,

but he cannot marry the daughter

of his maternal aunt.

Two
is

sisters

may be married
first.

to the
is

same man,
in

provided that the elder
theory, but the extent to
of the

married

Polygamy

permitted,

which

this is practised

depends on the means

individual

concerned.
Jogis profess to marry their daughters as

Marriage.

—The Davre
marriage
is

infants; but adult

by no means unknown among the poorer
in

classes.

The

marriage ceremony

use

among them

differs

little

from that of the Maratha Kunbis, except that Haldi-lavane,
smearing of the bride and bridegroom,
is

or the

performed under a bower

made

of arandi leaves

{Ricinus

communis),

and the bridal pair are

280

JoGi each

made
is

to stand,

in a

basket of

iron,

at

the time

when

(he antarpat
in

held between them.

Widows may
The

marry again and are
second husband.

no

way
in

restricted in the selection of their
is

The

ritual

use

very simple.

bride and bridegroom are seated opposite

to

each other and, their foreheads being
in

made

to

touch,
at

their

garof

ments are tied
either party

a

knot.

Divorce

is

permitted

the

option

and divorced

women

are allowed to marry again by the

same

rite

as

widows.

Religion
also

Bhairava

is

the

tutelary

deity

of the caste. of
Jejuri,

They
of

worship Jotiba of Ratnagiri,

Khandoba
Brahmans
Their gums
of
their

Bhavani
for

Tuljapur and Renuka of Mahur.
gious

are

employed

reli-

and ceremonial purposes.
Jogis,

(spiritual »udvisers)

are
their

Kanphate
ears

so called because

custom of
in
all

slitting

and wearing a small cylindrical object
to holy places

the

incision.

They

make pilgrimages

and observe

the fasts and festivals

of the local Hindus.

Disposal of the Dead
sitting
is

—The

Davre Jogis bury

their

dead

in a

posture,

with the face turned towards the east.

The

corpse

taken to the burial ground in a zoli, or a bag of cloth, the funeral

procession

being

accompanied with music made by the beating
shingis, or horn pipes.

of

drums and the blowing of

Before burial, the

body

is

smeared with oihhuti (cowdung ashes), bel (/^gle Marmelos)
it,

leaves and flowers are offered to
It is

and water

is

poured

into

its

mouth.

then lowered into the grave and gdnja (Indian hemp), tobacco,

wine, or whatever object or food the dead person was fond of when
alive
is

placed by
into

its

side.

Led by
which
is

the chief mourner, the relatives

throw earth

the grave,

then filled

up.
to

After further
the departed

offerings of bel leaves and flowers have been made
soul,

the relatives

and friends forming the funeral procession march

three times round the grave and return to the house of the deceased

person.
their

On
the

their arrival, they
retire to their

chew nrm {Melia
homes.
offerings

indica) leaves,

wash

mouths and

On

third

day

after

death,
at

of

flowers,

bel leaves

and vibhuti are again made
bhundara,
formed,
is

the

grave and a feast,

known
is

as

given
is

to

caste

brethren.

No

regular

Sradha

per-

nor

mourning observed by the members of the

caste,


JoGJ
Social

281

Status

In

point

of

social

standing,

the

Davre

Jogis

rank immediately below the Maratha Kunbis.
eat
in

They

cannot, however,

kflchi

or

pakki with

men
eat

of

any

caste

lower

than

Marathas
indulge

social

position.

They

fish,

fowl

and

mutton

and

occasionally in strong drink.

Occupation

—The

Davre
to

Jogis

are

professional

mendicants,

wandering from village
bharad
at

village,

collecting

alms

and performing

the

marriages of their disciples

and also on other cerein

monial occasions.
cultivators

Their services are specially called
or
to

by the Maratha

during NaVratra,

the

first

nine nights of

Aswin (Sep-

tember),

which

are

sacred

the

goddess

Bhavani.

The
The

bharad
perform-

usually begins at sunset
ers
first

and

lasts

throughout the night.
in

sing pavadas, or ballads, to

honour

first

of

Bhavani and then

of

Bhairavanath,

the

mingled sounds of drums,
is,

cymbals and a

fiddle (tuntune).

The

audience

at

the

same

time, entertained with

humorous episodes regarding the Hindu gods and heroes.
rainy season sets in they return to their
in

When
taken

the

homes and spend the wet months few have
is

weaving \achas,

or

girdles.

A

recently

to

agriculture,

as their hereditary

calling

not found to be

sufficiently

paying.
of the

They form
12 alutedars,

part
or

of

the

village

community, being the 7th
entitled
to

village servants,

a

share

in

the

produce.

XL-B
Raval
Raval, Jogi Kanialanath
as
far

Raul,
of

Shiv

Jogi,

Raval

a
in

very
the

numerous
south
is

sect

Jogis,
in

extending

as the

Karnatic

and Gujarath

the north.

The etymology

of the

name 'Raval'

obscure,
their

and the meagre
origin.

traditions of

the Ravals throw no light
like

upon

The

Maratha

Ravals,

the

Davre

Jogis,
as

appear to have been mainly recruited from the Maratha Kunbis,

most of their exogamous

sections

are

purely
will

of

the

Maratha type.
this

Some

of the section names,

given below,

illustrate

point

Shinde.

Petkar.
(lac).

Lakhe

Bhopale (gourd).

282
Jirekar

JoGJ

(cummin

seeds).

Keskar.
Sukale.
Bhise.

Yadav.
Chaturbhuj.
Bhot.

Diwale.

Unode.
Chavan.

Narwade.
Jadhav.

Pawar.
Outsiders
that they

Kavade.
freely

are

admitted

into

the' community,

provided

are Kunbis,
in

Malis,
status.

Rajputs,

or

members
of

of castes higher
initiation

than
differs
is

these

social

The ceremony

slightly

from that of the Davre Jogis.
is

A

square of limesWne powder

traced on the ground and

surrounded by nine burning lamps made

of

wheaten
is

flour.

The

novice, with his
it

head shaved and
stool.

after having
is

bathed,

seated within

on a low wooden

His body

smeared
a

with ashes of burnt cowdung

and two necklaces,

one of

black

woollen

string

of

nine

threads
a

and another of rudraksha wcxkI

(Elaocarpus

Ganitrm),
his

containing

hundred and eight beads,
then
gives
a to

a^e a

hung

about
a
in

neck.
of

The
cloth

guru

the

oonvert

"Trident,

piece
his ear

(koupin)

and

zoli

(alms

bag)

and
not
ear-

whispers

the manlra or sacred word.
but,

Their ears are
mudras,
or

necessarily
rings

bored,

when

they

are

perforated,

made

of conch shell,

are inserted in them.

The Rawals
governed by

profess to haVe

one gotra, 'Shastra' only, which
marriages, which

is

of course inoperative in the regulation of their

are

the

exogamous

sections

mentioned
section
is

above.
forbidden.

Marriage

between persons belonging

to the

same

A

man

may marry
uncle,
is

the daughter of his

sister,

his paternal aunt or his maternal

but he cannot marry his maternal
is

aunt's

daughter.

Polgamy

permitted, but

Marriage
infants,

—The

rarely resorted to in practice.

Ravals profess to

marry

their

daughters

as

but cases of

girls

being married after puberty are not uncomif

mon, when the parents are poor, or
been a
difficulty in finding a

for

any other reason there has
is

husband.

Their marriage ceremony
girl is
is

of

the standard type.

At

the Mangani, or betrothal, the

presented
for

with clothes by the father of the bridegroom and liquor

provided

J6Gi
tHe parichds and other caste brethren present on the 'occasion,
firmation of the

283
in

con-

match

^

Their marriage guardian, or deoak,
rui

consists

of

leaves

of

the

mango,
trees.

(Calotropis

gigantea)

and

saundad
is

{Prosopis

spicigera)

On

the

wedding day, the boy
girl's

con-

ducted on a horse or a bullock to the

house where, on

arrival,

he

is

received

at

the door

by the

girl's

mother.
booth,

The

bridal

pair

stand facing each
curtain,
is

other under the wedding

the antarpat,
or

6t

held between, them and mangalashtak.,

sacred

texts,
is

are

repeated
to

by the Brahman
and

officiating

as

priest.

This

ritual

deemed

be the binding

essential

portion

of

the ceremon}^.
are tied in
;

After this cerimony, the garments of the
a knot

wedded couple

and they

bow down

before the family gods and elders
at

the caste
is

people and relatives are entertained
brought to an end.

a

feast

and the ceremony

Widow=Marriage and Divorce

—Widows
which
as

are allowed to marty
consists
in

again by the meagre form of Mohatar,

tying

the

garments of the bridal pair
into contact.

in

a knot and
a

in bringing their
priest.

foreheads

A

Brahman
at

officiates

The

caste council
at that of

claim Rs.
a
virgin.

