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NEW AGE

ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS
(Centrifugal and Axial)

Non-met allic
Containment
Gas

K.M. Srinivasan

(f.D NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHERS


ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS
(Centrifugal and Axial)
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ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS
(Centrifugal and Axial)

K.M. Srinivasan
B.E.(Hons), PhD.(USSR)
Dean (R&D) Mechanical Sciences
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Kumaraguru College of Technology
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD

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Copyright © 2008, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers
Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers

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ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2976-3

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Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com
THIS BOOK is dedicated to
My Parents
Sri. K. MUTHUSAMY PILLAI
And
Smt. K.T. SAMBOORNAM
As well as
To my Professor and guide
Dr
Dr.. A.A. LOMAKIN
And
Dr
Dr.. A.N. P APIR
PAPIR
Leningrad P olytechnic, Leningrad, K-21, USSR (at present called as St. Petersburg
Polytechnic,
Polytechnic, St. Petersburg, Russia)
Who brought me to this level

Comp-1/Newage/Pump-co.pm6.5—29.12.07 3.1.08
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PREFACE

It was my very long felt ambition to provide a detailed and full information about the theory,
design, testing, analysis and operation of different types of rotodynamic pumps namely Centrifugal,
Radial, Diagonal and Axial flow types. I have learned a lot during the period 1959–62 about pumps at
PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, while working as Senior Research Assistant for CSIR Scheme
on Pumps, Turbo chargers and flow meters. At the same time, I was undergoing training in foundry,
pattern making, moulding, production, testing and design for different pumps at PSG Industrial Institute,
Coimbatore and also during the period 1967 and 1975.
I cannot forget my study at Leningrad Polytechnic, Leningrad K-21, USSR (now St. Petersburg
Polytechnic, St. Petersburg, Russia), for my doctorate degree in pumps. Dr. A.A Lomakin, Dr. A.N.
Papir, Dr. Gurioff, Dr. N.N. Kovaloff, Dr. A.N. Smirnoff, Dr. Staritski, Dr. Gorgidjanyan, Dr. Gutovski
are the key professors who made me to know more about pumps from fundamentals to updated technology.
I am very much grateful to Dr. A.A Lomakin and Dr. A.N. Papir, who were my professors and guides
for my doctorate degree in pumps. As a consultant, for different pump industries in India and abroad, I
could understand the field problems. My experience, since 1959 till date, has been put up in this book to
enable the readers in industries, and in academic area, to design, to analyze and to regulate the pumps.
Complete design process for pumps, losses and efficiency calculation, based on boundary layer theory
for axial flow pumps are also given. Computer programmes for the design of pump and for profile loss
estimation for axial flow pumps are also given. All the design examples in the last chapter are real
working models. The results are also given with pump drawings.
I do hope that the reader will be in a position to understand, design, test and analyze pumps, after
going through this book. I shall be very much honoured if my book is useful in attaining this. I am
grateful to my wife Smt. S. Nalini, my sons Sri S. Muthuraman and Sri S. Jaganmohan and my daughter
Smt. S. Nithyakala, who were very helpful in preparing the manuscript and drawings.
Last but not the least I am grateful to the editorial department of M/s New Age International (P)
Ltd. Publishers for their untiring effort to publish the book in a neat and elegant form, in spite of so
many problems they come across while formulating this book from the manuscript level to this level.
Constructive criticisms and suggestions are highly appreciated for further improvement of the
book.

K.M. SRINIVASAN
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CONTENTS

PREFACE (vii)

1 INTRODUCTION 1–5
1.1 Principle and Classification of Pumps 1
1.1.1 Principle 1
1.1.2 Classification of Pumps 1

2 PUMP PARAMETERS 6–33


2.1 Basic Parameters of Pump 6
2.1.1 Quantity of Flow or Discharge (Q) of a Pump 6
2.1.2 Total Head or Head of a Pump (H) 6
2.1.3 Total Head of a Pump in a System 7
2.1.4 Power (N) 11
2.1.5 Efficiency (η) 11
2.2 Pump Construction 12
2.3 Losses in Pumps and Efficiency 15
2.3.1 Hydraulic Loss and Hydraulic Efficiency (ηh) 15
2.3.2 Volumetric Loss and Volumetric Efficiency (ηv) 15
2.3.3 Mechanical Loss and Mechanical Efficiency (ηm) 16
2.3.4 Total Losses and Overall Efficiency (h) 16
2.4 Suction Conditions 16
2.5 Similarity Laws in Pumps 19
2.5.1 Similarity Laws 19
2.5.2 Specific Speed (ns) 22
2.5.3 Unit Specific Speed (nsq) 23
2.6 Classification of Impeller Types According to Specific Speed (ns) 24
2.7 Pumping Liquids Other than Water 26
2.7.1 Total Head, Flow Rate, Efficiency and Power Determination for Pumps 26
2.7.2 Effect of Temperature 27
2.7.3 Density Correction (ρ or γ) 27
2.7.4 Viscosity Correction 28
2.7.5 Effect of Consistency on Pump Performance 32
2.7.6 Special Consideration in Pump Selection 33
(ix)
(x) CONTENTS

3 THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 34–64


3.1 Energy Equation using Moment of Momentum Equation for Fluid Flow
through Impeller 34
3.2 Bernoulli’s Equation for the Flow through Impeller 35
3.3 Absolute Flow of Ideal Fluid Past the Flow Passages of Pump 38
3.4 Relative Flow of Ideal Fluid Past Impeller Blades 40
3.5 Flow Over an Airfoil 43
3.6 Two Dimensional Ideal Flow 45
3.6.1 Velocity Potential 45
3.6.2 Rotational and Irrotational Flow 45
3.6.3 Circulation and Vorticity 47
3.7 Axisymmetric Flow and Circulation in Impeller 48
3.7.1 Circulation in Impellers of Pump 49
3.7.2 Vorticity and Circulation Around Impeller Blades 49
3.8 Real Fluid Flow after Impeller Blade Outlet Edge 50
3.9 Secondary Flow between Blades 51
3.10 Flow of a Profile in a Cascade System—Theoretical Flow 52
3.11 Fundamental Theory of Flow Over Isolated Profile 53
3.12 Profile Construction as per N.E. Jowkovski and S.A. Chapligin 55
3.13 Development of Thin Plate by Conformal Transformation 58
3.14 Development of Profile with Thickness by Conformal Transformation 58
3.15 Chapligin’s Profile of Finite Thickness at Outlet Edge of the Profile 59
3.16 Velocity Distribution in Space between Volute Casing and Impeller Shroud 61
3.17 Pressure Distribution in the Space between Stationary Casing and Moving
Impeller Shroud of Fluid Machine 63

4 THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN


CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 65–129
4.1 Introduction 65
4.2 One Dimensional Theory 65
4.3 Velocity Triangles 66
4.4 Impeller Eye and Blade Inlet Edge Conditions 69
4.4.1 Inlet Velocity Triangle 70
4.4.2 Normal or Radial or Axial Entry of Fluid at Impeller Inlet 72
4.5 Outlet Velocity Triangle: Effect due to Blade Thickness 73
4.5.1 Outlet Velocity Triangle: Effect of Finite Number of Blades 74
4.6 Slip Factor as per Stodola and Meizel 75
CONTENTS (xi)

4.6.1 Slip Factor as Defined by Karl Pfliderer 77


4.6.2 Slip Factor as per Proscura 79
4.7 Coefficient of Reaction (ρ) 81
4.8 Selection of Outlet Blade Angle (β2) and its Effect 83
4.9 Effect of Number of Vanes 86
4.10 Selection of Eye Diameter D0, Eye Velocity C0, Inlet Diameter of Impeller D1
and Inlet Meridional Velocity Cm1 89
4.11 Selection of Outlet Diameter of Impeller (D2) 92
4.12 Effect of Blade Breadth (B2) 92
4.13 Impeller Design 103
4.14 Determination of Shaft Diameter and Hub Diameter 106
4.15 Determination of Inlet Dimensions for Impeller 107
4.16 Determination of Outlet Dimensions of Impeller 108
4.17 Development of Flow Passage in Meridional Plane 109
4.18 Development of Single Curvature Blade—Radial Blades 111
4.19 Development of Double Curvature Blade System 113
4.19.1 Importance of Diagonal Impellers 113
4.19.2 A General Solution for the Flow through the Vane System 114
4.19.3 Axisymmetric Flow of Fluid 115
4.19.4 Flow Line and Vortex Line in Axisymmetric Flow 116
4.19.5 Differential Equation for the Cross-section of Vane with the
Flow Surface 118
4.19.6 Construction of Vane Surface when Wu = 0 118
4.19.7 Construction of Vane Under Equal Velocity Construction 120
4.19.8 Construction of Vane Surface Under Equal Velocity Flow for the
Given w(s) 121
4.19.9 Conformal Transformation of Vane Surface 125
4.19.10 The Method of Error Triangles 126

5 SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 130–146


5.1 Importance of Spiral Casings 130
5.2 Volute Casing at the Outlet of the Impeller 131
5.3 Method of Calculation for Spiral Casing 132
5.4 Design of Spiral Casing with Cur = Constant and Trapezoidal Cross-section 134
5.5 Calculation of Trapezoidal Volute Cross-section Under Constant Velocity of
Flow CV = Constant (Constant Velocity Design) 135
5.6 Calculation of Circular Volute Section with Cur = Constant 137
5.7 Design of Circular Volute Cross-section with Constant Velocity (CV) 138
(xii) CONTENTS

5.8 Calculation of Diffuser Section of Volute Casing 139


5.9 (A) Design of Diffuser 140
5.9 (B) Calculation of Spiral Part of Diffuser Passage 141
5.9 (C) Calculation of Diverging Cone Part of the Diffuser 142
5.10 Return Guide Vanes 143
5.11 Design of Suction Casing at Inlet of the Impeller 144
5.12 Straight Convergent Cone 144
5.13 Spiral Type Approach Ring 144
5.14 Effect due to Volute 146

6 LOSSES IN PUMPS 147–163


6.1 Introduction 147
6.2 (A) Mechanical Losses 147
6.2 (B) Losses due to Disc Friction (∆Nd ) 147
6.2 (C) Losses Stuffing Box (∆NS) 149
6.2 (D) Bearing Losses (∆NB) 154
6.3 (A) Leakage Flow through the Clearance between Stationary and Rotatory
Wearing Rings 154
6.3 (B) Leakage Flow through the Clearance between Two Stages of a
Multistage Pump 159
6.4 Hydraulic Losses 161

7 AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 164–181


7.1 Introduction 164
7.2 Axial Force Acting on the Impeller 165
7.3 Axial Thrust in Semi-open Impellers 167
7.4 Axial Thrust due to Direction Change in Bend at Inlet 168
7.5 Balancing of Axial Thrust 169
7.6 Axial Thrust taken by Bearings 170
7.7 Radial Vanes at Rear Shroud of the Impeller 170
7.8 Axial Thrust Balancing by Balancing Holes 171
7.9 Axial Thrust Balancing by Balance Drum and Disc 172
7.10 Radial Forces Acting on Volute Casing 177
7.11 Determination of Radial Forces 177
7.12 Methods to Balance the Radial Thrust 180

8 MODEL ANALYSIS 182–194


8.1 Introduction 182
8.1.1 Real Fluid Flow Pattern in Pumps 187
CONTENTS (xiii)

8.2 Similarity of Hydraulic Efficiency 191


8.3 Similarity of Volumetric Efficiency 192
8.4 Similarity of Mechanical Efficiency 193

9 CAVITATION IN PUMPS 195–215


9.1 Suction Lift and Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 195
9.2 Cavitation Coefficient (s) Thoma’s Constant 200
9.3 Cavitation Specific Speed (C) 201
9.4 Cavitation Development 201
9.5 Cavitation Test on Pumps 203
9.6 Methods Adopted to Reduce Cavitation 211

10 AXIAL FLOW PUMP 216–292


10.1 Operating Principles and Construction 216
10.2 Flow Characteristics of Axial Flow Pump 218
10.3 Kutta-Jowkovski Theorem 218
10.4 Real Fluid Flow over a Blade 222
10.5 Interaction between Profiles in a Cascade System 223
10.6 Curved Plates in a Cascade System 224
10.7 Effect of Blade Thickness on Flow Over a Cascade System 233
10.8 Method of Calculation of Profile with Thickness in a Cascade System 234
10.9 (A) Pump Design by Direct Method (Jowkovski’s Method, Lift Method) 243
10.9 (B) Design of Axial Flow Pump as per Jowkovski’s Lift Method—
Another Method 247
10.10 Flow with Angle of Attack 255
10.11 Correction in Profile Curvature due to the Change from Thin to Thick Profile 256
10.12 Effect of Viscosity 259
10.13 Selection of Impeller Diameter and Speed 260
10.14 Selection of Hub Ratio 261
 l
10.15 Selection of   — Aspect Ratio at Periphery 263
t peri
10.16 Calculation of Hydraulic Losses and Hydraulic Efficiency 268
10.17 Calculation of Profile Losses using Boundary Layer Thickness (δ**) 271
10.17.1 Notations and Abbreviations 271
10.17.2 Determination of Profile Losses and Hydraulic Efficiency 274
10.17.3 Determination of Momentum Boundary Layer Thickness (δ**) 277
10.17.4 Computer Programme 283
10.18 Cavitation in Axial Flow Pumps 283
(xiv) CONTENTS

10.19 Radial Clearance between Impeller and Impeller Casing 288


10.20 Calculation for Axial Flow Diffusers 289
10.21 Axial Thrust 291

11 TESTING, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REGULATION


OF PUMPS 293–338
11.1 Introduction 293
11.2 Pump Performance—Relation between Total Head and Quantity of Flow 293
11.3 Pump Testing 301
11.4 Systems and Arrangements 306
11.5 Combined Operation of Pumps and Systems 310
11.6 Stable and Unstable Operation in a System 312
11.7 Reverse Flow in Pump 315
11.8 Effect of Viscosity on Performance 317
11.9 Pump Regulation 232
11.10 Effect of the Pump Performance when Small Changes are made in Pump Parts 336

12 PUMP CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION 339–374


12.1 Classification 339
12.2 Pumps for Clear Cold Water and for Non-Corrosive Liquids 339
12.3 Other Pumps 346
12.4 Axial Flow Pumps 354
12.5 Condensate Pumps 357
12.6 Feed Water Pumps 361
12.7 Circulating Pumps 363
12.8 Booster Pumps 365
12.9 Pump for Viscous and Abrasive Liquids 370

13 DESIGN OF PUMP COMPONENTS 375–486


Design No. D1-A : Design of a Single Stage Centrifugal Pump 375
Design No. D1-A1 : Computer Programming in C++ for Radial Type
Centrifugal Pump Impeller and Volute 381
Design No. D1-B : Design of a Multistage Centrifugal Pump 395
Design No. D2 : Spiral Casing Design 409
D2-A : Spiral Casing Design Under Cur = Constant and
Trapezoidal Cross-Section 411
D2-B : Spiral Casing Design with CV = Constant and
Trapezoidal Cross-section 414
D2-C : Design of Suction Volute 417
CONTENTS (xv)

Design No. D3 : Design of Axial Flow Pump 418


Design No. D4 : Correction for Profile Thickness by Increasing Blade
Curvature (β) 427
Design No. D5 : Calculation of Correction for Blade Thickness using
Thickness Coefficient (χ) 429
Design No. D6 : Design of Axial Flow Pump 431
Design No. D7 : Profile Losses Calculation 473
Design No. D8 : Design of Axial Flow Pump—as per method Suggested
by Prof. N.E. Jowkovski 482
APPENDICES 487–508
y
Appendix I : Equations Relating Cy, max , δ° for Different Profiles 487
l
Appendix II : ISI Standards 495
Appendix III : Units of Measurement—Conversion Factors 502
LITERATURE—REFERENCES 509–518
INDEX 519–520
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1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 PRINCIPLE AND CLASSIFICATION OF PUMPS

1.1.1 Principle
Newton’s First law states that “Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but can be
transformed from one form of energy to another form.”
Different forms of energy exists namely, electrical, mechanical, fluid, hydraulic and pneumatic,
pressure, potential, dynamic, wave, wind, geothermal, solar, chemical, etc.
A machine is a contrivance, that converts one form of energy to another form. An electric motor
converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. An internal combustion engine converts chemical
energy to mechanical energy, etc.
A pump is a machine which converts mechanical energy to fluid energy, the fluid being
incompressible. This action is opposite to that in hydraulic turbines.
Most predominant part of fluid energy in fluid machines are pressure, potential and kinetic energy.
In order to do work, the pressure energy and potential energy must be converted to kinetic energy. In
steam and gas turbines, the pressure energy of steam or gas is converted to kinetic energy in nozzle. In
hydraulic turbine, the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy in nozzle. High velocity stream of
fluid from turbine nozzle strikes a set of blades and makes the blades to move, thereby fluid energy is
converted into mechanical energy.
In pumps, however, this process is reversed, the movement of blade system moves the fluid,
which is always in contact with blade thereby converting mechanical energy of blade system to kinetic
energy. For perfect conversion, the moving blade should be in contact with the fluid at all places. In
other words, the moving blade system should be completely immersed in fluid.

1.1.2 Classification of Pumps


1.1.2.1 Classification According to Operating Principle
Pumps are classified in different ways. One classification is according to the type as positive
displacement pumps and rotodynamic pumps. This classification is illustrated in Fig. 1.1.
In positive placement pumps, fluid is pushed whenever pump runs. The fluid movement cannot be
stopped, otherwise the unit will burst due to instantaneous pressure rise theoretically to infinity, practically
exceeding the ultimate strength of the material of the pump, subsequently breaking the material. The
motion may be rotary or reciprocating or combination of both.
2 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

PUMPS
PU M PS

Positive
PositiveDisplacement
D isplacem ent PPumps
um ps Other
O ther Pumps
P um ps Rotodynamic
R otodynam ic PPumps
um ps

Jet Pump Centrifugal, Mixed and


Reciprocating Type Rotary Type Hydraulic Ram Axial Flow
Regenerative

Piston Vane, Lobe


plunger Screw, Gear
Perialistic,
Metering,
Diaphram,
Radial piston,
Axial piston

Fig. 1.1. Pump classfication


The principle of action, in all positive displacement pumps, is purely static. These pumps are also
called as ‘static pumps’. The pumps, operated under this principle, are reciprocating, screw, ram,
plunger, gear, lobe, perialistic, diaphram, radial piston, axial piston etc.
In rotodynamic pumps, however, the energy is transferred by rotary motion and by dynamic
action. The rotating blade system imparts a force on the fluid, which is in contact with the blade system
at all points, thereby making the fluid to move i.e., transferring mechanical energy of the blade system
to kinetic energy of the fluid.
Unlike turbine, where pure pressure or potential energy is converted to kinetic energy, in pumps,
the kinetic energy of the fluid is converted into either, pressure energy or potential energy or kinetic
energy or the combination of any two or all the three forms depending upon the end use in spiral or
volute casing, which follows the impeller.
In domestic, circulating and in agricultural pumps, the end use is in the form of potential energy
i.e., lifting water from low level to high level.
In process pumps, used for chemical industries, the fluid is pumped from one chamber under
pressure to another chamber under pressure. These chambers may be at the same level (only pressure
energy conversion) or may be at different levels (pressure and potential energy conversion).
Pumps used for fire fighting, for spraying pesticides, must deliver the liquid at very high velocity
i.e., at very high kinetic energy. These pumps convert all available energy at the outlet of the impeller
into very high kinetic energy.
In turbines, the fluid is water or steam or chemical gas-air mixture at constant pressure and
temperature, whereas, pumps deal with fluid at different temperatures and viscosities such as water,
acids, alkaline, milk, distilled water, and also cryogenic fluids, like liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid
nitrogen, liquid ammonia, which are in gaseous form under normal temperatures.
Pumps are also used to pump solid-liquid, liquid-gas or solid-liquid-gas mixtures, with different
percentage of concentration called ‘consistency’. Hence pumps are applied in diversified field, the
pumping fluid possessing different property, namely, viscosity, density, temperature, consistency, etc.
INTRODUCTION 3

A third category of pump, called jet pump, wherein, the fluid energy input i.e., high head low
discharge of fluid is converted into another form of fluid energy i.e., low head and high discharge.
These pumps are used either independently or along with centrifugal pumps.
The reverse of Jet pump is ‘Hydraulic Ram’ wherein low head and high discharge of water is
converted into high head and low discharge. Hydraulic Rams are installed at hills near a stream or river.
The natural hill slope is the low head input energy. Large quantity of water at low head is taken from the
river. A portion of water is pumped at high pressure and is supplied to a nearby village as drinking water.
Remaining water is sent back to the river. This system does not need any prime mover like diesel or
petrol engine or electric motor. Repair and maintenance is easy, in hydraulic ram since moving part is
only the ram.

1.1.2.2 Classification According to Head and Discharge


Another classification of pump is according to the head and discharge or quantity of flow to be
pumped. Any customer, who is in need of a pump specifies only these two parameters. A quick selection
of the pump is made referring standard charts for selecting the pump. Fig.1.2 gives the selection of
pump according to head and discharge.

10000
H.m

PISTON
1000

CENTRIFUGAL
100

10

AXIAL

1 10 100 1000 10000 100000


3
Q.m /hr

Fig. 1.2. Pump selection as per head and discharge

1.1.2.3 Classification According to Specific Speed


Most accurate method of pump selection is based on the non-dimensional parameter called ‘specific
speed’ which takes into account speed of the pump along with head and discharge.

n Q
Specific speed, ns = 3.65 ...(1.1)
H 3/ 4
where ns–specific speed, n–speed in rpm, Q–discharge in m3/sec, H–head in m. If pressure rise is
known instead of total head then p = γH, where p–pressure rise of pumping fluid in N/m2 and
γ–specific weight of the fluid at the given temperature in N/m3. It is essential that all parameters must be
4 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

converted to equivalent water parameters before substituting them in equation 1.1. Fig.1.3, illustrates
the pump selection according to the specific speed of the pump.

Centrifugal (radial flow) Diagonal and Propeller and


High mixed flow axial flow
Low Medium
ns = 50 ÷ 80 n s = 80 ÷ 150 ns = 150 ÷ 300 ns = 300 ÷ 500 n s = 500 ÷ 1000
b2 b2
b2
b2
D2

D2
D2

D2

D0
D0
D0
D0
D0

D2
D2 D2 D2 D2 D2
= 2,5 to 1,8 = 2 to 1,8 = 1,8 to 1,4 = 1,4 to 1,2 = 0,8
D0 D0 D0 D0 D0

H–Q
H–Q H–Q H–Q H–Q

Q Q Q
N– N– N– Q N–Q
N–
h –Q
h–
Q
h–
Q
h –Q h–
Q

Fig. 1.3. Classification according to specifc speed


From Fig.1.3, it is evident that, at low specific speeds, centrifugal pumps; at medium specific
speeds, mixed flow pumps and at high specific speeds, axial flow pumps are used. All of them are
classified as rotodynamic pumps.
At very low specific speeds, however, positive displacement pumps are used. Referring to the
equation (1.1), it is seen that positive displacement pumps are used for very high head-very low discharge
conditions. Ship propellers and aircraft propellers are of very high specific speed units beyond 1200 i.e.,
used for very low head-very high discharge conditions.

1.1.2.4 Classification According to Direction of Flow in Impeller


Another classification of pumps is according to the direction of flow of fluid in impeller of the
pump such as radial or centrifugal flow, mixed or diagonal flow and axial flow. Fig.1.4, illustrates the
position of blade system in the impeller passage of a pump.
Considering the flow of fluid in impeller, (Fig.1.4) if the flow direction is radial (2-1) and (3-1)
i.e., perpendicular to the axis of rotation, the pump is called radial flow centrifugal pump. If the flow is
axial (6-5) i.e., parallel to the axis of rotation, the pump is called axial flow pump. If the flow is partly
axial and partly radial (4-2) and (4-3) i.e., diagonal, it is called mixed flow pump or diagonal flow pump.
It is evident, from the Fig.1.4, that all these pumps are rotodynamic pumps i.e., rotary blade
passage and dynamic action of blade system in the fluid passage.
INTRODUCTION 5

b 2′′ Outlet, Delivery


b2 of water
a2
a2 Inlet, entry 1
I of water
2

D2
a1 II III
a1 IV 3

Ds
D1
D ′3′

Ds
D3

D 2′

6 5 4 90°
Shaft axis

(a) Radial (b) Mixed (c) Axial (d) Relative location

Fig. 1.4. Position of blade system in different types of impellers

2–1 Centrifugal — Radial flow — very high head and very low flow.
3–1 Centrifugal — Radial flow — high head and low flow.
4–2 Mixed flow — Medium head and medium flow — low range.
4–3 Diagonal flow — Medium head and medium flow — higher range.
6–5 Axial flow, propeller — low head and high flow.
Radial type centrifugal pumps have higher impeller diameter ratio (outlet to inlet diameter) and the
blade is longer. Mixed flow pumps have medium diameter ratio and axial flow pumps have equal inlet
and outlet diameters.
This indicates that radial flow pumps work mostly by centrifugal force and partly by dynamic
force, whereas, in axial flow pumps, the pressure rise is purely by hydrodynamic action. In mixed and
diagonal flow pumps, however, the pressure rise is partly by centrifugal force and partly by hydrodynamic
force.
2
PUMP PARAMETERS

2.1 BASIC PARAMETERS OF PUMP


A pump is characterised by three parameters i.e.,
1. Total head (H),
2. Discharge or quantity of flow (Q), and
3. Power (N).

2.1.1 Quantity of Flow or Discharge (Q) of a Pump


Quantity of flow or rate of flow or discharge (Q) of a pump is the flow of fluid passing through
the pump in unit time. The rate of flow or discharge in volumetric system is expressed as
unit volume flow unit weight flow
i.e., m3/sec, m3/hr, lit/sec etc., and in gravimetric system as i.e.,
unit time unit time
tons/day, kg/hr, kg/sec etc. The relation between gravimetric or weight (W) and volumetric (Q) flow
rate is given by W = γQ where γ is specific weight of the fluid.

2.1.2 Total Head or Head of a Pump (H)


Total head of a pump (H) is defined as the increase in fluid energy received by every kilogram of
the fluid passing through the pump. In other words, it is the energy difference per unit weight of the
fluid between inlet and outlet of the pump. Referring to Fig. 2.1, the energy difference per unit weight of
the fluid (E) between inlet (E1) and outlet (E2) will be

Z2 p2 = pd
Z2 Z1
H =Z2 – Z1

+ Hs
G V
Hd
H

X2 X1
– Hs

Z1 p1 = ps

Fig. 2.1. Head measurement in pumps


6
PUMP PARAMETERS 7

p1 C12
Einlet = E1 = + Z + 
γ
1
2g 
 ...(2.1)
p2 C22 
+ +
Eoutlet = E2 =
γ
Z 2
2g 
where p — the pressure in N/m2 (Pascal–Pa)
Z — the level or position above or below reference level in ‘m’
C — the flow velocity of the fluid in m/sec
γ — specific weight of the fluid in kg/m3 (or) N/m3
g — acceleration due to gravity in m/sec2
Suffix 1 — indicates inlet condition of the pump
2 — indicates outlet condition of the pump
Total head H will be

( p2 − p1 ) (C22 − C12 )
H = (E2 – E1) = + (Z2 – Z1) + ...(2.2)
γ 2g
kgf.m N.m
and is expressed as or = m.
kgf N

2.1.3 Total Head of a Pump in a System


A pump installation consists of pump and system. Pumps are selected to match the given condition
of the system, which depends upon the system head (Hsy), quantity of flow (Q), density (ρ), the
viscosity (µ), consistency (C), temperature (T), and corrosiveness of the pumping liquid. If the pumping
liquid is other than water at different temperatures and pressures such as milk, distilled water, acid,
alkaline solutions, as well as liquid ammonia, liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, liquid nitrogen or any other
chemical solutions under higher temperatures and pressures, solid-liquid solution, liquid-gas solutions
etc., the pump parameters in liquid must be changed into equivalent water parameters.
The quantity (Q) and the total head (H) of the pump must coincide with the conditions of external
system such as pressure, and location of the system. Normally the pump is selected with 2 to 4% higher
value in total head than the normal value of system head.
A system consists of pipelines with fittings such as gate valve or butterfly valve or non-return
valve or any other valve along with bends, tee joints, reducers etc., at the delivery line of the pump as
well as foot valve, strainer, bend, etc., at the suction line of the pump. The system is an already available
pipeline in the field or at the working area, to suit the prevailing conditions in the field or working area.
It is a fixed system for that particular place. System varies from place to place. Referring to the Fig. 2.2,
the pipe 2-d refers to the delivery side and s–1 refers to the suction side of the system. For all calculations
in a pumping system, the axis of the shaft of the horizontal pump is referred as reference line. For
vertical pumps, the inlet edge of the blade of the impeller will be the reference line. Since the difference
between the inlet edge of the blade and the centre line of the outlet edge of the blade is usually small, it
is neglected and the centre line of the outlet edge of the blade is taken as reference line. Anything above
or after the reference line is called delivery side (marked with suffix ‘d’) and anything below or before
the reference line is called suction side (marked with suffix ‘s’) of a pump.
8 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Referring to Fig. 2.2, the equation for suction and pd = p2


delivery pipelines of the system can be written as follows. pd
Since no energy is added or subtracted in these lines during d

the flow through the system,


For (2 – d) delivery line E2 = Ed + hf (2 – d)

p2 C p C2 hd
i.e., + Z 2 + 2 = d + Z d + d + h f (2 − d )  hfd
γ 2g γ 2g

 ...(2.3)
For (s–1) suction line Es = E1 + hf (s–1) 
p1 C12
 C2 2
p C2
i.e., s + Z s + s = + Z + + h f ( s −1)  H G
γ
1
γ 2g 2g Reference
X line
The values hf (2 – d) and hf (s – 1) include major frictional C1
1
losses and all minor losses. The total head of the pump as V

per equation 2.2 is

 p2 C2   p C2  hs h fs
Hp = E2 – E1 =  + Z 2 + 2  –  1 + Z1 + 1 
 γ 2g   γ 2g 
ps=p 1 S
= Ed +hf (2 –d) – Es + hf (s – 1)

 pd Cd2  p C2 
Hp =  + Z + + h f (2 − d )  –  s + Z s + s − h f ( s −1) 
  γ Fig. 2.2. Pump in a closed system
 γ
d
2g   2g 

pd − ps  C 2 − Cs2 
= + (Zd – Zs) +  d  + hf (2 – d) + hf (s – 1)
γ  2g 

pd − ps  Cd2 − Cs2 
= + hs + hd + hf (d) + hf (s) +   = H ...(2.4)
γ  2g 
sy

H
H syst = f(Q)
Operating point
H
O (H sy = H p)

H p = f(Q)
pd – p s
+ h s + hd
γ

Fig 2.3. Head of pump and system


PUMP PARAMETERS 9

Equation 2.4 shows that, if a pump is connected to a system, the pump and the system will
operate only at a point where Hp = Hsy. Fig. 2.3 shows graphically this condition.
C2
For both major and minor losses combined together hf = constant × = KQ2,where K is the
2g
pd − ps
sum of all constants (major and minor). The system head Hsy= + hs + hd + (Kd + Ks) Q2. If a
γ
curve Hsyst= f (Q) is drawn, it will be a parabola moving upwards, i.e., increase of head when the flow
Q increases. (Fig. 2.3).
If this curve is superimposed with H–Q curve of the pump, the meeting point will be (Hp = Hsyst)
the operating point of the pump for that system.
Different Hsy curves can be drawn by changing hs or hd or pd or ps as well as by changing pipe size
Dp, pipe length lp, in suction and delivery, or by adding or removing or changing bends. Tee, cross-
joints or by changing the valves in the system. Change of every individual parts mentioned above
changes the Hsyst–Q curve. If these curves are superimposed on pump H–Q curve, the operating point
for each system can be determined (Fig. 2.4).

H
P1, P2, P3,P4
Operating points
Hsyst 4 – Q
Head m.

H syst 3 – Q
P4
P3
H syst 2 – Q
pd – p s

P2
γ

P1
H syst 1 – Q
H st = hs + h d +

(H p – Q)
Q4 Q3 Q2 Q1
Q

Quantity m3/sec, Lt/sec.

Fig. 2.4. Different systems operating on one pump

Referring to equation 2.4, if suction and delivery chamber pressures are very high, when compared
to the potential and kinetic energies, then the pump is called process pump.
If the suction and delivery chambers are open type, then pd = ps = patm and if hd, hs are very high,
then these pumps are called domestic or agricultural or circulating pumps.
If velocity C2 is very large, when compared to other parameters and pd = ps = patm and hs and hd
may be positive or zero, then these pumps are called fire fighting pumps, sprayer pumps.
Rearranging equation 2.2
p2 pd Cd2 − C22
γ = γ + (Z d – Z 2 ) + + hf (2 – d)
2g
10 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

pd Cd2 − C22
= + hd + hfd + ...(2.5)
γ 2g
If a pressure gauge is connected very close to the delivery side of the pump at point 2, it will read
p 
the delivery chamber pressure  d  , static delivery height (hd) delivery line frictional losses (hf) (both
 γ 
major and minor losses) and the difference between the velocity head or kinetic energy at delivery
 C2 
chamber  d  and immediately after the delivery of liquid from pump i.e., at the outlet of the volute
 2g 
 C2  p
casing  2  . If the delivery chamber is a closed one, then d will be real and normally above
 2g  γ
Cd2
atmosphere will be equal to zero. The pressure gauge P2 will read
2g
p2 pd C2
= + hd + hfd – 2 ...(2.6)
γ γ 2g
C22
where C2 is the velocity at the delivery pipe, and will be the kinetic energy at the delivery pipe.
2g
pd patm Cd2
In case the delivery chamber is open to atmosphere then γ = γ and will be real. The
2g
Cd2 − C22
velocity Cd = C2 and the velocity head at the delivery pipe is = 0. The pressure gauge (P2)
2g
will read
p2
= hd + hfd (gauge pressure)
γ
p
= atm + hd + hfd (absolute pressure) ...(2.7)
γ
If a pressure gauge is connected at the end of suction pipe and very near to the pump inlet at point
1, it will read
p1 ps  Cs2 − C12 
γ
=
γ
+ (Zs – Z1) +  2 g  – hf (s – 1)
 
ps Cs2 − C12
= – h – h + ...(2.8)
γ s fs
2g
ps Cs2
If the suction chamber is closed, γ will be read and Cs = 0, = 0. Then
2g
p1 ps  C12 
= –  s
h + h +  ...(2.9)
γ 2 g 
fs
γ 
where C1 is the fluid velocity at suction pipe.
PUMP PARAMETERS 11

ps patm p
If the suction chamber is open to atmosphere then = . The pressure 1 will be
γ γ γ
negative i.e., under vacuum. A vacuum gauge (V) instead of pressure gauge P1 must be connected at
point 1. The velocity Cs = 0 and so
p1 pat  C12 
 s
h + h + 
γ = γ –  2 g  absolute
fs

 C12 

=  h + h + 
or 2 g  vacuum ...(2.10)
s fs

ps
Vacuum gauge will read only vacuum. The same condition will exist if , the suction chamber
γ
pressure is not sufficiently higher than the vacuum in the suction side of the pump. In this case also
only vacuum gauge must be connected at point 1. That’s why if the suction chamber is closed, a
pressure cum vacuum gauge and if suction chamber is open to atmosphere a vacuum gauge is connected
at point 1 i.e., at the end of suction pipe or immediately before the inlet of the pump.
Since total head of the pump (Hp) = Total head of the system (Hsyst)

 Cd2 Cs2 
Hp = Hsyst = P2 + V + X +  − 
 2g 2 g  for open system
= P2 – P1 + X for closed system
...(2.11)
where X is the difference in height between delivery pressure gauge (P2) and suction gauge
(P1 or V). If P2 is at a higher level than P1, X is positive. If P2 is at a lower level than P1 then X1 is
negative. If P2 and P1 are at the same level X = 0.

2.1.4 Power (N)


Power is defined as the amount of energy spent to increase the energy of the fluid passing
kgf.m N.m
through the pump from inlet to outlet of the pump and is expressed in or or watts or
sec sec
kilowatts. If ‘W’ is the weight of fluid passing through the pump and the energy increase per unit
weight of the fluid between inlet and outlet of the pump is ‘H’, power N will be
WH γ QH
N0 = = in kW or watts.
constant constant
where W = γ Q, if W is expressed in kgf, the constant will be 102, and if expressed in Newton the
constant will be 1000 in order to get the power in kW.

η)
2.1.5 Efficiency (η
The power supplied to the pump will be higher than the energy spent in converting mechanical
energy to fluid energy due to various losses, namely, hydraulic, volumetric and mechanical losses. The
ratio of actual power utilized to the power supplied is called efficiency (η).
12 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

 γQH 
power spent  N 0 = 
 const (C )  γ QH
η = = C .N
power supplied( Nth ) th

N0 γ QH
or Nth = = ...(2.12)
η C.η

2.2 PUMP CONSTRUCTION


Any pump consists of an impeller having specified number of curved blades called vanes, kept in
between two shrouds.
The impeller is the rotating element responsible for the conversion of mechanical energy into
fluid energy. This impeller is connected, through a shaft and coupled, to the prime mover for rotation.
The connection may be a direct drive or indirect drive, through belt or gear system. The shaft is
supported by one or two fixed bearing supports depending upon the pump duty and one floating
sleeve bearing support along with either mechanical seal or asbestos packed stuffing box. This floating
support is arranged to take care of liner thermal expansion of shaft, towards the impeller side but not
at the prime mover side and at the same time acting as load bearing unit. The mechanical seal material
or the packing material is selected according to the type of pumping liquid such as acidic, alkaline,
neutral, milk, distilled water, cryogenic liquids like ammonia, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, two phase
fluids such as solid-liquid, liquid-gas etc. A gland provided in the stuffing box keeps the packing
material or seal in position.
The impeller is rotated inside a sealed spiral casing or volute casing. Suction and delivery pipes are
connected to the suction side and delivery side of the spiral casing through respective flanges. Since
volute casing is a non rotating part and impeller is a rotating element, sufficient clearance should be
provided between them. The fluid enters the suction side of the impeller, called eye of the impeller with
low energy. Due to conversion of mechanical to fluid energy, the fluid leaving the impeller will be with
higher energy, mostly with more kinetic energy. Due to the energy difference between inlet and outlet of
impeller and due to the clearance between volute casing and impeller, a part of fluid flows from impeller
outlet to the eye of the impeller at the suction side and towards the stuffing box side at the back. In order
to control this leakage flow, wearing rings, at the casing and at the impeller at front and back side are
provided. The amount of clearance and different forms of wearing rings used depends upon the pumping
fluid (temperature, consistency etc.). The mechanical seal and the packing in stuffing box reduces this
leakage still further at the rear side. The volute casing and the impeller with shaft are fitted to the bracket
which has the bearings to support the shaft. This bracket base is mounted in a common base plate,
which has the provision to mount the prime mover. The pump and prime mover will be kept on a
common base plate.
In Figs. 2.5, 2.6 and 2.7, three types of pump assemblies are given for single suction pumps.
However, the construction differs for double suction pumps and multi stage pumps.
PUMP PARAMETERS 13

10 14 9 12 7 16 6 11
4
15
15
3
5

8 1

13

1. Suction flange 5. Bearing bed 9. Flexible coupling (pump side) 13. Impeller nut
2. Delivery flange 6. Shaft 10. Flexible coupling (motor tside) 14. Coupling nut
3. Impeller 7. Deep groove ball bearing 11. Gland 15. Air cock
4. Volute casings 8. Bush 12. Bearing cap 16. Grease cup
Fig. 2.5. Single bearing supported pump with split type volute casing
2 18 15 14
2 3
1
24
10
6 21
22 36
20
40 27
29 8
33
7 28
32
26
11
5 44
42 19
17
12
43
31
26 39
38 13 30 9 4
18
34 41 37
16 35 40 25
1. Spiral casing 9. Bearing bracket 17. Flat seal 26. Wearing ring 35. Stud bolt
2. Intermediate casing 10. Bearing bracket 18. Seal ring 27. Shaft sleeve 36. Stud bolt
3. Cooling room cover intermediate 19. Radial seal ring 28. Disk 37. Locking screw
4. Supporting foot 11. Bearing cover 20. Gland 29. Pin 38. Threaded pin
5. Pump shaft 12. Flat seal 21. Stuffing box ring 30. Oil level regular 39. Inner hexagon screw
6. Left-hand impeller 13. Flat seal 22. Bottom ring 31. Hexagon screw 40. Nut
7. Radial ball bearing 14. Flat seal 23. Block ring 32. Hexagon screw 41. Nut
8. Radial roller bearing 15. Flat seal 24. Stuffing box 33. Stud bolt 42. Impeller nut
(only for bearing bracket) 16. Flat seal 25. Splash ring 34. Stud bolt 43. Fitting key
44. Fitting key
Fig. 2.6. Back pullout-double bearing type pump with combine volute casing
14 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

1
6 7
2
10
8 3 5
4

Fig. 2.7. Heavy duty pump

Basically pump construction consists of three sub-assemblies namely (1) shaft assembly (2) casing
assembly and (3) base assembly or bracket assembly.
Shaft assembly, consists of impeller, impeller key, impeller nut, shaft, bushes at stuffing box,
bearing inner races, pump coupling, key, and coupling nut, all mounted on a common shaft. The shaft
is connected to the prime mover either through belt drive, or direct. This assembly is the only rotating
assembly and hence this assembly must be perfectly balanced. But, all components in this assembly are
machined components except impeller, viz., inside surface of shrouds and the blade surfaces. These
surfaces are normally rough cast surfaces and could not be machined. Hence impeller only is balanced
and assembled on the shaft.
Casing assembly consists of suction side or front side bracket, rear side or coupling side bracket
of the volute casing. However, volute casing construction changes depending upon the pumping fluids.
For pumping high consistency liquid, two phase fluids, suction side bracket, coupling side bracket and
volute casing are made up of three separate pieces (Fig. 2.7). For ordinary pumping liquids like water,
milk, etc. suction side bracket and volute casing are single unit (Fig. 2.6). In agricultural pumps, casing
is made into two halves (Fig.2.5). Suction side bracket and one half of the casing become one part.
Coupling side bracket and other half the casing become another part. Coupling side bracket will also
have stuffing box or mechanical seal chamber.
For higher capacity pumps, the base assembly or bracket assembly consists of a bracket with
provisions for assembling front and rear bearings, and bearing caps. In agricultural pumps (Fig. 2.5),
however, the stuffing box and gland at the front side of the bracket and bearing chamber and bearing
cap on the other side of the bracket will be the normal construction. In low capacity pumps, the bracket
is fitted on a base plate along with the prime mover. The casing will be connected to the bracket. In such
pumps, the entire weight of delivery pipe with fluid, the suction pipe with fluid and all minor fitting like
valve, bend etc. will be connected to the casing delivery side and suction side respectively as a overhung
unit. In higher and medium capacity pumps, pumps with heavy liquids, two phase fluids will have the
base at the casing which is connected to the common base plate.
Such assemblies are called ‘back pull out’ assembly (Fig 2.6). This assembly is a convenient
assembly, where in all parts, except casing can be removed by pulling the entire assembly backwards
for any repair and maintenance. The pipe system need not be disturbed. However, the prime mover has
to be removed from base plate, in order to remove the pump assembly parts.
PUMP PARAMETERS 15

2.3 LOSSES IN PUMPS AND EFFICIENCY


Theoretically, all the energy supplied to the pump by the prime mover, in the form of mechanical
energy, should be converted into fluid energy. Owing to manufacturing inaccuracies and entirely different
flow conditions prevailing in pump, entire energy input (mechanical energy) is not converted into fluid
energy. Referring to Figs. 2.5, 2.6 and 2.7, 100% mechanical energy supplied at the coupling side of the
pump by the prime mover is reduced, due to energy absorption in bearings, stuffing box, disc friction.
Hence, the energy input at the impeller will be less than the energy input at the pump coupling. Due to
surface roughness inside impeller and due to the leakage flow through clearance, there will be further
reduction in the energy input to the impeller. Hence, the energy output from the pump is less than the
energy input to the pump. The difference between energy input and energy output of the pump is called
losses in pump. The ratio of energy usefully utilized for work to the energy supplied is called efficiency.
In other words, efficiency is the ratio of output energy to the input energy of the machine in doing work.
Three kinds of losses prevail in fluid machines namely, (1) Hydraulic loss (2) Volumetric loss and
(3) Mechanical loss. The sum of all losses will be the total loss. Overall efficiency is the product of
hydraulic efficiency, volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency.

η h)
2.3.1 Hydraulic Loss and Hydraulic Efficiency (η
Due to surface roughness at the inner side of the impeller, through which the fluid passes, losses
due to friction and losses due to secondary flow, take place, as a result of which energy loss take place.
Actual head developed (Ha) will be less than the theoretical head (Hth) by the amount ∆H = Hth – Ha.
∆H is called the hydraulic loss. Hydraulic efficiency (ηh) is the ratio between, actual head to the theoretical
head.
Hydraulic loss, ∆H = Hth – Ha 
Ha Hth − ∆H Ha ∆H 
Hydraulic efficiency, ηh = = = = 1– ...(2.13)
Hth Hth Ha + Hth Hth 

∆H = (1–ηh) Hth 

η v)
2.3.2 Volumetric Loss and Volumetric Efficiency (η
In order that the impeller can rotate inside the stationary casing, proper clearance is provided at the
front and rear side of the impeller at wearing rings. Due to pressure difference between impeller outlet
and impeller inlet at the front side of the impeller as well as the pressure difference between impeller
outlet and slightly higher than atmospheric pressure at the stuffing box, part of fluid coming out of the
impeller leaks through the clearances on both sides of the impeller. As a result the quantity coming out
of the pump, the actual quantity (Qa) will be less than the quantity passing through the impeller, i.e.,
theoretical quantity (Qth) by the amount of leakage quantity passing through the clearances (∆Q), i.e.,
∆Q = Qth – Qa. Volumetric efficiency (ηv) is the ratio between actual quantity and theoretical quantity
∆Q = Qth – Qa 
Qa Qth − ∆Q Q ∆Q 
ηv =
a
Qth
=
Qth
=
Qa + ∆Q
=1–  ...(2.14)
Qth 
∆Q = (1–ηv) Qth 
16 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

η m)
2.3.3 Mechanical Loss and Mechanical Efficiency (η
Energy loss in ball, roller or thrust bearings (∆NB), in bush bearings at stuffing box or in mechanical
seal portion (∆Ns), and the disc friction losses (∆ND ) due to the impeller rotation inside the volute casing,
which is filled with fluid are classified as mechanical losses (∆N ). The energy received at the impeller
side of the shaft, i.e., actual power (Ni) for energy conversion into fluid energy will be less than the
energy supplied at the coupling side by the prime mover, i.e., theoretical power (Nth), i.e., ∆N = Nth – Ni.
The ratio between actual power (Ni) and the theoretical power (Nth) is the mechanical efficiency (ηm)
i.e., ∆N = ∆ND + ∆NB + ∆Ns 
∆N = Nth – Ni 

N th – ∆N 
Ni Ni ∆N 
ηm = = = =1– ...(2.15)
N th N th N i + ∆N N th 

∆N = (1 – ηm) . Nth 


2.3.4 Total Losses and Overall Efficiency (h)


Total losses = Hydraulic loss + Volumetric loss + Mechanical loss = ∆H + ∆Q + ∆N.
Qa
Since ηv = Q , output energy (N0) = γ Qa.Ha = γQth.ηv . Hth .ηh
th

Taking Ni = γ Qth Hth


where Ni = power available at the impeller end of the shaft, Ni = Nth – ∆N.
Ni
Therefore, N0 = Ni ηv ηh = Nth ηm . ηv . ηh. Since ηm =
N th

N0
Overall efficiency, η = = ηm . ηv . ηh ...(2.16)
N th

2.4 SUCTION CONDITIONS


Normal and dependable operation of a pump depends mostly on suction conditions of the pump
i.e., pressure at the inlet edge of the impeller blade (Fig. 2.8).
Referring to the equations (2.8) and (2.9), the pressure p1 at the impeller inlet is less than the
pressure at the suction chamber ps. If the suction chamber pressure ps is low or if the suction
chamber is open to atmosphere i.e., ps = patm, the pressure at point 1, the inlet edge of the blade of the
impeller will be under vacuum (Equation 2.10). If this pressure, p1 is lower than the local vapour
pressure of the pumping fluid, corresponding to the temperature of the liquid at impeller eye (pvp),
then the liquid at this point will be boiling. In other words, liquid will not be in liquid form, instead it
will be in gaseous form and pumping cannot be done. Hence, the pressure at the inlet of the impeller,
i.e., at the eye of the impeller, must be above vapour pressure of the flowing fluid corresponding the
temperature of the fluid.
PUMP PARAMETERS 17

2 ∆h
Cs 2
= C 0 2g
2g
Xs Radial
D1 D0 C0 flow
B
2 2

Axial
flow

Hs

Fig. 2.8. Suction conditions in a pump

p1 ps  Cs2  pvp
= –  hs + h fs +  >
γ γ  2g  γ
 p1 pvp   ps pvp   Cs2 
or  γ − γ  =  γ − γ  –  hs + h fs + 2 g  > 0 ...(2.17)
 
ps patm
If = i.e., if the suction chamber is open to atmosphere, then
γ γ
 p1 pvp   patm pvp   Cs2 
 γ − − –  s
h + h + > 0
γ 
= 
γ  2 g 
fs
 γ 
must be greater than zero or in other words, always it should be positive i.e.,
 patm pvp   Cs2 
 γ − γ  >  hs + h fs + 2 g 
 

 p1 − p vp   patm pvp 
  −  is called
γ 
is termed as H and is called Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH).
  γ γ 
sv

NPSH available. The two terms patm and pvp cannot be altered, since these values patm, the atmospheric
pressure at the place where pump is running and pvp is the vapour pressure, which depends upon the
 C2 
temperature of the pumping liquid, are fixed values. The term  hs + h fs + s  is called NPSH required
 2g 
which is depending upon, the pump, viz., flow rate, pipe length and size, and the level of suction
chamber with respect to the reference line of the pump. All these can be altered during pump erection at
site.
18 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Hence NPSH (Net) (Hsv) = NPSH (available) – NPSH (required)


 patm pvp   C2 
Hsv =  −  –  hs + h fs + s  ...(2.18)
 γ γ   2g 
 C2 
( H atm − H vp ) −  hs + h fs + s 
H sv  2g 
σ = = ...(2.19)
H H
where σ is called Thoma’s constant. All pump manufactures give this value i.e., Hsv or σ by conducting
test on water in the laboratory. Depending upon the site conditions, pump erection is carried out so that
pump can work without cavitation.
In order to have a safe operation, a reserve in the NPSH is introduced and suction lift or suction
head is calculated accordingly.
 C2 
KHsv = (Hatm – Hvp) –  hs + h fs + s  ...(2.20)
 2g 
Normal values of K will be 1.15 to 1.40. Therefore, hs will be
 C2 
hs = (Hatm – Hvp) –  h fs + s  – KHsv ...(2.21)
 2g 
In case the pumping liquid is other than water
H sv ( w ) γ w H svw
Hsv (L) = = ...(2.22)
SL γL
where SL is the specific gravity of the liquid
γL and γw are the specific weights of liquid and water respectively.
12

11
Vapour Pressure ion Metres of Water Column

10

9 8
8
Additional Suction Head in Metres

7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3

2 2

1 1

0 0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 100 125 150 175 200 225
Water Temperature °C Water Temperature °C
(a) (b)
Fig. 2.9. Vapour pressure of water at different temperatures
PUMP PARAMETERS 19

2.5 SIMILARITY LAWS IN PUMPS

2.5.1 Similarity Laws


A complete study of fluid flow and the flow pattern in impeller, in casing and in various other
elements of pump by theoretical means could not be achieved. Thats why, experimental coefficients are
used along with the theoretical equations to solve the problems in pumps. These experimental coefficients
are obtained by conducting experiments on different pumps and obtaining results with the help of
similarity laws and dimensional analysis.
Similarity and dimensional analysis is a process of obtaining the property and characteristics of
another similar pump from the available property and characteristics of a pump on which experiment
was carried out and the results known. A functional relationship between different parameters of the
pump tested and the pump for which the calculations are needed is established by this law. Using
dimensional analysis under geometrical similarity, different expressions, connecting pump head (H),
quantity (Q), power (N) and speed (n) with the impeller diameter (D), which is the standard reference
linear dimension for a pump, and the properties of fluid, such as density (ρ), viscosity (µ) and gravitational
acceleration (g) can be established. The following Table 2.1 gives the dimensions and units of different
parameters used for non-dimensional analysis.
TABLE 2.1: Units and dimensions

Parameter Dimensions Symbol


1. Head H metre (m) L
2. Quantity Q m3/second (sec) L3/t
Newton . m ML2
3. Power N
sec t2
1 1
4. Speed n
sec t
5. Diameter D m L
6. Gravitational
acceleration g m/sec2 L/t2
7. Density ρ kg/m3 M/L3
kg M
8. Viscosity µ m sec Lt

As per the laws of dimensional analysis, there are 8 parameters with 3 dimensions. Hence,
(8 – 3) = 5 non-dimensional parameters can be evolved. After solving, we get the following non-
dimensional parameters.
µ  ρVL 
(1) which is Reynold’s number  Re = 
ρ n D2  µ 
Q  V 
(2) which is Struhaul’s number  Sh =  called unit discharge KQ in fluid machines
nD 3  nL 
20 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

N
(3) called unit power (KN)
ρn3 D 5
g  V2 
(4) which is Froude number 
 F = 
gl 
r
n2 D 
H
(5)
D
Multiplying non-dimensional parameters (4) and (5), we get another non-dimensional number
gH H
2 2
. However, since g is a constant, 2 2 is used, in practice which is called unit head (KH) in fluid
n D n D
machines. Based on the above non-dimensional parameters, a functional relationship between unit power
(KN) and the unit discharge (KQ) i.e., KN = f (KQ) as well as unit head (KH) and unit discharge (KQ). viz.,
KH = f (KQ) can be established.

