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Introduction The compositional triumph of a lifetime—an indelible mark left on the world of music—a piece that loudly speaks of eclectic sources and inspirations: this is Béla Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra. Béla Bartók, an important participant in the creation of a modern 20th-century art form, also stood on the brink of the modern field of ethnomusicological study. Influenced by his involvement in folk music studies, Bartók’s compositional creations demonstrate that the natural progression of Western European music did not have to follow the course of atonality and the Second Viennese School. Concerto for Orchestra, the pinnacle of a lifetime’s work, is an icon of 20th-century extended tonality. The material that Béla Bartók uses to craft his Concerto for Orchestra is from a different musical lineage than that of Beethoven and Vienna. Bartók’s compositional voice was unique. He perfected a craft using materials that had always existed in the shadow of the Viennese giants; i.e. the folk music that had been relatively unspoiled by urban influence. Just like his predecessors Bartók made a habit of quoting and arranging pre-existing materials, but unlike his predecessors and many of his contemporaries, he managed to write in the actual voice of those peasants whom he admired and studied. He also drew strength from his colleagues, especially Zoltán Kodály, who not only assisted him with his studies but also wrote works such as a Concerto for Orchestra several years before Bartók received his commission from Koussevitzky. In addition, Bartók drew
Nicolas Lell Benavides from church hymns and other composers like Shostakovich (in the 4th movement of Concerto for Orchestra) whom he quoted as a form of mockery. It is clear that it was Bartók’s intention to write as though he were a peasant, and not a chance occurrence. He strove to learn from those in the countryside and actively chose to adopt their methods. He wrote an article in 1931 entitled, The Influence of Peasant Music on Modern Music. In it he refers to the methods that composers have used to reference folk melodies, and at the end he gives a romantic, yet ideal account of what ethnomusicologists should strive to do:
“There is yet a third way in which the influence of peasant music can be traced in a composer’s work. Neither peasant melodies nor imitations of peasant melodies can be found in his music, but it is pervaded by the atmosphere of peasant music. In this case we may say, he has completely absorbed the idiom of peasant music which has become his musical mother tongue. He masters it as completely as a poet masters his mother tongue.”1
Concerto for Orchestra led to a partial recovery from a serious illness, and Bartók subsequently began composing three more significant pieces, leaving two unfinished at the time of his death. Although the Third Piano Concerto only needed seventeen bars for completion, the Viola Concerto was left in sketch format only (both were completed by
Morgan (Strunk’s), p. 170-171 2
Nicolas Lell Benavides his Hungarian-born friend, Tibor Serly).2 However, none of these pieces enjoyed the same success or a prominent spot in the international repertoire like Concerto for Orchestra. In addition to his folk music studies, the circumstances of Bartók’s personal life contributed directly to the Concerto, allowing him the freedom to express himself with an individual voice. In 1940 he immigrated to the United States after changing his mind repeatedly whether or not he could leave Hungary and his mother.3 In December of 1940 his mother died, leaving him with no familial ties to Europe. Left with the prospect of a World War on his doorstep he decided to move to the United States where he became sick with leukemia and was extensively hospitalized. The 1940’s proved to be a stressful time for the composer, and his desire to compose dwindled. Sick in bed, he was not expecting Serge Koussevitzky to show up with a commission from the Boston Symphony Orchestra for a new orchestral piece. Koussevitzky himself thought that the project would be a charity of sorts for the dying Bartók.4 The composer’s most recent published work had been three years before. Initially reluctant to accept the commission, Bartók took to the project and was soon out of bed with a finished score in only two months. The only edits he ever made to Concerto for Orchestra came when Koussevitzky suggested that Bartók provide an alternate ending. The work was not composed in haste, but rather was composed rapidly out of necessity; Bartók had a lot of things to say before he died, and he wasn’t certain how much longer he had. From a compositional, historical, and
Morgan, p. 185 Suchoff, p. 109 4 Cooper, p. 19 3
Nicolas Lell Benavides analytical point of view this piece serves as the perfect reference for Bartók’s completely mature language and methods. Bartók’s work is always full of intent. If nothing else this is apparent by his use of minute marks at the end of sections. This use of time markings is not necessarily intended for interpretation of tempo, but rather is evidence that he was conscious of structure and individual sections in his music. Certain sources are specifically used, and certain methods of manipulation are chosen for both their aesthetic and logical qualities. The first movement is the foundation for the rest of the piece; it introduces themes and techniques used throughout the entire work. His themes, motives, and devices regularly reappear in different movements, with an especially strong connection between the first and third movements where he uses some of the exact same building blocks although sometimes in transposition. Bartók’s complete compositional voice can be found in the first movement alone, with the great number of sources he draws from, and his techniques for transforming them throughout the movement and the piece as a whole. An in-depth analysis of the first movement can provide the listener and budding scholar with the tools necessary to listen, analyze, learn from, and enjoy Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra.