I2'/2

the marriage of a
is

widow and Rs. lYz
the
sanction

Divorce
is

permitted with

of

the

caste

Panchayat and

symbolised by the breaking of a straw.
in

Divorced

women may marry again by the same form and
as

the same manner

widows.
Religion

In

matters of religion,

the

Ravals

differ

very

little

from the Davre Jogis.
Jotiba,

Their favourite deities are Bhairav, Khandoba,

Bhavani and Renuka.

They

observe

all

the fasts and festivals

of the local
is

Hindus and make pilgrimages

to holy places.
sect),

Reverence

paid to Gorakhnath, the founder of the
'Trident'

Machindranath, and

also to the

and Unga of Siva.

Like the Maratha Kunbis,
especially
of those

they worship images of departed ancestors,

who

have died childless or as
religious

bachelors.
occasions.

They employ

Brahmans on

and ceremonial

On
their

the eighth of the light half of

Aswin (October) they perfofm

chief religious
is

ceremony, known as Bija Horn.

On

that

day

a goat

sacrificed in

honour of Bhairav.
ithe

Its

blood
i

is

thrown on the

stoed

fire

kindled for

occasion and

its

flesh

is

cooked and offered

284
to

JoGi

Bhairav.
the

The cooked

flesh

is

afterwards eaten by- the members'
is

of

family.

This ceremony

performed

by the house-holder

himself.

Disposal of the Dead
a

—When

a

Raval

is

on the point

of death,

few drops of Ganges water and some cow's urine
mouth. After death the corpse
is

are poured into

his

washed, smeared with VihhuU
of an ochre colour posture,
it.

(ashes of burnt

cowdung) and covered with clothes
is

(bhagava).

The body

then

placed

in

a

sitting

with

its

legs crossed, and frankincense
this,
it

and camphor

are burnt before

After

is

carried to the burial ground in a zoli (bag of cloth) by four

men,

a fifth

one holding the top knot of the corpse agd a
shell.

sixth

man

heading the funeral procession and blowing a conch

The

grave

is

three sided and about four feet deep,
is

and

at

the

bottom an arched niche
arrival, the

cut for the reception of the corpse.
in

On
been
a

body

is

lowered into the grave and seated
After a

the niche with

the face pointing to the east.

sufficient quantity of salt has
is

thrown over the dead body, the grave

filled

in

with earth and

mound

is

raised over

it.

Finally,

a

Raval stands over the mound,

blows the conch

shell

and

recites

mystic

hymns

(mantras)

for

the

benefit of the depauted soul.

On

the utterance of the last syllable,
the

each member of the funeral party throws a handful of dust on

mound and they
head with

all

return

home.

The

mourners besmear

their fore-

vibhuti,
is

signifying that they are free from impurity.

No

regular Sradha

performed, but on the third day after death, and
is

on the eleventh, a garland of flowers
house so that
its

hung from the

roof of the

free

end may be

just

over a water pot and a dough

lamp fed with
the emblem.
brethren.

ghi.

A

goat

is

killed

and

its

flesh

is

offered before

The
of

funeral

rites

terminate with
in

a

feast to the caste

Souls

departed

ancestors,

general,

are

propitiated

on Nagapanchami or the 5th of the
and also
in

light half of

Shravana (August)

the dark half of

Bhadrapad (September).

Social

Status

and

Occupation

—The
drink.

Ravals rank
accept

socially
kflchi,

below the Maratha Kunbis,
or

from whose hands they

uncooked food.

Only

the

lowest unclean classes will eat food
of the caste eat
all

cooked by a Raval.
beef

The members
indulge
in

flesh,

except

and pork,

and

strong

Their

characteristic

JoGi
the collecting of alms in the

285

occupation
of

is

name

of Bhairava.

Many

them have now taken to cultivation and trading and a few have
the

adopted

profession

of

tailors.

They

also

weave coarse

cloth

and tape.

"''"'

XLI
JOHARI
Jouhari,
Javheri,

Rammayye, Manyafi
in

—a

very

small

caste of

pedlars, jewellers, and lapidaries, found

the Districts of Parbhani

and Aurangabad, and also

in

some

parts of Telingana.

Origin and Internal Structure

—They
from

say tbey came from
their original
affinities

Malwa, but

the date of their

immigration and
this

are lost in obscurity.

However

may

be, their physical features,
the

which
peculiar
of

markedly
formation

distinguish

them
exogamous

Marathas,
their

the

of

their

sections,

employment
their

Kanojya Brahmans

for religious

and ceremonial purposes and

marriage customs, give ample proof of their Northern Indian

origin,

and

it

may be

reasonably supposed that a

long residence amidst an
tribes.

alien people has entirely cut

them

off

from the parent

They

have no endogamous divisions, while only a few of their exogamous
sections can
(1) (2) (3)

be ascertained.

They

are

shown below.
(5)
(6)

Digwa.
Mahaisma.
Kapasha.

Bhatti.

Shishoja.

(7)

Gonda.

(4)

Sony a.

The
to

Shishoja,

Gonda and Rathod

sections are

common

to them and

the

Rajputs.

The
of

origin

of
is

the

remaining

sections

cannot be

traced.

The law

exogamy

practised

by the
the

caste.
first.

A

man
Girls

may marry two

sisters,

provided he
or

marries

elder

are married either as infants,

when they become
If

adults,
girl

between

the

ages

of

seven
is

and

twenty.

an

unmarried

becomes

pregnant, she
if

called upon to disclose the
is

name

of her lover and,
to

he belongs to her caste, he
her.

compelled by the caste Panchayat
outsider
incurs

marry
caste.

Adultery
is

with

an

expulsion
limit
is

from the
imposed

Polygamy

permitted

and no theoretical

upon the number of wives a man may have.

JOHARf
*

287
marriage
is

,,,

Marriage.:

—The
who

initiative

towards

taken

by the

father of the boy,

selects a suitable girl for his son

and makes
After the

the

first

proposal

towards the settlement of the match.

hor95copes of the couple have been found to agree, and the wedding

day has been
Ijjs

fixed, a feast (bhandara)

is

given by the boy's father to
Prior to

relatives

and friends

in.

confirmation of the betrothal.

the,

wedding, Guru Nanaka, Balaji, Khandoba and Tuljapur Bhavani
honoured with a "variety of
parties,
in

are

offerings.

On

the

day before the
smeared with
been
taken
in

wedding, both
turnieric

their

respective houses,

are

paste

and

oil.

After the

bridegroom

has

procession •^e the bride's house,
facing the east,

the couple are seated side by side,
stools,

on two wooden

the bride being to the right

pf ,the bridegroom.
ini

Ganesh, the deity which presides over success
in

life,

is

worshipped and the garments of the couple are fastened
officiating
priest,

a knot

by the
fire,

who

is

a

Kanojya Brahman.
it,

The

sacred

or

horn,

is

prepared

and,

before

is

performed the
of

Kpn^adan ceremony, which

consists

of the formal
his

gift

the

bride

by her iather to the bridegroom and

formal

acceptance of her.

The

family

priest

-

^gitss

auspicious

mantras

and

at

the

end

of each manfra

sprinkles rice on

the heads of the couple.
six times

Thereround

upon the bride, followed by the bridegroom, walks
the sacrificial
fire,

keeping
they
the

it

on

their right.

After the couple have
the
thd

resumed
family
seventh
bulate

their

seats,

solicit

the permission of their parents, the

priest

and
and,
the

members of

Pancha^at,

to

make

round
the
fire

on permission being obtained,
seventh
time,
the

they

circumamoccasion

bridegroom

on

this

leading the way.

This

last

round, which forms the essential portion
sit
is

of the ceremony, entitles the bride to

on the

left

of her husband.

Widow=Marriage
she

—A widow
late
is

allowed to marry again, but
or
in

may

not

marry

her

husband's younger

elder

brother.

In other respects,

no

restriction

imposed upon her
carefully

her choice of
the the

a

second

husband,

provided
night,

she
the

observes

law of
bride's

exogamy.
hpuse
;

On
by the

a

dark

bridegroom

goes to

both are seated side by side and their garments are knotted
officiating

together

Brahman

;

this

concludes
in

the

ceremony.
at

The whole

of the next daj^ the couple pass

cpnc^almepf, and

288
evening they
return
friends
to
visit

JOHARI
the village

Hanuman's temple,

after

which they
and

the

bridegroom's

house.

A

feast

to

the

relatives

ends the proceedings.
unless

A
is

bachelor
previously

cannot

marry a widow
rui

or a

divorced wife,

he

married to a

plant

{Calotropis gigantea).