Ni  µ Q   Q 
= f , 3  = f 
 R , 
n D3 
3 5 e ...(2.23)
ρn D  ρnD nD 
2

 Q 
Ni = ρn3D5 f  Re , 
n D3 
...(2.24)

where, Ni (internal power) or the power input at the impeller unit i.e., the power input at the coupling
side minus mechanical losses in bearings, stuffing box, and disc friction.
F µ I FG R , Q IJ
Also
gH
n2 D2
= f GH ρ n D 2
,
Q
nD 3
JK =f H nD K
e 3 ...(2.25)

n2 D2  Q 
or H = f  Re ,  ...(2.26)
g  nD3 
Equations (2.24) and (2.26) give the relation between the internal power (Ni) and head (H) with
Reynold’s number and unit discharge (KQ). The effect of Reynold’s number is not considered, since the
tests are conducted in auto model region i.e., at high Reynold’s number (Re > 105), where the coefficient
of friction ‘f ’ remains constant and is independent Reynold’s number (Re). This value H will be
approximate, since effect due to frictional losses is not considered.
Considering two identical pumps viz., prototype (suffix p) and model (suffix m) i.e., pumps of the
same series which are geometrically similar, i.e., linear dimensions are proportional and kinematically
similar, i.e., flow directions are same within the impeller and in casing, i.e., blade angles are same,
velocity triangles are identical.
gH p gH m
For Head =
n 2p D p2 nm2 Dm2
Hp Hm
or = ...(2.27)
n 2p D p2 nm2 Dm2
Hp gn 2p D p2 FG n IJp
2
 Dp 
Hm
=
gnm2 Dm2
= K2
Hn K m
where K=  
 Dm 
...(2.28)
PUMP PARAMETERS 21

Qp Qm
For Quantity =
n p D 3p nm Dm3
Qp n p D3p FG n IJ
p
or
Qm
=
nm Dm3
= K3
Hn K m
...(2.29)

Np Nm
For Power =
ρ p n3p D5p ρm nm3 Dm5
Np ρ p n3p D5p
or =
Nm ρm nm3 Dm5
FG n p IJ FG ρ IJ
3
p
= K5
Hn m K Hρ Km
...(2.30)

If the pumping liquid is same for both prototype and for model ρp = ρm, then
Np FG n IJp
3

Nm
= K5
m Hn K ...(2.31)

Equations (2.28), (2.29) and (2.30) are called similarity equations for pumps, and include the scale
µ
effect, i.e., include change in the effect of Reynold’s number Re = and relative Roughness effect
ρnD 2
ε
  .
D
However, exact values, which include the change in the corresponding efficiencies between prototype
and model, are given below :
Qp FG n IJ FG η IJ
p vp
U|
Qm
= K3
Hn K Hη K
m vm ||
Hp F n I  η  2
|
Hm
=K G J 
Hn K η 
2
p hp

hm
V| ...(2.32)
||
m

N ip Fn I Fρ I  η
=K G J G J 
3

||
p p mp
N im Hn K Hρ K η
5
m m mm


W
FG η IJ
vp
The value
Hη K
vm
takes into account the change in volumetric efficiency connected with the
change in the relative values of wearing clearances, balancing holes and usually connected with the
 ηhp 
change in scale K. The value 
 ηhm 
is the change in hydraulic efficiency which is a function of

FG ηmp IJ
Reynold’s number and scale K. The value
H ηmm K
is the change in the relative values of mechanical
losses in bearings, stuffing box and for disc friction. The equations developed under similarity laws for
pumps are most important for test result analysis and widely used in pump industries, to analyse the
22 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

performance of model tested in the laboratory, with the test results obtained from the prototype, tested
in industries such as test at different speeds, test at different diameters, tests on liquids other than water
etc., and also to develop new pumps.

2.5.2 Specific Speed (ns)


Specific speed (ns) is defined as the speed of a geometrically similar pump which consumes 1
(metric) hp and develops 1 m of total head, the pumping liquid being water under normal temperature
of 4°C and at atmospheric pressure of 1.0336 kgf/cm2, and γ = 1000 kgf/m3 viscosity µ = 1 centipoise
or ν = 1 centistoke i.e., n = ns, when N = 1 hp and H = 1 m.
γQH
Since, N (hp) = .
75
Substituting the values γ = 1000 kgf/m3
N (hp) = 1 hp, H = 1 m
1 × 75
Q = = 0.075 m3/sec.
1000 × 1
Referring to equation for unit power, KN and substituting the values.
N 1
=
ρn 3 D 5 ρns3 Ds5

ρn3 D 5 FG n IJ 3

N =
ρns3 Ds5
= K5
Hn K s
...(2.33)

gH g .1
2 2 =
n D ns2 Ds2
F nI F DI
H = G J .G J
2 2
FG n IJ 2

or
Hn K HD Ks s
= K2
Hn K s
...(2.34)

Combining equations 2.33 and 2.34

2 FG n IJ and H = K FG n IJ
6 10

K10
Hn K Hn K
N = 5 10
s s

H5 F n I or n = n N
= G J
4 4 2

N2 Hn K
s H
4
s 5

n N
ns = ...(2.35)
H5 4
γ QH
Since N =
75
 λ 1000  n Q
ns =  =  ⋅ 3.65 3 / 4
 75 75  H
Since γ = 1000 kgf/m3
PUMP PARAMETERS 23

n N n Q
Hence ns = 5/ 4
= 3.65 ...(2.36)
H H 3/ 4
Equation (2.35) is used for turbines and equation (2.36) is adopted for pumps.

2.5.3 Unit Specific Speed (nsq)


Unit Specific Speed (nsq) is defined as the speed of a geometrically similar pump delivering
1 m3/sec of discharge and develops 1 m head i.e., n = nsq where Q = 1 m3/s and H = 1 m, i.e.,
n Q
ns = .
H 3/ 4
gH Q
Combining 2 2
and into one by removing ‘D’
n D nD 3
Q Q2
Q ∝ nD3 or D3 ∝ or D6 =
n n2
gH g3H 3
gH ∝ n2D2 or D2 ∝ or D6 =
n2 n6
Q2 g3H 3 n 6Q2
Therefore, 2 ∝ or
n2 g 3 H 3
= Constant
n n6
n 4 Q2 n Q
or = Constant or = Constant (nsn) ...(2.37)
g3H 3 ( gH ) 3/ 4
Equation (2.37) is called non-dimensional specific speed (nsn). Since g is a constant, it can be
taken to the right hand side.
n Q
Unit specific speed, nsq = .
H 3/ 4
gH N
Similarly, combining and into one and by removing ‘D’ in both expressions
n2 D2 ρn 3 D 5

gH g5H 5
gH ∝ n2 D2 or D2 ∝ or D10 ∝
n2 n10

N N2
N∝ ρn3D5 or D5 ∝ or D10 ∝ 2 6
ρn3 ρ n

g5 H 5 N2 n10 N 2
So ∝ or = Constant
n10 ρ2 n 6 g 5 H 5ρ 2 n 6

n10 N 2
or = Constant
ρ2 g 5 H 5
24 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

n N
or = Constant = nsn ...(2.38)
ρ g 5/ 4 H 5/ 4
where nsn is the non-dimensional specific speed.
Since N = γ QH = ρg QH, substituting this value in the above equation
n ρ g Q H
= Constant
ρg 5/ 4
H 5/ 4

n Q
or = Constant = nsn
( gH )3/4
which is the same nsn as defined earlier.
While calculating the specific speed, all efficiencies i.e., volumetric, hydraulic, mechanical and
overall efficiencies are assumed to remain same for one value of ns i.e., for one series, independent of
size, capacity, head of the pump, of same ns. This is not correct since larger size and capacity pumps
will have higher efficiency than smaller capacity units of same ns. This is the only drawback in the
calculation of specific speed.
Referring to the specific speed equation, it can be said that each value of specific speed, ns refers
to one particular series of geometrically similar pumps i.e., a number of pumps with different H, Q, n
can be developed, all having same (ns) specific speed.
From the above it can be concluded that each value of ns refers one particular series of geometrically
and kinematically similar pump, each pump in this series will be identical to the other. It can also be said
that for the same value of head and discharge (H – Q) different types of pumps in different series can
be obtained with different specific speed, by changing the speed n.
Each pump will be different in type and construction. But due to limited suction conditions and
due to cavitation and subsequent vibration, noise and damage of pump parts at higher speeds, high
speeds are not recommended unless otherwise needed. Moreover, maximum efficiency can be obtained
only at a particular speed for the given head (H) and discharge (Q) i.e., for given ns only at one
particular speed. In fact, the specific speed, ns is calculated at the maximum efficiency point only.
Normally pumps are driven by electric motor (speed will be 720, 960, 1450, 2990 rpm) or by I.C.
Engines (750 or 1000 rpm) or by Turbines (25000 to 50000 rpm). Hence, pumps are always selected or
developed to give maximum efficiency at these speeds. The value of specific speed, the type of pump
will be always selected for the given H – Q of pumps and from the speed, n of the prime mover coupled
to the pump.

2.6 CLASSIFICATION OF IMPELLER TYPES ACCORDING TO SPECIFIC


SPEED (nS)
The shape and type of impeller depends upon the specific speed ns. For the same head and
discharge, the specific speed (ns) is directly proportional to the speed (n). ns increases when the speed
is increased. When the speed increases, the shape and type of impeller change. In first approximation
the pump head (H) is directly proportional to the peripheral velocity or blade velocity (u). This is evident
from the non-dimensional equation H ∝ n2 D2 ∝ u2. When speed (n) decreases the diameter (D) increases.
PUMP PARAMETERS 25

Outer diameter (D2) of the impeller is the characteristic linear dimension or the reference diameter D. So
increase in speed n decreases the diameter D2 and correspondingly the size and weight of the pump is
reduced which is naturally most advantageous, provided suction conditions do not have any limitations.
The eye diameter (D0) or the inlet diameter (D1) is determined from the quantity of flow (Q). D0 or D1
D D
and slightly reduces when speed is increased. So the ratio 2 or 2 reduces with the increase of ns.
D0 D1
b
Also for the given quantity, the diameter D2 reduces, the breadth b2 increases. So 2 increases with the
D2
increase of ns. When ns the specific speed increases, the flow rate (Q) increases and total head (H)
decreases. High head-low discharge pumps have low specific speed. The pumps have higher value of
(D2/D1) and low value of (b2/D2). Impeller blades are in radial direction and of single curvature design.
These pumps are called radial flow centrifugal pumps.
Medium head-medium discharge pumps have medium specific speed. These pumps have medium
D b
value of 2 and 2 . At lower range of medium specific speed, the impeller blades have double
D1 D2
curvature at inlet and single curvature at outlet. The outlet edge of the blade is parallel to the axis. The
inlet edge of the blade extends towards the eye of the impeller in order to reduce blade loading since
outer diameter D2 is reduced. When the specific speed increases further the inlet and outlet edges are
inclained i.e., neither radial nor axial. The blades have double curvature design. Flow through the impeller
is neither radial nor axial, but is in mixed or diagonal direction. These pumps are called mixed flow
pumps or diagonal flow pumps.
Low head-high discharge pumps have high specific speed. Inlet and outlet edges of impeller blade
are almost perpendicular to the flow direction. The blades are of double curvature design. These pumps
are called axial flow pumps.
Very low head and very high discharge condition gives very high specific speed. The fluid flow
direction in impeller is axial. Ship propellers belong to this category.
In general, pumps are classified as radial, mixed, diagonal or axial, depending upon the fluid flow
through the impeller passage.
All positive displacement pumps have very low discharge and very high head and hence very low
specific speed.
Theoretically, specific speed changes from 0 to ∞ i.e., from zero discharge to zero head as well as
change in speed. Practically very low speed and very high speeds could not be attained, so also very low
head and very high discharge are limited and hence the specific speed.
D

D1 D

C
D2
B
A
80 350 450 800 ns

D2
Fig. 2.10. Form and shape of impeller for
D1
26 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Figs. (1.3) and (2.10) give different forms or shapes of impellers and their range of specific
speeds as well as the range of diameter ratio (D2/D1).
TABLE 2.2: Specific speed of pumps
Positive Centrifugal Mixed Axial
Type of displacement Radial Mixed
impeller pumps Low Normal Higher Ship
discharge discharge discharge Diagonal Propeller Propeller propellers

3.65 n Q
ns= 8–35 40–80 80–150 150–300 300–400 400–600 600–1200 1200–1800
H 3/ 4 and above

D2
– ≈ 2.5 ≈2 1.8–1.4 1.3–1.15 1.15–1.1 0.8–0.6 0.6–0.55
D1

n Q
nsq = 3/ 4 2–10 10–22 22–41 41–82 82–110 110–165 165–330 330–495
H

n Q
nsq = 0.36–1.8 1.8–4.0 4.0–7.4 7.4–14.8 14.8–19.8 19.8–29.8 29.8–59.5 59.5–89.3
( gH ) 3/ 4

2.7 PUMPING LIQUIDS OTHER THAN WATER

2.7.1 Total Head, Flow Rate, Efficiency and Power Determination for Pumps
when Pumping, Liquids other than Water
Unlike turbines; pumps are used not only for pumping clear cold water at normal temperatures,
but also for pumping liquids with different properties such as different densities, different viscosities
and different consistencies, pumping not only at normal temperatures, but also at cold or hot temperatures.
Liquids may be corrosive or non-corrosive, two phase fluids such as gas-liquid or solid-liquid mixtures,
milk, distilled water, acids, alkaline solutions, cryogenic liquids like liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid
nitrogen, liquid ammonia, molasses, tar, petrol, diesel, crude-oil etc.
It is not possible to design each pump for each liquid and test them in the laboratory with the
pumping liquid at the actual field working conditions.
Pump design is always carried out for clear water at normal temperature. Water is considered as
reference liquid for all the liquids mentioned above.
For pumping liquids with viscosity and consistency, correction coefficients KH , KQ and Kη
(or Ke) are used for converting the liquid parameters to equivalent water parameters. These coefficients
are taken from standard recommended graphs and tables. These values are the consolidated results
from a number of experiments by many authors and recommended by International Hydraulic Institute
and Bureau of Indian Standards | 46 |.
Suitable pump is then selected from the commercially available water pumps for which performance
characteristics are known.
PUMP PARAMETERS 27

2.7.2 Effect of Temperature


Increase in the temperature of the liquid decreases the density, viscosity and consistency and
increases vapor pressure of the liquid. Due to high temperature of pumping liquid, the dimensions of
pump parts change at running condition, due to thermal expansion of the material of the pump parts.
Extra dimensional allowances in clearances are given depending upon the temperature of the pumping
liquid and coefficient of thermal expansion of the material of the pump parts. These pumps are brought
to the running temperature by filling with the pumping liquid or by external heating, before starting of the
pump for smooth and vibration free operation. These pumps will not be started at normal temperatures
and also should not be used for liquids at other than the recommended temperature.
Increase in vapor pressure due to increase in temperature of the pumping liquid changes the net
NPSH value and also reduction in suction lift. The system at suction side of the pump must be suitably
altered for cavitation free operation of the pump. Recommended changes are given in chapter 9 of this
book.

ρ or γ )
2.7.3 Density Correction (ρ
Pumping pressure ‘p’ and the total head (H) are related by the hydrostatic equation p = γH = ρ g H
where ‘γ’ is the specific weight and ‘ρ’ is the density of the pumping liquid and ‘g’ is the gravitational
acceleration. For the same pumping pressure, total head of the pump changes according to the specific
weight (γv) or the density (ρv) or the specific gravity (Sv) of the pumping liquid i.e.,
p = γw Hw = γv Hv = Sv γw Hv
Since rv = Sv γw. Suffix ‘w’ is for water and suffix ‘v’ is for the viscous liquid.
γv H v
∴ Hw = = Sv Hv
γw
Although theoretically density has no influence on flow rate i.e., Qw = Qv, practically Qv changes
by 2 to 3% Qw and even up to 5% at higher density of pumping liquid due to the influence of surface
tension.
For high temperature liquid pumping at t°C, the density of pumping liquid (ρt°C) is calculated as
(equation 2.39).
ρ15 C
ρt°C = ...(2.39)
1 + β t °C (t C − 15C )
where (βt°C) is the coefficient and (ρ15°C) is the density at t = 15°C.
Table 2.3 gives the values of (βt°C) for different values of (ρ15°C).

TABLE 2.3: Density correction coefficients

ρ15°C 0.7 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95

βt°C 82 × 10–10 77 × 10–5 72 × 10–5 64 × 10–5 60 × 10–5


28 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

2.7.4 Viscosity Correction


Performance of centrifugal pump changes when the viscosity of the pumping liquid changes. For
higher viscous liquids, total head (Hv), flow rate (Qv) and efficiency (ηv) reduce considerably.
Correspondingly, power consumption (Niv) increases. Head-discharge graph droops down more. Overall
efficiency reduces. Optimum efficiency shifts to lower flow rate condition. Power consumption increases
considerably especially at high viscous liquid pumping due to higher reduction in efficiency. However,
shut off head of viscous liquid remains same as that of water. Fig. 12.27 shows the change in pump
parameters when viscosity of the pumping liquid changes.
However, up to liquid viscosity 20 C.S., pump performance for viscous liquid pumping does not
change with respect to the pump performance pumping with water. Correction is applied only if the
pumping liquid viscosity is more than 20 C.S. Figure 2.12 gives the values of coefficient for flow rate
(KQ), coefficient for total head KH and coefficient for efficiency (Kn or Ke) for different values of Qv, Hv
and νv, where νv is the viscosity of liquid in (S or SSU).
If the temperature of pumping liquid is higher, viscosity (νt°C) at the temperature (t°C) is calculated as
0.01775
ν t°C(C.S.) = ...(2.40)
1 + 0.0337 t ° + 0.00023 t ° 2
νt°C must be taken while referring the Fig. 2.12.
However, this graph can be referred only for :
(a) Pumps of radial type centrifugal pumps under the normal operating range, having open or
closed impellers. It cannot be used for mixed and axial flow pumps or for pumps of special
design of impellers such as s-type impellers, single blade or two blade impellers or for non-
uniform liquids like, slurries paperstocks etc., since it may produce widely varying results,
depending upon the particular characteristics of the liquids.
(b) Sufficient NPSH should be available in water parameters in order to avoid cavitation.
Relation between viscous and water parameters is expressed as
Qv = KQ . Q W
Hv = KH . Hw ...(2.41)
ηv = Kη . η w

( Sv × γ w × Qv × H v )
Niv = (kW)
1000 ηv

2.7.4.1 Determination of Water Parameters for the Given Head, Quantity and Viscosity of
the Pumping Liquid
For the given total head (Hv), quantity (Qv), efficiency (ηv) and specific gravity (Sv) at the pumping
temperature (t°C) of the viscous liquid to be pumped, equivalent water parameters (Hw, Qw, ηw, Niw) can
be determined referring the graph (Figures 2.11 and 2.12). The procedure is as follows:
From the point of given viscous quantity (Qv) (Point A) in X-axis, a vertical line is drawn to meet
the given viscous head (Hv) line (Point B). From this meeting point of Hv and Qv (Point B) a horizontal
line, either left or right, is drawn to intersect the given viscosity (νv) line (Point C). From the point C, a
PUMP PARAMETERS 29

100 Water pump peak


efficiency %
90

80

Head
70
90
60 80
70
100 20 30 40 50 60

90

80
Capacity

70
Water pump peak
60 efficiency %

50

100 90
20 30 40 50 60 70 80

90

80

70
Efficiency

60

50

40
Water pump peak
efficiency %
30
20 90

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
300
200
15,0 0
Head per stage in m at peak efficiency for

1 0 00

150
10 0

30 0
40
20
30

80
15

90

100
20 0
10
90

15

40
80

,00
50 0

00
00

00
0
40

80

75
0
0

0
0

0
0

00
0

50
40
30
20
15
water at actual operating r.p.m.

10
5m
V is
co
s ity

300
200
150
100
75
50
40
30
20
15 3
m /hr
1000

1400

1800
2200

10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 150 200 300 400 600 800

30 40 50 60 70 80 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 8000 imp gpm

Fig. 2.11. A viscosity correction nomogram based on that quoted by (from Davidson (3), 1993,
Process Pump Selection—A System Approach, Second Edition IMechE, London)
30 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

1.0
0.9
KH
0.8
0.60
Correction Factors
0.7 0.80
1.00
0.6 1.20

1.0
0.9
0.8
KQ
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4


0.3
0.2

1217
1670
2280
3190
6.25

11.8
16.5
21.2
33.4
45.2
60.5

114
132
190
223
304
350
436
610
760
915
Centistokes
75

Hm
200
150
100
80
60
300 430

40
30
25
20
Engler

15
10
8
1.5

2.5
3

4.5
6

8
10
15

20
25
30
40
50
60

80
100
120
160
220

6
4
100

1000
50

130

300

400
60
20

30

10

200

500
600
800

1500

2000

Q imp gpm

Fig. 2.12. Performance correction chart for viscous liquids


vertical line is drawn to meet the correction curves Kη, KQ and KH at peak water efficiency points D, E,
F respectively. The values Kη, KQ and KH are the correction coefficients. By using the equation (2.41),
equivalent water parameters QW, HW, ηW can be calculated.
For multistage pumps, the total head (Hv) must be the total head per stage only i.e., Hv = [(HV)
multistage/number of stages]. Based on the water parameters (HV and QV), suitable pump can be selected
from the commercially available pumps.

2.7.4.2 Determination of Viscous Parameters When Water Parameters are Known


For the given Hw, Qw, ηw values of water pump, equivalent viscous parameters Hv, Qv, and ηv can
be determined, referring the graph (Figures 2.11 and 2.12). From the performance characteristics of the
available water pump, namely Hw = f (Qw), ηw= f (Qw) and Niw = f (Qw), where Qw is the quantity at the
PUMP PARAMETERS 31

maximum efficiency condition and Hw, ηw, Nw are the corresponding values at Qw, the values of Hw, ηw,
Nw for 0.6 Qw, 0.8 Qw, 1.0 Qw and 1.2 Qw are determined. As first approximation, all the above determined
water parameters are assumed as viscous liquid parameters, so that graph (Figs. 2.11 and 2.12) can be
referred to find KH, KQ, and Kη for all four capacities, following the same procedure as mentioned.
Using the equation (2.41), equivalent values of HV, ηV, and QV can be calculated for all four Qw capacities.
Two graphs Hw, ηV, NW = f (QW) and Hv, ηV, NV = f (QV) are drawn taking shut off head is same for
water and for viscous liquid pumping. From this curve QV, can be found out for the given value of Qw,
and other values. One such graph is given in Figure 2.13.
H Q
0, 6
N H 0, 8 Q
1, 0 Q
η
1, 2 Q

N
Water parameters

Viscous liquid parameters


η

Fig. 2.13. Determination of viscous parameters from water parameters of pump


Example: A water pump has the following details as per the performance graph:
Optimum efficiency condition ηW (max)= 80% is at QW = 150 m3/hr. Corresponding Hw = 40 m,
Nw= 28 kW. Pumping liquid viscosity is 57 CS. Referring to the performance characteristic of
water pump, the values of HW, ηW, NW, for 0.6 Qw = 90 m3/hr, 0.8 Qw = 120 m3/hr and for 1.2 Qw =
180 m3/hr are found out. Referring the conversion graphs (Figs. 2.11 and 2.12), the values of Kη,KH,
and KQ for all four capacities are determined. Using equation (2.41), HV ,QV, ηV, and the power required
for viscous fluid pumping NV, are calculated. All these values are given in Table 2.4.

TABLE 2.4: Viscous parameter determination from water parameters

% QW values
Parameters 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Flow rate m3/hr Qw 90 120 150 180
QV = KQ.QW QV 88.2 117.5 147 176.5
Total head m HW 44 42 40 36
HV = KH . HW HV 43.2 40.8 38 33.5
Efficiency % ηW 70 78 80 77
ηV = KηηW ηV 49 54.5 56 54
Input power kW NW 15.7 17.9 20.9 23.1
NV 21.6 24.6 27.6 29.8
32 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Based on the results tabulated in above table (2.4), HV, ηV, NV = f (QV) are drawn in the same scale
and in the same available performance characteristics of water pump, taking shut off head same for
both liquids. From this graph (Fig. 2.13), for any value of QW, HW, ηW, corresponding values of QV, HV,
ηV and NV can be determined.

2.7.5 Effect of Consistency on Pump Performance


Pumps in chemical and process industries, handle two phase fluids i.e., liquid with another non-
mixing liquid, liquids with solids in suspension, gas particles in liquids. Apparently average specific
gravity of such mixtures is different from specific gravity of liquid alone. The problem becomes more
difficult, if the liquid is other than water, which is very common in chemical industries. As a result, the
net pumping head, flow rate, power, NPSH of the mixture change. So the pump parameters of the
mixture is converted into equivalent water parameters by using experimental coefficients called
‘consistency factor’.
‘Consistency’ is defined as the percentage by volume or by weight (or specific gravity) of the
solid content or gas content or other liquid present in suspension in the whole pumping mixture. It is
the property of material by which, a permanent change of shape is resisted and is also defined by the
complete force-flow relationships.
As done for viscous fluids, the experimentally determined conversion factors are used to determine
the liquid parameters. The following equations are used for such conversion:
Pulp (or) stock rating for Q or H ( Qs or H s ) 
Water Rating (Qw or HW) = 
Conversion factor for Q or H ( Eq or EH )  ... (2.42)

HS = EH , HW , QS = EQ . QW 
Water efficiency (ηW) × Conversion factor (Eη) = Pulp or stock efficiency (ηs)
ηW × Eη = ηs
Table 2.5 gives the conversion factor for pulp or stock pumping at different consistency conditions | 5 |.

TABLE 2.5: Consistency conversion coefficient

Pulp or stock consistency % EQ EH Eη

1.0 0.99 1.00 0.99


2.0 0.99 1.00 0.99
2.5 0.98 1.00 0.98
3.0 0.97 1.00 0.97
3.5 0.96 0.99 0.95
4.0 0.92 0.98 0.90
4.5 0.87 0.97 0.85
5.0 0.80 0.95 0.76
5.5 0.72 0.93 0.67
6.0 0.62 0.90 0.56
6.5 0.52 0.87 0.45
7.0 0.42 0.83 0.35
PUMP PARAMETERS 33

Such conversion factors are available for different liquid mixtures from the manufactures such as
KSB pumps, pump manual or International Hydraulic Institute Standards. Rotodynamic pumps can be
used only up to 7% consistency. For consistencies above 7%, positive displacement pumps must be
used.
Correct design, construction and material of pump parts must be followed especially for impeller
blade shape, casing shape and location, sealing arrangement, and cooling arrangements such as external
cooling or mother liquid circulation for cooling and sealing to suit the pumping fluid and operating
conditions.
In this book, water handling pumps and their constructions are only dealt with and discussed in
chapter 13. For special pumps, however, handling hydrocarbons and other high consistency liquids,
specific manufacturer’s recommendation must be referred.

2.7.6 Special Consideration in Pump Selection


Normally pumps are manufactured as per the manufacturer’s standard of production range. Any
customer selects pump for his requirement from the available standard ranges. Sometimes, pumps are
selected according to space availability in the field such as in ships, rigs, railways, in general for transport
systems and sometimes to replace the existing pump with the new pump especially in mechanical and
process industries. In such cases, efficiency is not considered as a major factor, instead functional
applications such as fitting the pump in the space available, non-stop or continuous operation even at
emergency conditions are considered as important. Such conditions change from field to field and
installation to installation. Pumps must be designed and constructed and must work as per the requirement
of prevailing conditions at the fluid.
3
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS

3.1 ENERGY EQUATION USING MOMENT OF MOMENTUM EQUATION FOR


FLUID FLOW THROUGH IMPELLER
Energy transfer from the impeller blade to the fluid, per unit mass (or weight) of fluid flow, when fluid
passes through the impeller, can be developed by using momentum equation between point ‘O’, just
before the impeller blade and point ‘3’ just after the blade. The cylindrical contour surface passing
through point O and point 3 are shown in figure (3.1). The contour circles drawn with radius ‘r1’ passing
through the point O and with radius ‘r2’ passing through point 3 are connected to the front and rear
shrouds (Fig. 3.1). Pressure and velocity forces, on both sides of the shrouds, are equal and opposite and
hence get cancelled. Only two forces, due to absolute velocities, one acting on the outer cylindrical
surface 3 and another on the inner cylindrical surface ‘O’ are responsible for energy transfer. Taking
moment of this momentum at inlet and at outlet i.e., moment of tangential component of these forces
with respect to the centre of the circle and since l0= r0 cos α0, r0= r1, C0 cos α 0 = Cu0= Cu1 and l3 = r3
cos α3, r3= r2, C3 cos α3 = Cu3 = Cu2, the reactive moment due to the tangential forces acting on the
cylindrical surfaces 3 and 0 will be
C3
α3 C u3 3
Contour
C0 3 Contour line

α0
r3=r2

C u0 0
l3 l0 α0 r
1 r2
r0=r1

II I

Fig. 3.1. Moment of momentum equation as applied to impeller

Moment M 0 = C0 l0 = C0 r0 cos α 0 = Cu1r0 = Cu1r1


Moment M 3 = C3l3 = C3 r3 cos α 3 = Cu 3 r3 = Cu 2 r2 ...(3.1)
Taking into account, moment Mf due to friction, created due to the fluid passing through blade
passages, total moment M will be
M = M3 + M 0 + M f

34
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 35

rQ
= (Cu 2 r2 − Cu1 r1 ) + M f ...(3.2)
g
For ideal fluid flow, Mf = 0. Energy transfer per unit weight of fluid flow through the impeller of
a pump i.e., the theoretical head developed under infinite number of blades, with infinitesimally smaller
vane thickness, will be
M ω  Cu 2 − Cu1 
Hth ∞ = =   ...(3.3)
γQ  g 
where Mω = N, γQ = W and u = ω r.
Equation 3.3 is the Eular’s equation for the head developed by a pump.

3.2 BERNOULLI’S EQUATION FOR THE FLOW THROUGH IMPELLER


Eular’s equation for an elementary flow along a streamline (S) is given by
1 ∂p dC ∂C ∂C ∂s ∂C ∂C ∂C ∂  C 2 
= = + . = + = +
∂t ∂s  2 
Fs – ρ ∂ C ...(3.4)
s dt ∂t ∂s ∂t ∂t ∂s
where, Fs = Resolved component unit of mass along the direction of the streamline S
p = pressure
C = velocity (absolute)
ρ = density
For an elementary length ‘ds’ on the streamline the equation (3.4) can be written as
1 ∂p ∂  C2  ∂C
Fs ds – ds –   ds = ds ...(3.5)
ρ ∂s ∂s  2  ∂t
∂C
For steady flow condition = 0.
∂t
1 ∂p ∂  C2

Therefore, Fs ds – ds –   ds = 0. ...(3.6)
ρ ∂s ∂s  2

 mg 
The force due to unit mass is the gravitational force ‘g’  =  which is directed downwards.
 m 
Fg = – g.
Taking vertically upward direction of Z-axis as +ve direction
dZ
and Fs – Fg ( cos Z , ds ) = – g ...(3.7)
ds
Substituting this value of Fs in equation 3.6 and changing the sign
dZ 1 ∂p ∂  C2 
+g ds + ds +   ds = 0 ...(3.8)
ds ρ ∂s ∂s  2 
dp C2
or gdZ + +d = 0
ρ 2
36 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

For compressible flow, density ‘ρ’ is a function of the pressure p i.e., ρ = f ( p). Integrating the
equation (3.8) with respect to ds
dp C 2
gZ + ∫ + = Constant ...(3.9)
ρ 2
For incompressible fluid, the density ‘ρ’ is constant. The specific weight γ = ρg. Hence, the equation
(3.9) can be written for unit weight of fluid as,
p C2
+Z + = Constant ...(3.10)
γ 2g
Equations (3.8), (3.9) and (3.10) are called Bernoulli’s equation derived from fundamental Eular’s
equation of motion under steady absolute flow condition along a streamline.
It is evident that, this equation cannot be applied for the change of energy of ideal fluid under
unsteady absolute motion of fluid in impellers. Perhaps this equation can be applied for other elements
like approach pipe with or without inlet blades, volute casing, diffuser, return passage of multistage
pumps, which are non-moving or stationary elements, where steady flow prevails under optimum
conditions.
For impellers, however, steady flow condition can be applied for relative velocity of flow of fluid
since this velocity is actual velocity flowing past the blades. Referring the equation (3.7) the force Fs in
impeller blades consists of the gravitational force Fg and inertia force (since blade is moving) namely
centrifugal force FCF and Coriolis force Fc .
Fs = Fg + FCF + Fc ...(3.11)

dZ
For unit mass flow along the streamline ‘S’, the gravitational force Fg = – g and is directed
ds
towards downward direction. The centrifugal force FCF = ω2 r, where ‘ω’ is the angular velocity and
‘r ’ is the radius, and is directed towards radial direction. Coriolis force, Fc = ω w sin (ω w) , is directed
normal to the direction of relative velocity, vector ‘w’ and angular velocity ‘ω’. Since ds = w dt along
the streamline, the resolved component of the total mass force Fs will be

Fs = fg cos (Fg.ds) + FCF cos (r.ds) + Fc cos (Fc.ds)

Fc
Wu
F cu
W. sin (ω,w) Fcr
acu
u
Wr a cr
W Wz

Fig. 3.2. Vector diagram for Coriolis component Fa determination of Mz


THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 37

Taking axis of rotation vertically upwards as +ve direction the resolved component of the mass
force in relative motion along a streamline will be
dz dr
Fs = – g + ω2 ...(3.12)
ds ds
substituting the value of Fc in equation (3.6) and since, Fcs = Fc cos (Fc.ds) = 0, because of the direction
of Fc normal to the direction of w on the elemental strip ‘ds’ where the relative velocity ‘w’ is tangential
to the streamline

dZ dr 1 ∂p ∂  w2 
–g ds + ω 2 r ds – ds –   ds = 0 ...(3.13)
ds ds ρ ∂s ∂s  2 

2 r   w2 
2
dp
Simplifying gdZ – ω d   + +d  =0 ...(3.14)
 2 ρ  2 
Integrating the above equation (3.14) and since u = ωr
dp w2 – u 2
gZ + ∫ + = Constant ...(3.15)
ρ 2
For an incompressible fluid flow, the density ‘ρ’ is constant and independent of pressure ‘p’. Hence,
the above equation can be written as
p w2 − u 2
for unit mass flow gZ + + = Constant ...(3.16)
ρ 2
ρ w2 − u 2
for unit weight flow +Z + = Constant ...(3.17)
γ 2g
The equation (3.16) and (3.17) represent Bernoulli’s equation for a relative flow past impeller
blades and is used for an indepth study of flow analysis i.e., interaction between blades and flow past
the impeller blade. This equation is similar to the Bernoulli’s equation derived for an absolute flow used
for analysis of all non-moving flow passages of the pump. Applying equation (3.17) between point 0
and point 1 (which lies on the inlet edge of the blade), where steady flow exists in absolute and in
relative flows.
p1 w2 − u12 p0 w2 − u02
+ Z1 + 1 = + Z0 + 0 ...(3.18)
γ 2g γ 2g
Relative velocity ‘w’ can be expressed in terms of absolute velocity ‘C’ and blade velocity ‘u’.
Referring to the velocity triangle (Fig. 4.1)

w2 = C 2 + u 2 − 2u Cu ...(3.19)

w2 − u 2 C 2 Cu1 u
So, = −
2g 2g g
Equation 3.27 can be written as
p1 C C u 2
+ Z1 + 1 − u1 1 = p0 + Z 0 + C0 − Cu 0 u0 ...(3.20)
γ 2g g g 2g g
38 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

p C2
Since total energy E = +Z+ , the above equation (3.20) can be written as
γ 2g
Cu1 u1 C u
E1 – = E0 – u 0 0
g g
C u − Cu 0 u0
or E1 − E0 = u1 1 ...(3.21)
g
Correspondingly the energy difference between point 3 and 0 which is the total head Hm developed
by the pump, is
C u − Cu 0 u0
Hm = E3 – E0 = u 3 3
g
C u − Cu1u1
and Hth ∞ = u 2 2 ...(3.22)
g
Also u3 = u2 , Cu 3 = Cu 2, Cu 0 = Cu1 and u0 = u1
This equation (3.22) is the fundamental Eular’s equation for rotodynamic pumps. Hm is the
monometric head applied for finite number of blades with finite thickness and Hth∞ is the theoretical
head applied for infinite number of blades with infinitesimally smaller thickness.

3.3 ABSOLUTE FLOW OF IDEAL FLUID PAST THE FLOW PASSAGES OF


PUMP
The integral form of equation for the ideal fluid flow as per Gromeko-Lamb |67| is

1 ∂C  C2  → →
F– grad p = + grad   + rot C × C ...(3.23)
ρ ∂t  2 

where C is the velocity vector.

Taking Z-axis in vertically upward direction as +ve direction , mass force F under absolute flow
through the passages of pump parts, is

Mass force F = – grad ∏ = – gz ...(3.24)

where g = acceleration due to gravity, which is acting vertically downwards.


The density ‘ρ’ is a function of pressure ‘p’.
ρ = f (p) ...(3.25)
For compressible flow it depends upon the process. Under baratropic conditions, for isentropic
process ρ = (p)1/γ. For adiabatic process ρ = ( p)1/k. For isothermal process ρ = p–1 = p. For incompressible
flow, ρ = Constant (p0).
In general, under baratropic condition.
p

P (p) = ∫ ρ ( p) ...(3.26)
p0
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 39

Gradient of the above function will be


dp 1
grad P = grad p = grad p ...(3.27)
dρ ρ
For the condition (equations 3.23 and 3.24) as per Gromeko-Lamb equation, (3.23) can be written
as:

∂C  C2  → →
+ grad  + P + ∏ + rot C × C = 0 ...(3.28)
∂t  2 

∂C →
For absolute flow + grad E + Ω × C = 0 ...(3.29)
∂t
C2 →
where E = + P + ∏ and rot C = Ω.
2
Equation (3.29) represents the ideal fluid flow under baratropic condition (for liquids and gases)
and under potential field of mass force.

∂C
Under steady flow condition = 0. For absolute flow stationary conditions prevailing in diffusers
∂t
volute casings etc., (non-moving parts) equation (3.29) can be written as
→ →
grad E + Ω × C = 0 ...(3.30)

For axisymmetric flow Ω = 0. Such conditions prevail in approach pipe at pump inlet. So
→ → → →
Ω × C = 0, where the vortex vector Ω is parallel to the velocity C . Such things exist in propeller and
screw type units, because, the interaction between fundamental vortex and the flow becomes zero. The
vortex motion developed in impellers continues up to outlet also.
Integrating equation (3.30)
p
C2 C2 dp
E =
2
+P+∏=
2
+ ∫ ρ
+ gZ = Constant ...(3.31)
p0

which is the Bernoulli’s theorem for the entire stream tube which is called as Lagranze’s equation, |67|.

p C2
For incompressible fluid flow +Z+ = Constant ...(3.32)
γ 2
Equations (3.31) and (3.32) can be and widely used for compressible and for incompressible flow
in fluid machines.
For unsteady absolute flow, which is normally existing in impeller blades and in places where
flow is changing from stationary to moving. Integrating the equation (3.29) under axisymmetric
conditions.
→ → − → ∂C ∂φ
Ω = rot C = 0 and for potential function φ of velocity C , grad φ = C and hence = grad .
∂t ∂t
40 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Equation (3.29) under axisymmetric flow condition will be


 ∂φ 
grad  + E  = 0
 ∂t 
∂φ ∂φ C 2
Since +E = + + P + Π = f (t) ...(3.33)
∂t ∂t 2
This equation is called Lagrange-Koshi’s equation | 67|. The function f (t) is a function of time and
is determined from the boundary conditions. Equation (3.33) i.e., equation of Langrange-Koshi plays a
very important role in unsteady flow as similar to Bernoulli’s equation in steady flow.
Equation (3.33) for incompressible flow will be
1 ∂φ C 2 p
+ + = f (t) ...(3.34)
g ∂t 2 g γ

3.4 RELATIVE FLOW OF IDEAL FLUID PAST IMPELLER BLADES


Considering the integral form of Gromeko-Lamb equation (equation 3.23) in vector form for a

relative flow of fluid past impeller blades, absolute velocity of fluid C before entering the impeller

blade at inlet is changed to relative velocity w , while flowing through the impeller due to rotation of

impeller with a peripheral velocity u . So also at outlet. The relation between these velocities can be
written as :
→ → → → → →
C1 = w1 + u 1 and C 2 = w2 + u 2
The force due to mass ‘F’ under relative flow consists of three elements namely
→ → → →
F = Fg + FCF + Fc ...(3.35)

where Fg = gravitational force acting vertically downwards

FCF = centrifugal force and

FC = Coriolis component of force acting normal to the flow at any given point on the
streamline.
The gravitational force Fg is a potential function Π

F g = grad ∏ = – gZ ...(3.36)
since Z-axis is the reference axis and vertically upward direction is taken as +ve.
The centrifugal force is also a potential function and expressed as
→ u2 ω2
F CF = grad = grad r 2 = ω2r ...(3.37)
2 2
where, u = ωr, ω = angular velocity, r = the selected radius on the stream referred with respect to Z-axis,
the axis of rotation.
The Coriolis component can be written in general form as
→ → →
FK = – 2 ( ω × w ) ...(3.38)
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 41

→ → → → →
The vectorial form of the relative velocity w will be rot w . Since C = w + u
→ → → → → → → → →
w × rot w = w × rot ( C – u ) = w × rot C – w × rot u ... (3.39)
→ → →
rot u = rot ( ω × r ) = 2ω
Same thing can be obtained by selecting or elementary contour of radius ‘r’ in the plane, normal to
the Z-axis of rotation. The resolved component of these vortex along the direction Z is

2π r u 2π r 2 ω
rotz u = lim = lim = 2ω
r →0 π r2 r →0 π r2
→ → → → → →
So w × rot w = w × rot C + ( ω × w ) ...(3.40)
Substituting all the values in equation (3.23) of Gromeko-Lamb
u2 → → 1 w2 →
– grad Π + grad ω w
– 2 ( × ) – ρ grad p – grad + w × rot C
2 2
→ → dw
+ 2 (ω × w ) – =0 ...(3.41)
dt
Simplifying

 w2 – u 2  dw → →
grad  ∏ + P +  + = w rot C ...(3.42)
 2  dt
→ dw
Under steady flow conditions of relative velocity w , =0
dt
Integrating equation under two conditions:

(1) When axisymmetric potential flow of absolute velocity exists i.e., rot C = 0.
(2) When the vector of absolute flow vortices are parallel to the relative velocity under vortex
→ →
flow of absolute flow, i.e., w × rot C = 0
 w2 – u 2 
grad  ∏ + P +  = 0
2 
So, ...(3.43)

p
dp
Integrating the above equation (3.43) and since Π = g Z and P = ∫ ρ
p0

dp w2 – u 2
∫ρ
+ gZ +
2
= Constant ...(3.44)

Equation 3.44 is the equation for the relative flow under steady potential flow conditions. For
compressible fluids the density ‘ρ’ is a function of pressure ‘p’ and depending upon the process. For
incompressible flow ρ = Constant. Changing the equation from unit mass to unit weight. γ = ρg
p w2 – u 2 = Constant
+Z + ...(3.45)
γ 2g
42 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Equation (3.45) holds good for the entire flow in the channel for a steady and potential
(axisymmetric) flow. Applying Bernoulli’s equation between points x and y (Refer Fig. 3.3 and 3.13)
located on both sides of the impeller blade at the same radius ‘r’.

x r
r

Impeller blade passage at r ′

f 1 1
r
2 2 2
px
py

r
y x
p2

p1
(a ) (b)

Fig. 3.3. (a) Pressure variation in radial flow impeller passage


(b) Pressure variation across impeller passage of axial flow pump

ω
ω

x
r

(a) Theoretical (b) Actual

Fig. 3.4. Velocity distribution between blades

px w 2 − ux2 py wy2 − u y2
+ Zx + x = + Zy +
γ 2g γ 2g
ux = uy and Zx = Zy since point x and y are located on the same radius and the difference in level is
negligibly small, the above equation can be written as
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 43

px wx p y wy
+ = +
γ 2g γ 2g
Useful work done by the impeller blades under finite number of blades with finite thickness is due
to the interaction between the blade and the flow of fluid and due to the local pressure difference between
leading and trailing side of the impeller blade. The pressure at the point x, located on the leading side of
the blade on the radius, is higher than the pressure at point y, which is located at the trailing side of the
blade at the same radius. In the same manner the pressure at point x′ is same as at x since both are at
leading surfaces but at adjacent blade. This means the pressure across the channel between two successive
blades (x′ – y) located at the same radius are not equal. px = ( px′) > py. Across the channel, pressure
changes uniformly. Correspondingly, wx= wx′ < wy the relative velocity across the channel gradually
decreases for x′ to y. (Figs. 3.3 and 3.4).

3.5 FLOW OVER AN AIRFOIL


The flow of fluid over a blade kept in space is of three types: (1) Plain flow over the blade
[Fig. 3.5 (a)], (2) Circulatory flow [Fig. 3.5 (b)] and (3) Combination of these two flows [Fig. 3.5 (c)].
In pure plain flow, fluid flows over blade without any circulation or vortex. It is a uniform, steady,
potential (axisymmetric) flow. In pure circulatory flow, the fluid flows around the blades, encircling the
blade. There is no plain flow. The line integral of the flow velocity around their closed contour gives
circulation, sum of which is zero in an endless flow (i.e., in space where flow starts from infinity and
ends in infinity).

A B

(a) Plain flow (b) Circulatory flow (c) Combined flow

(d) Flow after the airfoil

Fig. 3.5. Fow over an airfoil

Pure plain flow or pure circulatory flow acting individually on the blade does not produce any
force on blade. The pressures on both sides of the blade are equal in both type of flows. When these two
flows are combined together, a pressure difference is developed due to the difference in flow velocities
between two sides of the blade, by which energy transfer between fluid and the blade takes place. In
rotodynamic machines (pumps, fans, blowers, compressors and turbines) instead of one blade, a number
of blades, i.e., a cascade system is adopted for energy transfer between blades and fluid. This pressure
difference in axial flow pump is due to the flow over the cascade system with angle of attack. The flow
velocity is determined from the flow rate. But in radial flow pump this pressure difference is produced
44 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

not only from the main flow (plain flow combined with circulatory flow), but also due to the rotation of
the impeller i.e., Coriolis component. The Coriolis component does not give any flow, but increases the
velocity difference further as a result of which circulation is increased.
The relative velocity at the trailing side of the impeller blades is higher, whereas the relative
velocity at the leading side of the blade is lower (Fig. 3.7 and 3.8). Due to this, relative velocity across
the channel from trailing side of the blade to the leading side of the sucessive blade is not constant,
instead changing. Absolute velocity of flow C is axial and potential, without any rotation or vortex, but
the relative velocity is not axisymmetric i.e., with vortex, induced due to peripheral velocity u. This can
be shown by the following. Since the relative velocity
→ → → → → → → →
w = C – u ; rot w = rot ( C – u ) = rot C – rot u

Since absolute velocity of flow is axisymmetric and potential rot C = 0.
→ → → → →
So, rot w = rot u = rot (ω − r ) = 2 ω
This means the relative velocity is with vorticity or circulation. Consider the flow of ideal fluid, in
a completely closed cylindrical container and the container moves in a circular path (Fig. 3.6) with the
centre of rotation ‘O’. The fluid body AB in the closed channel keeps its position same without any
rotation at all positions when the channel is moved in a circular path. i.e., the pointer is always pointing
the same upward direction. In other words, the absolute velocity direction is without any circulation or
vortex, even when the channel moves in a circular
I B
path with centre ‘O’. But the same line AB rotates,
if it is considered with respect to the circle. When A
the circle is rotated in anticlockwise direction, at
II IV
the section I the arrow AB is perpendicular to the
circle. At section II, it is parallel to the circle. This B B
is repeated to section III and IV but rotated by A O A
180° with respect to section I and II. The fluid in
the container rotates in opposite direction i.e., III
clockwise direction, with respect to the circle with B
an angular velocity ‘ω’. This indicates that the
relative velocity is with circulation or vortex. The A

same situation prevails in impeller channel


Fig. 3.6. Relative rotary motion of fluid in a closed
(Fig. 3.7) when the channel is closed at inlet and channel when moving in a circular path
at outlet.

Fig. 3.7. Circulatory motion of fluid in impeller blade passage (channel vortex)
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 45

Adding the plain flow i.e., the potential absolute flow moving with constant velocity over both
sides of the blade to this relative circulating flow i.e., when the channel is no longer a closed one, the
resultant flow gives velocity difference between trailing side and leading side of the impeller, and hence
the energy transfer from blade to fluid. The velocity triangles at inlet and at outlet are shown in Fig. 3.8.
C2
u2

α2 ω
α′2
E
C2′

w2 w1 ω1

β2 R S w1
ω1
B2 c1
w2′ β′2
B1 c1′
K B
A α′1
P
M

r1 D u1
r2

N
L

0
Fig. 3.8. Relative velocity of flow in impeller passage at normal conditions

As mentioned earlier, different velocities at the outlet of the impeller w2 equalises after some
distance. Constant and uniform velocity ‘w3’ exist after the impeller, which again shows that axisymmetric
absolute flow prevails after the impeller.

3.6 TWO DIMENSIONAL IDEAL FLOW

3.6.1 Velocity Potential


Velocity potential φ is defined as φ = ∫ Cs ds between any two points in the potential field and Cs
is the velocity tangential to the elementary path connecting these two points, independent of the path
taken between two points. Such a flow is called potential flow. Circulation is equal to zero for a potential
flow. Presence of isolated vorticity does not change the potential flow. Circulation along a closed contour
not enclosing the vorticity is also equal to zero and remains constant at all times along and contour.

3.6.2 Rotational and Irrotational Flow


Two basic motions of fluid, namely translation and rotation can act either independently or
collectively. Fig. 3.9 shows such motions.
46 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)


dy

dx
(a) (b)

Fig. 3.9. Translation and rotation in fluid motion

So also a deformation of a fluid element, represented by a square in Fig. 3.10, can be either linear
or angular.

(a) (b)

Fig. 3.10. Linear and angular deformation in fluid motion

All the above mentioned fluid motion can take


place either individually of collectively. y
∂vy
dy dt
Consider a fluid motion with rotation and v x dt ∂ y
translation as shown in Fig. 3.11. During the time a′
interval ‘dt’ point ‘A’ in the fluid element aAb moves to a β
point A′ and takes new position a′, A′, b′. When
A′ ∂vy
deformation also takes place, the angles of rotation α dy
α dxdt
∂x
and β are not equal. Average rate of rotation ‘ω’ in b′
A dx b
v ydt
ω Aa + ω Ab α +β x
time ‘dt ’ will be ω = = ...(3.46)
2 2dt
Fig. 3.11. Rotation, translation and
Taking anticlockwise direction as positive and deformation in fluid element
taking α and β as small values ( tan θ = θ )
Arc ∂v 1 ∂v
α = = dxdt . = dt
Radius ∂x dx ∂x
∂u 1 ∂u
and β = dydt . =–
∂y dy ∂y dt
α +β 1  ∂v ∂u  1 1  ∂v ∂u 
So ωz = =  dt – dt  . =  – 
2dt 2  ∂x ∂y  dt 2  ∂x ∂y 
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 47

3.6.3 Circulation and Vorticity


Circulation ‘ Γ ’ is the line integral of velocity
around an element. A study of circulatory motion can be y ∂v x
vx + dy
understood by studying vortex motion under potential ∂y
B C
flow condition.
The velocity components on all four sides of the Direction ∂v y

dy
vy of vy + dx
fluid element ABCD are shown in Fig. 3.12(a). The fluid ∂x
integration
element is rotating in anticlockwise direction with an
A D
angular velocity ‘ω’. vx

Since the centre of rotation is not known it is dx


convenient to relate the sum of the products of velocity
x
and distance around the contour of the element which is
the sum of the line integral of velocity around the element. Fig. 3.12. (a) Circulation in fluid element
This is called ‘circulation, Γ ’. Since area of the element
dA = dxdy.

Circulation Γ = C ⋅ ds z → →

Taking anticlockwise direction as positive direction for integration.


