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The reasons why this paperwork is being done is due to several objectives as stated below:>Evaluating human activities that endanger an ecosystem >Understanding the greenhouse effect and the thinning of the ozone layer >Realizing the importance of proper management of development activities and the ecosystem >to instill awareness among humans about the significances of preservation and conservation of the ecosystem. >to make humans realize how bad are the effects of humans’ activities towards the environment. >to increase efforts on creating a safer environment for ourselves and for the future generations. >to deduce the time for the depletion and destruction of the environment due to various environmental problems caused by human beings.

First and foremost, I would like to introduce myself. I am CHONG JIA PING from Form 4 SCIENCE and I am glad indeed to be studying biology which is the most intriguing subject ever. I, now, have completed a paper work or a folio on the topic “Endangered Ecosystem” based on the last chapter in the Form 4 Biology syllabus. I have gone through many laughs and sobs throughout the progression in completing this folio. Nevertheless, I felt relief and grateful of having such wonderful companions who are my lovely Biology teacher, herself, Cik Nurul Hafiza bt. Jusoh, my parents, my helpful friends and my siblings. In the long period, I have faced many problem in my folio. My computer has broken down when I am doing folio. So, I need to send my computer to repair it. After that, I realized my printer ink has run out. I also go and buy it. Beside that, many time my internet has disconnect and made me trouble. But, I would like to thank the mentioned people whom have been very supportive and helpful in giving me extra information, tips and ideas to make this work a satisfying piece. Not to forget, my headmistress, Puan. Hajah Fatimah binti Ahmad, for giving us, the students, this opportunity to do this folio. Last but not least, thank you once again for all the commitments and supports. May all of you live in a blissful life.

Materials: 1. Computer 2. Colour paper 3. Printer 4. Internet Internet: 1. 2. 3. 4. Book Textbook Biology Form 4, Gan Wan Yeat, Ng Lee Lean, First Published 2005 Bakaprep Sdn. Bhd.

Learning Outcome
9.1 • • • • • • • • • • 9.2 • • • • Explain what the greenhouse effect is Correlate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere with global warning Explain the thinning of the ozone layer Explain the impact of the thinning of the ozone layer and global warming on the ecosystem Identify human activities that threaten the ecosystem Explain the impact of human activities on the ecosystem Evaluate critically the effect of unplanned development and mismanagement of the ecosystem Describe types of pollution and sources of pollution Explain the effects of pollution on living things and the environment Compare and contrast pollutants in the air from different environments State the sources of air pollution Interpret data on the level of water pollution in some rivers Predict the level of air and water pollution in a particular location within the next ten years Suggest strategies to solve problems related to air and water pollution in a particular location within the next ten years

9.3 • • • • • Justify the need for development Explain the effect of increase in population on the ecosystem Explain measures taken in the management of development activities and the ecosystem to ensure the balance of nature is maintained Care for the ecosystem Participate in activities related to the management of the ecosystem

I start my biology folio from 6 JUNE 2010 which teacher has been given the homework for school holiday. Firstly, I start with the front page which include name, IC number, class with year, title, teacher’s name and date submit. After that, I continue my folio with the objective, problem statement, apparatus & material, technique and procedure. Then, I have follow the textbook in chapter 9 (ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM) and explain it. During the two months, I finally managed to finish my folio on the topic “Endangered Ecosystem” based on the last chapter in the Form 4 Biology syllabus

Human activities that endanger an ecosystem. The world’s population might reach to 10 billion in the next fifty years. Hence, when there are increments in the number of the world’s population, it generally means that there is an increasing demand for shelter, food, medicine, transport and raw materials. Today, due to expectation of modern living and industrial revolution, the world has to confront the destruction of forests to build more houses, to being use as plantation areas and to build roads; just to fulfill humans’ needs. Unplanned developments and mismanagement of ecosystem give rise to vast amounts of environmental crisis. Among those environmental problems are greenhouse effect, global warming, pollution, soil erosion, landslide, flashflood and ozone depletion. The human activities that we are talking about are like agriculture, burning or combustion, industrialisation, urbanisation and last but not least, deforestation.

Impact of Human Activities on The Ecosystem Human activities made many drawbacks to the environment. Whether we like them or not, these cons of the human activities have made all of us now leaving in a hardship. The impacts can now be clearly seen by looking at our devastating environment conditions. What are the impacts? Let us see for ourselves….

Human activities usually affect the ecosystem. The activities that endanger the ecosystem is shown below:
Human activities that endanger the ecosystem.

Deforestation Soil erosion Landslides Flash flood

Extinction of flora and fauna Global warming Greenhouse effect

Industrialisation pollution

Burning pollution Greenhouse effects

Urbanisation pollution pollution



• •

Deforestation is an act of extensive cutting down or burning the trees in the forest. The vast areas of forests are being cleared away for extracting timber or fuel wood, agriculture and urban development.

• There are many impacts of deforestation such as: Soil erosion, flash floods and landslides.  Landslides occurs when the top layer of soil loosens and slides down because of rains for a long period of time during rainy seasons.

 The landslides happen because of the stability of soil is lost due to deforestation.  Clearing of trees causes the loss of tree leaves to protect the soil from the impact of raindrops and also causes the loss of tree roots to hold the soil in places.  Thus, the soil is exposed directly to the force of the rain. Heavy rainfall will easily washed

away the top layer of the soil. This leads to soil erosion.  The eroded soil is carried away by water and may be deposited into the river.  During heavy rains, rainwater flows quickly into rivers because there is no retention of water by plant roots as well as water catchment areas.

Due to silting in the rivers, the water flows is blocked. Thus, water flows inland and causes flash flood in low areas.

Soil erosion also leads to DEPLETION OF MINERALS for the land. The land cannot be used for cultivation. Extinction of flora and fauna  Deforestation leads to the loss of habitats for many species of flora and fauna.  This will cause an increased rate of extinction of plants and animals. As a results, it reduces biodiversity and the source of food and valuables medicines for humans.

→ Greenhouse effect and global warming.  Deforestation causes weather and climatic changes.  When a large scale of trees are destroyed by cutting and burning, it will reduce rainfall, transpiration rate and the rate of using carbon dioxide during photosynthesis by plants.  Clearing and burning of forests also release vast amounts of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.  Deforestation is believed to contribute about 20-30% of all carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for every year.  Carbon dioxide can prevent heat from escaping from the atmosphere. Thus, the level of carbon dioxide increases and global temperature also increases. This leads to greenhouse effect and global warming.  Increasing global temperature may change the ecosystem. b) FARMING • Excessive use of land for farming and stock rearing lead to infertile land and may expose soil to erosion by wind.

Use of inorganic fertilisers in farming also leads to eutrophication. c) URBANISATION

Dumping of domestic waste as well as sewage discharge from houses causes pollution. • The waste materials in landfills act as toxic substances which pollute nearby water sources. INDUSTRIALISATION • Industrial plants discharge industrial and heated waste water causing water pollution and thermal pollution. • Toxic gases released by industries contribute to air pollution.


BURNING • Open burning of rubbish, farms and forests release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which aggravates the greenhouse effect. • Burning of fossil fuels causes air pollution as well as increase the carbon dioxide content. • As a result, it causes the greenhouse effect and global warming.