Divorce
ground
of the

Divorce
wife's
again,

is

granted by the caste Panchayat,
or

on the
divorced

unchastity

barrenness.
is

If

the

woman
her
a
all

marries

her

first

husband

entitled
as

to

recover from

the

money he spent on her marriage
a

a virgin.

Sons by
all

widow,
in

or

divorced wife,

and those by a virgin wife

share

equally

their father's property.

Religion

In point of religion, the Joharis profess to belong to

the Nanakashahi sect,

and pay reverence to Guru Nanaka, the great
In

founder of the Sikh religion.
pilgrimages to Nander,

honour of

their
in

guru they make
the Sikh religion.
Jejuri

and other places sacred

They
and

also pay devotion to Balaji of

Devalagaon, Khandoba of
minor
gods
they

Bhavani

of

Tuljapur.

The

appease
'

are

Mahalaxmi, Sitaladevi, Hanuman, and other
Disposal of the
dead,

local

deities.

Dead
The

—The

Joharis generally burn their adult
if

but occasionally bury them

they

are too
is

poor to bear the

cremation expenses.

corpse of a male

covered with a cloth

and taken to the place of cremation.
is

A
is

dead woman, whose husband
in

alive,

is

rubbed with

oil,

bathed

and dressed
clothed
in

a

green

sari.

In the case of a

widow

the

body

red.

The

ashes are

collected on the third
or
is

day

after

death and thrown into the Ganges,
to

any

stream

that

may happen

be

close

by.

Mourning

observed ten days for adult agnates, and three days for children.
the 12th day after death,

On
first

Sradha
is

is

performed and the caste people
every

entertained.

The ceremony

repeated

month

during

the

year, but subsequently only once a year.
in

Offerings to deceased

ancestors,

general,

are
in

made on

the third day of the light half of

Vaishakha (May) and
Social

the dark half of

Status

and

Occupation

Bhadrapad (September).
Socially,

the

caste

ranks

higher than the

Maratha Kunbis, and
drink
spirits

will

take cooked food from

Brahmans.
fowls,

They

and fermented liquors

and eat

fish,

goats and deer.

Men

wear the sacred thread.

Women

are

JOHARl
dressed

289

like,

the local Kunbi females, but are prohibited, by a tribal

custom, from wearing toe-rings.

The

original

occupation of the caste
but,

is

believed to have been

trading in chinaware,

since the decline of the trade, they li*ve

been dealing
glass

in

jewellery, selling pearls, corals and other jems and

beads of a variety of colours.
holding land on small

A

few have,

of late,

taken to
as

agriculture,

tenures.

Some

are

engaged

confectioners and personal servants.

The

Joharis have a Cciste Panchayat

which

settles social

disputes

and decides questions of caste usage.

:

XLll
JOSHI
Joshi

a

class

of

professional

astrologers

and

fortune-tellers,

originally recruited from the Marathas. but

now

consolidated into an

independent caste.
their

They

lead a

life

of periodical wandering, leaving
returning
vjsit

homes

in

the
sets

beginning
in.

of
their

November and

before
not only

the rainy season

In

peregrinations they

places
'

in
'

Maharashtra, but penetrate far into Telingana.
is

The name
'

Joshi

said to

be derived from the Sanskrit word

"

Jyotishi

an

astrologer.

Internal

Structure—The

Joshis

embrace

three

classes

Sahadeva, Amrapurkar and Sarvade,
dine.
(1)

who
known

neither intermarry nor interas

The Sahadeva

Joshis, also

Huseni Brahmans, claim
the

descent

from the famous astrologer Sahadeva,

grandson of the
his

great poet Kalidas,

and the son of Devidas and

wife Bhadali.
telling

They

earn a livelihood by deciphering panchangs (almanacs),

fortunes

by palmistry and
after the

casting nativities.

Wearing

a long robe and

a turban,

fashion of the

Maratha Brahmans, they go from
villagers
folk,

village to village

and from house to house, explaining to the

their future destinies.

They

are

much
peep

respected by the simple
into futurity.

who
are

are ever anxious to have a

Ordinarily, they
Socially,
Joshis
site

dressed

like

Brahmans and wear the sacred thread.
(2)

they rank higher than the other sub-castes.
take their
of

The Amrapurkar

name from
is

the ancient village of
at the

Amrapur, the

precise

which

unknown

present day.

They

collect alms in the

name

of the goddess Bhavani of Tuljapur.

When

on

their rounds,

they wear a long oily

gown

of

patches,

reaching to the ankles, a

wreath of cowrie shells around their neck,

and a turban
their

after

the

Maratha

fashion,

and carry a bag slung on

shoulders.

They

sing songs in honour of their patron deity, to the music of the tttntm,

a one-stringed fiddle.

The

house-holders

first

pour

oil

on

their bodies

JosHi
and then gfve them alms.
of In

291

Telingana they are known by the name
Joshis are mostly found in the

'Teli Rajas.'

(3)

The Sarvade

Maratha
of

Districts of

Aurangabad, Bir and Parbhani.
is

The

etymology

the

word 'Sarvade'

uncertain.

They

are

fortune-tellers

and

astrologers.

They wear

a long coat and a

Maratha turban, and beg

by beating
in

a hudki, a sort of

drum.

Their prophecies are not believed

and they are driven away from door to door.

The

caste

is

broke^i

up

into

exogamous

sections of the
:

Maratha

type of surnames.
(1)

A

few

of

them are noticed below
(10) (11) (12) (13)

Sonune.

More.
Jadhava.
Shinde.

(2)t^Gajkesar.
(3)

Panchange.
Bhise.

(4)
(5) (6) (7) (8)

Ghadage.
Mitrak.
Samsari.

Bhagawat.

(14)
(15) (16) (17) (18)

Lambkane.
Vaidya.
Pote.

Mahajan.
Sasane.

(?)

Renukadas.
is

Ghogre.

Exogamy
rules as are in

regularly practised

and

is

supplemented by the same
Girls are married
Girls
are

vogue among the Maratha Kunbis.
after they

either before or

have attained the age of puberty.
in

that are offered

to the

goddess Bhavani,
girls

fulfilment

of

vows,
to

called Aradhinis.
a religious
life

Such

are enjoined not to

marry but

lead

begging

in

the

name
the

of

Ambabai and

subsisting
set

on
out,

alms.
for

The Aradhinis

dress like

Maratha women, and

begging,
hands.

with cowrie wreaths round their necks and torches

m

their

Marriage

The

marriage

ceremony
castes.

is

a

copy

of

the

ritual

followed by the other Maratha
guardian deity,
leaves
is

Deva
a

devak, or the marriage

represented
;

by an
and

axe,
it

bundle containing mango

and a wheaten cake

is

installed

on the muhurta-

medha, or milk-pillar.

The

essential portions of the ceremony are (1)

Kanydddn,

or the formal gift

and acceptance of the bride, and the
fire.

seven rounds taken about the sacrificial

A

girl

taken

in

adultery

with a casteman

is

degraded and the couple are looked down upon

292
as akarmasi,

JosHi
or bastards.
Intrigue with

an outsider
is

is

punished by

instant expulsion

from the caste.

A

widow

allowed to

many

again

and divorce
issue an

is

permitted on the ground of adultery.
inherits

Failing any male

Aradhini

Religion
Saturn),

her father's property.

All Joshis pay devotion to the god Shani (the planet
reverence.
is

whom

they regard with special

A

horse shoe,

obtained from the foot of a black horse,
deity and
is

set

up

to represent the
offerings of
falling on

worshipped daily by males and females with

black flowers.
Saturday),

On

Shani

Amdwds^d
(the
full

(the 30th lunar

day

Shani

Poumima
the

moon day

falling
is

on Saturday)
oil.

and Shani Pradosha,
bathed with

image of the god
and worshipped by

smeaj^d with

warm

water,

all

the house-holders

with offerings of flowers.
spiritual

The

Kanfati Jogis act as their gurus or

advisers and whisper in their ears the guru mantra, or mystic

formula, which the devotees are enjoined to repeat several times daily.

Departed ancestors receive attention from the members of the
Silver

caste.

images

are

made

in

their

names and worshipped by house-

holders on every full

moon and new moon day.
in

Muhamipadan
set

pirs

and

saints are

revered

the form of black images

up among

the

house gods.

The Amrapurkar
whose temple
at

Joshis
in

are

devotees of the goddess Bhavani.

Tuljapur,

the

Usmanabad

District, they visit every

year on the Dassera festival (Aswin 10th, or middle of October).
this

On
are

occasion they offer to the goddess their dress, the string of cowries

they

wear,

and

the

torch

they

carry.

Deshastha

Brahmans

engaged

for religious

and ceremonial observances.

Disposal of the Dead
posture,

—The

Joshis bury their

dead

in a sitting
is

with the face turned towards the east.