...(3.47)

 ∂v   ∂u 
Γ ABCD = udx +  v + ∂x dx  dy –  u + dy  dx – vdy = 0
   ∂y 
∂v ∂u
= dxdy – dxdy
∂x ∂x
 ∂v ∂u 
=  –  dxdy = 2ωdA ...(3.48)
 ∂x ∂y 
It is evident from the equation (3.48) that the circulation around a contour of an element is equal to
the sum of vortices within the area of the contour.

v
θ
dA
C

Fig. 3.12. (b) Circulation and vorticity

This is known as Stokes theorem. Mathematically, it is represented as

z → →
z
ΓC = C ⋅ ds = C cos θ ds = 2ωdA = 2ωAz
s
...(3.49)

Γ →
Vorticity Ω= = rot C = 2ω
Area
48 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

is twice the angular velocity of fluid rotating as a solid body. Taking anticlockwise direction as +ve
direction, the component of vorticity in polar (r, θ, z) coordinates will be
 ∂C ∂C 
Ωu = 2ωθ = 2ωu  r – z 
 ∂z ∂r 

1  ∂C ∂ (Cu r ) 
Ω π = 2ωr =  z –
r  ∂θ ∂z 

1  ∂(Cu r ) ∂Cr 
Ω z = 2ωz =  – 
r  ∂r ∂θ 

For an irrotational flow ωu = 0. For a potential and incompressible flow Cr= 0. Circulation along
a closed contour is constant and is equal to the intensity of vorticity. i.e.,
∂Cz
= 0 or Cz = Constant.
∂r
In axial flow pump, the existence of potential flow gives equal flow velocity at all radii. Under
axisymmetric, potential flow condition.
∂C z ∂Cr
= = 0.
∂θ ∂θ
∂ (Cu r ) ∂ (Cu r )
Also = = 0 or Cu r = Constant
∂z ∂r
at all radii of the impeller inlet and outlet. However, under potential flow in meridional sections only
ωu = 0. Whereas ωr and ω z ≠ 0 and henc Cu r ≠ constant in these direction.

3.7 AXISYMMETRIC FLOW AND CIRCULATION IN IMPELLER


Ideal fluid flow through the elements of fluid machines is an axisymmetric flow. Kelvin’s theorem
and Lograngan’s theorem are the most important expressions for the study of dynamics of ideal fluid
flow. Circulation ‘ Γ ’ is defined as the line integral of the velocity along a closed contour.

Γ= z
c
→→
q dl
→ →
→ →
where q is the velocity vector dl is the differential of arc length of the closed curve q . dl is the scalar
product of these two vectors. Kelvin’s theorem is the time rate change of circulation for a closed fluid
curve. i.e.,

= 0.
Dt
Kelvin’s theorem states that for a barotropic ideal fluid acted on by gravitational force with
potential, the circulation along a closed fluid contour, remains constant with respect to time. When
applied to radial flow fluid machines, the Kelvin‘s equation is written as
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 49

d → →

dt ∫ C dr = 0
→ →
where C = q and dr is dl.
This equation confirms the application of Eular’s equation for fluid machine design. Kelvin’s
theorem can be used only for absolute flow for both non-stationary and stationary elements, where the
gravitational force is under potential.

3.7.1 Circulation in Impellers of Pump


As per Kelvin’s theorem, if axisymmetric or potential flow exists in ideal fluid flow before entering
the impeller, then same potential flow prevails, when fluid flows through the impeller also. Circulation
along the closed contour of the fluid flow must also be equal to zero. But this statement is correct only
if the fluid flow is an unified flow, i.e., only for a fluid flow through impeller. If the closed contour
encloses, a solid body apart from the fluid, for example, impeller blades, then fluid flow cannot be taken
as unified flow and correspondingly circulation along the closed contour under potential flow cannot be
zero. This is evident from the fact that pressure at the leading side of impeller blade is higher than that at
trailing side. Correspondingly, flow velocities at the leading side is lower than that at leading side of the
blade, due to the interchange of momentum from blade to fluid (effect due to finite number of blades
with finite thickness).

3.7.2 Vorticity and Circulation around Impeller Blades


Consider a closed contour enclosing one impeller t2 = 2
2′ πr
blade 11′2′2 (Fig. 3.13) of a radial flow pump. Lines 12 7 2z 2
and 1′2′ are two identical stream lines kept at a distance of
6
 2πr  2πr1 db
‘t’ the pitch  t =  at inlet and at outlet. t1 = and 4
2
 Z  Z 3
ds
2πr2 5 1 r2
t2 = , where r1 = inlet radius, r2 = outlet radius and Z
Z
= number of impeller blades. Lines 11′ and 22′ are the arc ω x′
r1
of circles at inlet radius r1 and at outlet radius r2 respectively, 1′
connecting the two streamlines. y
Consider the absolute flow of the fluid along the x
contour 11′2′2′ (Fig. 3.13). The streamlines 12 and 1′2′ are
identical, but located one on each side of the blade,
symmetrically to the blade. Circulation along the streamlines
Fig. 3.13. Vorticity and circulation along a
are equal in magnitude but apposite in sign due to the change moving impellerl blade
in the direction of movement along the contour.

On integration, we get Γ cb = z C ds cos (C, ds) =


b122′1′ 1g
∫ Cu
22 ′
2
ds − ∫ Cu ds
11′
1


= (Cu2 r2 – Cu1 r1) ...(3.50)
z
50 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

where Cu 2 and Cu1 are the average values of the tangential component of absolute velocities at radii r2
and r1 respectively and –ve sign for Cu1 is due to the direction of Cu1 opposite to Cu 2 in the closed contour.
In order to find the circulation ‘ Γ cb’ along the blade, the contour 47654, enclosing the blade is
connected to the previous contour 11′2′21 through the line 34.
Consider the circulation along the contour 1345674322′1′1. Since this contour does not include
the impeller blade, the flow can be considered as axisymmetric or potential. As per Kelvin’s theorem
circulation along the contour must be equal to zero.
Integrating (Fig. 3.13)
Γ = Γ + Γ + Γ + Γ =0
(1345674322′1′1) (122′1′1) (34) (45674) (43)
Since Γ = – Γ = – Γ cb and Γ + Γ = 0
(45674) (47654) (34) (43)
and Γ

(122′1′1) = (Cu2 r2 – Cu1 r1 ) as per equation (3.50)
z

Γ cb = (Cu2 r2 – Cu1 r1 ) ...(3.51)
z
i.e., under axisymmetric or potential absolute flow, circulation along any contour enclosing the blade,
including the blade contour also will be constant. Since same value of Γcb exist on all other impeller
blades also, circulation for the impeller, possessing Z number of blades will be
Γimp = Σ Γ cb = z Γ cb = 2π ( Cu 2 r2– Cu1 r1 ) ...(3.52)

3.8 REAL FLUID FLOW AFTER IMPELLER BLADE OUTLET EDGE


Let us consider the flow of fluid before and after the outlet edge of an impeller blade in a cascade
system under finite number of blades with finite thickness (Fig. 3.14).
S t
w1
w 2u = w3u
t-S δ
β3 β0
w3m
w 2m

w 2u β2 w3
a b
w2
A
w2m
w 3u d
β3 C t
w3m
w3

Fig. 3.14. Real fluid flow after impeller blade outlet edge

The geometric and kinematic parameters of the blade system are: outlet blade angle β2 , blade
thickness ‘δ2’, pitch ‘t2’ outlet flow velocity on the blade ‘w2’ and after the blade ‘w3’. The tangential
and normal components, of these velocities, when resolving with respect to the blade movement are
wu2 = w2 cos β2 , wm 2 = w2 sin β2 , wu 3 = w3 cos β3 and wm3 = w3 sin β3.
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 51

Fluid uniformly flows over the blades at outlet tangentially without shock. The flow area of the
passage between two successive blades before leaving the outlet edge will be (t2 – S2), where
δ2
S2 = since the flow area is reduced due to the vane thickness.
sin β2
After some distance, fluid stream coming out from both sides of a blade converges into one stream.
A no flow area prevails (marked as A in Fig. 3.14) after the blade thickness area at outlet. The flow area
is increased from (t – S) to t. Correspondingly, the flow velocity is reduced to
t − S2
w3m = w2 m 2 .
t2
In order to find the relation between w2u and w3u, a controlled surface abcd enclosing the no flow
area A as well as covering the outlet edge of the blade is taken for analysis. The lines ‘ad’ and ‘bc’ are
two identical streamlines kept at a distance of pitch ‘t’ between them. Other two lines ‘ab’ and ‘cd’ are
parallel to the direction of movement of the cascade system.
Considering the force on the surface ‘ad’ and ‘bc’, the forces are equal and opposite at each and
every point considered along the streamline ‘ad’ and ‘bc’ respectively and hence they cancel each other
(a couple produced by these two forces are neglected).
γ
Considering the surfaces ‘ab’ and ‘cd ’, the forces on surface ab will be FD 2 = g ∆Qw2 inclined at

γ
an angle of β2 to the blade movement and on the surface ‘cd ’ will be FD3 = g ∆Qw3 inclined at an angle
of β3 to the blade movement. Resolved components of these two forces are equal and opposite, hence
γ γ
they cancel each other, i.e., ∆Qw2 cos β2 = ∆Qw3 cos β3.
g g
Since w2 cos β 2 = wu2 and w3 cos β2= wu3, wu2 = wu3, i.e., the tangential components of the
velocities before and after the outlet blade edges are equal. So the change in the relative velocities w2
and w3 is due to the flow area change from (t – S) to ‘t ’ before and after the outlet blade edge and is only
due the change in meridional flow velocities wm2 and wm3 and correspondingly the blade angle from β2
to β3. The corresponding velocity triangles are shown in Fig. 3.14. This is effective due to the application
of finite number of blades in cascade system. The same rule is applicable to the inlet edge also.

3.9 SECONDARY FLOW BETWEEN BLADES (Fig. 3.15)


For energy transfer in pump, pressure at the trailing side of the blade should be greater than the
pressure at the leading side, correspondingly pressure and velocity difference prevails at the passage
between two blades. This pressure difference induces a circulatory secondary flow along with the main
flow in the flow passage in axial direction from inlet to outlet at the same radius. At the same time from
hub to periphery in the radial direction another circulation secondary flow exists due to the boundary
layer in real fluid flow. The circulation in radial directions increases. However, the real fluid flow more
or less concides with ideal fluid flow. Hence, the secondary flow effect is neglected normally in axial
flow pumps.
52 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

If inlet entry is normal Cu = 0 and Cr = 0. Circulation and hence the total head remains constant at
all radius. In practice, however, it is found that circulation slightly increases near hub and considerably
at periphery due to finite number of blades and subsequent secondary flow. However, it is very small
and hence neglected. Pumps designed with Cu r = constant give very high efficiency (93 to 98%) in spite
of complicated three dimensional flow pattern actually existing at all radii of the impeller inlet and
outlet.

Fig. 3.15. Secondary flow in axial flow pump

3.10 FLOW OF A PROFILE IN A CASCADE SYSTEM—THEORETICAL FLOW


Flow over an impeller blade of a pump or airfoil of axial flow pump is with

a relative velocity ‘w’,
→ →
which is resultant of absolute and peripheral velocities. (C and u) w = C – u . This flow can be
considered as the flow with many vortices and circulation is due to the action of these vortices. Intensity
of such vortices acting an elementary blade length ‘ds’ in the form of circulation ‘ Γwb ’ will be (Fig. 3.4)

Γwb = z → →
w ⋅ ds
→ → →
Since circulation Γ is the line integral of velocity around the element. Since w = C – u

Γwb = z
s
→ →
C ⋅ ds = z FGH C − uIJK .ds
s
→ → →

= z
s
→ →
z → →
C ⋅ ds − u ⋅ ds = Γcb − u ⋅ ds
s
z
s
→ →
...(3.53)

Since, Γ cb = z
s
→ →
C ⋅ ds

Applying Stokes theorem, which states that circulation around a contour is equal to the sum of
the vortices within the area of the contour, to the above equation

z
s
→ →
u ⋅ ds = z
s
z →
u cos θ . ds = (rot u) n dA = 2ωdA = 2ωA
s
z
s

Hence, Γwb = Γcb + 2ωA ...(3.54)


THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 53

If the impeller blade or airfoil is very thin, area A will be small and hence 2ωA being very small,
when compared to ‘ Γcb’ it is neglected. Hence

Γwb = Γcb = . (Cu2 r2 – Cu1r1) ...(3.55)
z
In axial flow pumps, impeller blades are airfoils. For analysis, a cylindrical section of cascade of
impeller blades is considered as equal to blades with finite thickness, displaced at a distance of pitch ‘t’
between two successive blades, and spread over from (∞) to (∞). The Z-axis of the coordinates coincides
with the axis of rotation of the cylindrical section. Projection of this cylindrical section perpendicular to
Z-axis will be zero. Hence the equation (3.54) can be considered for the cylindrical section or cascade.
The boundary layer thickness ‘δ’ in real fluid flow over blades, is very small, about 1% of blade
chord length ‘l’. The relative velocity on the blade is zero. Hence, circulation will be zero. The flow
velocity beyond the boundary layer thickness can be considered as ideal fluid flow. Hence, neglecting
the circulation in the boundary layer thickness, since it is very small, the equation (3.55) can be applied
to the relative velocity of flow over impeller blades of axial flow pump also.
Head developed by the impeller blade as per Eular’s equation is
Cu 2 u2 – Cu1 u1 ω
H∞ = = (Cu2 r2 – Cu1 r1)
g g
ωΓimp
=
2πg
2πgH m
or Γimp = z Γ = ...(3.56)
ω
t
p 2 , z2
2 2′

p 1, z 1
1 1′
Jowkovski’s theorem
t

Fig. 3.16. Flow over a profile of a cascade system

3.11 FUNDAMENTAL THEORY OF FLOW OVER ISOLATED PROFILE


Theoretical flow of fluid over a cylinder with plain flow combined with source, sink and vorticity
(circulation) is usually considered for the study of flow over isolated airfoils or hydrofoils used in axial
flow machines.
54 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

y y
C

φ=
0 C
=

0
φ

φ=0 A 0 B φ=0 x –a a x
A α0
φ B

0
=

=
0 D
φ
D

(a) (b)

v0

(c)

Fig. 3.17. (a) Plane flow with doublet (b) Plane flow with doublet and circulation (c) Actual flow

Plain straight flow with infinite velocity (C∞) combined with a source and sink of same intensity
(q) kept at origin i.e., a doublet located at point ‘O’ [Fig. 3.17 (a)] leads to a flow over a cylinder. The
velocity | C | at any point on the cylinder surface, located at an angle ‘θ’ from X-axis will be | C |= 2C∞
sin θ. The direction of velocity | C | will be tangent to the cylinder surface at the point considered. At
point A and B, instantaneous velocity | C | = 0. Since θ = 0 and 180°. At points C and D velocity | C | =
| Cmax | = 2C∞ since θ = 90° and 270°. Applying Bernoulli’s equation, pressure at any point in the
cylinder surface can be determined from the known velocity. It is evident that velocities and pressures
are equal at symmetrical points. The vectorial sum of all pressure is zero. There is no flow separation
under theoretical flow. In practice, however, due to real viscous fluid flow, flow separation takes place
at the outer half of the cylinder, which is called Dalambir’s paradox [Fig 3.17(c)].
Due to addition of circulation (vorticity Γ ) to the above mentioned flow, i.e., plain flow with
doublet and with vorticity located at the centre of the cylinder i.e., at the origin of the axis, the resultant
velocity at any point on the cylinder changes although symmetrical with respect to Y-axis. Due to the
introduction of vorticity, points A and B are shifted with downward direction towards point D
[Fig. 3.17(b)]. The velocity at point C is greater than the velocity at point D. Correspondingly, pressures
at point D is higher than pressure at point C, as per Bernoulli’s equation. This results in net upward force
called lift force on the cylinder. The cylinder is made to raise upward. This effect is called Magnus
effect. The higher the lift force will be, if the intensity of vorticity is higher. This lift force will be
Y = ρC∞Γ ...(3.57)
where ρ is the density of the fluid, C∞ is the infinite velocity of approach to the profile and Γ is the
vorticity induced. This is called the theorem of Kutta-Jowkovski about lift force on a profile of any
form. The angle of shift of point A from X-axis ‘α0’ is given by
Γ
sin α0 = ...(3.58)
4πaC ∞
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 55

where ‘a’ is the radius of the cylinder. Same condition prevails but reversed, if the rotation of vorticity
in the direction of circulation is reversed. The lift force will be towards the downward direction and the
points A and B shift towards the point C. In that case CD > CC and PC > PD. In general, the lift force Y is
determined as
Γ = 4πaC∞ sin α 0 and 
 ...(3.59)
Y = 4πaρC 2
∞ sin α 0 
Actually, in fluid machines flow of fluid over a profile takes place at an angle θ∞ to X-axis, i.e.,
with an angle of attack α∞. The infinite velocity C∞, is directed at an angle of α∞ from X-axis, when
passing over the profile [Fig. 3.18(a)].
y

y η
B
x z plane C* ζ plane
C ζ
A x

C∞ C ∞∗
θ∞ θ∞

(a) (b)

Fig. 3.18. (a) Flow with angle of attack, (b) Conformal transformation of airfoil from cylinder

3.12 PROFILE CONSTRUCTION AS PER N.E. JOWKOVSKI AND S.A.


CHAPLIGIN
Theoretical fluid flow study on airfoils, used in fluid machines, is done from the known flow
study on cylinder using conformal transformation as suggested by Prof. Jowkovski and Prof. Chapligin.
Cylinder in Z = x + iy plane is transformed into a plate or a profile which is in ζ = ξxi + ζ plane, based
on a mathematical relation z = f (ζ). [Fig. 3.18(b)]
While doing so, the magnitude and direction of the infinite velocity C∞ of the fluid approaching
the blade, the circulation along the contour of the blade and the forces acting on the flow by the blade on
both blades remain same. Necessary conditions are
| f ′ (z)z →∞ | = 1 and arg f ′ (z) = 0  ...(3.60)

dζ 
or dz z →∞ = 1 
The transformation function, to meet the above condition, is given by

a2 a2
ζ = Z+ = Z + Z′ , where Z′ = ...(3.61)
Z Z
56 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

l = 4a
Z and Z′ are real and imaginary planes
containing circles K and K′ respectively (Fig. 3.19)
and ‘a’ is the radius of the cylinder. The relation
between the plane Z and the radius ‘a’ is given by
– 2a –a O +a + 2a
Z = a eiθ = a (cos θ − i sin θ) = (x + iy) α v∞

...(3.62)
Combining equation (3.61) and (3.62)
ζ = a (cos θ + i sin θ) + a (cos θ − i sin θ)
Fig. 3.19. Transformation of circle to plate
= 2a cos θ ...(3.63)
It is evident from the equation (3.63) that K
cylinder of radius ‘a’ is equivalent to a plate having
Q
a distance of –2a and +2a from the origin. Plate A1
length is l = 4a. A2
The vector ζ is equal to the geometrical sum z 0′ z0
v
v
a2 O
of two vectors Z and as per equation (3.63) A1′
Z
Referring to Fig. 3.20. Point ‘A′ ’ of the Z′ plane, K′
located at the circle K′, is the inverse of point A1 of
the Z plane, located at the circle K, with respect to
the circle Q by the relation. Fig. 3.20. Construction of inverse of circle

a2 a 2 − iθ
Z′ = r1′ eiθ1 = = e 1 ...(3.64)
r1eiθ1 r1
a2
Module | r1′ | = argument θ1′ = – θ1 for the complex point Z′. Points A1 and A2 are inversely
r1
located with respect to the circle of radius ‘a’ in such a way that r1 r2 = a2. Module r1′, inverse of point
A1 is determined as module of point A2, i.e., r1′ = r2. The mirror image of A2 is A′1 with an argument
θ1′ = θ1 and modules |r1′ |. The relation between Z1 and its inverse Z′1 is given as
a2 a 2 ( x − iy )
x′+ iy′ = = 2 ...(3.65)
x + iy x + y2
Τhe real and imaginary parts are
a2 x a2 y
x′ = and y′ = –
x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2
a 2 x′ a2 y′
In the same manner x = 2 and y = 2 ...(3.66)
x ′ + y ′2 x ′ + y ′2
The radius R of the real circle K with centre at z0 = x0 + iy0 relative to the circle Q can be written
as
(x – x0)2 + (y – y0)2 = R2 ...(3.67)
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 57

From the above equations (3.66) and (3.67), the parameters for inverse circle K′ i.e., R′ x′0 and y0′
can be determined.
a 4 ( x ′2 + y ′2 ) a 2 x′ a 2 y′
– 2x0 + 2y0 – (R2 – x02 – y20 ) = 0
(x 2
+y 2 2
) ( x′2 + y ′2 ) ( x ′2 + y ′2 )

or a4 – 2a2x0x′ + 2a2y0 y′ – (R2 – x20 – y20) (x′2 + y′2) = 0

2a 2 x0 x ′ 2a 2 y0 y ′ a4
or x′2 + y′2 + – – =0
( R 2 − x02 − y02 ) ( R 2 − x02 − y02 ) ( R 2 x 20 − y 02 )
This equation can be modified and rewritten in the following form:
2 2
 a 2 x0   a 2 y0 
 x′ + 2  +  y ′ + 2 
 R − x 02 − y 20   R − x 20 − y 20 

a4  x02 + y02 
1 + 2 2 
=
(R 2 − x02 − y02 )  R − x0 − y0 
2 

a4 R2
= ...(3.68)
( R 2 − x02 − y02 ) 2
From the above equation (3.68), equation for inverse circle K′ relative to circle Q is
a2 a2
R′ = R ; x′0 = – x0
( R 2 − x02 − y02 ) ( R 2 − x02 − y02 )

a2
and y0′ = y0 ...(3.69)
( R − x02 − y02 )
2

by
B
Rb

A z
a ξ
yb
a
x
– 2a –a + 2a
z′

a a
b = 4a

Fig. 3.21. Transformation of circle into thin curved plate of an arc of a circle
58 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

3.13 DEVELOPMENT OF THIN PLATE BY CONFORMAL TRANSFORMATION


For transforming cylinder circle ‘a’ into an arc i.e., a camber thin plate, the centre of the real circle
‘K ’ with radius Rb is located vertically above the centre of the cylinder circle ‘a’ on the imaginary axis
in Z-plane Z-axis (Fig. 3.21) such that x0= 0, y0 = yb and R2b – y2b = a2. Substituting this value in equation
(3.38) (3.70) R′b = Rb . x′0 = 0 and y′0 = yb which indicates that inverse circle K′ with radius R′b relative to
the main circle ‘a’ exactly coincides with the real circle ‘K’ with radius Rb. Centre z0 and z′0 of the circles
K and K′ concides each other.
Transformation of real and imaginary circles K and K′ in Z-plane to ζ-plane is done by the
geometrical summation of vectors Z (real) and Z′ (imaginary) (Figs. 3.20, 3.21). Since in Z-plane real
and imaginary circles K and K′ coincide each other, z and Z′ vectors drawn from the origin ‘O’ meet the
same circle K and K′. Thus conversion of entire circle with radius Rb = R′b represents in ζ-plane an arc
i.e., cambered thin plate, with a chord length of l = 4a.

3.14 DEVELOPMENT OF PROFILE WITH THICKNESS BY CONFORMAL


TRANSFORMATION
Prof. Jowkovski developed a cambered profile with thickness i.e., airfoil by shifting the centre z0
of the real circle K (Fig. 3.22) along the line ab towards the negative x direction from the imaginary axis.
The radius of the circle K is equal to ‘az0’ and the centre of this circle is z0.

K
R
R′

ζ z0
v0 z 0′
II v0′
b
a
II
a
z′

4a

Fig. 3.22. Transformation of circle into thick profile—Jowkovshi’s profile

From equation (3.69), we can write

 a2 
y0  
 R 2 − x 20 − y 20 
y0′   y0
tan θ′0 = = = − = − tan θ ...(3.70)
x0′  a2  x0
− x0  
 R 2 − x 2 − y 20 
 0 
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 59

 y0   y0′ 
or θ′0 = θ0 . Inclination of the line az0 = arc tg   and inclination of the line az′0 = arc tg  .
 a + x0   a – x0′ 
From equation (3.70), we can write
y0′ y0 a 2
= ...(3.71)
a − x0′ a( R 2 − x02 − y02 ) + a 2 x0
Referring Fig. 3.22, R2 = y20 + (x0 + a)2

y0′ y0 a 2 y0
So, = = ...(3.72)
(a − x0 ) (a + x0 a )
3 2 ( a + x0 )
i.e., points z0 and z′0 lie on the same straight line ‘ab’. z0 lies at an angle of θ0 in the negative direction,
whereas z′0 lies at an angle θ′0 (= θ0) in the positive direction of X-axis. The inverse circle K′ passes
through the point +a′ with radius (az′0 ). The geometrical summation of lines drawn from origin ‘O’ at
the same angle with respect to X-axis meet the circle K and K′ in Z plane, gives a point on the thick
profile in ζ-plane.
The drawback in this process is that the thickness of the profile at outlet is zero, which is not
practically possible. Profile shape developed by Prof. Jowkovski for the given arc is determined by the
single parameter, namely the distance of z0 from the imaginary axis. The magnitude of this determines
profile thickness. Profile thickness at the middle section is given by 2 (R – R′ ) = 2 (z0 – z′0).

3.15 CHAPLIGIN’S PROFILE OF FINITE THICKNESS AT OUTLET EDGE OF


THE PROFILE
In order to avoid zero profile thickness at the outlet edge, Prof. Chapligin suggested the formation
of thick profile from the inverse of ellipse. He suggested that the main circle K is selected such that it
touches the real axis at point x1 > a (Fig. 3.23). Then inverse circle K ′ will meet real axis at point
a2
x′ = .
x1

The distance x1 – x1′ = δ can be taken as the parameter for thickness of outlet edge. Referring the
Fig. 3.23 and the equation relating the radius and coordinates of centre of the circle K and its inverse K′
a relation can be obtained. i.e.,

R x y
= 0 = 0 ...(3.73)
R ′ x0′ y0′

θ
from which ∠θ0′ = ∠ θ0 and ∠ 0x1 z0 = ∠ 0x1′ z′0 =
2
i.e., x1 z0 || x1′ z′0
60 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

VI
R
V R1 VII
5 7
6 R ′1
6′ 7′
5′ VIII
IV
4 8
8′
IX
III 9
3 4′
9′
II 2 3′ δ X
2′
z0 z ′0
10′
1 1′ 1 1′ x1
I XI
0 11′
2 10
II 2′ 10′ X
3
4 l 9
3′
III 9′
8 IX
4′ 8′
5 7
6
IV 7′
5′ 6′ VIII

V VII

VI

Fig. 3.23. Profile formation with finite outlet edge thickness—Chapligin’s method

where θ is the angle of curvature of the centre line of the profile. For the given value of length ‘l’
thickness at the centre ‘∆’ and angle of curvature of the centre line θ, referring Fig. 3.23 and the equation
(3.73) the radius Rb of the main circle K and the coordinates of its centre x 0 and y 0 will be

R b=
1  θ ∆
 sec + 

2 2 l 

Rb θ θ 
x0 = cos  ∆ cos − δ 
2
 ...(3.74)
l 2 

θ 
2
y0 = Rb sin 
The outlet edge thickness δ is selected as = 0.5 to 0.6 ∆. As per equation (3.68) the main circle K
is shifted from point x1 toward the beginning of the coordinate of the parameter δ to get point x′1. Since
θ′0 = θ0 , a line parallel of x1 z0 is drawn from x′1 to meet the line O z′0. This line is the mirror image with
respect to Y-axis of the line O z0. This process gives the centre of inverse circle z′0. The radius Rb of the
inverse circle K′ is determined by the line z′0 x1′ and is equal to R′b = Rb – ∆. Here also the point on ζ-plane
is determined from the Z-plane as the vector summation ζ = Z + Z ′ .

THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 61

For ease in construction of this profile, an additional circle R is drawn from the origin, with a
suitable radius which encloses the main circle K and inverse circle K′. The circle R is divided into a
number of divisions, about 20 to 26, so that, from each point of the upper half, corresponding symmetrical
point at the lower half of the circle with respect to X-axis is determined. Symmetrical points are identified
with the same designation such as I, II etc. Very near to the inlet and outlet edges more number of points
are selected. Above X-axis, the meeting of radius of supplement circle I–0, II–0 etc., with main circle K
are designated as 1, 2, 3 etc., and with inverse circle K′ with 1′, 2′, 3′ etc. Below X-axis the meeting of
radius of supplementary circle with main circle is designated as 1′, 2′, 3′ etc. and with inverse circle as
1, 2, 3 etc. Middle point of the lines joining identical points 1–1, 1′–1′, 2–2, 2′–2′ etc. gives the profile
of Chapligin. If profiles are to be drawn for actual flow condition, then the axis of the coordinates
should be rotated to an angle corresponding to, angle of attack of the profile in cascade. The coordinates
of the circle, x0 must be shifted along X-axis towards inlet edge of the profile and co-ordinate y0 must be
shifted towards the outlet edge.

3.16 VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION IN SPACE BETWEEN VOLUTE CASING


AND IMPELLER SHROUD
Flow through the space between volute casing and impeller shroud has the following characters:
(1) Very near to the impeller shroud, the fluid flow velocity will be equal to the shroud velocity at the
point considered. (2) Due to stationary condition, there is no flow near casing. Fluid velocity changes
from casing wall to shroud wall i.e., changes from ‘0’ to ‘u’. Apart from that due to rotation of impeller,
the fluid will be thrown out towards periphery near the impeller, but returns back towards inward direction
from periphery near the casing wall, as a result of which a vortex, circulatory flow exists along with the
mainflow QL1, passing through the wearing ring clearance.
Considering an elementary radial height ‘dr’ and axial length ‘l’ with inner radius ‘ra’ and outer
radius ‘rb’ (Fig. 3.24) and applying moment of momentum equation relative to axis of the pump.
M = ∫ ρCn dA. Cu r ...(3.75)
r

p2 p2
l
∆r

Q sz 2 2
u 2 u–′ 2
γ p
2g
b

Q s3
p1 Q′ r
ra
rb
Di

pi
l p1

p′ i
pi

(a) (b)
Fig. 3.24. (a) Flow through the space between casing and impeller shroud (b) Pressure distribution
62 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

where ρ — the fluid density


Cn — normal component of absolute velocity C
Cu — tangential component of absolute velocity C
M — moment of external forces acting of the surface area ‘dA’
dA — elementary surface area.
Elementary area dA is the sum total of impeller shroud, area at casing surface and outer and inner
cylindrical surfaces at rb and ra respectively. The moment of normal components of the absolute velocity
on impeller shroud surface and casing surface are equal to zero.

So, M= ∫ ρCr dA . Cu rb – ∫ ρCr dACu ra ...(3.76)


Ab Ar

Under turbulent flow conditions, the flow velocity in the space will be constant but increases from
zero to this velocity near the casing boundary layer and from this velocity to the impeller shroud very
near to impeller shroud, which is rotating with a velocity ‘u’. Velocity u = ωr (Fig. 3.15). Taking
average value of the resolved component of absolute velocity Cu, equation (3.76) can be written as

M = (Cu r )b ρ ∫ Cr dA − (Cu r )a ρ ∫ Cr dA ...(3.77)


Ab Aa

But ∫ Cr dA = ∫ Cr dA = QL1, the leakage flow ...(3.78)


Ab Aa

∴ M = ρ QL1, [ (Cu r )b − (Cu r ) a ] = ρ QL1. ∆ (Cu r ) a − b ...(3.79)


Moment of external forces M = MI – Mv + Mfa+ Mfb ...(3.80)
where MI — Inducing moment of friction at impeller surface
Mv — Breaking moment of friction at casing surface
Mfa and Mfb are the moment of friction of the control section Aa and Ab.
But Mfa and Mfb , the moment of friction of the control sections are negligibly small by magnitude
as well as when compared with the magnitude of MI and Mv the moment of friction at impeller and
casing surfaces. Hence
M = MI – Mv = ρ QL1. ∆ (Cu r ) a − b ...(3.81)
From non-dimensional analysis, moment M can be expressed as
 C2 
M = µ  ρ A r ...(3.82)
 2 
where µ — coefficient of friction
C — velocity relative to the surface
A — area of the surface
Combining equations (3.81) and (3.82)

(u − Cu )2 C 2
M = MI – Mv = µ.ρ.2πr dr = c . r – µ. ρ .2πr dr u .r ...(3.83)
2 2
THEORY OF ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS 63

Comparing equations (3.79) and (3.83)


µ. πr 2 [(u – Cu)2 – Cu2 ] dr = QL1.∆ (Cu r)a–b ...(3.84)
Since ∆ (Cu r ) a − b and QL1 are very small, their product is negligibly small and hence can be assumed
as zero. Simplifying
(u – Cu)2 – Cu2 = 0
u
or Cu = ...(3.85)
2
Hence, under normal conditions of wearing ring, the flow velocity in the space between casing
and impeller will be half the peripheral velocity of the impeller at the point considered.
When wearing ring clearance is fully damaged due to wear of the ring, QL1 considerably increases
and since ∆ (Cur) is too small, the product QL1. ∆ (Cu r)a-b can be taken as zero. Equation (3.85) can be
taken for calculations.

3.17 PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN THE SPACE BETWEEN STATIONARY


CASING AND MOVING IMPELLER SHROUD OF FLUID MACHINE
When fluid moves in the space between stationary volute casing and impeller shroud, which is
rotating with a velocity u, the fluid can be considered as the fluid moving as a solid body. Based on this,
pressure distribution can also be determined.
Taking r, u, z coordinates, for an elementary fluid section dr, dz, rdθ the basic hydrodynamic
equations in the space can be written as
1 ∂p
Fr – = 0
ρ dr
1 ∂p
– = 0
ρ rd θ

1 ∂p
– = 0
ρ dz

dCr dCu dC z
Since the total differential of velocity , , are is equal to zero. The mass force is the
dt rdθ dz
centrifugal force ‘FCF’ and is directed in the radially outward direction. Hence
dp
= FCF = ρω2f r ...(3.86)
dr
where ωf — is the angular velocity of the moving fluid
ρ — density of the fluid
FCF — centrifugal force of the unit mass considered
r — radius of the elementary mass.
64 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Taking p2 and p1 as the pressures at outlet and at inlet of the impeller passage respectively, at
radius r2 and r1 respectively the pressure p at any radius ‘r’ can be written as
r2
r22 − r12
∫ ρ ωf2r dr = ρω f
2
p2 – p = ...(3.87)
r
2
Under normal flow conditions through such flow passage referring equation (3.85), the angular
ω 2πn
velocity of flowing fluid, ‘ωf’ is ωf = , where ω is the angular velocity of the impeller shroud ω =
2 60
u
= , where u peripheral velocity of the impeller at radius ‘r’. Equation (3.87) can now be written as
r
p2 − p ω2 r22 − r 2 u22 − u12
= . =
γ 4 2g 8g

 2 
u22 − u 2 u22 1  r  
or p = p2 – γ = p2 – γ −   ...(3.88)
8g 8 g   r2  
Equation (3.88) shows a parabolic pressure distribution along the radial direction [Fig. 3.24 (b)].
Equation (3.88) is used to determine axial thrust at front and rear side of the impeller.
In case the clearance between the stationary and rotary members is damaged, the above formula
(equation 3.88) cannot be applied. The flow follows the Bernoulli’s law. Neglecting the effect at the
surface roughness, applying Bernoulli’s equation.
p2 C22 p C2
+ = +
γ 2g γ 2g
But C2 = C m2 + C2u and assuming Cm remains constant throughout the passage
Cu′2
2
p2 p Cu2
+ = +
γ 2g γ 2g
Cu2 − Cu′ 2
or p = p2 – γ
2g
Since energy is constant throughout the passage Cu′ 2 r2 = Cu r

C′ 2   r 2 
and p = p2 – γ u 2   2  − 1
2g   r1  
 
u2
Taking Cu′ 2 = , which is prevailing mostly at this space and rearranging
2
2  2
u22  r2  1 −  r  
p = p2 – γ     ...(3.89)
8 g  r    r2  
Hence, in case of damaged wearing rings, the pressure drop across the passage increases at a faster
2
 r2 
rate by   times than for normal wearing ring.
r
4
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE
SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

4.1 INTRODUCTION
The impeller is the main element in a centrifugal pump. Entire construction of a pump depends
upon the impeller. Impeller design forms the most important part in pump design. The fundamental
equation of impeller, determines the head developed by the impeller with respect to the increase in the
moment of momentum of the fluid flowing through the impeller i.e., to get a relation between dynamic
and kinematic parameters of impeller. But this fundamental equation does not give any relation between
the form and shape (dimensions) of the blade system with the change in the moment of momentum of
the fluid in impeller.
A kinematic study of the ideal fluid flow through the impeller based on hydrodynamic action in
general is yet to be determined and found to be an unsolved problem till today. The real fluid flow
conditions are still determined from the ideal fluid flow confition only. The study of fluid flow in
impeller is done by the use of theoretical equations along with the correction factors which are determined
from experiment. For the calculation of blade system in impeller, wherein, the length of the flow passage
between two blades is much longer than the width of the passage, elementary one dimensional theory
can be used successfully. In case, the blades are kept at a distance apart i.e., the width is longer, the
interaction between two successive blades can be neglected, and the blade can be considered as an
isolated blade. Hence, two elemertary theories are existing for the impeller calculation. Application of
the correct procedure is based on the correction factors, which are determined by experiments and also
based on its boundary conditions. If the theoretical means of approach for the impeller design, coincides
with real fluid flow, the design is considered as most satisfactory design.

4.2 ONE DIMENSIONAL THEORY


Elementry one dimensional theory for the centrifugal pump design is given by the mathematician
Leonard Eular (1707–1783), member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. His one dimensional
theory is still considered as the fundamental theory for the centrifugal pump design. In early days,
Eular’s one dimensional equation agreed perfectly with practical result due to the fact that each impeller
passage was constructed as individual tubes, and the speed of the pump was very low. Impeller flow
passage were too longer than normal. The length to breadth ratio for the impeller passages was higher.
Due to the introduction of electric motors, I.C. Engines and high speed turbines, as pump prime
movers, pump speed was increased. Correspondingly, the outer diameter D2 was decreased. This in turn
decreased the flow passage length, the passage width remaining same. Existing one dimensional theory
did not agree with the practical results, when length to breadth ratio of impeller passage is reduced. The
flow pattern in impeller passage is completely changed.
65
66 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

As per the existing one dimesional theory, impeller blades are considered to contain infinite number
of blades kept at equal distant apart with infinitesimally smaller blade thickness. Practically finite number
of blades with finite thickness are adopted in impellers, diffuser etc. In order to have a complete agreement
between theoretical design and practical results, corrections are introduced in the actual design of finite
number of blades with finite thickness. Under theoretical flow, a study through impeller passage, i.e.,
for conditions of infinite number of blades, with infinitesimally smaller blade thickness, the flow is
axisymmetric. At any radius, the average flow velocity is constant in the impeller passage and is calculated
from continuity equation. The direction of fluid flow on the blade is the tangent to the blade drawn at the
point, at the given radius ‘r’, where the velocity is determined.
In real fluid flow i.e., for finite number of blades with finite thickness, Eular’s one dimensional
theory is applied for impeller design with corrections, agrees perfectly with practical results. In actual
flow with finite number of blades with finite blade thickness, the velocity at any radius across the flow
passage width between two successive blades of impeller passage is not constant (Fig. 3.4). The flow is
not axisymmetric due to the interaction between the blade and fluid. The fluid is pushed by the blade.
This is the main reason, that all the flow passages must be completely immersed within the flowing
fluid or must be filled with flowing fluid completely in all rotodynamic machines.
The theoretical head (H∞), determined, as per the Eular’s one dimensional theory for infinite
number of blades will not be equal to the actual head (Hm) determined as per finite number of blades
condition. (H∞) and Hm are related as
H∞ = (1 + p) Hm ...(4.1)
where, p is the correction coefficient for finite number of blades application.
Different authors developed different values of correction coefficient ‘p’ in different form. Application
of this coefficient in the equation 4.1 to determine the total head developed gives a very good result.

4.3 VELOCITY TRIANGLES


C2
u2
B2
C2 C m2 w2
C m2 α2 β2
C u2
α2 A2 D2
Ci
C u2
w1 αi u2
w2
β2 B
β1 C ui
(b)
C1
α1
r2 A B1

C u1
C1 w1
C m1
0 u1 α1 β1
D1
E
K
C 1u
u1

(a) (c)
Fig. 4.1. Velocity triangles with symbols
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 67

The following symbols are used in drawing velocity triangles : (Fig. 4.2)
πDn
u — Vane or blade velocity = (m/sec).
60
C —Absolute velocity of flow of fluid i.e., velocity of the fluid with reference to the earth or any
non-moving object.
w —Relative velocity of the fluid in the blade passage, i.e., the velocity of the fluid with reference
to the blade or impeller, in other words, the velocity of the fluid inside the blade passage,
when the blade velocity is brought to zero.
→ → → → → →
w = C – u or C = w + u
α —Absolute angle, the angle between the absolute velocity ‘C ’ and blade velocity ‘u’
β — Vane angle or blade angle—the angle between the relative velocity ‘w’ and vane or blade
velocity ‘u’.

C m2
C m3
δ2
β2
2
B2 t2
C m1
C m0

β1
δ t1
r2
B1
C0 δ1
r0 r1 S2
S1
r1
r2

(a) (b)

Fig. 4.2. Symbols and suffices used in impeller


Suffix
0—indicates the conditions before the impeller blade entrance edge and at impeller eye.
1—indicates the conditions on the impeller blade entrance edge.
2—indicates the conditions on the impeller blade outlet edge.
3—indicates the conditions after the impeller blade outlet edge.
The relative velocity of fluid in the impeller passage ‘w’ is equal to the vectorial subtraction of
→ → → → → →
absolute velocity ‘C ’ and the blade velocity ‘u’, w = C – u or C = w + u (Fig. 4.1). The direction of
blade velocity ‘u’ is always tangential to the circle of radius ‘r’, whereas the direction of the relative
velocity of the fluid ‘w’ at any point on the blade will be the tangential to the blade curve at the given
68 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

radius ‘r’. These two velocities i.e., relative velocity ‘w’ is inclined at an angle ‘β’ with respect to the
blade velocity ‘u’. A parallelogram is drawn, with the relative velocity vector ‘w’ and blade velocity
vector ‘u’ at the radius ‘r’ at the point on the blade in the impeller passage. The diagonal of parallelogram
will be the absolute velocity, C, both in magnitude and in direction. If all these three velocity vectors are
drawn in position, we get a triangle called ‘velocity triangle’ (Fig. 4.1). The subtended angle between
absolute velocity ‘C’ and blade velocity ‘u’ is called absolute angle (α) and the angle subtended between
relative velocity ‘w’ and blade velocity ‘u’ is called the blade or vane angle (β).
→ → →
The velocities C , u , w at any radius ‘r’ between inlet and outlet of impeller blade passage can be
obtained by constructing velocity triangle at the point on the blade at radius ‘r’ (Fig. 4.1). By constructing
such triangles at different radii ‘r’ between inlet radius ‘r1’ and outlet radius ‘r2’, we can find the
velocity distribution in impeller blade system. One such velocity distribution in impeller blade passage
is given in Fig. 4.3.

8 w along the streamline


Meridional section 30
Cm w
θ°
100 25
γ
9
φ 178

80 20 8
Cm
φ190

7
φ 164
φ150

60 15 6
θ
φ136
φ122

5
40 10 4

δ = 2 mm
11
3
5 mm
φ 105

20 5 2
δ
φ110

1
φ 50

r 1= 55 61 68 75 82 89 r2= 95

Fig. 4.3. Velocity and angle variation in impeller passage

If width of the passage is very small, as per one dimensional theory of flow, fluid enters the inlet
edge tangentially and hence there is no shock loss at entry. Fluid leaves the outlet edge tangentially and
hence there is no loss, at exit. From inlet to outlet. Fluid moves tangentially over the blade. The direction
of the fluid at any point in the impeller passage will be the direction of the blade at that point i.e., will be
the blade angle ‘β’ at that point, which is the angle between relative velocity ‘w’ and blade velocity, ‘u’.
The velocity triangles are shown in Fig. 4.4. Flow velocities wm and Cm in the impeller passage are equal
and determined as
wm0 = w0 sin β0 and Cm0 = C0 sin α0
Referring to (Fig. 4.4), the relative velocity of the fluid will be tangential to the blade at all points,
on the line AB. Actually, the fluid moves along the direction of absolute velocity (C1 to C2) from α1 to
α2 line AB′ . The fluid at point x on the blade will be actually at x′ i.e., on the absolute velocity line. If the
time taken for the fluid to travel from point A to x on the blade is ‘t’ and if the angular velocity of the
blade is constant and is equal to ‘ω’ then the included angle θ will be θ = ωt.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 69

The real fluid flow differs from the above mentioned theoretical one dimensional flow.

u2

α2
C2
α
C′ u
w
w2
β w 1 C′
B 1 x′
β1 α1
β2 A
D2 ϕ
B′

D1

Fig. 4.4. Graphical representation of velocity triangle

4.4 IMPELLER EYE AND BLADE INLET EDGE CONDITIONS


Fluid enters the impeller eye, with a velocity C0 and is maintained constant until it reaches the
point before inlet edge. The flow velocity at the impeller eye is calculated by using continuity equation
as : (Refer Fig. 4.4).

If there is no impeller hub or shaft Qth = C0 . π D02 


4 

Example: End suction agricultural pumps, domestic pumps.
 ...(4.2)
π 
If the hub or shaft is protruding into the impeller eye Qth = C0 .
4
(D02 − d h2 ) 

where dh is the hub diameter.
Example: Double suction pump, multistage pump.
When the specific speed ‘ns’ is very low (ns = 40 to 50) the inlet edge of the impeller blade will be
parallel to axis of the pump after bend portion of the impeller passage.
When the specific speed ‘ns’ is 60 to 150, the impeller blade is extended towards the bend portion
at inlet of the impeller passage to reduce the blade loading. Blade edge at inlet will be neither parallel
nor perpendicular to the pump axis, instead it is inclined. (Fig. 3.2).
Since quantity ‘Q’ is low and the total head ‘H’ is higher for lower specific speed pumps, the
breadth ‘B2’ will be smaller and diameter ‘D2’ will be larger.
The meridional velocity change along the transverse section of the inlet edge i.e., from shroud to
shroud will be negligible and hence is assumed to be constant throughout the passage. For infinite
70 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

number of blades with infinitesimally smaller blade thickness, the streamlines in the impeller passage
are congruent and the flow is considered as one dimensional. The flow velocity Cm0 is determined from
the velocity (C0). The velocity C0 is determined from the equation (4.2). Usually the meridional flow
velocity Cm0 is assumed to be equal to C0. Sometimes, it is increased, Cm0 = 1.03 to 1.05 C0, in order to
get smooth, uniform flow at the bend portion of the impeller passage.
In real fluid flow, however, finite number of blades, with finite thickness are used. Referring to
Fig 4.3, the blade thickness ‘δ’ will be occupying a circumferential distance of ‘s’ due to the blade angle
δ
‘β’ and is determined as s= ...(4.3)
sin β

If there are ‘Z’ number of impeller blades, the actual circumferential length available for the flow
of fluid is (πD − Zs ) instead of πD.

4.4.1 Inlet Velocity Triangle

δ1
Due to finite vane thickness the inlet area, blocked by one vane will be s1 = . Total length
sin β1

Z δ1
blocked by Z number of blades is Zs = . Total available area due to this will be (πD1 – Zs1)B. Due
sin β1
to this the flow velocity before the inlet edge, Cm0 is increased to Cm1 on the blade, i.e., the moment fluid
touches the inlet edge.
The meridional flow velocity Cm, the resolved component of absolute velocity C, in radial direction
at points 0 and 1 are equal to corresponding value of wm the resolved component of relative velocity w
in the same direction.
Cm0 = C0 sin α0 = wm0 = w0 sin β0 ...(4.4)
and Cm1 = C1 sin α1 = wm1 = w1sin β1
Since quantity of flow Q is same, at inlet Qth = πD.B.Cm0 before the inlet edge and Qth is equal to
= (πD1 – zs1) B1 Cm1 on the blade

 πD1 
Cm1 =   Cm0 = Cm0 .K1 ...(4.5)
 πD1 − zs1 

πD1  1   1 
where, K1 = =  =  Ζδ1  ...(4.6)
πD1 − zs1 zs
 1– 1   1− 
 πD1   π D1 sin β1 
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 71

φ-6.10
φ
94.9
φ
76
φ
40
14R
150R
14 5.5
12°

38
62 35 20R 3R 28
14 22
35

14.8
21.1

16.4
18.4
25
13 24

φ
25 Hy
φ
45

200
φ ++ 0.020
0.000

Fig. 4.5. (a) Impeller eye without hub

φ
18
φ
φ 8.5
17.5 φ
φ 9 φ
17 9.5
φ
φ 10 φ
16.5
10.5
φ φ
15 11
φ
11.5
φ φ
14 12

φ
13
φ
12

φ
11.5

Fig. 4.5. (b) Impeller eye with hub


72 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Since the inlet blade velocity ‘u1’ remains same at points 0 and 1 inlet velocity triangle A0, B1, C1
at point O, before the inlet edge changes to A1B1C1 at point 1 on the inlet edge of the blade (Fig. 4.6) due
to the increase in ‘Cm’ from ‘Cm0’ to ‘Cm1’.
A1

A0
w1
δ1
C m1

1
C
C m0

C0 w0
C m0

α1
α0 C m1 β0
β1
t1 β1
s1
B1 u0 = u1
C u0 = C u1

(a) (b)

β 2 B 2c 1,0= c m1
w1
w 1,0
c ′1= c ′m1
B 1 β1 w1′
C1 β1 β10
R2 β1 β′1
C u1 u1

R1 s1

(c)
Fig. 4.6. (a), (b), (c) Inlet velocity triangle—effect of blade thickness and normal entry
Practically the inlet edge is rounded off in order to make the fluid to enter the blade tangentially
without any shock. Because of this, entry losses are reduced and the hydraulic efficiency is increased.
However, in practice, the inlet blade angle B10 is increased by an angle ‘δ’ in order to reduce shock
losses at entry and also to improve cavitational characteristics. The inlet angle B10 is increased by
δ = 3° to 10° and in special cases up to 15°. Actual blade angle at inlet β1 will be Fig. 4.6 (c).
β1= β1, 0 + δ = β1, 0+ (3° to 10°) ...(4.7)
At optimum conditions δ = 0 because, fluid flows tangentially to the blade. For the optimum
cavitational conditions, it is recommended to have β1, 0= 16° to 20° and after correction for vane thickness
and adding angle of attack δ, final value of β1= 18° to 25°.

4.4.2 Normal or Radial or Axial Entry of Fluid at Impeller Inlet


The direction of flow of fluid in approach pipe or in suction pipe before entering the impeller is
normal to the area of cross-section. The flow rate is calculated as per the continuity equation (4.2).
2
πD 0 π( D02 − d h 2 )
Qth = . C0 (or) C0 depending upon whether the impeller hub, on pump shaft
4 4
is protruding or not. D0 is the eye diameter or inlet diameter of pipe, dh is the impeller hub diameter and
ds is the pump shaft diameter, C0 is the flow velocity normal to the area of cross-section, eye of the
impeller. The velocity C0 will be in axial direction. At inlet, before entering the impeller inlet edge, the
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 73

flow direction will be radial in centrifugal pump, diagonal in mixed flow pump and axial in axial flow
pump. The flow rate is calculated as
Q = πD0 B0 . Cm0 = πD1B1 Cm1 ...(4.8)
This condition of flow is called normal entry (i.e., Axial entry in axial flow pump and radial entry
in centrifugal pump). Inlet velocity triangle, under such condition, is as shown in Fig. 4.6 (c). From the
figure it is evident that C0 = Cm0, Cu0 = 0, α0 = 90°. Correspondingly C1 = Cm1, Cu1 = 0, α1= 90°.
Cu 2 u2 − Cu1 u1 Cu 2u2
So, the Head developed Hm = = ...(4.9)
g g
For normal entry Cu0 u0 = Cu1 u1 = 0. This condition is adopted in all pump designs by which blade
loading and pressure intensity on the blade will be at a reduced level.
In order to get durability and dependability in operation of pump and for stable operation of pump
sometimes α1 is taken between 85° and 90°. This reduces slightly the inlet pressure before the impeller
entry, due to the reduced work load on impeller blades as per the equation (4.9).
In practice, however, due to the rotation of impeller, the fluid also gets rotated before the blade
inlet slightly. As a result a forced vortex is developed. Initial conditions of flow at inlet is determined,
mostly by the prewhirl developed, due to impeller rotation near impeller eye. That is why, this action is
considered as the change in the moment given by the inlet guide blade or by the influence of suction
pipe, which does not lie in the same plane. The effect of this action is the reduction in input energy due
to pressure reduction. This pressure reduction is not due to frictional losses occurring due to friction,
taking place in the rotating impeller passages. Impeller friction losses, are separately given as hf (1 –2) in
the moment of momentum equation for pumps as
Cu 2 u2 − Cu1 u1
Hm = + hf (1 – 2) ...(4.10)
g
In order to accommodate for shock losses reduction, the inlet blade angle β1 is slightly increased
over and above the angle necessary to meet the reversed direction of flow at inlet. The flow rate is also
slightly increased over and above the loss of flow in clearance, and reduction in the area of cross-section
at inlet as well as for induced prewhirl. That’s why normal entry is assumed even in the absence of the
inlet guide blades. If inlet guide blades are used, the inlet pressure is reduced before the entry into the
impeller and the cavitational characteristics is also reduced. It is found, that higher efficiency is attained
when α1is slightly lower than 90° i.e., 85° < α < 90°.