Bartók’s voice and the first movement, Introduzione With a nod to his classical performance training, Bartók composed the first movement, Introduzione, in sonata-allegro form; however, the content rarely alludes to classical tradition. Just like many sonata-allegro forms, the piece has an introduction, an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation. The title, Introduzione, only refers to the
Nicolas Lell Benavides first 75 measures. Here is the form state roughly, and although it is sonata-allegro form, one may notice that Bartók takes extra steps to insure symmetry by putting his own minute markings at each of these sections in the original score:
First movement (Introduzione) structure5
m. 1-34. 35-50, 51-75 m. 76-148, 149-230 m. 231-271, 272-312, 313-395 m. 396-487, 488-521
Introduction parts 1, 2, 3 Exposition of thematic group 1, 2 Development part 1, 2, 3 Recapitulation of thematic group 2, 1
Though his style often uses musical material absorbed from Balkan peasants, he was not hesitant to take inspiration from his own life, such as the death of his mother. The opening measures of the 1st movement, Introduzione, are nearly a direct transcription of a new-style Transdanubian funeral melody he collected entitled, Idelátszik a temet! széle. 6 Here, side-by-side, is the opening theme of the Introduzione and the transposed transcription of Idelátszik a temet! széle. 1. Opening fourths, mm. 1-6 of movement 1, cellos, and basses
Cooper, p. 36 Cooper, p. 37 7 Cooper, p. 37 5
Nicolas Lell Benavides 2. Idelátszik a temet! széle
The segment is pentatonic with the notable feature that it is structured on fourths. The interlocking-fourths theme appears quite often during the five-movement Concerto, and it is continuously transformed as the piece progresses. Concerto for Orchestra was also the first piece that Bartók composed following his mother’s death, and the original text of Idelátszik a temet! széle helps us understand the personal connection he felt for both his mother and his music:
From here is seen the graveyard’s border Where rests she who was the light of my eyes. The grave holds her, whom I would hold. Now only I know how thoroughly I am orphaned.9
Ern! Lendvai suggests that Bartók uses intentional symmetry in his work. Through the use of an “axis system”10, Z cells,11 and Fibonacci numbers Lendvai believes that Bartók obsessed upon and integrated nature and mathematics into his music. Bartók is particularly fond of a specific symmetrical major-minor chord. The chord is
Cooper, p. 37 Cooper, p. 37 10 A division of all fundamentals along an axis to produce tonic, dominant, and subdominant functions. Lendvai, p. 1-3 11 A four note cell that contains two tritones a half step apart (i.e. G# A D Eb) 6
Nicolas Lell Benavides symmetrical because the center is a perfect fourth, and the outside intervals are minor thirds (ex. 3). 3. Major-minor chord
Taking into account Bartók’s fondness for Fibonacci numbers13, one can see that there are five half steps in a perfect fourth, and three half steps in a minor third, which adds up to eight half steps.14 All three of these numbers occur naturally in the Fibonacci cycle and Lendvai proposes that patterns like this permeate the work of Bartók. Although the presence of Fibonacci numbers is undeniable it is evident that Bartók, like other composers, needed to compromise such symmetry and math for the sake of music. One could argue that the presence of such patterns is because of the presence of these patterns in folk music, which he studied so fervently. Many times these patterns appear in the context of other themes or scales, such as the number of syllable in a scale, or the number of half steps in an interval that he uses in a motif. In m. 11 of the Introduzione in Concerto for Orchestra we can see that the flutes start on the same note and extend outward, ending on a diminished octave. Careful inspection reveals that they outline this major-minor chord on their journey. From the bottom one could spell the major triad [F# A D] and from the top one could spell the minor variant [F D A]. However it is curious that they start on C, which is about as close
Crow, p. 48 A Fibonacci number is the sum of the previous two numbers, the cycle beginning with 0 & 1. The cycle begins as 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 and so on… 14 Lendvai, p. 35 7
Nicolas Lell Benavides as one could get to the center of both F# and F. The flutes also outline what could be referred to as a Z cell. The bottom flute, in order to complete this Z cell, has skips and with a borrowed note from the other flute, it outlines (from bottom to top) [F# G C C#]. The top flute moves in complete chromaticism, whereas the bottom makes a small leap in order to complete the structure (evidence that Bartók was intentional with this outline). The flutes roughly repeat this motif, transposed up a major third, in m.21. The two flutes move in two octatonic15 scales each, the first rising through [E F G] then [F# G# A Bb] and the second flute descends through [E Eb Db] then [Eb D C B]. It is interesting to note that m. 21 is a Fibonacci number, and the return of the perfect fourths string theme begins on beat 34, which is also a Fibonacci number.
4. Major-minor motifs, mm. 11 & 12 of movement 1, flutes
Although Lendvai’s work is worth mentioning, it can be unnecessarily tedious, and at times irrelevant to the point of the piece. Ultimately the effect is aural, not visual, and the average listener would be more likely to recognize folk influences and specific
A scale containing 8 notes (as opposed to 7 in normal diatonic modes.) The scale degrees alternate from whole step to half step, causing there to be no perfect fifths. Olivier Messaien referred to this mode as his second “mode of limited transposition.” Messaien p. 58 16 Bartók, p. 1 8
Nicolas Lell Benavides themes and motives, rather than a Fibonacci sequence or a golden ratio17 which is contained within measure numbers or half steps. Perhaps it would be wiser to consider the effects of a golden ratio on overall structure in terms of minutes rather than measure numbers. I would argue that the use of folk materials is far more important to Bartók’s work than the use of mathematics and Fibonacci/golden mean relationships. This writer believes that the by-products of Bartók’s work with indigenous Balkan peoples closely associated with nature has more impact on his music than the natural processes of Fibonacci numbers and the golden mean. That said, it must be noted that the folk music he studied had the undeniable influence of these patterns in rhythm, melody, contour, modes, and other facets of music. Through the study of Bartók one will undoubtedly come across this math in relation to nature, but one’s energies should instead be focused on his studies in ethnomusicology, because his study of ethnomusicology encompasses all facets of music including the mathematical. Around the introduction, part 2, Bartók breaks away from the sustained string pedal tones and throws them into a steady cycle of stacked fourths (m. 35) drawn from the introductory theme. Stacked fourths are a distinctive feature in Concerto for Orchestra and were a source of inspiration for later musicians including John Coltrane18, who used them in his modal jazz. Whether a coincidence or not, Coltrane’s pianist, McCoy Tyner, was known for using stacked fourths in his piano voicings. The stacked fourths are continually arpeggiated upward and downward thus becoming an ostinato figure.
