Regent School of Business

vKÁbNþúHbNþalGMBIkarRKb;RKgKMerag
emeronTI

4

- dMNak;kalénkarGnum½tfvika

bnÞab;BIsikSaemeronenH GñkGac³
1. RKb;RKghirBaØvtßúrbs;KMerag³
k- BN’na nig GnuvtþmU:EdlhirBaØvtßú enAkñúgkareRCIserIsyk nig bdiesFecalKMerag
x- GnuvtþticniceRCIserIsKMerag nig cat;lMdab;fñak;KMerag
K- Gan nig bkRsayBt’man nig r)aykarN_hirBaØvtßú
X- erobcMKMeragfvikasMrab;KMerag nig erobcMr)aykarN_EpnkarcMNay (cross-tab report)
edaybBa¢ak;GMBIkarBüakrN_clnasac;;RbcaMEx
2.

3.

RKb;RKgKMeragfvikarbs;KMerag
k- kMNt;GtþsBaØaN EsVgyl; nig GnuvtþKMeragfvika
x- )a:n;sμankarcMNaysMrab;KMerag
esñIsuMkarGnum½tKMeragfvikarbs;KMerag
k- EsVgyl; nig Gnuvtþva:rü:g;rbs;KMeragfvikarbs;KMerag
x- Eføg nig GnuvtþþviFanhirBaØvtßúrbs;Rkumhu‘n
K- EsVgyl; nig GnuvtþRbB½n§hirBaØvtßúenAkñúgKMerag

119

emeronTI 4 ³ dMNak;kalGnum½tfvikaKMerag
emeronTI 1 - Area of Competence 19
kar)a:n;sμanKMerag nig KMeragfvika
karBicarNaGMBdI eM NIrkarerobcMfvikaRtUveFVeI LIgCaTUeTA rYmTaMgKMeragfvikasMrab;KeM ragpgEdr. dUecñH
GVIeTACaKMerag fvikarbs;KMerag? ehIyehtuGVI)anCacaM)ac;RtUvmanKMeragfvikarbs;KMerag?
: KMeragfvikarbs;KMerag KWCaEpnkarhirBaØvtßú b¤ EpnkarCatYelxsMrab;Rbtibtþikarnana sMrab;

kariybriecäTKNenyümYyEdleKkMNt;)an (an identified accounting period) nig sMrab;Epñk kargar
EdleKKitvaCabrimaN)an :.
eKalbMNg³

eKalbMNgénkarerobcMEpnkarfvika³
• edIm,IsRmbsRmYlskmμPaBnanarvagnykdæan b¤EpñkepSg²Kña EdlmaneKaledAsMercEpnkar
rYmmYy.
• edIm,IeGayeFVIkarR)aRs½yTak;TgGBIeKaledATaMgLayeTAkan;RbFanRKb;RKgKMerag EdlTTYlxus
RtUvkñúgkarsMerceKaledATaMgenH.
• edIm,IelIkkm<s;kareFVIEpnkar.
• edIm,IeGaymankarcMNaysMrab;muxcMNayNamYyenAkñúgKMerag nig sMrab;KMeragTaMgmUl.
plRbeyaCn_³
• pþlT
; si edAc,as;las;sMrab;RbFanRKb;RKg edayTuklT§PaBeGaykMNt; vtßúbMNgsMrab; ral;kci k© ar
rbs;KMerag nig pþl;nUvviFIsa®sþd¾sMxan;sMrab;karR)aRs½yTak;Tg.
• elIkTwkcitþdl;RbFanRKb;RKg edaymankarelIkElg dUcCa epþatelIkargarEdlBak;B½n§ nig kar
RtYtBinitü nig kareFVIr)aykarN_CaRbcaM nig manlkçN³CaRbB½n§ edIm,IFanafaplitpl
EdlRtUvpþl;eGayGacsMerc)an.
• Ca]bkrN_elIkTwkcitþ dUcCa : ´rkSaeGayvaenAkñúgKMeragfvikarbs;´ : :´snSM)anfvikamYycMnYn :.

120

bBaða³
dMeNIrkarerobcMEpnkarfvika KWCa]bkrN_d¾manRbeyaCn_mYysMedAFanafa KMeragGaceqøIytbeTAnwg
lkçN³sm,itþ Edl)ankMNt;Tuk edayeRbIR)as;fvikaEdlRtUv)aneRKagTukya:gc,as;las;.
bu:Enþ bBaðaGacekItmaneLIgenAkñúgkrNIxøH dUcCa³
• karRbmUlTinñn½ymin)anl¥
• karpøas;bþÚrkal³eTs³ GacbNþaleGaymanKmøat (variance) FMeFg
• rcnasm<½n§Rkumhu‘nmanlkçN³minsmRsb
• EpnkarEdl)ankMNt;c,as;las; nig manrcnasm<½n§RtwmRtUv GacnaMeTArkGskmμ b¤ karxVHPaB
bt;Ebn
• manqnÞ³Tn;exSay
kñúgdMNak;kalkMNt;niymn½y KWenAeBlEdlvtßúbMNgrbs;KMeragRtUv)aneKdkRsg;ecjBIesckþIEføg
karN_nanarbs;KMerag vaCaerOgsMxan;Nas;cMeBaH karkMNt;eGay)anc,as;nUvral;GVI²EdlBak;BinnwghirBaØvtßú
TaMgGs;rbs;KMerag. CakarBitEdlfa ral;tRmUvkarcMNayTaMgGs;rbs;KMeragRtUvEtmanEcgenAkñúgKMerag
fvikarbs;KMerag. kareFVIEbbenH nwgRtUvGnuvtþRKb;dMNak;kalTaMgGs; kñúgkarCYysRmYskartamdan nig
karRtYtBinitüKMerag.
EpñknanaénkargarnwgRtUv)anbMEbkeGayecjCamuxcMNaykñúgKMeragfvika edIm,IFanafakarEbgEck
TMnYlxusRtUv RtUv)aneKerobM. RbFanRKb;RKgKMeragGacnwgKitfa BYkeKmincaM)ac;mankarTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaH
karcMNayeT bu:EnþBYkeKRtUvEtdwgeGay)anlMGitnUvEbbbTBak;B½n§CamYynwgKMerag CaBiessEbbbTsMrab;kar
cMNayfvika. EpnkarfvikadMbUg )anmkBIkar)a:n;sμankarcMNay EdleKeRbIsMrab;Gñkedjéføem:Akar.
EpnkarfvikadMbUgenH nwgkMNt;nUvral;kMriténkarcMNayEdlnwgekItman.
CaerOy² brisßanKMeragmanlkçN³sμKú sμaj ehIyedIm,Icat;EcgdMeNIrkarKMerageGaysuIsgVak;Kña
eKRtUvbegáItRbB½n§mYyEdlmanlkçN³c,as;las; nig smehtupl.
sUmBinitüemIlEpnkarfvikaxageRkam³