A

Kanfati Jogi

said to officiate at their funerals and to whisper a mantra into the ear

of the corpse before

it

is

lowered into the grave.

The

chief mourner
of

walks three times round the grave and lowers an earthen vessel
water into
sequently
it,

after

which the grave
upon the place.

is

filled

in.
1

A

platform
after

is

sub-

erected

On

the

0th day

death,
to the

Sradha

is

performed and pindas, or balls of ricfj^are offered

deceased person.

Deshastha Brahmans are .^.igaged as

priests

and

conduct their maniage services.

JosHi

293
stated,

Occupation

—As

has
is

been

already

the

characteristic

occupation of the Joshis

begging.

Many

of them have

now

settled

down

to other

pursuits

and beg only on Saturdays, from house to

house, and accept oil in the

name

of Shani and other grahds (planets).

They
pious

accept charity in the form of clothes and grain bestowed by

Hindus on

eclipse days.

They

are also

engaged

in

preparing

horoscopes.

Social Status
will accept

—The
all
is

social standing of the caste

is

low and they

food from
it

Maratha

castes,

except the barber and the
will eat

washerman, and
their hands.'*

said that only

Mahars and Mangs

from

.They

eat the flesh of goats, sheep

and fowls and drink

liquor,

but not the leavings of other castes.

XLIl-A
JosHi

Vasudeva
met with

Vasudeva
at
fairs.
^

a wandering caste of beggars, occasionally
in

Rising early

the morning,

they wash

their

hands and
after the

feet

and put on a long robe reaching to the ankles and a turban

Maratha fashion.
peacock feathers
neck.
is

Over

this

turban a cone-shaped hollow coronet of
of cloth
is

worn and a piece

passed round the

They

then wrap a piece of red cloth round the waist and
or
chipalas,
in

hold cymbals,
singing

their

hands,

which they

strike

when

and dancing.
and,

When
after

they see any one they begin singing

and dancing
pipe
in

obtaining

alms

from him,

they

blow

a

the

name

of

the

god and the donor

and

depart.

They

trace their descent

from Vasudeva, but they appear to be originally
of the

Marathas.

The names

men and women
is

are like those of the

Maratha Kunbis and

their

language

a

conupt form of Marathi. Both
girl

Their surnames are Bhande, Solanke, Sinde, &c.
adult

infant

and

marriages

are

practised
is

by

the

caste.

A

becoming
ceremony
is

pregnant

before

marriage,

outcasted.

The

marriage

closely resembles that of the

Maratha Kunbis.
all

Shri Krishna

the

god specially worshipped by the caste, but
are also revered.
their coronet of

the other

Hindu gods

Before starting for purposes of begging, they worship

peacock feathers.

The dead

are buried in a sitting


294
JosHi
Mourning
is

posture, with the face pointing towards the east.
ten days for adults.
after

observed
1

Funeral obsequies are performed on the
ancestors

3th day

death.

Deceased

receive

homage
eat

in

the

form

of
all

embossed
kinds of

plates.

In matters of diet they
spirits.

mutton,

fowl and

fish

and drink

They

eat

from the hands of Brahmans.
they rank with the Joshis.

Marathas, Vanis and Jangams.
with

Socially,

whom

they are said to interdine
are a caste of

and intermarry. wandering minstrels,

The Dandigans
in

who

travel

parties

and make their living by reciting, to music, the deeds of the
princes.

Pandava
of

Each

party consists of a choir of three men, one

whom

plays on the mridang, an elongated drum, and'*the other on
or
four-stringed
guitar,

a

tamburi,

while

the

precentor

sings

and

dances, relating mythological stories

to the music of a dandi

(a sort of

one-stringed musical instrument), which he holds in one hand, and of

cymbals, which he carries
origin

in

the other.

The Dandigans
were degraded

derive their
for

from

two Maratha youths,
their

who

having

committed a murder, and take

name from

the musical instrument

dandi, the badge of their calling.
profession, the

In every respect,

except

in

their

Dandigans are

identical

with the Vasudevas and need

no separate description.

XLII-B
JOSHl

WaGHES & MURLIS
vows
for children,

Childless Marathas, under

dedicate their

first-

bom, whether
whose
Bidar.
chief

a

boy

or a girl, to

Khandoba,

an incarnation of Shiva,

shrines

are

at

Jejuri,

Malegaon
are

and

Khanapur

near

The

boys, on being dedicated,

invested with a bag ot
'a
in

deer-hide and styled
lead the
ing
life

Waghes, from wag, meaning

tiger'.

They
sing-

of

wandering minstrels, moving about
in

bands and

songs

and ballads

praise

of

Khandoba.

Occasionally,

they

attend on Murlis.
vation,

Those who have no
some other
girls,

liking for music take to culti-

or follow

calling.

The

dedicated

when seven
name
of Muilis

years
(lit.

old,
flutes).

are

married

to

Khandoba and

receive the

On

Somavati,

JosHi
or the full

295
in

moon
girl

falling
is

on a

Monday

Magh

(February) or Chaita

(March), the

taken to the god's temple and
is

made

to

stand

before the idol.

She
her

dressed in green and has her body smeared

with

turmeric,

forehead

with

kunkum

(red

aniline)

and

her head adorned with garlands of flowers.
her

A

cloth

is

held between

and the

idol,

lucky verses are chanted by
is

the temple gurava

(priest)

and turmeric powder (bhandara)
is

sprinkled over their heads.
girl's

A

necklace of nine cowries

tied

round the
priest

neck and she

is

greeted as
fee.

Khandoba's wife.

The

receives
live

Rs.

1-4-0 as his
life,

Although enjoined, by the
tfefitly

rules,

to

a

celibate

the

Murlis are

allowed to associate themselves

as prostitutes

with
stay

members of
at

their

own

or

of

higher

castes.

Some Some

of

them

Jejurl,

but others,

attended by

Waghes, wander about making
of

a

livelihood
skilful

by begging alms and singing songs.
and are often seen dancing
to

them
at

are

musicians

music

jind,

the

same time, picking up with
the

their foreheads cowrie shells scattered

on

ground.
or,

The

Murlis

are

prohibited
social

from

wearing
are

toe-rings,

anklets

the

nose-ring.

Their

disputes

settled

by the

gurava

at Jejuri.

Waghes
the
are,

are

allowed to marry the
of

girls

of the caste into

which

illegitimate

children

Murlis have formed themselves.

They

however, prohibited, on pain of social degradation, from cohabitwith
Murlis.
the

ing

The

marriage ceremony

corresponds

to

that

in

use

among

Maratha Kunbis.
they follow their
inherit

In matters of inheritance,

own
of

customs.
their

The

sons

of

Waghes and

Murlis

the

property

parents.

Failing sons, the daughters take the property.

Waghes and
officiates

Murlis are buried
funeral

in

a sitting posture.

A
is

Jangam
on
the

at

their

ceremonies

and

receives

presents
feast

third

day

after death.

On

the same day, a funeral

provided

for the

members of the

sect.

Socially, they rank

below the Maratha Kunbis, from whose hands

they eat cooked food.

They

eat

the flesh

of

sheep,

goats,

deer,

hare and
but

all

kinds of

fish

and drink spirituous and fermented

liquors,

do not

eat the leavings of any caste.

Waghes and

Murlis pay their devotion exclusively to Khandoba,

296

JosHi
they worship, with great

whom
this

pomp and

circumstance, on the Sai

holiday, the 6th of the bright half of Margashirsha (December).
occasion,

On

the Murlis are said to be possessed

by the god and

endowed with prophetic power.

The Maratha

Murlis are identical

with the Joginis of the Carnatic and the Basavis of the Telaga people.

XLIII

Kachhi
Kachhi

a gardening and cultivating caste,
,

found chiefly
in

in

the

Aurangabad and Hyderabad
country,
stale

cities.

The

Kachhis,

the Maratha
soldiers

that they
in

came
of

as

infantry

and cavalry
earlier
in the

from

Bundelkha^d
there

the times

Alamgir and
in

kings.

In

1869
city.

were

rfearly

100 houses

Begampura
following

Aurangabad
sub-castes of

Internal

Structure

—The

two

the

Kachhis are found

in these

Dominions

—Marwari

and Bundela

the

names have reference to the countries from
came.

which they

originally

Members

of these sub-castes neither interdine nor intermarry.

The exogamous
as

sections of the caste are mostly of the territorial type,
;

shown below

Bundele
Katkariya

Gwaliari

Malkapure
PiltJiwale

Mabwale
Hadiyewale

Gulal

Nabab

Elchya

the last three being of uncertain origin.

The Kachhis

forbid a

man

to

marry a

woman who
is

belongs to the same section as himself.

