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THE DYNAMIC OF CULTURE

IN BATAK TOBA CULTURE


IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION

SITI FATIMAH NINGRUM


0607.10.055

SEKOLAH MENENGAH ATAS


MADANIA
TELAGA KAHURIPAN
BOGOR
2009

1
APPROVAL FORM

STUDENT : SITI FATIMAH NINGRUM


NAME
STUDENT : 0607.10.055
NUMBER
MAJOR : ARTS
TITLE : THE DYNAMICS OF CULTURE IN
BATAK TOBA CULTURE IN THE ERA
OF GLOBALIZATION

APPROVED IN
BOGOR, 15TH JUNE 2009

(WINDA LESTARI)

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................................ 3


Table of Charts ........................................................................................................................................... 5
Table of Figures .......................................................................................................................................... 6
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................... 7
PREFACE................................................................................................................................................... 8
Chapter I: .................................................................................................................................................. 10
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 10
1.1 Background ......................................................................................................................... 10
1.2 Problem Formulation .......................................................................................................... 12
1.3 Hypothesis .......................................................................................................................... 12
1.4 Research Objectives .................................................................................................................. 13
1.5 The Benefits of Research .......................................................................................................... 13
Chapter II: ................................................................................................................................................. 14
METHODS ............................................................................................................................................... 14
2.1 Types of Research ..................................................................................................................... 14
2.2 The Research Location ........................................................................................................ 14
2.3 Population & Sample .......................................................................................................... 15
2.4 Type of Data Resources ...................................................................................................... 15
2.5 The Technique of Collecting Data ...................................................................................... 15
Chapter III: ............................................................................................................................................... 17
THEORY .................................................................................................................................................. 17
3.1 Culture ...................................................................................................................................... 17
3.1.2 The Characteristic of Culture ...................................................................................... 18
3.1.3 The Elements of Culture.............................................................................................. 19
3.1.4 The Dynamic of Culture .............................................................................................. 19
3.2 Globalizations ..................................................................................................................... 22
3.2.1 The Definition of Globalization .................................................................................. 22
3.2.2 The Influence of Globalization ........................................................................................ 23
3.3 The Cultural Studies of Batak Toba Tribal ................................................................................... 25
3.3.1 Location ...................................................................................................................... 25
3.3.2 Livelihood ................................................................................................................... 27

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3.3.3 Social and Culture Background ................................................................................... 28
Chapter IV: ............................................................................................................................................... 38
RESULTS ................................................................................................................................................. 38
Chapter V: ................................................................................................................................................ 43
DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................................................... 43
5.1 The Dynamics of Batak Toba Culture ................................................................................. 43
5.1.1 The Diffusion of Batak Toba Culture .......................................................................... 43
5.1.2 The Acculturation of Batak Toba Culture ................................................................... 46
5.1.3 The Assimilation of Batak Toba Culture ..................................................................... 49
5.2 The influence of Globalization towards on the Batak Toba Culture .................................... 51
Chapter VI: ............................................................................................................................................... 55
CONCLUSION......................................................................................................................................... 55
REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................... 57

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Table of Charts

Chart 1: The Amount of Native People ........................................................................................ 38

Chart 2: Religion ........................................................................................................................... 39

Chart 3: The Marriage Status ........................................................................................................ 39

Chart 4: The Using of Language with Friends .............................................................................. 40

Chart 5: The Using of Language with Family .............................................................................. 40

Chart 6: The Using of Language in Formal .................................................................................. 41

Chart 7: The Information Tools .................................................................................................... 41

Chart 8: The Usage of Communication Tools .............................................................................. 42

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Table of Figures

Figure 1: The Survey .................................................................................................................... 16

Figure 2: The map of Samosir regency ......................................................................................... 25

Figure 3: The village in Samosir Regency is called Huta. ........................................................... 27

Figure 4: The ceremony of Parmalim ........................................................................................... 32

Figure 5: Gondang Sebangunan .................................................................................................... 35

Figure 6:The traditional house of Batak Toba .............................................................................. 36

Figure 7: Ulos Sibolang ................................................................................................................ 37

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ABSTRACT

This paper is the result of small research that happened in Samosir Regency,

specifically in three main villages: Tomok, Tuk-tuk Siadong and Ambarita where the living

place of Batak Toba society. The focus is on the Batak Toba cultural life that influences by

the factors of dynamic culture: diffusion, acculturation and assimilation. This paper

highlights the elements of culture: social system, knowledge, technology system, religion,

language and arts, to see the dynamics of culture in Batak Toba culture in the era of

globalization.

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PREFACE

In the name of Allah SWT, the writer want to say thanks to God, because only God

that can help her finished this final paper titled “ THE DYNAMICS OF CULTURE IN

BATAK TOBA CULTURE IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION”.

In this case, the writer would like to say thanks to:

- Frau Winda Lestari (advisor) and Endah Fajar for their support and advice as the

input for the writer to do the research and in the written process.

- Bu Zahnur Rofiah (Zee), for the very-well grammar checking.

- Mama and wak Mala, for the blessing and support in doing the field research.

- Bapak uda Drs. Melanie Butarbutas, MM as the Head Office of Tourism and

Cultural in Samosir Regency to get the information surrounded the tourism and

cultural of Batak Toba and permission to conduct the research in the area.

- The Toba team expedition: Bang Surya Atmadja, Bang Hadi Katiman, Bang

Novendi, Bang Tampubolon, Bang Laek, Bang Supri, Kak Tisa and Kak Iis, for

the support and help in doing the field research.

- Bapak Situmorang and Bapak Jeremy Sinaga as the tour guides.

- Sufi, Ilham, Rizqy and Eva for the helps spreading all of the questionnaires.

- Bapak uda Nurdin Nadeak and Bapak uda Simbolon, for the blessing and advice

in doing the research.

- Bapak uda Saitan Sihombing, for the information about the the Batak Toba culture

and his support for the writer.

- Drs. AKP. Iwan Muri, as the Reserse in Tanah Karo Regency, North Sumatera,

for makes the way to do the research more easy.

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This paper made for completed the conditional for graduated from MADANIA Senior

High School. Hopefully this paper can be useful to everyone who is read it. For sure the

writer needs developed critics and suggestions for the writer’s paper in the future can be

better.

Bogor, 16th June 2009

The writer

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Chapter I:
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

"One day a man named Toba was fishing in the river. Suddenly he was surprised when he
saw the fish changed into a beautiful woman. "I can be your wife but with a requirement, you
should never let anyone in your village know about my origin. If that happens, then a huge
disaster will come "said the beautiful woman. It’s been too late when the man remember the
words of his wife, he slandered his son as a fish child. Regret was just past, his wife and his
son disappeared and turned into fish. Instantantly the water spout and sink the village into a
lake named Toba Lake. While in the middle of the lake, there is an island named Samosir"
Taken from: The Origin of Toba Lake, Indonesia Foklore, Gramedia group.

Indonesia is a country of islands with the beautiful scenery. Around 17,504 islands are

spread in the territory. It makes Indonesia become a country with high diversity. Lake Toba is

one of the most beautiful scenery located in North Sumatra. Lake Toba with an area of

100,000 hectares was a result of volcanic eruption thousands years ago leaving Samosir

island in the middle of the lake. Perhaps from that descent of thousands years ago, Batak

tribal originated as the part of Proto- Malayan came. It is difficult to find out when the exact

year the Batak tribal arrived, but it was believed if that they lived in the coastal region of

Sumatera then mixed with the new tribal group.

Samosir regency is one of the districts in the province of North Sumatra as part of the

ethnic majority is the Batak Toba. There are 5 sub-tribe of Batak ethnic Mandailing namely,

Karo, Simalungun, Pakpak, and Batak Toba. Not much difference between the five sub-

ethnic of Batak. The difference is only found in the region that they inhabit and the

differences of the language grammar. Previously, Batak people was known as an ethnic group

who live in habitual splendid isolation, located in the valleys or in the tops of the mountain.

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However, all of that has now changed due to their interaction with the coastal society of

migrants that brought their own culture, such as the Hindu- Buddha culture.

At the beginning of the interaction, the people of Batak Toba learn that other nations

are clearly different from them. Some of those are affected by the process of Islamisation

migrated from North to South Tapanuli, while the rest settled in North Tapanuli and was

influenced by the Christian who were brought by the missionaries from the United States and

the Netherlands. The Batak Toba modern society with their openness becomes one of the

attractions for the tourists in the country and abroad. Lake Toba was awarded as the largest

fresh water lake in Asia and even in world. The natural beauty of Lake Toba became a source

of revenue to the local society. In this case, the people introduced their culture to the people

in the world.

Unfortunately with the number of tribes who came to visit this island of the Golden

Flower, the culture has been affected by the culture erosion. Batak Toba society does not

realize that the culture will be extinct if they do not preserved it. The traditions of Batak Toba

that encultured by the ancestor were forced to leave, because it is being opposed to the

religion which they believe now. The local tradition is now gradually replaced by the modern

technology.

This is what being called as dynamic culture. In this era of globalization, the

dynamics of a culture is a reasonable thing. A process of change that should be very good for

the development of the culture that has become a civilized culture. In this case, the status as

the generation who inherit the culture must be distinctive. The society needs to perform its

duties in order to preserve the culture. Therefore, a thorough study of the elements of Batak

Toba culture is needed in this era of globalization.

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1.2 Problem Formulation

Based on the background, the main problems of this research are:

1. Is it true that, the culture of Batak Toba is changing or shifting?

2. In this case that the Batak Toba is changing, what makes its shifted along with the

development of the periods?

3. What are the factors that influence the dynamics of Batak Toba cultural?

4. What are the positive and negative impacts of globalization for the Culture of Batak

Toba?

5. How do the Batak Toba people maintain and preserve the culture in the era of

globalization?

1.3 Hypothesis

To answer the questions in the problem formulation, there are some initial

assumptions about the object for research, there are:

1. Along with the development of the periods, the values of Batak Toba cultural

shifted.

2. The people of Batak Toba leaving the tradition due to the influence of new

values.

3. Batak Toba society is increasingly dynamic due to the influence of the outside

culture.

4. The influence of globalization on the culture of Batak Toba is changing the

elements of the culture covering languages, belief systems, social systems, art and

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others that caused by the factors of dynamic (change) culture: diffusion,

acculturation, and assimilation.

1.4 Research Objectives

This research aims of this paper is to describe, explain and to analyze the Batak Toba culture

in the era of globalization.

1.5 The Benefits of Research

1. Theoretically, this paper is expected to provide insight and knowledge, particularly

knowledge about the culture of Batak Toba in globalization era. In addition, this paper

can be used as material for researchers who want to examine the further subject about

the culture of Batak Toba.

2. Practically, the paper is expected to provide information about the impact of

globalization on the culture of Batak Toba through analysis of the culture elements.

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Chapter II:
METHODS

2.1 Types of Research

The types of this research is a qualitative one using descriptive methods in purposes to

describe the the culture of Batak Toba people, situation due to the influence and the

distribution of a phenomenon inside the society of Batak Toba. In addition, the goal made to

support the hypothesis that has been made, so that finally can be assist in building the new or

old theory. This research is the combination of descriptive and analytical data. The

description of location, language until the technology will be explained through description

as the knowledge of the elements of culture. Data analysis is being conducted from the results

of the survey. The data is taken from the questionnaires has been filled out by the

respondents.

2.2 The Research Location

The research took place in Siamnindo district, Samosir Regency, North Sumatera,

conducted from 6th – 9th of October 2008. From the district, the research location is being

narrowed down into three villages due to the limited time and resouces. As the

recommendation from Department of Tourism and Culture in Samosir Regency, three

villages that have been selected are:

1. Ambarita villages representing the most advanced and modern villages.

2. Tomok villages representing the historical tourism places

3. Tuk-tuk Siadong villages representing the most visited place by tourists.

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2.3 Population & Sample

The population in Simanindo District is 22,188 people. The respondents were being

taken randomly, that can be categorized into three groups: the native people, non- native and

tourist. The random sampler is taken from100 people as the representative from each village.

2.4 Type of Data Resources

 Primary Data

Primary data is the authentic data as the first resources about the problems. The data is

simply referred to the original data. The data is the result from the collecting data of

survey and the result of interview with the key informants and also respondents.

 Secondary Data

Secondary data serve as the base theory for the verification of the research result.

Most of the reference data obtained from the internet, books and articles in magazine.

This data is also used as the data complement.

2.5 The Technique of Collecting Data


Collecting data is done through participant observation, in-depth interviews with

informants and surveys. Participant observation was conducted over three days. In this

situation, the research done by participating in cultural activities directly, such as dancing and

wearing Ulos. Key respondents were interviewed thoroughly. In this research, the roles as

key respondent is Mr. Situmorang, as the tour guide and also Drs. Melanie Butarbutas, MM

as the head Office of Tourism and Cultural in Samosir Regency to get the information around

the area of the tourism and cultural of Batak Toba. He also granted permission to conduct the

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research in the area. Both of them provide a lot of knowledge and insight about the culture of

Batak Toba.

The survey was being carried out using the questionnaires from 100 random sampling

of respondents. The type of the questionnaires were open questions, of which the respondents

were asked to write the reason after choosing the

alternative answers that were provided. Some of

the respondents also took part as the interviewer;

their answer was needed as their personal opinion

would be a valuable data. Some of the equipment

Figure 1: The Survey or material that supports the process of collecting

data is mobile phones, sound recorder, a video recorder and a laptop. Most of them is used for

recording the interview sessions, while laptop is being used to store data and typing the

research journal during the field observation.

Once all data has been collected, the questionnaires were counted and transferred as

charts. The charts were analyzed in the form of descriptive words that contain related result

of interview and basic theories. Then the conclusion can be drawn after the result had been

obtained from the data analyzing.

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Chapter III:
THEORY

3.1 Culture

3.1.1 The Definition of Culture

Culture comes from the latin word, colere, which means a process, dealing with the

processing of land or farm, then it developed into all effort and human action to manage and

change the natural land. Koentjaraningrat in a book entitled Pengantar Antropologi I, said the

meaning of culture as a whole ideas, actions and results of human work (artifacts) in the

framework of a society that made the property of self-study. While E.B Taylor expressed that

a culture is a whole complex, which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, traditions,

and any other capabilities and habits that the human have as members of the society. All

things about the culture can be learned through anthropology, a branch of knowledge which

study about culture through various colors, shapes and its physical form.

Culture cannot be seen, because it is held in the mind or the human head (as the idea

system). Therefore, culture is abstract, but the results of a culture can be seen and detected

with the human sensory perception. Here is a form of culture, designed by JJ Honingmann:

1. Ideas, norms and rules

Exist in the human mind that is still in the form of ideas. For example: wedding,

dance movement, policy of language, traditions, and etc.

2. Activities

The results from the behavior system of human being, for example: performing arts,

oral communication in a language, fasting, and etc.

3. Artifacts

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The results from the system of ideas as the objects of human work, for example:

mosque, monument, keris, and etc

The third forms of culture cannot be separated because they are interrelated. The idea

of the system will result in activities and artifacts. On the contrary, human can be inspired

through the activities and artifacts that will result in an innovation or new ideas. This is what

makes the culture continue to develop.

3.1.2 The Characteristic of Culture


The development of culture required preservation. This can be understood through the

cultural characteristics of the six, namely:

1. The culture is abstract.

In the culture, it was called the idea system.

2. The culture leads and directs the human.

It means the culture is referred as guidelines, directory and sometimes become the

forcing tools for the way how the people behave in a society.

3. The culture is owned by human.

This is caused by the study of anthropology that learn through the human being

and its culture

4. The culture is owned by the society.

Culture is not individually owned, but owned collectively. Society is a group of

people that have a similarity in place, language and traditions.

5. The culture is inherited.

This occurs continuously from one generation to the next generation

6. The culture changes.

The culture changes over the time, as the influence of environment and society.

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3.1.3 The Elements of Culture
In culture analyzing, anthropologists, separate all that is integrated in culture into

some elements, called the universal elements of culture. As described by C. Kluckhohn in the

book of Universal Categories of Culture (1953), the elements are divided into seven, there

are:

1. Religion as the source of guidance for mankind and society, which includes belief

systems, values, philosophy of life, the religious communication and ceremonies.

2. Social system which includes kinship, association, citizenship and system of life.

3. Knowledge system which includes knowledge of flora, fauna, time, space, and human

behavior.

4. Language which consists of oral and written, used by the society as the

communication tools, interaction and self identification.

5. Arts as the human expertise and skills to express and create things full of aesthetics.

They cover, sculpture, relief, paint, vocal, music, architecture, literature and theater.

6. Economy system which consists of food gathering, hunting, plantation, farming and

fishery.

7. Technology system which consists of transportation, clothes, house and traditional

weapons.

3.1.4 The Dynamic of Culture


According to Koentjaraningrat, the dynamics of culture is the process of shifting,

reducing, and addition of the elements in a culture. Dynamics means a change. Changes in

culture occur along the time, the influence of the environment and influence people. The

cause may be due to the change from inside (internal) and outside (external) factors. The

internal changes is desired by the society, because in this case the society played as the

initiator. There are some internal factors that support cultural changes, including:

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1. The feeling of unsatisfied to a particular situation, so it shows the feeling of desire

triggered by the lack of awareness in their own culture and they need to improve

it.

2. Open attitude towards on the new things and tolerance towards different cultures.

3. Changes in the number of population and social conditions.

4. There is a new invention, whether it is new (discovery) or new invention to

improve the life the society (invention).

5. There is a difference system or the values of young generation, because they

considered the old value is out-of-date and does not fit their culture.

The dynamics are also influenced by external factors originated from the outsiders.

These factors are not presumed by the society and take place naturally. Here are the external

factors that affect the dynamics of culture:

1. Natural disasters

In this case, the situation is unpredictable, so when disasters happen the people must

leave the villages and found the new place for living. Then in the new place they have

to adapt back with the local culture.

2. Wars

The winner in every war enforces their culture to the loser. It makes the contrast

between two different cultures.

3. Interaction with other people

The interaction among people is started from the development process of culture,

known as the evolution of culture. The process is started from the simple forms of

culture until the complex one. When a society meets another society, they will affect

each other. These changes are classified into two, named:

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I. Penetration pasifique is the entry way of a culture in particular society by

peaceful way. This change caused by:

 Diffusion
Diffusion is the spread of human existence that can be caused by

multiplication, migration, physical adaptation and social culture that happened

hundred thousand years ago. Migration can occur automatically slow or suddenly fast.

The elements of culture are also spread along with the migration and the distribution

of society.

 Acculturation
Acculturation is the social process that rises when a group of people with their

own culture is exposed to the elements of a new culture, so that the elements of

culture is received and processed into their own culture without causing the loss of

origin culture identity.

 Assimilation
Assimilation is the social process that occurs in society that has different kind

of culture, and then after they interacted intensively, happened the mixing of cultures

occurs. This usually takes place between the majority and minority groups, which

finally obliges the minority to accept the majority as parts of their culture. Thus

gradually the minority will change and integrate with the majority.

II. Penetration violence is the entry way of a culture by force or violence. In this

case, people can be forced to choose which culture they want. This is caused by

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the difference between the old and the new culture. This happen through the

violence that occurred in the era of colonization.

3.2 Globalizations

3.2.1 The Definition of Globalization

Globalization is a process in which people around the world becomes increasingly

interconnected in any kind of aspects, such as culture, economic, political, technology, and

the environmental. The occurrence of globalization is driven by many factors of which

progress in the field of information and communication technology and the innovation that

offer lots of new things. These factors plus the presence of transportation, has changed the

world into unlimited world. As a result of the presence of information technology, global

mass media has brought the information of culture, so in this case there were the spread of

global culture or known as the cultural globalization.

Mass media become the power of trend setter for the global issues that influence on

the politic, human right until the culture and life style. The rapidly developing technology

shows the existence of a sophisticated device. The presence of the Internet makes information

spreads more easily and more quickly accepted by the society, but the problems precisely

because of the facilities is easily to get, makes the people become very dependent to the

technology. Indonesia as a developing country or also called as “the third country”, more

often become the object of progress and the readiness of developed countries like the United

States.

In this case occur uneven globalization, where the flow of information going from

developed countries to developing countries without any reciprocal relation back. “Third

world countries” are considered as the recipient of information, without ability to send

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balance information about the country, even if they have the ability. But it is still figured by

the perception of developed countries. This is a condition that apparently rising the concepts

of cultural imperialisms, where every developed countries spreading the information about

the cultural life in their countries. This condition was raising the birth of cultural crisis in

various countries. By the occurrence of cultural globalization, the local culture and its

elements of culture is endangered due to the elements that contaminated by the global culture.

3.2.2 The Influence of Globalization


Talking about globalization is not only about the economy sectors. The influences of

globalization are spread through the sector of social culture. The characteristics of the

development of globalization in a culture are:

1. The development of international culture exchange.

2. The distribution of the principles of culture diversity.

3. The development of tourism.

4. The development of mode globally

5. The events increased globally.

If the sixth character was held up in a tribe or nation, they can be categorized as a

dynamic tribe or nation, because it can easily accept a new culture into the culture. This is

closely related with the factors of dynamics culture. When a new culture penetrate, there are

only two options, the original culture will survive or be affected. The cultural Globalization

can give negative and positive impacts, such as:

 The positive impacts

1. Changes in the management of values and attitudes.

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Globalization caused cultural changes in values and attitudes to become more

rational.

2. The developments of science and technology.

This would be resulting the development of human resources and encourage to

be more qualified and advanced.

3. Increases the level of a better life.

Through the opening of work fields hopefully is reduces the unemployment

and needed to improve the better standard of life for the society.

 The negative impacts

1. The decline of values and cultural morals (demoralization).

The existence of global culture makes the society leave the traditions, but

actually many cultural values are preserved by the local culture.

2. The life patterns of consumptive

Within the development of industry as a provider of goods need, plus the

advertising of products and services in the mass media, people are easily

interested use goods or services that were offered.

3. Individualistic attitude

Technology makes people do not need any helps from others and forget their

status as the social creature.

4. Westernization

It is an attitude following the western lifestyle, which have many differences

with the eastern culture, such as sex outside the confine of marriage and the

consumption of addictive substances.

5. Social inequalities

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Social gaps in the culture can be defined as a cultural lag due to the growth or

the development of a culture which is not the same. This is because the people

have different opportunities to enjoy the result of globalization process.

3.3 The Cultural Studies of Batak Toba Tribal

3.3.1 Location

 Geographic location

Samosir Island is the place of origin of

Batak tribal, especially inhabited by Batak Toba

tribal. The area is around 1.44,25 km2 surrounded

by Toba Lake. The Lake has informed 110,000

hectares, with an average depth of 500 meters and

located in the Bukit Barisan Mountains. According

to the historians, Lake Toba is the result of the

volcanic explosion from the volcanoes millions of years


Figure 2: The map of Samosir
regency
ago, so it formed a lake and island in the middle.

Samosir Island is part of the district results from the expansion of Toba Samosir

regency on year of 2003. Samosir district consists of nine districts namely Sianjur Mula -

Mula, Harian, Sitiotio, Onan Runggu, Nainggolan, Palipi, Ronggur Nituha, Pangururan and

Simanindo. The capital Regency is Pangururan is also used as the center of trading and

governmental district.

Samosir Regency located on Upland, with attitude between 904 - 2157 meters above the sea

level, with various type of topography like flat, slightly slope, and steep decline. The

structure of land is located in labile and tectonic and volcanic land sharing.

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Samosir Regency is on 2024’ – 2045’ North Latitude and 98021’ – 99005’ East

Longitude. The width of area is 2.069, 05 km 2; consist of land width 1.444,25 km2 and lake

width 624, 80 km2. Samosir Regency surrounded by seven regencies that included as

province of North Sumatera, north border on Karo Regency and Simalungun Regency, east;

border on Toba Samosir Regency, south; border on Tapanuli Utara Regency and Humbang

Hasundutan regency, west; border on Dairi Regency and Pakpak Barat Regency.

 Demography

In 2006, total of population at Samosir Regency approached 131.116 people and total

of household reached 27.215. By width of land area is 1.444,25 km2, the level of population

density is 90,78 person/km2. Pangururan as regency capital, trade center and government

center is a sub regency with the highest population density, 235,14 person/ km 2. While the

populations of Simanindo sub regency where the observation took place is 22.188 people.

Number of male at Samosir Regency is less than female. By 2006 total of population at

Samosir Regency, male sex are 64.132 people, while female are 66.984 people. This trend

indicates that most men wander out to find the good work or continue their education goals.

The native tribal in Samosir Regency is Batak Toba. Added up by the tribes that were

migrated from the outside of the island, such as Java, Nias, Minangkabau, and the

descendants of foreign nations (Chinese and Germany). The Chinese play in the role of

trading, while the Germany are mostly working as the experts in the hospital of the Batak

Toba church known as HKBP (Huria Kristen Batak protestan)

 The villages

Village better known as the Huta (in Batak Toba) is the living place of a family from

the same clan. Small clan is the patriarchal relative who is still dwelling in the same area.

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Most of villages are in groups. In the village two different line of building tare built,

separated by a yard in the middle for many purposes, such as ritual ceremonies.

According to the traditional belief of

Batak culture, their house must be established

face to the mountains for protection against the

black magic and others bad power. Around the

village usually surrounded by the arch at the

high of ± 1.5 meters where bamboo and other

Figure 3: The village in Samosir tree species are planted. At the end of the north and
Regency is called Huta.
south of the village there is a gate (known as

bahal), usually near the gate is planted trees such as Hariara tree which is considered as a

symbol of life.

For the social stratification of Batak Toba people is based on the four principles, there

are: The differences in age level, rank and position, the quality, and marriage status.

3.3.2 Livelihood
Most half of Samosir Regency people, especially the native people, is living depend

on agriculture sector. It can be seen through the agriculture area that spreading in Samosir

island, such as rice fields. Vegetables like chili, shallot (small red onion), garlic, bean, and

potato are also cultivated by themselves. While coffee is one of the priority commodities of

plantation which has a good Prospect. Coffee is the largest plantation compare to other trees.

Livestock is generally processed and managed through the household business. It can

be classified into big animals, small animals and poultry. Big animals consist of cow, buffalo,

and horse; small animals consist of goat, sheep, and pig, poultry consist of chicken and duck.

Some of the livestock is for sale, many are also used for agriculture and traditional

27
ceremonies. For farmers, buffalo, means a lot because it can help in tilling the field. Pigs,

chickens and ducks also cannot be separated from the society life, as used in ceremonies and

religious traditions. While buffalo, cow and horse are only used for the big ceremonies.

Besides plantation, people in Samosir Regency are doing Fishery. This sector is

generally processed and managed through the household business, or fish cultivation or

catching fish. Fish cultivation is done in fresh water pond, rice cum fish, floating net, running

water pond and germ, whereas catching fish is done in the lake, river and swampy. Toba

Lake provides various types of fish such as: Batak fish, gold fish, Mujair fish, catfish, cork,

shrimp, and eel.

3.3.3 Social and Culture Background

1) History Background

Talking about the Batak Toba, it cannot be separated from the origin of Batak tribe

which is the majority tribe in North Sumatra. Batak tribal is divided into 5 subs – ethnic,

there are Karo, Simalungun, Pakpak, Mandailing and Toba. According to the myths, Batak

tribe came from a place called Pusuk Buhit, surrounded by Simanjur Mula-Mula valley, from

this place Si Raja Batak was revealed by the Creator around 13 th centuries. It was believed

that Si Raja Batak is derived from Mulajadi Na Bolon, which is the God of Batak. From the

marriage of Si Raja Batak, it was born two sons, Guru Tatea Bulan and Ompu Raja

Isumbaon, which then developed into clans of the fifth sub-ethnic of the Batak ethnic group.

When the time of the Batak society is spread, the arrival of the European, Asian and

the Middle East was already associated at the time of colonization. As part of the nation's

history, from the kingdom of Sisingamangaraja I, the great-grandfather of King

Sisingamangaraja XII whose becomes the national hero in the war against the colonization of

28
Netherland. By maintaining and preserving the culture, Batak Toba tribe was still exist until

now by defending the culture identity.

2.) Social System

Here are the things that can be examined in the social system of Batak Toba, that are:

 Dalihan Na Tolu

Dalihan Na Tolu is the social structure of the Batak Toba society that occurs as the

result of the marriage of the patriarchaat system. In words, Dalihan Na Tolu means

"fireplace with four legs". This principle is to share the status and the role of someone in

three parts, namely:

1. Hula-Hula is the parents in law which must be respected, in this case a role as the

giver of a girl in the Batak traditional wedding.

2. Boru is the daughter who became the recipient girl. Boru became hulu balang

towards on the Hula-Hula, and then they must obey the Hula-Hula.

3. Dongan Sabutuha is the people from the same clan. Girl and boy from the same

clan are not allowed to marry each other.

Relationship over the third composition was found in the Batak philosophy that

says "Somba marhulahula, elek marboru, manat mardongan tubu" which means

respectfully to Hula-Hula, cautious to the Dongan Sabutuha and persuade the Boru.

Everyone can have the different status of Dalihan Na Tolu in different ceremony, based

on the relationship with their clan that conducts the ceremony. This is caused by the

differences in the rights and obligations of each role. It can be said that Dalihan Na Tolu

is the projection of Debata Na Tolu which is: Batara Guru, Bala Sori and Bala Bulan,

who each of them represent the spirit of the gods from the top, middle and bottom world.

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 The Kinship System (Clan)

The culture of Batak has the characteristic of cooperation and loyal in every step

of their life. Its culture has become a philosophy of their life in the middle of the

globalization era. Even now the Batak society has spread to all over the world, but they

still use the clan name behind their original name. Clan or known as marga, is one of the

characteristics of Batak people. They agreed to keep the name as the identity of the

ancestor, partnership and spirit. The word clan comes from Sanskrit which means one-

way road, is a descendant of the same tradition environment. From the clan, people can

know the origin of every person, known as partuturon (genealogic relationships), and the

relationships based on the social structure of Dalihan Na Tolu. Based on the ownership of

clan, every people have the opportunity and the capability to build the network status of

relationships with the other Batak people.

Clan is the main identity for the Batak people. By mentioning the clan name, other

people could directly or analogically build the partuturan (reference), greetings (address),

solidarity, harmony, responsibility, togetherness, and can avoid conflict, jealousy, incest

marriage, and etc. Therefore, the presence of the Batak clan should be preserved.

 Marriage

In the tradition of Batak Toba particularly, a person can only marry with the

Batak people from the different clan. The term is marpariban or rimpal wedding,

which happens in the marriage between man and woman from the mother’s relatives.

However, when the pair of marriage has different cultural background, such as the

man is Java, while the woman is Batak, there will be the ceremonial giving the clan

name to the man from the bride’s uncle..

30
Nowadays, along with the occurrence of Batak Christian syncretism, wedding

ceremony was conducted with two types of ritual ceremonies in churches and

traditional ceremony at the outside of the building. In the traditional wedding

ceremony, the composition of Dalihan Na Tolu will be used to determine the status of

the placement of people for the sitting position arrangement (parhundulana) based on

the kinship system.

3.) Knowledge and Technology System

Talking about the system of knowledge cannot be separated from the development of

technology. Batak Toba society has known and used the simple tools to help their works in

various fields. In anthropological studies, simple technology is divided into eight types of

equipment in according to the usage; production equipment, weapons, container, fire lighter,

food and beverages, clothing and jewelry, shelter and transportation.

Some of the tools created by the traditional Batak Toba society are hoe, plow,

single rod, Sabi - Sabi (sickle) or ani - ani. They also create a weapon for protection tools,

such as piso surit (a kind of dagger), piso gajah dampak (long-wavy dagger), hujur

(spear), and podang (long sword). Besides that, the transportation is one of the important

elements that facilitated the access entry and exit from the Samosir regency. Now, the

varieties of transportation are available, from bus to ferry, connecting Samosir Island and

Sumatra.

4.) Beliefs and Religions

At the beginning, before the influence of religion came, Batak Toba people were

the follower of animism and dynamism. This belief believes many objects have certain

31
strength, because it must be enclosed by fear, respect and thankful. Besides, they also

believe the three concepts of spirit and soul that is:

1. Tondi is a spirit or soul that belongs to every human life.

2. Sahala is the magic spirit that owned exclusively.

3. Begu is the soul from the spirit, as in died people. There are good begu and bad begu,

its adored according to the needs with pelean (offerings).

In addition, in the traditional cosmology of Batak divided the existence of human

life in the three levels of gods who created the world as follows:

- The top world is the kingdom of the higest God, Mulajadi Nabolon (the Creator)

and the place of the ancestor’s spirits who have died.

- The central world is the place of human being that authorized by Silaon

Nabolon.

- The underworld is the living place of devils and Satans that is occupied by Pane

Nabolon.

Inside the Batak Toba society on the olden time, they believed some faiths, such

as Parmalim or Ugamo Malim and the faith of Si Raja Batak. Spirituality Parmalim was

heavily influenced by the Indian people who belief Hinduism. However, at that time

Hindu was not directly replaced the local

belief in Batak Toba society, Hindu culture

at that time brought the term and thus

influence the local terminology for the name

of their Goddess that were worshiped by the

Batak Toba people. For example, the word

of Debata is taken from the Sanskrit Figure 4: The ceremony of Parmalim

language means Dewata, with the adjustment

32
to the Batak dialect.

King Sisingamangaraja is also the follower of Parmalim. According to the

followers, they beliefs that the derivative of Sisingamangaraja will become king in the

world and never die. This belief worshiping on Saturday and have restrictions should not

eat pork, carrion and blood. Parmalim conducting religious ceremonies twice each year

where concentrated in Laguboti (late March). The ceremony called the Mangan na Paet

which used the music tools such as Gondang and hasapi; while mangaliat horbo

ceremony is the sacrifice ritual that uses Gondang sabangunan as the opening.

Since Islam and Christian came, those local beliefs are considered as primitive

belief and make them more step aside from the era. However, until now the rest of the

local beliefs can still be found in some corners, but it cannot determine how the amount

of the followers due to the beliefs that has not been an organized religion. Islam entered

the Land of Batak in the 19th century brought by the Chinese who then assimilated with

the Nasution clan. Islam became the official religion of Batak Toba people, especially the

Marpaung clan.

The presence of Christians in the year 1863, forced the Muslim society to leave

the Samosir Island. Most of them were immigrated to South Tapanuli. While Samosir

regency which at that time included as the area of North Tapanuli occupied by the

missionaries of Christian spreading. Dr. I. L. Nommensen is the most famous

missionaries with his success bring Christian to the Batak Toba society. Since that time, it

was established the church of HKBP (Huria Kristen Batak Protestant), which finally

transform traditional ceremony policy that allowed by the church accordin to the

mandate. Nowadays, nearly 99% Batak Toba people is Christian.

5.) Language

33
All tribes in Indonesia have their own mother language. However, not all of them

have own alphabets, while Batak Toba have both, language and alphabets. Batak

language is one of the local languages from 706 local languages in the archipelago that

was influenced by Hindu culture. Like the word of "Debata" which was derived from

Sanskrit (Hindu) namely "Dewata" means god. Thus, word or term that has a Sanskrit

letter of W, when entering into the Batak language changed to the letter of B or the other.

The change occurs because the Batak dialect does not recognize the letters or sounds of:

C, Ny, F, Q, Y, X, V, Z, E weak and usually begins with the letter H to replace K. Batak

Toba language is considered as the most complete vocabulary. It was proven from the

using of Batak Toba language in the Malay vocabularyi.

The alphabets of Batak Toba are found in the heritage book that tells about the

legend of Tarombo (genealogy). Batak script was also adapted from the writings of India

/ Hinduism called Sanskrit, but nowadays, Batak script start showing extinction because

no one uses this kind of alphabet again.

6.) Arts

 Literature

In Batak Toba know very well of the folklore of Si Boru Tumbaga and the

legend of Toba Lake, which is called turi-turi. Batak Toba Literature can be

expressed as umpanma (poem), which forms almost the same as the Malay poem that

has four rows, containing sampiran and the rime is a-b-a-b.

Other types of literature is Andung-Andung, Tonggo-Tonggo, and Huling-

hulingan. Andung-Andung is forms of feeling downpour when grieving over the dead.

However, now the expression is rarely used, while Tonggo-tonggo is often used in the

34
ritual ceremonies. Huling-hulingan is the short puzzles of word in the Batak Toba

language frequently used by the young.

 Traditional dance

Tor - tor is the traditional dance from Batak Toba, as a picture or reflection

from the society in the performance that can be categorized into traditional dance,

happiness, sadness / meditation, church devotions, entertainment / tourism, Si gale-

gale and Si boru Manggale (tale of Dalihan Na tolu). Usually the event of manortor

(the dancing), followed by the panortor individually, in pairs or in groups,

accompanied with the music from Gondang Sebangunan.

 Music

From an observation based on the

Germany people for many years ago in

Indonesia, concluded that the Batak

Figure 5: Gondang Sebangunan Toba tribe is full of the music spirit. This is

marked by the intensity of the using of musical instruments that are frequently used in

the ritual ceremonies. The musical instruments such as: flute (similar with clarinet),

hasapi (harp), sulim (flute), and Gondang Sebangunan.

 Architecture

The traditional house of Batak Toba made from the wood poles with large and

strong pillars. Its roof is made from leaves of palm fiber and shaped curve. The back

and front of the roof has different length, which defines the owner status must have a

35
better life than their parents, like if his father is a farmer, then the son must be a

doctor.

As a kind of house stage, the hole in the ground is usually used for farming.

The pillars are bundling with the woods. The

rounded pillars symbolize the son; while the

vertical woods symbolize the daughter. From those

symbols, the parent hopes the children can be

united and the daughter played as the unifying

instrument in the family.

Colors in the traditional house of Batak

Toba dominated the color of black, white, and red.

In general, the front and side walls of the house

decorated with various carvings that have specific Figure 6:The traditional house of
Batak Toba
meanings, such as:

- Lizard, which means that the Batak Toba people must be easily adapted everywhere

they are immigrated.

- Four breasts, symbolize the criteria and the characteristics of Batak women that

should fertile to give descendant for the husband, pure-hearted, warm-hearted and loyal.

- Sculptures with various shapes, used as tools for against the black magic, such as the

statue of Si Naga – Naga.

 Handicraft

The famous handicraft from Batak Toba culture is Ulos. Woven fabric that is

made by the Batak Toba people is considered as the tools of worshiping. It is also

considered as a sacral tool that can be seen from the dominant color; black symbolize

36
the top world, white symbolize the center world,

and red symbolize the underworld. Ulos has various

types of uses and meanings, including:

- Ulos Sadum is worn by the Batak Toba women.

- Ulos Sibolang is worn by the corpse.

- Ulos Parompa is used to hold the baby until he/she can

be walk.

Ulos as the traditional handicraft has the

religious, social and economic values. Until now Figure 7: Ulos Sibolang

Ulos is still processed traditionally by the Batak Toba

women.

37
Chapter IV:
RESULTS

To obtain the primary data of research, 100 questionnaires has been distributed reach

the respondents aged 13 - 60 years. The questionnaire results are presented in the following

data:

1. The Population
The Amount of Native People
80
70
60
50
40 Male
30 Female
20
10
0
Native People Non- Native People
Chart 1: The Amount of Native People

From 100 respondents, most of the natives are living since their birth in those three

villages (Tomok, Ambarita, and Tuk-tuk Siadong). The native people are the Batak Toba

tribe. While non- native people has living between 1 day - 3 years, are come from Nias tribe 2

people; Java 4; Minangkabau and Malay people as much as one for each. Other non-native

people come from the Batak Karo tribe and Mandailing, 2 and 3 people respectively that

identified from their clans.

38
Chart of Religion
Christian Catholic Islam 2. Religion

From the chart above that


20% 65% of respondents embrace

Christianity, the remaining 15%


15%
65% of respondents are Catholic and

20% embraces of Islam. Most

who embraces Islam is the tribes

Chart 2: Religion from outside of the Samosir

Island.

3. The marriage Status


Have You Married?
From the respondents who have

No
already married from the same
44% Yes
56% culture background, Batak Toba –

Batak Toba, as many as 49 people.

Currently, the rest has a pair from

Javanesse, Sundanesse, Malayan,

Chart 3: The Marriage Status and Nias.

4. The using of Language

In the questionnaires, the using of language categorized into three groups:

family, friends and formal.

39
I. Family
The Using of Language with
Family

others The using of local languages


2%
is the choice to communicate with

Indonesian their families. As many as 62%


language
36% respondents use the Batak language.
Batak
language However, Indonesian language was
62%
sometimes used by 36% respondents

with their families. Other languages

Chart 4: The Using of Language with used are Malayan.


Family

II. Friends

1% The Using of Language with Respondents communicate


Friends
with the friends usually use the
Indonesian language Batak Language Others
local language and Indonesian

language. In this situation, it

depends on the people they talk


46% 53% with, if with the same tribe, they

are more familiar in using local

language. Some of 45% of

respondents chose Batak language


Chart 5: The Using of Language with Friends
to communicate with the Batak

friends. The Indonesian language is used by 53% respondents. The rest use the

Malay language.

40
III. Formal

The Using of Language in formal


Batak Language Others
13% 2%

Indonesian
Language
85%

Chart 6: The Using of Language in Formal


Formal language is use at work or in a formal situation. From the chart

above, 85% of respondents use the Indonesian language. However, there were

13% of respondents who use the Batak language in formal situation. The rest

use foreign languages such as English and German, as the job demands related

to the foreign tourists. Plus the 52 respondents who claim to take a foreign

language, like English, Chinese,


How the Respondents Get
Information? German, and Japanese.

60

50 5. The Using of Technology

40

30 From chart 7 found that most

20 respondents receive any information or

10 news from television, as chosen by 50

0 respondents. In this case, respondents


Television Newspaper Internet Others
Chart 7: The Information Tools could select more than two items that

given. Presently, the newspaper was

41
selected by 30 respondents, 17

respondents use the Internet and The usage of communication


tools
other 2 respondents.
90
In the questionnaire is asked, 80
70
"What kind of communication
60

tools that you usually use?" 50


40
Respondents only has once chance
30

to choose among four options that 20


10
was provided, whether mobile
0
Cell phone Telephone Public phone Others
phone, telephone, public phone or
Chart 8: The Usage of Communication
other. 84 of respondents using cell
Tools
phones as the communication tools. But telephone and public phone is still used by 8

respondents and 4 respondents. They still use telephone and public phone, because

they do not have hand phone.

42
Chapter V:
DISCUSSION

5.1 The Dynamics of Batak Toba Culture

Viewing the results of the survey and research, it was found the elements of the

dynamics of Batak Toba culture. The results were also supported with the theories that reflect

the dynamics of the culture inside Batak Toba. Called as the dynamic culture, because of the

dynamics in the Batak Toba culture itself occurs the process of shifting, reducing, and

addition of the elements in a culture the reducing, the addition would also develop cultural

elements, but in this case, the culture change will be highlighted to see the Batak Toba

Culture in the era of globalization. The dynamics of Batak Toba culture is supported the

occurrence of three main factors that caused the interaction with others people who affect

each other, there are: diffusion, acculturation and assimilation.

5.1.1 The Diffusion of Batak Toba Culture

Through the distribution and migration from both groups that come in and out of

Samosir Regency, the elements of culture are also spread. Too much access into the island of

Samosir facilitates the entry of influences from the new culture. Access can be done by the

land or water transportation. From the land can be access the Tele road which connects

directly to the capital district, Pangururan, through Tano Panggol which is a bridge

separating Samosir Island and Sumatra, made at the Dutch Colonial era. In addition, the

accesses can also using water transportation such as ferry and speedboat through the harbors.

43
From 100 respondents that were randomly selected, 30 respondents are the people

from different culture or Tribe, there are Nias, Javanese, Minangkabau, Malayan, Batak Karo,

and Mandailing. The non - native people come to Samosir regency, mostly working as the

traders in Tuk-tuk Siadong or Tomok. They come from district around Toba Lake, such as

Pematang Siantar and Parapat, so that they can make a return trip using the ferry to go to the

Tomok harbour in Samosir island from the Parapat harbor in Sumatera. In additional, there

are also some people who work in government institutions that most of them are from the

different kind of cultural background. So, now Samosir Island is owned by multicultural

people, not only the Batak Toba people.

However, distribution and migration occurs in reciprocal request. In addition to the

entry of immigrants with different ethnic background is different, there are people out Batak

Toba of Samosir Island. Batak Toba people migrate to large cities across the country have

been held for three generations. Panjaitan says in interview snippets with Tapian Magazine

November 2007 edition describes three generations Batak tribes who first migrated,

 The first generation began in the 1920s, when people migrate to Pematang

Siantar, Medan, and Jakarta, including the era of struggling by the national hero.

 The second generation takes about 1950s to 1960s; most of them continue the

duty of military forces and schools to the universities on Java Island.

 The third generation who migrated around 1970's and 80's was the Batak

women. Most of them become traders on Java and Sumatra.

In the early years of migration, the city of Medan and Pematang Siantar is their

primary target who wants to work. Medan is a city that construct by the Dutch colonial firstly

used as a central of plantation administrator in North Sumatra, is selected as the destination

for migration that guarantee a wider field of works rather than in homeland. The migration

was increase after the Oil factory, PT Pertamina (persero) established in the city of Pangkalan

44
Berandan. Especially in metropolitan cities such as Jakarta, although the population is

increase every year, but still become the favorite destination for the new comers. Many Batak

Toba people works as the professional officers until the assistant of the bus driver or known

as “kenek”.

The basic motivation of Batak Toba people immigrated was connect with the three

main orientation of the Batak Toba culture life. The first is called hagabeon, is the amount of

childrens, for that the Batak Toba people must be married and have a number of sons as much

as they can. Second is hasangapon; associated with aspiration to reach the Batak people of

power, honor or prestige and education, including strengthening the culture. The third is also

called hamoraon or wealthy.

So it can be said that the Batak Toba people migrate is not only because the economic

aspects, but also change the whole structure of its culture. Many of them are going to be able

to wander to make them independently without parents; this is usually done by people who

do not get the heritage, especially the daughter. There are also couples that were wandering

because follow the husband or the wife who has different background of culture.

But, the immigrants do not need to feel worry in the new place where they wandering,

because there will be Punguan (Persada) or a place to gather with family from the same clan

for doing such activities. Punguan is roles as the traditional institution that connects them

with the homeland. In addition, through Punguan they can help each other, especially in

economic problems. Usually the funds collected from all members for the development of the

homeland, ritual events, and help each other. Further than, Punguan institutions is also play a

role as the institution to finished the family and traditions problems. In this case, the

Punguan’s capacity is the same as the parents of immigrants who have problems.

From there it can be seen that the kinship system of Batak Toba tribe is very close.

Wherever they are, if they meet people from the same tribe, the first question that will ask is

45
about the clan. Through the clan, they can know the position in the structure of Dalihan Na

Tolu, whether as Dongan Sabutuha, Boru or Hula - hula, so that they can still keep politeness

in the act.

However, the decision to wandering is the individual choices. The Risk of being

living outside the traditional environment is very easily to make the people losing their

cultural identity. Moreover, if they are minority in the new place, the new culture will be

influence their culture. This is also recognized by E.M Bruner, an anthropologist from the

United States and also the lecturer of the University of Illinois, who did twice times research

about the migration patterns of Batak tribe. The first Research was done on 1960 in Medan,

North Sumatra, and the second research was done on the 1970s in Bandung, West Java.

Bruner concluded that the Batak people who migrated to Medan have very strong culture and

very-well maintainance of their origin culture; it was seen from the ethnic composition in

Medan that was lead by the Batak Toba tribe.

While, Batak Toba people who migrated to Bandung and other cities outside the

Sumatera island, which considered as the home of the Batak tribe, they can be easily

influenced by the traditions and local culture from the new place. For example in Bandung,

they live there with the Sundanese, so they must use the local language to interact with the

local society. But when they come along together with others Batak people, they will return

into their origin tradion.

5.1.2 The Acculturation of Batak Toba Culture

The acculturation process in the Batak Toba culture caused the elements of new

culture entering and finally accepted by the Batak Toba society. This process causes the

46
Batak Toba society becomes dynamic that easily accepted the changes. However, with the

addition of new culture is not affecting whole of the Batak Toba culture.

One of the elements of culture that get the influence from acculturation is the local

language. It can be seen from the chart 5 that there are people that still use the Batak

language when communicate with the family. However this should be supported, because

family is one of the important agents in enculturation. Now, Batak language is rare to be use

by the society, because the Batak Toba society as the main users, do not preserve it. Parents

are happier if the child learns the foreign language rather than local language, because they

think it will more useful in this era of globalization. But, this is one of the signs of the extinct

of Batak language.

While the using of Indonesian language is use by the most of the respondents if

communicate with their friends. Although some of them are still use the local, especially the

Batak language. The local language used if they talk with the same Batak people. The local

language is not only the Batak language, but also Javanese and Malay.

The using of Java language is proving from the interviewed with Salahuddin (40), the

owner of Islamic restaurant in Tuk-tuk Siadong. He said that there is a village of Java society.

In the village there is a market, where all the transactions using the Java language, so that

people doing the transaction by using the Javanese language, even the buyers are a Batak

Toba people.

Indonesian language is also used as formal language in work or other formal situation.

This is because Indonesian language is the official language of the nation. On the other hand,

there are also several respondents that use the local language in formal situation, because the

community where the formal situation happens has the same cultural background. But, some

of the respondents use foreign languages such as English, German, Mandarin and Japanese,

because they claim the work related to the aboard tourists.

47
The existence of technology in the middle of the Batak Toba culture begins with the

installation of electricity. Batak Toba society begins to leave the traditional tools, because

they thought that the new technology more practical and can improve the quality of their

lives. With electricity, they can use the lighting and watching television. According to the

development of period, the presence of the communication and information tools are

important to know the outside world. Most of the respondents chose television as their source

of information, because television has the specialty that can be hear and at the same time it

has the visual. So, it bcome the potential tools to deliver the information to every levels of

society. However, the development of television that faster than the culture development

makes the cultural implication such as the issues of cultural imperialism by showing the

freely television programs which contradict with the local culture.

Newspapers as the written source of information are still read by many people.

However, along with the era of globalization, most of the respondents use internet to get the

up-to-date information. The availability of the internet is supported by the existence of the

internet stalls and cafes around the hotels area in Tuk-tuk Siadong. Internet stalls or usually

known as “warnet” (the acronym of Warung Internet) initially to facilitate the aboard tourists

who come, but finally the local society especially the students have started using the facility.

From internet, the spreading of foreign language was also sustained, because most of the

website being written in English.

The presence of mobile phones is also increasingly replacing the role of telephone and

public phone as the communication tools. The reason is easy and efficient which make hand

phone can be taken to go everywhere and it also a multi-functional tool. Besides the

availability of facilities to call, there are also other facilities such as a camera, text messaging,

sound recorder, video recorder and others. So mobile phones are not only as the

48
communication tools that facilitating the relationship with the others by phone, but also as the

recreation tools.

But, it is not always the elements of new culture make the old culture disappear. Like

in the traditional weddings of Batak Toba, Dangdut and entertainment has already become

the musical instruments besides the traditional music, such as Hasapi and Gondan. Even

though they receive the elements of new culture, the Batak Toba society does not forget and

keep their own traditions and culture.

5.1.3 The Assimilation of Batak Toba Culture

Tribes that coming from outside the island of Samosir are triggered the occurrence of

mixing culture with Batak Toba society. This can occur through the mixing marriage. From

56 respondents who were married found among them married with different kind of cultural

background. Most of the husbands are Javanese, Nias or Malay, while the wifes are Batak

Toba. Before they are married, the husband is passing the traditional ceremony of clan given

by the wife’s uncle. In such conditions, it is very rarely found a different pair of culture that

lived in the homeland of the wife. Usually the wife is must follow the husband to go to his

homeland.

But, it found also the couple from different cultural background, both of the wife and

the husband are Javanese, is living in Samosir. Even they are living in Samosir since their

childhood. The mix marriage is not only happen between the tribes or cultures from

Indonesia, even the foreigners that role as the tourists are attracted by the Batak Tobe people

and eventually married and settled on Samosir island. Sometimes, the foreigner is look more

like Batak people than the wife or the husband that the real Batak people. Actually the

mixture of wedding has happened since long times ago, when the spread of Islamic religion

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brought by Chinese and Arabian people to the land of Batak. Marriage made as one of the

way how the merchants used to make the Batak Toba people become the Muslim, because if

the Batak people want to marry with the Muslim merchants, they must become Muslim first.

Religion as one of the elements of culture that very difficult to change is not valid in The land

of Batak. After both of Islam and Christian arrived, its easily replace the local beliefs. They

must chosed between Islam and Christian, because it’s one of the their obligations as part of

an Indonesian citizen to embrace the religion that has been recognized by the state law.

Seen from the chart 2, that is more than half of the respondents are Christian. It

shows that 99% Batak Toba society is Christian. This can be seen from the many churches of

HKBP (Huria Kristen Batak Protestant) was buil in the land of Batak. The rest are Catholic,

Islamic and Parmalim. As a past belief, Parmalim, still survive until now, But it is not found

in the three villages where the research happen. Parmlaim was concentrated in Laguboti and

in the corners where the belief is unrecognized.

According to the social scientists, Parmalim is actually be possible as the official

religion, as found on its values aiming the pattern of human life up to the harmony of the

human and also to the Creator. However, it is not enough, based on the general perception,

religion must have a noticeable holy book and prophet. While, Parmalim do not has both of

them obviously, even if some of them are belief that King Sisingamangaraja was their

prophet. Besides that, the local belief in the past is considered as the misleading stream as the

followers of Sipelebegu (the worshippers of evil spirits or demons).

In fact, some of the leader of the religion considered the traditional ceremony of

Batak Toba is the projection in a form of worship and obedience to the Mulajadi na bolon

which is the god of the Parmalim’s followers. So, if followers of certain religion must do the

same ritual, it means equally worshipping two different God in the same time. By doing the

traditional ceremonies means they are still belief to the ancestor animistic. So that, until now

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the Parmalim society is become the marginal 'original' in the land of Batak and the

government only considered as the religious culture.

5.2 The influence of Globalization towards on the Batak Toba Culture

Along with the time, bring the Batak Toba people entering the era of globalization

where it is said that the world increasingly without borders. The influence of globalization is

a highly developed technology. This makes the availability of communication and technology

develop easily to connect all over the world and also the presence of transportation that

cannot be denied makes the Batak Toba tradition is shifting. With the number of access into

the Samosir Regency makes it easier to be entering by the new culture and it will influence

the Batak Toba culture. When the Batak Toba culture does not maintain very well, it can be

determine if the Batak Toba culture will become the forgotten culture from the past.

So far, the results of the research indicate that globalization has influenced lots of the

elements of culture. For example, one of the Batak Toba tradition that being forced to be

modern is the law of heritag. In Batak Toba culture, girls do not get any heritage, only the

boys get the heritage. This is dissimilar to the law which applied in the Republic of Indonesia

where the children even it is boys or girls are get the same rights in the sharing out of

heritage.

In addition, the presence of technology, make Batak Toba people was very depending

with these things. Awareness and practice to produce the traditional instruments was

decrease, due to the availability of modern instruments that more practical. It is just a small

influence of globalization. The width influence is the influence of religion and education that

adjust the overall pattern that they thought as the traditional style into modern.

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The use of local languages has been ignored, replaced by the foreign language. The

traditional ceremony that should be preserving is increasingly rare due to the difference of

point of views between the religion and the traditions. Talking about the arts, most of the

literature that was written with the Batak alphabets is already extinct, because the young

generation not known the meaning of the local language and alphabets. While the traditional

dance and the traditional music instruments are just become the entertainment for the tourist.

There is no young generation that continued to practice the traditional dance or how to play

gondang. Most of them precisely practice the other traditional dance or music from Java.

Nowadays, the traditional dance and music are also uncommon use in the traditional

ceremonies. It has already replaced by the dangdut music performance.

The traditional house of Batak Toba has the same destiny with others heritage of

Batak Toba culture. It is because the desire and the motivation of the local society to build

the traditional house were decreasingly. It caused by the expensive fee that the people needed

to built the traditional house. Besides that, the traditional house is also not pratical and

outdated. But, in Ambarita villages there are some of the traditional house of Batak Toba that

is still preserve by the local society. It is maintain as the culture heritage beside the museum

of Huta Bolon Simanindo. While Ulos is still use by the traditional dancers and the obligation

for the people and tourists is to wear Ulos when they are entering the graveyard of Sidabutar.

But, Ulos nowadays become a commercial handicraft that can be found in the traditional

market even in Jakarta that very far from the place where Ulos has been made. Additionally,

the presences of industry in Samosir Regency is polluted the Toba lake as the heritage of

Batak Toba Toba culture. Most of the factories are remove the waste directly to the lake

Toba. So the lake being polluted by the waste that contains chemical substance or toxic. This

condition unpleasantly makes the fresh air in Samosir, that is one of the excellence that

offered from the tourism, was polluted.

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Toba lake that attracting many domestic and aboard tourists come, make the local

society used this chance to do business, such as souvenir shop, hotels, the internet stalls,

library, bicycle rental and others that can supporting the economic sectors. But, this is the

problem, because the business performers is more than the tourist, some of the sellers

sometimes forced the tourists to buy their goods. This is one of the causes why tourist do not

like with the attitude of the local culture and this small problem implicated the amount of

tourist that come visited. Others factors that influence the tourism are the lack of access to go

to the Samosir Island, the less of promotion and cultural events. It is also seriously impact by

the global crisis. This can be the input for the regional government to increasing the cultural

and tourism promotion.

Globalization is is the result of the time development that is increasingly highly

developed and sophisticated. It was not only caused the negative impact, but also positive

impact. Here are the positive and negative impacts of globalization on the Batak Toba

culture:

 The Positive Impacts

1. The development of science and technology that can be used by the Batak

Toba people to improve their quality of life.

2. The society is more open to the cultural development.

3. Toba Lake was made as the tourist attraction.

4. It resulting the qualified Human resources.

5. It changes in the value system becomes better and rational.

6. The opening of work fields.

 The Negative Impacts

1. Demoralization caused by the society not already holds the tradition and of

the Batak Toba culture.

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2. Forget their culture due to stuck in the easiness that offered by the

globalization era.

3. Consumerism of goods that was offered.

4. Eliminate the local language with the existence of the Indonesian language

and foreign language.

5. The cultural lag happen due to the unbalanced development of culture that

does not occur at the same time.

To slow the contaminations of globalization, it was required the role of Batak Toba

society to preserve the culture, because globalization might make the culture extinct culture

consumed by time. Not just only preserve the using of clan name, but the Batak Toba society

is also need to preserve the elements of culture. The positive impact of globalization should

considered maturely, because it is related with the survival of Batak Toba culture. This way

of cultural preservation must do by the local society and other people, in order to preserve the

culture from the global culture.

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Chapter VI:
CONCLUSION

Nowadays, globalization is affecting the dynamics culture in Batak Toba. Cultural

identity must be forced to follow the conditions of the development of period that have been

grown and developed as well as the globalization. The Batak Toba culture can be lost,

because people do not care about their own culture with their own. In their own cultural

disintegration occurs due to religious and cultural tradition is seen by some of the Batak Toba

people. As already happened at this time, the sects of church looked some of the certain

traditional ceremonies that are held is often misguided teachings. In fact, it is just rituals in

the cultural as the heritage that must be preserve by the local society.

The factors of dynamic culture: diffusion, acculturation and assimilation, has

influence the local culture in this era of globalization. Obviously, it influenced the way how

they communicate in terms of language that they used in the daily life and also the attendance

of technology. The local language is also starting to become the third language after

Indonesian language and others foreign language. Globalization makes the mixing of western

and eastern culture to be united. Cultures that participate will be dissolving the elements of its

culture. It is necessary for the protection of the local culture in Indonesian as the nation

identity. The way is by filtering the new culture that come and preserve the nation cultural.

Batak Toba society must become the global human that selective in choosing what is

suitable and what is unnecessary for the culture, because it will damage the culture. This is

some of the simple way to preserve the Batak Toba culture from the influence of

globalization, which can be start by the individual awareness and cooperation with other

elements of the society, there are:

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 Manage the environment by littering in the right place, stops the illegal

logging, builds the cleanness facilities and works together to clean and prevent

the Toba Lake from Factories waste and the fossil fuels of ferry.

 Less the internal conflict and increasing the cooperation to maintaining the

culture.

 Build more museums as the right place for the cultural heritage to be store.

Not just only build the museums, but also the government giving the special

budget for the maintenance.

 Preserve the Cultural party that fulfill by the cultural competition, such as

traditional dance, traditional clothes fashion show, and traditional ceremony.

This cultural party is already done once a year every 9 th – 12th July.

However, all of the way to preserve the culture will realize if the local society is

support the programs that the government makes for they takes the advantages and the most

important is do not forget to the Batak philosophy that said:

“Omputa na parjolo martungkot sialagundi, napinungka ni parjolo si ihuthonon ni


naparpudu”

It means anything that made by the ancestor, such as tradition and law, must be fulfill,
preserve and enculturation from one generation to the next generation.

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