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(1907) India-Rubber & Its Manufacture: With Chapters on Gutta-Percha & Balata

(1907) India-Rubber & Its Manufacture: With Chapters on Gutta-Percha & Balata

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1907 - Hubert L. Terry
1907 - Hubert L. Terry

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Herbert Hillary Booker 2nd on Jul 13, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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As we have seen in the introduction, the art of water-

proofing cloth with rubber formed the

subject of some of

the earliest

patents in connection with the trade, the earlier

attempts in this direction

being improved by Macintosh to

such an extent that his double texture

waterproof cloth

came into

very general use. The

machinery, however, used

for the first fourteen

years in the Manchester

factory was

by no means efficient, and a

great advance was made when


patented his

spreading machine in 1837. The

machine in

ordinary use at the

present time differs

only in

some points of detail from that

patented by Hancock, and

only three modifications of it have been introduced of recent

years which call for notice. The rationale of the


process, expressed in a few sentences, is as follows :

The cleaned rubber, either

pure or mixed with


and mineral matters, according to the

purpose for which it is

required, is rolled out into

very thin sheets on what are


immersing rollers. The name is not


appropriate, because the actual immersion does not take

place until the next

operation. This consists in

putting the

rubber sheets into

naphtha contained in zinc-lined wooden

boxes fitted with lids.

Here, after a time, it assumes the

form of an emulsion, technically termed "

dough," which is



mixed to a uniform mass on

dough rollers if

stiff, or if semi-

liquid in a

pug-mill. When working it on the rollers the

operative soaps his hands to

prevent the adherence to them

of the

sticky rubber mass. The dough then

goes to the

spreading machine, which consists of a horizontal roller

supported on an iron frame which forms the

upper end of a

steam chest made of rivetted iron

plates. Above the roller

along its

length is an iron

gauge capable of

being raised or


according to the thickness of the rubber coat

required. The

dough is

placed by the workman by hand or

with a

spatula on the cloth, which is made to

pass between

the roller and the

gauge, a thin

coating of rubber


thereby put on the cloth, the

naphtha being evaporated off

as the

passage over the steam chest is continued. The cloth


passes on to abox roller underneath the machine. The

general arrangement of the machine is shown in

Fig. 16.

Even in the

comparatively thin coat of rubber which is


bythe dissection of amacintosh, there

maybe as


as six individual

coatings which

go to make up the bulk. It is

quite unusual, moreover, for all these

coatings to consist of

the same rubber. A common procedure is to fill

up the

pores of the cloth, especially if it be a black one, with a first

coating made of

pure rubber and

lampblack. On this a

number of coats of "




spread, this

being of com-

pounded rubber; a "

surface" coat of still another



being then

applied to the whole. Cloth coated with

rubber in this

way is known as

single texture ; for double

textures two of such cloths are

passed through the


machine, consisting of a

pair of smooth rollers, so that the

rubber surfaces unite. In

making these double textures the


single textures which are united

may be of the same



sort, or one

may be

merely a

lining with a thin

coating of


spread on it to facilitate adhesion to the thicker coat

on the other

piece. By this means various textile materials

are rendered

waterproof, modern

practice embracing cottons,

wools, unions of cotton and wool called

paramattas, and also

silks, the

present day business in

waterproofs having a

much wider

scope than in the old

days when a macintosh

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