No
but

other section

a bar to marriage, provided that

he does not marry the
sisters,

daughter of his maternal aunt.
in this
first.

A

man may marry two
younger
as
is

case he must
In theory,
:

observe the rule that the
as

not married
afford

a

man may marry

many wives

he can

to maintain
limits

practically,

however, the standard of

living of the caste

him to two.

Marriage

The

Kachhis

marry

their

daughters

as

infants,
is

between the ages of five and eleven.
simplified form of that in use

The

marriage ceremony

a

among

the Rajputs and

other castes of

298

Kachhi
India
;

Upper
the

Bhovari, or the bridal pair walking seven times round
(auspicious
post),

muhmlmedh

forms the binding

and
in

essential

portion of the ceremony.

It is

completed by Sindurdan,

which

the

bridegroom smears vermilion
marriage takes place
to officiate as priests.
at

in

the parting of the bride's hair.

The
in

night

and Kanojia Brahmans are called

A

widow may marry

again by the ceremony
is

known
a

as

Dharona, of which the binding portion

the presentation of

new

sari

and bodice cloth to the bride and the putting of bracelets
but she
If
is

on her

wrist,

not permitted

to

marry her

late

husband's

younger brother.
share
in

a

widow

re-marries, she forfeits all claims to a

her

late

husband's

property

and

to

the
is

custody

of

any

children she

may have had by

him.

Divorce

not recognised by

the caste.

Religion
local
Sitala,

In matters of religion, the
social

Kachhis
Their

differ

little

from
is

castes

of

the same

standing.

favourite deity
is

the goddess

presiding over smallpox,

who

worshipped
is

at

weddings and on occasions of sickness.

The

goddess

represented
offerings of
is

by a stone from the
goats,

river,

smeared with vermilion, and
it.

flowers

and betel leaves are made to
to Balaji,

Reverence

paid
other
all

by the members of the caste
local

Hanuman, Bhavani and

gods and goddes.ses.

Kanojia Brahmans are employed on

ceremonial and religious occasions.

Disposal of the
lying posture, with the

Dead

—The

Kachhis burn

their

dead

in

a

head pointing towards the south.
after

The

ashes
into

and bones are collected on the third day
the nearest
river,

death and thrown
is

stream or tank.

Mourning

observed

for

three
is

days and, on the 4th day, the chief mourner shaves, bathes and
free

from

impurity.

Persons dying unmarried,

or

of

smallpox,

are

buried.

Social Status
precisely.

—The

social status of the caste cannot

be defined
l^a'^hi

The members

of the caste say

that

they eat

only taken
eat

from the hands of Kanojia Brahmans,
only from Banias and Marwaris.

while sweatmeats

are

The Maratha Kunbis do
of the caste eat

not
fish

food cooked by a Kachhi.

The members

and

the flesh of goats, sheep, deer, hare and
that of the domestic fowl

some

birds, but abstain from

and from pork.

Some

say that they

do

eat

Kachhi
domestic fowls.
scruples.

299
have no

As

regards the use of strong drink they

Occupation

—The

Kachhis

are

excellent
in

cultivators.

They

are noted for their skill
special

and industry

growing tobacco and other
cultivation

products
In

requiring

more

careful

than

the
as

staple

crops.

the neighbourhood of

large

towns they work

market

gardeners,
fruit.

growing and selling
of

all

kinds of vegetables,

flowers

and

Some

them are employed

as soldiers in the native army.

XLIV
Kahar
Kahar,
vating caste,
bearers. father
It is

Kahar Bhoi, Mahigir
some
of

a

very
are

small

fishing

and

culti-

whose members

engaged

as

palanquin

represented as a mixed caste descended from a Brahman

and a Nishad mother.

The Kahars

are

supposed to have
during*
'the

come

into these Dominions from Upper India,

time of

Aurangzeb.

They
its

are mostly found in villages situated on the river

Godavari, along

course through the

Marathwada

Districts.

Very

little is

known

regarding the internal structure of the caste.
sections

The Kahars have no exogamous
descended
as
in

and marriage with any person
is

a direct line

from the same parents

prohibited, as long

any relationship can be traced.

Marriage

—The
A

Kahars marry

their

daughters as infants or

as

adults, according to their

means, the former practice being deemed the
take a second wife,
if

more respectable.
or

man may

the

first is

barren
to

incurably diseased.

The

marriage ceremony closely conforms

that

common among
or

the Rajput and other castes of Northern India.
circuits
is

Bhovri,

the

seven

taken
to

by the bride and

bridegroom
essential
officiate

round the sacred post,

deemed

be

the binding and

portion of the ceremony.
at

Kanojia Brahmans are engaged to
are

their

marriages.
restrictions

Widows
in

allowed to marry

again

and

are

under no
is

their

choice of a second husband.

Divorce

recognised, and divorced wives

may marry
of

again by the same form

as

widows.

If

a

woman
is

is

convicted

an

intrigue

with

a

man

of a lower caste she

at

Religion
special

—The
is

once excommunicated.

religion of the

Kahars presents no
is

feature* of

interest.

Their favourite deity
placed
in

Sapta Shringi, of Nasik,

whose image

the god's room

and worshipped on the
offerings of

Dassera or the 10th of the waxing moon of Aswin, with
flowers, fruit

and boiled mutton.

They

also revere

Amba

of Tuljapur

Kahar
and other Jocal Hindu gods.
religious

301

Kanojia Brahmans are employed

for

and ceremonial observances.

Child=birth.

—When
river.

a

child

is

born,
is

the umbilical cord

is

cut

and thrown into a on
the sixth day,

The

mother

unclean for

five
in

days and,

the goddess Satwai

is

worshipped,

the form of

stones

bedaubed with vermilion.

Offerings of limes,

fruit,

boiled rice
are feasted

and curds are
in

made

to the goddess,

and

five

married

girls

her

name.

Two

charcoal

figures

are

painted

on the wall

and

adored with offerings of flowers and sandal paste.
day, the mother bathes and, taking the child
village
in

On
of

the twelfth

her arms, crosses the
stone

boupdary.

She

picks
a

up

a

few pebbles

from the

ground,

pla^s them under
turmeric
paste

tree,

and worships them by daubing
flowers,

them

with

and

offering

boiled

rice

and
she

molasses.
returns

After the goddess Satwai has been thus appeased,
is

home and

free to

resume her household work.

Disposal

of the

Dead

—The

dead

are

burned

in

a

lying

postuie, with the head pointing towards the south.

Bodies of persons

who
bones

are not man-ied are buried.
are'

On

the third day, the ashes and

collected and thrown into a river.

Kahars perform Sradha
either

for the benefit of departed ancestors in general,
(in

on the Diwali

October) or the Shivaratri festival
Social

(in

February).
of
the
caste
is

Status

The

social

status

superior

to

that of the

Bhois and inferior to that
^ac/ir, or

of the Maratha Kunbis, from whose

hands they eat

uncooked food.
eat

A

few of the Kahars
only
ftrom

in

the

Hyderabad City

say that they

kflchi

the hands of

Kanojia Brahmans and pakki (cooked) from the Bania castes, while
they accept water from the hands of the Maratha Bhois.
of diet they eat fish,
quail,

In respect

mutton, venison and the flesh of hare, pigeons and

but abstain from fowl and pork.

They

drink spirituous

and

fermented liquors.

The Kahars have

a

strong

and well organised Pancha^at, on
is

which every head of a family

bound

to

serve

when summoned.

nominal punishSmall breaches of social rule are condoned by the and areca nuts, and graver ment of giving pan-supari, or betel leaves decisions of the caste council are enforced
faults,

by

a caste feast.

under pain of expulsion.

The The

council

is

presided over by a headman.

302
whose
office
is

Kahar
hereditary and

who

is

shown

special

honour

at

all

marriages and caste feasts.

Occupation.
caste
in
;

—Palanquin
members

bearing
is

is

the chief occupation of the

but as palanquin travelling
the
of

no longer the prevailing custom
caste

the country,
fishing.

the

have taken

to

cultivation

and

Some have

enlisted in the army.

XLV
Kalal
Kalal
the

a liquor-selling

and

distilling caste,

found

in

all

parts of

Dominions.

The
and

Kalals say that they were originally Vaishyas

and were degraded on account of their having adopted the profession
of liquor-sellers
castes
:

distillers.

The

caste

is

divided into two sub-

Lad Kalal and Pardeshi
K'aidl.

Kalal.
are chiefly found in the Gulbargah the southern
ancient times.
part

Lad
district.

—The Lad Kalals

They probably came from
in

of

Gujarath,
three

which bore the name of Lat (Lad)
sub-divisions
:

They have
the

—Surya Lad, Chhatri Lad and Kodi Lad,
men and women,
as

members
are so

of

which neither interdine nor intermarry.