121

RbB½n§EpnkarfvikaKMerag
GñkEdlcUlrYmcMENkerobcMfvikaKMeragcaM)ac;RtUvBicarNaelIktþaxageRkam³
vtßúbMNgrbs;Rkumhu‘n
Epnkarfvika
muxcMNayfvika
fvikaem
karvaytémø
vtßúbMNgrbs;Rkumhu‘n
vtßúbMNgTaMgenHmanTMnak;TMngCitsñiT§eTAnwgplitpl b¤ TinñplEdlKMeragRtUvpþl;eGay
karerobcMEpnkarfvika³ eKGacerobcMEpnkarfvikakñúgkMLúgGayukalénKMerag edaymanry³eBlEdleKRtUvRtYt
BinitüvaeLIgvij nig kalbriecäTBinitütamdan RtUv)aneK)ankMNt; nig Ecgya:gc,as;las;enAkñúgEpnkarfvika.
muxcMNayfvika³ kareFVIEpnkarfvikaRtUvmanlkçN³Gacbt;Ebn)an. enAeBlxøH eKehAmuxcMNayfvikafaCa
bNþúMcMNay (cost centres) .
Cost centres ³ Cost centres Tak;TgnwgcMNUl b¤ cMNayCak;lak; EdlRtUvEbgEckeGayeTAbNþúMskmμPaB
Cak;lak;NamYy. bNþúMcMNayGacmaneQμaHmuxcMNaytUc²rbs;vaeTot. ]TahrN_ KMeragfvikasmÖar³GacrYm
bBa©leQμaHsmÖar³EdlRtUvTijedaypÞal;dUcCa ek,Og \dæ eQI xSac; .l. GñkEdleFVIkareGayKMeragk¾man
Cost centres Edr EdlcMNayBlkmμRtUv)anEbgEckeTAtamkEnøgkargarrbs;eK.
RbePTepSg²eToténbNþúMmuxcMNayfvika (budget head) b¤ cMNay mandUcCa³
fvikasMrab;rdæ)al
fvikamUlFan
fvikasMrab;karcMNay
fvikasac;R)ak;
fvikasMrab;R)ak;ebovtSr_buKÁlik
fvikasMrab;karcMNaybec©keTs
karcMNaysMrab;kic©snüaem:Akarbnþ
fvikabMrug ¬sMrab;manGasnñ¦
fvikarem (master budget) ³ fvikaemsrubbBa¢ÚlmuxcMNayfvikaTaMgGs;eGayeTACaBt’manbrimaN kñúgTMrg;Ca
cMeNj nigxat taragtulükar nig r)aykarsac;R)ak;.
122

skmμPaB 19A
ÉksarenAkñúg Assignment 1(1.2.2)

kMNt;smÁal;³ enAeBleRbIR)as;kmμviFI IT (Project Management),
RtUv)aneK eRbIedIm,IkMNt; EpñkepSg²énkarcMNay (cost) enAkñúgKMerag.

the resource sheet

EsþgecjBIbnÞat;énkarcMNay b¤ cMNUlTaMgenH EdlkarviPaKRbcaMéf¶ RtUv)aneKeFVIenAkñúgKMerag
fvikaCasac;R)ak;. vamanlMnaMCa taraglMhUrsac;R)ak; Edlerobrab;segçbGMBIcMNUl nig cMNayénKMerag
Caerogral;Ex. vaCakarsMxan;EdlRtUvcgcaMfa taragenHRtUvEtmansmtulü (balance) Caerogral;éf¶
muncb;em:AgeFVIkar eRBaHfataragenHmansar³sMxan;y:aggxøaMgsMrab; karRtYtBinitüKMerag nig lMhUrsac;R)ak;
rbs;KMerag. GñknwgeXIjfa taragenHnwgRtUveKykmkeRbICaTUeTA enAkñúgdMeNIrkarénkarerobcMEpnkarfvika.
Gñkk¾nwgsegáteXIjpgEdrfa cMNUl nig cMNaysrubnimYy² RtUv)aneKeRKagTuk Ep¥kelIRbePT
cMNaynimYy². kñúgeBlRtYtBinitüskmμPaBrbs;KMerag cMnYnBitR)akdGacmaneRcInCag b¤ ticCag
cMnYnenAkñúgKMeragfvika. Kmøat (variance) enH mansar³sMxan;Nas; ehIykarEktRmUv (adjustment)
caM)ac;RtUveFVIeLIgeTAelIsmtulüsMrab;ExeRkay²mkeTot.
kar)a:n;sμankarcMNayrbs;KMerag
enAkñúgemeronTI2 eyIg)ansikSaGMBI³

karvinieyaKFnFan - etIvamanRbeyaCn_EdrrWeT?
etIGVIxøHeTAEdlCahaniP½y nig PaBminc,as;las;enAkñúgKMerag?

tamry³kmμviFIsikSaenH Gñk)anCYbRbTHbBaðahirBaØvtßúmYycMnYn Tak;TgnwgkarRKb;RKgKMerag.
tamFmμta bBaðaTaMgGs;enHKYrEtpþl;eGayGñknUv]TahrN_Cak;c,as;mYycMnYn GMBIviFIsa®sþkñúgkarvaytémø
karcMNay eGaysuIsgVak;KñaeTAnwgtRmUvkarrbs;KMerag. eKGaceFVIkar)a:n;sμankarcMNay sMrab;skmμPaB
epSg² enAkñúgKMeragtamCMha‘n b¤ dMNak;kalsMxan;²mYycMnYn EdlGacGnuvtþ)anpgEdr eTAelIKMerag
TaMgmUlEdleKem:Akar)an. CMha‘n b¤ dMNak;kal énkarerobcMEpnkarKMeragman³

123






dMNak;kalbzm ¬Preliminary¦
dMNak;kalvaytémø ¬Appraisal¦
dMNak;kalelIksMeNIKMerag ¬Proposal¦
dMNak;kalGnum½tKMerag ¬Approved¦
dMNak;kalmuneBldak;edjéfø ¬eRkayeBlcuHkic©snüa¦
dMNak;kalÉkPaBelItémøcugeRkay

dMNak;kalbzm ¬Preliminary¦
dMNak;kalenHsMerceTA)an enAeBleKpÁÚrpÁgkarcMNay CamYYynwgkargarTak;Tg nwgkarbBa©b;KMerag.
kareFVIEbbenH KYrEtbgðajGñknUvGVIEdlehAfa :kar)a:n;sμanbzm : ¬Ball Park estimate¦ EdlKmøatGacesμInwg
+/-30% éncMNayEdlGacekItman.
1.

kar)a:n;sμanbzmRtUv)aneKeFVIeLIg edIm,Ipþl;Bt’mancaM)ac;xøH² b¤ Bt’manTUeTAeTAeGayKMerag.
vahYsBIkarGaceTArYcEdl kar)a:n;sμanenHmansuRkwtPaBtictYcbMplut. vaKWCakar)a:n;sμandMbUgbg¥s;
EdleKeRbI kñúgkarcab;epþImKNnacMNaysMrab;KMerag.
dMNak;kalvaytémø ¬Appraisal¦
enAkñúgdMNak;kalvaytémø eKnwgKitBicarNaBIRbePTmuxcMNay Tak;TgnwgedImTun nig R)ak;cMNUl.
vaekIteLIg enAeBlEdleKRtUvkMNt;RbePT nig lkçN³énkarcMNay. ]TahrN_³
• cMNayelIsmÖar³eRbIR)as; ¬consumables¦
• cMNaydMeNIrkar ¬running cost¦
• témø»kas ¬opportunity cost¦
• cMNayelItémørMelaH ¬depreciation¦
• cMNayelIGtiprNa ¬inflation¦
2.