4.5 OUTLET VELOCITY TRIANGLE : EFFECT DUE TO BLADE THICKNESS


Due to vane thickness, effective area at outlet (A2) is decreased. A2 = (πD2 − Zs2 ) B2
δ2
where s2 =
sin β2∞
The flow velocity Cm2 on the outlet edge of the blade is reduced to Cm3 immediately after the
blade. Since blade velocity u2 = u3 and total energy remains constant at outlet Cu2∞ the whirl velocity at
outlet remains same Cu2∞ = Cu3∞
 Zδ 2 
Q = Cm2 .  πD2 −  B = Cm3 ( πD2 B2 ) ...(4.11)
 sin β2∞  2
74 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

πD2
Cm2 = Cm3
Zδ 2
(πD2 − )
sin β2∞
1
= Cm3 = Cm3 . K2 ...(4.12)
 Zδ 2 
1 − 
 πD2 sin β2∞ 
1
where, K2 = ...(4.13)
 Zδ 2 
1 − 
 πD2 sin β2∞ 
and Cm2 = C2∞ sin α 2∞ = Wm2= Wm2∞ sin β2∞

Cm3 = C3∞ sin α 3∞ = Wm3 = W3∞ sin β3∞ ...(4.14)


The outlet velocity triangle before and after the outlet edge of the blade is given in Fig. 4.7.
A2
t2 s2
w2
C2 A3 w3
C m2

β2
B2 α2 C3 C m3 β3 β2
α3 δ2
C u2 = C u3 C2
u2
(a) (b)
Fig. 4.7. Outlet velocity triangle—effect of blade thickness
In order to get higher head and efficiency, the outlet edge of the blade is made as sharp edged as
shown in continuous lines (Fig. 4.7). This reduces the area blocked by blade at outlet and the flow
resembles like flow with infinite number of blades with infinitesimally smaller thickness. However,
angle of sharpness must be properly selected, so that there should not be any flow separation.
The outlet velocity triangle A2 B2C2 due to area increase and subsequent reduction in flow velocity
Cm2 to Cm3, will change into A3 B2 C2. Correspondingly, the direction and magnitude of absolute and
relative velocities change (Fig. 4.7).

4.5.1 Outlet Velocity Triangle: Effect of Finite Number of Blades


The direction of the flow of fluid at outlet of the impeller, under elementary theory of blade
system, must be tangential to blade position at outlet. In other words, the fluid angle will be same as
blade angle at outlet. Also under infinite number of blades with infinitesimally smaller vane thickness,
the flow velocity distribution i.e., the relative velocity w and the meridional velocity Cm at any radius,
across the channel should be equal i.e., from the trailing side or suction side of the blade to the leading
side or pressure side of the next blade (Refer Fig. 3.3). Correspondingly, the velocity has the same value
at leading and trailing sides of the impeller blade.
Considering any blade in such a system, as per Bernouli’s equation the pressures between the
leading side and the trailing side of the blade are same due to equal velocity on both sides. Under this
condition, there cannot be energy transfer from mechanical to fluid by the blade system. In other words,
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 75

pumping will not exist. In order to have pumping or to change mechanical energy to fluid energy, the
pressure at the leading side of the blade must be higher than the pressure at the trailing side of the blade.
Correspondingly, the velocity (w and Cm) at the trailing side will be higher than the velocity at the
leading side of the blade. When impeller rotates, the leading side of the blade exerts a force on the fluid
in contact and makes the fluid to move.
This unequal velocity distribution within the impellers passage can be considered as consisting of
two types of flow: (1) Constant velocity of flow across the entire impeller passage combined with, and
(2) A circulating velocity moving from trailing edge to the leading edge and then back to the trailing
edge (Fig. 3.6). Due to this circulatory motion, a tangential velocity is created at the outlet edge of the
blade, which is opposite to the direction of motion of blade and is in the same direction of blade motion
at the inlet edge of the blade.
Considering the outlet, the tangential velocity (∆Cu) created in the opposite direction reduces the
original tangential velocity Cu2∞ to Cu2 correspondingly the total head is reduced from H∞ to Hm. Both
these total heads are connected by the equation H∞ = (1 + p)Hm, where ‘p’ is the correction coefficient.
Various authors derived different methods to determine the value of the coefficient ‘p’.

4.6 SLIP FACTOR AS PER STODOLA AND MEIZEL |109|


Due to the flow change from theoretical to actual, in the impeller passage, outlet blade angle β2
reduces and the relative velocity w2 increases (Fig. 4.10).

ω
ω

90°
r2 r2

β2 < 9
ra

ra < r2 ra > r2

Fig. 4.8. (a) Determination of effective radius

π – β2
∆ W max
2
C
Relative
t2
circulatory flow
A 90°
B
β2
2

ω
Main flow

Fig. 4.8. (b) Flow in impeller passage


76 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Stodola and Meizel suggested that ∆w2 is proportional to u2. The blade velocity at outlet ∆w2 =
xu2. In order to determine the value of x, Meizel considered the flow in impeller passages consists of (1)
flow with constant velocity in impeller passage along with (2) a circulatory flow with an angular velocity
ω, rotating opposite to the blade rotation. He assumed that maximum value of relative circulation
velocity ∆w2max occurs at the middle of the passage. The plain flow with equal velocity is along the
streamline, whereas the velocity vector of the circulatory flow is perpendicular to this plain flow direction,
with the result, combined velocity w2 is changed from one end to another end in impeller passages.
Applying Stokes theorem, and referring to Fig. 4.8 (b) the circulation along the contour ABC
will be

Γ = 2ωA = ΓAB + ΓBC + ΓCA


where A is the area ABC. Since contour AB and BC are perpendicular to the streamline, circulation
2πr2 2πr2
Γ AB = 0 and Γ BC = 0 and ΓAC = ∆w2t = ∆w2 , since t =
Z Z

2 2πr
∴ Γ = ΓAC = ∆w2 Z = 2ωA.

1 β β t2
The Area ABC = t cos .t sin = sin β2 .
2 2 2 4

2ω t 2 ωt sin β2 ωπr2 sin β2


∴ ∆w2 = sin β2 = = .
t 4 2 Z

π sin β2
= . u2
Z

π sin β2
Since ∆w2= xu2, x =
Z

If β2 is increased the value x is also increased

Cm 2 π sin β2
Cu2 = Cu2∞ – ∆w2 = u2 – – u2.
tgβ2∞ Z

 π sin β2  C
= u2  1 −  – m2 ...(4.15)
 Z  tgβ2∞

The following assumptions were made by Meizel in deriving the above equation :
1. The circulatory velocity vector is perpendicular to the main flow streamline, which is not
always correct.
2. The circulatory vortex moves in a closed contour which is not correct since inlet and outlet
passages are open for flow. Only two sides of the blades act as closed contour.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 77

3. The relative velocity w2∞ is tangential to the blade at outlet i.e., β2 of flow = β2 of the blade
and flow is parallel to each other at all points of impeller outlet passage. This is correct only
for more number of blades ( z ≥ 10) . For smaller number of blades, the correction factor
called slip factor does not agree. Also it is assumed that inlet flow conditions, will not affect
outlet flow confitions, which is also not true.
In general, the slip factor equation given by Stodola and Meizel agrees with the experimental
results for higher number of impeller blades.

4.6.1 Slip Factor as defined by Karl Pfliderer |97|


Karl Pfliderer established a relationship for slip factor based on the blade loading (Fig. 4.9) which
is based on the following assumptions :
1. Pressure drop across the unit length of middle streamline is constant in meridional section.
2. Unequal pressure and relative velocity distribution
exists in impeller passage before the outlet edge of S2

the impeller blade i.e., high relative velocity and ds


low pressure at the trailing side of the impeller blade
dr
and low relative velocity and high pressure at the
leading side of the blade. High relative velocity at
the trailing face remains same whereas the low S1
r
velocity at the leading side gradually increases and
becomes equal to the high velocity at the outlet edge.
Hence for the normal entry condition (Cu1= 0), Karl
Pfliderer defined a relation between H∞ and Hm
(equation 4.10) with a slip coefficient ‘p’ as Fig. 4.9. (a) Slip factor as per Pfliderer

H∞ = (1 + p) Hm

ψ r 22
where, p =
Z S
Z — No. of impeller blades.
ψ — Coefficient depending upon the blade configuration.
r2
S — Static moment of the central streamline = ∫ r ds.
r1

If the blades are radial or nearly radial ds = dr


r2
r 22 − r12
S = ∫ rdr =
2
r1

ψ 1
and p = 2 ...(4.16)
Z r 
1−  1 
 r2 
78 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

yH
Z z
16
12 12
10 0,8 10
8 8
6 6 5
5
4 4
3 0,6 3
2
2
0,4
0 30 60 βepad 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 r1/r2

K
1,0
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
β
0,4
0,35 r1
0,3 r2
0,25 z

0,2
0,16 r1
0,14 (a) y H = f(β) when =0
0,12 r2
0,10
r1
0,08 (b) y H = f when β = 90°
r2
0,07
90° 45 45 25 20 15 10 5 0
0,06 r1
(c) k = f , z, β
0,05 r2
0,04

0,03

0,02

0,01
0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,8(r1/r2)

Fig. 4.9. (b) Correction coefficient for finite number of vanes as per S.S. Rudinoff |104|

Karl Pfliderer recommended the value of coefficient as


ψ = (0.55 to 0.68) + 0.6 sin β2 ...(4.17)
The value of ψ, calculated as per the above equation, coincides with practical results, only for
r1
radial type pumps, having < 0.5 and with backward curved blades. For radial blades β2 = 90°
r2
ψ ≈ 1.8 i.e., nearly 50% more than normal value. For forward curved blades, it increases further. The
corrected value of ψ as recommended by Pfliderer is
ψ = (0.6 to 0.65) (1+ sin β2 ) ...(4.18)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 79

This equation is applicable for diffuser type pumps, where the inlet edge of the diffuser is kept
very near to the impeller outlet edge. ψ increases if this distance increases. For volute pumps and for
vaneless diffuser pumps, ψ values becomes higher. The approximate values are given below:
ψ = 0.65 to 0.85 for volute
ψ = 0.68 for vaned diffuser
ψ = 0.85 to 1.0 for vaneless diffuser
Also when α 1 ≤ 10°, ψ increases approximately by 30%. A normal value of α1 ≈ 20° is
recommended for pumps for which ψ is minimum. When ψ is minimum,the power consumption is also
reduced.
Pfliderer’s slip factor gives a good result for pumps n ≤ 150 with back ward curved vanes. Slip
factor ‘p’ increases with the increase of nS and it depends upon the surface roughness of the flow
passage also. Extending the inlet edge towards the eye side as well as change in the static moment of the
middle streamline ‘S ’ does not change the slip factor and hence Hm does not increase. In general Hm
calculated as per Stodota-Meizel formula is found to be nearer to the experimentally determined value
of Hm than Hm calculated as per Pfliderer.

4.6.2 Slip Factor as per Proscura |93|


Professor Proscura mentioned that the flow of fluid in rotating curved blades of impeller is the
combination of two flows: (1) plain flow with uniform and constant relative velocity across the entire
flow passage width from leading side of one blade to the trailing side of the next blade of a stationary
curved blade cascade system, determined by using conformal mapping from the stationary straight
blade cascade system and (2) axial vortex flow.
2. Considering the flow due to axial vortex (2ω) developed within the impeller flow passage, a
gave the relation between Hm and H∞ is given
  r1 
2 
 sin β2 +   sin β1 
 π  r2  
Hm = 1 − . 2  Hm
 Z  r1  
 1−   
  2
r 
1
≈ 2
r 
sin β2 +  1  sin β1
π  r2 
1+ 2 ...(4.19)
Z r 
1−  1 
 r2 
Considering equation (4.1), H∞ = (1 + p) Hm the value ‘p’ is
2
r 
sin β2 +  1  sin β1
π  r2  2ψ 1
p= 2 = 2
Z  r1  Z  r1 
1−   1−  
 r2   r2 
80 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

2
π sin β +  r1  sin β 
where, ψ=  2   1
2   r2  

2
  r1  
≈ 1.6  sin β2 +  r  sin β1  ...(4.20)
  2 
which is similar to the equation (4.13) determined
by Pfliderer.
w2 w 2∞
Equation (4.15) is determined only for ideal
C m2
fluid flow with finite number of blades and not for
C 2∞
real fluid having friction losses due to viscosity. C2
Before leaving the outlet edge, due to the slip factor, α 2∞
the relative velocity at outlet w2∞ deviates from the β2 β
α2 2∞
original direction (Fig. 4.10). Since flow rate is C u2 u2
same Cm2∞ = Cm2 and the outlet blade angle reduces C u2∞ = (1 + p) C u2

from β2∞ to β2. With the result w2 > w2 ∞ , C2<C2∞, Fig. 4.10. Outlet velocity triangle–effect of finite
number of blades
α2 > α2∞ β2< β2∞, wu2> wu2∞,Cu2< Cu2∞

Hm Hm 1 Cu 2 u2 Cu 2
= = = =
H∞ H m (1 + p) (1 + p ) Cu 2∞ u2 Cu 2∞

When the fluid comes out of the outlet edge, the flow velocity Cm2 reduces to Cm3 owing to the

 Z δ2 
sudden increase in area from  πD2 − B to πD2B2, due to the absence of vane thickness. Cu2
 sin β2  2
remains same, as defined earlier, i.e.,Cu2 = Cu3 with the result, the outlet velocity triangle changes. Since
u2= u3, Cu2 = Cu3, wu2 = wu3, Cm3< Cm2, α 3 < α 2, β3 < β2.

H H∞ C u − Cu 0u0
Hm = = = u3 3 ...(4.21)
ηh (1 + p ) g

Cu 2u2 − Cu1u1
whereas, H∞ =
g
Figure 4.11 gives a comparison of H–Q curve with correction for the effect due to finite number of
blades by different authors.
It is suggested that the correction coefficient for the finite number of blades can be carried out as
per Stodola-Meizel, if active radius ‘ra’ is considered or otherwise method suggested by Karl Pfliderer
can be applied.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 81

H1
H 1∞

H m as per Pfliderer

π sin β2
H m as per Stodola-Meizel

1+p
u 22

1
g

Z
u 22

1–
g
u 22
g
Qp

Fig. 4.11. (a) Comparison of H–Q curve with different correction coefficients

1.0
d

c
0.9
b
a

0.8
a. G.F. Proskura
b. Pfliderer
c. Stodola-Meizel
0.7
d. Rudinoff

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Fig. 4.11. (b) Correction coefficient for finite number of vanes

4.7 COEFFICIENT OF REACTION (ρ)


p2 − p1 C22 − C12
Total head H m = E2 – E1 = + Z2 – Z1 +
γ 2g
= Hp+ Hdy
p2 − p1
where Hp = + (Z2 –Z1)
γ

C22 − C12
and Hdy =
2g
Cu 3u2 − Cu 0u1
Also, Hm =
g
Referring to velocity triangle
w22 = C22 + u22 – 2u2 Cu 2
82 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

and w12 = C12 + u21 – 2u1Cu1 and Cu0 = Cu1, u0 = u1

u2 Cu 2 − u1 Cu 0 C22 − C12 u 2 − u12 w2 − w22


Hence, = + 2 + 1 ...(4.22)
g 2g 2g 2g

u22 − u12 w2 − w22 C 2 − C12


Hp∞ = + 1 and Hdy = 2 ...(4.23)
2g 2g 2g

Pressure head Hp∞ indicates the difference in pressure and potential energy between inlet and
outlet of the pump, which is the sum of the pressure energy due to centrifugal force (Coriolis component)
u 2 − u12
and due to the flow over the blade system (due to relative velocity). 2 is the increase in pressure
2g
energy of the fluid within the impeller due to the rotation of the impeller, under no flow conditions i.e.,
w12 − w22
purely by the centrifugal force, whereas is the increase in the pressure energy of the flowing
2g
fluid over the impeller blade system due to velocity reduction from inlet to outlet, when the impeller is
stationary.
If both these flows are combined, a circulatory flow is developed, which gives a tangential
momentum at outlet and at inlet to develop total energy.
For real fluid flow with friction

u22 − u12 w2 − w22 p2 − p1


+ 1 = + (Z2 – Z1) + hfim + hfv
2g 2g γ

where ‘hfim’ is the hydraulic loss in impeller and ‘hfv’ is the hydraulic loss in volute or in diffuser.
The coefficient of reaction ‘ ρ ’ is the ratio of pressure head developed to the total head

H p∞ H ∞ − H dy  H dy 
ρ = = =1–   ...(4.24)
H∞ H∞  H∞ 

C22 − C12 C2u1 + Cm22 − Cu22 − Cm21 Cu22 − Cu21


Hdy = = =
2g 2g 2g
Since Cm2 ≈ Cm1 and for normal entry Cu1 = 0. Hence

C 2u 2 gH m2
Hdy = = ...(4.25)
2g 2u 22

H dy Cu22 gH m
Hence, ρ = 1– = 1– =1– ...(4.26)
Hm 2 gH m 2u22
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 83

C 2u 2
H p = Hm – Hdy = Hm –
2g

gH m2  gH m 
= Hm – = Hm 1 –  ...(4.27)
2u22  2u22 

β 2) AND ITS EFFECT


4.8 SELECTION OF OUTLET BLADE ANGLE (β
Under normal entry, Total head (H) depends upon the oulet dimensions of impeller, D2, B2, β2,
δ2, Z and speed n.
1 Cu 2∞u2 Cu 2∞u22 1 .
Hm = ⋅ = ⋅
1+ p g g 1+ p

Cu 2∞
where, Cu 2∞ =
u2
From outlet velocity triangle
Cm 2 ∞
Cu2∞ = u2 – wu2∞ = u2 – = u2 – Cm2 cot β2∞ ...(4.28)
tan β2∞

Q
= u2 – ...[4.28 (a)]
 Zδ2 
 πD2 −  B2 .tan β2∞
 sin β2∞ 

1  u2  Q 
 u2 −
Hm =
1+ p g   Zδ2   ...(4.29)
  πD −
 2 sin β  2 B .tan β 2∞ 

   2∞ 
 

For the given dimensions of impeller, Hm is a function of C u 2∞ and C u 2∞ is function of β2. Blade
shape changes, when β2 change from < 90° to > 90° for the same direction of rotation of impeller. At
outlet blades are curved backwards when β2< 90°, radial when β2 = 90° and curved forward when
β2 > 90°.
Correspondingly the flow passage between blades of the impeller also changes. Fig. 4.12 illustrates
the blade shape, and the shape of the passage when β2 changes from < 90° to > 90°. For β2 < 90°, blade
passage is longer, the angle of divergence is smaller. Flow can be smooth, without any flow separation.
For β2 = 90° and β2 > 90°, the passage length is reduced and angle of divergence is increased, which
induces flow separation and subsequent hydraulic losses due to secondary flow. β2 < 90° is commonly
adopted for pumps, to get higher efficiency since the flow passage is divergent. β2 = 90° is used in
turbines, and in return guide values where flow is through a convergent passage. The longer length of
the flow passage induces more hydraulic losses. Thus outlet blade angle β2 influences considerably on
the performance of the pump. Converting all the values of head, H∞, Hp∞, Hdy∞, ρ∞, into a non-dimensional
unit, as percentage of total value of (u22/2g).
84 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

β 2>90°
ω ω ω

β2
=9

β 2<90°

(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 4.12. Blade shapes for different β 2 (a) β 2 < 90°° (b) β 2 = 90°° (c) β 2 > 90°°

H dy∞ 2 gH dy
H dy∞ = =
(u22 / 2g ) u22
2
 Cu 2∞ 
 = (Cu 2 ∞ )
2 gCu 2∞ 2
= =  ...(4.30)
2 gu22  u2 

H∞ Cu 2∞ . u2 Cu 2∞ u22
H∞ = = = = 2 Cu 2∞ ...(4.31)
(u22 / 2 g ) g (u22 / 2 g ) g (u22 / 2 g )


Hp∞ = H∞ – Hdy∞ =  2 Cu 2∞ – (Cu 2∞ )  = Cu 2∞ ( 2 − Cu 2∞ )
2
...(4.32)
 
H p∞ (2 − Cu 2∞ )Cu 2∞  Cu 2∞ 
ρ∞ = = = 1 −  ...(4.33)
H∞ 2Cu 2∞  2 

The following table (4.1) gives the variation of H∞ , Hdy∞ , Hp∞ , ρ∞ for different values of Cu 2∞,

calculated as per the equations 4.30, 4.31, 4.32 and 4.33, when Cu 2∞= 0, β2∞= 0, when Cu 2∞ = 2,

β2∞= 180° when Cu 2∞ = 1β2∞= 90°. β2∞ can also be calculated from the equation 4.34.

∞ , ρ ∞ ,β
∞ , Hp∞
TABLE 4.1: Variation of H∞ , Hdy∞ β 2∞ as a function of Cu 2∞

Cu2∞ H∞ Hp∞
∞ Hdy∞
∞ ρ∞

0 0 0 0 1.0
0.5 1.0 0.75 0.25 0.75
0.75 1.5 0.9375 0.5625 0.625
1.0 2.00 1.00 1.000 0.50
1.5 3.00 0.75 2.25 0.25
2.0 4.00 0 4.00 0
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 85

Cu 2∞ u2 − Cm 2∞ cot β 2∞ Cm 2∞
C u 2∞ = = = 1 – Cm 2∞ cot β2 or tan β2 = ...(4.34)
u2 u2 1 − Cu 2∞
A graph is also drawn referring the Table 4.1.

ρ
H T∞
ρ

3,0 0,75

H d∞
H T∞, H d∞, H p∞

2,0 0,5

1,0 0,25
H p∞

0
0.5 1,0 1,5 C 2u∞

— — — —
Fig. 4.13. Graph H∞ , Hdy ∞ , Hp ∞ , ρ∞ = f (c2u ∞ )

The velocity triangles are shown in Fig. 4.14 for three condition namely β2 < 90°, β2 = 90° and
β2 > 90°.

C 2c
2a

C 2b
C 2m

β2b β2c
β2a

C 2ua
C 2ub
C 2uc

Fig. 4.14. Velocity triangles for β 2 < 90°° , β 2 = 90°° and β 2 > 90°°
(a) β 2a < 90°° (b) β 2b = 90°° (c) β 2c > 90°°

Corresponding impeller blade shapes are also indicated in the Fig. 4.12.

Total head (H∞ ) and coefficient of reaction ‘ρ’ are directely proportional to Cu 2∞. Dynamic head,

Hdy is proportional to ( Cu 2∞ )2 and pressure Head (Hp ∞ ) changes inversely to ( Cu 2∞ )2.


86 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

When β2∞ < 90°, the blades are backward curved, the angle of divergence of flow passage in
impeller is narrow and, hence secondary flow losses are less. Hydraulic efficiency is higher. Also
Hp > Hdy i.e., a greater part of the outlet energy is in the form of pressure energy. Only a smaller
portion of total head i.e., Hdy is converted to pressure energy, which is the basic requirement for
pumps. That why pumps and blowers are designed with impeller blades as backward curved blades.
Normally β2, the outlet blade angle lies between 20° to 35° for nS ranging from 50 to 400. Recommended
values are:
β2 ≤ 30° for nS < 100
β2 ≤ 25° for 100 nS < 200
β2 ≤ 20° for 250 nS < 400
Total Head increases with the increase of β2. The performance of pump H–Q curve gradually rises
and becomes more and more a straight line when β2 increases. Smaller values of β2 is selected for more
steep H–Q curves and larger values of β2 are for more flat H–Q curves. β2 is always selected for maximum
efficiency condition of operation. As per stepanoff | 112 | average static condition of optimum blade
angle of outlet β2 lies, between 22°–23°. For increase in head, angle β2 may be increased to 28° to 30°
without any sacrifice in efficiency. Minimum blade angle β2 can be 15° to 17° and never less than this
value for pumps of any specific speed (nS) or any size.

4.9 EFFECT OF NUMBER OF VANES

Selection of number of blades (Z) in impellers and in diffusers (Zd) is very important. It influences
on the H–Q characteristics of the pump, pump efficiency as well as suction characteristics of the
pumps. Selection of less number of blades as well as shorter length of blades, give higher angle of
divergence in impeller passages, which increases secondary losses in impeller namely circulatory
losses between two blades due to large pressure differences between leading and trailing sides of the
blade as well as losses at exit due to flow separation. Cavitational characteristics of the pump also
reduces. H–Q curve will be lower than the normal curve. Blade loading will be higher. This increases
the blade thickness which again reduces the blade passage and corresponding increase in w and Cm
which increases frictional losses. Too long the impeller blades and more number of blades increase
the frictional losses, although blade loading and secondary losses are reduced due to less angle of
divergence. Hence correct selection of number of blades is absolutely necessary. In Fig. 4.15, the
effect of number of vanes on pump performance is given. It is evident from the graph that, number of
vanes influences in pump performance.
Based on the channel width in plan of the impeller and the blade length which ensures proper
angle of divergence, Karl Pfliderer | 97 | has established an expression for the determination of number
of blades (Z).
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 87
20
15

H Vs Q
Total head, (H) m

Z=6
Z=5
Z = 10
10

Z=8 Z=4
Z=5 Z=5
Z=8
Z=4 Z=4
100%

8 Z=6
=
Z
10
Z=
Z = 10
50%
Efficiency ( η)

Specification:
Head : 12.8 m
Flow rate: 6 lps
Speed : 1440 rpm
25%

n s = 60
Size = 50 mm × 40 mm
0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
(Q) Quantity of Flow, lps
Fig. 4.15. (a) Effect of no. of vanes on pump performance
88 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

β2

90°

71°

44°
30°
21°
16°
14°
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Z

β 2) as per Pfliderer
Fig. 4.15. (b) Selection of number of vanes, z = f(β

r2 + r1 β1 + β2
Z = 6.5 . sin ...(4.35)
r2 – r1 2
where, 6.5 in the constant derived from experimental results.
This expression gives nearly correct value for normal backward curved blades. If the blades are
too long and too much bent in backward direction, i.e.,for smaller values of β1 and β2, this expression
gives more number of blades than normally used in practice. Karl Pfliderer, based on the results from
Hanson has given a graph for selection of number of blades as a function of outlet blade angle β2 for
diffuser pumps. [Fig. 4.15 (b)]. In Fig. 4.15 (a) the effect of number of blades on pump performance is
given. From the graph it is seen that for best performance number of vanes are found to be between
5 and 6 for radial flow pump.
Most of the pumps of different specific speeds have number of blades between 5–8 in impeller
and 1 or 2 blades, more than impeller blades, in diffusers. For nS ≤ 150, Z will be 6 to 8, for nS ≥ 150
and D2 ≤ 1000 mm, Z = 6 to 7, for D2< 120 mm, Z = 6 to 5.
Most of the high efficiency pumps have an included angle θ between inlet and outlet edges of
blades in plan (Fig. 4.16) between 80° to 150°, optimum being 110° to 120° and θ/tang between 1.2 to 2.2
360
where tang = for pumps of specific speed nS ranging from 130 to 400 and D2 ranging from 100 mm
Z
to 300 mm.
n% For ns = 300 to 400
90 (1) D 2 = 300 mm
(2) D 2 = 116 mm
For ns = 180 – 250
Efficienc y

3
1 (3) D 2 = 116 mm
80
2 4 For ns = 130 – 180
5 (4) D 2 = 116 mm
(5) for ns = 60 to 100
70 D2 = 300 mm
θav / tang

Angular displacement θav / t ang


Fθ I
Fig. 4.16. Selection of number of vanes from the graph, η = f GH t
ang
a
ns , D 2 JK
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 89

4.10 SELECTION OF EYE DIAMETER (D 0), EYE VELOCITY (C 0), INLET


DIAMETER OF IMPELLER (D1) AND INLET MERIDIONAL VELOCITY (Cm1)
Impeller eye diameter D0 and impeller inlet diameter D1 are selected for best hydraulic efficiency and
for best cavitational characteristics of the pump.
Impeller eye velocity C0 for pumps with protruding shafts and hubs such as multistage pumps, double
suction pumps is given by
Q π
Qth = = (D02 – d 2h ). C0 ...(4.2)
ηv 4
where dh is the hub diameter.
4Qth
∴ C0 = ...[4.2 (a)]
 d h2 
πD02  1 – 2 
 D0 
For pumps without protruding shaft and hub i.e., dh = 0 such as end suction, single stage, single
entry pumps
4Qth
C0 = ...[4.2 (b)]
πD02
From similarity laws unit discharge (KQ) is defined as
Q
KQ =
nD 3
3 3 3
1 Qth Qth
or D0 = ⋅ = K ⋅ ...(4.36)
KQ n n
3
1
where, K =
KQ
Substituting the value of D0 from the equation (4.36) into equation [4.2 (a)]

4 Qth  4 KQ2 / 3  Qn 2 / 3 
  d  2   Q 2 / 3 
C0 =   =
π 3 2
  Qth   d h2  
π
− 1 −   
h
1
  K n   D 2   D
  Q  0 

= constant (K1) . 3 Q. n 2 ...(4.37)

4 KQ2 / 3
where, K1 =
 d2 
π 1 − h2 
 D 
 
90 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

For better cavitational characteristics and hydraulic efficiency, C0= 2 to 4 mps and the meridional
velocity (Cm1) before the blade inlet edge Cm1= C0 or 1.05 to 1.10 C0, since increase in velocity Cm
reduces the efficiency and cavitation effect.
From inlet to outlet in the impeller passage, the relative velocity w, meridional velocity Cm and
hence the absolute velocity C gradually reduces. This means the blade passage is a divergent passage.
w1
For better results, angle of divergence should be within 10°. This is achieved when = 1.05 to 1.15
w2
and Cm2 = 0.85 to 0.9 Cm1. From inlet velocity triangle for normal entry

 4Q 
2
FG πD n IJ 2

H 60 K
1
w21 2 + u2 =
= Cm1  2 +
1
 πD0 

π π
Taking, Cm1= C0, D2 =
4 0 4
(D12 – dh2 )
or D12 = D02 + dh2
2
 4Q  π n
2
∴ 2 
w1 =  
2  +   (D20 + dh2 ) ...(4.38)
 πD0   60 

2
w1
2
M 2
w1
sec

π 2 2 2
2
n D1 = u1
60
2
Q 2
4 2
2 = C m1
π D 21 – dh

2 2 2
D 0 opt D0(m )

Fig. 4.17. Determination of optimum eye diameter graph, w21, Cm


2 , u2 = f (D2)
1 0

For good cavitational characteristics w1 must be minimum. Differentiating equation (4.38) with
dw1
respect to D0 i.e., = 0 and simplifying
dD0

2 22
 π n  4 Q 3
Q
  − 2  π  =0 or D0 = K ...(4.39)
60  D06 n
which is same as equation (4.36).
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 91

From experimental results, the constant K is ranging from 3.6 to 5.0. For single stage end suction
pumps of D1 > 70 mm, K = 4.0 to 4.5 and for same pumps if D1< 70 mm, K = 4.5 to 5.00. For all
multistage pumps except for Ist stage K = 3.6 – 3.9 | 76 |.
As per Karl Pfliderer | 97 |, Lomakin | 69 |, Stepanoff | 112 |, and Karrasik | 54 |, the best inlet blade
angle without including the angle of attack for better cavitational characteristics and for better hydraulic
efficiency is
β10 = 15° to 20°.
Taking this into consideration and from the inlet velocity triangle (Fig. 4.1), under normal entry
condition,
4Q
Cm1 C0 πD02 60 × 4 × Q
tan β10 = = = =
u1 u1 πD0 n π2 D03 n
60
240 Q
= ⋅
π 2
D03 n = tan 15° to tan 20°

240 1 Q
D03 = × ⋅
tan (15 to 20) n
or
π 2

1/ 3 3
 240 1  Q 3
Q
D0 =  2 .  = 4.5 to 4.0 ...(4.40)
 π tan (15° to 20°)  n n
Correspondingly finding the value of C0 from the above equation,

π 2   dh  
2
4Qth
Qth = D0 1 −    C0 or D0 =
4   D0     d 2 
  π  1 −  h   C0
  D0  
 

  d 2 
π 1 −  h   C0
  D0  
Cm1 60 C0 60 C0  
tan β10 = = =
u1 π D0 n πn 4 Qth

2
30 d  C 3/ 2
tan (15° to 20°) = 1−  h  ⋅ 0
π  D0  n Qth

 π tan (15° to 20°)  2/3


 2  n Qth 
C0 =  30  dh   
 1–    
  D0  
92 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Substituting the values for tan β10 = tan (15° to 20°) = 0.268 to 0.364

C0 = 0.063 to 0.077 3 Qth n 2

= 0.06 to 0.08 3 Qn 2 ...(4.41)

4.11 SELECTION OF OUTLET DIAMETER OF IMPELLER (D2)


As a first approximation D2, the outer diameter of impeller is determined from fundamental
Eular’s equation. For normal entry
H C u
Hm = = u2 2
ηh g
Cu2 can be selected from (0.8 to 0.5) u2 for nS ranging from 150 to 250.

Cu 2u2 u22 gH m
Hence, Hm = = (0.8 to 0.5) g or u2 =
g (0.8 to 0.5)

60 u2
Having known the speed n, D2 =
πn
This diameter D2 is used to determine β2, Z, p. From the value p
H∞ = (1 + p) Hm is determined.
From outlet velocity triangle, for normal entry condition

Cu 2∞ u2  C 
H∞ = = u2  u2 − m 2 
g  tan β2 

2
 Cm 2   Cm 2 
from which u2 =   +   + g H∞ ...(4.42)
 2 tan β2   2 tan β2 
The diameter D2 determined under second approximation by equation (4.42) is corrected again
after finalizing the correct value of area reduction coefficient ‘Κ2’ and outlet blade angle ‘β2’.

4.12 EFFECT OF BLADE BREADTH (B2)


For the given value of Q,H and the determined optimum value of β2, and Cm2, maximum diameter
at outlet of the impleller D2 is determined. Minimum value of Β2, the breadth at outlet can be determined
from Q, D2 and Cm2. This is achieved when the coeficient of reaction ‘ρ’ is maximum by which Cm2 is
maximum. Since β2 is independent of nS, β2 is selected mostly from the practical results.
The total head H ∞ will be
H
H ∞ = (1 + p) Hm = (1 + p).
ηh
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 93

H Cu 2u2
where Hm = = for normal entry at inlet
ηh g

(1 + p ) ⋅ Cu 2u2
=
ηh g

Referring to the outlet velocity triangles, the total head (H) is given as

Cu 2u2 u u2  Cm 2 
Hm = = 2 (u2 – wu2) = =  u2 − 
g g g  tan β2 

u2  K 2Qth  u2  K 2 Qth 
=  u2 – = u 2 –  ...(4.43)
g  πD2 B2 tan β2  g  πD2 B2 tan β2 
2

B2
where B2 =
D2

 Q 
Introducing non-dimensional coefficients unit discharge  KQ =  and Unit Head
 nD3 

 H 
 K H = 2 2  into the equation (4.40), we get
 n D 

K H n2 D 2 πD2 n  K 2 KQ nD23 
=  πD2 n − 
ηh g  ηv .π.D2 B2 tan β2 
2

4/3
3.65n Q 219 KQ  219 K Q 
Introducing specific speed ns = = or K =   into the above
H(
3 / 4)
( K H )(3 / 4) H  ns 

equation and simplifying

K 2 KQ
B2 = ...(4.44)

( )(219)4 / 3 
2/3
g KQ

ηv tan β2 π –
2 
 η1 ( ns )
4/3 
 

For radial type centrifugal pumps ns ranges from 40 to 300, KQ ranges from 0.02 to 0.22, K2
ranges from 1.05 to 1.25, β2 ranges from 20° to 30°.
94 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

80
70

B = 12

B=9
60

B=6

B = 16
50
Efficiency (η)

40
30
20
10

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04


(KQ ) Unit Discharge

Fig. 4.18. (a) Efficiency—unit discharge characteristics


η – KQ )

THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 95

0.7
0.6

B = 16
0.5

B = 12
(K H) Unit Head
0.4

B=9
0.3

B=6
0.2
0.1

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04


(KQ ) Unit discharge

Fig. 4.18. (b) Unit head—unit discharge characteristics


(KH – KQ)
96 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

0.3

0.25

0.2

KQ 0.15

0.1

0.05

0
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ηs

Fig. 4.18. (c) Allowable range of KQ for different specific speeds (Data collected from
different pumps working η ranges from 65% to 81%)

40
45

60 70
50
0.8000
55
80 90 100 115
KH 130
150

175

200

0.3000
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22
KQ

Fig. 4.18. (d) Allowable range of KQ and KH for different specific speeds of Radial type centrifugal
pumps (Data collected from pumps working η ranges from 65% to 81%)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 97

0.1600

0.1400

0.1200

0.1000

B 0.0800

0.0600

0.0400

0.0200

0.0000
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ns


Fig. 4.18. (e) B vs ns for K2 = 1.05, η h = η v = 0.84, β 2 = 22°°

0.1200

0.1000

0.0800

B 0.0600

0.0400

0.0200

0.0000
40 50 60 80 100 130 175 250
ns


Fig. 4.18. (f ) B vs ns for K2 = 1.05, η h = η v = 0.84, β 2 = 30°°
FG IJ

98
B
TABLE 4.2: Selection of impeller blade breadth at outlets B 2 = D
2

2 H K
K2 = 1.05

η h = η v = 0.84 η h = η v = 0.90

β 2 = 22 β 2 = 30 β 2 = 22 β 2 = 30

ηs KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B

40 0.02 0.0395 0.013 0.0111 0.02 0.0276 0.013 0.0077 0.02 0.0272 0.013 0.0093 0.02 0.0191 0.013 0.0065
45 0.025 0.0473 0.015 0.0116 0.025 0.0331 0.015 0.0081 0.025 0.0331 0.015 0.0098 0.025 0.0231 0.015 0.0069
50 0.031 0.0596 0.02 0.0167 0.031 0.0417 0.02 0.0117 0.031 0.0414 0.02 0.0140 0.031 0.0290 0.02 0.0098
55 0.037 0.0679 0.023 0.0182 0.037 0.0475 0.023 0.0127 0.037 0.0479 0.023 0.0154 0.037 0.0335 0.023 0.0108
60 0.042 0.0670 0.027 0.0211 0.042 0.0469 0.027 0.0148 0.042 0.0491 0.027 0.0179 0.042 0.0344 0.027 0.0125

ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)


70 0.053 0.0704 0.034 0.0247 0.053 0.0493 0.034 0.0173 0.053 0.0540 0.034 0.0212 0.053 0.0378 0.034 0.0148
80 0.067 0.0832 0.043 0.0304 0.067 0.0582 0.043 0.0213 0.067 0.0648 0.043 0.0262 0.067 0.0454 0.043 0.0183
90 0.081 0.0923 0.053 0.0366 0.081 0.0646 0.053 0.0256 0.081 0.0733 0.053 0.0316 0.081 0.0513 0.053 0.0221
100 0.097 0.1050 0.062 0.0411 0.097 0.0735 0.062 0.0288 0.097 0.0842 0.062 0.0357 0.097 0.0589 0.062 0.0250
115 0.118 0.1128 0.077 0.0488 0.118 0.0789 0.077 0.0342 0.118 0.0926 0.077 0.0427 0.118 0.0648 0.077 0.0298
130 0.134 0.1109 0.092 0.0558 0.134 0.0776 0.092 0.0391 0.134 0.0933 0.092 0.0490 0.134 0.0653 0.092 0.0343
150 0.164 0.1245 0.112 0.0645 0.164 0.0872 0.112 0.0451 0.164 0.1062 0.112 0.0570 0.164 0.0743 0.112 0.0399
175 0.193 0.1295 0.14 0.0770 0.193 0.0906 0.14 0.0539 0.193 0.1123 0.14 0.0684 0.193 0.0786 0.14 0.0479
200 0.222 0.1364 0.158 0.0812 0.222 0.0954 0.158 0.0568 0.222 0.1196 0.158 0.0727 0.222 0.0837 0.158 0.0479
250 0.257 0.1345 0.193 0.0905 0.257 0.0941 0.193 0.0633 0.257 0.1202 0.193 0.0817 0.257 0.0841 0.193 0.0572
300 0.284 0.1341 0.225 0.0990 0.284 0.0938 0.225 0.0693 0.284 0.1211 0.225 0.0900 0.284 0.0847 0.225 0.0630
FG IJ

THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP


B
TABLE 4.3: Selection of impeller blade breadth at outlets B 2 = D
2

2 H K
K2 = 1.25

η h = η v = 0.84 η h = η v = 0.90

β 2 = 22 β 2 = 30 β 2 = 22 β 2 = 30

ηs KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B KQ B

40 0.02 0.0470 0.013 0.0132 0.02 0.0329 0.013 0.0092 0.02 0.0324 0.013 0.0110 0.02 0.0227 0.013 0.0077
45 0.025 0.0563 0.015 0.0138 0.025 0.0394 0.015 0.0096 0.025 0.0394 0.015 0.0117 0.025 0.0275 0.015 0.0082
50 0.031 0.0709 0.02 0.0199 0.031 0.0496 0.02 0.0139 0.031 0.0493 0.02 0.0167 0.031 0.0345 0.02 0.0117
55 0.037 0.0808 0.023 0.0217 0.037 0.0566 0.023 0.0152 0.037 0.0570 0.023 0.0184 0.037 0.0399 0.023 0.0128
60 0.042 0.0798 0.027 0.0251 0.042 0.0558 0.027 0.0176 0.042 0.0585 0.027 0.0213 0.042 0.0409 0.027 0.0149
70 0.053 0.0838 0.034 0.0294 0.053 0.0586 0.034 0.0206 0.053 0.0643 0.034 0.0252 0.053 0.0450 0.034 0.0176
80 0.067 0.0990 0.043 0.0362 0.067 0.0693 0.043 0.0253 0.067 0.0772 0.043 0.0311 0.067 0.0540 0.043 0.0218
90 0.081 0.1099 0.053 0.0436 0.081 0.0769 0.053 0.0305 0.081 0.0873 0.053 0.0377 0.081 0.0611 0.053 0.0264
100 0.097 0.1250 0.062 0.0489 0.097 0.0875 0.062 0.0342 0.097 0.1003 0.062 0.0425 0.097 0.0702 0.062 0.0297
115 0.118 0.1342 0.077 0.0581 0.118 0.0939 0.077 0.0407 0.118 0.1102 0.077 0.0508 0.118 0.0771 0.077 0.0355
130 0.134 0.1320 0.092 0.0665 0.134 0.0924 0.092 0.0465 0.134 0.1110 0.092 0.0584 0.134 0.0777 0.092 0.0409
150 0.164 0.1483 0.112 0.0767 0.164 0.1038 0.112 0.0537 0.164 0.1264 0.112 0.0678 0.164 0.0884 0.112 0.0475
175 0.193 0.1542 0.14 0.0917 0.193 0.1079 0.14 0.0642 0.193 0.1337 0.14 0.0815 0.193 0.0936 0.14 0.0570
200 0.222 0.1623 0.158 0.0967 0.222 0.1136 0.158 0.0677 0.222 0.1424 0.158 0.0866 0.222 0.0997 0.158 0.0606
250 0.257 0.1601 0.193 0.1077 0.257 0.1120 0.193 0.0754 0.257 0.1430 0.193 0.0973 0.257 0.1001 0.193 0.0681
300 0.284 0.1596 0.225 0.1179 0.284 0.1117 0.225 0.0825 0.284 0.1441 0.225 0.1071 0.284 0.1009 0.225 0.0750

99
100 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

0.1400

0.1200

0.1000

B 0.0800

0.0600

0.0400

0.0200

0.0000
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ns


Fig. 4.18. (g) B vs ns for K2 = 1.05, η h = η v = 0.90, β 2 = 22°°

0.0900

0.0800

0.0700

0.0600

0.0500
B
0.0400

0.0300

0.0200

0.0100

0.0000
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ns


Fig. 4.18. (h) B vs ns for K2 = 1.05, η h = η v = 0.90, β 2 = 30°°
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 101

0.1800

0.1600

0.1400

0.1200

0.1000
B
0.0800

0.0600

0.0400

0.0200

0.0000
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ns


Fig. 4.18. (i) B vs ns for K2 = 1.25, η h = η v = 0.84, β 2 = 22°°

0.1200

0.1000

0.0800

B 0.0600

0.0400

0.0200

0.0000
40 50 60 80 100 130 175 250
ns


Fig. 4.18. (j) B vs ns for K2 = 1.25, η h = η v = 0.84, β 2 = 30°°
102 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

0.1600

0.1400

0.1200

0.1000

B 0.0800

0.0600

0.0400

0.0200

0.0000
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ns


Fig. 4.18. (k) B vs ns for K2 = 1.25, η h = η v = 0.90, β 2 = 22°°

0.1200

0.1000

0.0800

0.0600

B
0.0400

0.0200

0.0000
40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 115 130 150 175 200 250 300
ns


Fig. 4.18. (l) B vs ns for K2 = 1.25, η h = η v = 0.90, β 2 = 30°°
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 103

Overall efficiency of pumps ranges form η = 65% to 81%, ηv is assumed as equal to ηh and is
taken as = η . Using excel programme, the values of B2 for the above mentioned variations were
calculated and graph B2 = f (ns) were drawn (Figs. 4.18 c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l), for different values of
KQ, K2, ηh, ηv and β2. These graphs can be referred for the selection of outlet blade breadth for radial
flow impellers.
An experiment on a radial type centrifugal pump was also conducted. The blade breadths (B2 and
B1) at inlet and at outlet were changed keeping the inclination of the shrouds with vertical same at all
time. The results are given in Figs. 4.18 (a), (b) in KH – KQ and η – KQ graphs.
Experimental results agree with the theoretically determined values.
Normally B2will be smaller for diffuser pumps, when compared to volute casing pumps.

4.13 IMPELLER DESIGN


Three fundamental parameters namely (1) Total Head ‘H’, (2) quantity of flow ‘Q’ and (3) either
speed of the pump ‘n’ or suction head ‘HS’ are necessary for impeller design.
The speed of rotation ‘n’ however, is related to the size of the pump, and cavitational characteristics
of the pump.
If suction head ‘HS’ is known, the speed can be determined from suction specific speed (C). From
the known value of H, Q , n, specific speed ‘ns’ for the pump is calculated by which the type of pump can
be determined.
When speed ‘n’ is increased for the given value of Q and H. specific speed ‘ns’ increases. The type
of pump changes such as radial, or diagonal or mixed or axial flow. Also the overall size of the pump is
reduced.
It is found that maximum hydraulic as well as overall efficiencies are attained between ns = 150 to
200 for radial type centrifugal pumps. Fig. 4.19 gives the relation between efficiency (η) as a function of
specific speed ‘ns’ for different eye diameters of the impeller.
12%
100
a
b
c

50
0 85 200 250 400 420 600 800 875 n s

Fig. 4.19. Graph h = f (ns, DO)


(a) DO > 200 mm, (b) DO = 50 to 200 mm, (c) DO = 10 to 50 mm

Suction head ‘Hs’ is reduced, when speed is increased. Cavitational specific speed ‘C’ can be
taken as C = 800 to 1000 from which suction head ‘Hs’ can be determined under first approximation
using the formula.
4/3
p pvp  n Qp 
Hs = atm – –   ...(4.45)
γ γ  C 
 
104 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

where,
patm— atmospheric pressure
pvp — vapour pressure and
γ — specific weight of liquid
Detailed analysis on cavitation is dealt with in chapter 9. Correct suction head ‘Hs’ or speed ‘n’
can be established by applying cavitation conditions.
In pump industries, pump is selected mostly from among the available models manufactured in
the industry. For the available data of H, Q, pump model, so selected, must be capable of meeting the
hydraulic and constructional requirements of the field conditions. For example, impellers of multistage
pump having hub extended into the impeller eye should not be selected for a single stage end suction
pump, since the entry in multistage pump impeller is different from entry of liquid in single stage end
suction impellers. In single stage end suction pumps entry is radial, whereas in multistage pump entry at
suction need not be radial. By applying model analysis, the available models are selected to suit the new
requirements. If pumps are not available from the existing models, new designs are made using systematic
design procedure. Total head of single stage pumps with standard speed of rotation 1440 rpm (ns ≈ 40)
will be H ≤ 30 m, in order to keep the impeller size and weight of the pump within the limit. If head for
the single stage pump is more than 30 m, then the impeller size and corresponding the total weight of the
pump considerably increases. Hence, head and quantity for a single stage pump should be selected up to
HT
miximum of 30 m for n = 1440 rpm. If pumps are in series, then head per stage will be H = where
i
H — Head of single stage pump, HT — Total head of the multistage pump, i is the number of stages. If
QT
the pumps are in parallel then quantity of flow per pump will be Qp= , where Qp—quantity of flow
i
for one pump, QT—Total quantity required and i—Number of pumps to be kept in parallel. If a double
QT
suction pump is used then Q = . In case of single stage pump, excess quantity is required to take care
2
of axial thrust, leakage through wearing rings, stuffing box cooling, etc. Actual quantity must be
increased by an extra of 3 to 10% i.e., Qp = Qact = (1.03 to 1.1) Q when selecting pumps for usage in
field. Multistage pumps are used for boiler feed, mines etc.
When high suction characteristics are essential such as condensate or for gas-liquid pumping,
speed of rotation must be selected a little lower than normal. A double suction pump is preferred. If a
multistage pump is used for such conditions, the first stage impeller must be specially designed.The
suction head Hs is determined as per the equation 4.45.
For the calculated specific speed, approximate overall efficiency (η) can be obtained by referring
γQH
the graph (Fig. 4.19). The power of the prime mover will be Ni = .
η
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 105

N% 1 h
100
N
2 %
95 5
3

5a
5
90 4 10
6

5b
85 15

80 20

75 25

30
0
70 140 210 240 350 420 490 ns

Fig. 4.20. Energy balance for pumps of different ns (1) Mechanical loss
(2) Impeller loss (3) Discfriction loss (4) Volumetric loss (5) Hydraulic
loss 5a. Volute loss 5b. approach pipe (6) useful output

100 0
1
95 5
2 3
90 10
4
85 15
5
80 20

75 25

70 30

65

60

55

50
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Q
Fig. 4.21. % Energy balance for a pump (1) Mechanical loss (2) Volumetric loss
Qnor
(3) Hydraulic loss (4) Useful power (5) Recirculation loss.

Fig. 4.20 gives an energy balance for different specific speeds of pump and Fig. 4.21 for one
pump. Referring to these figures the mechanical losses, volumetric losses and hydraulic losses, and
106 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

corresponding efficiency can be determined. Overall efficiency η = ηv× ηm× ηh, where ηv, ηm, ηh are
the volumetric, mechanical and hydraulic efficiencies respectively. It is necessary to reduce the volumetric
eifficiency by 1 to 2% depending upon the conditions, in case excess volume is used for axial thrust
balancing and stuffing box cooling. Prof. A.A. Lomakin (69) has suggested that volumetric and hydraulic
efficiencies can be determined as per the equation given below. Mechanical efficiency can be assumed
as 1% for larger pumps and 1.5% for smaller pumps. Volumetric efficiency ‘ηv’ is given by
1
= 1 + 0.68 (nS)–2/3 ...(4.46)
ηv
Qact
and Qth = where Qact is the quantity of flow for one pump. ηv the volumetric efficiency lies between
ηv
85% and 95% for pumps. Hydraulic efficiency (ηh) is given by
0.42
ηh = 1 – ...(4.47)
(log D0( Nom ) – 0.172)2
3
Q
where, D0(nom) = (4.5 to 4.0) (metres)
n
H act
and Hth = where Hact – total head for one pump. ηh the Hydraulic efficiency lies between 75% to
ηh
95% and depends upon the shape of the vane passages, surface roughness of the passages and size of the
impeller.
Mechanical efficiency ηm lies 1% for larger pumps and 1.5% for smaller pumps.
γQH
Based on the head, quantity of flow, the power required to drive the pump, Ni = , where γ is
η
the specific weight of the pumping liquid. The above equation can be written in different forms such as

WH PQ
Ni = since γQ = W, weight of the pumping liquid flowing per unit time. Also, Ni = , since
η η
γH = p, the total pressure required for the pumping liquid. Ni is the power input to the pump at coupling
and is equal to the power output from the prime mover (Nop). If the efficiency of the prime mover (ηpr)
N op – Ni
is known, the power input to the prime mover Nipr = .
η pr

4.14 DETERMINATION OF SHAFT DIAMETER AND HUB DIAMETER


Having known the total head, quantity of flow and power, the shaft diameter ‘dS’ can be determined
based on the material selected for shaft, its yield strength for bending and the torque to be transmitted. A
factor of safety of 2 to 6 is used depending upon the type of operation of the pump.
In order to take care of the operation of pumps under overloading condition, a 10% to 15% extra
power, over and above normal rated power is taken for shaft diameter design.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 107

Power ‘N’ required is (1.1 to 1.15) Ni = Tω where T is the torque transmitted in N.m and ω is the
2π n
angular velocity of the shaft, ω = , where n is the speed rpm. If ‘fu’ is the ultimate strength of the
60
shaft material selected, the yield strength ‘fs’ for bending, fatique and shear operating condition,
fu
fs = , where FS is the factor of safety (2 to 6). Shaft diameter ds is determined from the formula
FS
π d s3
f = T.
16 s
Hub diameter ‘dh’ will be dh = 1.2 to 1.3 ds ...(4.48)
depending upon the pump capacity. It is necessary to select the hub diameter to accommodate impeller
key with sufficient space especially for smaller pumps.