The Surya Lads
they allege,
or the sun.

called because their
until

do not dme

they have

flsst

offered puja to Surya,

The

Chhatri
caste, a
is

Lads

are 'probably a

degraded offshoot of the Chhatri (Khatri)

while the origin of the
variant

name Kodi Lad

is

uncertain.

It

may be

of 'kodu', a kind of millet (Paspalum scrohtcuhtum), which

said to
section

have the property of intoxicating when made

into bread.

The

names of the
:

Lad

Kalals are of a peculiar type, as noticed

below

Tonpe. Sabane
Kol.
(soap).

Katwate.

Ganagane.

Hagal Diwate.
(rock).

Khadke
Vanjare.

Sadanande
Pinjare.

(very merry).

Kamade.
Tapase.
Palangatode.
Jamalpure.

Sandve.

Dingre
Paske.

(hill).

Ganagane.
between
sisters

Marriage
forbidden.

persons

belonging to

the

same

section

is

Two

may be

married to the same man, provided


304
the
the

Kalal
younger
first
is is

is

married

first.

A

second

wife

may b^

taken

if

barren, or suffers from an incurable disease.

Infant mar-

riage

practised
is

by the

caste.

A

girl

attaining

puberty
to

before

marriage
trees.

excommunicated.
marriage ceremony

Girls
is

are

not

offered

temples or

The
in

of the orthodox type and resembles

that

use

among

the other castes of the
is

Karnatic.

A

widow

is

allowed to

marry again and

under no restriction as regards her choice
is

of a second husband.

Divorce
rite

recognised and divorced wives

may

marry again by the same

as

widows.
every

The

Kalals are orthodox

Hindus,

worshipping

Mahadeo
is

Monday.

The

goddess
of

Bhavani of Tuljapur
flowers,
in

worshipped every Friday, with

offerings

betel

leaves

and sweatmeats.
or buried
in

The dead
posture,

are

'ji'ther

burned

a

lying posture,

a

sitting

according to the

means of the family of the deceased.
are collected on the third day
or

In the case of cremation, the ashes

after

death and thrown into a
religious
is

river

stream.

Brahmans are employed on

and ceremonial
to that of the

occasions.

The

social

status of

the caste

inferior

Maratha

Kunbis and superior to that of the Bhoi,
of the caste eat fowl and fish

Nhavi and Dhobi.
flesh of "deer, hare

The members

and the

and sheep, and drink spirituous and fermented liquors.
selling liquor
is

Distilling and

the original occupation of the caste, but

many

of

its

members make

their living

by shop-keeping and money-lending.
in

Some
while

have taken to agriculture,
a

the capacity of occupancy

raiats,

few are landless day-labourers.
Pardeshi Kaldl.

—The

Pardeshi

Kalals
is

are

supposed to have
the date

come from Northern
of their

India, although little

known regarding
:

immigration.
Sinhor.

They have

six

sub-castes

Chansakha.
Letarayya.
Jaiswar.
is

Purbhayya.
Gurer.

among whom
of these
is

there

neither

interdining

nor

intermarriage.

Each

further broken

up

into a

number
Tatari,

of sections, such as. Modi,

Pirwatiya,

Ghodchadha, Chaitaha

and so on.

In

point of

marriage, the Pardeshi Kalals exclude the section of both father and

mother

or,

in

other words, forbid a

man

to marry a

woman who

be-

Kalal
longs to the

305
his mother.
six

same

section as

he himself or

This system

is

supplemented by prohibited degrees, calculated to
the male side.
their

generations on
so,

All Pardeshi Kalais

who

can afford to do

marry

daughters as infants, but the daughters of poor families frequently

remain unmarried up to the age of eighteen or nineteen.

A
is

man may
subject to

marry two

sisters,

and the number of wives he may have

no

limit,

except his ability to maintain them.

The

marriage ceremony

does not appear to differ materially from the standard type

common

among the other

castes of

Upper

India of the same social standing.

The

marriage shed (mandap) consists of five posts, one at each corner
in

and one

the ccmtre, and to the latter are tied branches of the
trees,

mango

and umber

while

at its foot is

placed an earthen

jar of water,

topped with a burning lamp, and with mango leaves inside.
circuits

Seven

taken by the bridal pair round this sacred post are
essential portion of the
is

deemed

to
is

be the binding and

ceremony.

A

widow
religion

allowed to marry again and divorce

recognised.

The

of the Pardeshi

Kalab

presents no features of special interest.
for religious

Kanojia

Brahmans

are;

employed

and ceremonial purposes.

The

dead are usually burned, but bodies of persons dying unmarried arc
buried.

No

precise

definition

can

be

given

regarding

the

social

position of the caste.

The members
Only

of the caste say that they eat

kachi only from the Kanojia Brahmans, while they take water from
the hands of the Bhois.
castes will
eats fish

the Dhobis, Bhois, and lowest unclean

eat food cooked by a Pardeshi Kalal.
flesh of deer, hare, goats

A

Pardeshi Kalal

and the

and sheep, but abstains from and
spirituous
liquors.

fowl

and pork.

He

drinks

both

fermented

The

bulk of the caste follow their traditional occupation of distilling

and selling liquors.
keeping,

Some have

taken to other pursuits, such as shop-

money-lending and agriculture.

XLVI
Kapu
Kapu,
Kunbi,

Reddi

— the

chief

land-holding

and

cultivating
difficult

caste of Telingana,
of

whose physical
are

characteristics,

although

accurate

description,

decidedly

of
is

a Dravidian

type.

The

name "Kapu" means "guardian", which
'food donor', inasmuch as

interpreted in the sense of

members

of this caste c*<jftivate land and
life.

grow

corn, thus contributing to the maintenance of animal
cattle

They

rear milch

and bullocks, which are employed

in

agricultural

operations.

Origin,

—The

Kapus

trace

their

descent
raca,
is

to

one Adi

Reddi,

from whose seven sons the whole

Kapu

said to have sprung.

Beyond
light

this

vague story they have no

traditions

which

will

throw

upon

their origin.

Internal Structure
castes
:

—They

are divided into the following sub-

(1)

Panch Reddi, from "Reddi", "king
endogamous groups,
Motati.
viz
:

or master", so called

as they include five

(i)

(ii)

Gudati or Godadi.
Paknati.

(iii)

(iv)

Ghittapu.

(v)

Gone.
(4) (9)

(2) (7)

Yaya,

(3)

Kamma,
Reddi,
but

Patti,

(5)

Padkanti,

(6)

Sakhamari,

Vakligar,

(8)

Penta,
not

(10)

Velma.

the

members
arises

of

which

interdine,

do

intermarry.

A

question
stock,

whether these sub-castes are sprung from a common
heterogeneous elements, brought together under one

or

are

tribal designation,
It

"Kapu", by
the
first

reason of the similarity of occupation.

seems

that

five sub-divisions,

grouped under the

title

'

Panch Reddi

,

Kapu
are indigenous

307
ihe.

to these

Dominions and are
are

offshoots

of

a

once
the

compact
central

tribe.
districts

They
of

found

in

their

greatest

strength

in

the

Telingana

and

are

gradually

displaced,
eastern

on

the western

side

by the Maratha Kunbis, and on the
those
of

and

southern, parts

(adjoining

the

Madras Presidency) by the
possess

Kammas.
of

The Kamma and
sects

Patti

sub-castes

the same
as

set

exogamous

and the same customs and usages
this*

the

Panch

Reddis and, may on
akin to them.

account, be regarded as castes ethnologically

The Velmas and
them.

Pentas,

on the other hand,

differ

materially, in features
to bear
this

and habits, from the Panch Reddis and seem

no

afiljity to

Though

classed as Kapus, they will, for
articles.

reason,
is

be treated under separate
obscure.

The

origin of all the

sub-castes
(1)

Motaii Kapus.
'

—The

name

Motati

is

derived

from

the

word

'

mota

meaning a 'rash worker.'

In the social scale, they take

the highest rank amongst t^e
as

Kapus and

are proud of their blood, since,
his

they aver.

Raja Pratap Rudra and

descendants belonged to

their caste..

A

hypergsimous division, called the Motati Chowdhari,
consisting
either

has lately

been develoi>ed,

of

jamedars,

landlords

and
ruling

other rich grandees,

who may

be the descendants of the
rose to eminence and

princes or their nobles, or of those

who

renown

by acquiring wealth

and military

fame.

The
in

Motati

Chowdharis

receive the daughters of the Motati give their

Kapus

marriage, but do not
is

own

daughters

in

return.