kar)a:n;sμankarcMNayKYrEteFVIeLIgEp¥kelItaragerobrab;skmμPaBKMerag ¬project outline¦ dUcCa
plcMeNjCaedIm. eKKYrEtBicarNaelIktþaxageRkamenHpgEdr³
• kMNt;muxcMNayc,as;las; EdleKRtUvEp¥kelIkarkMNt;muxcMNayenHedIm,IeFVIEpnkarfvika
• eFVIEpnkarlMGitGMBIlMhUrsac;R)ak;
124

RbmUltémø nig sMeNItémø ¬quotes¦ RbsinebIGac edIm,IkMNt;témøkñúgrvagKmøat
¬sUmemIltaragtémøkñúgkic©snüaxageRkam¦

+/-30%

dMNak;kalelIksMeNIKMerag ¬Proposal Stage¦
enAdMNak;kalenH eKRtUverobrab;bgðajGMBIkarEbgEckkargar nig karcMNaylMGitCUndl;GtifiCn
b¤Gñkpþl;mUlniFi. caM)ac;RtUvmanEpnkarlMGitGMBIskmμPaB nig karcMNay edIm,IeGayeKGacdak;Epnkar
edaymankar)a:n;sμanGMBItémøcugeRkayEdl)anÉkPaB kñúgKmøat +/-10% CUneTAm©as;PaKh‘un b¤ GñkBak;B½n§
kñúgKMeragedIm,IGnum½t.
3.

vaCaerOgsMxan;Edlfa kar)a:n;sμanTaMgGs;RtUvKitbBa©ÚlBItémøGtiprNa nig kareLIgéfø. edIm,I
eFVIEbbenH eKRtUverobcMeGaymankarxÞg;cMNay nig karbRmugnana sMrab;saß nPaBGasnñ bBa©ÚleTAkñúgsMeNIr
fvikaKMerag.
]TahrN_³ etIdMeNIrkarelIksMeNIrKMeragmandMeNIrkarya:gdUcemþcenAkñúgkarGnuvtþCak;Esþg?
enAeBlpþl;sMeNItémø b¤ Éksaredjéfø Gñkem:AkarnwgkMNt;ry³eBlmYy EdlsMeNItémø b¤
ÉksaredjéføenaH manRbsiT§PaB. lkçxNÐénsMeNItémøenaH nwgRtUveKEcgya:gc,as;las; edIm,IeGay
GtifiCnGaceFVIkarsMerccitþfaetI KYrTTYlyksMeNItémøenaHEdrb¤eT EdlenHmann½yfa etIeKKYrcab;epþIm
dMeNIrkarKMeragEdrrb¤eT. elIsBIenH RbsinebIGtifiCnenAEtmanbMNg;cg;TTYlyksMeNItémøenaH
eRkayeBlvaGs;RbsiT§PaB GtifiCnGacnwgRtUv)aneKpþl;CUnnUvsMeNItémømYyfμI Edlmandak;bBa©ÚlnUv
témøEdleK)anEksMrYleLIgvij.
]TahrN_ pøÚveRkamdIBIRbeTsGg;eKøseTARbeTs)araMg kñúgqñaM 1987 mantémø)a:n;sμanBIdMbUgcMnYn
£4.7 billion. ehIyenAExtula qñaM 1993 enAeBlEdleKbBa©b;karsagsg; vaRtUv)aneK)a:n;sμanfamantémø
£8 billion edaysar EtmankartemøIgéfø.
dMNak;kalGnum½t ¬Approval¦
dMNak;kalGnum½t ekIteLIgenAeBlEdlsMeNIRtUv)anemIl nig BinitüedaybuKÁlNamñak; b¤
PaKIBak;B½n§nwgTidæPaBhirBaØvtßúénKMerag. vaGacCadMeNIrkarpøÚvkarmYykñúgkarGnum½tyl;RBmelIcMNUl nig
4.

125

cMNaysrub EdlnwgekItmaneLIgBIKMerag. enAeBlBicarNaelIkar)a:n;sμan dUcEdl)anerobrab;xagelI
karKitBIEpnkarcMNaybMrugsMrab;sßanPaBGasnñ (contingency) CakarcaM)ac;Nas;.
kareFVIEbbenHKWedIm,I³
1. rYmbBa©ÚlkarERbRbYl nig GVIEdlmin)anbBa©Úl PaBminR)akd nig¼b¤ KmøatenAkñúgkar)a:n;sμan
2. pþl;karFanaTb;Tl;nwghaniP½yEdlGacekItman
enAeBlbBa©b;edayeCaKC½yéndMNak;kalGnum½tKMerag karsMerccitþkñúgkarbnþkargarKMeragnwg
RtUv)anmkdl;. buE: nþ vaCakarsMxan;kgúñ karBicarNaelIkargar EdlGñkrYmcMENkKMeragminGacGnuvtþ)an. dUecñH
KWenAkñúgdMNak;kalenHehIy EdlcaM)ac;RtUvkMNt;GMBIkargarTaMgGs;EdltMrUveGaymanGñkCMnaj enAkñúgRkum
kargarKMerag. bnÞab;BIenH eKRtUvsMercelIkargardak;eGayedjéføbnþ enAkñúgtémøEdlGaceTArYc .
dMNak;kalmunem:Akar b¤eRkaycuHkics© nüa ¬Pre-tender/post contract¦
Rkumhu‘nCaeRcInmanviFanhirBaØvtßúrbs;BYkeK EdleyIgcaM)ac;RtUvEtsRmbtam enAeBlEdleyIg
eRtomcMNayFM². bnÞab;BIdMNak;kalTaMgGs;enH enAeBlEdleK)ansMercGnum½tKMeragrYcehIy EpñkxøH²
énKMerag b¤ EpñkTaMgGs;GacnwgRtUveKem:AkarykeTAGnuvtþ. ]TahrN_enH)ann½yfa karGnuvtþ b¤
karbBa©b;KMerag køayCaTMnYlxusRtUvrbs;PaKITI3.

5.

]TahrN_ karsagsg;k)a:l;mYy Edlem:AkaredayRkumhu‘neQμaH ¬Cunard Ship Builders¦.
Rkumhu‘nenHnwgminsagsg;navaedayxøÜnÉgeT bu:EnþGacÉkPaBCapøÚvkarCamYynwgGñkpþl;mUlniFiÉkCnsMrab;
KMeragsagsg;enH ehIybnÞab;mkeTot dak;EpñkxøH² b¤ EpñkTaMgGs;énKMerageGayeKedjéfø.
Rkumhu‘nsagsg;k)a:l;nwgedjéføKMeragsagsg;enaH ehIydak;ÉksarbBa¢ak;fa BYkeKGacsMerc
kargarsagsg;enAkñúgry³eBl nig eTAtamsþg;daKuNPaB nig témøEdleK)anÉkPaB.
skmμPaB 19B
ÉksarenAkñúg Assignment 1(1.2.2)