4.15 DETERMINATION OF INLET DIMENSIONS FOR IMPELLER


Normally the eye velocity C0 will be 3 to 5 mps. However, it can be determined as,

C0 = 0.06 to 0.08 3
Qn 2 ...(4.41)
Eye diameter ‘D0’ is determined as

Qth = C0 . π (D20 – dh2 ) or = C0 π D20 ...(4.2)


4 4
depending upon type of construction of the pump such as multistage pumps or double suction pumps or
single stage end suction pumps. Eye diameter D0, is rounded off to the nearest standard pipe size and
then correct value of C0 is again determined from the continuity equation (4.2).
The position of the inlet edge of the blade in impeller must be selected based on the required
cavitational characteristics. Radial type, low specific speed, centrifugal pumps will have the inlet edge
of the impeller parallel to thie axis. At higher ranges of specific speeds (ns = 150 to 250) the inlet edge
of the impeller is extended into impeller eye, in order to provide better cavitational characteristics. The
inlet edge of the impeller blade will be inclined (diagonal) instead of purely parallel to shaft axis. In
other words, the inlet edge of the impeller blade gradually extends from purely axial to diagonal when
specific speed of radial type centrifugal pumps increases, in order improve the cavitation characteristics
of the pump.
Diameter D1 is selected as D1 = 0.70 to 1.1 D0 , when specific speed ranges from 300 to 70.
Taking, Cm0 the meridional velocity before the blade inlet as Cm0 = C0 or 1.05 to 1.1 C0 the
breadth ‘B1’ at inlet is calculated from the continuity equation.
Qth = π D1 B1 Cm0
Qth
or B1 = ...(4.49)
πD1Cm 0
The inlet blade angle β1 is determined as
Cm1 KC
tan β10 = = 1 m0 ...(4.50)
u1 u1
108 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

πD 1Cm 0 1.Cm0 t
and Cm1 = K1Cm0 = = = ...(4.51)
Zδ Zδ δ
πD − 1− t−
sin β10 πD sin β10 sin β10

π D1
where, t= .
Z
Selection of number of blades may be carried out referring Figs. 4.15 and 4.16. Normally number
of vanes is selected as Zi = 6 to 8 depending upon the specific speed. The pitch or blade spacing (t) can
πD1
be calculated as t1 = . Vane thickness can be selected for strength and at the same time as minimum
Z
thickness as possible to get more flow passage area between any two blades and also to get proper vane
shape while casting in foundary.
As first approximation β10 is determined from equation (4.50). This value is substituted in equation
(4.51) and the coefficient K1 is calculated.
This value is now substituted in equation (4.48) to get new value of β10 .This value is substituted
in equation (4.49) to get new value of K1. This value of K1 is now substituted in equation (4.48) to get
the second value of β10. This process is repeated until two successive values of β10 and K1 are same.
The blade angle β1 is determined by adding the angle of attack ‘δ ’ i.e., β1= β10 + δ as mentioned earlier.
Final value of Cm1 is determined from Cm1= K1Cm0. Thus, all parameters for impeller blade inlet D1, B1,
Cm1, K1, u1, β1 and β10, Z are available for further the calculation to determine the parameters at impeller
blade outlet.

4.16 DETERMINATION OF OUTLET DIMENSIONS OF IMPELLER


The relative velocity ‘w1’ at inlet will be
Cm1 ( = K1Cm 0 )
w1 = ...(4.52)
sin β1
The meridional velocity at outlet Cm2 is selected as Cm2 = 0.8 to 0.9 Cm1 and the relative velocity
w1
at outlet w2 is determined as = 1.1 to 1.15, since the blade passage is a divergent passage. It is also
w2
necessary to take uniform change of w and Cm between inlet and outlet of impeller passage, in order
determine the blade angle β at different radii between inlet and outlet of the impeller blade passage. Also
the blade shape and flow passage between blades form, more uniformly, by which impeller secondary
losses will be less and hydraulic efficiency will be higher.
Outlet parameters are determined by approximate method, and then corrected, since the coefficient
ψ and p to determine the total head reduction due to finite number of blades, determination of number of
blade, are all function of outlet blade angle and outlet diameter.
As first approximation Cu 2 is selected as Cu 2 = 0.8 to 0.5 for specific speeds 75 to 250.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 109

H uC Cu 2 u22
Manometric Head Hm = = 2 u2 = for normal entry at inlet
ηh g g

gH m 60 u2
or u2 = and D2 =
Cu 2 πn
D2 determined from first approximation, is used to determine outlet blade angle β2, number of
blades Z and the head correction coefficient ψ and p. From velocity triangles at inlet and at outlet,
Cm1 C
w1 = and w2 = m 2 from which
sin β1 sin β 2

w2 Cm 2 sin β1 Cm 2 sin β1 K 2 Cm3 sin β1


= ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
w1 sin β 2 Cm1 Cm1 sin β 2 K1 Cm 0 sin β 2

Cm 2 w2 K 2Cm 3 w2
or sin β2 = ⋅ sin β1 = ⋅ sin β1 ...(4.53)
Cm1 w1 K1Cm 0 w1

Cm 2 w2
Since β1 is known, , , value β2 can be determined. Values ψ, p Z are determined from
Cm1 w1
equations 4.18 and 4.19. The value H∞ = ((1 + p) Hm is determined. The outlet vane velocity u2 is
60 u2
determined from equation (4.39) and then D2 = . Outlet breadth, B2 is determined as
πn

t2 Cm 2
K2 =
δ2
and Cm3 =
K 2 Qth = π D2 B2 Cm3
t2 −
sin β 2

Cm 2
Relative velocity at outlet w2 = .
sin β 2
If D2 value determined by I and II and approximation vary too much, then D2 determined from
IInd approximation should be substituted in all equations to determine the outlet dimensions and the
process should be repeated until successive values of D2 are same.

4.17 DEVELOPMENT OF FLOW PASSAGE IN MERIDIONAL PLANE


After determining inlet and outlet parameters of impeller blade, the development of flow passage
in meridional plane (elevation) should be determined before developing the blade shape in plan.
Selection and formation of flow passage depend upon the specific speed of the pump. The radius
of curvature at the bend portion must be as large as possible in order to provide a smooth change over
from axial to radial direction. The criteria for construction of such flow passage is to provide an uniform
110 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

change in area from eye to outlet of impeller and at the same time providing velocity C0 at eye, Cm0 at
inlet Cm3 at outlet.
From the established dimensions at inlet and at outlet for the impeller, a graph indicating the
variation of Cm, w, β, δ, B, from inlet to outlet as a function of diameter D should be prepared. The
uniform change in Cm and w is suitably assumed between inlet and outlet and the graph is drawn.
(Fig. 4.3). Referring this graph Cm and w for any diameter can be found out. The blade angle β will be

β = sin–1 Cm . Similarly, the blade thickness ‘δ’ can be assumed. Blade thickness is always determined
w
based in the blade loading and the facility available at foundry to cast as minimum thickness as possible,
which provides more flow passage area. Normally blade thickness is gradually increased from inlet to
some distance approximately up to 1/3 to 2/5 of the blade length and then decreases up to outlet. Usually
4 mm to 6 mm for smaller pumps and 10 mm to 12 mm for larger pumps are selected. A graph δ = f (D)
is drawn. The breadth of the blade at any diameter can be determined from the equation.

 Zδ 
Qth =  πD −  B.Cm.
 sin β 
The value β, δ, Cm are taken from the graph for the selected diameter ‘D’ A graph B = f (D) is
drawn in the same graph.
From impeller eye to blade inlet edge, the graph can be extended to get complete the flow passage.
π D02
The continuity equation at impeller eye portion will be Qth = .C0 for end suction pumps.
4
π D02 D0
This can be changed as Qth = C0 = πDm B C0, where Dm is mean diameter = and B is
4 2
D0
the equivalent breadth B = .
2
π 2 2
Similarly, Qth = (D – d ).C for double suction and multistage pumps. This can be modified as
4 0 h 0
π
Qth = (D20 – dh2 ).C0 = πDm BC0
4
D0 + d h D0 – d h
where, Dm = and B =
2 2
Depending upon the specific speed, the shape of the middle stream line (Dm from eye to inlet and
D from inlet to outlet) is drawn. It should be remembered, that the radius of cruvature at the bend, where
the flow direction changes from axial to radial must be as large as possible at inner and at outer shrould
for better performance. On this streamline, a number of circles are drawn, at frequent intervals, selecting
different diameters of impeller passage. The diameter of these circle drawn on the streamlines is equal
to the breadth ‘B’. For the selected diameter (D) this value of B can be obtained from the graph. Lines
are drawn at both ends of the circle such that the line drawn must be tangent to all cirlces (Fig. 4.22).
These two lines form inner and outer shrouds of the impeller.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 111

If an arc is drawn connecting the meeting tangent points on S2


shrouds and the centre of circle the angle between the arc and tangent

ds

dr
should be 90° i.e., normal (Fig. 4.22). A graph can be drawn between
area ‘A’, A = f (S). Which must have the shape as shown in the Figs.
4.5 (b) and 4.22.

r2
For better cavitational characteristics the rate of area increase

r
at the bend portion, where the flow changes from axial to radial

r1
direction must be at a larger rate than the area increase at the radial
portion. By providing considerable increase in area at the inlet section,

D0
the rate of increase in area at the radial direction will be at a lower
rate. Moreover, significant increase in area at inlet compensates the
area reduction due to vane thickness at inlet.
Radius of curvature at the bend portion of the meridional passage
at the outer side must be as large as possible since smaller radius of
curvature at this point yields high velocity of flow as well as flow
separation after the bend, which drastically reduces cavitational
property and hydraulic efficiency. Flow separation at this point will
create very poor flow in the following radial portion as well as at inlet Fig. 4.22. Vane development in
of the impeller, all will reduce the hydraulic efficiency. meridional section
In general, meridional flow passage development must possess,
1. Smooth, streamlined and uniform area change from eye to the outlet must be ensured.
2. The radius of curvature at the outer side of the bend portion must be as large as possible.
3. Contour of flow passage must be in the same pattern as that recommended for that specific
speed.
D2 D2
The diameter reduces, when specific speed nS increases. When < 1.6, the surface area of
D1 D1
the vane significantly reduces if the inlet edge of the blade lies in the radial portion of the passage. The
blade loading will be higher, which inturn, reduces the cavitational characteristics. Hydraulic losses are
increased. To overcome this, the blade inlet is extended into the bend portion. The inlet edge of the
blade, instead of being parallel to axis, will be inclined. The blade passage changes from diagonal at
inlet to radial at outlet.
This inturn reduces the blade velocity and relative velocity at inlet. This reduces hydraulic losses
and improves cavitational characteristics and reduces blade loading. Due to the inclined location of inlet
edge, the radius from hub to outer changes. Since meridional velocity Cm is constant throughout the
inlet cross-section, blade angle β1 reduces from hub to periphery. Blade curvature changes, from single
curvature to double curvature. The inlet edge will be diagonal and outlet edge will be parallel to axis for
specific ns = 200 to 300. When specific speed increases still further i.e., for ns = 350 to 500 the outlet
edge also becomes inclined and the pumps will be mixed or diagnal type in stead of radial.

4.18 DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLE CURVATURE BLADE—RADIAL BLADES


Single curvature blade or plane vane development is adopted for pure radial blades, where the
inlet and outlet edges lie parallel to axis. The specific speed ‘ns’ of such pump will be less than 100 i.e.,
ns < 100 and normally the diameter D2 < 70 to 100 mm.
112 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Vane development, either by single or by double arc method or by step by step method called as
point by point method, must provide uniform variation in relative velocity ‘w’, meridional velocity Cm
and angle of divergence from inlet to outlet along the flow passage i.e., from S1 to S2 (Fig. 4.23).

G
S2 β
β2 dr

E S2
D B r dθ
θ θk
β1
rk

A dθ ri δ
r0

ri
β
S1 θ

Fig. 4.23. (a) Single curvature plane Fig. 4.23. (b) Vane development by
vane development point by point method

Blade thickness ‘δ’ is selected either constant or changing from inlet to outlet, smaller thickness at
inlet and at outlet end and higher thickness at the middle. However, blade thickness is determined based
in the blade loading and the type of casting adopted in foundry for casting the impeller. The vane
thickness will be a little higher at inlet than that at outlet and will be rounded off at inlet for shockness
entry. For smaller pumps the blade thickness will be 3 mm at inlet, 5 mm to 6 mm at the middle and 1
mm to 2 mm at the outlet. For larger pumps blade thickness is increased up to 10 to12 mm. Selection of
minimum thickness provides a larger flow passage between blades. The velocities Cm and w in the flow
passage is reduced, which yields to higher hydraulic efficiency. Flow is also without separation for a
wide range of flow rate. Now-a-days airfoils are used, for maximum economy and for better anticavitating
property. These profiles are positioned on the stream line ‘S1 to S2’ determined by point by point method.
Referring to Fig. 4.23 the differiential equation at any point between ‘S1 to S2’ for the central
steam line in plan can be written as
dr dr
tan β = or dθ =
rdθ r tan β
Taking θ = 0 when r = r1 and ‘β’ from the graph (Fig. 4.3) β = f (D) and integrating.

θ r2
dr
θ= ∫ dθ = r∫ r tan β ...(4.54)
0 1
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 113

Integration is carried out by step by step summation of dθ


1
Taking, = B (r)
r tan β

Bi + Bi + 1
∆θ = ∆ri
2
where ∆θ and ∆r are the increment in central angle and radius Bi and Bi+1 are the integrals at the
beginning and at the end of selected radius. Total value of θ will be
i =i
Bi + Bi + 1
θi = ∑ 2
∆ri ...(4.55)
i =1

All calculations are carried out in Tabular form.


TABLE 4.4: Plane vane development
 Cm δ 
+ 
t

Bi + Bi +1

∆θ = B × ∆s

θi =Σ∆θ rad
 w

r tan β

2
sin β = 

∆S or ∆r
1
2πr
Z
S.No.

θ deg
tan β

Bi =

B=
t=
Cm

β
w

δ
r
S

The values of S or r can be arbitrarily selected for which Cm, W, β can be taken from the velocity
distribution graph (Figs. 4.23 and 4.3). The middle streamline is constructed from the table where θ and
the corresponding r are known. Blade thickness is added on the streamline, to get the blade in complete
shape.

4.19 DEVELOPMENT OF DOUBLE CURVATURE BLADE SYSTEM


4.19.1 Importance of Diagonal Impellers
Increase in speed of the impeller reduces the overall dimensions, total weight and the cost of the
pump. The specific speed of the pump ns increases. Diameter ratio D2/D1 reduces.
If radial vanes are provided when D2/D1< 1.6 and specific speed is 150 ≤ ns ≤ 250, the specific,
load on the vane increases, due to the reduction in the effective vane area. Cavitational property of the
pump also reduces. In order to overcome this, the vane is extended into the impeller eye i.e., vane will be
diagonal at the inlet instead of radial.
114 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

If the increase in specific speed is still further, 300 ≥ ns ≥ 600 the outlet edge of the vane also
becomes diagonal. Each streamline of the vane will have its own configuration, i.e., the vane angles β1
and β2 are different from hub to periphery. The vane will be in the twisted form i.e., double curvature.
Due to the change in direction of flow for axial, to diagonal, uniform steady flow no longer exists.
The velocity field considerably changes at the inlet and at outlet. This complicates the pattern of flow.
Existing elemental theory of pumps with average velocity assumption along the circumferential and
along the radial directions cannot be assumed. A simple but considerably accurate scheme has to be
developed. Axisymmetric flow, i.e., flow with infinite number of vanes is commonly adopted for this
type of flow.
Theoretical investigation under axisymmetric flow with infinite number of vanes in meridional
section of flow will be equal velocity construction. This has been suggested by so many authors.
One of the methods of construction for diagonal type of impellers is the assumption of constant
head along all surfaces of revolution where the flow line lies. By applying Kelvin’s theorem, a vortex
free flow i.e., potential flow ωu = 0, suggested by Bowersfield is attained in the vane system as a result
of which the circulation along any contour is constant.

4.19.2 A General Solution for the Flow Through the Vane System
Considering general flow conditions, due to the perpendicularity of the normal nf to the surface f

and the relative velocity vector w , the flow on vane surface ‘f ’ in a relative form can be written in the
form,
cos (n f , w) = 0
By applying cosine law between two crossing lines in the cylindrical coordinates (r, θ, z).
_
cos (n f , w) = cos (n f , r ) cos ( w, r ) + cos ( n f , u ) . cos ( w, u ) + cos (n f , z ) . cos ( w, z )
...(4.56)
Equation (4.56) can be written as
∂f ∂f ∂f
wr + wu + wz = 0 ...(4.57)
∂r r ∂θ ∂z
Cosine angle of the normal nf to the coordinates is proportional to the partial differential of the
function (r, θ, z) along the corresponding coordinates and cosine angle of the vector w with the coordinate
is proportional to the corresponding components of the velocity.
Taking into account the relation between absolute and relative velocities.
∂f ∂f ∂f
Cr + (u – Cu) + C = 0 ...(4.58)
∂r r ∂θ ∂z z
The vector Ω of the vorticity is also perpendicular to n f , since the surface f is a vortex surface.

Similarly, the condition of perpendicularity n f , and Ω can be written as


∂f ∂f ∂f
Ω + Ω + Ω = 0 ...(4.59)
∂r r r ∂θ u ∂z z
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 115
__
Considering an element dS on the surface ‘f ’ which lies tangential to the surface and perpendicular
__
to nf and designating dS components as dr, rdθ and dz, we get
∂f ∂f ∂f
dr + rd θ + dz = 0 ...(4.60)
∂r r ∂θ ∂z

From the relativity theory equations 4.56, 4.57, 4.58 can be written in the form

dr rd θ dz
Cr u − Cu C z = 0 ...(4.61)
Ωr Ωu Ω z

This differential equation expresses the condition for the flow of vanes under vortex free absolute
flow of fluid without any boundary limitations. However, the components of velocities can be determined
only under axisymmetrical relative flow.

4.19.3 Axisymmetric Flow of Fluid


Axisymmetric flow can be conveniently determined in cylindrical coordinates.
Continuity equation in cylindrical coordinates can be obtained, considering the flow through the
surface of elementary volume with dr, rdθ and dz as boundaries. [Fig 4.24 (b)].
If q is the flow through one side:
qabcd = ρCr rdθ, dz, dt

 ∂ (ρCr ) 
qefgh = ρCr + dr  dθ, dz, dt
 ∂r 
Correspondingly:
qadhe = ρCu drdzdt

 ∂ (ρCu ) 
qbegf =  ρCu + d θ  dru , dz, dt
 ∂θ 
and qaefb = ρCZ rdθ dz dt

 ∂ (ρCZ ) 
qehgc = ρCZ +  rd θ dr dt
 ∂Z 

The total flow through all sides of the elementary volume will be

 ∂ (ρ Cr r ∂ (ρ Cu ) ∂ (ρC z ) 
+ +r
dt ∫ ρCn df = 
 ∂r ∂θ ∂z 
dr dθ dz dt
f
where Cr, Cu, Cz — the component velocities on the cylindrical coordinates.
Cn — Projection of velocity along the direction of the normal to the elemental surface df.
116 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

∂ρ
Increase in the mass flow inside the given volume is dr, rdθ dz, dt. This equation of balance
∂t
is divided on both sides by dr, rdθ dz, dt. Continuity equation in cylindrical coordinates is obtained.

∂ρ 1 ∂ (ρr Cr ) 1 ∂ (ρCu ) ∂ (ρ C z )
+ r +r + =0 ...(4.62)
∂t ∂r ∂θ ∂Z
For incompressible flow where ρ = constant
∂ ( r Cr ) ∂ ( r Cu ) ∂ (r C z )
+ + = 0 ...(4.63)
∂r r ∂θ ∂Z
∂ (r Cu )
For axisymmetric flow = 0
r ∂θ
∂ ( r Cr ) ∂ ( rC z )
Hence, + = 0 ...(4.64)
∂r ∂Z
II
II
II
II

1 2 3 4 5


1 σk c dr
2 dθ d g
3 Si h
b
4 r dz f j
rd θ θ
)d
rm

5
r0

a dr
+
k (r
rh

Fig. 4.24. (a) Flow pattern in mixed Fig. 4.24. (b) Elementary section for the determination
flow pumps of continuity equation and vorticity components
in cylindrical co-ordinates system
s2
hf t
dr

ds
s1
dθ θ
dr
r

R r

R
dR
dl

Fig. 4.24. (c) Construction of vane section on the flow surface

4.19.4 Flow Line and Vortex Line in Axisymmetric Flow


The flow function ψ in axisymmetric flow will be
∂ψ ∂ψ
rCr = ; – r Cz = ...(4.65)
∂Z ∂r
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 117

From equations (4.64) and (4.65), we get


∂2ψ ∂2ψ
=
∂r ∂Z ∂Z ∂r
The streamline equation for a two dimensional flow will be
dr dz
= or Cr dz – Cz dr = 0 ...(4.66)
Cr Cz

∂ψ ∂ψ
from which rCr dZ – r CZ dr = + dr = dψ = 0
∂zdz ∂r
This means that ψ function is constant along flow line. The streamline in meridional section
corresponds to the flow surface in space.
The components of vorticity Ω of absolute velocity in cylindrical coordinate can be determined
from the circulation along the contour of the elemental volume considered above.
∂C z ∂Cu
Ωr = rotr C = −
r ∂θ ∂z

∂Cr ∂C z
Ω u = rotu C = −
∂z ∂r
∂ (rCu ) ∂Cr
Ωz = rotz C = − ...(4.67)
r ∂r r ∂θ
For axisymmetric flow
∂ Cu ∂ (Cu r )
Ωr = – =−
∂z r ∂z

∂ Cr ∂ Cz
Ωu = =−
∂z ∂r
∂ Cu r
Ωz = ...(4.68)
r ∂r
The meridional component of the vector
Ωm = Ωr + Ω z ...(4.69)
The equation of vortex line Ωm is
dr dz
= or Ω z dr – Ωr dz = 0 ...(4.70)
Ωr Ωz
From equations 4.68 and 4.70, we get
∂ (r Cu ) ∂ (r Cu ) 1
Ωzdr – Ωr dz = dr = dz = d ( rCu) = 0
r ∂r r ∂z r
From which we get that vortex line coincides with the line r Cu = constant
118 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

4.19.5 Differential Equation for the Cross-section of Vane with the Flow Surface
The vane surface f is determined by crossing points of line 1 with the surface S. The relative
velocity is tangential to both vane surface f and flow surface S. Hence, it is directed along the line of
crossing of those two lines which represents flow line. [Fig. 4.24 (c)].
Let us construct a conical surface tangential to the flow surface S, such that it contains an element
ds. The differential equation of flow line 1 on the surface S [Fig. 4.24 (c)] can be represented in the form
of

ds Rd θ
= w ...(4.71)
wm u

where R and θ are the corresponding radius and angle along the spreaded cone surface.
Transferring from relative velocity to absolute velocity, we get

ds wm Cm
= w = ...(4.72)
Rdθ u u − Cu

From the figure 4.24 (c), we get


Rdθ = rdθ
Since the elemental circumferential line in conical surface and in plan are equal.
Equation 4.71 can now be written as

ds ds Cn
tan β = = = ...(4.73)
Rdθ rdθ u − Cu
which is the differential equation of line crossing the vane on the flow surface S. The above function can
be rewritten as

r 2 Cn
ds = = dθ ...(4.74)
ωr 2 − Cu r

4.19.6 Construction of Vane Surface when Ω u = 0


The simplest construction of vane surface is obtained when we consider Ωu = 0 which means the
increase in energy of flow in impeller is proportional to change in the moment Cu r , and Ωu is independent.
∂ Cr ∂ C z
Ωu = – =0 ...(4.75)
∂z ∂r
Potential function Φ of the meridional velocity Cm
∂Φ ∂Φ
Cz = and Cr = ...(4.76)
∂r ∂Z
Considering both, we get
∂2Φ ∂2Φ
=
∂r ∂Z ∂Z ∂r
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 119

The equipotential lines (Φ = constant) are determined as


∂Φ ∂Φ
dΦ = dr + dz = Cr dr + Cz dz = 0
∂r ∂Z
dr dz
or = ...(4.77)
Cz Cr

C ′m w 2 m/sec w(s)
a
12,0 e
d c b
10,0
a 5.0 .0 8,0
4
b 4. 5 v 1m a
2 . .0
5

6,0
3.

c
3
5
1 . .0

c
5
2

d 4,0 b d e

e 2,0
0
40 80 120 160 160 200 240 280 320360 400
s mm
(a) (b)

Fig. 4.25. Potential flow pattern in vane passage and the velocity distribution along the streamline

9
8
7
45 6 3 2 1 0
a01 2 3 4
b 5
c 6
d
7
e
8
9

Fig. 4.26. Vane construction under Ω u = 0

F
7
l 6
II 5
4
3
II 12
a
δ(σ) b
II c 5
n d 6
II
b c d e e
a
∆a σ* ∆b σ* ∆c σ* ∆d σ*

(a) (b)

σ ) (b) Construction of ‘s’ lines and s lines for equal velocity flow
Fig. 4.27. (a) Graph f (σ
120 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Ωu = 0 construction is theoretically based. Practical results coincide, if the meridional flow pattern
is uniform. If flow separation prevails, this condition cannot be obtained.
Uniform flow can be obtained if radius of curvature is large in meridional section, which at the
same time increases the size of impeller in axial direction.

TABLE 4.5: For the calculation of flow line under equal velocity flow

– ∆σ*
ri + ∆σ

δ (∆σ) = ∆σ

100
∆F = rav ∆σ

F = Σ ∆F 1

σ = Σ ∆σ
2

∆σ*

σ*
i k r ∆σ

δ(∆σ)
∆σ
1 2 3 4 rav =
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

a 3

4.19.7 Construction of Vane Under Equal Velocity Construction


Since potential flow does not agree, especially for pumps, another method, what is called, equal
velocity distribution is adopted. This construction for pump is an extension of the method used for radial
impellers. This is based on the principle that the calculation for each streamline is based on the equal
meridional velocity Cm in the impeller passage, under the known value of H∞. Due to inadequate theoretical
background it is more or less done based on experimental results-obtained from best impellers. Using
trial and error method, for the given Cm, the flow line S is determined as first approximation. For this the
entrance area to exit area f is divided into a number of equal areas. By eye judgement the position of S
and equipotential line σx at the intermediate places are located [Fig. 4.27 (b)].
The flow through σx is equal to
n
∫ 1 Cmx
n
Q1 = 2 π rdσ = 2 πCmx ∫ 1 rdσ ...(4.78)
Since Cm is constant along σx the velocity in the section σx is equal to

Q1
Cmx = n ...(4.79)
2π r02 ∫ rd σ
1

R dσ
where, r = and dσ =
r0 r0
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 121

The ratio Cmx to C0 is given by

— Cmx 1 − rhub
2 1 − r h2
Cmx = = n = ...(4.80)
C0 2 ∫ rd σ 2F
1

The values F = ∫ rdσ is determined by integration (Table 4.5).


1

As per the table, F (σ) is constructed [Fig.4.27 (a)] and then this value F is divided into (n – 1)
equal parts, which is equal to n flow lines. The value ∆σ* is determined by second approximation and
on it the new position of flow line in section σ is established along which the first approximation flow
line S for the entire surface is constructed [Fig. 4.27 (a)].
The second approximation of flow line S is determined by constructing all σ lines. For that the
flow line k = 1 is divided into m – 1 equal parts corresponding to the assumed m σ lines [Fig. 4.27 (b)].
Then σ lines are constructed and the table is developed. The positions of flow lines ‘S’ and fr lines to S
are now corrected. The same is continued for third time. The lines fr to σ are equal velocity lines
[Fig. 4.27 (b)].

4.19.8 Construction of Vane Surface Under Equal Velocity Flow for the
Given w(s)
From the calculation of vane surface under equal velocity constructions, the change in w = f (S) is
determined. Each vane section (flow lines) is calculated separately. These are common for all these
lines and is the head H∞. The vane surface at the entrance is formed as twisted in order to provide
shockless entry for some discharge Qδ = 0 = m Q′ at all entrance edges. The coefficient m is determined
from the angle δ; selected along one flow line, usually the leading edge.
The shockless entry for the leading edge (marked K =1) is determined as

K11Cm11
tan β110 = ...(4.81)
u11
K1 — correction coefficient for vane thickness
u1 — peripheral velocity
Taking angle of attack δ1, for the first line, we get
β11 = β110 + δ1

K11 (Cm′ 1 )δ = 0
and tan β11 = ...(4.82)
u11
where (C′m1)δ = 0 is the meridional velocity corresponding to shockless entry at the inlet edge.
The ratio

(Cm′ 1 )δ =0 tan β11 (δ′) δ=0


= = = m0
Cm′ 1 tan β110 Q′
122 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

which is constant for twisted surface at entrance. The entrance angle β1K for all entrance edges lying in
a flow sk is determined by
tan β1K = m tan β1K, 0. ...(4.83)
Cm′ ,k u1k ωr1k
Cm , K = , u1k = = = r1k
u0 u0 ωr0

Cm1k
tan β1h = m K1k ...(4.84)
r1k
Cm1k is determined from the equal velocity construction. If entrance edge lies on the orthogonal
line then it is constant along the entrance edge.
P1 = 2 πr1k tan β1k ...(4.85)
The entrance edge location is based on specific speed and experience and then subsequently
corrected.
The calculation β1K + w1n along flow lines are carried is a tabular form (Table 4.6). The value K1
is assumed, corrected and then w1K is determined. The exit edge is usually parallel to axis. If inclined,
the same procedure is followed for outlet edge also.
TABLE 4.6: Method of calculation for vane entrance

w1k = K1 k v m1 K
sin β 1k
cos γk
tan β 1,0,k =

∆s / sin β1k
m tan β 10k

sin/pk
K1,k v*m,k

2prk
tan β1,k =

∆k

∆ sk
tan β10,k
K1 ,k

cos γk

tk = z

K*1k
v*m1

sin β1k
∆1
r1
K

γ1

β1k
S

∆ξk =

tk–
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

— ωin Cm1n
W 1n = = K1k ...(4.86)
u0 sin β1k

w1n Cm1n
w1n = = sin β
u0 1k

Cm 2 K
w2k = K2k
sin β2 K
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 123

ω2 K ∞
is usually selected as 1 to 0.75
ω1k

w1k K C mγ
sin β2k = , 2k , sin β1k ...(4.87)
w2 k ∞ K1k C m1
2gH ∞
H∞ = ...(4.88)
u02
2
u2 Cm 2 1  Cm 2 1  gH ∞
from which = ⋅ +  u 2 tan β  + u 2
u0 u 0 2 tan β2 0 2 0

2
K 2 Cm 2  K 2Cmγ  H
from which r2 = +   + ∞ ...(4.89)
2 tan β2  2 tan β2  2
Similarly, for other sections; for constant values of H∞ and for the assumed value of r2 the
K 2 Cm 2
values from equations 4.89 is found out from which β2K is calculated.
tan β2

K 2 k Cm 2 k
tan β2K = tan β2 ...(4.90)
K 2 Cm 2
Calculation is done in a tabular form (Table 4.7). The coefficient K2k is assumed suitably.
The construction of vane is carried out as per the pattern of change of w(S) along the flow line S.
The procedure of w(S) is obtained as per the relative velocity at entrance (Table 4.6) and at exit
(Table 4.7) such that change of w along (S) is uniform. The presence of maximum and minimum velocity
at intermediate points indicate the losses due to conversion of kinetic energy to pressure.

TABLE 4.7: Method of calculation for vane exit


w 2k = K*2k vm2k
sin β2k

sin β2
sin β2k
2 π rk

∆S
tan K2

cos β

cos γ
tan β2

sin β2

∆S
z

K*2k
S2

∆S
γ2

m*2
r2

∆2
K

tk =

tk –

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
124
TABLE 4.8: Method of vane surface for the given value of w(s)

sin β 6 + 12

r 1 + r θ1
∆θ = 18 17

∆lu = rav ∆θ
r tan β
vm* w ∞

lu = Σ∆ lu
∆ = Σ∆θ
tan β

2
1
cos γ

∆s / t
∆s

B av
w∞

γ
vm *

β
D
t

∆s
S
l

B=

rav =
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

m-1

ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)


m-2

l S1 r1 v m1 w ∞1

Note : 1. Circles are indicated the N 2 of tabular column.


While calculating, put the exact values.
2. (21) to (22) are for conformal transformation.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 125

The calculation of vane as per w(s) is carried out in the tabular form normally adopted for radial
vanes, corresponding to the methods explained above, or in the form Table 4.8 (in non-dimensional
form).
The calculation is carried out from arbitrarily selected exist edge, to the inlet edge, which is
obtained from the calculation. The pattern of change of w(s) and the thickness ∆(s) is obtained such that
the position of entrance edge of the vane lies at the desired level and also not so much deviated in the
value of central angle θlk (which is shown in the plan). The change of θlk from the leading edge to the
trailing edge must also be uniform, to ensure the uniform surface. The change of vane thickness ∆ (s) for
all streamlines must be agreed upon correspondingly so as to get uniform change at the meridional
section.

4.19.9 Conformal Transformation of Vane Surface


The obtained form of vane with streamlines and thickness is constructed in plane surface by
conformal transformation (Fig. 4.28). In conformal transformation the angle of inclination of vane β is
kept constant and is used for construction.
ds ds
Since tan β = =
rd θ dlu = 0
where dlu is the projection of elemental length dl along the direction tangential to ‘u’ i.e., dlu = rdθ
The relation between r and θ is obtained from Table 4.8. Taking step integration method, we can
write
i=m
ri + ri +1
lu10 = ∑ 2
δθ.
i =1


z
14 12 11 1
0
∆θ = 2π
7 9
6
45 87 kz
3
s 12 ∆s
6
s

rdθ

5 4

p1
r
3 2 1
∆θ
r1

γ h
16 12 3 4
56 7 123 4 5 6 7
15
14
13 ∆s . r d θ
12 a2
11
10
9
8
7
1 2 3 45
6 a1 δ

Fig. 4.28. Conformal transformation of vane surface

Which is carried out in a tabular form (Table 4.8), column 21, 22, 23. As per the values S , ∆u
the conformal transformation in plan is constructed.
126 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

The interdisplacement of streamlines is carried out based on the experience. The most advantageous
are: (1) The entrance edge at plan must be radial or slightly inclined (point of entrance edge of leading
edge) by an angle of 10–15° toward the opposite side of rotation of impeller. (2) The exit edge is parallel
to axis or the lag. The edge point of the impeller may be inclined towards the direction of rotation.
Two methods are adopted for mixed flow pump design. The first rather old method is one in
which the vane inlet and outlet edges are developed on a cone as a plane cylindrical vane and then
transferred to the plan view from which patterns are made.
In the second developed by Kaplan and called as ‘error triangles method’ the vane is developed
with true angularity, length and thickness. The flow lines are then replotted in plan view. The second
method will be discussed in detail here. In order to layout the vane in plan and in meridional section it is
necessary to have the following quantities:
(a) Meridional velocities at inlet and at outlet i.e., Cm1 and Cm2 respectively.
(b) The impeller outer diameter D2 or peripheral velocity u2.
(c) Vane angles at inlet and at outlet i.e., β1 and β2 respectively.
The following points are most useful:
1. The vane can be extended with the impeller eye which will (a), improve the overall efficiency
of the pump since overlap is more (b), reduces the outer diameter and (c), less shock and disc
friction losses.
2. The profile in meridional section will be drawn for uniform change over from Cm1 to Cm2.
3. The flow lines a1, a2 represent the true radial sections of the flow lines, which should be
gradual to avoid sharp corners.
4. Number of flow lines selection depend purely on experience. These are selected based on
equal area construction. Further, it is assumed that the meridional velocity is constant along the
normal and is equal to the average velocity. Naturally the velocities at inlet and at outlet edges
are same provided they lie along the normal. Usually normals are draw first by eye and then
these are divided into parts based on the law. 2πr1b1 = 2πr2b2.

4.19.10 The Method of Error Triangles


Any flow line shown in a perspective view can be conveniently divided into number of parallel
planes. The curve C1, C2 with the parallel circles, a number of meridional planes can be divided into a
number of sections f1 , f2....The intersection of the planes with the surface of the shroud will form a
number of parallel circles. Through the points of intersection of the curve C1, C2 be drawn which will
section the shroud surface along the curved lines at g1, g2 .... These lines together with the section of
parallel circles h1, h2.... and the curve C1, C2 form a number of curved triangle. The accuracy of the line
C1, C2 will be more if greater number of sections are taken.
On elevation the lines C1, C2 will appear as shown in Fig. 4.29 (b), whereas in plan the same
line will appear as shown in Fig. 4.29 (d). The true representation of the lines C1, C2 is given by
Fig. 4.29 (c). Where in all the curved triangles are transferred to a plane such that h1, h2 .... of the parallel
circles form horizontal parallel lines and the sections g1, g2 ..... of the curved vertical lines will become
flat vertical lines. The following procedure is adopted for the impeller vane lay out by error triangle
method.
1. The meridional section (elevation) of the impeller passage is drawn [Fig. 4.30 (b)].
2. Different streamlines are constructed based upon the methods indicated.
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 127

3. The vane development on the plane [Fig. 4.30 (b)] is drawn which corresponds to the exact
vane angle at inlet and at outlet and vane length. Vane thickness is also added. The selection of
vane thickness depends upon the moulding facility available. For normal conditions it is assumed
as 5 to 6 mm.
In order to draw vane development, flow line (a1, a2 or b1, b2 or c1, c2) is divided into a
preferably a number of equal parts such as 1a , 2a, 3a. The parallel lines g1, g2 ..... are drawn the
distances between them corresponds to the distance between 1a , 2a , .... 1b , 2b ...,1c 2c ....
It is always better to draw vane sections of several flow lines in this relative positions. This will
enable us to determine the inlet edge of the vane.
4. The vane sections are now transferred from the vane development to the plan view.
[Fig. 4.30 (c)]. In the plan view an arbitrary point is selected. The arcs of the parallel circles are
drawn with the radii taken from the elevation 1a , 2a ...
The displacement of one point with respect to the other is taken from the vane development
(h1, h2 ...). By joining the points with a smooth curved line the plan projection of the flow line
is obtained. Usually leading edge is taken for the vane development. In order to get the trailing
edge, vane thickness is measured in the plane vane development along the parallel circles at
the required point and laid out at the corresponding points along the circumference. The line
joining all these points will give us the trailing edge. Same procedure is to be followed for
other streamlines also.
5. The next procedure is to draw pattern section for the construction of which the flow lines on
the elevation and plan view are taken as preliminary guidelines. Since these lines are not sufficient
enough to prepare vane pattern sections a second set of construction lines are constructed.
A number of equispaced lines are drawn in the elevation view as indicated in Fig. 4.30 (d) i.e.,
A, B, C, D... The intersection of these lines with meridional streamlines are transferred to the
plan view.
Line joining these transferred point must be smooth, on the plan view. If these lines do not
form smooth, and uniformly spaced, it is an indication that the change in the angularity on the
vane development was too abrupt in any of the flow lines.
The second set of construction lines can also be drawn starting from the plan view. This is done
by drawing different radial lines I, II ... [Fig. 4.30 (e)] and then transferring them to elevation.
Here also the line joining the intersecting points must be smooth. However, the first method is
more advantageous since the second set of construction lines can be taken for pattern making.
6. The next procedure is to get vane pattern sections for which the contour lines on the plan view
are taken. Wooden boards of thickness A, B, C, D .... are cut to the shape along the corresponding
contour lines and then stacked one over the other in the proper order. We get the resulting vane
pattern section in steps [Fig. 4.30 ( f )]. These steps are now filled with wax to get a smooth
surface leading edges. Similarly, the same procedure is adopted for trailing edge also.
7. The best form of impeller channel will be one where in the vane makes 90° with the channel.
This channel form can be improved by moving the flow lines on the plan view [Fig. 4.30 (e)]
through a certain angle.
128 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

g6
c2
f6 g5
h g4 s2
f 5 g6 g3
6
f4 g 5 h g2

r7
r6
5
(b)

r5
f3 g h 4 g1

r4
4
C1

r3
f2 g3

r1
r2
f1
c1 g2 h2
g1 h1 (a)
c2 h6
f6

g1 g2 g 3 g 4 g5 g6
f5 h5
f4 h4
f3 r7
f2 r6 h3
f1 h2
c1 r4 h1
h1 h2 h3 h4 h 5 h 6
r1
(c) (d)

Fig. 4.29. Impeller flow line development on a plane

a2 b2 c2
g1
1a 1 b 1c g
2a 2 2 a2b2c2 su
r1a 2 c
3a r2a b g3 h1
4a 3 b 3c h2 g1 1
5 r3a 4c g2
7 6a a r4a 54b 5 c g3
h3 su1 2
8a a r 5a b
6c h4 s u2 3
6b h5
a1 7b 7c 4
9b h6
8b 8c 5
b1 10 h7 6
b 9c h8 7
10c
a1 8
11c
c1 9
b1 10
c1 11

(a) (b)

H G F E D C BA
b c
I a2 2 2
I
g 1 h g h3 II
h1 2 2 g3 III γ ′3a γ
su 3a II
IV γ′4a γ
VIII V 4a
III
s u2 VII VI IV
a1
D2 r1a V
r2a VI
b1 VII

a1
C1

b1
c1
(c) (d)
THEORY AND CALCULATION OF BLADE SYSTEMS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 129

F–E
G–H

B–C

E– D F–G
III VI
II V IV VII
IV V VIII
DI
III BC
A E VI V VI
IV
VII
II VII
III VIII
F

G C.D.
I II
a1 c1 VIII
B
G
F
a2 CD
E I

(e) (f)

Fig. 4.30. (a) to (f) Mixed flow impeller profile and plane vane development
5
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS)

5.1 IMPORTANCE OF SPIRAL CASINGS


Spiral or volute casing is an approach or suction channel kept before the impeller inlet as well as
a delivery channel kept after impeller outlet. The channel passage may be in the form of vaneless spiral
casing or in the form of vaned or vaneless divergent passage called diffuser or return guide passage.
Design of casing or diffuser must ensure the following:
1. Axisymmetric and equal velocity distribution of flow must always be ensured, since at optimum
conditions, the flow in impeller is axisymmetric. Hydraulic efficiency is also higher.
2. Must uniformly and efficiently convert kinetic energy coming out from the impeller outlet into
useful pressure energy.
3. Momentum at the outlet of impeller must be completely converted in volute casing and
momentum at the casing outlet should be zero.
Fig. 5.1 depicts different forms of casings adopted in pumps. Normally about 25% of kinetic
energy is converted into pressure energy in casings.

Volute or
spiral casing
Concentric passage
with diffuser
Diffuser Return blades
with guide
blades vanes

Discharge
cone

(a) Volute (b) Diffuser (c) Concentric with diffuser blades

Fig. 5.1. Different forms of casings

130
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 131

Casing

Diffuser

Impeller

Fig. 5.2. Diffuser pump

5.2 VOLUTE CASING AT THE OUTLET OF THE IMPELLER


Dynamic head available at the outlet of the impeller can be expressed as
gH m
Hdy = (1 – ρ) Hm = ...(5.1)
2u22
If the coefficient of reaction ρ is high, the kinetic energy will be higher at outlet of the impeller.
The casing must be properly designed to convert this high kinetic energy into useful pressure energy.
Volute casings at outlet are of two types:
(1) Spiral shaped, vaneless form of casing and
(2) Diffuser type vaned system of casing.

ρ ρ
ρ
b3
b3 b3
α α
R3

α
α = 180° α = 35° to 45°
(a) Circular (b) Circular (c) Trapezoidal

Fig. 5.3. Shapes of volute cross-sections


Technical and constructional features are different for each type of casing.
Spiral casing at outlet consists of spiral shaped channel 02′4′68 followed by a diffuser passage 8–
9 (Fig. 5.4). The spiral portion connects the impeller outlet to the diffuser 8–9 under axisymmetric flow.
It not only collects the fluid coming out around the circumference of the impeller but also converts
about 75% of kinetic energy into pressure energy. The remaining 25% of kinetic energy is converted at
the diffuser. Casing plays a major role in improving hydraulic and overall efficiencies.
Lateral cross-section of the casing passage will be either trapezoidal or circular (Fig. 5.3) connected
by two tangents, with an angle of divergence at the inlet α approximately = 35° to 45°. Spiral form of
volute cross-section gradually increases along the flow direction due to gradual increase in flow.
132 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Experimental investigation shows that trapezoidal cross-section gives higher hydraulic efficiency than
circular cross-section at higher specific speeds and vice versa at lower specific speeds. Experiments
indicate that spiral casing gives higher efficiency than diffusers at all partial flow conditions either
lower or higher than optimum conditions. But, at optimum condition, diffuser gives higher efficiency
than spiral casing. Spiral casing design is adopted for variable flow operations, whereas diffuser design
is adopted for fixed optimum flow conditions of operation. Spiral casings are used for single impeller
design whereas diffusers are used for multistage pumps to reduce pump weight.

5.3 METHOD OF CALCULATION FOR SPIRAL CASING


Total energy remains constant after the impeller and also when flow passes through casing or
diffuser. Two methods are adopted for volute design i.e.,
(1) the velocity of flow Cu changes according to free vortex pattern when passing through casing
i.e., Cur = constant. The flow is assumed to be axisymmetric and ideal and
(2) constant velocity, Cu = constant, in the spiral casing.
In practice it is found that constant velocity design gives higher efficiency than free vortex
design for pumps and vice versa for hydraulic turbines, due to increase in area of flow.
Considering an element 1234 of the fluid, with a mass ∆m moving in the spiral passage (Fig. 5.4),
external forces acting on the mass are : (a) tangential force ‘PAu’ and (b) normal force ‘PAn’ developed
due to hydrodynamic pressure. In ideal fluid, the tangential force inside the fluid friction is equal to zero
i.e., ± PAu = 0. The normal force ‘PAn’ acting on surfaces 1–3 and 2–4, due to symmetry in pressure
under axisymmetric flow condition is PAn 1–3 and PAn 2–4. Moment of these forces, with respect to
point ‘O’ are equal and opposite. The direction of the forces acting in the surfaces 1–2 and 3–4 pass
through the point O and hence moment of these forces about point ‘O’ is zero. Thus the moment of all
surface forces acting on the elementary volume of fluid in the spiral casing is zero i.e., ± ∆Mz = 0. Thus
the moment of momentum remains constant in the elementary fluid i.e.,
d (∆mrCu )
∆Mz = =0
dt
or ∆mr Cu = Constant
or CuR = Cu3R3 = Cu2R2 = Constant ...(5.2)
Cu u C u
For normal entry at pump inlet, Cu1 = 0 and Hm = = u2 2
g g
gH m ΓB
CuR = Cu2R2 = =
ω 2π
where ΓB = 2πR2Cu2 and is constant throughout spiral passage of the casing. With the increase in radius
‘R’ in spiral passage the tangential velocity decreases, correspondingly the pressure energy increases.
The flow rate gradually increases and proportional to the volute angle θ (Fig.5.4). Since there is
no flow perpendicular to the spiral section under steady flow condition, applying continuity equation,
total mass flow at any section will be
W
g
= ∫ ρCn dA = ∫ ρ Cn dA + ∫ ρ Cn dA + ... + ∫ ρ Cn dA = 0
S f1 S1 fK
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 133

Mass flow through the section between volute angle θ1 and θ2 will be
W1 W2

g
= ∫ ρ Cn dA and g
= ∫ ρ Cn dA
A1 A2

Under axisymmetric flow the velocity Cn = Cr3 at the surface ‘A3’ the flow will be

∫ ρCn dA = – ρ Cr3 b3R3 (θ2 – θ1)


A3

W2π
and Wθ2 – Wθ1 = ρg Cr3 b3 R3 (θ2 – θ1) = (θ2 – θ1)

where W2π= ρg Cr3 b3 2πR3 which is the total flow of the pump at entrance to the spiral channel. Taking
θ = 0 at the tongue of the volute section.

9
8
dr

b
∆R
∆R

b3 0
4
R

R3
1 2

α

R3

R2
dr θ2
6 0 θ1 2′
p cu C u2
R3
p2

R
2

A1
b3 A2 fk
4′

Fig. 5.4. Scheme for spiral casing at outlet

θ1 = 0 and Wθ1 = 0
θ θ°
Wθ = W2π or Qθ = Q2π × ...(5.3)
2π 360°
Flow, thus, increases along the spiral passage in proportion to the angle of the volute ‘θ’, referred
with respect to the initial tongue.
Flow across the elementary area ‘dA = bdR’ will be
ΓB
dθ = bdR Cu = bdR ...(5.4)
2πR
Integrating within the limits R3– r
ΓB
r
b
Q =
2π ∫R dr ...(5.5)
R3

Integration is carried out by step by step method in tabulation form (Table 5.1). The function
bi
Bi = . Elementary flow rate through the area dA = b∆r is determined as
ri
134 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Γ B Bi + B(i +1)
∆ Qi = ∆Ri
2π 2
and total quantity of flow Q is determined as
ΓB i=n Bi + B(i +1)
Q =

∑ 2
∆Ri ...(5.6)
i =1

5.4 DESIGN OF SPIRAL CASING WITH Cur = CONSTANT AND TRAPEZOIDAL


CROSS-SECTION
Flow from the impeller enters the circumferencial section of volute having a radius R3, which is
determined as
R3 = (1.03 to 1.05) R2 ...(5.7)
in order to get uniform flow across the section at R3, since, uneven flow velocity and quantity exists at
radius R2 i.e., at impeller exit, due to finite number of impeller blades.
Breadth b3 at the entrance of the spiral section at the radius R3 is taken as
b3 = b2 + (0.04 to 0.05) D2 ...(5.8)
in order to take care of disc friction losses and trouble free running of pump. Fluid leaves the impeller
at radius R2 with an absolute velocity C3 and at an angle α3. Corresponding velocity at the entry into
spiral casing at radius R3 is determined as
C3 R 2 = C 4 R 3
Taking volute cross section divergent angle ‘αV’ as 35° to 45° and breadth ‘b3’ as per the equation
5.8 and since these values are constant at all circumferencial portions, (Fig. 5.5) construction of trapezoidal
cross-section under C3R = constant and the quantity of flow Q at any section is determined from equation
(5.6). Calculations are carried out in tabular form (Table 5.1).
b360
Ab=A a


∆r

bi
b3 = b4 h ′θ
∆R

b3 = b4 Q 45° Q135° Q 225° Q 315° Q


∆Q
R 135°

3 Qi
ri

4
Q 360° (old)
R3

α α
R4 R3
Q 360°(new)
Tongue R 4 = R 3 + ∆ R

Fig. 5.5. Volute construction for trapezoidal cross-section and free vortex
design, Cur constant and also for Cv = constant
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 135

TABLE 5.1: Calculation of volute section—Trapezoidal cross-section and CuR = constant


(Free vortex design)
b Bi + Bi+ 1 B
S. No. R b B= ∆R ∆ Qi = × (6) × (5) Qi = ∑∆Q
R 2 2π
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 0

Referring the table 5.1, A graph r = f (Q) (Fig. 5.5) is drawn. X-axis i.e. the value Q is now
divided into definite number of equal parts normally 8 equal sections such as Q45°, Q90°, Q135°, Q180°,
Q225°, Q270°, Q315°, Q360°. Projecting these points upwards to meet the R = f (Q) curve and then drawing
horizontal lines from these meeting point to y-axis i.e., ‘R’ axis, the radius at which corresponding
quantity of flow through the trapezoidal cross-section can be determined. By projecting these horizontal
lines futher to meet the trapezoidal cross-section gives the corresponding areas for the corresponding
quantity Qθ.
Final section for Q 360°. Starts at R4 = R3 + ∆t, where ∆t is the volute tongue thickness. Normally
∆t= 2 to 3 mm. Due to this, the quantity of flow at the last section Q360 will be higher than the normal
Q360 taken as per the graph r = f (Q). This is represented in the Fig. 5.5 Q360 (new) = Q360 (old) + ∆Q at
tongue.
In some of the volute designs the tongue starts after some angle θ from initial position of θ = 0.
This is due to the fact that huge noise and subsequent vibration takes place due to the fluid passing
through the gap between the impeller outlet diameter and volute starting point at θ = 0 at high velocity
since this gap acts as nozzle. To avoid this, volute tongue starts a little away from the point θ = 0.
Normally this value will be θt = 17° to 21°. The contour of the trapezoidal cross-section obtained will
have sharp corners which increases the hydraulic losses. Also, flow does not exists at the corner point.
In order to reduce hydraulic losses and ensure flow through entire area of trapezoidal cross-section, the
sharp edged corners are rounded off in such a way that the area added at the middle ‘Ab’ will be equal to
the area reduced due to rounding off at the corners ‘Aa’
Γb Γ
Aa Cua = Ab C ub, Aa = Ab b
2πra 2πrb
Aa r
hence, = a where Ra and Rb are the radius of centre of gravity of areas Aa and Ab .
Ab rb

5.5 CALCULATION OF TRAPEZOIDAL VOLUTE CROSS-SECTION UNDER


CONSTANT VELOCITY OF FLOW C V = CONSTANT (CONSTANT
VELOCITY DESIGN)
Constant velocity of flow through all volute sections CV is determined as CV R = Cu2R2, where R is
the radius of the centre of gravity of the last volute cross-section.
136 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Area of the last volute section will be


Q
A360° =
CV
Area of any volute cross-section at angle θ from the tongue will be
θ°
Aθ = A360°
360°
Construction of volute section will be same as that mentioned in the previous section.
The velocity CV can be determined by the law of similarity as CV = ΦV 2gH . The value ΦV can
be determined from the graph, ΦV = f (nS), (Figs. 5.6, 5.7, 5.8). These values are determined based on
the experimental results by different authors. |4|, |12|
Considering the trepezoidal cross-section (Fig. 5.4)
1
Area Aθ = h (b + b3). Angle α can be selected as α = 35° to 45° in order to avoid flow
2 θ θ
separation due to divergence. Selecting the value α.
(bθ − b3 ) α FG
α IJ
2 hθ
= tan
2 H
or bθ = 2 hθ tan + b3
2 K
1 1 α FG IJ
Aθ = h (b + b3) =
2 θ θ
h 2 hθ tan + b3 + b3
2 θ 2 H K
FG h α IJ α FG IJ
=
H 2
θ tan
2 K
+ hθ b3 = hθ hθ tan
2 H
+ b3 .
K
FGh tan α + b IJ × φ
Qθ = CV × Aθ = hθ
H 2 K θ 3 2gH ...(5.9)

By selecting hθ from minimum to maximum up to the value Q360, a graph hθ = f (Qθ ) can be drawn
similar to Fig. 5.5. From this graph Qθ for Q = 45°, ....... 360° can be determined for different values of
hθ. As a check the values aq = f (Qθ ) can also be drawn and checked with the constructed values. The
construction of trapezoidal cross-section for CV = Constant is same as for Cur = constant. (Same as Fig.
5.5). Entire calculations can be brought out in a tabular form (Table 5.2)

TABLE 5.2: Calculation for area and flow rate under CV = constant and trapezoidal cross-section

CV = φ V 2gH = α=° b3 = mm.