Derived from Fibonacci numbers and their proportions as they extend into infinity, the golden mean or golden ratio is: 1.6180339887 18 Ross, p. 519 9
Nicolas Lell Benavides 5. Ostinato, mm. 35-37 of movement 1, cellos, and basses
The inner notes of the first measure of the intro (m. 35) [A D C F] are a good example of the thematic interlocking fourths Bartók employs frequently in Concerto for Orchestra, and they begin to hint at more important motives yet to come, such as the stacked fourths that are prevalent in motif 2a (ex. 12). Although the fourths will return repeatedly, Bartók finds it appropriate to introduce a new theme in the trumpets (m. 39) drawn from an improvisatory sounding flute line (m. 30). This theme, although reminiscent of folk music, cannot be traced to a specific study of Bartók’s, and therefore we conclude that it must be of his own invention.20 Undoubtedly he was influenced by Arab modes and styles, which move narrowly back and forth in half steps. The theme (m. 39) could also be influenced by a verbunkos-type21 music that Bartók mimicked in his earlier tone poem Kossuth.22 This four syllable, range-limited theme can be labeled as the verbunkos theme since it adopts a verbunkos-style performance with the violins (m. 51). The subtle and elusive Bartók provides the listener with colorful variations immediately, moving the theme from trumpets to strings, and adjusting the rhythm ever so slightly in order for the strings to
Bartók, p. 2 Cooper, p. 38 21 Verbunkos-type music is characterized by the use of the so-called gypsy or “Hungarian” scale which makes use of augmented seconds between the third, fourth, sixth, and seventh scale degrees, a curt cambiata-like cadential figure, a wide melodic tessitura with decoration, and an alternation of slow and fast tempi. 22 Cooper, p .8 10
Nicolas Lell Benavides emerge at a new dynamic level. The verbunkos theme always sounds as if it is going to announce something, whether it’s meekly through the flute, triumphant in the brass, or definitively in the strings which are supported by the flutes and oboes in order to give the sound a more commanding aura. One can watch the progression of the material not only in rhythmic and melodic content but also in the color and timbre. Not only does he change the instruments, but also he varies the melody, key, dynamics, and playing technique. The theme returns in the third movement, Elegia. Chronologically Bartók composed the third movement before the others; sketches of it appeared in the summer of 1943.23 Therefore the material “appears” in or is “derived from” the third movement rather than the other way around. A comparative (compressed) look at the theme presented in the flute, trumpets and strings follows:
6. Verbunkos theme, mm. 30-34 of movement 1, flute
7. Verbunkos theme, mm. 39-43 of movement 1, trumpets
Suchoff, p. 148 Bartók, p. 1 25 Bartók, p. 2 11
Nicolas Lell Benavides 8. Verbunkos theme, mm. 51-55 of movement 1, violins (flutes, oboes)
The germinal motif In Bartók, Concerto for Orchestra, David Cooper claims that there is an overarching motif that encompasses in one way or another most of the material in the work. Cooper claims that this motif can be found whole or in segments throughout Concerto for Orchestra serving as a common denominator. The entire notion of this motif is slowly introduced over the course of 48 measures (mm. 6-54) by underpinning notes played in the strings, starting with C# and progressing through a set of five pitches [C# F# D# E G]. This is a transposed reordering of the first five pitches of the germinal motif [C# D# E F# G.] Although it is arguably present in parts of the introduction, the motif becomes fully audible for the first time in m. 76 with the entrance of motif 1a (see example 7.) The motif is derived from a “very peculiar scale formation” that Bartók discovered in both Serbo-Croatian and Arab scales27. The germinal motif that Cooper refers to is:
Bartók, p. 3 Cooper, p. 36 12
Nicolas Lell Benavides 9. The germinal motif
Although many themes and motifs share this germinal motif as a common evolutionary link, it would be useful to refer to more specific instances of the motifs and themes rather than constantly referring to the germinal motif. Cooper believes that the basic motif is six notes in length. One could conclude that the intended germinal motif is actually only the first five notes, since most themes are bounded by a tritone, and often the perfect fifth is used as a connector to a continuing or entirely new idea. Although it is apparent that the use of this Serbo-Croatian/Arabic mode is abundant in the piece, it becomes clearer as the strings take on a larger role. After this germinal motif has been slowly introduced over the course of many pages of music, Bartók finally introduces the whole motif in a single measure. Starting with the first violins (m. 56), a scalar motif appears that drives the music forward and the melody upward. Octatonic by nature and bounded by a tritone it contains the pitches [E F# G A Bb]. It is the first time this germinal motif (without the perfect 5th that Cooper includes) appears to present itself in an uninterrupted scale.
10. Germinal motif, mm. 56-57 of movement 1, violin 1
Cooper, p. 36 Bartók, p. 4 13
Nicolas Lell Benavides Bartók introduces a major version of the motif as an ostinato in the low strings by replacing the octatonic note F# (Gb) with a G natural [Eb F G Ab A]. As the ostinato figure is completed, Bartók returns to an octatonic sonority by reintroducing the F#. The ostinato, because of its octatonic properties, is dark and a little unsettling, yet all the while moves forward. He simultaneously introduces an ornamented descending version of the motif in the violins with the pitch content of [Eb Db C Bb A] so as in order to continue building energy. This version (from top to bottom) is another octatonic scale, this time starting with a half step rather than a whole step but always bounded by a tritone. The woodwinds reinforce the major variant of the ostinato (m. 63), bringing the music to a frenzy until the Allegro vivace theme is introduced (m. 76).
11. Germinal motif ostinato, mm. 58-59 of movement 1, violas, cellos, and basses
Finally, the stacked perfect fourths and the germinal motif scale passages come together (m. 76) to form a densely packed thematic area known as the Allegro vivace theme. The Allegro vivace thematic area also directly corresponds to the beginning of the exposition of the sonata form that provides the architecture of movement. This material, at least in parts, will be taken on a journey throughout the piece and used as material for fugal/canonic passages. It is often fragmented, like many of Bartók’s thematic ideas, and then combined with something else. Here the germinal motif rises through the pitches [F
Bartók, p. 4 14
Nicolas Lell Benavides G Ab Bb B] before reaching the perfect fifth that Cooper described. One might feel, though, that this perfect fifth is actually part of another motif within the Allegro vivace theme. The Allegro vivace thematic gesture immediately skips into a set of interlocking fourths followed by an entire inversion of the gesture. Each of these segments is labeled as motif 1a, motif 2a, motif 1b, or motif 2b (ex. 12). The materials form a highly balanced thematic unit (mm. 76-81), which subsequently Bartók extends and develops. Rather than a deliberate repetition of the arched thematic gesture, Bartók creates the effect of a sub-conscious familiarity pushing the listener onward (m. 81).
12. Allegro vivace theme, mm. 76-81 of movement 1
Through this thematic group Bartók highlights his ability to synthesize his knowledge of contemporary art music and folk melodies. The Allegro vivace theme’s motif 1a has the same interval sequence as a Romanian funeral song (mm. 3 and 5), whose text reads: “May fire strike you, death, / Woeful is my heart inside me.”32 The meter change from 3/8 to 2/8 alludes to a Bulgarian rhythm schema, which is 3 + 3 + 2.
Suchoff, p. 127 Suchoff, p. 131 15
Nicolas Lell Benavides 13. Romanian melody
Using Bulgarian rhythms and time signatures, and Slovak or Serbo-Croatian modes the composer creates what is essentially a classical sentence structure34 which is not found in traditional peasant melodies. As a teacher and a concert pianist Bartók not only knew and taught works in the standard repertoire, but he also performed them. He had studied and performed the works of Beethoven and other Classical/Romantic composers since he was a child, and the influence of Beethoven and his contemporaries on Bartók’s body of work is undeniable, especially with regard to structure. In addition to the Classical and Romantic repertoire, Bartók found the works of Debussy inspiring, and some of his modal writing can be attributed to his study of Debussy who popularized the use of pentatonic, whole-tone, and octatonic scales. Bartók doesn’t seem to like the idea of treating his themes in their entirety as single units, preferring to fragment and introduce parts of them whenever it seems appropriate. The new, contrasting theme presented in the trombone (m. 134) is really an augmented variation of motif 2a of the Allegro vivace theme. Although it contains the same basic shape (two interlocking fourths), it is unrecognizable because of the context,
Suchoff, p. 131 A musical sentence contains an opening segment that is repeated twice, followed by a new phrase that is developed from the opening segments. In this case what is important is the repetition of thematic material, which can be a variation. First coined by Arnold Schoenberg. Dudeque, p. 146 16
Nicolas Lell Benavides rhythm, and instrumentation. The trombone makes it sound more akin to a fanfare. This may be considered the “subordinate theme”.
13. Subordinate theme, mm. 134-141, trombone
Among other things, Bartók is a master of variation. He is constantly transposing, arranging, and distorting his own material to give the illusion that new themes are present, while lending the listener a sense of comfort because the “new” material is not new at all but contains deep connections to the rest of the piece. Ever the ethnomusicologist, Bartók brings yet another folk melody into his collage of inspirations (m. 155). This melody that is highly limited in range, stems from a North-African Arab Qseida folk song that he collected in 1913.36 Always looking for musical inter-connections, Bartók has derived the rhythm for the narrow range melody from motif 2a in the Allegro vivace theme. Played by the oboe, the Arab melody sounds mysterious, exotic, and even appropriate to the region of the world from which it is derived. The accompaniment contains a lot of sustained open fifths [B F#] and an occasional response from the harp. The openness of this section helps one imagine a singer reciting a piece with the help of a fellow musician who is always providing the accompaniment; the accompanist also feels compelled to sing at times.
Bartók, p. 8 Suchoff, p. 133 17
Nicolas Lell Benavides 15. Arab theme, mm. 154-159 in movement 1, oboe
This new theme occurs in the rhythmic template of motif 2a and motif 2b, and it is retrograded and extended with added chromaticism. Three out of the four sections are variations, with the fourth being unrelated. Section one (m. 155-159) is the presented theme, section two (m. 160-164) is the theme in retrograde, section three (m. 165-169) is the theme in a more chromatic form with some development and section four (m. 170174) is unrelated. This segment ends with the oboes (m. 174) and then changes colors when picked up by clarinets in octaves. The rhythm approximates a Bulgarian 2 + 3 + 3 + 2 rhythmic schema.38 Ex. 16 shows the other three oboe segments: 16. Arab theme sections, mm. 159-174 in movement 1, oboe
Bartók, p. 9 Suchoff, p. 134 39 Bartók, p. 9 18
Nicolas Lell Benavides The clarinets and harp outline what seems to be an inversion of the germinal motif [C# D# E F# G G#] (m. 192), which is then repeated transposed down a fifth (m. 195). Right before entering the development section (m. 231) Bartók brings back his Arab melody rhythm in the strings then woodwinds (mm. 210-226). It serves as a brief transition before an explosion of the germinal motif in D. The motif is always cut short at a tritone before reaching the perfect fifth, alluding to the octatonic mode. Rather than build by increasing dynamic level, Bartók prefers to build at a timbral level by introducing new instruments. As the germinal motif progresses in the context of the development he adds the higher members of the woodwind and string families for dramatic effect. It appears here that the germinal motif, in the sixteenth note run ending on an eighth note, has become synonymous with motif 1a (m. 76). He modulates the motif back and forth by a semitone, which is consistent with his interest in Z-cells (this one being [Db-D-G-G#].)40 A Z-cell is capable of interlocking diatonic, pentatonic, and octatonic formations, allowing the composer a lot of flexibility. 17. Z-cell relationships, mm. 231-233 in movement 1, various
As expected, Bartók brings back more from the Allegro vivace section, reintroducing motif 2b with the fragments out of order before returning to the music that
Suchoff, p. 135 Suchoff, p. 135 19
Nicolas Lell Benavides resembles motif 1b. Working in and out of this motivic area he goes as far as introducing a stretto between the woodwinds and violins with motif 1a and motif 1b. Bartók continues the cycle, building on the stacking fourths idea (m. 248). He moves in and out of motif 2a and motif 2b, using them as rhythmic spring boards for returning to a use of fourths that closely resembles his original perfect fourth thematic gesture. See example 18 for a small canonic segment. 18. Stretto, mm. 248-254 in movement 1, violin II and bass
As the strings and winds rise and fall with the octatonic 5-note version of the germinal cell (m. 242), the horns ascend stepwise in a whole-tone scale, The use of the whole-tone sonority has its roots in the exposition (m. 118) in the oboes and clarinets.43 The connection of these two whole-tone passages is furthered by the musical function they serve. Each accompanies a stretto treatment of the very important Allegro vivace theme. The whole-tone clusters can be considered Y-cells44. Although traditional modality was an important influence on Bartók, one can see in many passages like this that he often uses only four or five notes of a single mode and freely combines modal tetrachords and pentachords to derive unique synthetic modes.
Bartók, p. 14 Cooper, p. 42 44 A Y-cell is the first four notes of a Lydian, or whole-tone scale. For example: [C D E F#] 20
Nicolas Lell Benavides Bartók concentrates his development of motif 2a and 2b in the clarinet (m. 272), bounding the first half of the third melody area (mm. 278-280) within a Z-cell that consists of [Ab G Db D]. This is a transformed concatenation and elaboration of motif 2a and 2b provides proof that his method of transformation is based on Slovak folk songs. In Slovak folk songs there is a syllabic structure of z z Z + Z z, with z representing a smaller fragment, and Z representing a larger syllabic fragment which generally follows itself immediately without a pause (hence the Z + Z, rather than a space.)45 The clarinet plays four syllables twice in a row (mm. 272 and 275) before playing two rhythmically symmetrical seven-syllable phrases (mm. 278 and 281) followed by another four-syllable phrase (m. 284). Following the clarinet statement the theme is reprised in different instrument families to shift and vary the orchestral colors and maintain interest. Here is the clarinet theme transposed to concert key, with the z syllabic structure, and a Z-cell, labeled: 19. Slovak folk theme, mm. 272-287 in movement 1, clarinet
Once again Bartók brings back materials from the exposition, reintroducing the subordinate theme he presented earlier (m. 134) transposed down an augmented second;
Suchoff, p. 136 Bartók, p. 14 21
Nicolas Lell Benavides this time, however, he reiterates the theme (m. 316) beginning with the second trombone. Because this is a “Concerto for Orchestra” his instrumental choice is not surprising. Different players throughout the work are given the opportunity to perform as soloists, and even within the same family of instruments different timbres will emerge. The thematic transposition along with the contrast from one soloist to another is enough to achieve an effective change in the sound-scape. After being introduced by motif 1a in the strings, the trombone thematic phrase is accompanied by motif 2a in the woodwinds. A clearly differentiated textural moment occurs when the strings and woodwinds drop out and the subordinate theme (example 13) emerges as the subject of an energizing fugato section in the brass. This continues until the subject is inverted and the fugato continues (m. 342). The end of the development is marked by a six octave Ab is played in the orchestra (m. 390). As an enharmonic equivalent of G#, this intense FFF note is a leading tone to the recapitulation on “A” (m. 396). The recapitulation in Concerto for Orchestra is like its Classical and Romantic predecessors in form. Here many of the ideas are presented once again, including the Allegro vivace theme, the Arab theme, the subordinate theme, the interlocking fourths, and the verbunkos theme. Ever fascinated with symmetry, Bartók actually presents the recapitulation of the second thematic group first (m. 396), and waits to recapitulate the first thematic group (m. 488) in order to create a reverse recapitulation. With his unique melodic, rhythmic and harmonic language in the listener’s ear, one is ready for the next four movements.
Nicolas Lell Benavides Sources and transformations in the second movement, Presentando Le Coppie The title of the second movement, Presentando Le Coppie, or in some editions Giuoco Delle Coppie, roughly translates to “Presenting the Pairs” or “Game of the Pairs.” Many instruments or sections are featured in groups of two. With this compositional device in mind, Bartók uses many of the same techniques and draws from many of the same sources first presented in the first movement. Cooper argues that the first and second bassoons present four of the pitches in the germinal motif [D E F Ab] and [F# G# A C] (mm. 8-10). Since each pitch set is bounded by a tritone, a defining feature so common in movement one, there is reason to agree with Cooper. However, the more important source again seems to stem from Bartók’s studies in ethnomusicology. Like the first movement, he takes inspiration from Romanian and Serbian instrumental folk music.47 The first bassoon completes a germinal run in m. 18, always contained within a tritone. 20. Germinal motif in bassoon duet, mm. 8-10 of movement 2, bassoons
21. Germinal bassoon run, mm. 18-19 of movement 2, bassoon
Suchoff, p. 142 Bartók, p. 29 23
Nicolas Lell Benavides The bassoons sound as though they are a couple at a social gathering or a dance. Throughout the work one can follow a programmatic-style story that involves all the couples dancing with and learning from one other. He references the germinal motif again (m. 43) in the strings, which play [B C# D E E#]. Bartók draws inspirations from Romanian and Serbian instrumental music, Yugoslav tambura motifs, Dalmatian sopel folk songs, Slovak and Yugoslav folk songs, and even Johann Sebastian Bach.50 Although this essay has gone into detail in the first movement with regard to the composer’s use of folk inspirations, it has not referenced his use of Lutheran chorales. Throughout the second movement he crafts many melodies through the octatonic, germinal motif, but to list them all would be tedious and hinder our overall view of this piece. Not surprisingly, Bartók was well studied and very fond of the works of Bach, and he found Bach to be a great source of inspiration. According to a colleague, Tibor Serly, Bartók always carried with him a pocket score of Bach’s chorales.51 In m. 123 he begins a wonderful trio of brass in the shape of a five-voice chorale line. To complement their timbre he has a snare drum (snares off) accompany them throughout the section. Although the texture is similar to that of Bach, there is a great difference: Bartók’s chorale is composed in an eleven-tone Phrygian/Ionian polymode52 containing the pitches [B C D E F# G-A/B-C#-D#-E-F#-G#-A#]. The principal tone is B, and Bartók essentially
Bartók, p. 29 Suchoff, pp. 142-147 51 Cooper, p. 47 52 A polymode is usually two or more modes that are juxtaposed; sometimes they are referred to as synthetic modes. 24
Nicolas Lell Benavides resolves the chorale with a Yugoslav-oriented half-cadence, ending on an F#.53 Yves Lenoir proposes that this chorale is a paraphrase of the Lutheran chorale Nun komm, der Heiden.54
22. Bartók’s chorale, mm. 123-146 of movement 2, 1st trumpet part
23. Lutheran chorale, Nun komm, der Heiden. (transposed)
Sources and transformations in the third movement, Elegia The first movement and the third movement share the most in common. As was said earlier, sketches of the third movement appeared in the summer of 1943, well before
Suchoff, p. 146 Cooper, p. 47 55 Cooper, p. 48 56 Cooper, p. 48 25
Nicolas Lell Benavides the first movement was written.57 One must always consider that the material was not necessarily derived from the first, but rather may have been derived from the third. The movement is a symphonic poem in ternary (ABA) form and evokes an Impressionist quality. The name, Elegia, means elegy. The composer may be lamenting the loss of his mother, for whom he had been willing to stay in Hungary despite impending War.58 The mysterious opening is a fantastic example of Bartók’s “Night Music.” The music is undulating, menacing, and quiet. As mentioned earlier he had a fondness for major-minor chords and wastes no time in using them as the harmonic basis of this section (see ex. 3.) This Night Music, which is based on the juxtaposition of C major and C minor triads, may be a sad reminder of his happier times in Europe, when he spent his time collecting folk music in the rural areas of Transylvania and the like.59 A common factor of this Night Music” is his “Lake of Tears”60 motif (borrowed from the “lake of tears” motif in his opera, Bluebeard’s Castle), which is a rapid succession of the notes [C Eb E G Ab B]. The music bubbles up to the surface almost like something stirring in a lake at night. This effect is especially notable when the woodwinds play (mm. 10-11). Bartók voices the major-minor chord in sustained strings using that timbre to make the whole section sound eerie. The Night Music ends (m. 33) so the movement can take on a new shape, one more akin to the first movement (m. 34). (Bartók often uses numbers in the Fibonacci series such as 21, 34, or 55 for structural points in his music. Several clear examples of this occur in his Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta.) Here the clarinets and violins
Suchoff, p. 148 Morgan, p. 185 59 Suchoff, p. 149 60 Suchoff, p. 149 26
Nicolas Lell Benavides revisit the verbunkos theme at forte, and use it as the driving force until the Night Music is reprised (m. 101). Unlike the other movements, where references have been or will be subtle, the verbunkos theme is readily identifiable. He includes both the sixteenth note variation (i.e. m. 34) and the eighth note triplet variation (i.e. m. 86), just as he did in the first movement. Although the composer uses the theme just as it was in the first movement (m. 34), he provides a secondary, supporting as well (m. 45). The new melody, doubled with the bassoon, takes a bold, new turn. The violins and cellos/bassoons play to complement each other, eventually bringing in the woodwinds and other strings. The effect is heart wrenching. This verbunkos theme, which was once used to announce the Concerto for Orchestra, is a theme wracked with pain and frustration (m. 86); sometimes it’s melancholy, sometimes it’s angry. Bartók adds more interest by bringing back the triplet variation, which retains the same number of syllables as the tied sixteenth notes, staying true to his folksong inspirations. Following are some examples of the Verbunkos theme and its use in the third movement. As quickly emerges, it disappears again, followed by more Night Music (m. 101). 24. Verbunkos theme used in Elegia, mm. 34-37 of movement 3, violins I, II, clarinets (octaves); flutes, clarinets, violas, cellos (three octaves)
Bartók, p. 53 27
Nicolas Lell Benavides 25. Verbunkos theme used in Elegia, mm. 45-48 of movement 3, violins (octaves); cellos, bass clarinet
26. Verbunkos theme used in Elegia, mm. 86-89 of movement 3, violins, flutes, oboes (octaves); violas, clarinets (octaves); cellos, bassoons
Many of the accompanying figures in the woodwinds are bounded by tritones, a common idea in this work. For example, the flutes have chromatic runs (mm. 94-96) that allude to a fully chromatic version of the germinal motif, although this version has many more than five notes.
