Mechanism

Machines are mechanical devices used to accomplish work. A mechanism is a heart of a machine. It is the mechanical portion of the machine that has the function of transferring motion and forces from a power source to an output. Mechanism is a system of rigid elements (linkages) arranged and connected to transmit motion in a predetermined fashion.

Mechanism consists of linkages and joints.

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Example of Mechanism

Can crusher Simple press

Rear-window wiper

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Example of Mechanisms
Moves packages from an assembly bench to a conveyor

Lift platform
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Microwave carrier to assist people on wheelchair
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Example of Mechanisms

Lift platform Front loader

Device to close the top flap of boxes

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Example of Mechanisms

Rowing type exercise machine Conceptual design for an exercise machine
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Example of Mechanisms

Extension position

Flexed position

Six-bar linkage prosthetic knee mechanism
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Four-Bar Linkage

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Four-Bar Linkage Categories

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Four-Bar Linkage Categories

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4-Bar mechanisms

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4-Bar mechanisms
S+l>p+q 4 double rocker mechanisms

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The Slider-Crank Mechanism

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The Slider-Crank Mechanism

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Slider-Crank Mechanism - Inversion

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Mechanism Categories
Function Generation Mechanisms A function generator is a linkage in which the relative motion between links connected to the ground is of interest.

A four-bar hand actuated wheelchair brake mechanism
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Mechanism Categories
Function Generation Mechanisms

A four-bar drive linkage for a lawn sprinkler
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Mechanism Categories
Motion Generation Mechanisms In motion generation, the entire motion of the coupler link is of interest (rigid body guidance).

New Rollerblade brake system

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Mechanism Categories
Motion Generation Mechanisms

Four-bar automobile hood linkage design

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Mechanism Categories
Path Generation Mechanisms In path generation, we are concerned only with the path of a tracer point and not with the motion (rotation) of the coupler link.

Crane – straight line motion
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Primary Joints

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Higher Order Joints

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Motion Generation Mechanisms

Rotating a monitor into a storage position
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Moving a storage bin from an accessible position to a stored position
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Motion Generation Mechanisms

Moving a trash pan from the floor up over a trash bin and into a dump position Lifting a boat out of water
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Function Generation Mechanisms Graphical Solution
Two position synthesis – Design a four-bar crank and rocker
mechanism to give 45o of rocker rotation with equal time forward and back, from a constant speed motor input.
1 – Draw the rocker O4B in both extreme positions, B1and B2 in any convenient location with angle θ4 = 45o. 2 – select a convenient point O2 on line B1B2 extended. 3 – Bisect line B1B2 , and draw a circle with that radius about O2. 4 – Label the two intersection of the circle with B1B2 extended, A1 and A2. 5 – Measure O2A (crank, link2) Ken andYoussefi(coupler, link3). AB
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Function Generation Mechanisms Graphical Solution

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Crank-Rocker Mechanism

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Motion Generation Mechanisms Graphical Solution
Two position synthesis – C1D1 and C2D2
• • • Draw the link CD in its two desired positions, C1D1 and C2D2 Connect C1 to C2 and D1 to D2. Draw two lines perpendicular to C1 C2 and D1D2 at the midpoint (midnormals) Select two fixed pivot points, O2 and O4, anywhere on the two midnormals.

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Motion Generation Mechanisms Graphical Solution
Two position synthesis (coupler output) – C1D1 and C2D2

The rigid body to be moved from position 1 to 2 is secured to link 3.
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Motion Generation Mechanisms Graphical Solution
Two position synthesis (coupler output) with Dyad added.
1 – Select any point B1 on link O2C1. Locate B2. 2 – Choose O6 anywhere on B1B2 extension. 3 – Draw a circle from O6 with radius B1B2/ 2. Mark the intersection with B1B2 extension as A1 and A2.

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Motion Generation Mechanisms Graphical Solution
Two position synthesis (coupler output) with Dyad added.

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Motion Generation Mechanisms Graphical Solution
Two position synthesis (rocker output) – C1D1 and C2D2

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2 Position Motion – rocker output

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Motion Generation Mechanisms Graphical Solution
Three position synthesis – C1D1, C2D2 and C3D3
• • Draw the link CD in its three desired positions. Follow the same procedure,draw construction lines, C1C2, C1C3 and C2C3. Same for point D. Draw three midnormals for each point. Locate the intersection of the three midnormal, O2 and O4 are the two fixed pivot points.

• •

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Motion Generation Mechanisms Graphical Solution
Three position synthesis – C1D1, C2D2 and C3D3

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3 Position Motion

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3 Position Motion

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3 Position Motion

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Slider-Crank Mechanism
The mechanism has a stroke B1B2 equal twice the crank length r2. Locations B1 and B2 are called the extreme positions (limiting) of the slider

In-line slider crank mechanism

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Slider-Crank Mechanism

Offset slider-crank mechanism
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Straight line Mechanisms

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Straight Line Mechanism

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Scotch Yoke Mechanism

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Geneva Mechanism

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Linear Geneva Mechanism

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Ratchet Mechanism

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Straight Beam Walking Mechanism

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Roller and Flat Follower Cams

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Cylindrical Cam Mechanism

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Gears – Rack and Pinion

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Gears
Worm Gear Sets Bevel gears Planetary Gear set

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V-8 Engine

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Type of Motion and Mechanisms
Most power sources that are readily available today are either of the pure rotational motion type, such as electric motor or hand crank, or of the pure translational type, such as pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder.

Translation to Translation

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Type of Motion and Mechanisms
Rotational to Rotational

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Type of Motion and Mechanisms
Rotation to Translation

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References
• Mechanism Design, Analysis and Synthesis by Erdman and sander, fourth edition, Prentice-Hall, 2001, • Machines and Mechanisms by Uicker, Pennock and Shigley, third edition, Oxford, 2002. • Machines and Mechanisms by Myszka, PrenticeHall, 1999

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