FG h tan α + b IJ α
S.No. hθ mm A θ = hθ
H 2 Kθ 3 Qθ = Aθ × CV aθ = 2hθ tan
2
+ b3

5
10
15
up to a value until For check up
Qθ > Q360 = Q total
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 137

TABLE 5.3: Calculation of flow rate at different θ values


(CV = const., trapezoidal cross-section)

S.No. θ Qθ
0 0
1 45° to 360° at constant Q = Q360
2 interval
3

The height of the last trapezoidal section is determined as


h360 = (Kp× r2) – r3. where Kp is an experimental coefficient given in Fig. 5.5.

The value of Kp given are for double suction pumps. For single suction pumps the value Kp will
be less by 10 to 15%.

5.6 CALCULATION OF CIRCULAR VOLUTE SECTION WITH Cur = CONSTANT


Applying equation 5.5 for a circular cross-
section (Fig. 5.6) volute design with Cu r =constant.
8
Quantity Qθ at an angle θ from initial position p
b
dr

will be 7
0
R

v 1
1 b( r )

R
r

Γ
a

Qθ = dr fv
r3

2π B r3 r
6
2
− ( r − ai )
a1 +ρi
1 ρ21 r3
=
π
ΓB ∫ r
dr
ai − ρi
5 3
 
= ΓB  ai – a 2i − ρ 2i 
  4

Since, b (r) = 2 ρ2i − (r − ai )2 Fig. 5.6. Volute design with circular cross-
section and free vortex (Cur = const.)
θ
Since Qθ = . Q360.
360
Substituting this value in the above equation

θ° =
360Γ B FG a – a 2 − ρ2 IJ = K FGa – a 2 − ρ2 IJ
Q360 H K H K
360Γ B 720πg H m
where K = = .
Q360 ω Q360
Since a = r3 + ρ, substituting this value and after simplification

θ° θ°
ρ = + 2 r3 . ...(5.10)
K K
138 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Calculations are made in Tabular form (Table 5.4). θ° values are normally selected as 45°, 90°,
135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, 315° and 360°.
TABLE 5.4 : Calculation of circular volute with Cu r = constant
720πg Hm
K= ⋅ r3 =
ω Q360

θ° θ°
S. No. θ° 2 r 4 ρ = (3) + (5)
K K 3

1 2 3 4 5 6

θ° – selected
uniformly at 45°
interval

As mentioned earlier, final area at spiral outlet before entering the diffuser will be the sum of
calculated area and the tongue area.

5.7 DESIGN OF CIRCULAR VOLUTE CROSS-SECTION WITH CONSTANT


VELOCITY (CV)

Flow velocity in spiral casing is taken as CV = φV 2gH .


The value φV is taken from the Nomogram (Figs. 5.6, 5.7, 5.8).
Area at final section and corresponding radius of volute section will be

QT QT
f = πρ 2 = and ρ=
CV CV π
Quantity at any section will be proportional and will be

QT
Qθ = .θ°
360
From the quantity Qθ , ρθ at any section is calculated.

D3 b3
D2 φ v, φ d, φ vi b2
1,3 0,5
φv
1,2 0,4 D 3/D 2 2,0
b 3/b 2
φd 1,5
1,1 0,2

1 0 φvi 1
50 100 150 200 ns

Fig. 5.7. Design constants as suggested by Artisikoff |4|


SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 139

D3
φv D2
5 0,5 1,5
4 0,4 φv 1,4

3 0,3 Krs 1,3


K p,K rs 2 0,2 1,2
K1p
1 01 1,1
D /D
0 0 3 2 1,0
40 100 150 200 300 400 n
s

Fig. 5.8. |4|

50

40

D3 – D2 30
× 100 αv
D2
0.50
Volute velocity coefficient k 3

0.40 k3 20

Volute angel αv degrees


10

0.30 8

2
k 3 × 100
4
0.20

0.5
42 57 71 106 142 212 263 354 424 495 565 595 706 1060
(ns) specific speed

Fig. 5.9. Volute constants Cv = C3 = k3 = 2gH as per A.J. Slepanoff |112|

5.8 CALCULATION OF DIFFUSER SECTION OF VOLUTE CASING


Diffuser connects spiral casing outlet with the delivery pipe of the pump. Velocity of flow Cd
gradually reduces from CV at final section of spiral section of volute to Cd the velocity at delivery pipe
(Cd = 3 to 5 m/sec.). In order to ensure uniform flow without any separation the angle of divergence is
normally selected as ε° = 8 to 10°. If the shape of spiral section at the last stage is not circular, the shape
140 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

is determined by assuming equal area of circular cross-section for the inlet of the diffuser and calculations
are made accordingly such that the axis is in a straight line. However, the final length of the diffuser
should be decided taking into account the construction feasibility of pump delivery flange with pipe
flange.
ε°  Rp − R f 
=  
2  L 
where RP and Rf are the radial length of the pipe and final spiral section of the volute casing, with
respect to the axis of the diffuser. Velocity at the diffuser outlet can be determined by the equation
Cd = φd 2gH . Value φd can be obtained from Figs. 5.6, 5.7, 5.8.

5.9 (A) DESIGN OF DIFFUSER


As similar to spiral casing the diffuser is also receiving the fluid from the impeller outlet and
converting the available kinetic energy of fluid into useful pressure energy (Fig. 5.10). It consists of a
number of diffuser passages kept at equal space around the circumference from inlet to outlet of the
diffuser. Each channel consists of a spiral section abc and diffuser section bcde. Spiral section of the
diffuser is constructed with constant width b3 = b2 + (0.04 to 0.05) D2 . The diffuser part forms a straight
channel with angle of divergence either in one plane or in both planes perpendicular to each other with
either straight or curved axis.

c d A–B
(a)
ε III III
e
dr b
α3
r θc b3
θt

A a3
I I
θ

II II
a 0
∆3
ε
II
III
I I
b II b3

III
Passage 1– 2 – 3 – 6 6–3–4–5
(b) 6
3
2 4

Fig. 5.10. Diffuser and return guide vanes for radial type centrifugal pumps (a) Diagonal (b) Radial
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 141

The diffuser passage is formed between two walls of the stage and is connected to the return
passage. The return passage guides the outcoming fluid from the previous stage diffuser to the next
stage impeller suction. The diffuser vanes and return guide vanes are often cast as a single unit.
The diffuser is of two types: diagonal and radial. In radial type diffuser the return passage is
connected by vaneless U-shaped passage, where in the fluid turns through 180°.
In diagonal type of diffuser, the diffuser and return blades are kept one after another with no
space in between them. Referring the Fig. 5.10, the section II–II, the channel, deviates in axial direction
and connects the return passage [Fig. 5.10 (a)]. These type of diffusers possess smaller dimensions in
radial direction and also gives higher hydraulic efficiency when compared to radial type diffusers.
Diffusers with return guide vanes are used in multistage pumps by which overall dimensions and
weight of the pump reduces considerably. At the same time, axial thrust at the impeller is balanced at all
regions of operation of pump.

5.9 (B) CALCULATION OF SPIRAL PART OF DIFFUSER PASSAGE


Referring to Fig. 5.10 under axisymmetric plane, ideal fluid flow conditions, the wall ‘a – c’ of
the spiral passage consists of cylindrical surface formed parallel to z-axis of the diffuser. Contour ‘a – c’
in its own plane perpendicular to z-axis, is the streamline of plane axisymmentric flow. Differential
equation of the streamline ‘a – c’is determined from the condition, that the flow of the fluid dr and rdθ
as per the coordinates is proportional to the corresponding resolved components of the absolute velocity
Cr and Cu.
dr Cr
=
rdθ Cu
In axisymmetric flow the tangential component of absolute velocity is determined Cu r = Cu2 R2 or
R
Cu = Cu2 2 . From continuity equation, the radial component of absolute velocity Cr is determined as
r
Q 2π R2b2Cm 2 bR
Cr = k = k3 = k3 Cm′ 2 2 2
2π r b3 3 2π r b3 b3r
dr b2 Cm′ 2
Therefore, = k3 = tan α3, is a constant
rdθ b3 Cu 2
b2 Cm′ 2
tan α3 = k3 = Constant
b3 Cu 2
dr
also = tan α3dθ
r
Integrating between limits θ1 = 0 when R3 = r and R3 = θ when r = r, the equation for the
streamline
a – c is r = R3 e θ tan α3 ...(5.11)
which indicates that the streamline is logarithmic spiral. Thus, the spiral part of the diffuser is designed
as logarithmic spiral.
142 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

5.9 (C) CALCULATION OF DIVERGING CONE PART OF THE DIFFUSER


The diverging cone part of the diffuser bcde follows immediately after the logarithmic part of the
diffuser. In this cone remaining kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy. The lateral cross-section
of the cone is designed as straight cone. The height of the cone at inlet a3 is determined by the triangle
bch [Fig. 5.10 (a)] as
RC – R3
a3 = – ∆3
cos α3
where RC is the radius at point C of the spiral canal, ∆3 blade thickness of inlet edge.
The inlet edge is always rounded off for shockness entry. RC will be
RC = R3eθC tan α3

where θC = – ∆θ—angle at the centre of spiral canal. Angle ∆θ is determined approximately from
Zd
the triangle ‘bch’ and the triangle abc.
__ 2πR3
R3 ∆θ = bc sin α3 = sin2 α3
Zd

or ∆θ = sin2 α3
Zd

R3  zd sin 2α 3 
π

So, a3 = e − 1 – ∆ ...(5.12)
cos α3   3

Number of Diffuser vanes Zd will be between 3 to 8. It will be always 1 or 2 blades more than
impeller blades. The best efficiency of diffuser can be attained when the entry section of the diverging
cone is in the form of a square i.e., a3 = b3.
The reduction in length due to blade thickness at entry is
a3 + ∆ 3
≈ 1.1 to 1.15.
a3
The angle to divergence ε = 10° to 12° at one plane, if the other plane is straight. If both the planes
diverge, then ε = 6 to 8°. Curved form of divergence cone axis enables to reduce the outer diameter of
the diffuser, which inturn reduces the weight of the pump. Hydraulic efficiency, however, reduces to a
certain extent. E.V. Dondoff [4], assuming that Cu r = constant at inlet divergent cone, suggests that
height of entry section of divergent cone can be determined by the equation.

 2k 
a3 = (R3 + ∆3) 1 − 1 − A2  ...(5.13)
 b3 
 

ωQ 2πQ
where A2 = =
Zd H m g Γb Z d
and K = Correction coefficient determined as a function of the specific speed ‘ns ’ (Fig. 5.12)
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 143

section AA–CC section CC–EE


c
Blades constructed
by point by point method
α8
6
7 α5 7 Return guide
5 8 18 8
3
4 9
10
passage 9 vanes
1 2
11 α4 α8 10
12
13
11
12

D4 = 315
14
15 16 13
16
17 14
D 5 = 375 15
16
D 2 = 308

17
11 Blades ε
90 °
α8 +ε+
(b)
r ϕ
A B
(a )
s
Blade construction and graph
– – as per circular arc method (b) Blades constructed by
– point by point method circular arc method
α

c
5
12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 141516 17
l
Diffuser Vaneless Return guide vane
passage (c)
Fig. 5.11. Diffuser, vaneless passage, return guide vanes design and construction
(a) Vaneless ring between diffuser and return guide vanes
(b) Another construction of vaneless ring
(c) Velocity, angle of flow in passages.
K
1,4
1,3
1,2
1,1
1,0

0,9

0,8
0,7
70 75 80 85 90 95 100 ns 105

Fig. 5.12. Correction coefficient for the divergent passage of the diffuser

5.10 RETURN GUIDE VANES


Return guide vanes are used in multi-stage pumps. It is located immediately after the U-shaped
bend in the diffuser. Normally spiral shaped portion and the divergent portion of the diffuser are kept on
one side of a plate and the return guide vanes on the other side of a plate and are cast in manufacture as
one piece. This facilitates easy casting in foundry as well as easy machining. A circular plate forms as
144 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

disc between rear side of the impeller and spiral shaped diffuser passage as well as another similar
circular plate forms as disc between front side of the impeller and return guide vanes. These two
plates form the cover between impeller and diffuser. All other designs are used for single stage pumps.
(Figs 5.10 and 5.11)

5.11 DESIGN OF SUCTION CASING AT INLET OF THE IMPELLER


Suction or approach casing for a pump (Fig. 5.11) consists of (1) a straight convergent cone
(2) bend type curved convergent pipe (3) ring type chamber (4) spiral shaped chamber or casing and
(5) return guide vanes. (Fig. 5.13)

5.12 STRAIGHT CONVERGENT CONE


Straight convergent cone with angle of convergence ε = 17° to 21° are fitted infront of the suction.
Sometimes radial ribs 4 to 6 Nos, called ‘baffles’ are fitted to ensure uniform, axisymmetric normal
flow at suction (Cu1 = 0). An increase in velocity by 15–20% between inlet and outlet of the convergent
section is normally recommended.
If the space before the pump suction is limited, bend type convergent pipe is used with or without
radial ribs at the exit of the bend.
Ring type casing consists of a circular chamber of constant area followed by a converging type
annular ring kept before the impeller eye. In these types, shaft is extended from the impeller to the
suction side bearing through the ring casing. These pumps have bearings on both sides of the impeller.
However, flow velocity decreases due to gradual reduction in quantity, the area of flow remaining
constant along the ring. Due to uneven velocity distribution around the ring, fluid approaches impeller
inlet edge with non uniform, unequal velocity and also with vortex motion Cu1 ≠ 0. Due to centrifugal
force, at the bend Cu1 is not constant from shaft to inlet periphery. These type of casings are used mostly
in multistage pumps.

5.13 SPIRAL TYPE APPROACH RING


Spiral type approach ring followed by annular convergent ring at suction are used to overcome
the drawbacks in ring type constant area suction casings. Constant velocity at all point of the flow
passage in the spiral channel is maintained.
Spiral shaped suction casing or approach channel consists of an entry tube ‘10–9’ followed by
‘864 20’ spiral channel and a convergent annular rings ‘ab’ (Fig. 5.13). Spiral shape ends with a radial
rib, which avoids the fluid to enter back to the inlet approach tube. Total quantity ‘Q’ enters the chamber
at ‘10’ and passes into ‘point 9’. After point 9, almost half the quantity enters directly into the impeller
through convergent cone. Remaining quantity passes through the spiral passage of the casing, where
quantity gradually reduces due to uniform entry into impeller along the spiral passage. Flow velocity
‘C ’ gradually increases in the passage 10 to 9 and remains constant in the spiral passage i.e., from 9 to
0. Flow velocity ‘CC’ increases to impeller eye velocity ‘C0’, when fluid passes through convergent
annular bend ring ‘ab’. Normally the velocity before the annular ring CC = (0.7 to 0.85) C0 . Impeller
will be suspended between two bearings. The shaft passes through the suction casing to the suction side
bearing. Uniform velocity is ensured at the impeller eye in this type of design. It is recommended that
SPIRAL CASINGS (VOLUTE CASINGS) 145

(a) (b)
4
a 3
b 2
1
0
1

b
a 2
3 4
(c)
a b 2
4 0
6 9

10
R8
a b 8 Rg

10
(d)

Fig. 5.13. Different forms of suction casing for centrifugal pump


(a) Approach bend with converging passage
(b) Concentric ring with constant area of cross-section
(c) Symmetrical half spiral casing
(d) Single spiral casing

3 2
4 1f 1
1
f 8 1 0
5 4 1
π 2 2
f1 = (D – d b )
4 1
3f 10
db

6
8 1

D4
D1

D0

7 b
0 f4
1 1
2 f
2 1
3
4 8
5
6 α
7
8
D5

Fig. 5.14. Suction volute casing


146 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

D0
R8 = (krs – 1)
, R0 = (0.5 to 0.6) R8
2
R4 = 0.75 R8 , R9 = 1.5 R8
Coefficient krs is a function of ‘nS ’, the specific speed. The value krs can be taken from the graph
[Figs. 5.7, 5.8 (b)].
The velocity Cvi is calculated as CVi = ΦVi 2gH , where φVi is taken from the graph (Fig. 5.7).

0,60
u 22

84,0 84,5 84,5 100


0,55

Efficiency % η/ηmax
Head coefficient ψ =

80
0,50

0,45 60

0,40 40

0,35 20

0
0 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16 ϕ
C m2
Flow coefficient φ =
u2

Fig. 5.15. Performance variation due to three different volutes with same impeller

5.14 EFFECT DUE TO VOLUTE


It is found that the increase in volute cross-section area is attained when volute is designed by
constant velocity method than by Cu r = constant method.
Increase in area of volute cross-section by about 5 to 7% may increase the overall efficiency by 2
to 5%. Optimum efficiency will shift to higher flow rate point.
Decrease in volute area decrease the maximum efficiency and shifts optimum efficiency point
towards lower flow rate. Shut off head slightly increases at higher specific speeds. Fig. 5.15 shows the
test results of the same impeller tested with three volutes.
6
LOSSES IN PUMPS

6.1 INTRODUCTION
Losses in pumps can be classified as:
1. Hydraulic,
2. Volumetric, and
3. Mechanical.
Determination of hydraulic losses by theoretical means is still not possible. Intensive research is
still going on. Since volumetric losses and mechanical losses can be determined accurately by theoretical
means, hydraulic efficiency is determined from volumetric, mechanical and overall efficiencies. However,
empirical formula for the determination of hydraulic losses is available by which hydraulic efficiency
can be approximately determined.

6.2 (A) MECHANICAL LOSSES


Power input ‘NI’ available from the prime mover output i.e., at the coupling side of pump shaft,
gets reduced by an amount of ‘∆N’ due to losses in bearings ‘∆NB’, due to losses in stuffing box, ‘∆NS’
and losses due to disc friction, ‘∆Nd’ i.e., ∆N = ∆NB + ∆NS + ∆Nd . Correspondingly power available at
the impeller side of the pumpshaft, Ni = NI – ∆N.
N N I − ∆N Ni
Mechanical efficiency, ηm =
i
= = ...(2.15)
NI NI N i + ∆N

∆ Nd )
6.2 (B) LOSSES DUE TO DISC FRICTION (∆
Losses created due to the rotation of a solid body, inside a closed and fluid filled chamber, is
called “Disc friction losses”. Pump impeller rotates as a solid body inside spiral casing chamber, which
is filled with fluid, possesses the same phenomena and hence losses created by the rotating impeller
inside a water filled spiral casing is the disc friction losses of the pump, ∆Nd.
Fluid inside the space between impeller shroud and casing wall rotates at half the velocity of the
impeller velocity. The induced moment of friction of fluid on the disc is equalised by the frictional
moment of the fluid on casing wall. Due to centrifugal force, fluid near impeller shroud is thrown
towards pheripery. This fluid returns back near the casing wall. As a result, a circulation i.e., a secondary
vortex flow prevails in this space.
147
148 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

From dimensional analysis, the moment of friction of disc, on one side, can be written as
M = Cf ρ ω2 r25
where, Cf — coefficient of friction.
ρ — density of the fluid.
ω — angular velocity of the disc (impeller).
r2 — outer diameter of the disc (impeller).
ωr2
2
Coefficient of friction, Cf depends upon the type of flow and hence Reynold’s number ‘R0’ =
ν
for the disc.
(a) For laminar flow (Re < 2 × 104) | 67 |

 S  0.0146 +  S  0.1256 
3
π r2
Cf = . + Re       ...(6.1)
Re S  r2    r2  
where, S — the distance of the casing hall from the wall of the rotating disc.
(b) For transition flow Re = 2.104 to 105 | 67 |
1.334
Cf = ...(6.2)
Re
(c) For turbulant flow
0.0465
Cf =
5 Re
A graph, Cf = f (Re ), is drawn in Fig. 6.1 for all the three regions of operation.

0,3 – 1
0,1 – 1
0,9 – 2
r2

0,7 – 2
0,5 – 2
lg C f 0,3 – 2

0,1 – 2
0,9 – 3
0,7 – 3
0,5 – 3
0,3 – 3

0,1 – 3

3 4 5 6 7
lg R e

Fig. 6.1. Cf = f (R)e


LOSSES IN PUMPS 149

Power lost in disc friction losses


2 Mω
Nd = = 2 ρCf ω3r5 ...(6.3)
constant

∆ NS)
6.2 (C) LOSSES STUFFING BOX (∆
Stuffing box consists of a chamber ‘4’ containing a
flexible asbestos packing ‘1’. Packing is kept in position 2 3 1
4
by the gland ‘2’. By tightening the gland bolts, the gland s
is axially moved towards the chamber and compresses the
packing. This packing has direct contacts with the shaft p0
σx
or shaft sleeve,‘3’. Since shaft or shaft sleeve is a rotating σr

R
r
element a small clearance will be existing between packing
and shaft sleeve or shaft, through which fluid passes from x dx
the impeller outlet through the space between casing and
rear impeller shroud. This leakage flow can be adjusted
by compressing the packings, with the help of gland since
packing is stuffed inside a chamber. This chamber is called
stuffing box. Although theoretically no flow through

pH
stuffing box can be made, practically small quantity of

σx

p0
water as droplets must come out through stuffing box in x
order to avoid (1) air entering into impeller through
stuffings box, (2) to cool the packings. Since this leakage Fig. 6.2. Stuffing box
quantity is very small, it is usually neglected.
Due to flexibile nature of packings the axial force σx created due to tightening the gland is changed
into radial for σr acting on shaft in radial direction.
σx = Kσr ...(6.4)
where K is the coefficient depends upon the packing property and is always > 1. In order to maintain
leak proof σx > p0, the pressure at the inner side of the casing and impeller shroud and very near to the
shaft. Pressure σx must gradually reduce from the gland to the impeller side. Considering an elementary
thickness ‘dx’ (Fig. 6.2) of the packing, equilibrium is maintained.
When, 2π (R +r) µ σrdx = – π (R2 – r2) dσx ...(6.5)
where µ1 is the frictional coefficient of packing. Combining equations 6.4 and 6.5 and rearranging.

dσ x 2µ1
When, = – dx.
σx (R − r )K
Taking σx = P0 and integrating ‘x’ up to length ‘l’.

2µ1 (l − x)
l
P0 2µ1
log
σx
= – ∫ K (R − r) dx = –
K (R − r )
x
150 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

 2µ(l − x ) 
 R − r 
or σx = ( P0 ) ...(6.6)
µ1
where = µ2
K
It is evident, that the pressure p, gradually increases and is maximum when x = l. It will be
l l
2µ2 2µ 2
(R − r ) 2µ 2 z
pmax = σx = 0 = p0 e = p0 e S
= p0 e ...(6.7)
l
Where, S is the thickness = (R – r) and Z is the number of packing rolls inside stuffing box = .
S
Elementary friction force, dT = 2π r dx µ1 σx
 eµ l − x l
p0 e S 
µ1 2µ 2 l 
− 2µ 2
T = 2π r µ1 p0 ∫ e = π rS
2
s s  ...(6.8)
µ2 1− e
0  
 − 2µ
l 
π r 2 s µ1 l
2µ 2 1− e 2 a

Power NS = Tωr = . p0 e s   watts. Coefficient µ, is 0.02 to 0.1. About



const µ 2
5 to 7 (= Z) packing rolls are used for normal pumps. Practically frictional coefficient, µ considerably
reduces due to the introduction of cooling water as mentioned earlier.
2 1
3
l
p0 p
4 p0

s 7 ln
D dn
d

(a) Normal (d) With cooling


B
A
5
E
p0 D0

(b) With lantern ring at the middle (e) External cooling

δ
6 g
6
p0 p0

lu4
10

(c) With cooling circulation (f) External and internal cooling

Fig. 6.3. Different types of stuffing box arrangements and with cooling systems
LOSSES IN PUMPS 151

Fig. 6.4. Stuffing box with the classic cooling water jacket
cooling the outer diameter of the gland

Fig. 6.5. Stuffing box with unclear lantern ring for sealing water supply

Fig. 6.6. Stuffing box with externally cooled circuit to reduce the
temperature of the pumped medium in the gland area
152 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Fig. 6.7. Stuffing box with lantern type end ring for cold water injection

Fig. 6.8. Stuffing box of special design with hollow shaft sleeve
to cool the inner diameter of the gland

Fig. 6.9. Stuffing box with double cooling effect and duplicate cooling
feed cooling inner and diameter of gland
LOSSES IN PUMPS 153

Fig. 6.10. Stuffing box with double cooling effect and single cooling
feed cooling inner and outer diameter of gland

Cu 2 , Cu1 , r1

Fig. 6.11. Stuffing box with double cooling effect and single cooling feed
and also introducing cooling liquid upstream of the packing
end ring for cooling inner and outer diamter of gland

Fig. 6.12. Gland area of feed pump with injection type shaft, intensive
cooling and differential type balancing device absorbing pressure
fluctuations of feed pump suction pressure sealing water pressure
154 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

6.2 (D) BEARING LOSSES ( ∆ NB)


Bearing losses depend upon the type of bearing used such as, ball, roller, angular contact, thrust
bearing. Based on the hydrodynamic theory of lubrication in bearings, power loss in bearings can be
calculated.
One such formula is given below. Power loss ∆NB in bearing will be
ω r.T 2π.η r
∆NB = = (ωr)2 . . l ...(6.9)
constant constant δ
u
where torque T = η 2πrl
δ
η — Coefficient of viscosity of the lubricating oil used.
u = ωr — Velocity of ball or roller centre.
r and l — Radius and length of the ball or roller.
δ — Radial clearance in the bearing.

6.3 (A) LEAKAGE FLOW THROUGH THE CLEARANCE BETWEEN


STATIONARY AND ROTATORY WEARING RINGS
Leakage flow is controlled by the clearances ‘b’. b = 0.003r, for smaller pumps and b = 0.2
+ (D1 – 100) 0.001 in mm for larger pumps. ‘b’ normally lies between 0.15 and 0.25 mm. Larger
clearance leads to higher volumetric losses and corresponding lower volumetric as well as overall
efficiencies. Figs. 6.13 and 6.14 indicate the change in the performance due to increased clearance.

2
120 600
Axial force in % of force under Q norm

H
H, η in % of (H, η) norm

100 500
η

80 400

60 300

40 200
1
20 100

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140


Q in % of Q norm

Fig. 6.13. Effect of clearance at shaft between 2 stages H, η and axial thrust
(1) Axial thrust under normal clearance 0.2 mm
(2) Under increased clearance 1.5 mm
LOSSES IN PUMPS 155

0.45 MM

0.575 MM
Without
20

balancing
0.64 MM
holes
18

0.74 MM
16
14

0.74 MM
Total head in metres

With 0.64 MM
balancing
12

holes 0.575 MM

0.45 MM
10
8

Average flow is 6.6 gpm/hole 26.4 gpm for all 4 holes


6
4
2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Quantity of flow in Ips.

Fig. 6.14. Effect of wearing ring clearance and balancing holes


156 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Referring of Fig. 6.15 the flow through the clearance QL1 can be determined from one dimensional
theory Q = K. AV = K. A . 2gH .

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Y X

(e) (f) (g)

Fig. 6.15. Different types of wearing rings

Applying this principle to the flow through the clearance ‘QL1’ or called as leakage flow, will be

QL1 = µ Ai pi − pI = µπ D b 2 gH ...(6.10)
2g i pi
r
where, Ai — Area of the clearance
Di — Clearance diameter
b — Clearance width
pi — Pressure before clearance
p1 — Pressure after clearance, at suction side of the impeller
pi − p1
Hpi — head loss in clearance
γ
µ — Flow coefficient.
Normally b = 0.003 r and should never be less than 0.15 mm for any type of wearing ring
construction.
The pressure drop across the wearing ring [Fig. 6.15 (a)] between any point inside wearing ring
and inlet
pi − p1 p − p1 p − pi p − pi
Hpi = = 2 – 2 = Hp – 2 ...(6.11)
γ γ γ γ
p2 − pi
Substituting the value for from the equation (3.89)
γ
 2
γu22   r  
Hpi = Hp – 1 −   for normal wearing ring ...(6.12)
8 g   r2  

2 
2
γu22  r2  1 −  r  
= Hp –     for damaged wearing ring ...(6.13)
8 g  r    r2  
Referring to the figure [6.15 (a)], the losses through the wearing ring consists of loss at entry, loss
in the passage and loss at exit.
LOSSES IN PUMPS 157

VL2
hc = Loss at entry due to sudden entry = 0.5
2g

VL2
he = Loss at exit, due to sudden exit = 1.00
2g
Loss in the passage having length ‘l’ and clearance ‘b’ and diameter ‘D’.

lVL2
hf = λ
8 gR
QL
where, VL is the velocity in the clearance =
πDi bi

Area πDi bi b
R = the Hydraulic Radius = = = i
Perimeter 2πDi 2

λlVL 2
So, hf =
4 gbI
Total loss hL = he + hf + hc = Hpi

 λli  VL 2
∴ Hpi =  0.5 + 1.00 +
 2bi  2 g

2
 λli   Q  1
=  + 1.5 ⋅  L1 
 2bi   πDi bi  2 g

1
QL1 = . πDi . bi . 2 gH pi ...(6.14)
λli
+ 1.5
2bi
where Hpi is calculated as per the equation (6.12) or (6.13). Comparing equations (6.14) and (6.11) µ
will be
1
µ=
λli
+ 1.5
2bi

For high pressure pumps Hpi will be higher due higher delivery pressure. The clearance cannot be
altered since efficiency has to be maintained at high level as well as for ease in manufacture. So the
leakage flow QL1 will be higher. Correspondingly, the volumetric efficiency and overall efficiency
reduce. To maintain efficiency at higher level, QL has to be reduced. This is achieved by increasing the
length of leakage path. Correspondingly, for the fixed value of area, µ value is changed. Different
wearing ring forms are shown in Fig. 6.15. Referring to Fig. 6.15.
158 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

pI − p x QL12 1
=
γ 2 g (µ1. A1 ) 2

px − p y QL12 1
=
γ 2 g (µ2 . A2 ) 2

( p y − p2 ) QL12 1
=
γ 2 g (µ3 . A3 ) 2

pi − p2 QL12  1 1 1 
∴ Hpi = =  2 + 2 + 2 
γ (µ
2g  1 1 A ) (µ A
2 2 ) (µ A
3 3 ) 

1  λ1l1  A1  
2 2
QL12  λ 2 .l2  A1   λ3 .l3
=  + 1.5 +  + 1.5    + + 1.5   
2g A12  2b1  2b2  A2   2b3  A3  

1
µ = ...(6.15)
λ1l1 λ 2l2  A1 
2
λ3l3  A1 
2   A  2  A 2 
+   +   + 1.5 1 +  1  +  1  
2b1 2b2  A2  2b3  A3    A2   A3  

In the similar manner, µ can be calculated for other configurations.


The value for λ is calculated similar to the procedure followed for pipes.
Equivalent pipe diameter ‘d’ for the clearance b will be d = 4R = 2b
Reynold’s number for the clearance b is determined as
2
u 
2b . ν 2s +  1 
ud 2
Re = = ...(6.16)
ν ν
u
since the velocity of the fluid, ui =.
2
Normal value of λ will be 0.04 to 0.08. For low viscous fluids, λ = 0.4.
l
For pumps of Di > 100 mm li the length of clearance passage = 0.12 to 0.15 and µ = 0.5 to 0.6.
DI
l
When Di < 100 mm = 0.2 to 0.25. Model analysis does not carried out for clearances. For proto-
Di
types, keeping clearance width ‘bi’ same, the length ‘li’ is increased. Increase in length li increases the
l
losses and reduces the leakage QL1. When 1 > 0.25, µ reduces only to a smaller extent, but li increases
Di
considerably. The type of wearing ring construction used depends upon pump construction. li should
always be ≥ 20 mm and µ ≤ 0.65 considering techno-economical condition.
LOSSES IN PUMPS 159

Prof. A.A. Lomakin |69| recommends that volumetric efficiency, ηvol can be calculated as
 1 
 η  = 1 + 0.68 nS .
–2/3

 V

6.3 (B) LEAKAGE FLOW THROUGH THE CLEARANCE BETWEEN TWO


STAGES OF A MULTISTAGE PUMP
p′ − p′
1 i
Hp3 =
γ
where p1′ = P1 + γHi, H1 = total head, and p′1 = pressure at the hub of the impeller.
p2 − p1 u22 − u 2h
Hp3 = H1 − +
γ 8g

u22   rh  
2

= H1 − H p + 1 −   
8 g   r2  
 
gH m u22   r 2 
= + − 1 −  h  
2u22 8g   r2  
Since, H1 – Hp = Hdy

QL3 = µ . πdh b . 2 gHp3 ...(6.17)

Vu

Fig. 6.16. Vortex formation at bend Fig. 6.17. Vortex formation due to sudden contraction

Fig. 6.18. Flow in divergent passage Fig. 6.19. Flow separation at imepller
outlet due to shroud
160 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Cu
Cr
A B 1 2

Fig. 6.20. Velocity distribution at Fig. 6.21. Flow separation and return flow at the outlet
outlet of impeller edge of impeller due to break effect

q = 0,15 q=0

Q <1
Fig. 6.22. Secondary flow at q =
Q norm

y A
x

r
A

A–A

x y

Fig. 6.23. Secondary flow between shrouds Fig. 6.24. Flow separation at impeller outlet
LOSSES IN PUMPS 161

Diffuser blade
leading edge
Impeller blade
trailing edge

Gap "B" Gap "A"


Leakage
flow
Inlet Casing
guide
vane

Impe lle r

Impeller blade
leading edge

Fig. 6.25. Secondary flow in pump impeller at Fig. 6.26. Vortex on finite blade length
partical flow conditions

6.4 HYDRAULIC LOSSES


Hydraulic losses are the losses due to: friction in the main flow when fluid passes through:
(a) suction or approach pipe, (b) impeller vane passages, (c) diffuser or volute casing flow passages and
(d) outlet passage or discharge cone of the spiral casing of a pump. Friction arises due to (1) fluid flow
over the surface roughness of the above mentioned pump parts. Heat developed by friction is carried
away by water and (2) secondary flow prevailing at places of unequal distribution of pressure in the
flow passage. (3) vortex λ formation along the inner side of blade configuration, (4) wake formation
after the blades. Shock entry are a few examples for the secondary flow. Exact study on hydraulic losses
has not so far being done, as it is extremely difficult. Theoretically developed equations along with the
experimentally determined coefficients are used to determine the hydraulic losses.
In general, the shape of flow passage of each element is designed not only as per dimensions but
also to provide stream lined flow passages at entry as well as at exit of each elements of the pump in
order to ensure minimum hydraulic losses. For example, uniform flow at casing can be ensured only if
uniform flow exists at the outlet of the impeller. Similarily flow must be stream lined, steady and uniform
at the exit of the approach pipe, so that same type of flow can exist at the inlet as well as at the impeller
passages.
Hydraulic losses can be classified as follows: (1) Losses under steady flow conditions (a) relative
flow through impeller (b) absolute flow in casing, approach and exit passages (2) Losses due to unsteady
flow and (3) Losses of hydraulic nature but attributed to mechanical losses.
Surface roughness of the flow passage in pump parts, such as approach pipe, impeller, spiral
casing and exit pipe is the main cause for hydraulic losses. Smooth surfaces give lower hydraulic losses.
162 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Impeller flow channel losses can be calculated taking relative velocity ‘w’. Average value of relative
velocity should be taken, since relative velocity in impeller across the circumferencial length is not
constant due to circular secondary flow prevailing due to finite vanes (Figs. 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24 and
6.25). Flow separation from the outlet edge of impeller due to insufficient kinetic energy in the boundary,
larger at all regions of operation except at optimum flow rate condition and subsequent increase in
losses in casing due to improper flow from impeller, are the causes for the development of secondary
flow. Spannhake | 110 | has given a detailed analysis about the secondary flow in impeller passages.
Experimental investigation in spiral casing has clearly indicated, the presence of unequal pressure
and velocity distribution not only due to non symmetrical flow from impeller, but also due to curvature
of the casing. Experiments conducted indicate about 2% velocity variation along the radial direction at
optimum flow region, and about 40% at Q = 0.4 (optimum region). So also under unsteady flow a higher
percentage of deviation in pressure and velocity exists at the return passage due to the presence of bend
kept after the diffuser of multistage pumps, which creates non uniform flow at the suction of the next
impeller.
At partial flow regions of operation, the pressure variation across the radial direction changes to a
larger extent at inlet of the pump impeller. Flow reverse takes place from hub to periphery. Due to the
presence of bend in the impeller, flow could not follow the passage, instead it again deviates from the
main stream, which again creates reverse flow at the outlet of the impeller (Fig. 6.25). Flow velocity
through the channel increases due to the restricted flow area. Apart from that due to larger difference in
pressure and velocity between leading and trailing surfaces of the impeller channel at partial flow regions,
the flow reverse takes place at the outlet of the impeller. It gradually extends in both direction along the
flow passage of the impeller, then to the casing on one side, extending to suction side of the impeller on
the other side. Due to this effect, the steepness of head discharge curve increases at higher specific
speeds. Rate of increase in steepness is higher for higher specific speed pumps.

ηh%
100
ηh as per A.A. Lomakin

ηh
As per A.J. Stepanoff

75
as per Stodila-Meizen

50

0 100 200 300 D q MM

Fig. 6.27. Comparison of hydraulic efficiency as recommended by different authors


LOSSES IN PUMPS 163

12

10
1

8
2

NT
N 6
%

3
2

0 70 140 210 280 350 420 ns


(1) Disc friction (2) Volumetric (3) Bearing and stuffing box

Fig. 6.28. Power loss = f (ns )

All flow passages in pumps are diffuser type passages, where in flow area gradually increases.
The velocity is changed into pressure. Angle of divergence of the diffuser passage must be between 5°
to 10°. Radius of curvature of bend portion R should be more than 7 to 8 times the width of the passage
R = 7 to 8 (Fig. 6.16). Losses ‘hf ’ due to sudden contraction and due to sudden expansion can be
calculated by using the standard formula,
V2 V2
For sudden contraction hf (contraction) = 0.5 and = 0.15 to 0.35 for gradual contraction.
2g 2g
For best results i.e., for minimum hydraulic losses, angle of convergence can be 17° to 21°.

(Vent − Vexi )2
For sudden expansion hf (exp) = φ ...(6.18)
2g
where φ the coefficient is ‘1’ for sudden expansion and 0.4 to 0.5 for gradual expansion if the angle of
divergence 8 to 10°. Since hydraulic losses are complicated, in nature, it is always calculated from the
experimental results.

Approximately hydraulic efficiency is assumed as ηh = η , where ηh = hydraulic efficiency and


η = overall efficiency, A.A. Lomakin suggests that
0.42
ηh = 1 – ...(6.19)
(log Dn0 − 0.172) 2
and prototype efficiency is calculated as
2
 
ηhp = 1 – ( 1– ηhm)  log D1nom − 0.172  ...(6.20)
 log D1nop − 0.172 
 
7
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS

7.1 INTRODUCTION
The impeller of the pump, when running inside casing, which is filled with the fluid, is acted on
by a number of forces. Sometimes these forces are significant in pumps either at all regions of operation
of pumps or when operated at other than optimum regions of operation. These forces must be properly
taken care of by proper construction of the pump.
These forces are divided into two types : (1) mass force i.e., weight of pump parts and weight of
the fluid filled inside the pump space and inertia force i.e., the centrifugal force and forces due to
coriolis acceleration and (2) surface force, acting on the pumps due to the fluid pressure and its reaction.
Total weight of the pump and the weight of the fluid inside casing, will be acting at its centre of
gravity in the downward direction, whereas hydrostatic pressure will be acting in upward direction as
buoyant force.
Inertia force is the centrifugal force of the rotating parts.
W 2
Fc = ωr
g
where,
W — weight of moving parts.
ω — angular velocity of the moving parts.
r — the eccentricity between centre of gravity of moving part and the centre of the axis of the
shaft.
If the centre gravity of impeller falls exactly on the shaft axis then r = 0 and the centrifugal force
is zero. This is achieved by dynamically balancing all rotating parts. Since inside surface of the impeller
is the only unmachined part among all rotating parts, only impeller is dynamically balanced, before
assembly.
The surface force ‘F ’ by the flowing fluid on impeller and casing consists of ‘FZ’, the axial force
and ‘Fr’ radial force. Axial force acting on the impeller is considerable whereas axial force on casing
equalises each other and hence zero. Correspondingly radial force acting on impeller, due to uniform
and constant flow at each and every point of impeller circumference, is zero, but radial force acting on
the casing is not zero as this force changes in magnitude and direction from tongue to delivery mouth of
the casing due to gradual increase in flow from impeller to casing.

164
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 165

7.2 AXIAL FORCE ACTING ON THE IMPELLER


Referring to Fig. 7.1, the flow at outlet of the impeller consists of (1) main flow ‘Qa’ into the
casing, (2) leakage flow at the front end of the impeller, passing through the clearance between casing
and impeller front shroud, then through the wearing ring clearance and finally reaching the suction side
at impeller eye and (3) leakage flow at the rear end of the impeller passing through the space between
rear shroud of the impeller and casing wall, then through rear wearing ring clearance and finally either
passing through the stuffing box to atmosphere or passing through the balancing hole back to impeller
eye.

p2 r p2

Contour pL pR
A1 p R – pL
A2
r2

r
rh

Shaft

r
r0

axis z-axis
p1

Fig. 7.1. For axial thrust calculation


This fluid pressure acts on both shrouds and on both sides of the shroud i.e., at inner and at outer
side of the impeller shrouds. If FZ0 is the force due to fluid pressure at the outer side of the impeller
shroud and FZi is the force due to fluid pressure at the inner side of the impeller shrouds and since these
pressures are acting parallel to Z-axis, i.e., shaft axis, the total force acting in the impeller will be
FZ = FZ0 + FZi .
FZi the internal force is calculated by applying impulse momentum equation to the unit mass
passing through the impeller. If AT is the surface area of the two sides of shrouds and blades of the
impeller, and A1 and A2 are the area at the suction and delivery surfaces of the impeller, neglecting the
weight of the of the impeller and the weight of the fluid enclosed at outside and inside the impeller
passage the resolved component of net hydrodynamic force, applying Eular’s law, is written as,
W
FZ A 1+ FZ A 2 – FZi = – (CZ2 – CZ1) ...(7.1)
g
where FZ A1 and FZA 2 are the axial component of the pressure force on surface A1 and A2 of the impeller
respectively
W = γQ – Weight flow rate
FZ A 1 and FZA2 are the axial component of the absolute velocity at entrance and at exist respectively.
Axial force at the inner surface ‘FZ1’ cannot be determined, since pressure distribution at the inner
surface is not known due to the presence of the impeller vane. It can be determined, however, with the
help of Eular’s equation. In Eular’s equation, the blade induces force on fluid. The same force prevails
with negative sign if the fluid induces force in the surface, hence, the negative sign on the equation
(7.1). The direction of the force ‘FZ A 2’ at the surface A2 at the outlet edge of the impeller is perpendicular
to axis since CZ2 is perpendicular to axis. Hence, it is zero. The force ‘FZ A 1’ will be
166 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Rc

FZA1 = ∫ pdA = R∫ pi 2πrdr=p1 . π (R02−R1h2) ...(7.2)


A1 h

where, p1 is the pressure at impeller inlet and is equal to hS the suction pressure. R1C and R1h are the
radius at periphery and at hub of the impeller eye. For normal entry the fluid velocity CZ1 = C0.
Pressure p1 at the impeller eye is the suction pressure which is negative, hence the direction of FZ1
will be opposite i.e., opposite to the fluid flow direction at impeller eye and is parallel to Z-axis (shaft
axis). Equation (7.1) can be written as
w γQ
p1π (R210– R21h ) – FZ1 = – g . C0 = – C
g 0
γQ
or FZi = C + p1π (R21c – R21h) ...(7.3)
g 0
Axial force ‘ FZ0’ acting on the outer surface will be integral of elementary hydrodynamic force
pdA cos ( p z ) on the surface i.e.,

FZ0 = ∫ pdA cos ( pz )


A0

The value dA cos ( pz ) is the projection of the external surface dA along the direction
Z, dAZ = rdθ dr .Therefore
R2 2π R2 2π
FZ0 = ∫ rdr ∫ pF d π – ∫ rdr ∫ pR d θ ...(7.4)
R0 0 Rh 0

where, pF and pR are the pressure at the frontside and backside of the impeller outer surface.
Since the space is a free surface at any radius r the angular velocity of fluid ‘ωf’ will be half of the
ω
impeller angular velocity ‘ω’ i.e., ‘ωf’ =
2
Referring to the equation (3.69), pressure at the space at any radius will be

u22   r  
2
p = p2 – γ 1 −    ...(3.69)
8 g   r2  
 
Therefore, the pressures at front and rear side space between impeller and casing, from outer
radius R2 to the eye radius R0 are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction and hence cancel each
other.
But the pressures at the rear end of the impeller from R0 and Rh changes as per equation (3.69),
whereas the pressure at the front and of the impeller is the suction pressure pS = p1. Equation (7.4) can be
written as
R0 u 22  r   
2
FZ0 
= ∫  p2 − γ 1 −   2πr dr
 
RH  
8 g  R  
2 
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 167

 p2 u 2  R02 + Rh2  
(
= γπ R0 − Rh  −
2 2
)
1 −
 γ 8 g 

2R22  
...(7.5)

∴ Net force FZ = FZ0 + FZi j


 p2 – p1 u 2  R02 + Rh2  
FZ = γπ R0 − Rh 
2 2
( − )  1− 2 

γQ
C0
 γ 8g  2R2   g

L F I OP rQ R02 + Rh2
2
iMMd2
G
H
u2
JK PQ − g ⋅ C
= γπ R0 − Rh H p − 8 g 1 − 2 R 2
N

  2
0 ...(7.6)
A B

The value marked ‘A’ is normally very large when compared to the value ‘B’ in the equation (7.6).
Hence, the value B is usually neglected. The direction of this axial force will be opposite to the direction
of flow at suction i.e., the tendency of this force FZ is to remove the impeller from the shaft. This force
is carried over to rear bearing of the pump through the impeller nut and pump shaft.
When the wearing ring clearance is in fully damaged condition. Equation (3.70) should be
considered instead of equation (3.69).
u22  R22   r22 
p2 = p2 − γ    1 −  ...(3.70)
8 g  r2   R22 
R2

There, FZ02 = ∫ ( p2 − p f ) 2π rdr


R0

R2
u2  R  
2
r2    u2  r 2  
= 2π ∫   p2 − γ 2  2  1 − 2   − 2π  p2 − γ 2  1 −    rdr
R0 
8 g  r   R2    R22   
   8g

 
( ) 8ug  R R− R R22 + Rh2
2 2
R22
= γπ R2 − Rh + − 2
2 2 2 2
ln ...(7.7)
2
2
2
h Rh2 2 R22 

Net Axial force FZ = FZ02 (as per equation) (7.6) + FZ (as per equation) (7.7) ...(7.8)
Due to continuous operation of pump, erosion at the inlet and at the outlet of wearing ring passage
gradually removes the material of the wearing ring, as a result of this, wearing ring clearance increases.
RC
This wear is more in high pressure units for low specific speed pumps, nS = 50 to 80 and < 0.5.
R2

7.3 AXIAL THRUST IN SEMI-OPEN IMPELLERS


Axial thrust in semi-open impellers will be more than that in closed impellers, due to the fact that
the axial thrust on the rear shroud is partially balanced from (Point 2 to point 1) outlet edge to inlet edge
of the impeller due to equal pressure variation at both ends of rear shroud (Fig. 7.2). Net pressure at the
rear shroud will be
168 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

 1 u 22 – u 2S  H2 H2
FZR = γ (A2 – As)  H 2 −  ...(7.9)
 8 2g 
where A2 and AS are the surface area at radii R2 and

r2
RS .

r1
rh
At the front side i.e., at the suction side of the
impeller since there is no shroud, it is assumed that
the pressure between outlet and inlet edge of the
impeller i.e., from R2 to R1 varies in a straight line
Fig. 7.2. Axial thrust in semi-open impellers
form. Axial thrust will be
γH 2
FZ f = (A2 – A1) ...(7.2)
2
The resultant axial thrust will be
FZi = FZR – FZf = γ (A2 – As)
 1 u 22 − uS2  H2 
H2 −  – γ  (A2 – AS ) 2  ...(7.10)
 8 2g  

7.4 AXIAL THRUST DUE TO DIRECTION CHANGE IN BEND AT INLET


Actual axial thrust will be lower than the value calculated as per the equation (7.10) due to the
centrifugal force created at inlet due to the direction change from axial to radial in centrifugal pumps.
Since, there is no blade in this space only absolute velocity should be considered. Centrifugal force can
be calculated as
γ
Pt = k QC0 ...(7.11)
g
where k is the experimental coefficient 0.85 to 0.45 for nS = 50 to 250. This centrifugal force acts
opposite to the main axial thrust. Net axial thrust P will be
PNet = PZi – Pt ...(7.12)
For higher nS pumps Ft is small and hence Kt
neglected. For single stage radial type centrifugal
pump, axial force can be determined as
1,0
π 2 Dcp
P = (Dwi – d2h ) H3γ ...(7.13) dh
4 0,5
W
D

where Dwi is the diameter of impeller wearing 50 100 150 200 250 ns
ring, dh hub diameter and H3 is the average static
head H3 = 0.6 H for nS < 60 and 0.8 H for nS 60 Fig. 7.3. Coefficient to calculate axial thrust due to
direction change at inlet of impeller (at bend)
to 200. Experiments were conducted by the
Institute of Hydraulic Machines Moscow |131| based on the above equation. The above equation in final
form is written as
π
P = Kt γH (Dw2 – d2h ) ...(7.14)
4
The experimental coefficient Kt is given in Fig. 7.3.
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 169

7.5 BALANCING OF AXIAL THRUST


Balancing of axial thrust is carried out by the following methods:
(a) By proper use of rear bearing i.e., bearing near coupling side of the pump, such as ball
bearing, angular contact bearing, tapered roller bearing, or thrust bearing.
(b) By providing radial vanes at the outer side of rear shroud i.e., at the space between impeller
rear shroud and the casing wall [Fig. 7.5 (d)].
(c) By providing balancing holes, below the inlet edge of the impeller at the rear shroud. [Fig.
7.6 (c)]
(d) By providing balancing disc or balancing drum. [Fig. 7.6 (b)]
(e) By arranging opposed impellers either suction end facing each other i.e., single suction at the
middle and double delivery at both ends or suction end opposing each other i.e., double
suction and single delivery. This may be embedded into one unit as in double suction pumps
or individual impellers. [Figs. 7.4, 7.5 and 7.6 (a)]

FZ FZ

Fig. 7.4. Balancing by individual two Fig. 7.5. Balanced individual opposed impellers
suction facing impellers

Suction
connection
tube

Q Q D C

(a) Double suction (b) Balancing disc (c) Balancing hole (d) Radial blades

Fig. 7.6. Different methods of balancing axial thrust

Arrangement c, d are provided for single stage pumps whereas arrangements a and b are provided
for multistage pumps. Double suction pump is a single stage opposed impeller pump [Fig. 7.6 (a)].
170 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Balancing by

(a) Balancing disc or drum


(a)
1 2 3 4 5 6

(b), (c), (d), (e), self balancing by impeller


positioning
(b) 1 3 5 6 4 2

(c) 1 3 4 6 5 2

(d) 1 2 3 4 5 6

(e) 1 2 3 6 5 4

Fig. 7.7. Different balancing methods by impeller position in multistage balancing.