The

reason
their

obvious
are

;

for

the

Chowdharis,
to

observing seclusion
girls

among

women,

reluctant

marry

their

to

Motati

Kapus,

whose

women

appear Motati

unveiled in public and are
girl,

employed on out-door labour.
is

A

before being admitted into a Chowdhari family,

ceremonially

purified

by being branded with the emblems
shell (sankha)

of

Tapta Madras, repre-

sented

by the conch

and the dice (chakra) of Vishnu, and

she

is

not afterwards allowed to return to her parents.

To
Kapu

secure a

Motati Chowdhari bridegroom, entails upon a Motati

the pay-

ment of a high bridegroom
as

price,

which the
in

father gladly pays, anxious

he

is

to see his daughter lodged

a respectable family.
in

The
to

members of the Motati Chowdhari have aped,
elevate

their

desire

themselves,

all

the

supposed

usages

of

Brahmans.

This

308
hypergamous group
indications that,
in
is

Kapu
tending to become endogamous,
tor

there are

course of time, the Chowdharis will entirely cease

to contract matrimonial alliances with the
(2)

lower classes.
to derive

Godadi Kapus.

—Also

called

'

Gurudwar,' profess
identical with
prevails,

their

name from Godadwan, most probably

Gondawana,
forming three
are believed

where they are very numerous.
groups,
to rank

Hypergamy

Chowdhari, Pate! and ordinary Kapus.
lower than the Motatis.

They

The God^li

females pass the ends

of their upper garments over their right
(3)

shoulders,
{goni
It is

Gone Kapus.

—Take

their

name from gunny bags

meaning gunny bags) with which the pack bullocks are.saddled.
said that

members

of this

sub-caste used to

make bags and

thereby
origin
a

came

to

be

differentiated

from the other Kapus.
is

Regarding the

of the

name "Gone"

the following story
rain and,

related.
all

Once upon

time, the earth

was deluged with

while

the others were

drenched,

the

members

of

this

sub-caste

found cover under gunny

bags and were saved.

They were,
still

therefore,

nicknamed "Gone", by

which

their

descendants are

distinguished from the other Kapus.

A

Gone

will never

mount

a bullock

having a goni (bag) on

its

back.

They do

not allow their

widows

to re-marry

and are hence ranked

above the Godadis, whose widows re-marry.
(4)

Chittapu

Kapus.—Chittepod,

or

Kule Kadgi, resemble
in features, the

in

most of

their customs,

and to a certain extent

Maratha

Kunbis, between
to form a
this

whom
The

and the Telingana cultivating caste they seem
origin of the

link.

name

is

obscure.

Members

of

sub-caste abstain from flesh and drink.
(5)

Kamma

Kapus.

—The members
Kistna

of this sub-caste are chiefly
district,

found

in

the eastern talukas of the

Warangal

where they

are

supposed to have come from the Madras Presidency, especially from
the

adjoining

districts
:

of

and

Godavari.

They have

two

endogamous
(i)

divisions


who
veil their

Illo

Bellama Kamma,

women and

hold there-

fore a superior position,
(ii)

and
appear unveiled in
regarding
this

Gampa Kamma, whose women
Patti

public.
caste,

(6)

Kapus.

—Very

little

is

known

except that they have got the same exogamous divisions as the Kapus,

Kapu

309

and that they practise both infant and adult marriages and do not
recognise
(7)

widow

marriage.
or

Vakligar

Lmga^at

Kapus.

—Those
category.

of

the

Kapus

who embraced

Lingayitism come under

this

The members
call
in

of this sub-caste

acknowledge Jangams

as their

gums, do not
and,

Brahmans
proselytes,
class
full
is

either for religious or ceremonial purposes

like other

are very punctilious

in

their

sectarian

observances.

This
is

confined to the- Karnatic Districts where Lingayitism

in

force.
tie

Among

the Padkante

Kapus

it

is

customary for a bride-

groom to
neck

a cotton thread, stained with turmeric, around the bride's

at the

wpdding, instead of a

string of

black beads, as

is

done

in

other sub-castes.

The women
sections

of this sub-caste
into

do not wear bodices.
are

The exogamous
are very
1.

which the sub-castes

divided

numerous.

Some

of

them deserve

special notice.

(Ll;a^a, calf).

(Yelavedla, white ox).
(Karedla,

black ox).

(Sugar-cane).

(Zizpp/jus jujuba).

(Turmeric).
(Salt water).

(Cardamom).
{Guralu, horse).

(Thoka,

tail).

(Chinta, tamarined).

(Name

of a place)

Do. Do.

Do.
Do.
It

should be observed that the section names are of two different
the one totemistic and the other territorial.

types,

The

survival

of

the primitive totemism

among

the

Kapus

favours the view that they
is,

are derived from a Dravidian stock.

There

however, no evidence

whatever to show that the totems are taboo to the members of the
sections or,
in other

words, that the members of those sections regard

310

Kapu
This

with veneration the animals or plants whose names they Dear.
essential omission

may be

easily accounted for
influences,

by the

fact that, being

long subjected to Brahmanical

the

Kapus have

naturally

dropped

all

usages antagonistic to Brahmanical theories.
of

The

rule

exogamy observed by the

caste

is

that

a

man

cannot marry outside his sub-caste nor inside his section.

The

section

name goes by
a formula
cousins,

the male side.
that a

This simple rule

is

supplemented by
first

which enjoins

man

cannot hiarry his aunt, his

except his maternal uncle's daughter, or his niece.
his wife's
sister.

A

man
but

may marry

younger

sister

during the former's
is

life time,

not her elder ing to the

Adoptive brotherhood
as
his

practised, .a

boy belong-

same
is

section

adopter being given the preference.

No

outsider

admitted into the caste.

Marriage
vails

Infant marriage

is

the rule, but adult marriage pre-

among

the higher classes (chowdharis)

owing

to the paucity of

husbands due to the enormous increase of the bridegroom price.

No

prominence

is

given to the latter usage and social stigma attaches to the
girl
if

parents of the
of

she attains puberty before marriage,

the fact
as

her

being

mature

before

marriage

being

concealed
is

much

as possible.

No

courtship prevails and the marriage

settled

by the parents

or guardians of the parties concerned.

The

higher classes

taking maidens in marriage from the lower ones,
actually

do not have them

wedded

to the boys, but a
girl
is

sword

is

sent from the boy's house
rites

to the girl's

and there the
to the

married formally, according to
is

and ceremonies,
in

weapon and

then accepted with the sword
all

the higher family,

where she enjoys
before

the privileges of a married

lady.

Sexual
girl

indiscretions

marriage
is

admit of

no atonement

and the

loses her caste.

Polygamy

permitted, there being no

definite limit as to the

number of wives a man may have.
before the
initiative
girl

Connubial
maturity.
of

relations

may commence even
the

attains sexual

Among
marriage
is

Kapus,

the

towards

the

settlement

taken

by the parents or guardians of the bridegroom,
of

who

depute a

man
and

the

Bhatmurti

(Bhatraj)

caste

to

select

a

suitable match,

to carry

on the preliminary negotiations.

After

the horoscopes of both the bride and bridegroom have been found
to agree,

and

after the

bridegroom

price,

which

is

generally Rs. 116,

1

Kapu
but which
bride, has

31

varies

with the pecuniary

status

of

the

parents
is

of
fixed

the

been
a

settled, an auspicious

day

for the marriage

by

consulting

Brahman

skilled

in

such matters.
:

The

marriage cere-

monies comprise the following stages
(a)

Chsupvoidam

—The

verbal

gift

and

acceptance

of

the

bride.

The

bridegroom's party proceeds to the bride's house.
is

At

an

auspicious time fixed for the ceremony, the bride

brought, by her

maternal uncle,

from the inner part of the house and seated on a
placed
in

wooden
relatives

stool

the

court-yard.

In

the

presence
is

of

the

and friends assembled
her
father,

for the occasion, the bride

verbally

given
father,

by

and verbally
bride
is

accepted

by the bridegroom's
pan supari

for his son.

The

then adorned with ifower wreaths,
distribution

and the ceremony ends with the
leaves

of

(betel

and areca

nuts)" to

the assembled people.

(b)

Nischitartha
five

confirmation of the match
five

—On

this

occasion

a

new

sari,

cocoanuts, five betel leaves,

bodices (cholis) and

two

lbs. of rice are
(c)
(i)

presented to the bride by her mother-in-law.

Wara Nkchaya
7Tie worship of


Pinnamma
(the goddess of fortune).

The
in

goddess,

who

is

not represented

by any image,

is

worshipped

every household a

month

or a fortnight previous to the celebration
is

of marriage.

At

night,

a spot of ground

plastered

clean

with

cow-dung and decorated with designs of kpnkwn
traced
in

(aniline

powder)
{Bauhinia

various

patterns.