126

dMNak;kalsMerctMélcugeRkay ¬Achieved Cost¦
enARKb;dMNak;kalTaMgGs;énKMerag eKRtUvRtYtBinitü nig RKb;RKgtémø edayeRbIRbB½n§fvika. Kmøat
(variances) EdlGacekItmanenAkñúgdMNak;kalKMerag ehIysMxan;CagenHeTAeTot karEktRmUvCak;lak;
eTAelImuxcMNayKMeragGacRtUv)aneKGnum½tyl;RBmrYcehIy.
karviPaKkarcMNayEdleRKagTukenAkñúgKMeragfvika nig témøCak;EsþgRtUv)aneFVIeLIg nig tMélBit
R)akdRtUv)aneKÉkPaBKña. enHeKehAvafa Ca achieved cost .
6.

skmμPaB 19C
ÉksarenAkñúg Assignment 1(1.2.2)
karerobcM)a:n;sμanfvikaKMerag
]TahrN_

etIKMeragnwgRtUvcMNayfvikab:unμan?
enHCasMNYrmYykñúgcMeNamsMNYrCaeRcInEdlnwgRtUvelIkeLIgenAeBlBicarNaKMerag. FnFanEdl
RtUvkarcaM)ac; RtUvEtKitCatémø. FnFanTaMgenHrYmman³
• smÖar³eRbIR)as;kñúgkariyal½y
• ]bkrN_eRbIR)as;
• kareFVIEpnkarcMMNay
• cMNayelIkMlaMgBlkmμ
• cMNayelIédKUsMxan;²
• cMNayelIsmÖar³eRbIR)as;
FnFanGacCamnusS b¤ smÖar³. caM)ac;GñkRtUvdwgfaetIGñkRtUvkarbuKÁlikbu:nμannak; nig GRtaR)ak;Ex
rbs;BYkeK rYmTaMgtMélelIkic©RBmeRBogEdl)ancrcarCamYyédKUsMxan;². vacaM)ac;RtUvmancenøaHbnþicsMrab;
karKNnaxus nig sMrab;karcMNayEdlKitmindl; b¤ min)aneRKagTuk.

127

kñúgdMNak;kal)a:ns; μan GñknwgRtUvqøgkat;dN
M ak;kalsMxan;²3 edIm,IKNnakar)a:ns; μantémø.
kar)a:ns; μanenH nwgRtUvEp¥kelIlnM aMtictYc EdlvanwgmanlkçN³kan;Etc,as;eLIgenAeBldMeNIrkarQaneTAmux.
vaküs½BÞxageRkam CaTUeTARtUv)aneKeRbIenAkñúgkarcat;EcgKMerag.
vaküs½BÞTaMgenHman³
1. kar)a:ns
; μanbzm ¬ballpart estimate¦ EdlCakar)a:n;sμanminlMGit EdlmanKmøat +/-30%
; μanBIlT§PaB ¬feasibility estimate¦ EdlmanKmøat +/-20%
2. kar)a:ns
3. kar)a:ns
; μancugeRkay ¬definitive estimate¦ EdlmanKmøat +/-10%
ykl¥ eKKYrEt)a:ns; μantémøKeM rag eGayelIsBItémøCak;Esgþ CaCagticCag.
: kar)a:ns; μanbzm : sMedAelItYelxdMbgU EdleKeFVkI arsnμtb; nÞab;BI)aneXIjKMerag edayEp¥kelI
bTBiesaFn_knøgmk b¤ GarmμNE_ dleKmanenAeBlenaH.
: kar)a:ns; μanBIlT§PaB : RtUv)aneKeFVeI LIg bnÞab;BI)anBicarNaeTAelIkarcMNayTaMgGs;srM ab;KeM rag
nig eFVkI arbUksrubkarcMNayTaMgGs;enaH.
: kar)a:ns; μancugeRkay : sMedAelIcnM nY TwkR)ak;EdlGñkrMBwgfanwgRtUvcMNaysMrab;KeM rag bnÞab;BI)an
BicarNasBVRCugeRCay rYcral;ehIy.
kar)a:ns; μan ¬Estimates¦
enAeBlKitBicarNafaetIKeM ragmYynwgRtUvcMNayGs;fvikabun: μan viFKI NnamYyEdlgayRsYl KWRtUv
bMEbkral;cMNayBak;Bn½ §TaMgGs;eGaytUc² ehIybnÞab;mkbegáIteGaymankarcMNaysMrab;kic©kar EdlRtUv
bMeBjnimyY ².
enAkñgú ]TahrN_KrM xU ageRkamenH GñkmanR)ak; £10,000 edIm,Itbu EtgpÞHrbs;Gkñ eLIgvij
ehIymaneBlcMnnY 51éf¶ edIm,IeFVIkic©karenH muneBlGñkerIclU mkenAkñúgpÞHenH.
]TahrN_

mundMbUg etIGñkRtUveFVFI xIV Hø ?
128

dMNak;kalTI 1³ karsBa¢gw KitBIkargarEdlRtUveFVI
GñkGacnwg³
1. eRtomruHerI\va:n;ecjBIkúñgpÞH
2. labfñaM nig tubEtglMGr
3. kargarCageQI - dMNak;kalTI 1
4. karsarsg;xagkñúg
kargarnimyY ²xagelIenH CabNkMúþ argarCak;lak;myY cMnnY cUlKña. ]TahrN_ karlabfñaM nig kartubEtglMGr
tRmUveGayman³
1. smÖar³
2. kMlaMgBlkmμ
3. edImTun
4. TueyaTwk
5. kargarEpñkGKÁs
i nI - dMNak;kalTI 1
6. karCYsCuldMbl
U bnciþ bnþcÜ
7. RkalRBM nig dak;vaMgnn
8. karerIcUlmkenA
9. kargarCageQI nig karbUk - dMNak;kalTI 2
10. karsagsg;xageRkA
11. kargarEpñkGKÁs
i nI - dMNak;kalTI 2
12. karRtYtBint
i ükargarEdl)aneFVrI cY
bnÞab;BRI bmUlpKMúþ nM ti rYc kargarTaMgenHcaM)ac;RtUverobcMeTAtamlMdab;leM day. tamlMdab;leM day eKGacerob
dUcxageRkam³
5. kartMeLIgeRKÓgGKÁs
i nI elIkT I1
6. kartMeLIgeRKÓgeQI elIkTI 1
7. karbUksuIm:g;
8. kartMeLIgeRKÓgGKÁs
i nI elIkTI 2
9. kartemøg
I eRKÓgeQI elIkTI 2
10. karCYsCulRbB½nT
§ eu yaTwk
129

karlabfñaM nig kartubEtglMGr
12. karRkalRBM nig dak;vaMgnn
13. karRtYtBint
i ükargarEdl)aneFVrI cY
14. karerIcUlmkenAkñúgpÞH
11.

dMNak;kalTI 2
GacmankargarkMbiukkMbk:u xøH bu:Enþ kñgú ]TahrN_enH eKsnμtf; akargarTaMgGs;enaHenArYmCamYykargarFM²CaeRcIn
dUcCa³
1. ruHerI\va:ne; cjBIkg
úñ pÞH
2. karCYsCuldMbl
U bnþci bncÜþ
3. karsagsg;bnc
iþ bnþcÜþ enAkñgú pÞH
4. karsagsg;bnc
iþ bnþcÜþ enAxageRkApÞH
5. karCYsCulGKÁisnIelIkTI 1
dMNak;kalTI 3

etIKeM ragEkkunpÞHenHnwgRtUvkarcMNaybun: μan?
GñkGacTak;TgCamYyGñkem:Akarsagsg; edIm,IeGayeKmkeFVkI armYycMnYn edaypþl;kMérRbcaMéf¶
dl;BYkeK. dUecñH eyIgsnμtf; a Gñkem:Akarsagsg;nwgpþls; eM NItémødcU xageRkam³
kar)a:ns; μantammuxcMNay
• smÖar³kñg
ú témø elIsBI 10%
• éføruHerI ¬bg;éføEtmg
þ cb;¦
• kMlaMgBlkmμ éfø £50 kñúgmYyéf¶
• karRkalRBM nig dak;vaMgnn ¬bg;éføEtmg
þ cb;¦
• Bn§GakrelItémøbEnßm (VAT) kñg
ú GRta 17.5% éncMNaysrub

130

dMeNIkar)a:ns; μankarcMNay
kargar
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

cMNayelIsmÖar³ cMNayelIBlkmμ cMNayEtmþgcb;
¬dk 10%¦
¬cMnnY kmμkr ¦
10
2
4
4
6
15
15
10
15
8
30
4
4

250
100
150
300
450
320
180
310
220
180
400

srub
£ 2,460 + 10%
cMNaysrub
£2,706
cMNaysrubsMrab;kargarTaMgGs;

127

Bn§GakrelItémøbEnßm
(VAT) 17.5%

850
400

éf¶ @ £ 50

£ 1,250

+ Vat @ 17.5%

£ 6,350

£ 1,250

£ 1,803.55

£ 12,109.55

cMNayruHerI³ £ 400
enAdMNak;kalenH GñkKYrRtUvdwgGMBIkargarTaMgGs;EdlRtUveFVI nig GRtatémøEdlRtUvbg;.
minmankarcMNaysMrab;karRtYtBinti ü nig karyWtya:gkargareT.
GñkmaneBl 51éf¶ edIm,IeFVkI ci ©karenH muneBlGkcab;epþmI eFVkI arpakBiny½ edaysarkarxkxanmin)an
erImkenApÞHfμrI bs;Gkñ .

131

elxkic©kar
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

karerobrab;eQμaHkic©kar

buKÁlik ryHeBl (éf¶ ) tMélsmÖar³ ( £ )

ekaskMe)arecjBICBa¢aMg
karCYsCuldMbUlpÞH
karerob\dækñúgpÞH
karerob\dæeRkApÞH
kartP¢ab;ePIøgGKÁisnIelIkTI 1
kargarCageQInigkat;teQIelIkTI 1
karbUkeTAelICBa¢aMg
kartP¢ab;ePIøgGKÁisnIelIkTI 2
kargarCageQInigkat;teQIelIkTI 2
kartP¢ab;RbBnæ½Twk
labfñaM nwgtubEtg
karRkalkMralRBM
karRtYtBinitüemIl
cUlsñak;enAb¤erI\v:an;cUl

srub

5@
2@
2@
2@
2@
3@
3@
2@
3@
2@
3@
2@

4@

éf¶
1 éf¶
2 éf¶
2 éf¶
3 éf¶
5 éf¶
5 éf¶
5 éf¶
5 éf¶
4 éf¶
10 éf¶ + 5 éf¶
2 éf¶
1 éf¶
1 éf¶
53 éf¶
2

250.00
100.00
150.00
300.00
450.00
320.00
180.00
310.00
220.00
180.00
850.00
400.00
(+10%)

dMNak;kalTI 5
etIKMeragnwgcMNayGs;fvikarb:unμanedayKiteTAelI kareRbIsmÖar³ éføBlkmμ nigvtßúeRbIR)as;Edl
RtUv)aneRbIGs;eBjmYyGayukalrbs;KMerag ?
GRtaRbcaMéf¶rbs;GñkcuHkic©snüasagsg;KW :
• smÖar³ éfø bUkbEnßm 10%
• éføBlkmμkñúgmYyéf¶ £50
• éføBlkmμ : £51 x 50 = £ 2,550
• smÖar³ : £ 2,306
• éføkargarmYyRtUveFVIEtmYydg : £1,250
• srub ( Sub Total ) : £6,506 + VAT
• srubTaMgGs; = £7,644.55
132

CMhanTI 6
etImankarcMNaybEnßmeTotrWeT?
enAeBlEdlKMeragkMBugEtdMeNIrkarenaHGñkRtUv)aneKR)ab;fa GñkcaM)ac;RtUvdak;dMbUlbeNþaHGasnñ
sMrab;karBarmnusSFøak; (scaffolding) EdlGs;tMél £ 2,000 + VAT enAxageRkApÞH.
etIRbkarenHnigb:HBal;dl;KMeragfvikaTaMgmUlEdlmancMnYn £10,000 rbs;GñkedayrebobNa ?
CMhanTI 7
etIGñknigbBa©b;KMeragenHedayrebobNa edayKitfa \LÚvenHGñkdwgBIkarcMNayBitR)akdrbs;KMerageFob
nwgfvikacMnYn £10.000Edl)ankMNt;rYc ?
skmμPaB 19D
kñúgEpñkenHGñk)anerondUcxageRkamnUv ³
• reboberobcMKMeragfvikarbs;KMerag
• begáInkaryl;dwgelI eKalbMNg plRbeyaCn¾ nig bBaðanana
• karerobcMfvikatamry³kareRbIR)as; budget heads nig cost centres
• karbegáItKMeragfvikaem (Master budget) sMrab;karcMNayTaMgmUlrbs;KMerag
nigrebobEbgEckkarcMNayTaMgenH enAkñúgEdnkMNt;rbs;KMerag
• kar)a:n;sμanelIkarcMNaykñúgKMeragfvikaénKMerag nig dMNak;kalnanaEdlKMerag RtUvqøgkat;
munnigTTYl)ankarGnum½t.
• kareRbII karedjéfø karerobcMmundak;edjéfø nig eRkayeBledjéfø

133

PaBERbRbYléntMél)a:n;sμantamryHdMNak;kalTaMg 6 rbs;KMerag
GgÁPaBnanabegáItnig GnuvtþRbBnæ½RKb;RKghirBaØvtßúmYycMnYnxus²Kña.
eTaHbIya: gNak¾eday GgÁPaBTaMgLayGacGnuvtþKeM ragedayÉkraCüxønÜ Ég nig¼b¤ shkarCamYy
édKUrd_éTeTot ¬EdlmanCMnaj¦ nig TIPñak;garpþl;mUlniFinana k¾dMeNIrkarEdleKykmkeRbIsMrab;kar
Gnum½thirBaØvtßúrbs;KMerag KWRtUv)aneKdak;bBa©ÚlEdr.
cUrsYrxøÜnÉgnUvsMnYrCabnþbnÞab;dUcteTAenH. enAkñúgKMeragGñk)anFøab;cUlrYm b¤cUlrYmenAeBlbc©úb,nñ³
etIGñkNaCaGñkGnum½tykRbB½n§Kb;RKghirBaØvtßúrbs;KMerag ?
etIRbB½n§enHsmRsbeTAtamc,ab;hirBaØvtßúrbs;GgÁPaBCaédKUTaMgGs; Edrb¤eT ?
Cak;EsþgNas;fa vaCakarlM)akkñúgkarbegáItRbB½n§EtmYy EdlmankarKaMRT nig Gnuvtþedayrcna
sm<½n§nnanrbs;GgÁPaB nig KMeragrbs;GñkTaMgGs;. enARtg;cMnucenHénkarEsVgrkRbB½n§nd¾smRsb caM)ac;
RtUveKbegIát nigkMNt;eGay)anc,as;las;.
viFanRKb;RKghirBaØvtßúrbs;KMeragRtUvEtkMNt;eGay)anc,as;las; sMrab;GñkCab;Bak;B½n§kñúgKMerag.
EpñkmYycMnYnEdlcaM)ac;RtUvdak;bBa©ÚlkñúgviFanRKb;RKgEpñkhirBaØvtßúrbs;KMeragKW ³
cMMNy /R)ak;cMNUl

RbB½n§KNenyü / RbB½n§kt;Rta

esvakmμ & karpÁt;pÁg;

karkMm:g;Tij
karepÞogpÞat;vik½yb½Rt
karbBa¢ak;BIkarcMNay

karkMm:g; b¤kic©snüa

EdlkMNt;énGMNacGnum½telIcMNay

RTBüskmμmUlFn
karFanara:b;rg

sareBIPNн (inventory)
Fanara:b;rgsMNg sarFarN³ b¤ÉkCn
134

savnkmμ

RbB½n§savnkmμépÞkñúg
svnkrxageRkA

Bt’manlMGitBIkaredjéfø

lkçxNÐCak;lak; ¼ taragtMél
eKalkarN¾ENnaMsMrab;karTijCak;lak;
Bt’manlMGitBIkarcMNay nigTUeTA

svnkmμ

ynþkarsMrab;karRtYtBinitü karRKb;RKg nigvaytMél
eTAelIKMerag.
r)aykarN¾sþIBIkarRtYtBinitüerobcMCaRbcaM .

skmμPaB 19E
ÉksarenAkñúg Assignment 1(1.2.2)
PaBERbRbYlénkar)a:n;sμaneTAelItémø
enAxagelIeyIgBiPakSaGMBICMhanénkarerobcMKMeragfvikasMrab;KMeragmYy.
eyIgBiPakSaCasegçbeTAelI
• dMNak;kaldMbUg
• karvaytMél
• kardak;sMeNI
• karGnum½t
• karerobcMmuneBledjéfø (eRkayeBledjéfø )
• tMélsMerccugeRkay .
enAkñúgvdþGayukalrbs;KMerag dMNak;kalnimYy²xagelIGackøayCaFatumYyd¾sMxan; énr)aykarN_
KMeragfvikaCacugeRkay. eK)anbgðajrYcehIyfa tMélnanaEdlTTYl)anenAkñúgdMNak;kaldMbUg GacbegáIt
eGaymankarERbRbYltMélCak;lak; ( specific cost variation) eFobnwgtMélCak;Esþg EdleK)ancayBit
R)akd .

kar)a:n;sμandMbUg kar):an;sμanGMBIlTæPaB nig kar)a:sμancugeRkay.
135

kMNt;sMKal; ³ vaCaTMlab;Gnuvtþn_ kñúgkarFanafa Éksaredjéfø (munEckcayeTAxageRkA) RtUvEtRsbeTA

nigviFanRKb;RKghirBaØvtßúrbs;GgÁPaBTaMLay .
skmμPaB 19F
ÉksarenAkñúg Assignment 1(1.2.2)
skmμPaB 19G
ÉksarenAkñúg Assignment 1(1.2.2)

xageRkamenHKWCataragFmμtamYy (minEmntaraglMGiteT ) GMBIbBaðamYycMnYnEdlRtUveKBicarNa
enAeBl)a:n;sμantMélrbs;elIKMerag . bBaðaTaMgenHnwgFøak;cUleTAkñúgEpñkCak;lak;nana kñúgvdþGayukalrbs;
KMerag .
skmμPaB 19H
¬valM)akkñúgkarbegáIttaragd¾eBjeljmYy sMrab;karcMNayTaMgGs;EdlnigGacekItman.
taragxageRkamenH KYrEtykeRbIR)as;eFVICakarnaMpøÚvmYy ( guide ) )anehIy.

136

etIkar)a:n;sμaneTAelIkarcMNayénKMeragrbs;GñkrYmman :
1.

2.

3.

4.

karcMNaybnÞab;bnSM (Overheads) :
k> tMélKUrbøg; (design fees) ?
x> tMélcMNayefr (constancy fees)?
K> tMélFana (insurance costs) ?
tMélBlkmμ (labour costs) :
k> tMélelIGñkRKb;RKgKMerag b¤RkumkargarKMerag (project mgr/team costs) ?
x> tMélBlkmμpÞal; (direct labour) ?
K> tMélBlkmμem:Akar (sub-contract labour) ?
X> tMélBlkmμbeNþaHGasnñ (temporary labour) ?
karcMNayeTAelIsmÖar³ (material costs) :
k> ePIøgGKÁIsnI b¤ RbB½n§pþl;kMedA (electricity or heating) ?
x> kargarsagsg;GaKar (building work) ?
K> smÖar³Biess (special materials) ?
karcMNayeTAelI]bkrN¾ ( equipment costs)
k> tMélTij (purchase costs) ?
x> tMélCYl (hire costs) ?
K> tMélPtisnüa (lease costs) ?

5.

karGnuBaØateGaymancMNaybMrugsMrab;eBlmanGasnñ ( Contingency allowance )?

6.

karGnueRKaHsMrab;GtiprNa (inflation allowance) ?

7.

epSg² (others) ?

segçb
PaBERbRbYlnana (variation) EdlmankñúgGMLúgeBlvdþGayukalrbs;KMerag nigRtUvpSaP¢ab;
y:agCitsiTæCamYynwgdMeNIrkarEbgEckfvika. PaBc,as;las;nigPaBRsbeTAnwgRbBnæ½nana Edl)an
ykmkeRbIR)as; KYrRtUvTukdEdlRKb;eBlTaMgGs;kñúgGMLúgeBlGnuvtþn¾KMerag .
137

xEcgsþIBIviFanRKb;RKghirBaØvtßú nigkardak;Bin½y
viFanRKb;RKghiriBaØvtßúnana Edl)anBiPakSaxagelI begáItecjBIKMrUmYysMrab;KMerag edIm,IeGayeK
GacRKb;RKghirBaØvtßúrbs;KMerag. vamansar³sMxan;Nas;cMeBaHkarBitEdlfa RbsinPaKINamYymineKarB
tamnitiviFIEdl)anEcg enaHeKRtUvEteFVIkarsgCMgWcitþEbbNamYy .
kic©snüaEdl)antak;EtgeLIgrvagPaKITaMgenH minRtwmEtEcgBIlkçxNÐnanaénRbtibtþikar b¤k¾GVIEdl
eKnwgsMerc)anb:ueNÑaHeT kalviPaKEpñkhiriBaØvtßúedayELkmYyk¾RtUveKtak;EtgeLIgpgEdr edaymantarag
lMGitGMBIkMritnanaénkarcMNay EdlGacekItmaneLIg. RbkarenHRtUveKcat;TukfaCa ÉksaredayELkmYy
ehIyÉksareyagEtgEtRtUveKP¢ab;vaeTAkñúgTMrg;segçbénkic©snüaenH.
karxkxanNamYy EdleFVIeLIgedayGñkcuHkic©snüa edIm,IeGaysuIKñaeTAnwgkatBVkic©rbs;xøÜn Edl
manEcgkñúgkic©snüa GaceFVIeGayxUcekrþ×eQμaHrbs;BYkeK. dMNwgd¾GaRkk;enHnwgrIksayPayy:agelOn
BaseBjeragcRk]sSahkmμ ehIyGñkRbkYtRbECgTaMgLayrbs;Gñkem:AkarnwgeFVIkarkt;sMKal;. Gñkem:Akar
GacTTYlrgnUvkarxatbg;EpñkhiriBaØvtßú RbsinebIminGacbMeBjtamkalviPaKkargar)an b¤ebImindUecñaHeT
KWBYkeKKNnaxusGMBITMhMénkic©karEdlBYkeK)anGnuvtþ. GaRs½yehtuenHvamansar³sMxan;Nas; sMrab;Gñk
em:Akar kñúgkarkMNt;y:agc,as;Camun nUvGVIEdlGtifiCnrMBwgfanwgTTYl)anBIR)ak;kasEdleKcMNay .
karerobcMnanaEpñkhriBaØvtßúrbs;GgÁPaB caM)ac;RtUvyl;eGay)anc,as;las; nigRtUvGnuvtþTAnwg
KMerag EdleK)anTTYlyk. eKKitfakalviPaKénkargarEdl)anbegáIteLIg nigkar)a:n;sμansMrab;KMerag
nwgeFVIkarpSaP¢ab;CamYynwgkarENnaMEpñkhiriBaØvtßúnana. vaCaerOgFmμtaeTEdlfa kic©RBmeRBogénkic©snüa
CamYyPaKIEdlCab;Bak;Bnæ½ nwgrab;bBa©ÚlnUvkalviPaKedayELkmYypgEdr Edlerobrab;y:aglMGitGMBI
cMNayEdlCab;Bak;Bnæ½TaMgGs;rbs;KMerag .

138

emeronTI 4 -

Area of Competence 20

karbþÚrkalviPaKBt’manEdl)aneRKagTukeTAkñúg Baseline Plan
enAkñúgEpñkenHGñknwg ³
1. bþÚr outline plans eGayeTACa baseline plan
2. bMeBjsMeNIrbs;KMeragmYyedayeRbI IT nigkmμviFI PM Software Application
3. pSBVpSayBt’manCak;lak;EdleKRtUvkareBjmYyKMerag
4. eRbIR)as; Information filters edIm,Idak;edayELkBIKñanUvral;Bt’manEdlRtUvkarTMnak;TMng
5. tamdan nigRtYtBinitüKMerag edayeFobeTAnwg Baseline Edl)ankMnt;
6. bgðajBIr)aykarN¾sþIBIsßankarN_ (status) rbs;KMerag
7. RtYtBinitüeTAelIlT§plénkarGnuvtþKMerageFobeTAnwg Baseline b¤eFVIkarEktRmUv
8. EktRmUvFnFan nig eFIVeGaykarEbgEckFnFaneGayesμIl¥
karkMNt;bnÞat;eKal ( Setting Baseline )
bgðajBIkMNt;RtaéncMNuceBlevlamYy enAeBlEdlEpnkar b¤kalviPaKmYy
RtUv)aneKbegáIteLIg FnFanRtUv)aneKEbgEck nigbBaðananaRtUv)aneKedaHRsay. karkMNt; Baseline
kt;RtaBIeBlevla kalbriecäT nig karcMNay.
Baseline

Baseline

pþl;nUvEpnkarefrmYy EdlGaceRbobeFobCamYynwgkargarCak;Esþgrbs;KMerag.

karpøas;bþÚr Outline Plans eGayeTACa Baseline
Epnkarrbs;KMeragGacRtUv)aneKpøas;bþÚreGayeTACa Baseline Plan )an EtenAeBlEdlKMeragfμI
mYyRtUv)aneKerobcM nigenAeBlEdlGñkBak;B½n§CamYynwgKMeragyl;RsbelIEpnkarenaHb:ueNÑaH. EpnkarenH
nwgerobrab;BIFnFanrbs;kic©karTaMGs; (task resources) EdlbegáItCacMNayrbs;KMerag. karcMNayenH
caM)ac;RtUvsßitkñúgKMeragfvikaedImEdleK)ankMNt;.

139

kMNt;sMKal;³ muneBlGñkeFVIEpnkarKMeragrbs;GñkeGayeTACa Baseline Plan GñkKYrEtrkSaTuk

ÉksarcMlgrbs;EpnkarKMeragrbs;Gñk CaÉksareyag kñúgkrNIEdlmanbBaðaGVImYyekIteLIg.
mUlehtukñúgkarbegáItEpnkarrbs;KMerageGayeTACa Baseline KWedIm,IeGayeKGactamdan nig
RtYtBinitüKMerag eFobeTAnwgkalviPaKedImEdl)ankMNt; nig edIm,IeFVIeGayR)akdfa KMeragdMeNIrkarenAkñúg
kMriteBlevlatamEpnkar nig KMeragfvikaEdleKkMNt;Camun .

140

emeronTI 4 -

Area of Competence 21

karbegáItsMeNIrbs;KMeragEdleKbBa¢b;
sMeNIrbs;KMerag RtUv)ansresredayGñkRbKl;KMerag b¤ RbFanRKb;RKgKMeragsMrab;eGayeTA
GtifiCn b¤ ttiyCn dUcCaFnaKar b¤Pñak;garpþl;mUlniFi. sMeNIenH pþl;Gnusasn¾fa KMeragKYr)anGnuBaØat
eGaybBa©b; nig bgðajGMBIKMeragkñúglkçN³Edll¥bMputEdlGaceFVI)an edaybBa¢ak;GMBIlkçxNÐeCaKC½y
c,as;las; eRbobeFobeTAnwg KuNPaB karcMNay nig eBlevla. sMeNInanarbs;KMerag Cajwkjab;
RtUv)aneKbegáIteLIg eTAtamTMrg;EbbbTEdl)ankMNt; nigCanic©kal eKdak;bBa©úÚlnUveKalbMNgKnøwH²
rbs;KMerag eyagelITsSn³rbs;GñkEdlTTYlplRbeyaCn¾BIKMerag .
sMeNIenHGacCasMeNImYykñúgcMeNamsMeNICaeRcIn EdleKdak;CUnsMrab;KMeragEtmYy. sMeNITaMgenH
rYcehIy RtUv)ankat;bnßyeGayenAsl;EtsMeNImYycMnYntUc sMrab;karRtYtBinitüeGay)anditdl;. dUcenH
KMeragmYynwgRtUveKGnum½tyl;RBm eyageTAelIseM NIrbs;va b¤ sMeNImYycMnYntUcnwgRtUv)aneKeRCIserIs
ehIy sMeNInimYy²nwgRtUveKpþl;CaPaKryénKMerag.
GñkRKb;RKgKMerag nig RkumkargarKMeragnwgbegáItÉksarrbs;sMeNI b¤ sMeNIGacRtUv)ansresr
edayRkummYyedayELk EdlmanCMnajkñúgkarsresrsMeNIKMerag.
Bt’manenAkñúgsMeNIRtUvEtmandUcxageRkam :
• karkMNt;niymn½yc,as;las; GMBIeKalbMNgKnøwHrbs;KMerag
• r)aykarN_segçbrbs;KMerag rYmbBa©ÚlTaMg lkçxNÐsMGag (TOR’s)
• esckþIGFib,ayGMBIKMerag ¬Gacman KMnUrbøg; nig ÉksarepSg²eTot¦ nig GMBIkmμvtßúcMbg² b¤
plitplsnüapþl;nanarbs;KMerag ( deliverables )
• esckþIGFib,ayGMBI eBlevlabnÞab;EdlTTYl)an (Timeframe)
• esckþIGFib,ayGMBI lkçxNÐeCaKC½yrbs;KMerag
• esckþIGFib,ayGMBI tYnaTI nig karTTYlxusRtUvrbs;Rkumkargar b¤ KN³RKb;RKgKMerag
• r)aykarN_sþIBIkareFVIetsþepSg² nig karsikSaGMBIlTæPaB nig karsikSaGMBItMrUvkar (demand)
• viFITTYl)anmUlniFi
• karRKb;RKgeBlevla
141









karRKb;RKgkarcMNay
karRKb;RKgPsþúPa
karGnuvtþtamkic©snüa
yuTæsaRsþEpñkbrisßan ( FmμCati nig sgÁm Physical and Social )
yuTæsaRsþEpñkKuNPaB
yuTæsaRsþEpñksuvtþiPaB yuTæsaRsþFanar:ab;rg
yuTæsaRsþFnFanmunusS (HR strategy)
yuTæsaRsþEpñkBt’man
karviPaKelIcMNucgaybgáCabBaða nig EpnkarTb;Tl;haniP½y (sensitivities and Risk Plan)

142

]TahrN_én TRmg;mYyrbs;sMeNIKMeragmandUcxageRkam ³
]TahrN_ rbs;sMeNIKMerag
FnaKarBiPBelak naykdæanGPivDÇn¾GnþrCati , Crown agents.
kalbriecäTénKMerag:
RbeTs:
eQμaHKMerag:
cMnYnTwkR)ak;srubrbs;KMerag:
cMnYnTwkR)ak;smasFatunanarbs;KMerag ¬TidæPaBTUeTA¦
1) cMNgeCIgk,alsnøwkrbs;KMerag (Project Header Sheet):
2) esckþIsegçb nig Gnusasn_:
3) xøwmsarrbs;KMerag³ eKalbMNgKnøwH² nig GñkTTYlplRbeyaCn¾BIKMerag
3.1) CIvRbvtþi (background)
3.2) eKalneya)ay (policies)
3.3) karcUlrYmnigGñkBak;B½n§ (participation and stakeholders)
3.4) dMeNaHRsayrbs;KMerag nig plitplsnüapþl;rbs;KMerag (project approach and
deliverables)
3.5)
3.6)

karvaytMél (evaluation)
haniP½y nig lkçxNÐ (risks and conditions)

karGnuvtþ
4.1) karerobcMelIkarRKb;RKg (management arrangements)
4.2) karkMNt;eBlevla ( Gantt Chart & CPA )
4.3) FatucUl (Input)
4.4) kalviPaKsMrab;cuHkic©snüa nig kareFVIlT§kmμ ( contracting and
4.5) KNenyü nig EpnkarcMNay (accounting and crosstabs)
4.6) karRtYtBinitü (monitoring)
]bsm½<n§TI 1: KMeragfvikarbs;KMerag
]bsm½<n§TI 2: karvaytMélelIbec©keTs ¬karBiPakSaeTAelIKMerag¦
]bsm½<n§TI 3: TOR’S sMrab;karvaytMél nig RtYtBinitü
]bsm½<n§TI 4: TOR’S sMrab;CMnYybec©keTs
]bsm½<n§TI 5: karvaytMélelIhaniP½y ¬karBiPakSalMGit¦
4)

143

procurement timeline)

karEksMrYltambMNgGñkepSg nig¼b¤ erobcMdac;edayELknUvBt’manCak;lak;rbs;KMerag
(Customising and/or isolating specific project information)

rebobTMnak;TMngEdleKRtUvkareBjmYyvdþGayukalrbs;KMerag GaRs½yeTAelIKMerag eTaHbICava
sMrab;GtifiCn b¤ ttiyCnk¾eday. RbFanRKb;RKgKMerag nwgBwgEp¥keTAelIkarTMnak;TMngEdleKRtUvkar
BIsMNak;smaCikTaMgLayénRkumkargarKMerag. kñúgkrNIxøH GtifiCn b¤ ttiyCn GacRtUvkarRbePTénkar
TMnak;TMng b¤ EbbbTTMnak;TMngCak;lak;mYy.
eRbI Information filters edIm,IerobcMdac;edayELknUvral;karTMnak;TMngEdleKRtUvkar
enAeBlEdleKRtUvkarBt’manCak;lak;NamYy sMrab;tamdankic©karCak;lak;NamYy b¤ tamdan
FnFanepSg²enAkñúgKMeragGñk GaceRbIR)as; Information filters edIm,IrkBt’manEdlGñkRtUvkar dUcenH
GñkGacbgðaj nig raykarN¾eTAtamsMNuMrgtUc²rbs;Tinñn½y (sub-set of data) . ]TahrN_ xageRkamenH
KWkic©kar nigFnFanxøH²EdlsamBaØbMput EdlmanenAkñúgkmμviFI Project Management .
Filter

Bt’manBitR)akdnwgbgðaj

Completed tasks

taragkic©karTaMgGs;rbs;KMerag
taragkic©karTaMgGs;Edl)aneFVIcb;

Cost overbudget

taragkic©karTaMgGs;Edl)ancMNayeRcInCagEpnkar

Critical

kic©karTaMgGs;EdlsßitelI Critical Path

All tasks

Date Range

In progress tasks
Incomplete tasks
Milestone
Resource Group

taragkic©karTaMgGs;Edl)ancb; b¤ cab;epþImrvagcenøaH
kalbriecäTCak;lak;
taragkic©karTaMgGs;Edl)ancab;epþIm b:uEnþminTan;bBa©b;
taragkic©karTaMgGs;EdlminTan;)anbBa©b;
taragkic©karTaMgGs;EdlEdlCaeKal (milestone)
kic©karTaMgGs;EdlRtUv)anEbgEckFnFaneGay
enAkñúgRkumCak;lak;rbs;va
144

Slipping tasks

taragkic©karTaMgGs;EdlyWtCagkalviPaK

Summary tasks

taragkic©karsegçb²TaMgGs;

Tasks with fixed date

taragkic©karTaMgGs;EdlRtUvEtcab;epþImenAkalbriecäTCak;lak;mYy

Unstarted tasks

taragkic©karTaMgGs;EdlminTan;cab;epþImenAeLIy

Work overbudget

taragkic©karTaMgGs;Edlkargarrbs;vaelIskargarEdl)aneRKag

taragxagelI KWCaesckþIsegçbrbs; the filters EdlGaceRbIR)as;)ancMeBaHkic©kar nigFnFanepSg².
man the filters mYycMnYneTot EdleKGacEktRmUv (customize) GaRs½yeTAtamBt’manEdleKRtUvkar.
skmμPaB 21A
ÉksarenAkñúg Assignment 1(1.2.2)

145

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