7.6 AXIAL THRUST TAKEN BY BEARINGS


Coupling side bearing of the pump is always designed to take care of the axial thrust. For smaller
axial loads deep groove ball bearings are used. For higher axial thrusts, deep groove ball bearings are
replaced by angular contact ball bearings. For still higher axial thrusts the bearing is replaced by tapered
roller bearing or a pure thrust bearing along with ball bearing. Use of suitable bearing, keeps the pump
bearing housing compact, thereby pump weight is considerably reduced and also the cost.

7.7 RADIAL VANES AT REAR SHROUD OF THE IMPELLER


Location of radial blades at the rear shroud is shown in Fig. 7.8. The magnitude of axial thrust
reduction depends purely upon the size of the radial blades as well as the clearance between casing wall
and the radial blade. Extra power consumed due to this additional radial vanes does not exceed the
power spent for the additional clearance provided at the rear shroud to control leakage. This power
always remains constant. The blade width will be normally 3 to 4 mm. But it is difficult to maintain the
clearance between casing wall and the radial blade, since casing wall is an unmachined surface.
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 171

p2 p2
a
b
∆p C

r0
r8m
Fig. 7.8. Axial thrust balancing by radial blades
2 2 2
u 2 – u 2p u p – u2 u 2 – u2
a = p2 – γ ; b=γ ; c=γ .
8g 2g 8g

Due to the presence of rear radial blades, which is rotating at a blade velocity ‘u’ the fluid also
1
rotates at a velocity of ‘u’ instead of u as in the case of without radial blades condition. This reduces
2
the pressure at the rear space. At any radius ‘rp’ the pressure drop ∆p will be
3 γ 2
∆p = (u p – u2) ...(7.15)
8 g
when radial blades are present the radial thrust reduces to
 u 2p − uh2 
∆Fzp =
3 γ
8 g
⋅ π rp − rh 
2 2

 2 
(  ) ...(7.16)

In order to have perfect axial thrust balancing


FZi = ∆Fzp. ...(7.17)
The diameter of the radial blades can be determined from equation (7.16) and (7.17).
In some of the pump constructions, the radial blades are provided in casing wall instead of at
1
impeller rear shroud. Since blade is stationary, the fluid velocity will be u instead of ‘u’. In practice,
2
1
it is found that fluid velocity is slightly more than ‘ u’.
2

7.8 AXIAL THRUST BALANCING BY BALANCING HOLES


This method of balancing is done by providing an orifice hole below the inlet edge of impeller
blade, connecting the chamber kept between the impeller rear shroud and casing wall [Figs. 7.6 (c), 7.9].
Referring to the pressure distribution prevailing on both sides of impeller, non balancing of axial thrust
exists only at impeller eye area. The pressure is suction pressure (negative pressure) at the front side of
the impeller shroud below the inlet edge of the impeller, whereas, pressure at the rear side of the impeller
shroud is +ve (space C). Perfect balancing can be attained if these two pressures are made equal by
providing an orifice type hole (D) connecting these two spaces. Although theoretically the axial thrust is
balanced, practically a slight unbalanced force exists either +ve or –ve. This is due to the fact that, the
pressure drop across the front and rear wearing rings A and B are not equal owing to the difference in
172 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

wearing clearance at A and at B due to gradual wear in


running. The flow qL1 and qL3 are also not equal. The
pressure at chamber D is always slightly greater than
the suction pressure at impeller eye, due to hydraulic
losses in orifice. But magnitude of this axial thrust is
very small, and it is taken care of by bearing. This facility
enables to provide smaller capacity bearings.
C
The diameters of wearing ring ‘Di’ at both ends D

of the impeller are selected as equal. The sum total of


the area of orifices ΣAOri must be more than the wearing
ring area ‘Aw’, in order to have perfect balancing. Fig. 7.9. Axial thrust balancing by
Normally ΣAOri ≥ 4 to 5 A w for better cavitational balancing holes
property.
Although this process is simple and easy for manufacture, the flow quantity ‘qC3’ through the
orifice is larger than the normal ‘qL3’ through stuffing box, as a result of which the main flow ‘Qact’ is
smaller and the flow through the impeller Qth is larger. Volumetric efficiency ηv, overall efficiency η
and the total head ‘H’considerably reduce. Vacuum before the inlet edge of the impeller is also reduced.
Correspondingly, the cavitational characteristics also reduce, due to reduction in allowable HVac for a
wide range of operation of pump. Due to this drawback, this method is not recommended and not
followed for pump having low quantity and low head.

7.9 AXIAL THRUST BALANCING BY BALANCE DRUM AND DISC


Axial thrust balancing by balancing drum and by balancing disc provides perfect balancing. This
method is adopted in multistage pumps and is fitted after the last stage of the pump. The main advantage
of the arrangement is that, perfect balancing is achieved at all points of operation automatically and also
it can be used for any number of stages in pump. For trouble free running, provision must be given to
allow the rotating system to move slightly in axial direction in both directions (≈ 0.5 mm). Balancing
drum [Fig. 7.6 (a)] consists of a chamber, where the drum is located. This chamber is connected by a

Tube T
Q q3 ∆p d
p2 ϕ∆p d p5
b2

p5
ld2
b

K2
K1
Ra

ps Q
Re

p5
Rb

Σ Fzi Fd p4
R sh

p3 b
p4

Fig. 7.10. Axial thrust balancing by balancing disc


AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 173

pipe to the impeller eye of the I stage impeller. The size of the drum is selected such that ΣFZ, the total
axial thrust of all the impellers, of the multistage pump is equalised by the axial force (FD) developed by
balancing drum in the opposite direction.
Practically, there may be a very small amount of unbalanced axial thrust, which is developed due
to fluctuation in the leakage flow q3. Also, there will be unequal balancing of axial thrust, when the
clearance between rotary and stationary number of the drum wears out, due to aging. Such unbalanced
forces are taken care of by bearings.
Balancing disc works under the same principle as that of balancing drum (Figs. 7.11 and 7.12).
The leakage flow q3 of the fluid from the last stage of the impeller enters the chamber (K1) located
between balancing disc (1) and stationary ring (2) through the axial clearances b. The chamber ( K2) is
connected to the impeller eye area of the I stage with the help of pipe.
When pump is running, the leakage flow (q3) from the main flow (Qth) through the impeller, under
the pressure p3 flows through the axial clearance (b) to the disc chamber K1 where the pressure is p4 and
then through the clearance (b1), with certain losses. Flow then enters the chamber outlet K2, from which
flow passes through the tube T, enter the eye of the impeller. The pressure drops from p5 to p1 which is
greater than the suction pressure PS (i.e., P5 > p1> pS ).

Suciton

p1 p0 Q
q3

F zI FzD
d y∂
d∂

Fig. 7.11. Balancing drum (another form) Fig. 7.12. Axial thrust balancing by balancing drum

Pressure (p4) in the chamber (K1) induces a force at the bottom of the disc clearance passage. If
this pressure (p4) is larger than total axial thrust Σ FZ, the moving disc moves away from the stationary
ring. The disc clearance (b1) now increases. This in turn increases the leakage flow (q3) and also the
losses in the clearance. As a result of this, the pressure (p4) drops down and the disc moves towards the
stationary ring which in turn reduces the clearance (b1) and losses in the disc. This process repeats and
the clearance (b1) goes on changing, until the pressure (p4) equalises the axial thrust ΣFZ.. At this stage
the clearance b1 remains constant. The leakage quantity (q3) flows through the tube to the impeller eye
of the first stage of the impeller.
The pressure drop (p4 – p5) at the disc clearance, the leakage flow (q3), the dimensions of the
clearance, the connecting pipe dimensions to carry the leakage quantity q3 back to the inlet of the Ist
stage impeller are to be determined as follows:
The pressure drop, ∆ p (p4 – p5) across the disc clearance, to get complete balancing of axial thrust
will be
ΣFZ
∆P = ...(7.18)
ψ π ( Ra2 − R 2h )
174 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

where, Ψ is the coefficient depending upon the pressure distribution across the disc Ψ < 1, Ra is outer
diameter of disc and Rh is the outer diameter of the shaft sleeve.
Taking an uniform change of pressure across the clearance ‘b1’, the coefficient Ψ depends upon
the dimensions of the disc only
2 2
 r  r  r 
(1 − φ) 1 + e  + (1 + 2 φ)  e  − 3  b 
 Ra   Ra   Ra 
ψ = 2 ...(7.19)
 r 
3 1 − b 
 Ra 
where, φ the coefficient depends upon the pressure drop at the entry to and exit from disc clearance and
the losses in the clearance and is taken as φ = 0.18 to 0.25.
The leakage quantity (q3 ) will be

∆p
q3 = µ2 π reb1 2 g ...(7.20)
γ
The flow coefficient µ will be

1
µ = ...(7.21)
( R − r )r r2
λ a e e + e2 + 0.5
2 Ra b1 Ra

The pressure p4 before the disc can be determined from the pressure drop across the axial clearances
b. i.e.,

 ω2 2 
γ
(p3 – p4 ) =  H ( Z − 1) + Hp − ( R2 − rS2 )  – ∆P – (p5 – ps) ...(7.22)
 8g 
where, H —Head developed per stage.
Z —Number of stages.
ps —Suction pressure at impeller eye of 1st stage.
p5 —The pressure in the balancing chamber outlet (not more than 5 to 8 kg/cm2 so
that the stuffing box can work without any trouble).
The pressure drop (p3 – p4) across the axial clearance (b) will be

p3 − p4
q3 = µs As 2 g ...(7.23)
γ

Knowing q3 from equation (7.20) and the pressure drop from equation (7.19) the area
q3
µs As = ...(7.24)
p − p4
2g 3
γ
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 175

For better operation the clearance b1= (0.0010 to 0.0012) Ra and will be 0.6 to 0.8 mm. Now,
hence the length ‘L’ for the clearance can be determined.
The radius Ra of the disc is selected slightly less than the outer radius of the impeller. The diameter
Rb = (1.2 to 1.5) Rsh where Rsh = the shaft radius. The inner radius Re is fixed, based on the sufficient
length (ld ) of the disc.
The pressure drop ‘Ψ∆p’ is taken as constant. The coefficient ψ is determined from the condition
that the force Fd determined from the actual pressure distribution is equal to the pressure distribution on
the complete surface of the disc i.e.,
Ra

∑Fzi = Fd = ψ ∆pd π ( Ra2 − Rb2 )= ∫ ∆p 2π rdr


Rb

Re Ra
= ∫ ∆pd 2π rdr + ∫ ∆pd 2π rdr ...(7.25)
Rb Re

The pressure distribution on both sides of the disc and the pressure drop ∆p change according to
radius. Pressure on the right side of the disc p5 is constant and approximately 4 to 8 kg/cm2, for trouble
free operation of stuffing box. The pressure ‘p4’ at the left side of the disc is also constant. The pressure
drops from p4 to p5 due to losses in the balancing disc clearance φ∆p where the coefficient φ will be
1.5
φ = 2 ...(7.26)
λld Ra  Re 
. + + 0.5
2bd Re  Ra 
where ld = Ra – Re and λ, the coefficient of friction, depends upon the Reynold’s number of the flow ‘Re’
2
u 
2b2 C a2 +  a 
 2 
Re = ...(7.27)
ν
where Ca is the flow velocity at entrance and ν the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Normally λ = 0.4 to
0.8 and φ will be 0.15 to 0.25. The pressure drop (∆p) in the disc clearance can be taken as proportional
to radius of the disc. It can be expressed
Ra − r
∆p = ∆pd (1 – φ) ...(7.28)
Ra − Re
Substituting this value of ∆p in equation (7.21)
Re Ra
Ra − r
Fd = ∫ ∆ Pa 2π rdr + ∫ ∆ Pa (1 – φ) Ra − Re
2π rdr
Rb Re

(1 − φ) ( Ra + Ra R1 ) + (1 + 2φ) Re − 3R b  π R a − Re ∆pd


 2 2  2 2
( )
( )
=
3 Ra2 − Rb2
176 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

from which
2 2
 R  R  R 
(1 − φ)  1 + e  + (1 + 2φ)  e  − 3  b 
 Ra   Ra   Ra 
ψ = ...(7.29)
  R 2 
3 1 −  b  
  Ra  
 

∆pd ∆pd
The flow q3 = µd A3 2 g = µ2π Reb2 2g ...(7.30)
γ γ
1
where, µd = .
λ  d Re R 2e
. + + 0.5
2b Ra R 2a
The length of the clearance ‘ly’ at the shaft sleeve before the disc will be

p3 − p4 p3 − p4
q3 = µy Ay 2 g = µy 2π Rh by 2g ...(7.31)
γ γ
where, by is the radial width of the clearance and µy the coefficient is
1
µy =
λl y
+ 1.5
2by
The pressure drop (p3 – p4) = (p2 – p5) – (p2 – p3) – ∆ pd
p2 = p1 + γ [H (Z – 1) + Hp] ...(7.32)
H — Total head of the pump
Z — Number of stages

u 22  Rb2 
(p2 – p3) = γ 1 − 2  ...(7.33)
8g  R2 
The length of the tube ‘lt’, connecting the suction side of the Ist stage and outlet chamber of the
disc is approximately the length of the pump assembly. The tube diameter dt is determined from the
equation (7.34)

p5 − p1
q3 = µt A – 2g
γ

πdt 2 p5 − p1
= 2g ...(7.34)
λlt γ
4 + 1.5
dt
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 177

7.10 RADIAL FORCES ACTING ON VOLUTE CASING


Radial forces in spiral casing, occur only where axisymmetry is not maintained in flow at the
impeller outlet. Theoretically, axisymmetry can prevail only at the optimum efficiency conditions.
Practically, axisymmetry cannot be maintained due to uneven flow velocity across the breadth at the
outlet of the impeller. At partial flow conditions due to less flow, the flow is in the form of diffuser, due
to larger area of casing, whereas at higher flow the flow passage becomes smaller and forms a convergent
passage. In all these cases, flow cannot be axisymmetric. In Fig. 7.13, the pressure distribution at the
inlet of the spiral casing and the location of minimum (F1) and maximum (F2) forces acting on the
casing are illustrated. The net radial force acting on the rotating shaft creates fatigue and deflection. The
clearance provided between wearing rings and between shaft sleeve and shaft must take care of this
deflection while the pump runs from minimum to maximum flow. The impeller side bearing or the front
bearing must be designed to take this radial load.
90

90
F1

180 p2 360 180 360


0

270
F2

270

(a) (b)

Fig. 7.13. Pressure distribution across volute

7.11 DETERMINATION OF RADIAL FORCES


Forces acting on the external (Fe) and internal (Fi) surfaces in x and y coordinates can be determined
as,

Fxe = ∫ p dA cos (nx)


Ae
for external surface ...(7.35)
Fye = ∫ p dA cos (ny)
Ae

where n is the normal to elementary surface considered


p is the pressure, taken from the known pressure distribution.
Applying moment of momentum equation between inlet and outlet, in order to determine the
internal forces.
178 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

– Fxi = ∫ ρ CndA C cos (C x) – ∫ ρ Cn dA C cos (C x)


Ae A1
...(7.36)
– Fyi = ∫ ρ CndA C cos (C y) – ∫ ρ CndA C cos (C y)
A2 A3

where, A1 and A2 are the inlet and outlet area of the impeller C and Cn are the absolute velocity and its
components, resolved normal to the surface dA.
ρ is the fluid density.
Since the fluid exerts a force on impeller, the negative sign is given for Fxi and Fyi. For normal
entry at inlet C = C0 and is parallel to axis. Hence, Cn = 0. The integral for the area ‘A’ becomes zero.
The equations are reduced to

– Fxi = ∫ ρ CndA C cos (C x )


A2

and – Fyi = ∫ ρ CndAC cos (C y) ...(7.37)


A2

Total forces, Fx = Fxe + Fxi and Fy = Fye + Fyi


Fy
and F = F x2 + F y2 and angle θ = Arc tan ...(7.38)
Fx
Experimental investigation on different pumps shows that the pressure is almost constant around
the circumference of the impeller outlet (or at inlet to spiral casing) at optimum efficiency condition i.e.,
flow is axisymmetric. At high flow rate, (above normal flow) the pressure falls from tongue to outlet of
spiral casing. At below normal flow conditions the pressure increases from tongue to outlet end of spiral
casing. At very small flow rate, the flow reversal takes place near the tongue due to high pressure. For
calculation purpose, it can be assumed that pressure variation is uniform i.e., in straight line, from
tongue to outlet of spiral casing at below normal and above normal flow rates (Fig. 7.13).
Total head is the sum of pressure head (Hp) and dynamic head (Hdy). Considering a uniform
straight line variation around the circumference of the impeller, the pressure at any angle θ of the volute
can be written as

 θ 
p = γHm = γ  Hp+ Hdy  ...(7.39)
 2π 
and dA = b2R2d θ and cos (nx) = cos θ in equation (7.31). The radial thrust on the external side will be
(Fxe)

 θ 
Fxe = ∫ p dA cos (n x) = –
∫ γ  H p + 2π H dy  b2 r2 dθ cosθ
Ae 0

θ
=– ∫ γ 2π Hdy b2 r2 dθ cos θ
0
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 179

γH dy 2π
γHdy
=–

b2 r2 ∫ θ cos θ dθ – 2π
b2 r2 [ θ sin θ + cos θ]02π = 0
0
...(7.40)

Since, ∫ cos θ dθ =0
0
The external force in y direction Fye will be
2π 2π
 θ  θ
Fye = – ∫ γ Hp +
 2π
H dy  b r dθ sinθ = ∫ γ
 2 2 H b γ d θ sinθ
2π dy 2 2
0 0

γH dy γH dy
= − b2 r2 ∫ θ sin θ d θ = − b2 r2 [− θ cos θ + sin θ] 2 π
2π 0
2π 0

γH dy
=– b r (–2π ) = r Hdy b2 r2 ...(7.41)
2π 2 2
The forces Fxe and Fye calculated as per the equation (7.35) are directed in radial direction towards
axis, near the tongue i.e., towards the smaller sections of spiral casing. The radial forces at the internal
surface Fxi and Fyi can be determined from the experimental results. From the analysis, it is found that
the tangential component Cu2 at the outlet of the impeller is constant at all point around the circumference
→ → →
Since C2 = Cr 2 + Cu 2

– Fxi = ∫ ρ Cr2 dA C′2 (C2 x) = ∫ ρ C2r2 dA cos (Cr2 x)


A2 A2

+ ∫ ρ Cr2dA C′u2 cos (C′u2 x) and


A2
...(7.42)
∫ρ Cr2 dA C′2 cos (Cu2 y) = ∫ ρ C r2 dA cos (Cr2 y)
– Fyi = 2
A2
A2

+ ∫ ρ Cr2 dA cos (Cr2 y)


A2

Q
Taking the radial velocity at the outlet of the spiral casing as Cr20 = , radial velocity at any
πD2 b2
angle θ of the spiral casing will be
 θ 
Cr2 = 1 −  Cr20
 2π 
2π 2π
 θ   θ 
So, Fxi = ∫ ρ Cr20 1 −  b r d θ cos θ – ∫ ρ Cr20 × 1 − 2π  × Cu2′ b2 r2 d θ sin θ
0  2π  2 2 0
2π 2π
 θ   θ 
= ρ C2r20 r2b2 ∫ 1 − 2π  cos θ d θ – ρ Cr20 b2 r2 ∫ 1 − 2π  sin θ dθ
0 0
180 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

C 2r 20  Cu′ 2 1  C2  1 1
= 2b2 r2γ  −  b D γ r 20  − 
2 g  Cr 20 π  2 2 2 g  tanα ′ π  ...(7.43)
 2 
2π 2 2π
2  θ  b r d θ sin θ +
– Fyi = ∫ ρ Cr20 1 −  2 2 ∫ ρ Cr20
0  2π  0

2 2π 2
×  1 − θ  Cu′ 2 b2 d θ cos θ = ρC2r 2 0 b2 r2  θ 
 2π 
∫ 1 − 2π  sin θd θ
0

+ ρ Cr20 C′u2 b2 r2  θ 
∫ 1 − 2π  cos θd θ
0

2
C r220 C r 20
= – 2b2r2γ = – b2D2γ ...(7.44)
2g 2g
gH m
where, C′u 2 = , Cr20 = radial velocity at impeller outlet at optimum efficiency condition, α′2 is the
u2
Cr 20
absolute angle at outlet of the impeller. tan α′2 = .
Cu′ 2
While calculating the forces acting on outside surfaces of the impeller, only the cylindrical surface
of the impeller outlet is considered. The calculated value will be slightly lower than the actual. The
direction of the resultant will deviate about 20° with respect to vertical towards the volute tongue. The
derived equations can also be applied for other regions of operation either for part loaded or for over-
loaded conditions.
A.J. Stepanoff |112| recommends following empirical rule for the radial thrust in pumps

  
2
Q
Fr = 360 1 −  

 Hb′ D ...(7.45)
  Qopt   2 2
 
where H — Total head, D2 — outer diameter of the impeller b2′ = b2 + 2t
b2 — Outlet breadth of impeller and
t — thickness of shroud at outlet.

7.12 METHODS TO BALANCE THE RADIAL THRUST


Hydraulically balancing the radial thrust at all regions of operation is achieved by providing flow
symmetry in casing design. Dividing the volute flow passage into two equally, symmetrical channels,
each channel covering 180° of flow and kept opposite to each other provides complete symmetry at all
regions of operations. Radial forces developed in each channel are equal in magnitude, but acting opposite
to each other at any point around the circumference, at all regions of operation.
In the same manner, number of channel can be increased. Provision of a number of vaned channels
more than two called, diffuser, provides perfect symmetry and equalises the radial thrust.
AXIAL AND RADIAL THRUSTS 181

In some of the volute designs for single stage pumps two volutes, each covering 180° of total
flow angle, are provided, with two outlet mouths (Fig. 7.14). In some other designs, two half volutes
are provided each covering 180° of flow area from impeller outlet (Fig. 7.14). The total flow enters a
single outlet mouth of volute. In both cases, the radial thrust created at any point equalises between two
half volute thereby net radial force is zero.
In multistage pumps, the outlet flow from the impeller enters two spiral passage, which are kept
180° apart, which equalises the radial thrust.

diffuser section

(a) (b)

Fig. 7.14. Volute designs to balance radial thrust


8
MODEL ANALYSIS

8.1 INTRODUCTION
Actual pump parameters differ from the theoretical values, due to the presence of viscosity in real
fluid and complicated flow passages in pumps. Two identical pumps differ in quality due to the presence
of different dimensions of surface roughness in flow passages. Model analysis and model testing of
pumps give an option to overcome all the above mentioned difficulties and also gives all necessary
information to design new pumps, so that, these pumps can be operated in a wide range of operation,
with quality.
Two pumps, model and prototype units, can be identical, if these pumps are similar geometrically,
kinematically and dynamically. Geometrical similarity indicates linear proportionality of all dimensions
including surface roughness of pump parts between model and prototype units. Kinematic similarity
indicates that fluid flow direction in all elements of model and prototype, at identical points remain
same. Combining these two similarities, we get that the absolute, relative and blade velocities between
model and prototype are proportional but in the same direction. Dynamic similarity indicates the
proportionality of the forces acting at the identical points of model and phototype units. Referring the
Navier-Stokes equation for a three dimensional incompressible fluid flow, geometrical similarity and
kinematic similarity are included, if dynamic similarity is considered. Most important non-dimensional
parameters such as Reynold’s number (Re), Froude number (Fr), Struhaul’s number (Sh) and Eular’s
number (Eu) are considered for dynamic similarity for incompressible viscous flow through pumps.
These numbers must be same for model and for prototype.

CA wA
C A′ w A′
A
A′
βA = β
B′ αA′ = αA βA′ A′
B
uA′ uA
Model CA′ w A′
=
CA wA

Prototype

Fig. 8.1. Geometrical and kinematic similarity

182
MODEL ANALYSIS 183

Vl Inertia force
Reynold’s number Re = =
ν Viscous force

V2 Inertia force
Froude number Fr = = ...(8.1)
gl Gravitational force
V Inertia force
Struhaul’s number Sh = =
nl Unsteady, periodical forces
where V is the velocity, l is the linear dimension, ν is the kinematic viscosity, and n is the speed. During
model test, all the above three non-dimensional numbers cannot be studied simultaneously. Since these
three numbers do not depend on each other, they are studied individually. Reynold’s number is studied
for a pressure flow, closed conduit flow of viscous fluid, such as flow in fully submerged condition,
flow in pipes and flow of fluid through pumps under completely filled condition. Froude number is
studied for a free flow such as open channel flow, flow of ship in water. In pumps, this number is studied
under fully developed cavitation condition, where flow separation exists. Struhauls number is used for
unsteady, periodical flow, in pumps, impeller as a whole, propulsion of ships.
When volumetric forces are not considered, Reynold’s number and Froude number can be studied
together by another number called Eular’s number (Eu).

p Pressure force
Eular’s Number Eu = =
ρV 2 Inertia force

where p is the pressure drop.


Since geometric similarity is the proportionality of linear dimensions of identical parts of model
and prototype, using suffices ‘p’ for prototype and ‘m’ for model for all equation hereafter,

lp Dp Bp
lm = λl Dm = Bm
where ‘l’ is the linear dimension, D is the diameter, B is the breadth and ‘λl’ is the proportionality
coefficient.
Kinematic similarity in pumps indicate that flow directions are same for model and for prototype,
i.e., flow angles namely absolute angle ‘α’ and blade angle ‘β’ remain same in model and in prototype
i.e., αm = αp and βm= βp . Since linear dimensional are already proportional between model and prototype,
velocity triangles are similar i.e.,
Cp wp up Cmp Cup
= = = =
Cm wm um Cmm Cum

up πD p n p np
= = λl ...(8.2)
um πDm nm nm

Qthp πD p B p Cmp np
Theoretical Flow rate, = = λ3l ...(8.3)
Qthm πDm Bm Cmm nm
184 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Dp Bp
For geometrical similarity, =
Dm Bm

Qp D p3 n p
Hence,
Qm = Dm3 nm ...(8.4)

Actual flow rate, Qa = ηv .Qth,

Qap ηvp .n ην p D3p n p


p
= λ3l = η . = ...(8.5)
Qam vm nm ηνm Dm3 nm

H thp Cup u p u 2p n 2p D 2p n2p


= λl
2
Theoretical total head,
H thm = Cum um = u 2 nm2
=
Dm2 nm2
...(8.6)
m

Actual total head, Ha = ηh Hth.

H ap ηhp n2p ηhp D 2p n 2p


Hence, = λ2l = ...(8.7)
H am ηhm n 2m ηhm D 2m n 2m
Theoretical power, Nth = γQH and actual power, Na = ηNth
N ap η p Nthp η p γ pQ p H p
= ⋅ =
N am ηm Nthm ηm γ m Qm H m

η p γ p D3p n p D 2p n2p η p γ p n3p D5p


= ⋅ ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 2 = ⋅
ηm γ m D m nm D m n m ηm γ m nm3
D5m

η p γ p 5 n3p
= ⋅ ⋅ λl ⋅ 3 ...(8.8)
ηm γ m nm
If pumping fluid is same in prototype and in model γp = γm.
In order to compare the performance of different pumps, and also to get complete characteristics
of one series of pumps a term specific spread (ns) is used. It is defined as the speed of a pump which is
geometrically similar for one pump series and consumes 1 hp of power under 1 m of total head. The
efficiencies of these pump series remain constant independent of its sizes i.e., n = ns when N = 1 hp and
H = 1 m.
γQH
N (hp) = (where Q in m3/sec H in m and γ = 1000 kg/m3
75
From similarity laws for power
5/ 2
H  H  H 5/ 2
H ∝ ηh n2D2 or D2 ∝ ; D5 ∝  2 
 ∝
ηh n 2  ηh n  η5h/ 2 n5

N
Ν ∝ η n3D5 or D5 ∝
ηn 3
MODEL ANALYSIS 185

Combining both by removing ‘D’

N H 5/ 2 ηH 5 / 2
∝ 5 / 2 5 or n
2 ∝
ηn 3 ηh n η5h/ 2 n5

10,000
90%
000
10,
x= 00
1 ,0
x=
1,000
85%
10 0
x=
80%
100

10
x=

70%
10

0 100 200 300 400


Specific speed (n s)

Fig. 8.2. (a) Efficiency change for different sizes

x = 10 x = 100 x = 1,000 x = 10,000

Fig. 8.2. (b) Size of the unit (x)


186 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

n = nS if H = 1 m and N = 1 hp, Designating η as ηs (efficiency of the series) and ηh as ηhs.


where suffix ‘s’ indicates one series of pumps having same value of ns.
1/ 2
ns  ηs .1 ηh5 / 2 N  η s ηh 5 / 4 N
=  . 5/ 2  = 5/ 4 ...(8.9)
n  ηhs .1 ηH  ηhs ηH
If efficiencies are same for all pumps of same series i.e., for one value of ns,
n N
ηs = η and ηhs = ηh. So, ns = ...(8.10)
H 5/ 4
γQH 1000
Substituting the value N = = . Q.H
75 75

1000 n Q 3.65n Q
. ns = = ...(8.11)
75 H 3 / 4
H 3/ 4
Characteristics linear dimension in pump is the diameter D. So replacing l and D
V V
Struhaul’s No. Sh = or n =
nD S h .D
p gH V2
Eular’s No. Eu = . Since p = γH or γ = ρg, Eu = or H = . Eu
ρV 2 V2 g
The flow rate Q = AV
3.65n Q V A .V g3/ 4 K
ns = = 3.65 . 3/ 2 3/ 4 = . ...(8.12)
H 3/ 4 S h .D V ( Eu ) Sh Eu3 / 4

3.65 A g 3 / 4 A
where, K = which is constant for one series of pump, since is constant for one series
D D
of pump. The specific speed, ns is a function of similarity of Struhaul’s and Eular’s numbers and hence
similarity of Struhaul’s, Reynold’s and Froude numbers.
Each value of ns designates one series of pump, which has its own operating region at which
overall efficiency is maximum and hence the form, shape of pump of one series will be same for one ns
value. But forms and shapes will be different for each series. Specific speed ns completely defines the
characteristics of one series. (Fig. 8.3) shows impeller shape for each value of ns.
D2

D2
D 0 = D1

D2
D0

D0

D6T

D 6T
D1

D 6T
D0

D1

D2

D
D

D
D1

n s = 40 ÷ 80 80 ÷ 150 150 ÷ 300 300 ÷ 600 400 ÷ 600 600 ÷ 1200 1200 ÷ 2000

Fig. 8.3. Impeller shapes for different ns


MODEL ANALYSIS 187

The test results of a model pump i.e., a pump from one series having one value of ns, can be used
for developing other pumps in the same series (same ns value), if it is brought out in a non-dimensional
form. In pump industries, unit head (KH), unit discharge (KQ), and unit power (KN), are the non-
dimensional parameters used to study the pump characteristics of one series.
Quantity of flow, Q = ηV .πDB.Cm
For geometrically similar pump, B ∝ D and hence, DB ∝ D2.
For kinematic similarity in pump, Cm ∝ u and u= πDn. (n-speed is rps).
So, Q ∝ ηVπD2 Dn or Q ∝ nD3
Q
KQ = is constant for one series of pump and is called unit discharge.
nD3
Cu u
Similarly total head, H = .ηh. Since, Cu α u α nD, H α n2D2
g
H
KH = is constant for one series of pump and is called unit head.
n D2
2

γQH γ
Power N = ∝ nD3 n2 D2 α n3 D5
75 75
N
KN = is constant for the series of pump and is called unit power. Test results of the
n D5
3

model pump conducted at different speeds are reproduced in these three non-dimensional parameters
namely σ, η, KH , KN = f (KQ). This is called universal characteristics of pump and remains same for one
series of pump i.e., for pumps having same ns but with different n, Q and H. Substituting values KQ and
KH in specific speed ns equation, Q = KQ n D3, H = KH n2 D2.

3.6560n KQ nD3 219 KQ


ns = = ...(8.13)
2 2 3/ 4
(K H n D ) ( K H )3 / 4

8.1.1 Real Fluid Flow Pattern in Pumps


Real fluid flow pattern prevailing in pumps, at all regions of operations i.e., below optimum,
optimum and above optimum regions, is complicated and is far different from the theoretical flow
pattern. This necessitates proper streamlining of flow passages, and bringing the same while
manufacturing. Also identical flow pattern should be maintained for pumps of same specific speed, but
possessing different sizes.
One of the effective methods adopted, in practice is MODEL ANALYSIS based on mechanical
similarity of real fluid flow. Complete mechanical similarity cannot be achieved. For example, Reynold’s
number (Re) of flow cannot be maintained same at identical points of operation for different pumps of
same specific speed. This inturn changes the frictional coefficient (hf) and correspondingly the hydraulic
losses and efficiency. This is overcome by operating the pumps in automodelling region, where frictional
coefficient remains same for all Reynold’s numbers.
188 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Also absolute value of surface roughness purely depends upon the manufacturing techniques
ε
adopted. This value will remain same independent of the pump size. So the relative roughness   will
D
be higher for small pumps and lower for larger pumps. As a result, the frictional coefficient ( f ) will be
lower for larger pumps, and higher for smaller pumps even though the pumps operate at same Reynold’s
number. Hydraulic losses will be higher and hydraulic efficiency will be lower in smaller pumps and
vice versa in larger pumps. This scale effect is taken into account by using theoretical equations with
practical experimental coefficients. Figs. 8.4, 8.5, 8.6 and 8.7 show the increase in efficiency of same
pump when relative roughness is reduced.
N H
kW M H
50
N
40
30 2
20 1

0 10 η
η%
80 0
60

40
20

0 3
0 25 50 75 100 125 Q,m /hr

Fig. 8.4. Effect of surface roughness on pump performance


(1) Original from foundry casting (2) After smoothening the flow passage
60
Head (H) m and efficiency %

40

20
12 18 6m

0 3 6 9 12
Discharge (Q) LPS

Fig. 8.5. Effect of improving surface finish of the impeller shrouds on pump performance
– – – Machined and polished
—— Rough surface 0.5 mm grain size
MODEL ANALYSIS 189

Pump type
2 × 1½ SB 33

Effect due to roughness change in impeller surface


H (m) total head

Due to reduction in
% efficiency
N (hp) input

grain size of moulding


sand by 50%
30
60
6
25
50
5
20
40
4
15
30
3
10
20
2

10
1
5

Discharge lps

Fig. 8.6. Effect of roughness on performance


– – – – Reduced roughness
——— Original
190 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Pump type
2½ × 2 SB 26

Effect to reduction in relative roughness in impeller passage


20 m total head
% efficiency
hp input

by reducing the grain


size of the moulding
sand by 15%
70
15
60
6

50
5
10
40
4

30
3

20
2
5
10
1

Discharge lps

Fig. 8.7. Effect of roughness on performance


– – – – Fire sand
——— Regular sand
MODEL ANALYSIS 191

Convergent flow takes place in turbines whereas divergent flow prevails in pumps. Laws applied
to turbine cannot be applied to pumps. The relative values of volumetric and mechanical losses are
more in pumps.
As per model analysis, the total head of a pump increases with the square of the speed of pump,
theoretically, but practically a little lower. This equation is defined, based on the assumptions that
efficiency of model and prototype are same when operated at identical points. Actually, when speed
increases, cavitation characteristics of pump reduces, which inturn reduces the efficiency to a certain
extent.
This is confirmed by many authors. So also viscosity of the pumping liquid influences on hydraulic
efficiency.

8.2 SIMILARITY OF HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY

V2 V2
Head loss ∆H ∝ = λ.
2g 2g

∆H V2
Hence, ηh = 1 – = 1 – λ. = 1 – const. λ
Hm 2 gH m

V2
Since is same for model and for prototype.
2 gH m
Prof. Nikuradse |67| stated that under auto model region of operation, the frictional coefficient λ
can be expressed as,
1
λ = 2 ...(8.14)
 R
1.74 + 2 log 
 ε
and hydraulic efficiency (ηh) can be written as,

Const.
ηh = 2 ...(8.15)
 R
1.74 + 2 log 
ε

Since absolute value of surface roughness (ε) is constant as it depends upon the manufacturing
process, whatever may be the pump size, a general form of hydraulic efficiency can be expressed as,
A
ηh = ...(8.16)
( B + log . D)2
Prof. A. A. Lomakin has suggested that A = 0.42 and B = – 0.172
0.42
ηh = ...(8.17)
(log D1nom − 0.172) 2
192 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

where, D1 nom is the reference inlet diameter calculated as per the equation (8.15) and is expressed in mm
based on the equation (8.17). Hydraulic efficiency for prototype from model efficiency can be written
as,
2
 log D1nom.m − 0.172 
ηhp = 1– (1– ηhm)  
 ...(8.18)
 log D1nomp − 0.172 
In Fig. 8.8 the curve is drawn as per equation (8.17) for the diameter 350 mm. Practically, the drop
in efficiency is found more due to non auto model effect. Graph B, ∆ηh = ηhp − ηhm is calculated as per
equation (8.18) for the same diameter 350 mm. This graph gives an idea of change in hydraulic efficiency
between prototype and model. This value can be taken for actual design.
ηh% ∆ηh%
90 4,5
80 A 4,0
70 3,5
B
60 3,0
50 2,5
40 2,0
30 1,5
20 1,0
10 0,5
10 20 40 60 100 200 400 600 1000 2000 4000 6000 10000
Dmm

Fig. 8.8. Hydraulic efficiency of pumps (A) and increase in hydraulic


efficiency between prototype and model (B)

8.3 SIMILARITY OF VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY


Qa
Volumetric efficiency, ηV =
Qa + ∆Q

1 ∆Q
or, = 1+
ηV Qa
where, Qa is the actual quantity of flow and ∆Q is the leakage flow through clearance, which can be
expressed as

∆Q = φAL 2 g ∆H L
where, φ = the flow coefficient, A—area of the clearance and ∆HL is the pressure drop across the
clearance. Flow coefficient φ depends upon the linear dimensions of the clearance and frictional
coefficient. Assuming the frictional coefficient is constant for prototype and for model and since absolute
values of clearance dimension are same for model and prototype.
φ p = φm
Suffix ‘p’ refers prototype and m refers model.
MODEL ANALYSIS 193

For geometrical similarity, linear dimensions of model and prototype are proportional i.e.,
Ap = K2 Am, where K is constant of proportionality for linear dimension. The pressure drop ∆HL is
proportional to the total head of the pump i.e., ∆HL ∝ H ∝ n2 D2.

∆H Lp
2
Hp  np 
So, 2  
∆H Lm = H m = K  nm 

∆Q p φp . Ap 2 g ∆H Lp
=
∆Qm φm . Am 2 g ∆H L m

2  np 
2 p 
n
= K2K   = K  nm 
3 ...(8.19)
 m
n
np
K3 . ∆Qm
1 ∆Q p nm
Therefore, = 1+ =1+
ηVP Qp np
K3 Qm
nm
∆Qm 1
= 1+ = or ηVP = ηVm
Qm nVm
Thus, volumetric efficiency of model and prototype remain same, when clearance dimensions are
same for model and for prototype and the flow through the clearance is fully turbulent. If the leakage
clearances are different, these values are determined as per equation (8.19). Correspondingly, volumetric
efficiency of prototype will slightly change from that of model. Since, clearance change will be negligibly
small, it is usually neglected.

8.4 SIMILARITY OF MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY


Mechanical efficiency, ηm is expressed as
γQth H m
ηm = ...(8.20)
γQth H m + ∆N m
where, ∆Nm is the total mechanical losses consisting of losses due to disc friction ‘∆Nd’, losses in
stuffing box, ∆NS and losses in bearing, ∆NB. Losses in bearings are proportional to square of speed (n2)
and losses in stuffing box is proportional to speed n (Equation 6.8). Losses due to disc friction occupies
considerably a longer percentage of mechanical losses whereas losses in bearings and stuffing box are
very small and hence it is neglected. Total mechanical losses are taken as disc friction losses only.
Equation (8.20) can be written as
1 ∆N d
1 +
ηm = γQth H m
...(8.21)

∆Nd ∝ γn3 D5 = Cf γn3 D5


194 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

where, Cf is the frictional coefficient. Assumining Cfp = Cfm

∆N dp C fp γ p n3p D5p γ p n3p


= = K5 ...(8.22)
∆ndm C fm γ m n3m D5m γ m nm3
3
Np γ p Qthp H mp γp  np 
Power ratio, K5  
N m = γ m Qthm H mm = γ m  nm 
...(8.23)

1 ∆N dp
= 1 +
ηmp γ p Qthp H mp

K 5 γ p n3p
∆N dm
γ m n3m 1
= 1+ 3 = ...(8.24)
γ p  np  ηmm
 γ m Qthm H mm
5
k 
γ m  nm 
Hence, ηmp= ηmm. i.e., Mechanical efficiency of model and prototype remains same. So also disc
friction losses for model and for prototype has the same power ratio. Combining all the three efficiencies,
overall efficiency η will be

η p = ηmp ηvp ηhp ηvp .ηhp


= ...(8.25)
ηm = ηmm ηvm ηhm ηvm .ηhm
ηvp and ηvm remain same for same clearance ratio for model and for prototype. If not the volumetric
efficiency differs. Prof. A.A. Lomakin has recommended the following empirical law to determine the
mechanical efficiency and volumetric efficiency in terms of the specific speed (ns ) of the pump.
1
Volumetric efficiency, = 1 + 0.68 ns–2/3
ην

1 820
Mechanical efficiency, = 1+ 2 ...(8.26)
ηm ns

3.65 n Q
where, ns = .
H 3/ 4
9
CAVITATION IN PUMPS

9.1 SUCTION LIFT AND NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (NPSH)


Allowable suction lift (HS) is referred as the vertical V
height difference between pump axis and water level in
suction sump. Referring to Fig. 9.1, suction lift hs = Z0s – Zsu.
p0
Reference line for the calculation of suction lift, to determine
cavitation characteristics for different pump installations is Cs
given in Fig. 9.2. For horizontal pumps, pump axis is always hs
taken as reference line. All measurement measured above

z s,0
pump axis are referred as ‘delivery’ and all measurements hfs
measured below pump axis are called ‘suction’. Energy in
suction line i.e., from suction sump (su) to the impeller inlet Z su Pat
edge of the pump (o) remains constant. So also the energy in
delivery line is constant. Mechanical energy is converted into
Zsu

hydraulic energy in impeller and added to the available energy


at impeller ‘blade’. Referring to Fig. 9.1, the energy equation sump [su]
between suction sump and the impeller inlet, before the inlet
edge of the blade can be written as Fig. 9.1. Suction lift determination

p0 C2 psu C 2su
+ Z0 + 0 + hf (s – 0) = + Zsu +
γ 2g γ 2g

p0 C02 p C 2su
+ = su + (Zsu – Z0 ) + – hf (s – 0)
γ 2g γ 2g
Since, (Zsu – Z0 ) = – hs, and Csu the velocity of fluid in suction sump, is zero

p0 C 20 psu
γ + 2g =
γ
– ( hs + hf s) ...(9.1)

In order to have a perfect cavitation free operation, the suction pressure ( p0) must be greater than

p0 pvp
the vapour pressure (pvp) of the pumping fluid at the pumping temperature i.e., p0 ≥ pvp or – ≥0
γ γ
195
196 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

i.e., must be always positive. Substituting this condition in equation (9.1). The Net Positive Suction
 p0 − pvp C 02 
head of the pump (NPSH)p = Hsv =  +
2g 
will be greater than zero or always positive.
 γ

Pump
centerline

Pump centerline
and datum elevation Datum elevation
outer diameter of inlet edge

(b) Single suction-vertical

Pump centerline

Datum elevation
Center line of the outlet edge
(c) Double suction vertical
Fig. 9.2. Reference level for suction head measurement

 p0 − pvp C 20 
i.e., Hsv =  +  ≥ 0
 γ 2g 
Combining equation (9.1) and (9.2)

 psu − pvp 
Hsv =  γ
 – ( hs + hfs) ≥ 0 ...(9.2)
 

 psu − pvp 
or   ≥ ( hs + hfs)
 γ 

 psu − pvp 
Taking   as (NPSH)A i.e., net positive suction head available and (hs + hf s) (NPSH)R
 γ 
i.e., net positive suction head required, the condition required for cavitation free operation will be
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 197

 psu − pvp 
(NPSH)A > (NPSH)R. Rearranging equation (9.2) and taking   = Hsu – Hvp suction lift (hs)
 γ 
will be
hs = Hsu – Hvp – Hsv – hfs ...(9.3)
For safe operation of pump, i.e., for net (NPSH)p, a reserve in Hsv is added and is written with a
coefficient φ . Normally φ = 1.15 to 1.4 and safe suction lift will be
hs = Hsu – Hvp – φHsv – hfs ...(9.4)
If the sump is open to atmosphere Hsu = Hatm. Atmospheric pressure at any altitude ‘∆’ can be
written as
 ∆ 
Hatm. = Hatm0 –   where Hatm0 is the atmospheric pressure at sea level. Hatm0 = 10.336
 900 
MWC = 760 mm of mercury column. If the pumping liquid is other than water patm0 = γw Hw = γl Hl
γl H l
or Hw = = Sl Hl
γw
γl
where Sl is the specific gravity = . Suffix ‘w’ refers to water and ‘l’ refers to liquid.
γw

∴ hsw = H atm0 − − H vp − φH sv − h fs ...(9.5)
900

hsw
Corresponding liquid column hsl =
sl

TABLE 9.1: Atmospheric pressure at different altitudes

∆ 0 500 1000 2000


Hatm 10.336 9.7 9.2 8.1

The value of Hvp depends upon the temperature of the pumping fluid. It increases when the
temperature is increased. Fig. 2.9 gives the vapour pressure value at different temperatures for water.
Table 9.1 gives the atmospheric pressure at different altitudes.
Net positive suction head ((NPSH)p = Hsv) of a pump is defined as the total pressure at stagnation
condition at inlet of the pump above the vapour pressure of the pumping fluid at the pumping temperature.
 p C2   p 
Referring to the inlet of the pump and since  +  =  st  , stagnation
 γ 2g   γ 
   

p0 C 20 p
Condition, + Z0 + = ost + Z0
γ 2g γ
198 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Absolute flow is axisymmetric in suction pipe i.e., from the fluid level in suction chamber, (point
‘su’) to the impeller inlet edge (point 1), whereas relative flow is axisymmetric on the impeller blade
surface, i.e., from inlet edge, (point 1) to outlet edge (point 2).
At the impeller edge (point 1), both absolute and relative flows are axisymmetric.
Writing down the Bernoulli’s equation between point ‘O’ and point 1, i.e., points immediately
before the impeller inlet edge and on the inlet edge of the impeller blade, and since absolute flow is
axisymmetric,
p0 C02 p1 C12
+ Z0 + = + Z1 + + hf (0 – 1) ...(9.6)
γ 2g γ 2g
In the same manner, writing down the Bernoulli’s equation between point ‘1’ and point ‘x’ [Fig.
9.3 and Fig. 9.6 (b)] on the impeller blade and since relative flow is axisymmetric.

Impeller eye (suffix ‘o’)

of blade (suffix ‘I’)

Pr. on blade inlet


Point of min.

(suffix ‘x’)
Measuring

Inlet edge
point

hs

2 2
C0
loading

C1
Blade

e
2g si d
hfs 2g P r.
2
Suction tank

C
pressure hsc

2g
e
sid
(or)

on
c ti
p Su
γ
h at Cavitation
hvp

Fig. 9.3. NPSH determination and cavitation inception at inlet

p1 ( w12 − u12 ) px ( w2 − u x2)


+ Z1 + = + Zx x + hf (1 – x) ...(9.7)
γ 2g γ 2g
Referring the inlet velocity triangle,

w12 − u 21 C2 u C
w21 = C21 + u21 – 2u1 Cu1 (or) = 1 – 1 u1 ...(9.8)
2g 2g g
Combining equations (9.7 and 9.8) and rearranging
p1 C2 C u p ( wx2 − u x2 )
+ z1 + 1 – u1 1 = x + Zx + + hf (1 – x) ...(9.9)
γ 2g g γ 2g
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 199

Combining equations (9.6 and 9.9)

p0 C 20 px  w2 – u x2  u1Cu1
+ Z0 + = + Zx +  x  + g + hf (0 – x) ...(9.10)
γ 2g γ  2g 
For cavitation free operation, minimum pressure px ≥ pvp the vapour pressure. At minimum pressure

 wx2 – u x2   wx2 – u x2 
px = px (min), velocity   =   . Adding (– pvp) on both sides of equation (9.10) and
 2g   2 g max
rearranging.
( p0 − pvp ) C02 ( px − pvp ) wx2 − u x2 uC
+ = + ( Z x − Z 0 ) + + 1 u1 + h f (0− x ) ...(9.11)
γ 2g γ 2g g

( p0 − pvp )C 02 uC
But + = Hsv and (Zx– Z0) is taken as = 0, since it is very small, 1 u1 = 0 for
γ 2 g g
normal entry in pumps. px min= pvp . Under critical condition for cavitation free operation. Equation
(9.11) will be

 wx2 – u x2 
(Hsv)cr =   + hf (0 – x) ...(9.12)
 2 g max

Since point (0) and point (x) are very near to each other at suction.

p0 C 20 p0 st p
+ Z0 + = + Z 0 = xst + Z x ...(9.13)
γ 2g γ γ
Combining equations (9.10) and (9.13)
pxst p  w2 − u x2  uC
+ Zx = x + Zx +  x  + 1 u1 + h f (0− x )
γ γ  2g  g

 pxst − px  ∆p0  wx2 – u x2  u1Cu1


  =
 γ  γ = ∆h0 =  2 g  + g + hf (0 – x)
 
...(9.14)

 w2 – u x2 
(∆h0)max =  x  + hf (0 – x) ...(9.15)
 2 g max

Comparing equations (9.12) and (9.15), it can be written as


(Hsv)cr = (∆h0)max
where, (∆h0) max is called as Maximum Dynamic Depression. It is evident that (Hsv)cr is a function of
kinetic energy of the flow at suction. Hence, dynamic similarity law can be applied between model and
prototype values of (Hsv). hf (0 – x) is neglected, since it is very small because of convergent flow pattern
between points 0 and x.
200 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Dynamic depression can also be expressed in some other form. All functions, as far as cavitation
is concerned, take place at suction side and on the inlet edge of the blade (from point 0 to point ‘x’ on the
blade). Referring inlet velocity triangle under normal entry condition Cu0= Cu1= 0, C0 = Cm0,
C1 = C m1, u 20 + C2m0= w02 and u12 + C 2m1= w12. Due to vane thickness flow velocity increases
Cm1 = K1Cm0 where, K1 is the vane thickness coefficient

wx2 − u x2 w2x − u 21 w2x − w21 + C 12


( ∆ h0)max = = =
2g 2g 2g

w2x − w21 Cm21


= +
2g 2g

  w  2  w21 2
 Cm1  Cm2 0
=   w 
x
− 1 +  C  2 g ...(9.16)
 1  2 g m0

2 2
 Cm1    wx  
Taking, m=   and n =    – 1  ...(9.17)
 Cm 0    w1  
Substituting this value in equation (9.16)

w21 C 2m 0
(∆h0)max =n +m ...(9.18)
2g 2g
Experiments conducted on different pumps by different authors, indicate that m = 1.0 to 1.2 and
n = 0.3 to 0.4. Since, m and n are velocity ratios; similarity laws can be applied. Values of m and n
remain constant for pumps of same specific speed.

σ ) THOMA’S CONSTANT
9.2 CAVITATION COEFFICIENT (σ
Prof. Thoma |97| has defined cavitation coefficient (σ) as
H svcr = ( ∆h0 )max
σ= ...(9.19a)
H
Cu 2u2
which is a non-dimensional number. Substituting H = g ,

 wx2 − u x2 
H sv  2g 
=  C u 
H  u2 2 
 g 

indicates that σ represents velocity ratios, which is constant for model and prototype of same specific
speed, i.e., σm= σp .
However, this coefficient has certain drawbacks. For example, two pumps having identical inlet
conditions but different outer diameters, Hsv will remain same but H will differ and hence the value σ
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 201

changes. This is overcome by defining another non-dimensional expression, called Cavitation Specific
Speed (C).
Moscow Power Institute | 58 | recommends a relation between σ and ns as

( ns ) 4 / 3
σ= ...(9.19b)
4700
Based on intensive experimental investigation on cavitation on axial flow pumps, Leningrad
Polytechnic Institute |105| recommends the following equation to determine σ :
  4 δm   2
2
 (1 + β) +
 π l ∞ –u
1 w
   
 
σ= ...(9.19c)
2 gH
where, β—curvature and δm—maximum thickness.