A
it,

twig of
is

the

apta

tree

racemosa), representing the deity,
cradle of flowers hanging over
a piece of

installed
it

on the ground with a
are placed a cocoanut,

and before

bodice cloth, an areca nut.

a piece of

cocoanut kernel and two betel
is

leaves with

The

deity

worshipped with offermgs
after

of flowers and rice coloured with turmeric,

which a sheep
is

is

slaughtered before

it.

The head

of

the animal
all

buried

in

the

ground and
(ii)

its

body

furnishes a feast to

the household members.

The

worship of

Pochamma

(the smallpox deity)

and Nagula

(a

with offerings of

village serpent)—These animistic deities are appeased outside the Marriage booths are goats, flowers and sweetmeats.

erected at the houses of both the parties.

Usually, the marriage takes

place at the house of the bride, but

if

the parents of the bride are too

312

Kapu
it

poor to undergo the marriage expenses
the bridegroom.
(d)
girl's

is

performed

at fthe

house of

Prathanam

—This

important ceremony

is

performed

at

the

house.

The

bridegroom's parents and relatives go,

with the

bridal
nuts,

ornaments, the praihan ring and other articles, such as cocoabetel

leaves,

areca nuts,

etc.,

to

the

girl's

house.

At
girl

the
is

time

appointed for the performance of the

ceremony the

bathed.

Wearing a new

sari

and putting on flower garlands, she
in

is

seated on a
this

wooden

stool,

with a heap of rice

front of her. ring,

On
are

heap are placed the ornaments and the praihan
girl

which

worshipped by the
ring
after
little
is

along with the deity Ganesh.
in

The

prathan

then circulated

a cocoanut shell

among
is

the relatives and,

being touched and blessed by them,
finger of the bride.

put on the right hand
connected, by
wrist.

This ring

is

afterwards
girl

a

yellow thread, with the bangles worn by the
ornaments are put on her person and she
bridegroom's house.
(e)
is

on her

The

led in procession to the

Yadulu Kodlu

—A

ceremonial greeting

'of

the

members

of

both the parties.
(f)

Kotanum

In

which mortars and grind-stones are worshipped
five

and

rice
{§)

and turmeric are pounded by

married women.

Arweni

or Airani

Kundalu

—A

few days previous

to the

wedding, some

women

of the bride's house go, under a canopy, to the

house of a potter,

who

has already been instructed to keep from nine to

twenty-one earthen pots ready.
the
others,

Two
with

of these pots are bigger than

are

painted

outside

ornamental

designs

and

are

called 'Airani Kundalu'.

Rice, pulse and cakes are offered to the

pots, the offerings being taken

by the

potter.

The

pots are then brought

to the marriage

booth and placed before the family gods.
near

Lighted
as

lamps

are

kept burning
continues.

them day and night
morning

as

long

the

ceremony

Every

and

evening,

two

married
be, take

women

of the bride's or bridegroom's house, as the case

may

the smaller pots with them and go to a well, attended

by music and
fill

under a canopy.

On

their arrival, they

worship the well,

the pots

with water and return home.
(h)

Mailapolu

—The

bride and bridegroom are seated side by

Kapu
side in a square

313
at

formed of

rice

and having

each of

its

corners an

earthen pot filled with water.

A

female barber smears the pair with
nails of their their

a paste of turmeric and
fingers

oil

and a male barber pares the

and

toes.

Five married

women throw
in

rice

on

heads.

The

couple then receive a bath and, dressed

white, are taken into

the house,

where they take

their seats before the family

gods and the

consecrated pots.
are

The

deities

Ganesh, Gowri, and Airani Kundalu

worshipped and hashingams (paper and flower coronets) are tied

on their foreheads.
(r)

Lagnam

—The

bride

and bridegroom dressed

in

wedding

clothes of a saffron colour are conducted to the marriage booth.

On

a

mat of shendi (wild date palm) are placed two wooden
the couple are

seats,

on which

made

to stand facing each other,

a screen being held
or sacred texts,

between them.

The Brahman

priest recites mantras,

and the assembled guests throw
(j)

rice over the

heads of the couple.

Padghatian

—The
is

bridegroom places his right foot upon a
it

stool

placed beneath the screen and the bride touches
left fobt.

three times

with her

Then, the

bride, in her turn, puts her right foot

upon the
left

stool

which

trodden upon by the bridegroom with his

foot three times.

(y
jira

]ira

Gudam
seeds)

—The
and

bride and bridegroom throw a mixture of
(jaggery)
is

(cumin

giida

three

times

alternately

over each other's head.
(i)

The

screen

then removed.

Kanyadan

—The

parents of the bride

wash the

feet of the

bridegroom and give him a mixture of honey, curds and ghi to drink
{madhupark).
father

Then

follows

the

formal

gift

of

the bride

by

her

and the formal
is

acceptance of her by the bridegroom.
to repeat the

bride's father
gift", to

made

words

which the bridegroom
Puste Metallu

replies

— "I

— "I

The

give her to you as a

accept her.

(m)
viz.,

In a shallow cup are placed two ornaments,

pusie (mangahutra,

a string of small black glass beads with a
(silver

gold disc) and metallu,

toe rings) and,

after they

have been

worshipped by the Brahman priest and passed round to be blessed by
those present, the bridegroom ties the puste round the bride's neck and
puts the metallu
(n)

on her

toes.

Tr/afca/u6rum—Thread

bracelets

(kankanam),

dipped

in

314
turmeric water, are worshipped

Kapu
by the wedded
pair

and

tied",
is

together

with pieces of turmeric, on their wrists by the priest. over their heads by
all

Rice

thrown

the people present

;

the bride and bridegroom

also throwing rice over each other's heads.
(o)

Brahmamodi

—The
in

ends of the

garments of the

married

couple are tied together

a knot with a piece of turmeric, a piece of

cocoanut kernel and a pice.
are then
(p)

Lucky

lights,

placed

in a

shallow plate,

waved round

their faces

by married

fepnales.

Arundhati Darshan

—The
is

goddess Arundhati, wife of the
star,
is

sage Vashistha,

and represented by the pole

shown

to the

wedded

pair as a pattern of constancy

and

fidelity.

Two
by

ornaments are

put in an earthen vessel, which
side the house.

conjointly taken
are then

the couple outtheir fore-

The bashingams

removed from

heads and milk and curds are given them to drink.
bride prepares gruel and the bridegroom turns
in

Thereupon, the
in

up the earth

furrows

which he sows

five kinds of

seed grains.

While

thus engaged, his

child wife brings
(q)

him the gruel to drink.

Nagveli
at

—A
its

square

is

marked out on the ground, with
five times

a

water pot
a

each of

comers, the pots being encircled
Inside this are arranged the

with

raw cotton thread.

Arweni Kundalu
six plates

vessels, the small earthen vessels (palamuntal)

and

made

of

leaves holding lighted lamps.

The

bridegroom, taking a dagger and
goes
five

the share of a plough in his hand,

times round the polu

accompanying the bride, her parents,

five

married

women and

the priest.

Alrwani Kundalu and the palamuntal vessels are thereupon wor!hipp»ed
(r)

and the Brahmamudi knot and kfcnkanams are untied.

Panpu

In

which the young pair

are

made
in

to enact a

drama

of their future

life.

A

wooden

doll

is

placed

a cradle of cloth
are then

and

is

rocked by the couple seated on a cot.

They

made

to converse

on various domestic matters.

The

bridegroom asks the

bride to take charge of the mimic child so that he
the bride returns the charge,

may go

out,

but

pleading that she has to fetch water.

A

good deal of fun and merriment ensue on the occasion.
(s)

Vappagintha

—The

bride's parents entrust their daughter to

the care of the bridegroom and his parents, requesting

them

to treat

her kindly.

Kapu
(t)

315
presented with cocoanut,
in

Vtdibhujam

—The

bride

is

dates,

a choli and turmeric coloured rice
of her sari (wadi).

which she takes

the front fold

A

marriage feast completes the ceremony.

The

marriage

rites

of the

Reddi Kapus

differ in

some

particulars

from those of the Panch Reddis and deserve special mention.

The
pro-

Reddi

bride,

previous to the wedding day,

is

conducted,

in

cession, to the

bridegroom's house, where a marriage pandal of twelve

posts

is

erected.

One

of

the

posts

consists

of

a

salai

branch

{BosWellia

thmijera)

and
off,

represents
is girt

the

Deva

Devak-

The

branch, before being cut

round

v/ith cotton thread

and wor-

shipped by a
for the

man having

children.

At

an auspicious hour appointed
to stand facing

wedding, the bridal pair are made
antarpat
is is

each other
cake,

and

an

held between

them.

A
just

wheaten

two

inches thick,

placed on a wooden stool

beneath the screen,