27. Chromatic runs, mm 94-96 of movement 3, flutes
Bartók, pp. 56-57 Bartók, p. 63 28
Nicolas Lell Benavides Sources and transformations in the fourth movement, Intermezzo Interrotto The fourth movement is, perhaps, the most controversial of all the movements in terms of its place in the piece. It’s name is almost redundant: An intermezzo is by definition already considered a short connecting work meant to provide a bridge between the more important sections. An intermezzo can also be a light musical performance inserted between acts of a play. Bartók goes even further and clarifies his intention: this movement is a definitive interrotto, or interruption. The sources that Bartók draws on are completely different for this movement. It is an interruption of his folk music for a moment, so he can openly mock a contemporary-- Dmitri Shostakovich. On July 19, 1942, Bartók was listening to Toscanini conduct Shostakovich’s Leningrad Symphony on NBC in his New York home. Prior to the performance, both “Toscanini and Koussevitzky publicly vied to perform the [Shostakovich Seventh Symphony] for the first time in America.”65 After hearing it, Bartók, and many other contemporaries, openly criticized the work. Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Eisler, Rachmaninov, and Hindemith were also resentful and felt that Shostakovich didn’t deserve so much attention. They were especially envious of his picture on the cover of Time magazine and all accused him of writing over-simplified music for cheap effect.66 Bartók, with the taste of jealousy still in his mouth, remembered and mocked Shostakovich’s Leningrad symphony in the 4th movement of Concerto for Orchestra. He used it as a rude interruption to his other folk-sounding melodies. In this movement he
Bartók, p. 64 Suchoff, p. 162 66 Ross, p. 327 29
Nicolas Lell Benavides quotes his contemporaries in addition to musicians of the peasant class, bringing in new sources to transform throughout the movement. Before looking at a comparison of Shostakovich’s and Bartók’s work on the same theme, it may be interesting to note that the themes used in the fourth movement, like the other movements, are derived from his ethnomusicological studies. The first (m. 4) is Slovak by nature67 and bounded by a tritone [E A#] alluding to the Lydian mode. The theme, ever shifting in color, is moved from the oboe to the flute all the while the bassoon is playing the mirror image68, a technique he also used in Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta. The second theme (m. 43) is actually a transformation of a song from A hamburgi Menyasszonyi (The Hamburg Bride) which was an operetta composed by Hungarian Zsigmond Vincze in 1926. The song’s text reads “Szép vagy, gyönyöru… vagy, Magyarország” (“You are lovely, you are most beautiful, Hungary.”) Bartók was fascinated with this popular song because of its similarity with a Hungarian folk song he collected in 1906.69 He treats it warmly, allowing the humble-sounding violas to spearhead the melody. He was certainly very homesick having left Hungary only four years before. Here is Bartók’s 1906 transcription of the Hungarian folk song, Vincze’s Chez Maxime, and Bartók’s Concerto melody:
Suchoff, p. 155 A mirror is a literal inversion of the material that occurs simultaneously. 69 Suchoff, pp. 156-157 30
Nicolas Lell Benavides 28. Bartók’s 1906 transcription of a Hungarian folk song, no. 304, mm. 1-4 & 13-16
29. Vincze’s melody from A hamburgi Menyasszonyi
30. Bartók’s second theme, mm. 42-46, fourth movement, violas
The actual “interruption” section takes place in the center of the movement at (m. 75). He provides a Bulgarian rhythm, which has a division of 3 + 2 + 3. This rhythm was also presented in Fourth Dance in Bulgarian Rhythm (Mikrokosmos no. 152) and was described by Bartók as, “very much in the style of Gershwin.”73 Before it can get a foothold, the music reverts to common time and parodies Shostakovich’s theme in the very same key as it was originally written. Shostakovich had included in his program notes that the theme was quoted from Chez Maxime which was in Franz Lehár’s operetta,
Suchoff, p. 157 Suchoff, p. 157 72 Bartók, p. 70 73 Suchoff, p. 162 31
Nicolas Lell Benavides The Merry Widow. Bartók took his burlesque parody from the third theme of the first movement of Shostakovich’s Leningrad for his interruption. Here is the melody, first by Lehár, then Shostakovich, then Bartók:
31. Chez Maxime from Franz Lehár’s operetta, The Merry Widow. (transposed)
32. Third subject of the first movement of Shostakovich’s Leningrad.
33. Bartók’s Shostakovich/Lehár parody theme, mm. 76-80, fourth movement, clarinet (concert key)
While listening, one can hear the clownish clarinet fumble about, faster and faster, until it is laughed at by the trombones and followed by the woodwinds and violins who have sustained trills then staccato and tenuto passages. Aurally it is exceptionally
Suchoff, p. 43 Cooper, p. 57 76 Bartók, p. 72 32
Nicolas Lell Benavides comical. The trombones kick off a frantic dance with two glissandos (mm. 90-91), which constitute the Z-cell [B F E Bb]. 34. Z-cell trombone guffaws, mm. 90-91, fourth movement, trombones, tuba
Sources and transformations in the fifth movement, Finale Always a proponent of symmetry, Bartók mentioned in his program notes that the first and fifth movements of the Concerto for Orchestra “are written in a more or less regular sonata form.”78 One would then conclude that the fifth movement would simply parallel, complement, and finalize the first movement, but this couldn’t be further from the truth. The fifth movement is a standalone masterpiece that is in no way a “regular” sonata-allegro form. The exposition is in the style of Romanian folk music, based on dance melodies, and the single development is a modern fugato that completely defies the strict contrapuntal rules of the Baroque period. Alex Ross captures it well in The Rest is Noise, “The final movement… brings a palpable feeling of release, as if the composer, who had observed peasants with shy detachment, were finally throwing away his notebook and entering the fray.”79 Bartók himself said he created the fifth movement to mirror the first with its sonata-allegro form. Although the fifth movement is in sonata-allegro form, it still
Bartók, p. 73 Suchoff, p. 166 79 Ross, p. 122 33
Nicolas Lell Benavides appears vastly different structurally. He does not directly quote or borrow material from the first movement, so there are not many notable transformations: however, his sources are worth mentioning as in the previous movements,
Fifth movement (Finale) structure80 Exposition first-subject group part 1 (first horn-call & hor"), first-subject group part 2, first-subject group part 3, first-subject group part 4, transition – horn-call theme, second-subject group (second horn-call) exposition of thematic group 1, 2 Development part 1, part 2 Recapitulation first-subject group part 1, first subject group part 2, transition, horn-call, second group
mm. 1-49, 50-95, 96-118, 119-147, 148187, 188-255
mm. 256-316, 317-383 mm. 384-417, 418-448, 449-481, 482555, 556-625
A distinctive feature in the exposition is the opening horn-call, which is important because it marks significant structural places throughout the remainder of the movement. In 1910 Bartók was collecting music in the Turda-Aries region of Romania, where he encountered these naturally tempered Transylvanian shepherd horn-calls played by women and young girls on an instrument called a bucium.81 The mode of the call is an F Lydian/Mixolydian polymode. A five-voice fugato of can be seen (m. 148) in what is known as the transition to the singular development. Before reaching the development the horn-call decays until all that is left is a succession of trills in the strings ending at m.
Cooper, p. 58 Cooper, p. 59 34
Nicolas Lell Benavides 196, proving that Bartók was aware of, and used the technique of thematic liquidation.82 Although he draws from many other Romanian sources in the movement, this horn-call is one of the most important to study because of its deep and obvious connection with so much of his work in ethnomusicology. Here one can see the similarities in structure, articulation, and mode between some Romanian/Transylvanian horn-calls, a colinde (Christmas carol) and the opening horn-call of the fifth movement: 35. Selected motifs collected by Bartók, Rumanian Folk Music, vol. 1, Class E
36. Colinde (Christmas song) colleted by Bartók, Rumanian Folk Music, vol. 4, no. 73m, mm. 1-4.
37. Transylvanian horn-call, mm. 1-4 of movement five, horns (concert key)
Thematic liquidation is the reduction of a musical idea to its most essential form, sometimes a phrase is reduced solely to its contour, sometimes it is reduced to its harmonic content. 83 Suchoff, p. 170 84 Suchoff, p. 170 35
Nicolas Lell Benavides Immediately after the horn-call in the first few measures, the movement turns to energetic violin runs, which pass through the germinal motif. Although the runs are not necessarily bounded by a tritone (or even a perfect fifth) like other occurrences, they are aurally quite similar. Spanning from C# to A, the scalar passage is entirely octatonic. When it reaches the peak of A, it immediately retracts to G (the tritone), alluding to the germinal motif that has permeated so much of the entire Concerto. Unusual in Bartók’s compositional style, the run is nearly a literal transcription of a Romanian dance called the hor" nemtseasc" given to him by Constantin Br"iloiu.86 At this late stage in his career, Bartók generally preferred to draw inspiration from the folk melodies he had collected or had been introduced to rather than making direct transcriptions of existing tunes. This theme continues throughout the movement, providing an aggressive, moving passage that makes the Finale so exciting and dramatic. Here is the hor" theme:
38. Hor" theme, mm. 8-11, second violins
Perhaps the most obvious occurrence of the germinal motif in the fifth movement is at m. 88 in the strings. Exposed and nearly as loud and intense as they can be in a low register, they blurt out the theme before trying again (m. 90), rising this time even higher
Bartók, p. 79 Cooper, p. 59 87 Bartók, p. 59 36
Nicolas Lell Benavides in the octatonic scale. The intensity is escalated due to the use of the violin’s G-string to play all the high passages, which adds a sense of strain and urgency.
39. Germinal motif and following octatonic segment, mm. 88-91 violins, violas, cellos
Bartók introduces a second horn-call, or closing theme, with the trumpets in m. 201. The trumpets play over a bagpipe-like melody that originates in the woodwinds (m. 188) and concludes with a syncopated version in the strings (m. 196). In addition to experiencing the horn-calls of Transylvania in 1910, Bartók may have been introduced to pentatonic horn-calls such as this one by studying the Slovakian swineherds and cowherds of Hunt.89 After ten measures (m. 211) he inverts the theme while continually maintaining the bagpipe-like melody. The source of the motif is probably from Romanian alphorn music, but it’s entirely possible that Bartók also drew inspiration from Richard Strauss’ symphonic poem, Also sprach Zarathustra, op. 30. Strauss’ work, based on the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche, opens up with a perfect fifth, then a fourth in equal values in the trumpet [C G C], which closely resemble the first three notes of the inversion of Bartók’s horn-call. After seeing a performance of the Strauss op. 30 in 1902, Bartók commented that the symphonic poem was a “lightning stroke” that led him to a new way of composing.90 Because of its radio popularity, the Latin American song El
Bartók, p. 89 Cooper, p. 61 90 Suchoff, p. 176 37
Nicolas Lell Benavides Cumbanchero may have also influenced Bartók’s creation of his closing theme. The Latin American song was composed by Rafael Hernandez and published by Peer International. Lead sheets were distributed to prominent musicians in 1943.91 One can see the similarities in the repeated notes and the final minor third. Perhaps Bartók was beginning to find popular and folk music from continents other than Europe interesting. The closing theme is used extensively, even in almost satirically (m. 277) with the strings. Here is the opening theme of Also sprach Zarathustra and the closing theme in the fifth movement of Concerto for Orchestra.
40. Strauss, Also sprach Zarathustra op. 30.
41. El Cumbanchero, by Rafael Hernandez.
42. Second horn-call, mm. 201-211 of movement 5, trumpet
Suchoff, pp. 195-196 Suchoff, p. 177 93 Suchoff, p. 196 38
Nicolas Lell Benavides In mm. 498-515 the strings play rapid arpeggios which have a striking resemblance to the “Lake of Tears” motif in the third movement, Elegia. These runs generally outline major-minor chords and parallel the contour of the arpeggiated harmonies introduced by the clarinet and flute in Elegia
43. “Lake of Tears” motif, m. 10 of movement three, flute and clarinet (concert key)
44. “Lake of Tears” contour, mm. 509-510 of movement five, violins
The fifth movement closes with exciting activity in all sections, bringing back elements and inspirations like the first and second horn- calls and the Romanian-inspired motifs. Bartók spectacularly resurrects motif 1a (the octatonic run) from the first movement and places it repeatedly in the piccolo and flutes (mm. 578-593) as if to remind the audience how the whole Concerto began and how far we have come. The flute plays other transformations of the motif simultaneously. Here is an excerpt of motif 1a in the piccolo and flute:
Bartók, p. 101 Bartók, p. 47 96 Bartók, p. 132 39
Nicolas Lell Benavides 45. Motif 1a, mm. 592-593 of movement five, piccolo, flute
At the request of Koussevitzky, Bartók produced an alternative ending, more explosive than the one he first wrote. Although the original work ends on m. 606, the alternate ending extends the music to m. 625, thus adding 19 measures. Bartók added more drama to the ending by extending every single arpeggiated triad (mm. 604-614) and adding transformations of the closing theme by way of its second melody in augmentation. Needless to say, Koussevitzky was very pleased with the ending. The entire conclusion is filled with bright Lydian passages, which add to the brilliant effect. The final chord, which once ended with an F in the upper voices (the tonic), now ends with the fifth and scattered thirds in the upper voices, lessening its resemblance to a traditional perfect authentic cadence. Bartók increased the upper range of the orchestra by more than an octave, and the weight shifted significantly to the high end of the orchestral spectrum. In a letter to Bartók, his publisher writes, “… I thought I should let you know that I had the most pleasant meeting with [Serge] Koussevitzky this morning. He asked me to tell you how happy he is about the new ending and that he will play the Concerto ‘many times’ next season.”98
Bartók, p. 143 Suchoff, p. 194 40
Nicolas Lell Benavides 46. The final chord of movement 5, original ending, and the final chord of movement 5, alternate ending (often used), orchestra
Conclusion The events that comprise Bartók’s career and life ultimately result in his Concerto for Orchestra. From his training in Budapest to his studies in Europe and Africa; from his preference for some of his contemporaries to his disdain for others such as Shostakovich, all culminated in this five movement compositional masterpiece. Only a life that was unique could produce a work that is so remarkable. His devotion to learning helped create ethnomusicology, a field of study that is undeniably influential on today’s academic and entertainment worlds. Bartók’s compositions, especially the later ones, are proof that music drawn from the people who form the cornerstone of society can be used as more than a simple compositional gimmick; it can be incorporated in an artistic, academic, responsible, and aurally pleasing way. He showed the world that the idiosyncratic modes, melodies, rhythms, and harmonies of the folk music he and his colleague Zoltán Kodály studied are not inferior to Western art music, but in fact are concurrent and equally important.
Bartók, p. 144, p. 147 41
Nicolas Lell Benavides Bela Bartók’s own idiosyncratic style is because of time spent in Hungarian music classrooms and out in the field collecting folk songs. The structural form of the Concerto would not have existed had it not been for his Classical and Romantic predecessors. The germinal motif would have never come to fruition had it not been for that “very peculiar scale formation” that Bartók discovered in Serb-Croatian or Arab scales. Because of its Hungarian origins, it is unlikely that the verbunkos theme would have existed in his writing had he been an Austrian or an American. His expert techniques of thematic manipulation and transformation were learned formally from his teachers but also informally from his colleagues whose music Bartók studied. Béla Bartók is one of the two internationally most-recognized Hungarian composers-- the other being Franz Liszt. He achieved this fame by creating an art form that intentionally or not defies the Second Viennese School and proves that the future of music has a place for tonality. Not only did he bring the music of Hungary into the foreground, but also he raised the public consciousness about indigenous music that exists all over the world. His work has inspired and encouraged countless others to find distinctive voices reflecting the music of their own homelands. Once again let us recall how Bartók himself described what sort of composer he strove to be and, in fact, what kind of composer he did become: “Neither peasant melodies nor imitations of peasant melodies can be found in his music, but it is pervaded by the atmosphere of peasant music.” Without a doubt, one can say that Bartók achieved his lifelong goal of learning the musical language with which he surrounded himself achieving a unique and inclusive compositional voice that projects clearly and confidently throughout his iconic work: the Concerto for Orchestra.
Nicolas Lell Benavides Recordings Consulted “Bartók Concerto for Orchestra, The Miraculous Mandarin, Musically Speaking”; Seattle Symphony Orchestra, Gerard Schwarz; Musically Speaking, Inc.; 2007; Seattle. “Bartók: Concerto For Orchestra; Music For Strings, Percussion And Celesta”; Minnesota Orchestra, Stanislaw Skrowaczewski; Musical Concepts; 2009; Minneapolis. Bibliography Antokoletz, Elliott. Music of Bela Bartók a study of tonality and progression in twentieth-century music. Berkeley: University of California, 1984. Print. Crow, Todd. Bartók Studies. Detroit: Information Coordinators, 1976. Print. David, Cooper. Bartók, Concerto for Orchestra. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. Print. Dudeque, Norton. Music Theory and Analysis in the Writings of Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951). Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate, 2005. Print. Fowler, Roger. Mayflower Study Guides: Bartók, Concerto for Orchestra. Leeds: Mayflower Enterprises, 1987. Print. Lendvai, Ern!. Béla Bartók: An analysis of his music. London: Kahn & Averill, 1971. Print. Malcolm Gillies. "Bartók, Béla." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. 13 Mar. 2010 <http://0www.oxfordmusiconline.com.sculib.scu.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/40686>. Messiaen, Olivier. The Technique of My Musical Language. Paris: Leduc, 1969. Print. Morgan, Robert. Source Readings in Music History 20th Century (Source Readings Vol. 7). Boston: R.S. Means Company, 1997. Print. P., Morgan, Robert. Twentieth-century music a history of musical style in modern Europe and America. New York: Norton, 1991. Print. Ross, Alex. The Rest Is Noise. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007. Print. Suchoff, Benjamin. Bartók, Concerto for orchestra understanding Bartók's world. New York: Schirmer, 1995. Print.