9.3 CAVITATION SPECIFIC SPEED (C)


Professors Rudnoff | 104 |, Wislicenus | 133 |, Watson | 103 | and Karrassik | 54 | defined cavitation
specific speed (C).
4/3
5.62n Q n Q
C= , or Hsv = 10   ...(9.20)
( H sv )3 / 4  C 
This expression is similar to that of specific speed and hence called cavitation specific speed (C).
Normally, pump speed is selected based on cavitation specific speed. Increase in speed for the given
head and discharge of a pump, reduces the size of the pump. Due to reduction in area, the flow velocity
increases, which inturn increase the main friction losses and increased secondary flow losses. The
cavitational property reduces considerably.
In order to improve cavitational property, flow passage especially suction side of the pump must
be improved and well designed for better streamlined flow. This can be done only by proper construction
and efficient manufacturing technology. Since improvement in manufacturing of pump has its own
limitations, for example, surface roughness cannot be reduced below certain limit unless costlier
manufacturing processes are adopted. That’s why cavitation specific speed (C) has a narrow range of
operation unlike normal specific speed which ranges theoretically from ‘0’ to ∞, practically from 10 to
2500.
Cavitation specific speed (C) ranges from 800 to 1100. To improve C above 1100, improved
manufacturing and construction techniques must be adopted. Pump cost also considerably increases.
For normal design ‘C’ can be taken as 900 to 1100 depending upon the manufacturing process available
and speed is determined. For special pumps C is selected as C = 1200 to 1500.

9.4 CAVITATION DEVELOPMENT


When pressure at the point ‘x’ (Figs. 9.3 and 9.10) on the leading side of the impeller blade of the
pump, falls below vapour pressure of the liquid for the prevailing temperature of the pumping liquid, the
pumping liquid becomes vapour, 1 cc of liquid in the form of water, when converted into vapour,
202 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

occupies approximately 1780 cc of water vapour. Since the space available in between impeller blades
is very small, pressure instantaneously raises to a very high value. This pressure rise makes the vapour
to condense to liquid. Now the pressure falls below the vapour pressure and the liquid changes into
vapour. Likewise the pressure changes from high positive to high vacuum instantaneously, many times
in a second. The pressure rise is approximately in the order of 100 to 300 atmospheres. This sudden high
instantaneous fluctuating pressure rise gives a heavy hammer blow on impeller blades, like shock waves.
When pressure exceeds elastic limit of the material of the blade, metal is gradually removed from the
blade. This pressure fluctuation followed by metal erosion and subsequent corrosion is called cavitation.
Due to cavitation, impeller blades, shrouds, especially at inlet leading edge as well as other parts of
pump like suction side of casing get damaged. Flow does not follow streamlined or axisymmetric pattern.
Hydraulic losses increase; hydraulic efficiency and overall efficiencies considerably decrease. Huge
noise and heavy vibrations are produced. Life of the pump reduces. Under severe cavitation condition,
pump fails to work. At high vacuum, oxygen present in the fluid is released from the liquid, gets reacted
with the material of the impeller and other parts of the pump. The metal is converted into metal oxide.
This metal oxide, in the form of powder being weak, is carried away by the flowing fluid. Thus, corrosion
adds to the erosion in reducing the metal thickness increasing the roughness of the surface.
No metal is resistant to cavitation. Low strength metals gets corroded at a faster rate, whereas high
strength materials gets corroded at a slower rate. Phosphor bronze gun metal have more elastic and anti
corrosive property but possess low strength and smooth surface. Cast iron, malleable iron possess high
strength but gets corroded at a faster rate. Stainless steel SS304 and SS316 an anti corrosive and high
strength material is also used for pumps having more cavitating characteristics. Carpenter, Alloy 20 Ni
hard, Ni resist materials possess still higher strength and high anti corrosive quality.
Initial stage of cavitation does influence on parameters of pumps namely head, discharge, power,
efficiency and speed. When cavitation increases the rate of drooping down property of H-Q curve is
noticed. Entire system becomes unstable when pump runs under severe cavitation. Pump cannot be run
at this condition. Rate of flow, total head, power, efficiency and speed drops down suddenly and fluctuates.
Fig. 9.4 (a) shows a typical performance characteristics of pump under normal and at cavitation
operating conditions. (H-Q) and (η-Q) curves start droping down suddenly at certain flow rate when
50 80
η hs =

Critical NPSH (m) Efficiency %


H
0.5 m
H, N, η 40 hs = 2 m 70
H
Head (m)

h 60
30 s =3
.5
Cavitation Normal m
Critical
20 50
hs

N NPSH
=5

h
.5

s =
7 8
m

10 m NPSH 4
2 4
η 1 2

Q 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Flow Q [L/S]

Fig. 9.4. (a) Pump performance under Fig. 9.4. (b) The effect of cavitation on a centrifugal
normal and cavitating condition pump performance (effect of suction
lift hs and NPSH)
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 203

cavitation occurs. No further increase in flow is possible. When suction lift (hs) increases or NPSH
decreases (H-Q) and (η-Q) curves drop down more and more at a lower flow rate (Q) than the previous
value Fig. 9.4 (b). So also power discharge (N-Q) curve also drops down. The point, where it starts
droping down suddenly, indicates the inception of cavitation.

9.5 CAVITATION TEST ON PUMPS


Cavitation test is the process of the determination of the point of osciliation in Q, H, N, η, n, when
suction lift (hs) or NPSH (Hsv) or dynamic depression (or anti cavitating reserve) ∆h is changed from
maximum to minimum, when pump is running at one point of H-Q curve [Figs. 9.5(a) and 9.5(b)]. For
every operating point of the pump, there is one value of Hsv below which cavitation starts. Cavitation
test ends, the moment (Hsvcr), the critical value of Hsv or ∆h or hs is determined for all selected point of
operation. A curve joining all Hsv or hs values, obtained for different operating points gives the complete
characteristics (Hsv) = f (Q) or C or σ = f (KQ) (Fig. 9.11).
In closed test rigs, cavitation test is conducted by reducing the pressure in the space above water
level in the closed reservoir with the help of a vacuum pump.
Fig. 9.6 illustrates a schematic sketch of a cavitation test set up and Figs. 9.7 and 9.8 show the
actual cavitation test rigs for centrifugal pumps and axial flow pumps.
Essentially a cavitation test rig consists of a closed tank to which suction and delivery pipe lines
are connected. The delivery pipe has a venturimeter to measure the flow through the pump, a gate valve
to control the flow rate and a tapping point to measure the delivery head of the pump. The suction pipe
has a tapping point to measure the suction head of the pump and another tapping point to measure the
temperature of water. A mercury manometer is connected to the delivery and suction head measuring
points to measure the total head of the pump. Another mercury manometer is connected to the venturimeter
to measure the flow rate of the pump. All the measuring points are located with sufficient upstream and
downstream straight pipes (3D to 6D where D is the diameter of the pipe) before and after all flow
obstructions. A vacuum pump is connected to the closed tank to change the vacuum in the tank. A
mercury manometer is connected to the suction tapping point to measure the vacuum at the inlet of the
pump. Pump, to be tested is kept at the adjustable test bed. A variable speed DC dynamometer is connected
to the pump through a flexible coupling. Speed is measured by a tachometer. Torque output from the
DC dynamometer to the pump is measured by a dial indictator. Proper cooling arrangement is provided
at the stuffing box to avoid air entry into the pump through stuffing box and at the same time keep the
stuffing box at low temperature. Additional supply of water to the tank and removal of water from the
tank are carried out by separate gate valves. This arrangement is essential to keep the water temperature
constant as water gets heated due to constant circulation. The temperature of water is measured by a
thermometer fitted at the suction pipe.
Cavitation test is conducted as per the method suggested here. From the load test performance
graph, (i.e., H-Q and η-Q graphs) a few operating points are selected very near to maximum efficiency
point for (NPSH)p determination value (points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 in Fig. 11.3). Pump is started with gate valve
in closed condition for radial flow centrifugal pumps, whereas gate valve in opened condition for mixed
and axial flow pumps. Speed is adjusted to run always at constant speed. The gate valve is adjusted so
that the pump runs at point 1. After attaining steady flow condition, suction head i.e., vacuum before the
impeller, total head, quantity power, speed are taken and efficiency is calculated. All the readings are
entered in a tabular form (Table 9.2).
204 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

TABLE 9.2: NPSH (Hsv) determination for H = ...., Q = ...., N = ...., η = .....

S.No. Suction Total Flow Power Effy η Speed n (NPSH)p


head hs head H rate Q N Hsvp

Net positive suction head of the pump, Hsvp is calculated by the formula
psu − pvp
Hsvp = – (Hs + Hfs)
γ
 psu  p
=  − hs − h fs  – vp
 γ  γ
= Vacuum manometer reading – Vapour pressure
Now, the suction head ‘hs’ is increased by operating the vacuum pump and the vacuum in kept
constant at one level. All values, mentioned above, are measured and entered in Table 9.2. In the same
manner, suction head ‘hs’ is increased further in step by step and experiment is conducted until unsteady
condition is attained.
Discharge, total head, power and efficiency remains same, up to critical value of (Hsvp). At Hsvp
critical, all readings suddenly drop down and fluctuates. Pump runs with noise and vibration. This
indicates that the pump is running under severe cavitation. No further increase in vacuum is possible
and no further test on pump could be conducted. The vacuum is reduced and the pump is brought to the
normal operating condition. Now, by adjusting the flow control valve, point ‘2’ is set in the test. The
experiment is repeated as mentioned earlier until (Hsvp) critical point is reached. Likewise the experiment
is repeated for points 3, 4, 5, i.e., for all selected points. A graph H, Q, n, η = f(Hsv) (or) hs (or) ∆h is
drawn taking values from the conducted test results for all points from Table 9.2. One such graph is
given for one operating point in Fig. 9.5 (a).
Since exact point of the beginning of severe cavitation could not be determined, 1 to 2% drop in
the values of normal flow rate, total head, power and efficiency i.e., 98 to 99% of normal flow rate, total
head, power and efficiency is taken as (Hsvp) critical and this is the value of (NPSH)p of the pump at
operating point 1 in load test curve of the pump. In the same manner, from the tests conducted (NPSH)p
at other selected points (points 2, 3, 4, 5) are determined. All (NPSH)p values are now plotted on the load
test graph to get Hsv = f (Q) curve. The minimum most point in this curve is the best point of operation
of the pump for cavitation free operation, which corresponds to maximum value of ‘hs’(Fig. 9.5).
Best cavitation free operating point need not be the best efficiency point of operation. For long life
of the pump, it is always better to run the pump at best cavitation free operating point, than at best
efficiency point.
In open test rigs, the cavitation test is conducted by closing the gate valve at suction line, keeping
the delivery gate valve at one position constant throughout the test. The experiment is repeated for
different positions of delivery gate valve.
Critical values of Hsvcr or (∆hcr or hsmax) depends upon the type of impeller i.e., specific speed (ns)
of the pumps. For low specific speed pumps ns < 100, H, Q, η, N curves remain constant with the
decrease of Hsv (or increase hs) until critical point is reached. At critical point i.e., when cavitation starts,
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 205

all these values suddenly drop, i.e., horizontal lines change to vertical lines in the graph. When ns is
increased, i.e., ns = 100 to 350, these values H, Q, η, N gradually reduce until critical point is reached
and then suddenly drops. In axial flow pumps ns > 450, there will not be a sudden drop after critical
point instead it will be gradual. Correct critical point, infact, cannot be determined.
55
H
50
N, kW
Q 40 45
Q 35 N
30 40
H 25
H 20 35
η
Q
lit/sec 30
η
Q
25
η%
20 80 η
15 75
1 to 2%
10 70
H s(cr)
H svmin ∆h (or) h s (or) H sv
65

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hs m
(a) Schematic diagram (b) Centrifugal pump
Hm
H
60 Q. lit/sec
η% 190
50
η 180
80 40
170
70 30 η,%
60 20 80
N,kW 70
15 10 N 60
10 H,m
5 Q 1,2 7
L/S 1 2 3 4 5 6 8
0 15 H sv(min) 1,1 9
Q 1,0
10 10
5 11
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 H s,m
2 4 6 8 10 12 H sv
(c) Centrifugal pump (d) Axial flow pump
Fig. 9.5. Actual cavitation characteristics of pump
2 1
p1

∆h

pa
ps
1

Fig. 9.6. Schematic diagram of cavitation test rig


1. Control valve, 2. Flow measurement
206
Control
valve
Orifice
Collecting tank meter
Delivery Manometer
Manometer vacuum
total head

Manometer
flow

measurement
measurement

Speed
h

Thermometer

D.C. Dynamometer

ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)


Suction

Pump Power
Vacuum pump for test measurement

Fig. 9.7. Cavitation test rig for centrifugal pump


CAVITATION IN PUMPS
B
3 14 15 B
12 13 16
1 2 3 4 5 8
17
B 18

19
A

C 21
6 9
7 B
10

11
B B B
B
A
B B

20
C
23
A

B-Reference level for all 24 22


measurement Size 15 m × 6 m

Fig. 9.8. Cavitation and load test rig for axial flow pump

1. Power measurement 9. Manometer—total head measurement 17. Vacuum chamber level indicator
2. Speed measurement 10. Vacuum manometer 18. Vacuum tank
3. Torque arm 11. Base level-manometer 19. Air removal pump
4. DC Dynamometer 12. Vacuum box 20. Circulating pump
5. Pump under test (Axial flow) 13. Suction pipe 21. Water supply pump
6. Delivery pipe 14. Suction chamber 22. Outlet tank
7. Manometer for flow measurement 15. Control value 23. Venturimeter

207
8. Inlet cone (suction) 16. Vacuum chamber 24. Inlet tank
208 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

The gradual drop in pumps of higher specific speed is due to the decrease in efficiency at a faster
rate than in low specific speed pumps even before reaching the critical point of Hsv. That’s why critical
values of Hsv in these pumps are always determined from the efficiency graph η = f (Hsv), instead of
from the graph H, Q, N, = f (Hsv). Referring to the consolidated graphs (η-Q, H-Q) of different pumps of
different specific speed (Fig. 11.4) that for low specific speed pumps the η-Q and H-Q curves are more
inclined towards horizontal lines i.e.,more flat, whereas for high specific speed pumps the (H-Q) and
(η-Q) curves are more inclined towards Y-axis, which indicates that the percentage drop of efficiency in
high specific speed pumps are more than the drop in efficiency for low specific speed pumps. For the
same range of (Qmin to Qmax) operating region, efficiency variation in high specific speed pumps are
more than that in low specific speed pumps. This effect changes, the H, Q, η, N = f (Hsv) graph. Even
under cavitation in such high specific speed pumps, there may not be noise heard or vibration presence
felt or even cavitation erosion seen. That’s why, these pumps are not economical when operated under
cavitation.
The change in the appearance of cavitation and subsequent erosion in pumps depends upon the
impeller construction. In pumps with smaller specific speed, flow passages are radial. The length of the
flow passage depends upon the blade angle β, number of blades (Z) and the diameter ratio (D2/D1). At
the time of cavitation, the pressure at the inlet edge at the suction side of the blade, will be equal to
vapour pressure (hvp). For any further reduction in total head or increase in flow rate, this low pressure
(vapour pressure) area spreads over the entire area across the channel. No further reduction in pressure
is possible. Flow cannot be increased any further even the vacuum is increased further since the pressure
side and suction side pressure and hence the difference in pressure remains same, which is equal to the
difference between inlet pressure and vapour pressure, which exists across the complete flow passage
width between blades at inlet.
In impellers of high specific speed the passage area between two successive blades are wider but
with shorter lengths of blades. The vapour pressure will not cover completely the entire area at suction
side instead only partly, as a result of which further drop in pressure is necessary so that vapour pressure
can cover the whole passage area at inlet which results in for a higher flow rate.
Normally in axial flow pumps, two successive blades do not overlap. Hence, the drooping tendency
exists for more area before cavitation starts. Even at the time of cavitation, there exists a flow passage
between two vapour pressure regions, the area being approximately equal to the area prevailing between
blades at full closed condition of blades. In this passage the pressure is larger than vapour pressure and
there exist a flow even after cavitation, which results in the gradual drop instead of sudden drop at
critical point.

 C02   w21  w12


In pumps of smaller specific speed the term   is more predominant than   . In fact
 2g   2g  2g

 w21 
does not have any importance. In pumps of higher specific speed, the term   is more predominant
 2g 

 C 20  w2
than  , since 1 depends upon the pump head (H) [and hence the speed (n)] and number of
 2g  2g
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 209

blades (Z). The relative velocity w1 at inlet reduces when speed (n) is reduced or the total head (H) is
reduced or when number of blades are increased. In pumps of medium specific speed, maximum flow
rate for the given suction head at inlet can be increased by increasing the blade length i.e., extending the
blade into the impeller eye area at inlet and rounding off the inlet edge (Fig. 9.10). This increases the
inlet area and reduces the inlet velocity (C1). The blade, instead being purely radial at inlet becomes a
double curvature type, due to change in the inlet diameter D1 from hub to periphery. At outlet, however,
the blade is radial.
3
b2 2

D2
x
D2 DS = D0 o
2 D
b1
D0 = Ds
D1 D1
DH DH

Fig. 9.9 Impeller with cylindrical Fig. 9.10 Impeller with vanes extended into impeller
vanes (pure radial) eye at inlet (Double curvature at inlet)

In multistage pumps such as feed water pumps and in condensate pumps, the cavitation effect
is taken care of only for the Ist stage. The reduction in H, Q, Ν, η = f (Hsv or ∆h) curve is at a lower rate
than in single stage pumps. The reduction in these curves is due to the presence of vapour pressure at
inlet due to release of air and vapour, at low boiling point.
The deciding factor for cavitation inception is not the absolute value of unit hydraulic energy but
the value above the vapour pressure at inlet for the pumping liquid conditions. The value of unit hydraulic
energy above vapour pressure is called Dyamic Depression or anti cavitating reserve of suction (∆h) for
the pumping liquid at pumping temperature. When pumping liquids of high temperature such as boiling
water by feed water pump or by condensate pump, this anti cavitating reserve is attained by providing
higher suction pressure or higher suction head.
Sometimes in the graphs H, Q, N, η = f (Hsvp) efficiency curve alone slightly raises and then drops
down Fig. 9.5 (c), under critical cavitation, while all other curves drops down from normal values
[Figs. 9.5 (b) and 9.5 (c)].
Under critical cavitation condition, maximum relative velocity at the inlet edge of the impeller
blade occurs at point x (Fig. 9.6). Flow separation also takes place, and the losses increase. As a result,
efficiency drops down. Sometimes, flow separation and vortex formation does not take place at the
point of maximum relative velocity even under critical cavitation condition. This result is slight increase
in efficiency before sudden drop of efficiency.
Similar to equal efficiency ‘O’ curves equal ‘C’cavitation specific speed ‘O’curves are also drawn
on universal characteristics. Fig. 9.11 gives one such curve.
Figs. 9.12 and Fig. 9.13 give the normal places in impellers of different pumps, where cavitation
usually occurs and places of cavitation erosion, that usually occurs in axial flow pumps.
210 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

KH

0
900

80
0,10 C=

s=
30 0 1000

n
%
η = 60 1200
70 4
50 0 0 0
75
0,08 60 0 1500
80
7
80 0 0 0
83 1700
900
0,06 85 0
8 8 = 95 2000
87 0
86
85 2500
0,04
83 ns = 3000
80 3500
75 ϕ = + 20°
70 5000
0,02 60 4000 ϕ = +10°
η = 50%
ϕ = 0°
ϕ = – 7,5° ϕ = – 5°
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 KQ
η and C’ O-curves
Fig. 9.11. Universal characteristics of axial flow pump in KH-KQ co-ordinates with ‘η
Centrifugal pump

Axial flow

Suction side inlet Outlet Inlet


Axial flow
Centrifugal pump

Peripheral radial clearance Double suction Single suction


Mixed flow

Centrifugal pump

Suction tongue Volute tongue


Impeller and
diffuser inlet Volute
Fig. 9.12. Places affected by cavitation in different pumps
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 211

1½ – 2
<1
2–3

6–8 4
Inlet 75°
Outlet

2 mm
up to 4
Erosion depth

5 mm
3 mm
90°
up to 4

Fig. 9.13. Erosion in axial flow pumps due to cavitation

9.6 METHODS ADOPTED TO REDUCE CAVITATION


(a) Increasing Suction Pipe Size
Referring to equation (Eqn. 9.2) Hsvp, the net positive suction head of pump can be positive if the
frictional losses hfs is reduced. Increasing the suction pipe diameter (ds) reduces the suction pipe velocity

Cs2
(Cs). This considerably reduces the frictional looses (hfs) and velocity head at suction, thereby Hsvp
2g
can be made positive. This is done in all pumps mostly in agricultural, chemical process pumps, etc. The
suction pipe size is always greater than the delivery pipe diameter.
(b) Reducing the Suction Lift
Referring to equation (9.2), Hsvp can be positive if suction lift (hs) is reduced. This is done by
lowering down the pump with respect to the fluid level in suction sump. If suction lift reduction is
insufficient the pump level can be brought down below the fluid level in suction tank. Suction lift will
be negative (– hs). This is called suction head or positive suction. This is followed in industries, such
as furnance, oil pumping, boiler feed pumps, chemical process pumps etc.
(c) Increasing the Suction Tank Pressure
In case of pumping high temperature gaseous fluids at ordinary pressures and temperatures, vapour
pressure of the fluids will be very high. The term (p su – p vp) becomes negative. In order to
overcome this condition, suction tank is closed and the tank pressure is increased above the vapour
pressure of the fluid at the pumping temperature. This procedure is adopted in chemical industries,
especially where high temperature fluid pumping is carried out.
(d) Increasing the Width at Inlet of the Impeller
Similar to that of increasing the suction pipe size, the impeller inlet width is considerably increased
in axial direction. This method has been proved experimentally a good viable method. The minimum
212 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

pressure at point X on the inlet edge of the blade is


found to be higher than the vapour pressure which
avoids cavitation (Fig. 9.14). Cavitation specific
speed ‘C ’ considerably increases. The area at inlet
 π 
A0 (= πD0 b1) ≈ 2.5 to 3.0 A1  = ( D02 bh2  . By
 4 
increasing the breadth, b1 the percentage of quantity
of flow (Q) passing through every point of inlet edge,
with respect to the total quantity (Qt) entering the
Q
inlet v =   is less. Also the blade velocity u0
 Qt 
decreases. The inlet edge is extended into the
Fig. 9.14. Increased inlet width for non-
impeller eye area. Inlet edge of the blade is inclined cavitating operation
instead of horizontal. The blade velocity u0 from
hub to periphery increases as a result of which, the blade becomes a two dimensional and twisted,
instead of purely cylindrical at inlet. Due to reduced blade velocity at periphery, maximum relative
velocity wmax also reduces by which the cavitational characteristics of the pump ‘C’ increases. At the
periphery of the inlet edge, a reverse flow prevails and axial vortex exists before the inlet edge, which
also improves the cavitation property. The inlet edge is made sharp, because of this, flow separation at
inlet edge exists. Axisymmetric potential flow no longer prevails. Due to this effect, minimum pressure
is higher than vapour pressure. Unsteady vortex reversed flow at inlet mixes with the main flow and
goes back to the blade inlet. There is a constant and continuous exchange of energy in the liquid. The
cavitation specific speed ‘C ’ increases even up to 2200 to 2500, from normal value of 800 to 900.
However, hydraulic losses increase the flow velocity Cm does not change uniformly from inlet to outlet
edge.
(e) Provision of Inlet Guide Blades
Maximum dynamic depression ∆hmax is deter-
mined by the maximum relative velocity prevailing at
the entrance edge (Eqn. 9.18). Even by providing an
angle of attack at inlet, a reduction of local maximum
relative velocity could not be achieved. However, it
can be shown that by providing a prewhirl before the
inlet edge i.e., provision of Γ1 a circulation at inlet, a
reduction in w1max is obtained. This is achieved by
providing inlet guide blades, (Fig. 9.15) before impeller
eye at approach channel. Prewhirl increases ∆hmax by Fig. 9.15. Fitting with inlet guide blades
u1Cu1
an amount as per the total head equation. Total head, however, should not be changed due to
g
this prewhirl addition. Such Prewhirl is obtained by adding a circulatory flow to the main axial flow.
This circulating motion is achieved by the impeller rotation at a velocity u0 . Moreover, when inlet width
is higher a reverse flow also occurs at the periphery of blade inlet. Liquid coming out of the blade
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 213

H,N η, %
η
80
3

Axial clearance = 0.1D 0


70
60
H
1
2 50
2
40

30
1
20
1
10
2
100 200 Q, L/S

Fig. 9.16. Influence of inlet guide blade on performance


(1) without inlet blade (2) with inlet guide blade
at periphery receives considerable circulatory motion and mixes with the main flow entering the impeller.
Fluid is rotated and thus a prewhirl is developed. Experiments show that C increases up to 1200 to 1500
from normal value of 900–1000. Hydraulic efficiency is achieved by bringing back to normal velocity
at impeller blade outlet. If by the prevailing manufacturing process, surface finish of the impeller could
not be improved to get a good cavitational property, Prewhirl can be adopted by fitting inlet guide
blades. Cavitation specific speed ‘C ’ is improved to a considerable value in cylindrical or radial blades.
( f ) Provision of Axial Prewhirl Impeller (Inducers)
Provision of axial Prewhirl impeller, before the main impeller increases the pressure and also
gives a tangential component of velocity i.e., a circulatory motion. The reverse flow at the periphery of
the main impeller blade is shifted to the axial Prewhirl impeller (Fig. 9.18).

Inducer

Fig. 9.17 Pump fitted with inducer Fig. 9.18. Inducers


214 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Cavitation characteristics is well improved from C = 900–1000 to 1200–1500 and in special cases
C is increased up to 2500 to 3000.
In Figs. 9.19, 9.20 and 9.21, a graph σ = f (ns) as recommended by Prof A.J. Stepanoff | 112 | is
given, which can be used for design.

Specific speed, double suction


500 1000 2000 4000 6000 10,000 20,000

Hydraulic institute
values of σ
Single suction
Double suction

35 71 142 285 428 713 1427 Metric

500 1000 2000 4000 6000 10,000 20,000 British


Specific speed, single suction

Fig. 9.19. Cavitation constant σ versus specific speed for


b.e.p. as recommended by A.J. Stepanoff
CAVITATION IN PUMPS 215

0.4

0.3 ηλ

70
0.

0.8 80
5
0.
0.2

90
0.
0.15

0.10
0.09
σ 0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
η λ, %
70
0.03 75
80
85
0.02 88
90
0.015 92

25 30 40 50 607080 100 150 200 300


Fig. 9.20. Cavitation constant σ versus specific speed (metric units) for different efficiencies.
To convert ns to English units multiply by 14.15; ηλ is hydraulic efficiency (Rutschi)
0.40
9¼′′ impeller

0.35
6′′ 3. stage

0.30
8½ ′′
Cavitation constant, σ

0.25

0.20 3′′ 8. stage 2430 r.p.m.

0.15 2920
3540
b.e.p.

b.e.p.
0.10
3550 r.p.m. 9½′′
3300 r.p.m. 9½′′
2880 r.p.m. 9½′′
0.05

106 142
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 British
35 71 142 178 214 250 Metric
Specific speed
Fig. 9.21. Cavitation constant σ versus specific speed for a constant speed head capacity curve
10
AXIAL FLOW PUMP

10.1 OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND CONSTRUCTION


Basically, axial flow pump consists of an impeller with impeller blades rotating inside a concentric
cylindrical annular housing. The impeller is followed by a diffuser with blades. A bell mouth shaped
suction inlet precedes the impeller. In some of the pumps, suction blades are provided with or without
suction hub. Suction hub has a sleeve bearing to support the pump shaft. The diffuser is followed by a
straight pipe and a bend or only bend depending upon the site conditions. Pump shaft is supported by a
main ball or roller bearing along with thrust bearing kept at the top of the delivery bend as well as by
(bush) sleeve bearing supports kept at the diffuser and at the bend before the stuffing box. The stuffing
box is located at the delivery bend in between the sleeve bearing and main bearing. In some of the
pumps, the pump shaft is also supported by a sleeve bearing at the suction hub, if the impeller weight is
high and it cannot be overhung as cantilever support.

Stuffing box

Delivery
casing
Diffuser

Impeller

Suction
casing

Fig. 10.1. Axial flow pump


216
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 217

Seal

Sleeve bearing

Outlet bend

Diffuser blades
Sleeve bearing

Impeller
housing

Variable pitch
impeller

Approach pipe

Fig. 10.2. Axial flow pump (vertical)


Impeller blades of axial flow pumps have double curvature form at inlet and at outlet due to the
change in diameter from hub to periphery. Absolute flow before and after the impeller and relative flow
along the impeller passage are axisymmetric and potential. There is no radial mixing. Under this condition,
each streamline is parallel to the axis of the pump. Fluid passes parallel to the pump axis i.e., along the
streamline. At any streamline u1 = u2 and Cm1= Cm2. Flow lines are in the form of a concentric tube or
circular cylinder. By spreading out the cylindrical tube, a plane surface is obtained, wherein blades are
located at equal distant apart starting from infinity and ending at infinity. The distance between two
successive blades is called pitch (t) and is equal to t = 2πr/Z, where ‘r’ is the radius of the streamline of
the cylinder and Z is the number of blades in the cylinder stream tube surface.
Basically, the principle of operation of the pump is the force of interaction and energy transfer
from the impeller blades to the fluid. There is no centrifugal force in these pumps. Energy transfer takes
place purely from kinetic energy to pressure energy i.e., diffuser effect. But diffuser pattern of flow has
its own limitations. Angle of divergence (x) should not exceed 8° to 10° and a strictly smooth streamlined
218 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

flow passage must exist, otherwise, flow separation at the boundary layer and corresponding flow
mixing between streamlines take place. Axisymmetric and potential flow no longer prevails. Thats why,
the design of axial flow pump is more complicated than the design of centrifugal pump.
For the given flow rate (Q), axial flow pumps possess, lesser dimensions and size, than all other
pumps. These pumps are adopted for low head and high discharge conditions. The surface of the blades
and flow passages are manufactured with high smoothness i.e., with very low surface roughness. Even
at high speed, these pumps give a very high efficiency due to less friction and less area of contact of
fluid with pump parts. However, at partial flow conditions, these pumps give a lower value of efficiency
than centrifugal pumps due to high secondary flow prevailing at all elements of the pump.

10.2 FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF AXIAL FLOW PUMP


Basic requirement of hydraulic design of axial flow pump is to determine the dimensions and
shape of all flow passages of pump to get high efficiency at all regions of operation for the given value
of total head (H), flow rate (Q) and cavitation characteristics (s). Theoretically, maximum efficiency is
obtained when the flow is axi-symmetric and potential (irrotational and vortex free)
Under potiential flow condition, circulation (Gb) along the contour of blades of axial flow pump is
directly proportional to flow rate (Q) and the angular velocity of the fluid (ωf), not only at optimum
regions, but also at non-optimum regions of operation. Due to this, circulation and hence, total head
remain constant at all streamlines from hub to peripery.

10.3 KUTTA-JOWKOVSKI THEOREM


Forces acting on the blades of axial flow pump can be determined from the fluid flow over a plane
cascade system, obtained by spreading over the cylindrical section of flow passage of axial flow pump
(Fig. 10.3).
β

l
u

α δm
α
2 πr
t= t
z

Fig. 10.3. Profile in a cascade system


Flow in the radial direction i.e., perpendicular to the cylindrical section does not exist i.e.,
Cr the radial velocity is equal to zero. Flow is purely axial at all cylindrical sections, i.e., at all streamlines
flow pattern form is a plane flow or a two dimensional flow. The blades may be moving with a
circumferencial velocity ‘u’ perpendicular to the axis, which is equal to the peripheral velocity of the
impeller blades or stationary as in diffuser blades. Accordingly, relative velocity ‘w’ should be considered
for a moving blade system, whereas absolute velocity ‘C’ must be considered for a stationary blade
system. Assuming flow is incompressible, i.e., density ‘ρ’ is constant, the circulation ‘Γb’ around one
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 219

w 2m = wm
p 2 β2
b C
w 2u
t
t w 1u
w 2u

Pu A D B F

w2 wm
w∞
w1

w 1m = w m
β∞ w1
w 1u β1 β∞ β
P a d 2 β1
Pm = Pz E C
p1
Fig. 10.4. Pressure and velocity acting on a cascade system
blade of the plane cascade system can be determined by the closed contour abcd enclosing the blade.
Referring to Fig. 10.4 lines ab and cd are same lines located symmetrically with respect to the blade, at
a distance ‘t’, called pitch. Linear integral along these two flow lines are equal, but opposite in direction,
hence gets cancelled. Lines ‘bc’ and ‘da’ are parallel to the direction ‘u’ flow lines are opposite in
direction. Circulation Gb around the blade is

Γb = ∫ wds cos( w, s )
abcd

= ∫ wds cos(w, s) + ∫ wds cos (w, s) + ∫ wds cos(w, s) + ∫ wds cos(w, s)


ab bc cd da

= ∫ wds cos(w, s) + ∫ wds cos(w, s)


bc da

Γb = (w1u– w2u) t, taking unit width perpendicular to the paper and


anticlock-wise direction as positive. ...(10.1)
Flow through the blade ∆ Q = htw1m– htw2m where ‘h’ is the height of the blade from hub to
D − dh
periphery = , where D is the outer diameter, dh is the hub diameter and wm is the axial flow
2
velocity. Net force ‘P’ acting on the blade system can be resolved into two components, tangential (Pu)
and axial (Pz). Applying momentum,
Pu = ρ∆Q ( w1u– w2u) = ρht w1m (w1u – w2u) = ρhwmΓb  ...(10.2)
Pz = ρ∆Q (w2m– wm) + ht (p2 – p1) = ht (p2 – p1) 

Since w1m = w2m i.e., axial flow velocity is constant throughout the impeller blade, and applying
Bernoulli’s equation between points ‘1’ and ‘2’ and since Z2 = Z1, where Z is the level from a reference
point, the pressure
220 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

1 ρ
p2 – p1 = ρ (w21 − w22 ) = ( w12u + w1m2 – w22u – w2 m2 )
2 2
ρ
= ( w12u − w22u )
2
ρ
= ( w + w2u ) ( w1u − w2u )
2 1u
ρht ( w + w ) ( w − w )
Therefore, Pz = 1u 2u 1u 2u ...(10.3)
2
since the blade velocities are same at inlet and at outlet (uo= u1= u2= u3), due to axial flow. In order to
 w1u + w2u 
obtain the value   , inlet and outlet velocity triangles are combined into one.
 2 

w u∞ = w u2 + w u1
C u2 – C u1 C u2 – C u1 2
2 2
A D B

w∞ w2
C∞ ∆β
C1 w1
C2
C m= C z
α1
α∞ β1 β∞ β2
α2
C
C u1 w u1

C u2 w u2

u1 = u2

Fig. 10.5. Combined velocity triangle

Referring to Fig. 10.5 the vectors AC = w1 and CB = w2. Vector CD = w∞ is the geometrical
average of vectors AC and CB . Point D is the middle point on the line CD. Blade angles are β1 at inlet,
β2 at outlet and correspondingly β∞ for vector velocity w∞, i.e., for the line CD . From the velocity
triangle. (Fig. 10.5)

( w1u + w2u ) wm
= FD = wu∞ = ...(10.4)
2 tan β∞

Hence, PZ = ρhwu∞ Γ b

and Pu = ρhwm∞ Γ b
Since, w1m = w2m= wm= wm∞
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 221

Total force on one blade, P = Pu + Pz = ρhw∞ Γ b ...(10.5)

Since, wu∞ + wm∞ = w∞


For unit height, (h =1) Pu = ρhwm∞ Γ b
Pm = ρhwm∞ Γ b and P = ρw∞ Γ b ...(10.6)
w∞ Z

Pu u
π
2
β∞

β∞
P
Pz

Fig. 10.6. Forces acting on a blade in a cascade system


under ideal fluid flow condition
Force P in equation (10.6) is independent of the pitch ‘t’ of the blade. It remains same even when
pitch increases to infinity (∞) i.e., when cascade blade system changes to isolated blade. Also, circulation
‘Γb’ remains constant inspite of increase in flow due to increase of pitch ‘t’. The magnitude and direction
of the flow w∞ and β∞ remain same, at all points, i.e., before the blade from infinity, on the blade and
after the blade up to infinity. Equation (10.6) is called Kutta-Jowkovski equation. This equation also
indicates that the lift force P is perpendicular to the flow direction. However, exact location of the force
P on the blade can be determined only by experimental investigation. The equation (10.6) can also be
applied for conditions where the flow velocity Cm is not constant.
Lift force (Yp), the force perpendicular to the flow direction of w∞, P = ρw∞ Γb. Drag force,
Xp parallel to the flow direction of w∞ is zero.
(Cu 2u2 − Cu1u1 ) u (Cu 2 − Cu1 )
Total head, Hm = =
g g
Since, u 1 = u2 = u
From velocity triangle, Cu = (u – wu)
Γb
(Cu 2 – Cu1 ) = u2 − wu 2 − u1 + wu1 = ( wu1 − wu 2 ) =
t
u Γb
Hm =
g t
gH m t gH m 2πr 2πgH m
∴ Circulation on one blade, Γ b = = . =
u u Z Zω
2πrgH m 2πgH m
Total circulation on all blades, Γ = ZΓ b = u
=
ω
...(10.7)
222 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

10.4 REAL FLUID FLOW OVER A BLADE


While determining the force Pz in equation (10.5), Bernoulli’s equation (10.3) was written for an
ideal fluid flow. Equation for a real fluid flow can be written as
p1 w2 – u12 p2 w22 − u22
+ Z1 + 1 = + Z2 + + h f (1− 2) (= h fp )
γ 2g γ 2g
where, hfp = hf (1–2) is the profile loss in impeller.
Since, u1 = u2, Z1= Z2 in axial flow pumps and γ = ρg
1
p2 – p1 = ρ (w12 – w22) – γhfp
2
ρth fp
and actual force, Rz = (w12 – w22) – ρthfp = PZ – γthfp
2
= ρhwu∞ Γb – γthfp
for unit height, (h = 1) Rz = ρwu∞ Γb – γthfp ...(10.8)
i.e., the real axial force RZ is reduced and is less than the ideal axial force Pz by frictional losses γthfp.
The tangential force Ru = Pu= Γwz∞ Γb remains same, since the head developed remains unaltered.
Z

X
Ru = Pu u
Rz

β ∞+λ
λ
β∞

R
Y
γthfp

P Pz

Fig. 10.7. Hydrodynamic forces acting on a blade of cascade


system due to real fluid flow condition

The total force, R = ( Ru + R z ) turns towards the flow direction of ‘w ∞’ by an angle ‘λ’
(Fig. 10.7), where λ is the angle of incidence. Resolving the total force R into two forces, one parallel
and another perpendicular to the flow direction of ‘w∞’
Xp
Lift force, Yp = R cos λ and Drag force, Xp = R sin λ and tan λ = .
Yp
Loss of head (h fi = h fp ) , the profile loss in impeller is the work done by drag force Xp per unit
weight of the fluid (γtwz∞) along the direction of the velocity w∞ i.e.,
X p w∞ w∞ R sin λ R sin λ
hfi= hfp = = = ...(10.9)
γtwZ ∞ γtw∞ sin β∞ γt sin β∞
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 223

Head developed, Hm is the work done by the force Ru per unit weight of the fluid
uRu uR sin (β∞ + λ)
Hm = = ...(10.10)
γtwz∞ γtw∞ sin β∞
H m − h fp h fp
Impeller efficiency, ηi = Hm = 1–
Hm
w∞ sin λ
= 1− ⋅ ...(10.11)
u sin (β∞ + λ )
When angle of incidence λ increases, the drag force Xp increases. Correspondingly losses increase
and efficiency reduces.
From aerodynamics of airfoils the lift (Yp) and drag (Xp) of an airfoil are given by

w∞2
Yp = Cy. ρ .l ...(10.12)
2

w∞2
X p = Cx ρ .l
2
where ‘Cy’and ‘Cx’ are the coefficients of lift and drag respectively and ‘l’ is the chord length of profile.
uR sin (β∞ + λ) uY sin (β∞ + λ )
Manometric head, Hm = = ...(10.13)
γtw∞ sin β∞ Cm γt cos λ
Combining equation (10.12) and (10.13) and rearranging
l 2 gH m Cm cos λ
Cy = ⋅ ⋅ ...(10.14)
t 2
w∞ u sin (β∞ + λ )

10.5 INTERACTION BETWEEN PROFILES IN A CASCADE SYSTEM


Thin Straight Plates in Cascade System
Interaction between straight, thin plates in a cascade system was studied by many authors. Most
important is the work done by Prof Shlihandl | 67 |. Circulation Γ, given by plate cascade, is determined
by the formula.
Γpl.ca = Γpl . Lp = Lp π l w∞ sin i
where, Lp is the coefficient accounting for the deviation in flow of thin plate in a cascade system with
respect to the flow of thin isolated plate. In Fig. 10.6, the values of Lp determined by Shlihandl |67| as a
function of angle of attack (αp) and relative pitch t/l are given.
The coefficient Lp depends only upon the geometric parameters of the cascade system. This graph
can be used to determine the camber line of the real profile as first approximation. While determining
the value of the coefficient Lp, the following condition must be observed.

t 1 t  β
lplate = 2lprof . (or)   plate =   prof and α plate= α + .
l 2  
l 2
224 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Lp
2,4

2,2

2,0
0

10
°
10

15
1,8
15

=
20

α
1,6
20
25
1,4
30
1,2
35
1,0
40
50
0,8
60
25 30
90
0,6 35
40

0,4

0,2

0
0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 t/l

Fig. 10.8. Coefficient L = f ( , tl )


α for thin straight plate

10.6 CURVED PLATES IN A CASCADE SYSTEM


Flow over a curved thin plate cascade system adopted for axial flow machines as given by Prof.
E.N. Voznisenski | 130 | and further developed by V.F. Pekin | 84 |, A.F Lisohin | 65 | L.A. Semanoff
| 66 | and N.A. Kolokolsoff | 84 | is given below. While deriving the cascade theory, it is assumed that
(1) Profile thickness is neglected i.e.,the profile is a thin plate and (2) the curvature of the plate is an arc
of a circle. (Fig. 10.9)
C u2
y w2
C2
u

ds
x
w

l
y
w

s
β
y0

α r

t x0
T T T

w1
C 1 = C m1
C u1 = 0
u
Fig. 10.9. Thin curved plate in the form of an arc of a circle
in a cascade system (mean of a thick profile)
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 225

Two methods are adopted for the cascade design namely,


(i) Flow parameters are determined for the given boundary conditions (called direct method)
and
(ii) Geometrical characteristics of the developed cascade are determined as per the given flow
parameters under infinite conditions (called indirect method).
The integration method, given by Prof. Voznisenski, | 130 | determines the flow conditions of the
cascade system over a thin curved plate in the form of an arc of a circle i.e., direct method. Prof. Pekin
and Prof. Kolokolsoff developed systematic procedure to design the pumps by Indirect method.
Under integration method, the thin profile is considered as a vortex passage consisting of two
flows : (1) Plane flow over a cascade with equal velocity everywhere and (2) a vortex flow due to the
presence of circulation distributed over the entire length of the plate.
Net flow function ψ(t) at a point (s) situated at a distance ‘t’ from the starting point is the sum of
both vertices
ψ (t) = ψ0(t) + ψ1(t)
where, ψ0 (t) is the plane undisturbed flow and ψ1(t) flow due to circulation and is given as
t

ψ1(t) = ∫ 2π ln r(s, t)
0
d Γ= d Γ (s) = v(s) ds is the circulation

v(s) = —vortex intensity at the point s on the plate, r—distance from the considered point on
ds
the profile to the adjacent point with an elementary circulation d Γ(s)
t
1
2π ∫0
So, ψ (t) = ψ 0 (t ) + v (s) ln r(s, t) ds = constant ...(10.15)

However, the absence of infinite velocity at the outer end of the profile i.e., postulate Chapligin
indicates
ν(l) = 0
The flow equation for the cascade system, from an isolated curved thin blade is obtained by
modifying the integral equation (10.15) available for isolated profiles.The undisturbed plain uniform
steady flow function ψ0 is determined, from the geometrical average velocity w∞, instead of undisturbed
velocity from infinity before the blade inlet edge C∞ and simple function ‘ln r’ in the integral equation
vds
(10.15) for the vortex flow located on isolated blade, which is determined by d ψ1 = ln r , a more

complicated flow function developed by the vortex flow i.e., circulation located on the elementary
distance ds of all profiles in cascade system is used i.e.,
k = +a
lim νds
dψ1 =
n → ∞ 2π
∑ ln ri ...(10.16)
k =− a

where, ri is the distance between flow point Z, where the flow function ψ is determined and the points
‘s’ on each blade of the cascade system.
Infinitesimal summation of logarithm leads to infinitesimal transformation under logarithm, which
can be expressed as trigonometric function.
226 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

The final form of flow function as given by Prof. Pekin in his paper | 84 | when l =1 i.e., relative
t
pitch, T0 = is
l
1 l
2π ∫ 0
ψ (t) = ψ 0 (t ) + v( s) ln K ds ...(10.17)

π π
where K= sin 2 ( xt − xs ) + sh 2 ( yt − ys )
T0 T0
l Γ1
and ∫ 0 v(s)ds =
l0
...(10.18)

β
where l0 = , the length of the curved plate with unit chord length and curvature β. The general
sin β0
form of the integral equation (10.17) is a function of various parameters given by
v(s) = f (T0, s, α, β, w∞x, w∞y, C)
where, α is the angle between the cascade axis (direction of blade velocity u) and the direction of
velocity w∞ i.e., α1. Taking into account equation (10.18), the above function can be rewritten as
Γ1
= f1(T0, α, β, w∞, C)
l0
where C is the constant of integration and can be obtained from the condition v(l) = 0 i.e., by applying
Postulate Chapligin.
Γ1
So, = f2(T0, α, β, w∞) ...(10.19)
l0
The disturbed flow due to the introduction of circulation on all the blades of the cascade system,
changes the flow direction by an angle ∆ α = α – α1. Angle ∆ α takes into account the influence of flow
on the profile by other profiles in the cascade system. The final form of the equation (10.19) is written as
Γ
= f3 (T0, α, β, ∆α) ...(10.20)
W∞ l0
∆ α is the angle between the direction of velocity w∞ and the chord of the profile. Equation (10.20) is
the final form of the integral equation (10.17) and (10.18) by which the flow over a cascade system is
determined by direct method. Prof. V.F Pekin and Prof. N.A. Kolokolsoff gave a systematic calculation
for a cascade flow under an additional condition of shockless entry (i.e., δ = 0) as given by Prof. I.N.
Voznicenski, which provides a simplified approach for the design as well as to develop pumps with
better load and cavitational characteristics. Shockless entry i.e., δ = 0 indicates no circulation at inlet
edge, which is written as v (0) = 0. The condition v(l) = v (0) = 0 leads one and the same design
procedure for pump and turbine. The equation (10.20) can be written as
Γ1
L= = f1 (T0,α, β)
w∞ l0
and, ∆α = f2 (T0, α, β) ...(10.21)
Equation (10.21) is solved by step by step integration of equations (10.17) and (10.18) by providing
(n +2) linear equations with (n +2) unknown values and with (n +1) points on the blade curve, determined
by geometric parameters of the cascade.
AXIAL FLOW PUMP
15° 10°
Γ1
w ∞ l0 β
20°

2.0

25°

30°
1.5

35°

50°
55°
1.0
40° 60°
65°
45° 70°
80°

0.5

T0 = t
l
0
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

Γ1
Fig. 10.10. w l β = f (T0, α )

227
∞ 0
228 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

Calculations were done for n = 4, 6, 8. It is found that, for a wide range of curvature β, the value
Γ1
χ= depends upon only T0 and α. A graph has been drawn χ = f (T0, α) (Fig 10.10). Also, it is
w∞ l0β
found that ∆α is +ve for all operating ranges of cascade parameters. For small ranges of α and β under
T
the condition T0 = >1, which corresponds to peripheral section of the blade of axial flow pumps of
l
higher specific speed such as ship propellers, ∆ α change is very small, not exceeding 1°. ∆ α increases
when curvature β increases and when α and T0 decreases (i.e., where l/t increases). When
α < 34 to 40°, ∆ α mostly depends upon β and T0 (Fig. 10.11). When α > 45°, which is mostly for
diffusers and hub sections of impeller blades, ∆ α value increases up to 15° and depends not only upon
α and T0, but also β. Following figures (Figs. 10.12 to Fig. 10.22) illustrate these variations for β changing
from 20 to 40°, at the interval of 2°.
∆α = f(T0 , β)β

∆α t = 0,75

t = 0,8


t = 0,85

t = 0,9

t = 0,95
3° t = 1,0

t = 1,05
t = 1,1
t = 1,15
t = 1,2
2° t = 1,25
t = 1,3
t = 1,35
t = 1,4
t = 1,45
t = 1,5
t = 1,6
1° t = 1,7
t = 1,8
t = 1,9
t = 2,0
t = 2,2
t = 2,5
t = 3,0
7° 8° 10° 12° 14° 16° 18° 20° 22° 24° 26° 28°
β
Fig. 10.11. ∆α = f (T0, β )
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 229

∆α ° = f(α , T0, β )

T0= 0,5
4

3 0,6
0,7
2
0,9
1,0
1 1,25
1,5
2,0
0 3,0
45 50 60 70 α°
Fig. 10.12. ∆α for β = 20°
∆α ° = f(α , T0, β )

5
T0= 0,5

4
0,6
0,7
3 0,8
0,9
2 1,0
1,25
1,5
1
2,0
3,0
0
50 60 70 α°
Fig. 10.13. ∆α for β = 22°
∆α ° = f(α , T0, β )

T0= 0,5
6

5
0,6

4
0,7

3 0,8
0,9
2 1,0
1,25
1 1,5
2,0
3,0
0
50 60 70 α°
Fig. 10.14. ∆α for β = 24°
230 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

∆α° = f(α, T0, β)

T0 = 0,5
7

6
0,6

0,7
4
0,8
0,9
3
1,0

2 1,25
1,5
1 2,0
3,0
0
40 50 60 70 α°

Fig. 10.15. ∆α for β = 26°

9
T 0= 0,5

0,6
6

5
0,7

4 0,8
0,9
3 1,0

2 1,25
1,5
1 2,0
3,0
0
40 45 50 60 70 α°

Fig. 10.16. ∆α for β = 28°


AXIAL FLOW PUMP 231

∆α ° = f(α ,T0, β )

T 0 = 0,5
10

8
0,6
7

6
0,7

5
0,8

4 0,9

1,0
3

1,25
2
1,5
2,0
1
3,0

0
40 45 50 60 70 α°
Fig. 10.17. ∆α for β = 30°
∆α ° = ( α,T 0, β)
12 T = 0,5
0

11

10

9
0,6
8

7
0,7
6
0,8
5
0,9
4
1,0

3
1,25

2 1,5
2,0
1 3,0
0
40 50 60 70 α°
Fig. 10.18. ∆α for β = 32°
232 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)

∆α ° = f(α ,T0, β )
T0 = 0,5
13

12

11

10
0,6
9

8
0,7
7
0,8
6
0,9
5
1,0
4
1,25
3
1,5
2
2,0
1
3,0
0
40 50 60 70 α°
Fig. 10.19. ∆α for β = 34°
∆α ° = f(α ,T 0,β )
15
T 0=0,5
14

13

12
11
0,6
10

9
0,7
8

7 0,8
6 0,9
5
1,0
4
1,25
3
1,5
2
2,0
1 3,0
0
40 50 60 70 α°
Fig. 10.20. ∆α for β = 36°
AXIAL FLOW PUMP 233

∆α° = f(α, T0, β)

T0 = 0,5
18

17

16

15
∆α° = ( α, T 0, β)

16 T0= 0,5 14
0,6
15 13

14 12

13
11
12 0,7
0,6
10
11
9
10 0,8
0,7 8
9
0,9
8 7
0,8
1,0
7 6
0,9
6 5
1,0
1,25
5
4
4 1,25 1,5
3
3 1,5
2 2,0
2 2,0
2,5
1 1
3,0 3,0
0 0
40 50 60 70 α° 50 60 70 α°
Fig. 10.21. ∆α for β = 38° Fig. 10.22. ∆α for β = 40°

10.7 EFFECT OF BLADE THICKNESS ON FLOW OVER A CASCADE SYSTEM


The profile, determined as per the method given by Prof. Voznisenski, is dressed over the camberline
or the middle line with finite vane thickness (δ). However, vane thickness reduces the flow area of the
passage and correspondingly increases the flow velocity. The coefficient of area reduction can be
expressed as (Fig. 10.23).
wm A
X = C = A − ∆A
m
234 ROTODYNAMIC PUMPS (CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL)