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Cairo University

Faculty of Engineering
Mechanical Power Dept.

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Water Heater


Educational Stand
B.Sc. Graduation Project 2010
Supervised by
Prof. Dr. Hany Khater
Prof Dr. Adel Khalil
Dr. Galal Mostafa

Introduced by
Ahmed Ali Ali El-Beltagy Radia M. Fekry El-Deeb
Khaled Ali Ali El-Beltagy Tarek Mahmoud El-Gammal
Mahmoud Mohamed Emam
• The existence of energy was never a problem as much as how to extract, transform, and store it
into a useful form. Human history tells us stories about fights over energy sources from the
simplest food fights, which is the source of energy for the body, to the world wars over the
sources of fossil fuels in modern time. Therefore, energy is the soul of life and existence. Human
civilization is based on the use of energy in more effective ways to increase the industrial
production and human comfort.

• One of the most important trends of energy sources in the 21st century is Solar Energy. Solar
Energy is a clean, renewable and cheap, actually free-cost, energy source. But the main
disadvantages are that it is not available at night, in addition to the high utilization cost.
Consequently storing energy is an important issue in order to provide the continuous
availability of energy.

• Fuel cells offer cleaner, more-efficient alternatives to the combustion of gasoline and other fossil
fuels. They have the potential to replace the internal combustion engines in vehicles and provide
power in stationary and portable power applications because they are energy-efficient, clean, and
fuel-flexible. Hydrogen or any hydrogen-rich fuel can be used by this emerging technology. It is
visualized that as fossil fuels run out, hydrogen will become the major world fuel and energy
vector.
Cairo University
Faculty of Engineering
Mechanical Power Dept.

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Water Heater


(Educational Stand)
B.Sc. Graduation Project ( 2010 )

Supervised by
Prof. Dr. Hany Khater
Prof Dr. Adel Khalil
Dr. Galal Mostafa

Introduced by
Ahmed Ali Ali El-Beltagy
Radia M. Fekry El-Deeb
Khaled Ali Ali El-Beltagy
Tarek Mahmoud El-Gammal
Mahmoud Mohamed Emam
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating,
and Air-Conditioning Engineers

“The title of your project is very challenging and


demonstrates an exciting approach in teaching.
I wish you very successful project realization on the benefit
of Cairo students, and in addition might be as an advanced
Educational Stand it could become a model for broader
world-wide implementation.
With the very best wishes and regards”

MarijaTodorovic,

Regional Vice Chair, Student Activities Committee, RAL

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand - Cairo University | 2009-2010 ii
CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................................................. viii

LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................ xiv

NOMENCLATURE .............................................................................................................. xv

ACKNOWLEDGMENT .................................................................................................... xviii

PREFACE ............................................................................................................................. xix

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................... 1

Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................... 4

2.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................ 5

2.2. Solar Panels ................................................................................................................ 5

2.2.1. Standing Seam Metal Roofing ....................................................................... 5

2.2.2. Vision Glass ................................................................................................... 5

2.2.3. MIT’s Solar Concentrator Window ............................................................... 5

2.3. Electrolysis ................................................................................................................. 7

2.3.1. Sea water (Brine) Electrolysis ....................................................................... 7

2.4. Fuel Cells …………………………………………………………………………….8

2.4.1. Stationary Systems......................................................................................... 8

2.4.2. Transportation (Automotives) ....................................................................... 8

2.4.3. Portable Micro-Power .................................................................................... 9

2.5. Commercial Applications......................................................................................... 10

2.5.1. Home Energy Station ................................................................................... 10

2.6. Experimental Applications ....................................................................................... 11

2.6.1. Dr FuelCell Science Kit ............................................................................... 11

2.6.2. Dr FuelCell Model Car ................................................................................ 14

2.6.3. Fuel Cell Kit, Green Utility House .............................................................. 14

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand - Cairo University | 2009-2010 iii
2.6.4. Fuel Cell Car Science Kit ............................................................................ 18

2.7. Conclusion................................................................................................................ 19

2.8. References ................................................................................................................ 20

Chapter 3: PREPARATION ................................................................................................ 21

3.1. Electrolysers ............................................................................................................. 22

3.1.1. Esperanza ..................................................................................................... 22

3.1.2. The Fuel Cell Store Electrolysers ................................................................ 22

3.2. Fuel Cells 24

3.2.1. Convection fuel cell stack ............................................................................ 24

3.2.2. H-Series Fuel Cells ...................................................................................... 26

3.3. Further Details .......................................................................................................... 29

3.4. Our Choice ............................................................................................................... 31

3.5. Steps towards Purchasing ......................................................................................... 31

3.6. References ................................................................................................................ 34

Chapter 4: COMPONENTS ................................................................................................. 35

4.1. SOLAR CELL .................................................................................................................. 36

4.1.1. Brief History ................................................................................................ 37

4.1.2. Solar Radiation ............................................................................................ 37

4.1.3. Photovoltaic Solar Cell Systems .................................................................. 44

4.1.4. Solar Energy in Egypt .................................................................................. 53

4.1.5. References.................................................................................................... 56

4.2. ELECTROLYSER ................................................................................................... 57

4.2.1. Water Electrolysis Technology.................................................................... 58

4.2.2. Types of Electrolysers ................................................................................. 59

4.2.3. Elecrolyser and Fuel Cell............................................................................. 61

4.3. FUEL CELL ............................................................................................................. 62

4.3.1. Introduction.................................................................................................. 63

4.3.2. History ......................................................................................................... 63

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4.3.3. Components and their functions .................................................................. 64

4.3.4. Operation ..................................................................................................... 65

4.3.5. Types of fuel cell ......................................................................................... 66

4.3.6. PEM Fuel Cell (PEMFC)............................................................................. 68

4.3.7. References.................................................................................................... 77

4.4. ELECTRIC LOADS ................................................................................................ 78

4.4.1. The first load: Light Emitting Diode (LED) ................................................ 79

4.4.2. The second load: Fan ................................................................................... 79

4.4.3. The third load: Electric Heater .................................................................... 84

4.4.4. References.................................................................................................... 92

Chapter 5: MODELLING AND TESTING ........................................................................ 93

5.1. Solar Radiation ......................................................................................................... 94

5.1.1. Definitions ................................................................................................... 94

5.1.2. Modeling Results ......................................................................................... 97

5.2. Photovoltaic Panel .................................................................................................... 99

5.2.1. Technical Data ............................................................................................. 99

5.2.2 Modeling of Photovoltaic cell ...................................................................... 99

5.2.3. PV Modelling Results ................................................................................ 104

5.3. PEM Electrolyser ................................................................................................... 107

5.3.1. Technical Data ........................................................................................... 107

5.3.2. Modelling of the PEM Electrolyser ........................................................... 108

5.3.3. PEM Modelling Results ............................................................................. 112

5.4. PEM Fuel Cell ........................................................................................................ 117

5.4.1. Technical Data ........................................................................................... 117

5.4.2. Modeling of the PEM Fuel Cell................................................................. 118

5.4.3. PEM Fuel Cell Modelling Results ............................................................. 122

5.5. References .............................................................................................................. 127

Chapter 6: MEASURING DEVICES AND CONTROL ................................................. 130

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand - Cairo University | 2009-2010 v
6.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 131

6.2. Measurements ........................................................................................................ 132

6.2.1. General ....................................................................................................... 132

6.2.2. Electricity Measurements .......................................................................... 132

6.2.3. Thermal Measurements ............................................................................. 133

6.3. Programming and Control ...................................................................................... 135

6.3.1. Control of Lamp Position .......................................................................... 135

6.3.2. Testing and Assurance ............................................................................... 141

6.3.3. Programming ............................................................................................. 143

6.4. References .............................................................................................................. 156

Chapter 7: BILL OF MATERIALS AND COST............................................................. 157

Chapter 8: FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY .............................................................. 161

8.1. Educational Stand Fabrication ............................................................................... 162

8.1.1. Bench Fabrication ...................................................................................... 162

8.1.2. Solar Lamp Movement Fabrication ........................................................... 169

8.2. Educational Stand Assembly.................................................................................. 171

Chapter 9: OPERATING PROCEDURE OF THE EDUCATIONAL STAND ........... 174

9.1. Experiment 1: Investigating the Solar Panel .......................................................... 175

9.1.1. Procedure ................................................................................................... 175

9.1.2. Evaluation .................................................................................................. 176

9.2. Experiment 2: Investigating the characteristic curve of the electrolyser ............... 177

9.2.1. Procedure ................................................................................................... 177

9.2.2. Evaluation .................................................................................................. 178

9.3. Experiment 3: Investigating the characteristic curve of a fuel cell ........................ 179

9.3.1. Procedure ................................................................................................... 179

9.3.2. Evaluation .................................................................................................. 180

9.4. Experiment 4: Solar Heater .................................................................................... 181

9.4.1. Instructions ................................................................................................ 181

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9.4.2. Evaluation .................................................................................................. 182

9.5. Experiment 5: Fuel Cell Heater.............................................................................. 183

9.5.1. Procedure ................................................................................................... 183

9.5.2. Evaluation .................................................................................................. 183

9.6. Other Experiments ................................................................................................. 184

Chapter 10: TESTS AND RESULTS ................................................................................ 185

10.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 186

10.2. Results and Discussion ......................................................................................... 186

10.2.1. Electrolyser Characteristics ..................................................................... 186

10.2.2. Single Fuel Cell ....................................................................................... 187

10.2.3. Fuel Cells in connection .......................................................................... 189

10.2.4. Heaters ..................................................................................................... 192

10.2.5. Solar Cell performance ............................................................................ 195

10.3. Further Interpretation ........................................................................................... 205

10.3.1. Solar Cell ................................................................................................. 205

10.3.2. Electrolyser .............................................................................................. 205

10.3.3. Fuel Cell................................................................................................... 206

APPENDICES ..................................................................................................................... 208

Appendix A: THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATTERS .................................. 209

Appendix B: FREE CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER CORRELATIONS .................... 215

Appendix C: SOLAR CELL ACTUAL CHARACTERISTIC CURVEINVESTIGATION 219

Appendix D: NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET ......................................................................... 230

Appendix E: PT100 TEMPERATURE SENSOR DATA SHEET ....................................... 263

Appendix F: EWTR 910 TEMPERATURE PANEL DATA SHEET .................................. 265

Appendix G: MATLAB CODE ............................................................................................ 270

Appendix H: HEATER EXPERIMENTS ............................................................................. 294

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand - Cairo University | 2009-2010 vii
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand ........................................ 2

Figure 2.1: MMU solar roof .............................................................................................................. 6

Figure 2.2: Organic solar concentrators collect and focus different colors of sunlight. Solar cells can
be attached to the edges of the plates. By collecting light over their full surface and concentrating it
at their edges, these devices reduce the required area of solar cells and consequently, the cost of
solar power. Stacking multiple concentrators allows the optimization of solar cells at each
wavelength, increasing the overall power output. ............................................................................. 7

Figure 2.3: Toshiba ‘Dynario’ mobile charger .................................................................................. 9

Figure 2.4: From left NEC, Toshiba, Samsung laptops................................................................... 10

Figure 2.5: Home Energy Station (HES III) .................................................................................... 10

Figure 2.6: Dr Fuel cell science kit.................................................................................................. 11

Figure 2.7: Dr Fuel cell model Car .................................................................................................. 14

Figure 2.8: Fuel Cell Kit, Green Utility House ............................................................................... 17

Figure 2.9: Fuel cell car science kit ................................................................................................. 18

Figure 3.1: Purchase Invoice ........................................................................................................... 32

Figure 4.1: Variation of extraterrestrial solar radiation with time of year ..................................... 38

Figure 4.2: Angles .......................................................................................................................... 40

Figure 4.3: Declination angle δ ...................................................................................................... 41

Figure 4.4: Latitude angle ф ........................................................................................................... 41

Figure 4.5: Hour angle ω ................................................................................................................ 42

Figure 4.6: Beam radiation on horizontal and tilted surface .......................................................... 43

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Figure 4.7: Behaviour of light shining on a solar cell. (1) Reflection and absorption at top contact.
(2) Reflection at cell surface. (3) Desired absorption. (4) Reflection from rear out of cell—weakly
absorbed light only. (5) Absorption after reflection. (6) Absorption in rear contact....................... 46

Figure 4.8: The effect of light on the current-voltage characteristics of a p-n junction .................. 47

Figure 4.9: Typical representation of an I-V curve, showing short-circuit current (Isc and open-
circuit voltage (Voc) points, as well as the maximum power point (Vmp, Imp) ............................ 47

Figure 4.10: The effect of temperature on the I-V characteristics of a solar cell ............................ 49

Figure 4.11: Parasitic series and shunt resistances in a solar cell circuit ........................................ 50

Figure 4.12: The effect of series resistance on fill factor ................................................................ 50

Figure 4.13: A typical laminated module structure (EVA stands for Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) ...... 52

Figure 4.14: Solar radiation world map ......................................................................................... 53

Figure 4.15: The average annual direct solar radiation (normal incidence) in Egypt in kWh/d .... 54

Figure 4.16: Kuraymat power station site ...................................................................................... 55

Figure 4.17: Water Electrolysis principle ........................................................................................ 58

Figure 4.18: Schematic drawing of a PEM cell with cell reactions ................................................ 60

Figure 4.19: Schematic drawing of a Solid Oxide Electrolyser ...................................................... 61

Figure 4.20: Fuel cell ...................................................................................................................... 63

Figure 4.21: Schematic diagrams for the PEMFC basic components and the reactants/ions/products
flow ................................................................................................................................................. 65

Figure 4.22: An example of a membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The membrane is a little larger
than the electrodes that are attached. These electrodes have the gas diffusion layer attached, which
gives it a ‘grainy’ texture. The membrane is typically 0.05 to 0.1mm thick, the electrodes are about
0.03mm thick, and the gas diffusion layer is between 0.2 and 0.5-mm thick. ................................ 69

Figure 4.23: Cathode–electrolyte–anode construction of a fuel cell ............................................... 70

Figure 4.24: Electrode reactions and charge flow for an acid electrolyte fuel cell. Note that although
the negative electrons flow from anode to cathode, the ‘conventional current’ flows from cathode to
anode. .............................................................................................................................................. 70

Figure 4.25: Simple edge connections of three cells in series ........................................................ 71

Figure 4.26: Single cell with end plates for taking current from all over the face of the electrodes
and also supplying gas to the whole electrode. …………………………………………………..72

Figure 4.27: Two bipolar plates of very simple design. There are horizontal grooves on one side and
vertical grooves on the other. ......................................................................................................... 73

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Figure 4.28: Voltage-current curve ideal & actual ......................................................................... 74

Figure 4.29: Chart to summarize the applications and main advantages of fuel cells of different
types, and in different applications. ………………………………………………………………76

Figure 4.30: Red LED ..................................................................................................................... 79

Figure 4.31: LED symbol ................................................................................................................ 79

Figure 4.32: Left -Hand-Rule for current-carrying ......................................................................... 80

Figure 4.33: Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field ....................................................... 81

Figure 4.34: PMDC Motor .............................................................................................................. 82

Figure 4.35: Schematic view for PMDC ........................................................................................ 82

Figure 4.36: Right-Hand Rule for Motors ....................................................................................... 83

Figure 4.37 :DC motor operation ................................................................................................... 83

Figure 4.38: Theory of operation of PMDC Motor ........................................................................ 84

Figure 4.39: Conduction in a solid cylinder with uniform heat generation ..................................... 85

Figure 4.40: Free convection boundary layer transition on a vertical plate .................................... 89

Figure 4.41: Hollow cylinder with convective surface conditions .................................................. 91

Figure 5.1 : Variation of percentage of diffuse radiation with clearness index………………….…97

Figure 5.2: Variation of total hourly radiation with solar hour……………………………………..98

Figure 5.3: Single-diode model of the theoretical PV cell and equivalent circuit of a practical PV
device including the series and parallel resistances……………………………………………….100

Figure 5.4: Characteristic I–V curve of the PV cell. The net cell current I is composed of the light-
generated current Ipv and the diode current Id……………………………………………………..101

Figure 5.6: Variation of PV maximum power through sunlight duration…………………………104

Figure 5.6: PV Power-Voltage curve at maximum intensity of the specific day………………….105

Figure 5.7: Variation of optimum voltage through sunlight duration……………………………..105

Figure 5.8: PV I-V curve at maximum intensity of the specific day………………………………106

Figure 5.9: Variation of photovoltaic efficiency through sunlight duration………………………106

Figure 5.10: Variation of Electrolyser voltage with the solar hour………………………………..112

Figure 5.11: Variation of Electrolyser current with the solar hour………………………………..113

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand - Cairo University | 2009-2010 x
Figure 5.12: Variation of Electrolyser hydrogen production with the solar hour…………………113

Figure 5.13: Variation of Electrolyser power with the solar hour…………………………………114

Figure 5.14: Variation of Electrolyser efficiency with the solar hour…………………………….115

Figure 5.15: Variation of Electrolyser heats with the solar hour………………………………….116

Figure 5.16: Electrolyser characteristic curves at noon……………………………………………117

Figure 5.17: Variation of Fuel cell current with the solar hour……………………………………122

F Figure 5.18: Variation of Fuel cell voltage with the solar hour…………………………………123

Figure 5.19: Variation of Fuel cell power with the solar hour…………………………………….123

Figure 5.20: Variation of Fuel cell efficiency with the solar hour angle………………………….123

Figures 5.21: Characteristic curves of single fuel cell operating with all hydrogen flow………..124

Figures 5.22: Characteristic curves of single fuel cell operating with half hydrogen flow in parallel
and series connections…………………………………………………………………………….125

Figures 5.23: Characteristic curves of two fuel cells operating with all hydrogen flow (parallel and
series connections)………………………………………………………………………………..126

Figure 6.1: Voltmeter and Ammeter Circuits……………………………………………………..132

Figure 6.2: Thermistors Temperature ranges……………………………………………………...134

Figure 6.3: non-terminated wires………………………………………………………………….134

Figure 6.4: Electric lamp fixed perpendicular to solar panel……………………………………..135

Figure 6.5: H-Bridge circuit………………………………………………………………………136

Figure 6.6: On the left: The lamp motor and on the right: The power screw which drives the lamp
up and down………………………………………………………………………………………136

Figure 6.7: Manual Control of Lamp……………………………………………………………..137

Figure 6.8: Transistor BC107……………………………………………………………………..137

Figure 6.9: The final Manual and DAQ control circuit…………………………………………..138

Figure 6.10: Circuit connections views…………………………………………………………..139

Figure 6.11: The circuit drawn and marked on the board…………………………………………140

Figure 6.12: The fabricated board…………………………………………………………………140

Figure 6.13: The final connected board top view…………………………………………………140

Figure 6.14: 36V Motor……………………………………………………………………………142


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Figure 6.16: The H bridge lamp position control experimental circuit……………………………143

Figure 6.17: LabVIEW® Block Diagrams………………………………………………………..145

Figure 6.18: Lamp Controller……………………………………………………………………..146

Figure 6.19: Front Panel of Measurement recorder……………………………………………….147

Figure 6.20: Measurement recorder Block Diagram………………………………………………148

Figure 6.21: Characteristic Curve Drawer Front Panel……………………………………………150

Figure 6.22: Characteristic Drawer Block Diagram (part 1)………………………………………154

Figure 6.23: Characteristic Drawer Block Diagram (part 2)………………………………………155

Figure 8.1: Early bench designs…………………………………………………………………...162

Figure 8.2: Third bench design…………………………………………………………………….163

Figure 8.3: AutoCAD bench isometric drawing…………………………………………………...164

Figure 8.4: Solidworks bench and table 3D drawing……………………………………………...165

Figure 8.5: Solidworks bench and table 2D drawing……………………………………………...166

Figure 8.6: Fabricated bench and table…………………………………………………………….168

Figure 8.7: The photovoltaic placed on the inclined roof and the lamp is perpendicular on its face as
the Sun……………………………………………………………………………………………..170

Figure 8.8: Lamp stand installation………………………………………………………………..170

Figure 8.9: The bench with the assembled components…………………………………………...171

Figure 8.10: Back of the bench…………………………………………………………………….172

Figure 8.11: Monitor and DAQ Card……………………………………………………………...172

Figure 8.12: Different components assembled to the bench………………………………………172

Figure 9.1: Solar Cell investigation………………………………………………………………..175

Figure 9.2: Electrolyser investigation……………………………………………………………..177

Figure 9.3: Single Fuel Cell investigation…………………………………………………………179

Figure 9.4: The fuel cells connected in series……………………………………………………..180

Figure 9.5: The fuel cells connected in parallel…………………………………………………...180

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Figure 9.6: Solar heater experiment……………………………………………………………….181

Figure 9.7: Fuel cell heater experiment……………………………………………………………182

Figure 10.1: Electrolyser voltage-current curve…………………………………………………..186

Figure 10.2: Electrolyser P-I characteristic curve…………………………………………………187

Figure 10.3: Single Fuel cell characteristic curve…………………………………………………188

Figure 10.4: Single Fuel Cell power - current characteristic curve……………………………….189

Figure 10.5: V-I curve of a fuel cell in a set of cell…………………………………………….….190

Figure 10.6: P-I curve of a fuel cell in a set of cells……………………………………………….191

Figure 10.7: Temperature change of 10 cm3 of water heated by a Heater powered by PV cell…..192

Figure 10.8: Efficiency change of 10 cm3 water heated by a Heater powered by PV cell………..193

Figure 10.9: Temperature change of 10 cm3 of water heated by a Heater powered by fuel cell….194

Figure 10.10: Efficiency change of 10 cm3 water heated by a Heater powered by PV cell……….194

Figure 10.11: Theoretical and Experimental Voltage corresponding to maximum power through the
day…………………………………………………………………………………………………204

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 4. 1: Number of days (n) ....................................................................................................... 38

Table 4. 2: Angles description ........................................................................................................ 39

Table 4. 3: Fuel cell types and specifications ................................................................................. 67

Table 4. 4: Components Materials and Advantages ....................................................................... 68

Table 4.5: One-Dimentional, Steady-state Solutions to the Heat Equation for Uniform Heat
Generation in a Solid Cylinder ........................................................................................................ 87

Table 5.1: Monthly fraction of sunshine hours................................................................................ 95

Table 5.2: Solar panel technical data ............................................................................................... 99

Table 5.3: PEM Electrolyser technical data .................................................................................. 107

Table 5.4: Constants used to calculate potential losses for low temperature PEMFC. ................. 120

Table 6.1: Truth Table ................................................................................................................... 139

Table 6.2: Block Diagram Main Components ............................................................................... 149

Table 6.3: Block Diagram Main Components ............................................................................... 152

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand - Cairo University | 2009-2010 xiv
NOMENCLATURE

Symbol Description Unit

A Surface area m2
B Magnetic field strength Tesla
Cp Specific heat at constant pressure J/kg.K
E⁰ Standard Nernst potential V
E Potential V
F Faraday constant C mol-1
G Irradiance W/m2
Go Extraterrestrial radiation W/m2
Gon Extraterrestrial radiation W/m2
Gsc Solar constant W/m2
GT solar radiation on the solar cell array W/m2
g Gravitational acceleration m/s2
H Irradiation or Radiant Exposure (Insolation ) in day J/m2
Ho Daily extraterrestrial radiation J/m2
�o
H Monthly extraterrestrial radiation J/m2
h Convective heat transfer coefficient W/m2.K
h Average convective heat transfer coefficient W/m2.K
hx Local convective heat transfer coefficient W/m2.K
I Current Amp
IL The light-generated current Amp
Isc Cell short circuit current Amp
Imp Cell maximum power current Amp
i Current density A/m2
io Exchange current density A/m2
iL Limiting current A/m2
k Boltzmann’s constant J/K
L Lenght M
P Power Watt
Q Total heat transfer W
q Charge C
qo volumetric generation rate W/m3
qr Heat transfer rate in the radial direction W
q′′r heat flux in the radial direction W/m2
q′′x Local heat flux W/m2
R Resistance Ω
r radius m
ro Outer radius m

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O
T Temperature C or K
o
Ts Surface temperature C, K
o
T∞ Fluid temperature C, K
o
Tf Film temperature C, K
∆T Temperature difference °C,K
U Overall heat transfer coefficient W/m2K
V Voltage. V
Voc Cell open circuit volt V
Vmp Cell maximum power volt V

Greek Letters

α Absorption coefficient
αs Solar altitude angle
αp Profile angle
ф Latitude angle
δ Declination angle
β Slope angle
γ Surface azimuth angle
γs Solar azimuth angle
ω Hour angle
ωs Sunset or Sunrise hour angle
θ Incident angle
θz Zenith angle
λ Wave length (m)
ρ Density (kg/m3)
μ Dynamic viscosity or Viscosity (kg/s.m)

Chemical Symbols

H2 Hydrogen molecule
H+ Hydrogen ion
O2 Oxygen molecule
OH- Hydroxyl ion
H2O Water molecule
CO2 Carbon dioxide
LiAlO2 lithium aluminum oxide
CO3-2 Carbon trioxide (ion)
CO Carbon monoxide

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand - Cairo University | 2009-2010 xvi
Dimensionless groups
Nu Nusselt No.
Nusselt No. based on average heat transfer
Nu coefficient
Gr Grashof No.
Pr Prandtl No.
Ra Rayleigh No.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The Graduation Project Team would like to express their gratitude and appreciation to the moral and
financial support provided by The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning
Engineers (ASHRAE). We would specially like to thank them for their interest in the topic of our
project so that they selected it as the only non-American project funded this year.

Progress made in our project would not have been possible without the direct guidance and persistent
help of our supervisors Prof. Dr. Hany Khater, Prof. Dr. Adel Khalil and Dr. Galal Mostafa.

Individually, we would like to express our gratitude and appreciation for our classmate and friend
Mohamed Ahmed Youssef Ahmed for his great participation and deep working in the first part of the
project.

We would also like to express our gratitude to everybody who helped us with editorial,
presentational, instrumental/technical, conceptual and peer interactive communication supports in
preparing or doing our practical experiments so far, specially Prof. Dr. Hassan Rakh (NREA's Advisor
for PV activities), Prof. Dr. Abd El-Wahed Eldeeb, Dr. Abd Almaged Ebraheem, Dr. Ahmed Kamel,
Dr. Ahmed Attia (Shoubra Faculty of Engineering, Banha University), Eng. Abbas R. Rady (System
Eng. Dept Manager and Solar Energy Projects Manager, Arab Org. for Industrialization, Arab British
Dynamics), Eng. Osama Mowafaq, Teaching Assistants in Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University
(Eng. Mohamed Beshr, Eng. Nadim M. Arafa, Eng. Ahmed Yehia, Eng. Mohamed Yafia, Eng. Rania
Eldeeb ‘Biomedical Engineering Dept’, Eng, Ahmed Hassan ‘Biomedical Engineering Dept’, Eng.
Yasser ‘Electric Power Dept’ and Eng. Mohamed Shouka ‘B.Sc. year, Electric Power Engineering
Dept’).
Special gratitude also for the technicians in the Heat research lab (Mr. Abd Elrazek, Mr. Ali, Mr.
Abbas, Mr. Tarek and Mr. Magdy Kamel) and Electric Power research lab, Faculty of Engineering,
Cairo University.

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PREFACE

The whole world is directing its efforts to get over the end of the non-renewable fuel era by
introducing renewable and clean sources of energy. Electrolyser Fuel Cellsystems are one of the
efficient ways of storing and producing energy which have great demands in engineering applications.

Fuel Cells need Hydrogen and Oxygen to work. So, we can use Solar Energy. Solar energy is the
greatest and free renewable source of energy as it is supplied by the sun. A Photovoltaic Solar Cell is a
special type of solar cells in which solar energy is converted into an electric voltage (or current). The
current will be used to produce hydrogen and Oxygen in an electrolyser using water electrolysis
process. The hydrogen and Oxygen produced will first be stored and then be used by a fuel cell to
produce current, heat and water.

In large scale applications, the water vapor possessing the heat can then be passed through a
countercurrent heat exchanger to heat water. Thus, hot water will be available for household,
companies…etc using a natural everlasting source of energy.

On a small scale water vapor cannot be used as it is too little for a 1.7Watt Fuel cell. Thus, in our
project, only the current produced by the fuel cell will be used to heat water in a small heater or to run
a simple load.

A study of the characteristic curves of each of the photovoltaic cell, the electrolyser and the fuel cell
will be performed by varying the input light intensity through varying the distance of an electric lamp
from the solar panel.

The knowledge of different heat and mass transfer mechanisms, system process design, equipment
selection, material selection, instrumentation, data acquisition, data analysis, and performance tests are
the required qualities to be gained by our team and passing it to junior students at the mechanical
department. This is in addition to comparing between theoretical and actual experimental data which
gives more sense of the difference between paper work and reality.

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Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

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Chapter 1 Introduction

The existence of energy was never a problem as much as how to extract, transform and store it into
a useful form. Human history tells us stories about fights over energy sources from the simplest food
fights, which is the source of energy for the body, to the world wars over the sources of fossil fuels in
modern time. Therefore, energy is the soul of life and existence. Human civilization is based on the
use of energy in more effective ways to increase the industrial production and human comfort.
One of the most important trends of energy sources in the 21st century is Solar Energy. Solar Energy
is a clean, renewable and cheap, actually free-cost, energy source. But the main disadvantages are
that it is not available at night, in addition to the high utilization cost. Consequently storing energy is
an important issue in order to provide the continuous availability of energy.
Fuel cells offer cleaner, more-efficient alternatives to the combustion of gasoline and other fossil
fuels. They have the potential to replace the internal combustion engines in vehicles and provide
power in stationary and portable power applications because they are energy-efficient, clean, and
fuel-flexible. Hydrogen or any hydrogen-rich fuel can be used by this emerging technology. It is
visualized that as fossil fuels run out, hydrogen will become the major world fuel and energy vector.

Figure 1.1: Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand

Solar-Hydrogen Fuel Cell Water Heater Educational Stand shown in Figure 4.1 is an educational kit
that demonstrates the idea of the use of renewable energy in a power system module that enables the
generation, use and instantaneous storage of energy. The Sun is a main source of vast amount of
radiation energy that can be used in an economical way. Photovoltaic (PV) panels are now
commercially available and considered as a permanent source of energy.

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Chapter 1 Introduction

Solar-Hydrogen Fuel Cell system is the 'Giant leap' for renewable and clean energy storage:
‘Solar-Hydrogen Fuel Cell System will allow the sun's energy to be used to split water into
hydrogen and oxygen gases. Later, the oxygen and hydrogen may be recombined inside a fuel cell,
creating carbon-free electricity to power your house or your electric car, day or night. This
unprecedented process for energy storage has been developed by Nocera and Matthew Kanan, a
postdoctoral fellow in Nocera's lab, MIT.’
This system could be applied as a “Home Refueling Station” in residential homes, as shown in
Nocera’s system on the cover page of this chapter, factories and a wide range of applications. PV
panels, an electrolyser and a fuel cell can form a power system assembled to undergo the generation,
storage and continuous supply of clean energy.
In our project the objective is to demonstrate this system to students and introduce the idea in the
form of a laboratory experiment. They will understand, analyze and be able to study how the system
works. They will be required to record different points on the characteristic curves of each of the
solar cell, the electrolyser and the fuel cell by changing the input light intensity of an electric lamp by
varying its distance from the solar cell. They will then, of course, be required to draw these curves.
They will also study the two fuel cells first a single cell, then series and parallel connections curves.
They will be required to compare them.
The components of the experiment bench are:
1. Electric lamp
2. Photovoltaic solar cell
3. Single electrolyser
4. Two fuel cells
5. Variable resistance
6. Fan
7. Lamp
8. Two Electric heater

Theory of operation
Light intensity produced by the electric lamp demonstrates the sun giving enough energy for the
photovoltaic cell to produce enough current for water electrolysis that takes place in the electrolyser.
Hydrogen produced by the electrolyser during the electrolysis process is used in the fuel cell
membrane to be recombined with oxygen again and produce the required current according to the
connected load. The fuel cell acts as a battery supplying the current according to load. Thus, by
varying the load connected to the fuel cell, we can get different points on the characteristic curve and
be able to draw it.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.1. Introduction
In this section we will spotlight the latest technology and applications related to our solar-hydrogen
electric system. As our system mainly deals with solar panels (photovoltaics), electrolysers and fuel cells,
we will trace each component alone followed by the whole system.

2.2. Solar Panels


The actual development of the efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) panels and the start of its
commercializing has run rapidly in the last few decades. Now the PV technology is spreading and
replacing the fossil fuel shortage. However, it has the problem of high installing and operating costs as
compared to conventional fossil fuel. The following are examples of some of the PV applications
developing:

2.2.1. Standing Seam Metal Roofing


Standing Seam Metal (SSM) roofing is a traditional roofing material that uses long, vertically sloped
metal trays with raised edges. The trays are snapped together along the long axis to build the roof. Thin-
film, amorphous-silicon, triple-junction photovoltaic (PV) modules can be glued or laminated to the tray
surface. The material produces electricity as well as performs its traditional weather-sealing function.

2.2.2.Vision Glass
PV vision glass technology substitutes a thin-film, semi-transparent photovoltaic panel for the exterior
glass face in a traditional double-pane glass window. Electric wires extend from the sides of each glass
unit are connected to wires from other windows, building up the entire system.

Many Universities install these types of PVs to efficiently operate their buildings and an adoption of
their studies about the efficient, clean, inexpensive renewable energy.

2.2.2.1. Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU) Complete Solar Panel Project [1]
MMU has invested almost half a million pounds in the installation of 400 photovoltaic (PV) panels
covering 524 square meters – one of the largest solar arrays of any UK university. The shiny PV panels
have been successfully installed on the roof of MMU's Student Union.

The conversion of sunlight to electricity by the cells will generate 40,900 kWh of energy per year -
enough power to light 7,200,100-watt light bulbs, power 960 student laptops, boil 40 kettles or supply
electricity to 10 houses.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

Figure 2.1: MMU solar roof

2.2.2.2. University of Wisconsin-Green Bay [2]


It integrates two Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) sections with separate photovoltaic (PV)
technologies. One is Standing Seam Metal roofing that is used commercially, available roofing product
and used commonly throughout Wisconsin. The other section incorporates a thin-film BIPV vision glass
product.

In total, about 4,300 square feet of (BIPV) material were installed, which will generate approximately
27,500 kWh annually.

2.2.3. MIT’s Solar Concentrator Window [3] [4]


MIT engineers introduced a new approach to harnessing the sun's energy that could use sunlight to
efficiently help power buildings.

Light is collected over a large area (like a window) and gathered, or concentrated, at the edges. As a
result, rather than covering a roof with expensive photovoltaic, the cells will only need to be around the
edges of a flat glass pane. In addition, the focused light increases the electrical power obtained from each
solar cell by a factor of over 40, without the need for solar tracking. That, in turn, would substantially
reduce the cost of solar electricity.

The MIT solar concentrator involves a mixture of two or more dyes that is essentially painted onto a
pane of glass or plastic as shown in Figure 2.2. The dyes work together to absorb light across a range of
wavelengths, which is then re-emitted at a different wavelength and transported across the pane to waiting
solar cells at the edges.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

Figure 2.2: Organic solar concentrators collect and focus different colors of sunlight. Solar cells can be attached to
the edges of the plates. By collecting light over their full surface and concentrating it at their edges, these devices
reduce the required area of solar cells and consequently, the cost of solar power. Stacking multiple concentrators
allows the optimization of solar cells at each wavelength, increasing the overall power output.

2.3. Electrolysis
Water electrolysis is essentially a conventional electrolysis process constantly under development. Other
industrial electrolysis processes may include the electrolysis of Al2O3 for pure aluminum production and
electroplating of iron surfaces. Applications of water electrolysis may include:

2.3.1.Sea Water (Brine) Electrolysis


A) NaOH and Cl2 production: for many industrial purposes.
B) H2 production: About 4% of H2 gas produced worldwide is created by electrolysis.

The majority of this hydrogen produced through sea water (Brine water) electrolysis where it is a side
product in the production of chlorine.
2 NaCl + 2 H 2O → Cl 2 + H 2 + 2 NaOH
The hydrogen produced from this process is either burned, used for the production of specialty
chemicals or various other small scale applications and of course for fuel cells. [5]

Bayer Technology Services [6], Chlorine Engineers corp., Ltd. [7] and Han Su Technical Service Co., Ltd.
[8]
are examples of the companies using this technology.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.4. Fuel Cells


In the 21st century, fuel cells have been at the forefront of cutting edge science, with many people now
viewing them as the only alternative to fossil fuels for generating power. Fuel cell vehicles can reduce
emissions to zero if the hydrogen is produced from renewable electricity, which greatly improves local air
quality. They also significantly reduce noise pollution as well. The numerous applications of fuel cells
may include:

2.4.1. Stationary Systems


More than 2500 fuel cell systems have been installed all over the world: In hospitals, nursing homes,
hotels, office buildings, schools, utility power plants. They are either connected to the electric grid to
provide supplemental power and backup assurance for critical areas, or installed as a grid-independent
generator for on-site service in areas that are inaccessible by power lines.[9]

In Europe, there is a great direction towards the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen technologies to the domestic
stationary market, in the form of Combined Heating and Power (CHP) systems due to its benefits of high
efficiency (approximately 85%) and low pollution (Chemical and Acoustic).

2.4.2. Transportation (Automotives)


2.4.2.1. Cars
All the major automotive manufacturers have a fuel cell vehicle either in development or in testing right
now and several have begun leasing and testing in larger quantities. Commercialization is a little further
down the line (some automakers say 2012, others later), but every demonstration helps bring that date
closer.[9] As an example of the demonstrated cars:

 BMW (series 7-745 h-Sedan): showed in 2000 with (UTC PEM FC 5 KW) ICE.

 Daihatsu (MOVE FCV-K II): showed in 2001 with (Toyota PEM FC 30KW)/battery
hybrid engine.

 Daimler (A-Class F-Cell): showed in 2002 with (Ballard Mark 9000 series PEM FC
85KW)/battery hybrid

 Ford Motor Company (Explorer): showed in 2006 with (Ballard PEM FC 60KW)/battery
hybrid engine.

 Honda (FCX Clarity): showed in 2007 with (Honda PEM FC 100KW) Engine.[11]

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.4.2.2. Buses
Over the last four years, more than 50 fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in North and South
America, Europe, Asia and Australia [9] and manufactured by Honda, DaimlerChrysler, Toyota and
Ballard power systems. [12]

2.4.2.3. Scooters (Small Motor Cycles)


In spite of their small size, many scooters are pollution powerhouses especially those with two-stroke
engines. This is a great application for fuel cells. The most outstanding models are MOJITO FC Scooter
(known as Habana in Europe) which was produced by Manhattan Scientifics and Aprilia in 2007 but the
production was stopped. Another one is Suzuki Burgman Fuel Cell Scooter which is manufactured by
Intelligent Energy in partnership with Suzuki and announced in 2009. [13][14]

2.4.2.4. Others
Like airplanes, marine and trains. They are under development to be operated by the fuel cells which
give better efficiency, durability and lifetime than the batteries. Boeing is developing its first fuel cell
plane.

2.4.3.Portable Micro-Power
Like mobiles and laptops, companies have already demonstrated fuel cells that can power cell phones
for 30 days without recharging and laptops for 20 hours. These miniature fuel cells generally run on
methanol, an inexpensive wood alcohol. [9]

Toshiba has developed a mobile charger Dynario. It has a methanol fueled fuel cell which causes a
reaction between H2 in methanol and O2 to produce the charging electricity. [13]

Figure 2.3: Toshiba ‘Dynario’ mobile charger [16][ 17]

In the beginning of 2004, Japanese electronics company NEC has shown the prototype of a laptop with
built-in fuel cell, claiming the prototype has 10 hours life, extending the life of the traditional battery
powered laptop by up to 50%. [14] In 2006 Toshiba and Samsung has shown off their fuel cell laptops.
[16][17][18][19]

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

Figure 2.4: From left NEC, Toshiba, Samsung laptops [10][16]

2.5. Commercial Applications


2.5.1. Home Energy Station
In 2003, Honda has established an experimental Home Energy Station (HES) that generates hydrogen
from natural gas for use in fuel cell vehicles and can also supply electricity and hot water to the home.
Part of ongoing research by Honda into hydrogen energy sources, the new system can currently produce
enough hydrogen to refill the tank of a Honda FCX hydrogen fuel cell vehicle taking just a few minutes
once a day.

Honda is also applying newly developed solar panel technology to its hydrogen-refueling R&D by using
the energy generated by the panels mounted on the refueling station to improve its overall efficiency other
than Home Energy Station (HES III) which is using natural gas. [20]

Figure 2.5: Home Energy Station (HES III)

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.6. Experimental Applications


2.6.1. Dr FuelCell Science Kit [21]

Figure 2.6: Dr Fuel cell science kit

2.6.1.1. Overview

The Dr FuelCell Science Kit, shown in Figure 2.6, is an extensive experiment set for the subject of
renewable energies for students.
The Dr FuelCell Science Kit reproduces a complete solar hydrogen energy cycle. It makes it possible to
approach the subject of renewable energies both as a complete cycle and at the level of the single
technologies of photovoltaics and the fuel cell.

2.6.1.2. Components
The components of the Dr FuelCell Science Kit can be used in various ways for instruction.

Solar panel The 5-cell photovoltaic module is used for experiments in solar
energy and for generating electric energy for the hydrogen
generator. The practical base facilitates alignment to the light
source.
Electrolyser The electrolyser separates water into hydrogen and oxygen. It is
operated with distilled water and requires no caustic solutions or
acids. The integrated graduated hydrogen storage cylinders
visualize the classic hydrogen separation experiment, as in the
Hoffmann apparatus.
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Chapter 2 Literature Review

Fuel cell The fuel cell generates electrical energy from hydrogen and
oxygen. It is based on PEM technology, which is the most
widespread technology used in the development of fuel cell
applications, e.g. for motor vehicles or stationary power supply
systems.
Load The convenient and compact load measurement box is used
measurement for recording data during experiments. Integrated consumers,
box such as a motor, a lamp and 7 selectable resistors, enable
numerous experiments, e.g. recording characteristic curves, or
current and voltage.
Take-apart fuel The take-apart fuel cell makes it possible to examine the
cell functions and the design of a fuel cell in detail. A plug-in
resistor, an electrode with reduced catalyst quantity and an air
panel for air instead of oxygen operation enable in-depth
experiments.
Methanol fuel The methanol fuel cell uses methanol instead of hydrogen to
cell generate electrical energy. This makes it possible to conduct
more extensive experiments. The package includes storage
cylinders for storage of the methanol solutions.

2.6.1.3. Technical Details


Dr FuelCell Science Kit Complete
Dimensions (W x H x D):430 x 150 x 310 mm
Weight: ca. 10.1 kg
Solar panel
Dimensions (W x H x D): 80 x 130 x 52 mm

Voltage: 2.0 V

Current: 180 mA
Output: 0.36 W
Electrolyser
Dimensions (W x H x D): 80 x 195 x 85 mm

Storage volume for hydrogen and oxygen: 10 ml each

Operating voltage: 1.4 ... 1.8 V

Electric current: max. 500 mA


Hydrogen production: max. 3.5 ml / min (at 500 mA)
Fuel cell
Dimensions (W x H x D): 65 x 85 x 38 mm

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

Rated output: 0.25 W

Voltage: 0.4 ... 0.9 V


Current: max. 1000 mA
Load
measurement Dimensions (W x H x D): 190 x 110 x 60 mm
box
Ammeter: 0 ... 2 A

Voltmeter: 0 ... 20 V DC

Measured resistance (in ohm): 1, 3, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, open


and short circuit
Take-apart fuel
cell Dimensions (W x H x D): 85 x 65 x 65 mm

Rated output for oxygen mode: 0.3 W

Voltage: 0.4 ... 0.9 V

Current in oxygen mode: max. 1500 mA


Current in air mode: max. 800 mA
Methanol fuel
cell Dimensions (W x H x D): 65 x 85 x 34 mm

Rated output: 0.1 W (with 1 M methanol solution)

Voltage: 0.1 ... 0.6 V

Current: max. 100 mA

Dr FuelCell Professional manufactured by Heliocentris Inc. www.heliocentris.com

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.6.2. Dr FuelCell Model Car [22]

Figure 2.7: Dr Fuel cell model Car

2.6.2.1. Overview
Model Car with reversible Fuel Cell
The Dr FuelCell Model Car integrates the subject of renewable energies in the instruction for the lower
secondary level in an uncomplicated manner.

Hands-on teaching of renewable energies


The Dr FuelCell Model Car can be operated with energy from a fuel cell or a solar panel. A reversible
fuel cell makes it possible to generate and store hydrogen wherever it is needed. Practical experiments
help students easily understand the relationships between energy conversion, storage and consumption.

Extensive features
The package includes a reversible fuel cell, which functions both as a hydrogen generator and fuel cell.
The fuel cell uses the energy supplied by the solar panel or the hand generator to separate water into
oxygen and hydrogen. In fuel cell mode, the stored hydrogen is converted into electric power to operate
the car. The load measurement box makes it possible to measure the current and voltage.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

Time-tested quality
Developed for daily use in the classroom, the model car is user-friendly and features a flexible and
robust design, making it suitable for both group and individual instruction.

2.6.2.2. Components
The single components of the Dr FuelCell Model Car can be used in various ways for instruction.

Solar panel The 5-cell photovoltaic module is used for experiments in solar
energy and for generating electric energy for hydrogen
production. The practical base facilitates alignment to the light
source. The module can easily be mounted on the car chassis to
make a solar vehicle.

Reversible fuel This component is a fuel cell and hydrogen generator in one. It
cell with is operated with distilled water and requires no caustic solutions
integrated gas or acids. The generated hydrogen is stored in integrated gas
storage storage cylinders, safely and directly.
cylinders
Car chassis The car chassis is designed both for fuel cell operation and solar
operation. A single click and two cable connectors are all you
need to make the switch. The front axis is steerable and
lockable, so the car chassis can also be used where space is
limited.
Load The load measurement box for recording data is used for
measurement advanced experiments. Integrated consumers, such as a motor, a
box lamp and 7 selectable resistors, enable numerous experiments,
e.g. recording characteristic curves, or current and voltage.
Hand generator The high-quality hand generator, which simulates wind power,
is an alternative to the solar panel. Muscle power is used to
generate electrical energy for the separation of water in the
reversible fuel cell.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.6.2.3. Technical Details


Dr FuelCell Model Car Complete

Erection Dimensions (W x H x D): 345 x 160 x 280 mm


Weight: ca. 2.9 kg
Language versions: German, English, French, Spanish,
Italian, Turkish, Japanese, Korean and Arabic

Solar panel Dimensions (W x H x D): 80 x 130 x 52 mm


Voltage: 2 V
Current: 180 mA
Output: 0.36 W

Reversible fuel cell Dimensions (W x H x D): 80 x 80 x 70 mm


Operating voltage: 0.5 ... 0.9 V DC
Rated output: 0.25 W
Operating current: 0 ... 500 mA
Hydrogen production: max. 3.5 ml / min

Car chassis with Dimensions (L x W x H): 195 x 110 x 50 mm


electric motor Operating voltage of motor: 0.5 ... 3.0 V
Hydrogen consumption: 3 ... 5 ml / min
Running time with full gas storage cylinders: 3 ... 5 min
Load measurement Dimensions (W x H x D): 190 x 110 x 60 mm
box: Ammeter: 0 ... 2 A
Voltmeter: 0 ... 20 V DC
Hand generator Dimensions (W x H x D): 55 x 137 x 55 mm
No-load voltage: 2.1 V
Typical operating voltage with electrolyser: ca. 1.7 V

Dr FuelCell Model Car manufactured by Heliocentris Inc. www.heliocentris.com

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.6.3. Fuel Cell Kit, Green Utility House [23]

Figure 2.8: Fuel Cell Kit, Green Utility House

With this fuel cell kit, you can build your own experimental green utility house and install wind energy,
solar energy, and fuel cell home power generator.
Fuel Cell Kit:
• shows energy conversion and storage
• demonstrates the application of renewable and non-pollutant energies in daily lives
• teaches electrochemical experiments and new technology appreciation
• lets us discover principles of fuel cells, wind energy, solar energy, electrolyser, and hybrid systems

Solar and wind energy are not reliable sources of energy. During nighttime or at times of reduced or no
sunlight or wind, these systems are not able to generate electricity. Fuel Cell Kit, Green Utility House
shows how this problem can be overcome if the extra electricity produced by solar cells during sunny
days or by wind turbines during windy days can be stored (Fuel Cell Kit green utility house can only store
solar energy not wind energy).
In this fuel cell kit, the electrolyser is able to use the extra electricity to convert water into hydrogen and
oxygen gases that can be stored. During the night time or at times of a reduced or absent sunlight and
wind, the fuel cells consume stored hydrogen to generate electricity. In the hybrid system, such a Fuel
Cell Kit Green Utility House fuel cells and hydrogen technology cover the short-coming of solar and
wind energy to provide continuous, reliable, and independent power supplies.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

These educational kits are all about energy conversions. When light is emitted and reaches the solar
cells (1), the cells convert the energy of light to electricity (electric energy). The electrolyser (2) then uses
this electricity, to decompose the water to produce hydrogen and oxygen gas. These gas products enter a
fuel cell (3) and within an electrochemical reaction, water and electricity are produced. As the end-
product of the 2 fuel cell, electric energy will power the electric motor (4).
In the Green Utility House and Solar House products when air pushes the wind turbine blade (5), the
electric shaft of the electric motor rotates. The electric motor acts as a generator and converts the kinetic
energy of wind to electricity. The generated electricity then will be used in the ceiling fan (4).
Fuel Cell Kit, Green Utility House manufactured by Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Inc. www.h-fc.com

2.6.4.Fuel Cell Car Science Kit [24]

Figure 2.9: Fuel cell car science kit

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

Fuel Cell Car Science Kit uses a reversible PEM fuel cell that combines electrolysis and power
conversion into one single device. Watch as oxygen and hydrogen gases are formed in two transparent
water containers. The car steers independently of the user once in operation: when the car hits a barrier, it
will automatically find its way by reversing away 90 degrees.
Fuel Cell Car Science Kit manufactured by Horizon Fuel Cell Inc. www.horizonfuelcell.com

2.7. Conclusion
Our project essentially aims to build a Solar-Hydrogen Fuel Cell Educational Stand that demonstrates
the idea of “Home Refueling Station” or “Solar-Hydrogen House” which is the major technique required
for Solar Energy continuous availability. In addition our educational stand makes student aware of
• establishing an educational stand that students in the mechanical power department will learn
from,
• understanding the operation of each device and studying its performance and characteristics as an
individual device and when working as a Home Refueling Station and
• building the ability of measuring different quantities and analyzing the results by using digital
measuring devices and computer programs.

In one word we can say that: “Solar-Hydrogen House: No More Power Bills—Ever”

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.8. References

[1] http://www.mmu.ac.uk/news/articles/1098/

[2] http://www.p3xcel.com/project12.html

[3] http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2008/solarcells-0710.html

[4] http://www.domain-b.com/technology/20080711_window.html

[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolysis

[6] http://www.bayertechnology.com/en/products/chlorine-electrolysis/chlorine-electrolysis/is-your-gain.html

[7] http://www.chlorine-eng.co.jp/en/product/electrolysis/brine-electrolysis.html

[8] http://www.tradekorea.com/product-detail/P00157657/Brine_treatment_system.html

[9] http://www.fuelcells.org/basics/apps.html

[10] http://www.engadget.com/2006/06/01/toshiba-shows-off-latest-laptop-fuel-cell-prototype/

[11] http://www.fuelcells.org/info/charts/carchart.pdf

[12] http://www.fuelcells.org/info/charts/buses.pdf

[13] http://www.varsitycycle.com/aprilia_mojito_retro.shtml

[14] http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6123FY20100203

[15] http://www.crunchgear.com/2009/10/22/dynario-toshiba-finally-commercializes-fuel-cell-for-mobile-devices/

[16] http://www.gizmag.com/go/3354/

[18] http://www.engadget.com/2006/06/01/toshiba-shows-off-latest-laptop-fuel-cell-prototype/

[19] http://www.gizmag.com/go/6666/

[20] http://automobiles.honda.com/fcx-clarity/home-energy-station.aspx

[21] http://www.heliocentris.com/en/customers/education/products/science-education/dr-fuelcell-science-kit.html

[22] http://www.heliocentris.com/en/customers/education/products/science-education/dr-fuelcell-model-car.html

[23] http://www.h-fc.com/

[24] http://www.horizonfuelcell.com/education_kits.htm

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Chapter 3 Preparation

Chapter 3

PREPARATION

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Chapter 3 Preparation

In order to convert the idea into reality, a complete design of the system needed to be studied and
implied. We started brain storming to put the preliminary shape of the system. We agreed that in order to
identify the required sizes of the different components, the required load should be first determined.

The final load was the electric heater. We realized that electric heaters can have a wide range of sizes
starting from 0.1W to whatever we can imagine. On the other hand, the sizes of each of the fuel cell,
electrolyser and PV cells available commercially are limited. Thus, our mission was to identify
commercially available electrolyser-fuel cell system that is compatible. The next step is to find the
suitable PV size to supply the required voltage and current to the electrolyser.

This is a summary of the available fuel cells and electrolysers at the time.

3.1. Electrolysers
3.1.1. Esperanza (Heliocentris, www.heliocentris.com)
We contacted Esperanza and also Heliocentris and they both told us the same information. They produce
hydrogen generators which work at 230V, produce large quantity (15-60 liters per hour). That’s very
professional while we are looking for something more educational. So, we started to contact Fuel Cell Store
(www.fuelcellstore.com) for the electrolyser and the fuel cell.

3.1.2. The Fuel Cell Store Electrolysers


Among a variety of electrolysers, we found two suitable ones, which are:

3.1.2.1. AS1 Electrolyser [1][2]


The AS1 Stack on Electrolyser is an Alkaline Electrolyser capable of producing 0.25 Liters of hydrogen
a minute at a fraction of the cost for comparable PEM Electrolysers. Using an alkaline chemistry with a
30% KOH electrolyte the AS1 can produce 360 Liters of hydrogen for only $.36 and the upfront cost is
3% the cost of a PEM electrolyser. The smallest unit can generate 15 Liters per hour but the system is
stackable to suit any system size and operating requirements. Gas purities are greater than 99.6% and with
additional catalytic recombiner purities over 99.9999% hydrogen can be achieved.

It has a built-in ECM (Electronic Control Module) that fully automates and maintains the optimum level
of water to the Electrolyser and the Double Bubbler. The hydrogen and oxygen can be collected safely in
a low pressure tank for use later. Great for powering an alkaline or PEM fuel cell to generate electricity
that can power electrical appliances even the entire home or hydrogen stove for cooking. A 90 watt Solar
Panel will give ample power to run one electrolyser to make an unlimited amount of hydrogen.

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Chapter 3 Preparation

Electrolyser
Dimensions: 3 x 4 x 7.5in
Electrodes: Nickel Plated 316SS
Electolyte: 30% KOH
No. of cells: 5 (2.5 volts/ cell)
Voltage: 12 volts
Current: 7 Amps.
Hydrogen 15 liters/hr. (30 liters/hr @ 15 Amps.) = (500 ml/ min)
Output:
Oxygen Output: 7.5 liters/hr. (15 liters/hr @ 15 Amps.)
Pressure: Non-Pressurized
Hydrogen Purity: 99.6%**
Recirculator:
Double Tube 1.5in. Diameter
Material: 304 SS (or ABS)
Height: 11in.
Electronic Control Module:
Epoxy encased integrated with electrolyser body Start up tubing purge cycle
Automatic sensing water level Automatic water refill.

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Chapter 3 Preparation

3.1.2.2. AS15 Electrolyser [3] (LAB H2 SUPPLY[4])


Alkaline type with higher efficiency: up to 70% and generates more H2 gas compared to PEM
electrolyser for the same amount of electric current.

Pressure up to 30 psi: meets most fuel cell requirements. Four minute auto purge at startup, safety
pressure relief at 40 psi.

99.9% Purity H2 gas with optional O2 collection capability

7 Amps produces 15 liters of H2 per hour: Maximum allowable current of 15 Amps makes 30 liters
of Hydrogen per hour.

3.2. Fuel Cells


We contacted fuel cell store about two types of fuel cell:

3.2.1. Convection fuel cell stack


3.2.1.1. 30W 6.5V, 36W 6V Fuel Cell Stack [5]
Product Overview
The 30-36 W Convection fuel cell stack is a 10 cell stack that does not require external humidification
or pressurization. Gold-plated current collectors ensure that this stack achieves maximum performance for
precision experiments. The stack comes complete with instruction manual, I/R plot, shade for assisting
the convection air flow and a six-month warranty. Possible sources of hydrogen for the 30-36 W
convection fuel cell stack include electrolysers (PEM- and alkaline technologies), gas bottles, metal
hydride tanks and hydrogen from chemical reactions.

In order to use the fuel cell in both operating modes a control unit is required

The control unit for this fuel cell performs three functions. It includes a regulator to control the inlet
pressure to the stack. It monitors the temperature and operates the cooling fans as necessary and it also
regulates the purging cycle for hydrogen in the dead-ended mode of operation of the fuel cell.

The control unit regulates the back pressure to make sure that too much pressure does not build up
inside the stack. It is a dead ended fuel cell and over pressure can damage the membranes.

These stacks are "Air-Breathing", Convection style stacks with self-humidified Membrane Electrode
Assemblies. Hydrogen can be kept dead-ended and water is removed continuously from the stack. The
maximum operating temperature can be from 65-70 °C and at pressures from 1 to 10 psi. No special

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Chapter 3 Preparation

startup procedure or forced flow of air is required; however much higher power densities can be obtained
utilizing forced air flow.

Technical Specifications

Number of cells 10
Membrane Area 25 cm2
Power 30W at 6.5V,36W at 6V
Reactant H2/air
Temperature Ambient-70°C
Pressure 0-2 psi (hydrogen)
Humidification Self-humidified
Cooling Air (cooling fans supplied and attached to the side)
Weight 3.5 pounds
Dimension 10 cm x 8.2 cm x 11 cm (LxWxH)
Hydrogen Flow Rate About .35 Liters per minute at full power
Type of fuel cell PEM
Start up time Instantaneous, load following capability
Efficiency of stack 50% at full power

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Chapter 3 Preparation

3.2.1.2. 20W 13V, 25-30W 12V Fuel Cell [6]


Has the same information for 30W 6.5V, 36W 6V Fuel Cell Stack

Technical Specifications

Number of cells 20
Membrane Area 10 cm2
Power 20W at 13V, 25-30W at 12V
Reactant H2/air
Temperature Ambient-70°C
Pressure 0-2 psi (hydrogen)
Humidification Self-humidified
Cooling Air (cooling fans supplied and attached to side)
Weight 2.25 pounds
Dimension 14 cm x 5.7 cm x 8.8 cm (LxWxH)
Type of fuel cell PEM
Start up time Instantaneous, load following capability
Efficiency of stack 50% at full power

3.2.2. H-Series Fuel Cells


3.2.2.1. H-20 (20W Fuel Cell Stack) [7][8]
Product Overview

The H-series Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells, design by Horizon, are semi-integrated,
efficient, reliable systems that minimize the use of peripherals. As such, they are the most compact and
lightweight air-cooled, self-humidified fuel Cells around the world.

The fans and purge value on the H-20 do not require an additional power source they are run by the fuel
cell.

H-20 includes the following items

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Chapter 3 Preparation

*Electronic and Gas Connections

*Miniature electronic valve: This is the purging value to purge hydrogen in the event of overpressure of
the fuel cell
*Control electronics: To regulate the purge value and fans

*Integrated fan and casing: The fan is for cooling the casing is to protect the fuel cell

*Low pressure protection: There is no low pressure protection on the fuel cell, the high pressure
protection would start around 6 psi.

Technical Specifications

Type of Fuel Cell PEM


Number of cells 11
Rated power 20W
Performance 6.6V @ 3A
Purging Valve Voltage 6V
Blower Voltage 5V
Reactants Hydrogen and air
External temperature 5-40ºC
Stack operation temperature 55ºC
Composition 99.999% Dry H2
Hydrogen pressure 2.9-4 PSI
Humidification Self humidified
Cooling Air (integrated cooling fan)
Weight (with fan and casing) 230g
Dimensions 7.6cm x 5.6cm x 4.7cm
Hydrogen flow rate 280ml/min of hydrogen at maximum
power
Start up time Immediate
Stack efficiency 45% at maximum power

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Chapter 3 Preparation

3.2.2.2. H-30 (30W Fuel Cell Stack) [9][10]


Product Overview

The H-series Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells design by Horizon are semi-integrated,
efficient, reliable systems that minimize the use of peripherals. As such, they are the most compact and
lightweight air-cooled, self-humidified fuel Cells around the world.

The fans and purge value on the H-30 do not require an additional power source they are run by the fuel
cell.

Details

H-30 includes the following items

*Electronic and Gas Connections

*Miniature electronic valve


This is the purging value to purge hydrogen in the event of overpressure of the fuel cell

*Control electronics
To regulate the purge value and fans

*Integrated fan and casing


The fan is for cooling the casing is to protect the fuel cell

*Low pressure protection


There is no low pressure protection on the fuel cell, the high pressure protection would start around 6 PSI

Technical Specifications

Type of Fuel Cell PEM


Number of cells 12
Rated power 30W
Performance 7.2V@4.2A
Purging Valve Voltage 6V
Blower Voltage 5V
Reactants Hydrogen and air

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Chapter 3 Preparation

External temperature 5-40ºC


Stack operation temperature 55ºC
Composition 99.999% Dry H2
Hydrogen pressure 4.3-5.8 PSI
Humidification Self humidified
Cooling Air (integrated cooling fan)
Weight (with fan and casing) 235g
Dimensions 8.0cm x 5.4cm x 4.6cm
Hydrogen flow rate 420 ml/min of hydrogen at maximum
power
Start up time Immediate
Stack efficiency 45% at maximum power

3.3. Further Details


The two types of the fuel cells are dead-ended. That means there is no hydrogen outlet on these cells; the
hydrogen put into the cell is all used in the reaction and output as water and heat.

The H-20 and H-30 fuel cells require a small amount of pressure for operation and would not work with
the AS1 electrolyser.

In order to use the electrolyser to directly fuel the H-20 or H-30 we will need a low pressure storage
cylinder to capture the excess gas produced. The AS15 system produces pressurized gas at 30 PSI and
this requires regulation before being fed into the fuel cell. It must also be allowed to produce hydrogen
and store it if not being used directly. This will keep the cell safe from over pressurization and keep the
electrolyser producing gas without venting the excess hydrogen into the air.

The cathode side of the fuel cell where the water will be generated is open to air. Any liquid water
formed would fall out the bottom of the cell. The heat is removed by the attached fans which operate to
cool the cell.

There is no blower on the H-30. The Fans can be considered a blower but are listed as fans.

Both of these fuel cells are a "convection" type. They both use the oxygen from the air in the
environment and do not require a pure oxygen flow. The fans do serve to both remove heat and keep a
constant flow of air over the cathode side of the fuel cells. Neither of these cells have the capability to use
a pure oxygen flow for the operation of the fuel cell.

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Chapter 3 Preparation

The output of the fuel cell connections are 8 gauge wires which can be connected in any way we choose
(no special electrical cables).

Characteristic curve is not available for the convection stack fuel cells but is contained in the user
manual for the H-30 fuel cell.

Current vs. hydrogen production curve for the AS15 electrolyser:

There is a linear increase between the hydrogen product and current increase of the AS15 from 7 amps
up to 15 amps compared to a production increase of 15 l/hr to 30 l/hr.

The pressurized versions of the AS15 include holding tanks which will allow us to properly store excess
hydrogen during a continuous operation of the electrolyser powering the fuel cell. We would need to
maintain the proper voltage so as not to fill up the holding tanks but they will provide enough storage to
make the direct operation of a fuel cell possible.

The small internal storage of the pressurized AS15 is at 30 psi.

The internal storage on the AS15 can be stated to have 0 storage capacity. This is an internal reservoir
for pressurizing the hydrogen for release. Hydrogen cannot be stored inside the electrolyser for a
sustained period of time.

Other questions and answers

* What is the preferred electrolyser which will work with (30W 6.5V, 36W 6V Fuel Cell Stack) and
(20W 13V, 25-30W 12V Fuel Cell Stack)?

The AS15 is the preferred electrolyser for all of our smaller fuel cell stacks. It will work the same with
these cells as with the H-20 and H-30.

* If the electrolyser produced excess hydrogen over the required to operate the fuel cell and no storage,
what will happen?

If the fuel cell is dead ended and the electrolyser is constantly producing gas with no outlet it will put a
hole in the membranes in order for the rising pressure to escape. This would permanently damage the fuel
cell and make for a very costly repair. If there is an outlet for the hydrogen to escape then it will instead
release the pressure through that outlet, this is the function of the hydrogen purge valve on the H-20 and
H-30 fuel cells.

* What will happen for the remaining rates produced from the electrolysers & not used by fuel cell?

In order to use the electrolyser to directly fuel the H-20 or H-30 you will need a low pressure storage
cylinder to capture the excess gas produced. The AS15 system produces pressurized gas at 30 PSI and
this need to be regulated before being fed into the fuel cell. It must also be allowed to produce hydrogen

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Chapter 3 Preparation

and store it if not being used directly. This will keep the cell safe from over pressurization and keep the
electrolyser producing gas without venting the excess hydrogen into the air.

* What is the difference between the convection fuel cell stack and the H-series fuel cell?

Very little is different between these cells. They all operate as convection stacks, not requiring pure
oxygen. They operate at very similar hydrogen pressures and use very similar amounts of hydrogen. The
H-series cells are manufactured by a large company with a high production volume which allows them to
lower the cost, which is the biggest difference between the different stacks.

3.4. Our Choice

After requesting all the information we needed, we decided on the 30W Fuel cell and the AS15
electrolyser for the following reasons:

1. A 30W Fuel cell gives enough measurable power


2. Their prices are suitable for our budget
3. They are the most compatible couple in the choices we had with the pressurization problem being
solved as well as the hydrogen purity

3.5. Steps towards Purchasing

After we decided on the electrolyser-fuel cell couple we immediately put a company in charge in
contacting and purchasing the components. The process of communication was first drawing some
success and they promised the fuel cell will be shipped from the states within 2 weeks while the
electrolyser will be shipped after a month due to slow fabrication process. Figure 3.1 shows the contract.

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Chapter 3 Preparation

Figure 3.1: Purchase Invoice

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Chapter 3 Preparation

During the time we waited, we began our search for the PV. This was much easier as we have local
producers. We visited all present producers, collected information and decided on a 200W solar panel as
well as the shape of our bench which was a house. The details of the bench shape are in chapter 8.

However, the month passed and none of the components was delivered. We began to be disappointed.
We started contacting the company again to contact them and we figured out that for some reason they
stopped producing the electrolyser. That happened after two months from purchasing. We tried to search
for other companies in countries of far Asia and Europe but we didn’t find something educational and we
had no time to waste, so we had to take a quick decision. In the USA they say if you can’t shoot the
moon, shoot the stars, so we had no choice but to work on a smaller scale.

The new system was 1.7W Fuel cells and we had a big challenge to design a suitable heater, which we
did. Perhaps the project we had in mind did not exactly come true, but at least we delivered our aim of
demonstrating the new system which will change the world to junior and senior students in our
department, no matter how small it is.

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Chapter 3 Preparation

3.6. References
[1]. http://fuelcellstore.com/en/pc/viewPrd.asp?idcategory=0&idproduct=1405,

[2]. http://peoplesnewenergy.com/

[3]. http://www.fuelcellstore.com/en/pc/viewPrd.asp?idcategory=39&idproduct=1412

[4]. http://peoplesnewenergy.com/

[5]. http://www.fuelcellstore.com/en/pc/viewPrd.asp?idcategory=46&idproduct=369#details

[6]. http://www.fuelcellstore.com/en/pc/viewPrd.asp?idcategory=46&idproduct=1389

[7]. http://www.fuelcellstore.com/en/pc/viewPrd.asp?idcategory=46&idproduct=1104

[8]. http://www.horizonfuelcell.com/fuel_cell_stacks.htm

[9]. http://www.fuelcellstore.com/en/pc/viewPrd.asp?idcategory=46&idproduct=1105

[10]. http://www.horizonfuelcell.com/fuel_cell_stacks.htm

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Chapter 4, Part 1 Solar Cell

Chapter 4

COMPONENTS

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Chapter 4: Part 1 Solar Cell

Chapter 4: Part 1

SOLAR CELL

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Chapter 4: Part 1 Solar Cell

4.1.1. Brief History [16]


Solar energy was never a new invention, however converting this energy to mechanical or electrical
energy was the invention. Nature of materials that convert light into energy was observed since the 1830s
by Edmund Becquerel. Several scientists followed researching like Auguste Mouchout, the first to patent
a design for a motor running on solar energy. Also others are Willoughby Smith, William Adams,
Richard Day, Charles Fritz, Charles Tellier, John Ericsson and a lot others.

In the 1970s, after the OPEC embargo, suddenly it became important to find an alternative form of
energy as the world realized just how reliant we really are on non-renewable, finite resources like coal, oil
and gas for our existence. Solar energy history was made as the price of solar cells dropped dramatically
to about $20 per watt.

Today, there is a renewed focus as more and more people see the advantages of solar energy and as it
becomes more and more affordable. Governments across the world offer financial assistance. Solar
electric systems are now used to power many homes, businesses, holiday cottages, even villages in
Africa.

4.1.2. Solar Radiation


The solar constant Gsc is the energy from the sun per unit time on a unit area of surface perpendicular to
the direction of propagation of the radiation at mean earth-sun distance outside the atmosphere. Gsc =
1367 W/m2 [1]. Its value changed due to the altitudes it measured from such as mountains, aircraft,
spacecrafts and balloons. Solar radiation incident outside the earth's atmosphere is called extraterrestrial
radiation Gon [4]. Variation of the earth-sun distance does lead the variation of extraterrestrial solar
radiation flux in the range of ±3.3%. Figure 4.1 shows the variation of extraterrestrial solar radiation with
time of year. A simple equation with accuracy adequate for most engineering calculations is given by
Equation 4.1. Equation 4.2 is more accurate in the range of ±0.01%. [1]

360n
Gon = G sc (1 + 0.033 cos ) (4.1)
365

G on = G sc (1.000110 + 0.034221cosB + 0.001280sinB + 0.000719cos2B + 0.000077sin2B) (4.2)

(4.3)
Where: B = (n - 1) 360
365

n: number of the day in the year (from Table 4.1)

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Chapter 4: Part 1 Solar Cell

Table 4. 1: Number of days (n) [1]

Mont Januar Februar Marc Apri Augus Septembe Octobe Novembe Decembe
May June July
h y y h l t r r r r
120+ 151+ 181+
n I 31+i 59+i 90+i
i i i
212+i 243+i 273+i 304+i 334+i

Where: i is number of days in the month

Figure 4.1: Variation of extraterrestrial solar radiation with time of year [1]

4.1.2.1. Definitions [1]


Beam radiation

The solar radiation received from the sun without having been scattered by the atmosphere.

Diffuse radiation

The solar radiation received from the sun after its direction has been changed by scattering by the
atmosphere.

Total solar radiation

It is the sum of the beam and the diffuse solar radiation on a surface.

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Chapter 4: Part 1 Solar Cell

Irradiance (G) (W/m2)

It is the rate at which radiant energy is incident on a surface per unit area of surface.

Irradiation or Radiant Exposure (J/m2)

It is the incident energy per unit area on a surface. Insolation is a term applying specifically to solar
energy radiation. The symbol H is used for insolation for a day and symbol I is used for insolation for an
hour or other period.

Radiosity or Radiant Exitance (W/m2)

It is the rate at which radiant energy leaves a surface per unit area by combined emission, reflection and
transmission.

Emissive Power or Radiant Self-Exitance (W/m2)

It is the rate at which radiant energy leaves a surface per unit area by emission only.

Solar Time

Time based on the apparent angular motion of the sun across the sky.

4.1.2.2. Direction of Beam Radiation [1]


The geometric relation between a plane of any particular orientation relative to the earth at any time
and the incoming beam solar radiation can be described in terms of several angles. Figure 4.2 to 4.4
indicates the angles of the earth. Also, Table 4.2 gives angles definitions.

Table 4. 2: Angles description [1]

Angle Symbol Description

Latitude ф The angular location north or south of the equator in Figure 4.4

The angular position of the sun at solar noon with respect to the plane
Declination δ of the equator in Figure 4.3

Slope β The angle between the plane and the horizontal in Figure 4.4

The deviation of the projection on a horizontal plane of the normal to


Surface azimuth γ the surface from the local meridian.

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Chapter 4: Part 1 Solar Cell

The angular displacement from south of the projection of beam


Solar azimuth γs radiation on the horizontal plane in Figure 4.2

The angular displacement of the sun east or west of the local


Hour ω meridian due to rotation of the earth on its axis at 15o per 1 hour in
Figure 4.5

Sunset hour ωs The angle of the sun form the noon to the sunset.

Sunrise hour -ωs The angle of the sun form the sunrise to the noon.

The angle between the beam radiation on a surface and the normal to
Incident θ the tilted surface in Figure 4.2

The angle between the vertical and the line to the sun incidence on
Zenith θz horizontal surface in Figure 4.2

Solar altitude αs The angle between the horizontal and the line to the sun in Figure 4.2

Normal to θ
the plane
Plane

Figure 4.2: Angles [1]

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Chapter 4: Part 1 Solar Cell

Figure 4.3: Declination angle δ [7]

Figure 4.4: Latitude angle ф [5]

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Chapter 4: Part 1 Solar Cell

Figure 4.5: Hour angle ω [6]

The declination angle δ can be found from Equation 4.4

284 + n
δ = 23.45 sin(360 ) (4.4)
365

𝑤𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒: 𝑛𝑛 𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛. 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑡𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑒 𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦

The Incident angle θ can be found from Equation 4.3

cosθ = sin δ sin φ cos β − sin δ cos φ sin β cos γ + cos δ cos φ cos β cos ω
(4.5)
+ cos δ sin φ sin β cos γ cos ω + cos δ sin β sin γ sin ω

𝜃𝜃 = 𝜃𝜃𝑧𝑧 𝑤𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝛽𝛽 = 0

The Solar azimuth angle γs can be found from Equation 4.6

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Chapter 4: Part 1 Solar Cell

cos θ z sin φ − sin δ (4.6)


γ s = sign(ω ) cos −1 ( )
sin θ z cos φ

Where: sign = +1 when ω is positive and = -1 if ω is negative

The Sunset hour angle ωs can be found from Equation 4.7

cos ω s = − tan δ tan φ (4.7)

The number of day light hours (sunshine) N is given by Equation 4.8

2 (4.8)
N= cos −1 (− tan δ tan φ )
15

4.1.2.3. Ratio of Beam Radiation on Tilted Surface to That on Horizontal Surface


(Rb).
Figure 4.6 shows the beam radiation on horizontal and tilted surface.

Figure 4.6: Beam radiation on horizontal and tilted surface [1]

Rb calculated from Equation 4.9

Gb ,t Gb ,n cos θ cos θ (4.9)


Rb = = =
Gb Gb ,n cos θ z cos θ z

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Chapter 4: Part 1 Solar Cell

4.1.2.4. Extraterrestrial Radiation on a Horizontal Surface.


Extraterrestrial radiation Go at any time is given by Equation 4.10

360n (4.10)
G0 = Gsc (1 + 0.033 cos ) cos θ z
365

The hourly extraterrestrial radiation Io is given by Equation 4.11

24 × 3600 × Gsc 360n π (ω2 − ω1 ) (4.11)


I0 = (1 + 0.033 cos ) × (cos φ sin δ (sin ω2 − sin ω1 ) + sin φ sin δ )
π 365 180

Where: 𝜔𝜔1 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝜔𝜔2 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 (𝜔𝜔2 > 𝜔𝜔1 )

The daily extraterrestrial radiation Ho is given by Equation 4.12

24 × 3600 × Gsc 360n πω (4.12)


H0 = (1 + 0.033 cos ) × (cos φ sin δ sin ω s + s sin φ sin δ )
π 365 180

The monthly extraterrestrial radiation H o is given by Equation 4.13

24 × 3600 × Gsc 360n πω (4.13)


H0 = (1 + 0.033 cos ) × (cos φ sin δ sin ω s + s sin φ sin δ )
π 365 180

𝑤𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒: 𝑛𝑛 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝛿𝛿 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑡𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑒 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚ℎ

4.1.3. Photovoltaic Solar Cell Systems [9]


4.1.3.1. Introduction
In 1839 it was observed that certain materials, when exposed to light, produced an electric current. This is
now known as the photovoltaic effect, and is the basis of the operation of photovoltaic or solar cells.

Solar cells are manufactured from semiconductor materials; that is, materials that act as insulators at low
temperatures, but as conductors when energy or heat is available. At present, most solar cells are silicon-
based, since this is the most mature technology.

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Chapter 4: Part 1 Solar Cell

4.1.3.2. Semiconductors Types


Silicon and other semiconductor materials used for solar cells can be crystalline, multicrystalline,
polycrystalline, microcrystalline or amorphous.

Microcrystalline material has grains smaller than 1 µm, polycrystalline smaller than 1 mm and
multicrystalline smaller than 10 cm.

i. Crystalline Silicon
Crystalline silicon has an ordered crystal structure, with each atom ideally lying in a pre-ordained
position. It therefore allows ready application of the theories and techniques developed for crystalline
material and exhibits predictable and uniform behaviour. It is, however, the most expensive type of
silicon, because of the careful and slow manufacturing processes required. The cheaper multicrystalline or
polycrystalline silicon (poly-silicon), and amorphous silicon are therefore increasingly being used for
solar cells, despite their less ideal qualities.

ii. Multicrystalline Silicon


The techniques for production of multicrystalline or polycrystalline silicon are less critical, and hence
cheaper, than those required for single crystal material. The grain boundaries reduce the cell performance
by blocking carrier flows, allowing extra energy levels in the forbidden gap, thereby providing effective
recombination sites, and providing shunting paths for current flow across the p-n junction.

To avoid significant recombination losses at grain boundaries, grain sizes in the order of a few
millimeters are required. This also allows single grains to extend from the front to the back of a cell,
providing less resistance to carrier flow and generally decreasing the length of grain boundaries per unit
of cell. Such Multicrystalline material is widely used for commercial solar cell production.

iii. Amorphous Silicon


Amorphous silicon can be produced even more cheaply than polysilicon. With amorphous silicon,
there is no long-range order in the structural arrangement of the atoms, resulting in areas within the
material containing unsatisfied or ‘dangling’ bonds. These in turn result in extra energy levels within the
forbidden gap, making it to obtain reasonable current flows in a solar cell configuration.

4.1.3.3. The Behavior of Solar Cell


i. Effect of Light
A silicon solar cell is a diode formed by joining p-type (typically boron doped) and n-type (typically
phosphorous doped) silicon. Light shining on such a cell can behave in a number of ways, as illustrated in
Figure 4.7. To maximise the power rating of a solar cell, it must be designed so as to maximise desired
absorption (3) and absorption after reflection (5).

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Figure 4.7: Behaviour of light shining on a solar cell. (1) Reflection and absorption at top contact. (2) Reflection at cell
surface. (3) Desired absorption. (4) Reflection from rear out of cell—weakly absorbed light only. (5) Absorption after
reflection. (6) Absorption in rear contact.

𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞
� �
𝐼𝐼 = 𝐼𝐼𝑜𝑜 �𝑒𝑒 𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 − 1� − 𝐼𝐼𝐿𝐿 (4.14)

Where

IL: is the light-generated current.

The light has the effect of shifting the I-V curve down into the fourth quadrant where power can be
extracted from the diode, as shown in Figure 4.8.

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Chapter 4: Part 1 Solar Cell

Figure 4.8: The effect of light on the current-voltage characteristics of a p-n junction

The I-V curve characterizes the cell, with its power output being equal to the area of the rectangle in
the bottom right-hand quadrant of Figure 4.8 (a). This I-V curve is most often shown reversed, as in
Figure 4.9, with the output curve in the first quadrant, and represented by

𝑞𝑞𝑞𝑞
� �
𝐼𝐼 = 𝐼𝐼𝐿𝐿 −𝐼𝐼𝑜𝑜 �𝑒𝑒 𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 − 1� (4.15)

Figure 4.9: Typical representation of an I-V curve, showing short-circuit current (Isc and open-circuit voltage (Voc)
points, as well as the maximum power point (Vmp, Imp)

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Chapter 4: Part 1 Solar Cell

The two limiting parameters used to characterize the output of solar cells for given irradiance,
operating temperature and area are:

1. Short circuit current (Isc)—the maximum current, at zero voltage. Ideally, if V = 0, Isc = IL. Note that
Isc is directly proportional to the available sunlight.

2. Open circuit voltage (Voc)—the maximum voltage, at zero current. The value of Voc increases
logarithmically with increased sunlight. This characteristic makes solar cells ideally suited to battery
charging.

Note that at I = 0,

𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 𝐼𝐼𝐿𝐿 (4.16)


𝑉𝑉𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 = 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 � + 1�
𝑞𝑞 𝐼𝐼𝑜𝑜

For each point on the I-V curve, the product of the current and voltage represents the power output for
that operating condition. A solar cell can also be characterized by its maximum power point, when the
product Vmp × Imp is at its maximum value. The maximum power output of a cell is graphically given by
the largest rectangle that can be fitted under the I-V curve. That is,

𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 𝑉𝑉𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚
𝑉𝑉𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 𝑉𝑉𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 − 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 � + 1� (4.17)
𝑞𝑞 𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛/𝑞𝑞

For example, if n = 1.3 and Voc = 600 mV, as for a typical silicon cell, Vmp is about 93 mV smaller
than Voc.

The power output at the maximum power point under strong sunlight (1 kW/m2) is known as the ‘peak
power’ of the cell. Hence photovoltaic panels are usually rated in terms of their ‘peak’ watts (Wp).

The fill factor (FF), is a measure of the junction quality and series resistance of a cell. It is defined as

𝑉𝑉𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝐼𝐼𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚
𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹 = (4.18)
𝑉𝑉𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝐼𝐼𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠

Hence maximum point power is:

𝑃𝑃𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 𝑉𝑉𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝐼𝐼𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹 (4.19)

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Obviously, the nearer the fill factor is to unity, the higher the quality of the cell. Ideally, it is a function
only of the open circuit voltage and can be calculated using the approximate empirical expression

𝜈𝜈𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 − 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙(𝜈𝜈𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 + 0.72) (4.20)


𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹 =
𝜈𝜈𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 + 1

Where νoc is defined as a ‘normalised Voc’; that is

𝑉𝑉𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 (4.21)
𝜈𝜈𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 =
𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛/𝑞𝑞

The above expression applies to ideal cases only, with no parasitic resistance losses, and is accurate to
about one digit in the fourth decimal place for these cases.

ii. Effect of Temperature


The operating temperature of a solar cell is determined by the ambient air temperature, by the
characteristics of the module in which it is encapsulated, by the intensity of sunlight falling on the
module, and by other variables such as wind velocity.

The main effect of increasing temperature for silicon solar cells is a reduction in open circuit volt
(Voc), the fill factor and hence the cell output. These effects are illustrated in Figure 4.10.

Figure 4.10: The effect of temperature on the I-V characteristics of a solar cell

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iii. Effect of Parasitic Resistances

Solar cells generally have a parasitic series and shunt resistance associated with them, as shown in
Figure 4.11. Both types of parasitic resistance act to reduce the fill-factor.

Figure 4.11: Parasitic series and shunt resistances in a solar cell circuit

The major contributors to the series resistance (Rs) are the bulk resistance of the semiconductor
material, the metallic contacts and interconnections, carrier transport through the top diffused layer, and
contact resistance between the metallic contacts and the semiconductor. The effect of series resistance is
shown in Figure 4.12.

Figure 4.12: The effect of series resistance on fill factor

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4.1.3.4. Cell Properties and Design


i. Efficiencies

Under laboratory conditions, it is possible to produce single-crystal silicon solar cells with efficiencies in
excess of 24%. However, commercially mass-produced cells are typically only 13–14% efficient. There
are many reasons for this; the over-riding one being that, while efficiency can be the major aim for
laboratory produced cells, irrespective of cost, complexity of processing or throughput, in general,
laboratory techniques are unsuited to industry.

The maximum power point efficiency of a module is given by [1]

𝐼𝐼𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑉𝑉𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 (4.22)


𝜂𝜂𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 =
𝐴𝐴𝑐𝑐 𝐺𝐺𝑇𝑇
Where: Imp and Vmp are current and volt at maximum power point, Ac is array area and GT solar radiation
on the array.

ii. Module Structure


Solar arrays are often used in harsh and remote environments, where supplying power by central grid or
fuel-dependent systems is not feasible. Hence, modules must be capable of extended, maintenance-free
operation. Module lifetimes of around 20 years are normally quoted by manufacturers, although the
industry is seeking 30-year lifetimes. Encapsulation is the main factor affecting solar cell life expectancy.
A typical encapsulation scheme is shown in Figure 4.13.

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Figure 4.13: A typical laminated module structure (EVA stands for Ethylene Vinyl Acetate)

iii. Environmental Protection


The module must be able to withstand such environmental conditions as dust, salt, sand, wind, snow,
humidity, rain, hail, birds, condensation and evaporation of moisture, atmospheric gases and pollutants,
and seasonal temperature variations, as well as maintaining performance under prolonged exposure to UV
light.

The top cover must have, and maintain, high transmission in the waveband 350– 1200 nm. It must have
good impact resistance and a hard, smooth, flat, abrasion-resistant, non-staining surface, which promotes
self-cleaning by wind, rain or spray.

Moisture penetration is responsible for the majority of long-term module failures, with condensation on
the cells and circuitry causing shorting or corrosion. Hence, the encapsulation system must be highly
resistant to the permeation or of gases, vapours or liquids. The most vulnerable sites are at the interface
between the cells and the encapsulating materials, and at all other interfaces between different materials.
The materials used for bonding must also be carefully chosen to be able to maintain adhesion under
extreme operating conditions. Common encapsulants are ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), Teflon and
casting resin. EVA is commonly used for standard modules and is applied in a vacuum chamber, as is
Teflon, which is used for small scale special modules and which does not require a front cover glass.
Resin encapsulation is sometimes used for large modules intended for building integration.

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4.1.4. Solar Energy in Egypt


It is common knowledge that solar radiation is unevenly distributed, and that it varies in intensity from
one geographic location to another depending upon the latitude, season, and time of day. Until recently,
valid records for solar radiation have been very scanty in the vast majority of the developing countries. In
the absence of such useful information as a guide for the proper exploitation of solar energy, only general
hints can be offered regarding the geographic areas with favorable conditions for solar energy
applications [13]. Figure 4.14 shows solar radiation word map.

Figure 4.14: Solar radiation world map [14]

The average annual direct solar radiation (normal incidence) in Egypt in kWh/d is depicted in Figure
4.15. According to this map, the Nile Delta and Cairo region have an average daily direct insolation of
between 5.5 and 7.0 kWh/m²/day, or, 2000 to 2550 kWh/m²/yr. Along the Nile river and the Red Sea
coast, the annual average is between 7.0 and 9.0 kWh/m²/d, or between 2550 and 3285 kWh/m²/yr. Most
of the values have been estimated from global and diffuse radiation measurements and should be verified
by ground measurements at the selected sites. Nevertheless, it gives an indication of the outstanding
insolation potential of Egypt [11].

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Figure 4.15: The average annual direct solar radiation (normal incidence) in Egypt in kWh/d [11]

4.1.4.1. Kuraymat Solar Thermal Power Plant (140 MW) [12].

The project site at Kuraymat nearly 90km South Cairo, has been selected due to

1. An uninhabited flat desert land.

2. High intensity direct solar radiation reaches to 2400 kWh /m2 / year

3. An extended unified power grid and expanded natural gas pipelines .

4. Near to the sources of water (the River Nile). See Figure 4.16.

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Figure 4.16: Kuraymat power station site [15]

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4.1.5. References

[1]. Solar Engineering of thermal processes by John A. Duffie and William Beckman. Third Edition.

[2]. http://home.tkug.tartu.ee/~zolki/html06prakt/rainarkruus/

[3]. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hinode/solar_020.html

[4]. http://solardat.uoregon.edu/SolarRadiationBasics.html

[5]. http://geographyworldonline.com/tutorial/latitude2.jpg

[6]. http://geographyworldonline.com/tutorial/longitude2.jpg

[7]. http://www.powerfromthesun.net/chapter3/Image60.jpg

[8]. Principles of Solar Engineering by D. Yogi Goswami , Frank Kreith and Jan F. Kreider.

[9]. APPLIED PHOTOVOLTAICS Second Edition by Sturat R. Wenham, Matin A. Green, Muriel E.
Watt and Richard Cokish.

[10]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystalline_silicon

[11]. http://www.solarpaces.org/News/Projects/Egypt.htm

[12]. http://www.nrea.gov.eg/english/page121e.htm

[13]. http://almashriq.hiof.no/lebanon/600/610/614/solar-water/unesco/24-26.html

[14]. http://www.greenrhinoenergy.com/solar/radiation/images/World%20Insolation%20Direct.jpg

[15]. http://www.modernpowersystems.com/story.asp?sectionCode=88&storyCode=2050538

[16]. http://www.facts-about-solar-energy.com/solar-energy-history.html

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Chapter 4: Part 2

ELECRTOLYSER

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4.2.1. Water Electrolysis Technology


Electrolysis of water is the decomposition of water (H2O) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen gas (H2) due
to an electric current being passed through the water. The electrodes submerged in a conductive medium
(electrolyte) form the electrolysis cell as shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 4.17: Water Electrolysis principle

Principle

An electrical power source is connected to two electrodes which are placed in the water. Hydrogen
appears at the cathode (the negatively charged electrode), and oxygen appears at the anode (the positively
charged electrode). Assuming ideal Faraday efficiency (the efficiency with which charge or electronsare
transferred in a system facilitating an electrochemical reaction) the generated amount (moles) of hydrogen is
twice that of oxygen, and both are proportional to the total electrical charge that was sent through the
solution. However, in many cells competing side reactions dominate, resulting in different products and
less than ideal Faraday efficiency.

Electrolysis of pure water requires excess energy in the form of over potential to overcome various
activation barriers. Without the excess energy the electrolysis of pure water occurs very slowly if at all.
This is in part due to the limited self-ionization of water. Pure water has an electrical conductivity about
one millionth that of seawater. Many electrolytic cells may also lack the requisite electro catalysts. The
effectiveness of electrolysis is increased through the addition of an electrolyte (such as a salt, an acid or
a base) and the use of electro catalysts.

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The following reduction-oxidation chemical reactions represent the water decomposition process:

2H2O + electric energy → 2H2 + O2 (4.23)

Oxidation describes the electrons (e-) loss (or the protons gain) by a molecule, atom or ion. In water
electrolysis, at the anode electrode (positive) where oxygen is produced, the oxidation equation is:

2 H 2O → O2 + 4 H + + 4e − (PEM electrolyser) (4.24a)

1
2OH − → O2 + H 2 O + 2e − (Alkaline electrolyser) (4.25b)
2
Reduction describes the electrons (e-) gain (or the protons loss) by a molecule, atom or ion. In water
electrolysis, at the cathode electrode (negative) where hydrogen is produced, the reduction equation is:

4 H + + 4e − → 2 H 2 (PEM electrolyser) (4.26a)

2 H 2O + 2e − → H 2 + 2OH − (Alkaline electrolyser) (4.26b)

4.2.2. Types of Electrolysers


4.2.2.1. Proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysers
The operation of a PEM electrolyser depends on the use of precious metal catalysts (Platinum,
Platinum/Ruthenium) and a solid polymeric electrolyte for transferring protons. As applies for PEM fuel
cells, Dupont’s fluorocarbon-based ionomer, Nafion, dominates most designs of PEM electrolyser. PEM
electrolysers have achieved >100,000 hours continuous operation without failure in critical environments
(e.g. O2 provision for nuclear submarines). They can operate at much higher current densities than
alkaline electrolysers (1-2 A/cm2), with conversion efficiencies ranging from 50-90%, but cannot yet
achieve high efficiencies at high current densities. Without auxiliary purification equipment, gas purity is
typically 99.999% both for H2 and O2. Operation at high pressure (including high differential pressure
between the hydrogen and oxygen side at up to 200bar) is proven and the need for auxiliary gas
compression is then considerably less than for the alkaline electrolyser.

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Figure 4.18: Schematic drawing of a PEM cell with cell reactions

The key factors favoring the PEM electrolyser are that it avoids the requirement to circulate a liquid
electrolyte, it operates at a high current density, and it has the intrinsic ability to cope with transient
variations in electrical power input (hence it has outstanding applications flexibility with respect to
capturing intermittent renewable electricity supplies, such as wind and solar power).

4.2.2.2. Alkaline Electrolysers


The operation of an alkaline electrolyser depends on the use of a circulating electrolyte solution (usually
potassium hydroxide) for transferring hydroxyl ions. Alkaline electrolysers operate at relatively low
current densities of <0.4 A/cm2 and conversion efficiencies range from 60-90%. Without auxiliary
purification equipment, gas purities are typically 99.8% and 99.2% for H2 and O2 respectively. Several
large alkaline electrolysers of >100MW have been applied (e.g. in Egypt and Congo to utilize
hydropower to generate ‘renewable hydrogen’). A modern alkaline electrolyser will achieve an efficiency
of ~ 90% (consuming about 4kWh of electricity per m3 of H2 generated at NTP ‘Normal Temperature and
Pressure’) and deliver gas at up to 30bar without auxiliary compression. However, significant post-
electrolysis electricity consumption is incurred for gas compression to deliver H2 and O2 at the pressures
required by industry and for storage on-board hydrogen vehicles (350-700 bar).

The key factors favoring the alkaline electrolyser are that it obviates the need for expensive Platinum-
based catalysts, it is well proven at large scale and it is usually of lower unit cost than a PEM electrolyser.

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4.2.2.3. The Solid Oxide Electrolyser


The operation of a solid-oxide electrolyser depends on a solid ceramic electrolyte (zirconia/ceria), which
at temperatures of 800-1000oC transfers oxygen ions (O2-). The solid oxide electrolyser requires a source
of high-temperature heat. By operating at elevated temperatures, the heat input meets some of the
energetic requirement for electrolysis and so less electricity is required per m3 of H2 generated, compared
with the other electrolyser technologies.

Figure 4.19: Schematic drawing of a Solid Oxide Electrolyser

However, to date, prototype solid-oxide electrolyser units have not achieved useful operational lives and
substantial engineering problems exist with respect to thermal cycling and gas sealing. Accordingly, it is
premature to make comparisons with alkaline and PEM electrolysers.

4.2.3. Elecrolyser and Fuel Cell


The electrolyser is the reverse of the fuel cell, so the theory of operation and design is similar. Also the
electrolyser is one of the energy sources used to generate hydrogen to be used in fuel cells. The recent
researches in the world are directed to develop and improve the fuel cell performance with minimal
capital costs. More detailed information about different types of fuel cells is discussed in section 4.3.

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Chapter 4: Part 3

FUEL CELL

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4.3.1. Introduction
Fuel cells are devices convert fuel and air directly to electricity, heat and water in an electrochemical
process. Unlike conventional engines, they do not burn the fuel and run pistons or shafts, and so have
fewer efficiency losses, low emissions and no moving parts. [1]

A fuel cell, although having components and characteristics similar to those of a typical battery, differs
in several respects. The battery is an energy storage device. The maximum energy available is determined
by the amount of chemical reactant stored within the battery itself (i.e., closed system). The battery will
cease to produce electrical energy when the chemical reactants are consumed (i.e., discharged). In a
secondary battery, the reactants are regenerated by recharging, which involves putting energy into the
battery from an external source. The fuel cell, on the other hand, is an energy conversion device that
theoretically has the capability of producing electrical energy for as long as the fuel and oxidant are
supplied to the electrodes (i.e. open system).[2]

Figure 4.20: Fuel cell [3] [4]

4.3.2. History
It's a common misconception that fuel cells are a modern invention, born in the 21st century era of
professional design and complicated science. Fuel cells have actually been around since the 1800s when
the railways were first being built.

In 1800, William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle described the process of using electricity to break
water into hydrogen and oxygen.

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William Grove is credited with the first known demonstration of the fuel cell in 1839. Grove saw notes
from Nicholson and Carlisle and thought he might “recompose water” by combining electrodes in a series
circuit, and soon accomplished this with a device called a “gas battery”.

Fuel cells were neglected for the rest of the 19th century, and for most of the 20th. Although independent
scientists carried out a lot of experiments on fuel cells in the early 20th century, it wasn’t until the late
1950s that fuel cells really came into use when two scientists, Thomas Grubb and Leonard Niedrach both
did research on fuel cells, which finished with a new type of fuel cell, commonly referred to as the Grubb-
Niedrach fuel cell. The General Electric Company, who employed both Grubb and Niedrach, saw the
potential in this new cell, and teamed up with NASA to develop the idea further, and saw the fuel cell put
to its first ever commercial use on board NASA’s Project Gemini.

4.3.3. Components and their functions


The basic physical structure or building block of a fuel cell circuit consists of:

An Electrolyte layer (membrane)

a) Transports dissolved reactants to the electrode

b) Conducts ionic charge between the electrodes and thereby completes the cell electric circuit.

c) Also provides a physical barrier to prevent the fuel and oxidant gas streams from directly mixing
which cause a problem called ‘gas crossover’.

Porous charged electrodes (Anode and Cathode):

a) Provide a surface site where gas/liquid ionization or de-ionization reactions can take place.

b) Conduct ions away from or into the three-phase interface once they are formed (so an electrode
must be made of materials that have good electrical conductance).

c) Provide a physical barrier that separates the bulk gas phase and the electrolyte.[2]

Catalyst layer on both anode and cathode:

a) Speeds up the electrochemical processes.[2]

A schematic representation of a fuel cell with the reactant/product gases and the ion conduction flow
directions through the cell is shown below.

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Figure 4.21: Schematic diagrams for the PEMFC basic components and the reactants/ions/products flow [5]

4.3.4. Operation
In a typical fuel cell, gaseous fuels (like Hydrogen) are fed continuously to the anode (negative
electrode) compartment and an oxidant (i.e. oxygen) is fed continuously to the cathode (positive
electrode) compartment; the electrochemical reactions take place at the ‘three-phase interface’ which is
established among the reactants, electrolyte, and catalyst in the region of the porous electrode.

Hydrogen is oxidized on the anode and oxygen is reduced on the cathode. Protons are transported from
the anode to the cathode through the electrolyte membrane and the electrons are carried to the cathode
over the external circuit. In nature, molecules cannot stay in an ionic state; therefore they immediately
recombine with other molecules in order to return to the neutral state. Hydrogen protons in fuel cells stay
in the ionic state by traveling from molecule to molecule through the use of special materials
(Electrolyte).The electrons are attracted to conductive materials and travel to the load when needed. On
the cathode, oxygen reacts with protons and electrons, forming water and producing heat. [6]

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4.3.5. Types of fuel cell

4.3.5.1. Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC)


AFCs' high performance is due to the rate at which chemical reactions take place in the cell. They have
also demonstrated efficiencies near 60% in space applications.

4.3.5.2. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)


The PAFC is considered the "first generation" of modern fuel cells. It is one of the most mature cell
types and the first to be used commercially. This type of fuel cell is typically used for stationary power
generation, but some PAFCs have been used to power large vehicles such as city buses.

They are 85% efficient when used for the co-generation of electricity and heat but less efficient at
generating electricity alone (37%–42%). This is only slightly more efficient than combustion-based
power plants, which typically operate at 33%–35% efficiency. PAFCs are also less powerful than other
fuel cells, given the same weight and volume. As a result, these fuel cells are typically large and heavy.
PAFCs are also expensive. PAFCs require an expensive platinum catalyst, which raises the cost of the
fuel cell. [7]

4.3.5.3. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)


Improved efficiency is another reason MCFCs offer significant cost reductions over phosphoric acid
fuel cells (PAFCs). Molten carbonate fuel cells can reach efficiencies approaching 60%, considerably
higher than the 37%–42% efficiencies of a phosphoric acid fuel cell plant. When the waste heat is
captured and used, overall fuel efficiencies can be as high as 85%.

MCFCs do not require an external reformer to convert more energy-dense fuels to hydrogen. Due to the
high temperatures at which MCFCs operate, these fuels are converted to hydrogen within the fuel cell
itself by a process called internal reforming, which also reduces cost.

The primary disadvantage of current MCFC technology is durability. The high temperatures at which
these cells operate and the corrosive electrolyte used accelerate component breakdown and corrosion,
decreasing cell life. Scientists are currently exploring corrosion-resistant materials for components as well
as fuel cell designs that increase cell life without decreasing performance. [7]

4.3.5.4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)


Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) use a hard, non-porous ceramic compound as the electrolyte. Because the
electrolyte is a solid, the cells do not have to be constructed in the plate-like configuration typical of other
fuel cell types. SOFCs are expected to be around 50%–60% efficient at converting fuel to electricity. In
applications designed to capture and utilize the system's waste heat (co-generation), overall fuel use
efficiencies could top 80%–85%.
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Solid oxide fuel cells operate at very high temperatures—around 1,000°C. High-temperature operation
removes the need for precious-metal catalyst, thereby reducing cost. It also allows SOFCs to reform fuels
internally, which enables the use of a variety of fuels and reduces the cost associated with adding a
reformer to the system. [7]

4.3.5.5. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)


This type is discussed in details in section 4.3.6.

The following table shows the main types of fuel cells and their characteristics

Table 4.3: Fuel cell types and specifications [2]

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4.3.6. PEM Fuel Cell (PEMFC)

4.3.6.1. Overview
The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) also known as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel
Cell, also called the Solid Polymer Fuel Cell (SPFC), was first developed by General Electric in the
United States in the 1960s for use by NASA on their first manned space vehicles.

4.3.6.2. Fuel and Oxidizer


Gaseous hydrogen has become the fuel of choice for most applications because of
1) Its high reactivity when suitable catalysts are used.
2) Its ability to be produced from hydrocarbons or Electrolysis in a high amounts for terrestrial
applications.
3) Its high energy density when stored cryogenically for closed environment applications, such as in
space.
Similarly, the most common oxidant is gaseous oxygen, which is readily and economically available
from air for terrestrial applications, and again easily stored in a closed environment. [2]

4.3.6.3. Basic construction, Main components and Materials


The electrolyte is an ion conduction polymer so it should be fabricated from a material of good
conduction for protons which is ‘fluorinated sulfonic acid polymer’ (FSAP) or other similar polymer.
Onto each side is bonded a catalyzed porous electrode where the catalyst is made of ‘platinum’ (Pt) for
higher reaction rates (Oxidation and Reduction) while the electrode made of black carbon and
‘polytetrafluoroethylene’ (PTFE) which is hydrophobic (acts as a wet proofing Agent) and serves as the
gas permeable phase, and carbon black is an electron conductor that provides a high surface area to
support the electrocatalyst. The anode–electrolyte– cathode assembly is thus one item, and is very thin, as
shown in Figure 4.22. These ‘membrane electrode assemblies’ (or MEAs) are connected in series, usually
by using bipolar plates. Table 2 shows components material and its advantages. [2], [8]

Table 4.4: Components Materials and Advantages

Component Material Advantages


Electrolyte FSAP Proton Conduction
Electrode (Anode /Cathode) Black Carbon and PTFE Electron conduction and gas
diffusion
Catalyst Pt Higher Reactions

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Figure 4.22: An example of a membrane electrode


assembly (MEA). The membrane is a little larger
than the electrodes that are attached. These
electrodes have the gas diffusion layer attached,
which gives it a ‘grainy’ texture. The membrane is
typically 0.05 to 0.1mm thick, the electrodes are
about 0.03mm thick, and the gas diffusion layer is
between 0.2 and 0.5-mm thick. [8]

4.3.6.4. Characteristics
The polymer electrolytes work at low temperatures, which have the advantage that a PEMFC can start
quickly. The thinness of the MEAs means that compact fuel cells can be made. Further advantages are
that there are no corrosive fluid hazards and that the cell can work in any orientation. This means that the
PEMFC is particularly suitable for use in vehicles and in portable applications. [8]

4.3.6.5. Reactions
However, to understand how the 69reaction between hydrogen and oxygen produces an electric current,
and where the electrons come from, we need to consider the separate reactions taking place at each
electrode. These important details vary for different types of fuel cells, but if we start with a cell based
around an acid electrolyte, as used by Grove, we shall start with the simplest and still the most common
type.

At the anode of an acid electrolyte fuel cell, the hydrogen gas ionizes, releasing electrons and creating
H+ ions (or protons).

2H2 → 4H+ + 4e− (Er=0 V) (4.27)

This reaction releases energy. At the cathode, oxygen reacts with electrons taken from the electrode, and
H+ ions from the electrolyte, to form water.

O2 + 4e− + 4H+ → 2H2O (Er=1.23 V) (4.28)

Clearly, for both these reactions to proceed continuously, electrons produced at the anode must pass
through an electrical circuit to the cathode. Also, H+ ions must pass through the electrolyte (proton
exchange membrane) which is a medium with free H+ ions, and so serves this purpose very well.

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Comparing the two equations, we can see that two hydrogen molecules will be needed for each oxygen
molecule if the system is to be kept in balance. This is shown in Figure 4.24. It should be noted that the
electrolyte must only allow H+ ions to pass through it, and not electrons. Otherwise, the electrons would
go through the electrolyte, not around the external circuit. [8]

Figure 4.23: Cathode–electrolyte–anode construction of a fuel cell. [8]

Figure 4.24: Electrode reactions and charge flow for an acid electrolyte fuel cell. Note that although the negative
electrons flow from anode to cathode, the ‘conventional current’ flows from cathode to anode. [8]

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4.3.6.6. Multi-cell Construction (Fuel cell stack)

i. Connecting Cells in Series – the Bipolar Plate

a. Series by wiring like battery

The voltage of a fuel cell is quite small, about 0.7V when drawing a useful current. This means that to
produce a useful voltage many cells have to be connected in series. Such a collection of fuel cells in series
is known as a ‘stack’. The most obvious way to do this is by simply connecting the edge of each anode to
the cathode of the next cell, all along the line, as in Figure 4.25 (For simplicity, this diagram ignores the
problem of supplying gas to the electrodes.)

Figure 4.25: Simple edge connections of three cells in series [8]

The problem with this method is that the electrons have to flow across the face of the electrode to the
current collection point at the edge (wiring point). The electrodes might be quite good conductors, but if
each cell is only operating at about 0.7V, even a small voltage drop is important. Unless the current flows
are very low and the electrode is a particularly good conductor, or very small, this method is not used. [8]

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b. Bipolar plates (Anode/Cathode Electrode)

A much better method of cell interconnection is to use a ‘bipolar plate’. This makes connections all over
the surface of one cathode and the anode of the next cell (hence ‘bipolar’); at the same time, the bipolar
plate serves as a means of feeding oxygen to the cathode and fuel gas to the anode. Although a good
electrical connection must be made between the two electrodes, the two gas supplies must be strictly
separated.

The method of connecting to a single cell, all over the electrode surfaces, while at the same time feeding
hydrogen to the anode and oxygen to the cathode, is shown in Figure 4.26. The grooved plates are made
of a good conductor such as graphite, or stainless steel.

To connect several cells in series, ‘bipolar plates’ are made. These plates – or cell interconnects – have
channels cut in them so that the gases can flow over the face of the electrodes. At the same time, they are
made in such a way that they make a good electrical contact with the surface of each alternate electrode.
A simple design of a bipolar plate is shown in Figure 4.27. [8]

Figure 4.26: Single cell with end plates for taking current from all over the face of the electrodes and also supplying gas
to the whole electrode. [8]

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Figure 4.27: Two bipolar plates of very simple design. There are horizontal grooves on one side and vertical grooves on
the other. [8]

4.3.6.7. Performance
When comparing fuel cells with each other, and with other electric power generators, certain standard
key figures are used. For comparing fuel cell electrodes and electrolytes, the key figure is the current per
unit area, always known as the current density. This is usually given in mA/cm2.

This figure should be given at a specific operating voltage, typically about 0.6 or 0.7 V. These two
numbers can then be multiplied to give the power per unit area, typically given in mW/cm2.

Electrodes frequently do not ‘scale up’ properly. That is, if the area is doubled, the current will often not
double. The reasons for this are varied and often not well understood, but relate to issues such as the even
delivery of reactants and removal of products from all over the face of the electrode. Bipolar plates will
be used to connect many cells in series. These figures give the key figures of merit for comparing
electrical generators – specific power and power density.[8]

Power Power
Power Density = Specific Power = (4.29)
Volume Mass

Useful work (electrical energy) is obtained from a fuel cell only when a reasonable current is drawn, but
the actual cell potential is decreased from its equilibrium potential because of irreversible losses as shown
in the figure. Several sources contribute to irreversible losses in a practical fuel cell. The losses, which are
often called polarization, overpotential, or overvoltage (η), originate primarily from three sources:
(1) activation polarization (ηact),
(2) ohmic polarization (ηohm) and
(3) concentration polarization (ηconc).
These losses result in a cell voltage (V) for a fuel cell that is less than its ideal potential, E (V = E -
Losses). [2]

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Figure 4.28: Voltage-current curve ideal and actual [2]

The activation polarization loss is dominant at low current density. At this point, electronic barriers have
to be overcome prior to current and ion flow. Activation losses show some increase as current increases.
Ohmic polarization (loss) varies directly with current, increasing over the whole range of current because
cell resistance remains essentially constant. Gas transport losses occur over the entire range of current
density, but these losses become prominent at high limiting currents where it becomes difficult to provide
enough reactant flow to the cell reaction sites.

Activation Polarization

Activation polarization is present when the rate of an electrochemical reaction at an electrode surface is
controlled by sluggish electrode kinetics. In other words, activation polarization is directly related to the
rates of electrochemical reactions. There is a close similarity between electrochemical and chemical
reactions in that both involve an activation barrier that must be overcome by the reacting species.

Ohmic Polarization

Ohmic losses occur because of resistance to the flow of ions in the electrolyte and resistance to flow of
electrons through the electrode materials. The dominant ohmic losses, through the electrolyte, are reduced
by decreasing the electrode separation and enhancing the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte.

Concentration Polarization

As a reactant is consumed at the electrode by electrochemical reaction, there is a loss of potential due to
the inability of the surrounding material to maintain the initial concentration of the bulk fluid. That is, a
concentration gradient is formed. Several processes may contribute to concentration polarization: slow
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diffusion in the gas phase in the electrode pores, solution/dissolution of reactants/products into/out of the
electrolyte, or diffusion of reactants/products through the electrolyte to/from the electrochemical reaction
site.

4.3.6.8. Advantages and Applications

i. Advantages

The most important disadvantage of fuel cells at the present time is the same for all types – the cost.
However, there are varied advantages, which feature more or less strongly for different types and lead to
different applications (Figure 28). These include the following:

Efficiency

Fuel cells are generally more efficient than combustion engines whether piston or turbine based. A
further feature of this is that small systems can be just as efficient as large ones. This is very important in
the case of the small local power generating systems needed for combined heat and power systems.

Simplicity

The essentials of a fuel cell are very simple, with few if any moving parts. This can lead to highly
reliable and long-lasting systems.

Low emissions

The by-product of the main fuel cell reaction, when hydrogen is the fuel, is pure water, which means a
fuel cell can be essentially ‘zero emission’. This is their main advantage when used in vehicles, as there is
a requirement to reduce vehicle emissions, and even eliminate them within cities. However, it should be
noted that, at present, emissions of CO2 are nearly always involved in the production of hydrogen that is
needed as the fuel.

Silence

Fuel cells are very quiet, even those with extensive extra fuel processing equipment. This is very
important in both portable power applications and for local power generation in combined heat and power
schemes.

The fact that hydrogen is the preferred fuel in fuel cells is, in the main, one of their principal
disadvantages. However, there are those who hold that this is a major advantage. It is envisaged that as
fossil fuels run out, hydrogen will become the major world fuel and energy vector. It would be generated,
for example, by massive arrays of solar cells electrolysing water. [8]

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ii. Applications

The following figure summarizes the applications and main advantages of fuel cells of different types.

Figure 4.29: Chart to summarize the applications and main advantages of fuel cells of different types, and in different
applications. [8]

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4.3.7. References

[1] http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/nn/nn_rt/nn_rt_fc/article_1137_en.htm

[2] Fuel cell Handbook 5th edition, EG and G Services and Parsons, Inc. and Science Applications
International Corporation

[3] http://greenenergysolutionsinc.com/green_university_hydrogen.php

[4] http://comenius-store.eu/article.php3?id_article=51

[5] http://www.sbg.ac.at/ipk/avstudio/pierofun/fuelcell/fuelcell.html

[6] Profiting from Clean Energy (A Complete Guide to Trading Green in Solar, Wind, Ethanol, Fuel Cell,
Power Efficiency, Carbon Credit Industries, and More) By RICHARD W. ASPLUND

PEM Fuel Cell Modeling and Simulation Using MATLAB® (Colleen Spiegel)

[7] http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/fc_types.html

[8] Fuel Cell Systems Explained, Second Edition James Larminie (Oxford Brookes University, UK), and
Andrew Dicks (University of Queensland, Australia) © 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd ISBN: 0-470-
84857-X

Recent Trends in Fuel Cell Science and Technology Edited by S. Basu Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi,
India 2007

PEM Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts and Catalyst Layers: Fundamentals and Applications Edited by (Jiujun
Zhang) Canada May 2008

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton_exchange_membrane_fuel_cell

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_cell#Efficiency

[9] http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221374/fuel-cell

[10] "Fuel cell Technology handbook" Edited by (Gregor Hoogers)

[11] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nernst_equation

[12] http://www2.aream.pt/greenhotel/fuelcell.htm

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Chapter 4: Part 4 Electric Loads

Chapter 4: Part 4

ELECTRIC LOADS

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Several industrial and residential applications require electric energy. Solar-Hydrogen-Fuel Cell
Educational Stand is the demonstration for Home-Refueling-Station which will be the new era for power
generation. In your home you need electric power for lightgni (lamps), fans, air conditioners, electrical
devices and of course the water heater. Thus, the experiment includes simple electrical loads such as
lamp, fan and heater to demonstrate the electrical power utilization.

4.4.1. The first load: Light Emitting Diode (LED)


The light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in
many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but
modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high
brightness.[1] Figures 4.30 and 4.31 show LED and its electrical symbol.

+ -

Figure 4.30: Red LED[2] Figure 4.31: LED symbol [13]

The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. When a diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons
are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is
called (Electroluminescence) and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is
determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. [1]

4.4.2. The second load: Fan


A fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades which act on the air. Usually it is contained
within some form of housing or case. This may direct the airflow or increase safety by preventing objects
from contacting the fan blades. Most fans are powered by electric motors, but other sources of power may
be used, including hydraulic motors and internal combustion engines.[3]

A standalone fan is typically powered with an electric motor. Fans are often attached directly to the
motor's output, with no need for gears or belts. The electric motor is either hidden in the fan's center hub
or extends behind it. For big industrial fans, three-phase asynchronous motors are commonly used, placed
near the fan and driving it through a belt and pulleys. Smaller fans are often powered by shaded pole AC
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motors or brushed or brushless DC motors. AC-powered fans usually use mains voltage, while DC-
powered fans use low voltage, typically 24 V, 12 V or 5 V. [3]

4.4.2.1. DC Electric Motors


When a conductor carries current and located in magnetic field, a force will generate and moves the
conductor in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. That is the basic theory by which all DC
electric motors operate.[4]

Every conductor carries current has magnetic


field around it. The direction for the field is
determined by the Left-Hand-Rule. The thumb
indicates the current flow direction and the
fingers point to the magnetic field direction as
shown in Figure 4.32. [4]

If a current-carrying conductor is placed in a


magnetic field, the combined fields will be
similar to those shown in Figure 4.33. The
direction of current flow through the conductor
is indicated with an "x" or a "·". The "x"
indicates the current flow is away from the
reader, or into the page. The "·" indicates the Figure 4.32: Left -Hand-Rule for current-carrying
Conductor [4]
current flow is towards the reader, or out of the
page.[4]

Figure 4.33: Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field[4]

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Above the conductor on the left, the field caused by the conductor is in the opposite direction of the
main field, and therefore, opposes the main field. Below the conductor on the left, the field caused by the
conductor is in the same direction as the main field, and therefore, aids the main field. The net result is
that above the conductor the main field is weakened, or flux density is decreased; below the conductor the
field is strengthened, or flux density is increased. A force is developed on the conductor that moves the
conductor in the direction of the weakened field (upward).[4]

Above the conductor on the right, the field caused by the conductor is in the same direction as the main
field, and therefore, aids the main field. Below the conductor on the right, the field caused by the
conductor is in the opposite direction of the main field, and therefore, opposes the main field. The net
result is that above the conductor the field is strengthened, or flux density is increased, and below the
conductor, the field is weakened, or flux density is decreased. A force is developed on the conductor that
moves the conductor in the direction of the weakened field (downward).(4)

In a DC motor, the conductor will be formed in a loop such that two parts (two-pole motor) of the
conductor are in the magnetic field at the same time, as shown in Figure 4.34.

This combines the effects of both conductors to distort the main magnetic field and produce a force on
each part of the conductor. When the conductor is placed on a rotor, the force exerted on the conductors
will cause the rotor to rotate clockwise, as shown on Figure 4.35.

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4.4.2.2. Permanent Magnet Brushed DC Motor-PMDC


The specific type of motor we are
addressing is the permanent magnet
brushed DC motor (PMDC), Figure 4.
These motors have two terminals.
Applying a voltage across the terminals
results in a proportional speed of the output
shaft in steady state. There are two pieces
to the motor: 1) stator and 2) rotor.
The stator includes the housing, permanent
magnets, and brushes. The rotor, the Figure 4.34: PMDC Motor [5]
armature, consists of windings, which were
wounded around the output shaft, and
commutator, Figure 4.34 and Figure 4.35.

Figure 4.35: Schematic view for PMDC [6]

When a current passes through the coil wound around a soft iron core (current-carrying conductor), the
side of the positive pole is acted upon by an upwards force, while the other side is acted upon by a
downward force. According to right-hand rule for motors Figure 4.36, the forces cause a turning effect on
the coil, making it rotate. To make the motor rotate in a constant direction, "direct current" commutators
make the current reverse in direction every half a cycle (in a two-pole motor) thus causing the motor to
continue to rotate in the same direction see Figure 4.35 and Figure 4.37.[11]

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Figure 4.36: Right-Hand Rule for Motors[4]

Figure 4.37 :DC motor operation [7]

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A simple DC electric motor. When The armature continues to rotate. When the armature becomes
the coil is powered, a magnetic field horizontally aligned, the commutator
is generated around the armature. reverses the direction of current
The left side of the armature is through the coil, reversing the
pushed away from the left magnet magnetic field. The process then
and drawn toward the right, causing repeats.
rotation.

Figure 4.38: Theory of operation of PMDC Motor [11]

4.4.3. The third load: Electric Heater


Electric heating is any process in which electrical energy is converted to heat. Common applications
include heating of water, buildings, cooking, and industrial processes.[8] The picture on the cover page for
this part ,Electric Loads, is a fuel cell heater [12]

An electric heater is an electrical appliance that converts electrical energy into heat. The heating element
inside every electric heater is simply an electrical resistor, and works on the principle of Joule heating:
an electric current through a resistor converts electrical energy into heat energy.[8]

4.4.3.1. Joule's first law


Joule's first law, also known as Joule heating, ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by
which the passage of an electric current through a conductor releases heat. (9)

𝑄𝑄 = 𝐼𝐼2 . 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 (4.27)

Q is the

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heat generated through the wire [W], I is the current passing through the wire [A] and Re is the wire
electrical resistance [Ω]

If this heat generation [W] occurs uniformly throughout the medium of volume𝑉𝑉, the volumetric
generation rate 𝑞𝑞 𝑜𝑜 [W/m3]

𝑄𝑄
𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜 = = 𝐼𝐼2 . 𝑅𝑅𝑒𝑒 (4.28)
𝑉𝑉
The heat generated from the electric wire causes temperature difference between wire temperature and
fluid temperature (water).This heat transfers from the wire to the fluid by one-dimensional steady-state
conduction heat transfer with uniform thermal energy generation and within the fluid itself by free
convection heat transfer. Also heat losses take place through the heater casing (glass) by one-dimensional,
steady-state conduction heat transfer.

4.4.3.2. One-Dimensional, Steady-State Conduction Heat Transfer with


Uniform Thermal Energy Generation [10]

A common thermal energy generation process involves the conversion from electrical to thermal energy
in a current-carrying medium (see section 4.4.3.1. Joule's first law). Heat transfer with thermal energy
generation is divided into two sections; the plane wall and radial (cylindrical and spherical) systems. Our
concerning is on the cylindrical systems.

a. Cylindrical Systems

Heat generation may occur in a variety of radial geometries. Consider the long, solid cylinder of Figure
4.39 which could represent a current-carrying wire.
𝑟𝑟
−𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑜 +𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑜

𝑇𝑇(𝑟𝑟)

Figure 4.39: Conduction in a solid cylinder with uniform heat generation

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For steady-state conditions the rate at which heat is generated within the cylinder must equal the rate at
which heat is convected from the surface of the cylinder to a moving fluid. This condition allows the
surface temperature to be maintained at s fixed value of Ts.

To determine the temperature distribution in the cylinder, we begin with the appropriate form of the heat
equation for constant thermal conductivity k is

1 𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜
�𝑟𝑟 � + =0 (4.29)
𝑟𝑟 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝑘𝑘

With some mathematical calculations and assumptions at appropriate boundary conditions the
temperature distribution within solid cylinder is calculated from the following equation (for more details
see reference no.10):

𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜 2 𝑟𝑟 2
𝑇𝑇(𝑟𝑟) = 𝑟𝑟 �1 − 2 � + 𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠
4𝑘𝑘 𝑜𝑜 𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑜 (4.30)

The heat rate at any radius in the cylinder may, of course, be evaluated by using Equation 4.30 with
Fourier’s law Equation 4.31.

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑞𝑞𝑟𝑟 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 (4.31)


𝑞𝑞𝑟𝑟 = −𝑘𝑘 𝐴𝐴 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑞𝑞𝑟𝑟′′ = = −𝑘𝑘
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝐴𝐴 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
Where

𝑞𝑞𝑟𝑟 is the heat transfer rate in the radial direction [W], 𝑘𝑘 is the thermal conductivity for the wire [W/m.k],
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝐴𝐴 is the wire surface area, which is the area normal to the direction of heat transfer, 𝐴𝐴 = 2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 [m2], is
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
the temperature gradient form the centerline to the outer surface or any radius 𝑟𝑟 (in the radial direction)
[k/m] and 𝑞𝑞𝑟𝑟′′ is the heat flux in the radial direction [W/m3].

To relate the surface temperature,𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠 , to the temperature of the cold fluid, 𝑇𝑇∞ , either a surface energy
balance or an overall energy balance may be used. Choosing the second approach, we obtain

𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜 (𝜋𝜋𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑜 2 𝐿𝐿) = ℎ(2𝜋𝜋𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑜 𝐿𝐿)(𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠 − 𝑇𝑇∞ ) (4.32)

or

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𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜 𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑜 (4.33)


𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠 = 𝑇𝑇∞ +
2ℎ
whereℎ is the convective heat transfer coefficient for the cold fluid

A convenient and systematic procedure for treating the different combinations of surface conditions,
which may be applied to one-dimensional solid cylindrical geometry with uniform thermal energy
generation (current-carrying conductor), is provided in Table 4.6. From the tabulated results of this table,
it is a simple matter to obtain distributions of the temperature, heat flux and heat rate for boundary
conditions of a uniform surface heat flux .

Table 4.5: One-Dimentional, Steady-state Solutions to the Heat Equation for Uniform Heat Generation in a Solid
Cylinder

Temperature Distribution

𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜 2 𝑟𝑟 2
𝑇𝑇(𝑟𝑟) = 𝑟𝑟 �1 − 2 � + 𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠 (4.34)
4𝑘𝑘 𝑜𝑜 𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑜

Heat Flux

′′ (
𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜 . 𝑟𝑟
𝑞𝑞 𝑟𝑟) = (4.35)
2

Heat Rate

𝑞𝑞 (𝑟𝑟) = 𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜 𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝑟𝑟 2 (4.36)

(4.37)
𝑞𝑞𝑜𝑜 𝐿𝐿 = 𝑈𝑈(𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠 − 𝑇𝑇∞ )

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4.4.3.3. Free Convection Heat Transfer [10]


We consider situations for which there is no forced velocity, yet convection currents exist within the
fluid. Such situations are referred to as free or natural convection, and they originate when a body force
acts on a fluid in which there are density gradients. The net effect is a buoyancy force, which induced free
convection currents. In the most case, density gradient is due to a temperature gradient, and the body
force is due to the gravitational field. Heat transfer by convection is calculated from the following equation

𝑄𝑄 = ℎ 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠 (𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠 − 𝑇𝑇∞ ) = 𝑞𝑞𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠 (4.38)

Where𝑄𝑄 is heat transferred by convection, ℎ is the average convective heat transfer coefficient, 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠 is the
surface temperature, 𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠 is the surface temperature, 𝑇𝑇∞ is the fluid temperature and 𝑞𝑞 is the heat flux (heat
per unit surface area)

From dimensional analysis and experimental tests the general form of free convection relation is
𝑚𝑚
ℎ𝐿𝐿∗ 𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝐿𝐿∗ 3 ∆𝑇𝑇 𝐶𝐶𝑝𝑝 𝜇𝜇 𝑑𝑑
= 𝐶𝐶 � � � � (4.39)
𝑘𝑘 𝛾𝛾 2 𝑘𝑘

Where ℎ is a local convective heat transfer coefficient [W/m2.k], 𝐿𝐿∗ is s characteristic length [m], 𝑘𝑘 is
the fluid thermal conductivity [W/m.k], 𝑔𝑔 is the gravitational acceleration[m/s2], 𝛽𝛽 is coefficient of
thermal expansion [k-1], ∆𝑇𝑇 = (𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠 − 𝑇𝑇∞ ) [k], 𝛾𝛾 is the kinematic viscosity [m2/s],𝐶𝐶𝑝𝑝 is the specific heat at
costant pressure [J/kg.k] and 𝜇𝜇 is the dynamic viscosity or viscosity [kg/s.m]

ℎ𝐿𝐿∗
= 𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁 𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁. = 𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁 (4.40)
𝑘𝑘
𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝐿𝐿∗ 3 ∆𝑇𝑇
= 𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁. = 𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺 (4.41)
𝛾𝛾 2
𝐶𝐶𝑝𝑝 𝜇𝜇
= 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁. = 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 (4.42)
𝑘𝑘
𝜇𝜇
𝛾𝛾 = 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣 = , 𝜌𝜌 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑡𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑒 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 (4.43)
𝜌𝜌

∴ 𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁 = 𝐶𝐶 𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺 𝑚𝑚 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 𝑑𝑑 (4.44)

where 𝐶𝐶, 𝑚𝑚 and 𝑑𝑑 are constants obtained from experiments.

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a. Free Convection Heat Transfer on a Vertical Flat Plate or Vertical Cylinder

• When𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠 > 𝑇𝑇∞ , a free convection boundary


layer is formed.
• The initial development is laminar.
• At critical distance 𝑥𝑥𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 (depends on ∆𝑇𝑇 and
fluid properties) eddies are formed and
transition to turbulent boundary layer occurs.

𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 = 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅ℎ 𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁. (4.45)

= 𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺. 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃

Figure 4.40: Free convection boundary layer


transition on a vertical plate

Local and Average Heat Transfer Coefficient


Since flow conditions vary from point to point on the surface, ℎ varies.

𝑞𝑞′′𝑥𝑥 = 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 = ℎ𝑥𝑥 ∆𝑇𝑇 (4.46)

𝑄𝑄 = � 𝑞𝑞′′𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = ∆𝑇𝑇 � ℎ𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = ℎ 𝐴𝐴 ∆𝑇𝑇 (4.47)


𝐴𝐴 𝐴𝐴

wherehx and h are local and average heat transfer coefficient respectively.
𝐿𝐿
1
ℎ = � ℎ𝑥𝑥 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝐿𝐿 (4.48)
0

Empirical Formula

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𝑚𝑚
ℎ𝐿𝐿∗
𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁 = 𝐶𝐶 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 = (4.49)
𝑘𝑘

The properties are evaluated at film temperature 𝑇𝑇𝑓𝑓

(𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠 + 𝑇𝑇∞ )
𝑇𝑇𝑓𝑓 = (4.50)
2
𝐶𝐶, 𝑚𝑚and𝐿𝐿∗ provided in Table 7-1 in Appendix B [𝐶𝐶 and 𝑚𝑚 at different ranges for Ra number for
isothermal surfaces (𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠 = 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐)]. xidneppA B also provides more complicated free convective heat
transfer correlations.

4.4.3.4. One-Dimensional, Steady-State Conduction Heat Transfer on a


Cylindrical Tube without Heat Generation (Heat losses from the
heater casing) [10]
Acommonexample is the hollow cylinder, whose inner and outer surfaces are exposed to fluid at
different temperatures (Figure 4.41). For steady-state conditions with no heat generation, the appropriate
form of the heat equation is (compare it with Equation 4.29)

1 𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
�𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 � = 0 (4.51)
𝑟𝑟 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
where, for the moment, k is treated as a variable. The physical significance of this result becomes
evident if we also consider the appropriate form of Fourier’s law (Equation 4.31). The rate at which
energy is conducted across any cylinder surface in the solid may be expressed

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Figure 4.41: Hollow cylinder with convective surface conditions

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑞𝑞𝑟𝑟 = −𝑘𝑘 𝐴𝐴 = −𝑘𝑘 (2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋) (4.52)
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
where𝐴𝐴 = 2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 is the area normal to the direction of heat transfer. Since Equation 4.51 dictates that the
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
quantity 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 is independent of 𝑟𝑟, it follows from Equation 33 that the conduction heat transfer rate 𝑞𝑞𝑟𝑟
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
(not the heat flux 𝑞𝑞𝑟𝑟′′ ) is a constant in the radial direction.

We may determine the temperature distribution in the cylinder by solving Equation 4.50 and applying
appropriate boundary conditions. Assume the value of 𝑘𝑘 to be constant, the temperature distribution
within hollow cylinder is calculated from the following equation (for more details see reference no.10):

𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠.1 − 𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠.2 𝑟𝑟1


𝑇𝑇(𝑟𝑟) = 𝑟𝑟
ln � � + 𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠.2
ln � 1 � 𝑟𝑟2 (4.53)
𝑟𝑟2

Note that the temperature distribution associated with radial conduction through a cylindrical wall is
logarithmic, not linear, as it is for the plane wall under the same conditions. The logarithmic distribution
is sketched in the inset of Figure 4.41.

If the temperature distribution, Equation 4.53, is now used with Fourier’s law, Equation 4.52, we obtain
the following expression for that heat transfer rate:

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2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 (𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠.1 − 𝑇𝑇𝑠𝑠.2 )


𝑞𝑞𝑟𝑟 = 𝑟𝑟 (4.54)
ln � 1 �
𝑟𝑟2

From this result it is evident that, for radial conduction in a cylinder wall, thermal resistance (shown in
the series circuit in Figure 4.41) is of the form

𝑟𝑟
ln � 1 �
𝑟𝑟2 (4.55)
𝑅𝑅𝑡𝑡,𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 =
2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋

4.4.4. References
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [Online] 2001.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode

[2]. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Red_led_x5.jpg

[3]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [Online] 2001. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_fan#History.

[4]. DOE fundamentals handbook. Electrical science volume 2 of 4. Washington, D.C. 20585 : U.S. Dept. of
Energy, June 1992.

[5]. DK, dorling kindersley books. [Online] Penguin Publishing Group, 1974. http://www.dorlingkindersley-
uk.co.uk/static/clipart/uk/dk/sci_electricity/image_sci_elec024.jpg.

[6]. Physics at Works. [Online] Oxford University Press (China) Ltd., 2003.
http://sciencecity.oupchina.com.hk/npaw/student/glossary/commutator.htm#topbar.

[7]. HyperPhysics. [Online] Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2006.
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/motdc.html#c1.

[8]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [Online] 2001. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_heating.

[9]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [Online] 2001. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joule_heating.

[10]. Frank P. Incropera, David P. dewitt, Theodore L. Bergman, Adrienne S. Lavine. Fundamentals of Heat
and Mass Transfer 6th Edition. Hoboken, New Jersey, ISBN/ASIN: 0470055545 : John Wiley & Sons, 2007.

[11]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [Online] 2001.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brushed_DC_electric_motor#Simple_two-pole_DC_motor.

[12].http://www.geeksugar.com/Portable-Beverage-Heater-226483

[13]. http://www.dtic.upf.edu/~jlozano/interfaces/interfaces1.html

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Chapter 5

MODELLING

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5.1. Solar Radiation


5.1.1. Definitions

5.1.1.1. Clearness Index (KT)


In the previous chapter, section 4.1., the daily extraterrestrial irradiance on a clear day was calculated.
However, the obtained result can’t be used when making a practical design. This is simply because of the
presence of clouds and other atmospheric factors that reduce the actual available irradiance. The clearness
index is defined as the ratio of a particular day’s irradiation to the extraterrestrial irradiation for that day.

H
KT = (5.1 a)
Ho

Also, the monthly average daily clearness index ( K T ) is the ratio of the monthly average daily
irradiation on a horizontal surface to the monthly average daily extraterrestrial irradiation.

H
KT = (5.1 b)
Ho

An hourly clearness index kT can also be used.

G
kT = (5.1 c)
Go

Some authors such as Duffie and Beckman [1] state the values of the monthly average clearness index
measured for many cities including Cairo. Another method to obtain the value of the clearness index is
through the Ångström-type regression equation. The Ångström-type regression equation [2] relates the
monthly average daily irradiation ( H ) to H o at the location in question and the average fraction of
possible sunshine hours (i.e. the actual duration of daylight divided by the calculated duration).

H S
= a +b( ) (5.2a)
Ho So

H S
= a + b( ) (5.2 b)
Ho So

where a�, b� , a and b are empirical constants.

Kamel et al. [3], Ibrahim [4] and El-Sebaii et al. [5]and others have presented different values of a� and b� .
The accuracy of their correlations are performed in terms of the two widely used statistical indicators,
mean bias and root mean square errors, as well as the absolute percentage error of the estimated values of
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the global solar radiation. However, Khalil et al. [6] provided values of a� and b� which will be used in our
design as these values yield estimated values of solar irradiation with good agreement with the measured
values of solar irradiation at Cairo. These values were

a� = 0.461

b� = 0.259

Also, the values of S/So were provided by Khalil et al. [6] and El Massah[7]. However, to maintain
consistency, the values provided by [6] will be used in our calculations and are showed in Table 5.1 below.

Table 5.1:Monthly fraction of sunshine hours

Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

S/So 0.598 0.647 0.689 0.771 0.815 0.859 0.883 0.809 0.731 0.702 0.693 0.645

The measured value of H can be obtained directly from the data provided by Robaa[8]. However, the
Ångström-type regression equation will be used here to get the monthly average daily clearness index. It
is assumed that this monthly index is available everyday among this month. Hence, using the values of
the extraterrestrial irradiation available per day (Ho), the irradiation for that day (H) is calculated.

5.1.1.2. Diffuse Radiation


The solar radiation reaching the Earth is divided into two main components: the beam (direct) radiation
which represents the radiation reaching the surface directly without any change in their direction, and the
diffuse radiation which results from the scattering of some Sun rays by atmospheric constituents (e.g.
clouds, particulates, aerosols). There are several relations available to obtain the diffuse radiation as a
fraction of the total irradiation. One of these relations, was provided by Ibrahim [4], relates this fraction to
the fraction of sunshine hours. Other models such as the one provided by Khalil et al. [6], and Ruth and
Chant [9]uses the clearness index to determine the diffuse radiation. In our calculations, the Collares-
Pereira correlation [10] is used and presented graphically in Figure 5.1 below.

Hd
= 1.188 − 2.272 KT + 9.473KT2 − 21.865 KT3 + 14.648 KT4 ,for 0.17 < KT < 0.75 (5.3)
H

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Ratio of diffuse radiation, H /H 0.9

0.8
d

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Clearness index, KT

Figure 5.1 : Variation of percentage of diffuse radiation with clearness index.

5.1.1.3. Estimation of Hourly Radiation from Daily Data


Statistical studies of the time distribution of total radiation on horizontal surfaces through the day using
monthly average data for a number of stations have led to generalized charts of rt, the ratio of hourly total
to daily total radiation, as a function of day length and the hour in question [1].

G
rt = (5.4 a)
H

Collares et al. [10] have provided the following relation for rt

π cos(ω ) − cos(ωs )
rt = (a + b cos(ω ))
24 πω (5.4 b)
sin(ωs ) − s cos(ωs )
180
Where

a = 0.409 + 0.5016 sin(ωs − 60)

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b = 0.6609 − 0.4767 sin(ωs − 60)

Also, Liu et al. [11] provides the following relation for rd, the ratio of hourly diffuse to daily diffuse
radiation, as a function of day length and the hour in question.

π cos(ω ) − cos(ωs )
rd =
24 sin(ω ) − πωs cos(ω ) (5.5)
s s
180

5.1.1.4. Radiation on Sloped Surfaces


It was suggested by Liu et al. [12] that the radiation on the tilted surface (Gg,t)was considered to include
three components: beam (Gb,t), isotropic diffuse (Gd,t), and solar radiation diffusely reflected from the
ground (Gr). The radiation on the tilted surface is expressed as

1 + cos( β ) 1 − cos( β )
G g ,t =G b Rb + Gd ( ) + Gρ g ( ) (W/m2) (5.6)
2 2

Where

Gb = G-Gd (5.7 a)

cos(φ − β ) cos(δ ) cos(ω ) + sin(φ − β ) sin(δ )


Rb = (5.7 b)
cos(φ ) cos(δ ) cos(ω ) + sin(φ ) sin(δ )
[13]
ρ g is the diffuse reflectance of the surroundings = 0.3

5.1.2. Modelling Results


In our modelling we tried to simulate the performances of our devices (PV, Electrolyser, Fuel cell) and
study the effect of changing variables (Day, hour angle, PV position and inclination-etc…) on these
performance characteristics. We compared these results with experimental results under similar
conditions as will be shown in chapter 10 to determine how close they are.

It should be noted that these results are calculated for the day 20/5/2010 (The day we carried out the
experimental study for the PV performance during the sunshine period) with n=140.

Using equation defined in section 4.1 and in section 5.1.1 equation 5.6 as shown in Figure 5.2.

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Figure 5.2: Variation of total hourly radiation with solar hour

This curve is showing the variation of the total radiation in Cairo. We should notice that it’s less than the
actual total radiation due to the global warming phenomena; also it’s less than the laboratory lamp’s light
intensity during our experiments (this will be discussed later).

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5.2. Photovoltaic Panel


5.2.1. Technical Data [43]

Table 5.2: Solar panel technical data

Solar panel

Dimensions (W x H x D) 80 mm x 130 mm x 52 mm

Terminal voltage 2.5 V (*)

Short circuit current 200 mA (*)

In the operating point with a load resistance of 10 Ω

Current 180 mA (*)

Voltage 2.0 V (*)

Output 0.36 W (*)

(*) Typical measured values with a 120 watt PAR lamp from Heliocentris, at a distance

of 20 cm.

The tilt angle in the model was set equal to the latitude angle = 30° to give the best collection of solar
radiation on the surface.

5.2.2 Modelling of Photovoltaic cell


There are several models available for modelling of a practical photovoltaic cell. The general model
consists of a current source, a parallel diode, a parallel resistor expressing leakage current, and series
resistor describing an internal resistance to the current flow. In an ideal photovoltaic cell, as shown in
Figure 5.3, there is no series loss and there is no leakage to the ground. That is, the series resistor has a
value of zero while the parallel resistor has a value of infinity.

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Figure 5.3: Single-diode model of the theoretical PV cell and equivalent circuit of a practical PV device including the
series and parallel resistances.

Some authors have proposed more sophisticated models that present better accuracy and serve for
different purposes. For example, Gow et al. [18] used an extra diode to represent the effect of the
recombination of carriers. A three-diode model is proposed by Nishioka et al. [19] to include the influence
of effects that are not considered by the previous models. For simplicity, the single diode model will be
studied in this thesis. This model offers a good compromise between simplicity and accuracy [20].

The current obtained from a photovoltaic module consisting of a number of cells (Ns) connected in series
is represented by the following equation.

 q (V + IRs )  V + Rs I
I = I pv − I 0 exp( ) − 1 −
(5.8)
 
akTN s Rp

Id

Where

Ipv is the current generated by the incident light (it is directly proportional to the Sun irradiation)

Id is the Shockley diode equation

I0 is the reverse saturation or leakage current of the diode

q is the electron charge and equal to 1.60217646 × 10−19 C

k is the Boltzmann constant and equal to 1.3806503 × 10−23 J/K

T is the temperature of the p–n junction in Kelvin

a is the diode ideality constant. The ideality factor of a diode is a measure of how closely the diode
follows the ideal diode equation.

Rs is the series resistance in Ω

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Rp is the shunt resistance in Ω

kT
Vt = is the thermal voltage of the module
q

Figure 5.4 below represents the characteristic I-V curve of the PV cell [21].

Figure 5.4: Characteristic I–V curve of the PV cell. The net cell current I is composed of the light-generated current Ipv
and the diode current Id.

In the case of a number of modules connected in parallel (Np), the current obtained from equation. 5.8 is
multiplied by Np.

All PV array datasheets bring basically the following information: the nominal open-circuit voltage
(Voc,n), the nominal short-circuit current (Isc,n), the voltage at the maximum power point (Vmp), the current
at the maximum power point (Imp), the open-circuit voltage temperature coefficient (KV), the short circuit
current temperature coefficient (KI), and the maximum experimental peak output power (Pmax,e). This
information is always provided with reference to the nominal condition or standard test conditions (STCs)
of temperature (25 °C) and solar irradiation (1000 W/m2). Some manufacturers provide I–V curves for
several irradiation and temperature conditions [21]. The photovoltaic module used for the calculations in
this chapter is the multi-crystalline silicon of Dr. Fuel cell professional [22].

The Rs resistance is the sum of several structural resistances of the device. Rs basically depends on the
contact resistance of the metal base with the p semiconductor layer, the resistances of the p and n bodies,
the contact resistance of the n layer with the top metal grid, and the resistance of the grid [23].

The Rp resistance exists mainly due to the leakage current of the p–n junction and depends on the
fabrication method of the PV cell [23].

Tsai et al. [24], as well as other authors [25] assume that Isc=IPV because the series resistance is low and the
parallel resistance is high. However, this assumption will not be used in this part. Instead, we will use the
two separate equations below 5.9 a and 5.10.[21]

G
I PV = ( I PV ,n + K I (T − Tn )) (5.9 a)
Gn

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 R + Rs 
I PV ,n =  p  I sc ,n (5.9. b)
 R p 

G
I sc = ( I sc ,n + K I (T − Tn )) (5.10)
Gn

Where

G = Gg,t which was obtained from equation 5.6

Gn = 1000 W/m2 (nominal solar radiation)

Tn= 298.15 K (nominal temperature)

KI = 3.18×10-4 A/°C (assumed)

Isc,n= 1 A (assumed)

King et al. [44] found that there is typically less than a 5 % change in the voltage coefficients over a
tenfold change in irradiance—100 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2.

The temperature of the module can be obtained from the following equation [17].

NOCT − 20
T − Ta = (219 + 832 K ) (5.11)
800

Where

Ta is the ambient temperature which can be obtained from the weather data available for Cairo [26]

NOCT = 50 °C (nominal cell operating temperature, assumed)

K is the monthly clearness index evaluated from equations 5.1 b and 5.2 a.
The equation above is valid when the array’s tilt is equal to the latitude minus the declination. If the
angle differs from this value the right side of equation 5.11 has to be multiplied by a correction factor Cf
defined by

C f = 1 − 1.17 *10 −4 ( S M − S ) 2 (5.12)

Where SM is the optimum tilt angle and S is the actual tilt angle, both expressed in degrees.

The diode saturation current I0 and its dependence on the temperature may be expressed by the following
equation [27]

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 Tn 
3
 qE  1 1 
I 0 = I 0,n   exp  g  −  (5.13)
T   ak  Tn T 

Where Eg is the bandgap energy of the semiconductor (silicon) = 1.12 eV.

The bandgap energy generally refers to the energy difference (in electron volts) between the top of
the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band. That is, it is the amount of energy required to
free an outer shell electron from its orbit about the nucleus to become a mobile charge carrier, able to
move freely within the solid material. The bandgap energy for the polycrystalline Si at 25 °C is 1.12
eV[27].

The nominal saturation current I0,nis indirectly from equation 5.8 obtained from the experimental data,
which is obtained by evaluating 5.8 at the nominal open-circuit condition, with V = Voc,n, I = 0, and Ipv≈
Isc,n.

I sc ,n
I 0,n =
V  (5.14)
exp  oc ,n  − 1
 aVt ,n 
kTn
Where Vt,n =
a
The value of a is stated by Tsai et al. [24] for different types of PV and depends on the applied PV
technology. For the calculations in this thesis, the value of a will be taken equal to 1.3.

Some authors such as Glass et al. [28] neglect the shunt resistance to simplify the model. The value of Rs
is very low, and sometimes this parameter is neglected too [28]. A few authors have proposed ways to
mathematically determine these resistances. Although it may be useful to have a mathematical formula to
determine these unknown parameters, any expression for Rs and Rp will always rely on experimental data.
Some authors propose varying Rs in an iterative process, incrementing Rs until the I–V curve visually fits
the experimental data and then vary Rp in the same fashion. This is a quite poor and inaccurate fitting
method, mainly because Rs and Rp may not be adjusted separately if a good I–V model is desired [21].

The method used here to get Rs and Rp is very simple. The first iterative value of Rs is 0. Then the value
of Rp will be calculated from the following equation [21] using the values at the nominal conditions which
are obtained from the module data sheet.

 V + I R a  
R p = Vmp (Vmp + I mp Rs ) / Vmp I PV − Vmp I 0 exp  mp mp s + − max,e 
kT 
V I
mp 0 P (5.14)
  Nsa 

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The value of the maximum power is then obtained from the graph (Pmax,m, using a computer code) and
compared with the experimental maximum power (Pmax,e). This process is then repeated while increasing
the value of Rs by small increment (e.g. 0.01 Ω) until the value of the calculated maximum power and the
experimental one are equal (or close to each other within a certain tolerance, e.g. 0.001 W).

It is worth noting that the values of both Rs and Rp obtained are for the nominal conditions. However, the
changes in their values due to the temperature changes are small and can be neglected.

5.2.3. PV Modelling Results


On n=140, the Power-Voltage curve of the PV panel was recorded at each value of solar hour, ω, with a
step of 0.001 hr and recorded inside the Matlab. The change of the maximum power with ω is shown in
Figure 5.5. Then it was required to give the P-V curve at maximum intensity on that day. The result is
shown in Figure 5.6.

Figure 5.5: Variation of PV maximum power through sunlight duration

The value of the voltage corresponding to each maximum power, optimum voltage, at every ω was
recorded and its variation with ω is shown in Figure 5.7.The Current-Voltage curve at maximum intensity
is shown in Figure 5.8.

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Figure 5.6: Variation of optimum voltage through sunlight duration

Figure 5.7: PV I-V curve at maximum intensity of the specific day

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Figure 5.8: PV Power-Voltagecurve at maximum intensity of the specific day

Figures 5.7 and 5.8 show the normal expected P-V and I-V curves that characterize any PV. It should be
noted that on that day the maximum power reached was slightly more than 1.2W and the open circuit
voltage was slightly above 0.92V. The PV can give up to 2.3V though with higher intensities.

Finally, the maximum efficiency was plotted against ω as shown in Figure 5.9.

Figure 5.9: Variation of photovoltaic efficiency through sunlight duration

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Although it’s a surprise to get this efficiency, but it becomes more logic when we know that the
maximum power is about 2.15 W while for the same Ig,t other PV with larger areas and number of cells
can generate power of max 200 W (you may say that is because the no. of cells and the area is bigger but
also the material and manufacturing affect the efficiency).

5.3. PEM Electrolyser


The electrolyser was defined previously in section 4.2. However, the definition can be demonstrated by
the following reactions:

1
Anode H 2 → 2 H + + O2 + 2e − E rev ,@ 25°C = 1.229V (5.15)
2

Cathode 2 H + + 2e − → H 2 Erev ,@ 25°C = 0V (5.16)

1 E rev ,@ 25°C = 1.229V (5.17)


Net
H 2 O → H 2 + O2
Reaction 2

5.3.1. Technical Data


It operates at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature (which differs according to the month). Its
specifications are:[43]

Table 5.3: PEM Electrolyser technical data

PEM Electrolyser

Dimensions (W x H x D) 200 mm x 297 mm x 125 mm

Storage volume for Hydrogen and Oxygen 64 ml each

Operating voltage 1.4 ... 1.8 V

Electric current max. 4,000 mA

Hydrogen production max. 28 ml / min

5.3.2. Modelling of the PEM Electrolyser


The voltage of the PEM Electrolyser in (volts) is defined by the following equation:
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V = Erev + η act + η ohm + η diff (5.18)

Where,

1. Erev is the open-circuit (Nernst) voltage of the electrolyser when operated in reversible conditions. It’s
the minimum voltage required for the cell to start operation. It’s calculated from the empirical equation
[29]
relative to the electrolyser absolute temperature in (K):

E rev = 1.5184 - 1.5421× 10 -3 T + 9.523 × 10 -5 T × lnT + 9.84 × 10 -8 T 2 (5.19)

2. ηact is the activation loss at both electrodes due to the kinetics of the charge transfer reaction. It’s
expressed from the modification of Butler-Volmer[29] expression relates the current density to the
activation overpotential at each electrode [29]:

RT 1 i
η act ,a = Sinh −1[ ( a )] (5.20)
F 2 ia ,o

RT 1 i
η act ,c = Sinh −1[ ( c )] (5.21)
F 2 ic ,o

η act = η act ,a + η act ,c (5.22)

Such that,

R is the universal gas constant = 8.314 kJ/kmol.k,

F is the faraday constant =96485 C/mol,

i is the cell current density in A/m2,

i0 exchange current density = 10-3 A/cm2 for Pt based catalysts cathode and10-7A/cm2 for Pt and Pt–Fe
based catalysts anode.

3. ηohm is the flow resistance imposed by the electrodes, bipolar plates and the membrane to the electrons
and protons respectively. It’s expressed as:

η ohm = R cell I (5.23 a)

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Where Rcell is the Ohmic resistance of each cell inside the stack in (Ω) and I is the stack current in (A).

The cell is made up of the series connection of the electrodes, the plates and the membrane. The Ohmic
resistance opposed by each of these elements has to be evaluated, although the resistance due to the
membrane is usually predominant[30].

Rcell = Req ,a + Rm + Req ,c (5.23 b)

Therefore

η ohm = η ohm ,eη ohm ,m (5.24)

In our modelling we neglect the resistance of the electrodes with respect to membrane resistance (due to
small size and unavailable information).The membrane resistance is calculated from[31]:

I
ηm = δ m (5.25)
Aσ m

Where δm is the membrane thickness in (m), A is its effective area in (m2) andσm is its conductivity in
(s/m).

The area is estimated at 0.018 m2 from the given data sheet (approximate not accurate) while the
conductivity is estimated from the following equation which assumes totally hydrated membrane made of
Nafion 117 at reference temp. 80 °C: [29]

1 1
(1268 ( − ))
σ m = σ m ,ref e 353 T (5.26)

Where σ m,ref is 0.14 s/cm

4. ηdiff is the diffusion overpotential (or concentration overpotential) which takes into consideration the
mass transport limitations that can occur especially at high current densities.The flow encounters of
course a resistance when flowing through the electrode, and this resistance increases with increasing flow.
It is clear that some energy is lost so that the resistance is overcome, and this is the cause of diffusion
over-voltages. The cell voltage to be imposed is higher because of the mass transport limitations.

As our electrolyser is of very small current (i.e. low current density) and is operated at the atmospheric
pressure. It’s assumed that ηdiff is directly proportional with current such that:

η diff = 0.155 * I (5.27)

Where 0.155 is a constant calculated from the boundary conditions (at 1.4 V, I=0 and at 1.8V, I=1) and
the others overpotentials. It should be noted that this method isn’t accurate but an approximate one.
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The hydrogen molar flow rate (mol/s) produced by the electrolyser is calculated according to Faraday’s
law:

nc I
N H2 = ηf (5.28)
2F
Where nc is the number of electrolysers = 1, ηf is the Faraday’s efficiency which is defined asthe relation
between the real hydrogen flow rate and the theoretical one (It’s assumed to be about 99% for PEM
Electrolyser)[29].

So the volume flow rate inNm3/h is:

QH 2 = N H 2 * 3600 * 0.022414 (5.29)

The rate of the electrolyser temperature increase is a function of the generated heat due to the exothermic
reaction, lost heat to the surroundings and the absorbed heat by cooling. Such that:

dT 
Ct = Qgen + Q loss + Q cool (5.30)
dt
Where the Ct is the thermal heat capacitance in (J/kg.k) of the lumped electrolyser according to the
̇ , Q loss
reasoning developed by Ulleberg, (t) is time in (s), �Q gen ̇ , Q cool
̇ � are the rates of heat generated, lost
and cooled in (J/kg)

The rate of generated heat:

v
Q gen = nc IV (1 − tn ) (5.31)
v
vtn
Where is the electrolyser efficiency ηelec while vtn is the thermoneutral potential in (volts) at which
v
the water electrolysis reaction starts to be an exothermic reaction and cooling must be used in the
electrolyser[30]and it‘s calculated from:

δh
Vtn = (5.32)
zF
Where δh is the enthalpy difference for the total reaction of water splitting. At standard conditions:

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δh
Vtn = (5.33)
zF

vtn = 286000 /(2 * 96485) = 1.482V (5.34)

But for different conditions it’s calculated from the equation:

φY
Vtn = VHHV + (5.35)
F
Where VHHV is the higher heating value voltage and calculated as a function of the reaction temperature:

VHHV = 1.4756 + 2.252 × 10 −4 t + 1.52 × 10 −8 t 2 (5.36)

φY
While is the voltage corresponding to the energy required for saturation of hydrogen and oxygen
F
with water vapour. It’s calculated as temperature variable such that:

1.5 pwsat
φ= (5.37)
p − pwsat
Y = 42960 + 40.762t − 0.06682t 2 , [mgw/kgd.a] (5.38)

5096.28
(13.669 − )
p sat
w = 1.01325 × e T
, [bar]
(5.39)

The rate of lost heat:

1
Q loss = (T − Tamb ) (5.40)
Rt

Where Rt is the thermal resistance (K/W)

But the electrolyser is operated at constant temperature which equals the ambient temperature, so:

Q gen = Q cool (5.41)

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5.3.3. PEM Modelling Results


The modelling equations, in section 5.3.2, were used to construct a Matlab program to get the following
results.

Figure 5.10: Variation of Electrolyser voltage with the solar hour

As we see in Figure 5.10, the electrolyser voltage jumps from zero at the early minutes of the day to 1.4
V (The minimum electrolyser voltage to operate). This means that the PV became capable of generating
the power required for hydrogen production in the electrolyser. The voltage increase with the solar hour
angle increase till a maximum (about 1.79 V) at the noon (ω=0), then decreases again till 1.4 V and down
to zero at the last minutes of the sunset. This is due to the increase of the overpotentials (depending on the
current) over the Nernst voltage.

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Figure 5.11: Variation of Electrolyser current with the solar hour

For the same reasons mentioned in the voltage curve, the electrolyser current starts at the same time
(about 5:50 a.m.) and increases to a maximum at the noon then decreases to zero before the sun set by
few minutes. It should be noted that the maximum current of that day isn’t the maximum of the
electrolyser (1 A) as the solar radiation of this day is lower than the maximum for the PV to power the
electrolyser with maximum current (See Figure 5.2) and the assumptions taken as a substitute for the
missing data of the components (PV and Electrolyser).

Figure 5.12: Variation of Electrolyser hydrogen production with the solar hour

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The hydrogen production is changing with current change as they are directly proportional. Because of
the above reasons, there is a difference between the maximum hydrogen production shown in Figure 5.12
(4.75 ml/min) in this day and the maximum of the electrolyser (28 ml/min).

Figure 5.13: Variation of Electrolyser power with the solar hour

The electrolyser power is the product of the current and the voltage, so it’s increasing (in a pattern
similar to the current as the voltage is almost constant) with the ω till a max then decreases at the sunset
as shown in Figure 5.13. This power isn’t the maximum PV power because the electrolyser depends on
the current it draws from the PV (which changes with PV power) which results in a specific electrolyser
voltage (according to the voltage-current equations in section 5.3.2) and consequently a specific
electrolyser power (It will be a coincidence if they are equal).

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Figure 5.14: Variation of Electrolyser efficiency with the solar hour

The efficiency of the electrolyser depends on the thermoneutral voltage ( Vtn ) which depends on the
constant electrolyser temperature (reactions temperature) and reversely proportional with the electrolyser
voltage. As the voltage of the cell increases with the ω, the efficiency decreases and the reaction becomes
more exothermic (heat generated increases which needs equivalent cooling to fix the cell temperature
constant).

Note that in the early production of hydrogen the voltage is lower than the Vtn because of high ambient
temperature of the day which results in higher Vtn than the experimental atmosphere provided by its data
sheet[43], so the efficiency is very high as the reaction is considered neutral (neither exothermic nor
endothermic).

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Figure 5.15: Variation of Electrolyser heats with the solar hour

The generated heat inside the electrolyser is a function of the electrolyser efficiency and current, so it
increases with ω as the current increases and the efficiency decrease. For the same reason, the generated
heat doesn’t start from the same ω when the electrolyser starts to operate. While the lost heat is zero as
the electrolyser temperature is the ambient temperature. So the generated heat (which is a neglected
quantity) is removed by cooling (water).

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Figure 5.16: Electrolyser characteristic curves at noon

As an example, we calculated the characteristic curves (V-I and P-I) at the noon (maximum power) to
see how the modelling curves is similar to the actual measured ones. As we see, there is a high increase of
voltage with the increased current due to the mentioned overpotentials (which have logarithmic and
exponential responses with current) while the power is almost linear with the current.

5.4. PEM Fuel Cell


5.4.1. Technical Data
It operates at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature (which differs according to the month).
They are two identical fuel cells that can be connected in series or parallel connection. Each cell has the
following specifications: [43]

Dimensions (W x H x D): 200 x 297 x 115 mm

Voltage in parallel connection: 0.4 ... 0.9 V

Voltage in series connection: 0.8 ... 1.8 V

Current in parallel connection: max. 3 A

Rated power in series connection: 1.7 W

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5.4.2. Modelling of the PEM Fuel Cell


An analytical simulation model of the PEMFC is presented in this part. Assuming in this model that the
fuel is pure hydrogen at inlet to the anode and the oxidant is pure oxygen at inlet to the cathode. The fuel
cell model implemented in this work, known as the Generalized Steady State Electrochemical Model
(GSSEM), is zero dimensional, semi-empirical and static in nature, thus the parameters of the equations
are determined experimentally to provide the time-independent polarization curves, power curves and
efficiencies at various operating conditions and the model is applicable to an entire fuel cell. The voltage
of the fuel cell is modeled as [36]:

Vcell = E Nernst − Vact − Vohm − Vconc (5.42)

here ENernst is the Nernst voltage, which is the expression for the electromotive force (emf) for given
product and reactant activities; Vact is the activation overvoltage, which is the amount of voltage used to
drive the reaction; Vohm is the ohmic overvoltage, which is the amount of voltage lost due to the resistance
to electron flow in the electrodes and the resistance to ion flow in the electrolyte; Vconc is the
concentration overvoltage, which is the voltage lost when the concentration of reactant at the electrode is
diminished.

Mann et al. [30] have expressed the Nernst voltage by the following equation as a function of operating
temperature and pressure of the cell:

E Nernst = 1.229 − 0.85 *10 −3 (Tcell − 298.15) + 4.3085 *10 −5 * Tcell (ln( p Hint2 erface )
+ 0.5 ln( pOint2 erface )) (5.43)

Where Tcell is the stack temperature (in K), and are the hydrogen and oxygen partial gas pressures (in
atmospheres) at the surface of the catalyst at the
p Hint2 erface anode pOint2 erface and cathode,
respectively. It should be noted that there is no term for the partial pressure
of the water product in equation 5.43. The assumption has been made that the water product is in pure
liquid form and that a thin film of liquid water covers the catalyst and allows the reactants to diffuse
through the water.

It is further noted that the expression in equation 5.43for the Nernst voltage incorporates the voltage
loss due to fuel crossover(where H2 passes through the electrolyte without reacting)and internal current
(where electrons pass through themembrane rather than through the electrodes). Thepartial pressures at
the catalyst surface are assumed to bethe same across the entire cell [38],

p Hint2 erface = 2 / 3 * p cell (5.44 a)

pOint2 erface = 1 / 3 * p cell (5.44 b)

Pcell is the operating pressure of the fuel cell.

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The reaction would produce a maximum amount of useful work if all the free energy is directed to
transfer electrons from one electrode to the other. The value of maximum obtainable work from a fuel cell
is given by [39]:

W max,elec = − ∆G = z * F * E Nernst (5.45)

Deviation from the ideal values of cell voltage is due to the losses one would experience when current is
to be induced between cell electrodes. There are three types of losses as mentioned earlier and as detailed
below:

Activation losses that are caused by the slowness of the reactions taking place on the surface of the
electrodes (the activation of the anode and the cathode). A proportion of the voltage generated is lost in
driving the chemical reaction that transfers the electrons to or from the electrodes. This voltage drop is
highly nonlinear. For most values of overvoltage, one may use the following equation [41]:

Vact = AT * ln[(i + in ) / i0 ] (5.46)

Where

ATis the slope of the Tafel line {AT = Rgc*Tcell/(2*0.5*F)} (Volt).

i is the current density (mA/cm2).

inisthe internal and fuel crossover equivalent current density (mA/cm2)

i0 is either the exchange current density at the cathode if the cathodicovervoltage is much greater than
the anodic, or it is a function of bothexchange current densities (mA/cm2).

Ohmic losses are due to the electrical resistance (electrons) of the electrodes, and the resistance to the
flow of ions (protons) in the electrolyte. To be consistent with the other equations for voltage loss the
equation should be expressed in terms of current density. The equation for the voltage drop then becomes
[41]
:

Vohm = (i + in ) * r (5.47)

Where ris the area specific resistance (ASR) (kΩ.cm2)

Concentration losses are the result of the pressure drop of the reactant gases. The overvoltage depends
on the amount of current drawn from the cell, as well as the physical characteristics of the gas supply
systems. In general, the concentration or mass transport losses are given by the equation [41]:

Vconc = m * e( n*i ) (5.48)

Where m and n are the constants in the mass transfer overvoltage

The constant values used in this work are given in Table 3-7 below [36].

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Table 5.4: Constants used to calculate potential losses for low temperature PEMFC.

Constant Units Value

in mA.cm-2 3

r kΩ. .cm-2 2.54 × 10−4

io mA.cm-2 0.1

m Volts 2.11 × 10−5

n Cm2/mA 8 × 10−3

The main outputs of the fuel cell operation are power, water and heat production. The power output of a
fuel cell is the most important measure of its performance. Much of the current research in the area of fuel
cells is focused on attempts to increase the power output while decreasing the manufacturing costs. The
gross output of the fuel cell stack (in W) is given by:

Wcell = I * Vcell (5.49)

Where I is the total direct current (DC) generated by the fuel cell

A power conditioning unit is required to convert the DC current into alternating current (AC) current.
The net power output in AC of the fuel cell stack is a more important consideration when assessing its
performance, and is given by:

Pnet ,cell = Wcell *η pc (5.50)

Where ηpc is the power conditioning efficiency (assumed to be 0.99).

As well, in this model of the stand alone PEMFC, the cell electrical efficiency was calculated as the cell
gross power output divided by the heating value of the hydrogen inlet to the cell (ηcell):

η pc = Wcell /( m
H 2 ,in
* HHV ) (5.51)

Where HHV is the lower heating value of hydrogen (141900 kJ/kg)

The amount of hydrogen and oxygen required to provide a certain current I at the cell voltage Vcellfor
one hour is obtained from the following relation

I 2.0158
mH 2 = * * 3600 , [kg] (5.52 a)
z * F 1000 * U H 2

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mH2
QH 2 = m3 at STP (5.52 b)
0.08988

mH 2 32
mO 2 = * * 3600 kg (5.52 c)
2.0158 * 2 1000 *U O 2

mO2
QO2 = , m3 at STP (5.52 d)
1.429

Where U H and U O are the utilization factors of hydrogen and oxygen respectively. A lot of research
2 2

is being conducted on the PEM fuel cells. The primary focus of ongoing research has been to improve
performance and reduce cost. The principal areas of development are improved cell membranes, CO
removal from the fuel stream, and improved electrode design. This of course leads to improvement in the
utilization actor to values up to 0.96 [36]. Also, a recirculation mode may be utilized so that the unused gas
is returned to the inlet by a compressor, or sometimes a passive device such as an ejector (based on a
Venturi tube) may be employed. Thus, both utilization factors are assumed to have a value of 0.96 in this
study.

Heat will be generated by the operation of the fuel cell since the enthalpy that is not converted to
electrical energy will instead be converted to thermal energy. In order to operate the PEMFC at constant
temperature a cooling system must be added to absorb this heat and use it for co-generation purposes [42].
That is, the heat output of the fuel cell will be utilized in the form of hot water which can also be used for
heating purposes. A fuel cell stack will generate the following amount of heat during operation

Q total = ( E max − V cell ) * I (5.53)

whereEmax is the maximum EMF of the fuel cell

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5.4.3. PEM Fuel Cell Modelling Results


5.4.3.1. One Cell

Figure 5.17: Variation of Fuel cell current with the solar hour

The current of the fuel cell is directly proportional with the mass flow rate of the hydrogen produced
from the electrolyser (we assumed equal flow rates of consumption and production of hydrogen for a
steady state process). The produced current takes the same trend of hydrogen production (consumption).
It should be noted that the current of the electrolyser isn’t equal the current of the fuel cell due to the
efficiencies and utilization of the two components and the different modelling methods.

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Figure 5.18: Variation of Fuel cell voltage with the solar hour

Unlike the electrolyser, the fuel cell has no minimum voltage (i.e. the cell starts is at 0V) which means
that it generates power to loads when the hydrogen and oxygen reach the reaction site. But the voltage
decreases towards the noon as the current increases due to hydrogen production increase and
consequently the overpotentials (voltage losses) increase which lower the Nernst voltage.

Figure 5.19: Variation of Fuel cell power with the solar Figure 5.20: Variation of Fuel cell efficiency with the solar
hour hour angle

As the voltage is changing in a narrow range, as shown in Figure 5.18, the cell power will be in a direct
response to the cell current, so the shape is similar to Figure 5.17. The power is lower than the
electrolyser power curve as mentioned before.

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The efficiency decreases with the hour angle, as shown in Figure 5.19, although the power increases
because of the voltage decrease which increases the heat generated and lost with the water produced.
There is also another efficiency called (Cogeneration efficiency) which is the sum of the electric power
and the released heat over the hydrogen energy but it isn’t calculated in our case as we don’t use
cogeneration due to the neglected heat quantity.

Figures 5.21: Characteristic curves of single fuel cell operating with all hydrogen flow

For a single cell consuming all the hydrogen to generate power, the V-I curve illustrates the decrease of
the voltage with the current increase due to the losses. The P-I curve gives the almost linear relation
between the power and current. Note that as the cell current is high, the overpotentials highly increase and
the power become lower.

5.4.3.2. Two Cells (Parallel and Series connections)

The target of these curves is to show how the voltage responds at the lower currents and the power
produced in these types of connections. These V-I and P-I curves are the same in both connections and
equal the half of the curves of the single cell operating with the full hydrogen flow (as the current is the
same and the losses are the same). Thus, V-I and P-I curves of one fuel cell in parallel and series
connections are typical.

In the V-I curves, shown in Figure 5.23, we calculated the change in cell voltage with the total current
(The sum of the two currents in parallel connection) and the total voltage (The sum of the two voltages in
the series connection) with the cell current. In the P-I curves, the power is the same as it’s the sum of the
two cells’ powers while the currents are different as shown.

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Figures 5.22: Characteristic curves of single fuel cell operating with half hydrogen flow in parallel and series
connections

The two cells response is similar to the single cell response but they aren’t actually the same because the
losses in the two cells are the sum of the loss of one cell operating in either connection. While in the
single cell the losses are generated nonlinearly (logarithmic change) with the current which is double the
one cell current. This affects the cells voltages and consequently the power.

It should be mentioned that these differences are very small and can be neglected because the fuel cell is
very small in size and range.

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Figures 5.23: Characteristic curves of two fuel cells operating with all hydrogen flow (parallel and series connections)

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5.5. References
[1] Duffie, J.A., Beckman, W.A., “Solar engineering of thermal processes”, Third edition, Wiley,
2006.

[2] Angstrom, A., “Solar and terrestrial radiation”, Quart J Roy Met Soc50, pp. 121–125, 1924.

[3] Kamel, M.A., Shalaby, S.A., Mostafa, S.S., “Solar radiation over Egypt: comparison of predicted and
measured meteorological data”, Solar Energy, Vol. 50, Issue 6, pp. 463–467, 1993.

[4] Ibrahim, S.M.A., “Diffuse solar radiation in Cairo, Egypt”, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol.
25, Issue 1, pp. 69-72, 1983.

[5] El-Sebaii, A.A., Trabea, A.A., “Estimation of horizontal diffuse solar radiationin Egypt”, Energy
Conversion and Management, Vol. 44, Issue 15, pp. 2471-2482, 2003.

[6] Khalil, S.A., Fathy, A. M., “An empirical method for estimating global solar radiation over Egypt”,
ActaPolytechnica, Vol. 48, No. 5, 2008.

[7] El Massah, S.A., “Modelling and simulation of terrestrial solar radiation”, Interbuild Egypt, 2000.

[8] Robaa, S.M., “Evaluation of sunshine duration from cloud data in Egypt”, Energy, Vol. 33, Issue 5,
pp. 785-795, 2008.

[9] Ruth, D.W., Chant, R.E., “The relationship of diffuse radiation to total radiation in Canada”, Solar
Energy, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp. 153–154, 1976.

[10] Collares-Pereira, M., Rabl, A., “The average distribution of solar radiation-correlations between
diffuse and hemispherical and between daily and hourly insolation values”, Solar Energy, Vol. 23, Issue
2, 1979.

[11] Liu, B.Y.H., Jordan, R.C., “The interrelationship and characteristic distribution of direct, diffuse and
total solar radiation”, Solar Energy, Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 1-19, 1960.

[12] Liu, B.Y.H., Jordan, R.C., The long-term average performance of flat plate solar energy collectors,
Solar Energy, Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp. 53-74, 1963.

[13] Yudovsky D., Pilon, L., “Simple and accurate expressions for diffuse reflectance of semi-infinite and
two-layer absorbing and scattering media”, Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 35, pp. 6670-6683, 2009.

[14] www.solar-is-future.com/index.php

[15] Lorenzo, E., “Solar Electricity Engineering of Photovoltaic Systems”, ArtesGraficas Gala, S.L.,
Spain. 1994.

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[16] González-Longatt, F.M., “Model of Photovoltaic Module in Matlab™”, 2do


CongresoIberoamericano de Estudiantes de IngenieríaEléctrica, Electrónica y Computación (II CIBELEC
2005), 2005.

[17] RETScreen® International, “Clean Energy Project Analysis: RETSCREEN® Engineering and Cases
Textbook”, Photovoltaic Project Analysis Chapter, 2004.

[18] Gow, J.A., Manning, C. D., “Development of a photovoltaic array model for use in power-
electronics simulation studies”, Proceedings of IEE Electric Power Applications, Vol. 146, No. 2, pp.
193–200, 1999.

[19] Nishioka, K., Sakitani, N., Uraoka, Y., Fuyuki, T., “Analysis of multicrystalline silicon solar cells by
modified 3-diode equivalent circuit model taking leakage current through periphery into consideration”,
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 91, No. 13, pp. 1222–1227, 2007.

[20] Carrero, C., Amador, J., Arnaltes, S., “A single procedure for helping PV designers to select silicon
PV module and evaluate the loss resistances”, Renewable Energy, Vol. 32, No. 15, pp. 2579–2589, Dec.
2007.

[21] Villalva, M.G., Gazoli, J.F., Filho, E.R., “Comprehensive Approach to Modelling and Simulation of
Photovoltaic Arrays”, IEEE Transactions on power electronics, Vol. 24, No. 5, 2009.

[22] Kyocera, “KC200GT manual”.

[23] Lasnier, F., Ang, T. G., “Photovoltaic Engineering Handbook”, New York: Adam Hilger, 1990.

[24] Tsai, H.L., Tu, C.S., Su, Y.J., “Development of Generalized Photovoltaic Model Using
MATLAB/SIMULINK”, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science,
2008.

[25] King, D. L., Kratochvil, J. A., Boyson, W. E., “Temperature Coefficients for PV Modules and
Arrays: Measurement Methods, Difficulties, and Results”, Proceedings of 26th IEEE Photovoltaic
Specialists Conference, Anaheim, CA, pp. 1183–1186, 1997.

[26] BBC, "Weather Centre - World Weather - Average Conditions - Cairo", Retrieved 22-01-2010.

[27] De Soto, W., Klein, S. A., Beckman, W. A., “Improvement and validation of a model for
photovoltaic array performance”, Solar Energy, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 78–88, 2006.

[28] Glass, M.C., “Improved solar array power point model with SPICE realization”, Proceedings of
Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Vol. 1, pp. 286–291, 1996.

[29]Roy A,Watson S, Infield D. Comparison of electrical energy efficiency of atmospheric and high-
pressure electrolysers. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2006;31(14):1964-79.

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[30] Li X. Principles of fuel cells. Taylor and Francis Group; 2006.Prentice G. Electrochemical
engineering principles.Prentice- Hall International Editions; 1991.

[31] Choi P, Bessarabov DG, Datta R. A simple model for solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water
electrolysis. Solid State Ionics 2004;175(1-4):535-9. Bockris JO, Reddy AK. Modern electrochemistry,
vol. 2.Macdonald and Co.; 1970.Londres.

[32] Scott K, Taama W, Cruickshank J. Performance and modelling of a direct methanol solid polymer
electrolyte fuel cell. Journal of Power Sources 1997;65(1-2):159-71.

[33] Barbir F. PEM electrolysis for production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources. Solar Energy
2005;78(5):661-9.

[34] Gö rgü n H. Dynamic modelling of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyser. International
Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2006;31(1):29-38.

[35] LeRoy RL, Bowen CT, LeRoyDJ.The thermodynamics of aqueous water electrolysis. Journal of the
Electrochemical Society 1980;9:1954-62.

[36] US Department of Energy, “Fuel Cell Handbook”, 7th edition, National Energy Technology
Laboratory, 2004.

[37] Thirumalai, D., White, R.E., “Mathematical Modelling of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
Stacks”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 144, pp. 1717-1723, 1997.

[38] Mann, R.F., Amphlett, J.C., Hooper, M.A.I., Jensen, H.M., Peppley, B.A., Roberge, P.R.,
“Development and Application of a Generalised Steady State Electrochemical Model for a PEM Fuel
Cell”, Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 86, pp.173-180, 2000.

[39] Wishart, J., Secanell, M., Dong, Z., “optimization of a fuel cell system based on empirical data of a
PEM fuel cell stack and the generalized electrochemical model”, Proceedings of the International Green
Energy Conference, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, Paper No. 126, 2005.

[40] Gurau, V., Kakac, S., Liu, H., “Mathematical Model for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells”,
AES Vol. 38, Proceedings of the ASME Advanced Energy Systems Division, pp. 205-214, ASME, 1998.

[41] Kim, J., Lee, S.M., Srinivasan, S., Chamberlin, C.E., “Modelling of proton exchange membrane fuel
cell performance with an empirical equation”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 142, No. 8,
pp. 2670–2674, 1995.

[42] Yammoto, O., “Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamental Aspects and Prospects”, EletcrochemicaActa,
Vol. 45, pp. 2423-2435, 2000.

[43] Heliocentris, Student Science Kit for Solar Hydrogen Technology, DrFuelCell® Science Kit.

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Chapter 6

MEASURING DEVICES
AND CONTROL

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6.1. Introduction
Experimental science data is a main source of knowledge. Theories, analytical analysis, scientific models,
etc. must be proved by the measurements. Very complicated phenomena can usually be described and
modeled using equations derived only from simulation measurements.

Measurements entered a new era by introducing the electronic means. Computers and microprocessors
enabled measurements to be done, and the data to be processed in a higher rate and increasing accuracy.
Dependence on electronic means has been increasing in the past few decades. Nowadays, it is more
common to find industrial processes with measurements done electronically than the old indication and
calculation ways that consumes time and effort which are the most important factors in industry.

Automation is now very common in industry and life. Most factories possess automated processes that are
moderated and controlled using different software. Machines can be assigned new tasks, modify their
tasks, time the task procedure, and even response to emergency cases with no human interference.

In this project, a very basic idea about automation and data acquisition is introduced to the students.
Measurements in the experiments are made by sensors connected to data acquisition hardware, and then
collected and processed by a computer. The information is then indicated on a user interface.

Automation is introduced in the way of controlling the motion of a DC motor using a program that gives a
signal using the hardware device to control direction of motion. The user-friendly interface shows the
method of controlling and the idea of using software to control a device without any direct human
mechanical interaction.

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6.2. Measurements
6.2.1. General
The Educational Stand Data is collected by measuring energy
indicating variables in the main stages of the system, Voltage and
current for electricity, temperature for heat, and intensity for solar
radiation. The Data is collected using sensors with electrical analog
output that is transmitted to the Data acquisition device.

6.2.2. Electricity Measurements


6.2.2.1. Voltmeter
A voltmeter is used to measure voltage. As such it is a two terminal
device (since it must measure potential difference between two
different points).
Recall that voltage is measured across a circuit component. As such,
a voltmeter is placed in parallel with the component(s) it is
measuring the voltage across. Since it is placed in parallel an ideal
voltmeter would draw no current through it (i.e., it would have
infinite resistance). Since this is impossible, it must draw some
current, but we would like to minimize the amount. To do this, a real Figure 6.1: Voltmeter and Ammeter
voltmeter would have a high resistance (recall the current divider Circuits
rule). This is accomplished by adding a series resistor inside the
voltmeter to increase the internal resistance. A by-product of this is that through the appropriate choice of
series resistance, a voltmeter can be made to measure different ranges of voltage (i.e., 1mV, 10mV,
100mV, 1V, 10V, etc.). The value of the series resistance can be calculated using the Voltage Divider
Rule (VDR). Note that in the case of a voltmeter current flowing through the PMMC causes a deflection
of the needle. This is necessary to “calibrate” the scale so that it reads voltage instead of current.

6.2.2.2. Ammeter
An ammeter is used to measure current. As such it is a two terminal device (since it must have an input
and an output). Recall that current is measured through a circuit component. As such an ammeter is
placed in series with the component(s) it is measuring the current through. Since it is placed in series an
ideal ammeter would have no voltage across it (i.e., it would have zero resistance). Since this is
impossible, it must have some voltage across it, but we would like to minimize the amount. To do this, a
real ammeter would have a low resistance (recall the voltage divider rule). This is accomplished by
adding a parallel resistor (the shunt resistor) across the meter mechanism inside the ammeter to decrease
the internal resistance. A by-product of this is that through the appropriate choice of shunt resistance, an
ammeter can be made to measure different ranges of current (i.e., 1mA, 10mA, 100mA, 1A, 10A, etc.).
The value of the shunt resistance can be calculated using the Current Divider Rule (CDR).

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6.2.3. Thermal Measurements


Temperature of water heater by the electric heater is measured by a Pt100 thermistor. Refer to appendix E
for more technical information.

Thermistors

Resistance thermometers work on the principle that the resistance of a metal varies with temperature.
When accurate laboratory measurements are required, only standard platinum resistance thermometers
(SPRTs) are used.

There are two reasons for this:

1. Platinum is not only a noble metal but also the most electrically stable metal known to man.
2. The platinum resistance thermometer, PRT, is the reference on which the international definition
of temperature is based. So long as the international temperature scale, ITS-90, is valid, the PRT is
the most accurate means of measuring temperature.

Industrial platinum resistance thermometers are known as IPRTs, the most widely used of which is the
Pt100, which has a resistance of 100 ohms at 0 °C.

Protective tubes

Detectors usually need to be enclosed in a protective tube before being used. Tubes are of two types,
depending on the temperature range. They can be seamless tubes of stainless, acid-proof steel. They
measure up to 250–300°C. A steel tube with PTFE or polyimid-insulated leads is generally used. The
temperature limit is determined by the insulation. The heat-transfer properties are greatly enhanced,
which means shorter response times and smaller reading errors caused by heat losses through the
protective tube. They can also pack the Pt100 sensing element in powder, which has inferior heat-transfer
properties and can be dispersed by vibration, allowing air gaps to form below. These measure up to
600°C.

Thermistors have the following advantages:

 High-temperature tolerance
 Provides excellent moisture protection and can be immersed, eg, in water.
 Mechanically strong and pliant.

Output signal connections

Sensors are equipped with one of the following types of connection:

 Non-terminated wires

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 Extension fitting (sleeve connector) with lead and optional armour


 Fitted connector
 Probe-mounted terminal block
 Probe-mounted transmitter
 Probe with provision for retrofitting of terminal block or transmitter

Figure 6.2: Thermistors Temperature ranges

Temperature ranges

Pt100 sensors can usually be used to measure temperatures up to approximately 250 °C. For higher
temperatures, protective tubes, e.g. with mineral-oxide insulation, are required.

Figure 6.3: non-terminated wires

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Hysteresis

All IPRTs exhibit hysteresis, i.e. give different readings depending on whether the temperature is rising or
falling.

The best design is an expensive special sensor element, closely followed by the wire-wound Pt100. Film-
type thermometer detectors and bobbin-wound elements exhibited errors 5–10 times higher.

The following error values are percentages of the measuring range:

 Wire-wound Pt100 0.008%


 Bobbin-wound Pt100 0.08%
 Film-type Pt100 0.04–0.08%

6.3. Programming and Control


6.3.1. Control of Lamp Position
Since the main target of our educational student is to serve enhancing student’s knowledge, it was a must
to make the stand as user friendly as possible. As the lamp resembles the sun, it must be characterized by
varying intensity similar to what happens outdoors from sun rise to sun set. To make this possible we had
two options. The first was to use a dimmer. This idea was not preferred by the project team as the
variance in light intensity will not be distinctly different. It was believed that it will give close values of
light intensity.

The second idea was to vary the lamp distance. To apply this and still keep the light distribution on the
solar panel the same, we decided to put the way shown in Figure 6.4.

Figure 6.4: Electric lamp fixed perpendicular to solar panel

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The idea was accepted by everyone and the challenge was how to create a control to this lamp. We
realized our need to form an electric circuit. We needed this circuit to let the lamp normally static in its
position while in one direction or polarity makes the lamp moves in a certain direction, while in the
reverse polarity makes it moves the other direction. We started or research and came up with the H-bridge
shown in Figure 6.5.

Relay 1 Relay 2
contact A C contact

Fuse 1A
M DC
36 V

Relay 1 Relay 2
contact
D B contact

Figure 6.5: H-Bridge circuit

In the circuit shown in Figure 6.5, M is the electric motor which will be used to lift the lamp up or down.
The motor is shown in Figure 6.6.

Figure 6.6: On the left: The lamp motor and on the right: The power screw which drives the lamp up and down

So, when the 36V power supply is initiated no current will flow as there are two normally opened relays.
In one direction, we need C to be closed and B to be opened in the same instant to avoid any possibility of
short circuiting. This will make the current flows from the positive to the negative terminals of the power
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supply passing through C and D and the motor to move. In the other direction, A will be closed and D
will be opened. This will make current flow through A and B and thus the motor moves to the other
direction.

However, that was just the primarily idea of the control circuit. We wanted the circuit to be controlled by
LAB VIEW computer program beside the manual control. The manual control is intended to mean the
push buttons shown in Figure 6.7.

Figure 6.7: Manual Control of Lamp

A series of circuits were suggested, drawn and tested using various circuit components. The main
problem was in the signal produced by the NI 6008 card. It gave 5V with around 8.5 mA. The details of
the NI 6008 card are in appendix D. This current was not enough to activate the relays. We solved the
problem by adding an amplifier.

A series of amplifiers were tried including BC182, LM741 and others. After several experiments, we used
a low power transistor which is BC107 as shown in Figure 6.8 .Also we changed the direction of the
manual switch diodes and the polarity of the 5 V power supply relative to the manual switch and its
diodes.

Collector

Base

Emitter

Figure 6.8: Transistor BC107

We connected the circuit which contains 2 relays R1 and R2, 2 octocouplers with 2 resistances in series
R=1kΩ, switch, 5 power terminals and a 5volt power supply on a copper board used for these purposes.

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We also made a small circuit with parallel resistances (Req=25Ω) for a model motor (2*1.5 battery motor)
to be operated by the 5V power supply.

We also added a stop valve to in series with the relays in the manual control circuit in order to have two
limits (maximum and minimum positions) at which the circuit is cut off; motor stops and the manual
position switch (Up and Down) doesn’t work to save the motor from burn up. A fuse was added in series
with the motor to save the current.

The final circuit diagram is shown in Figure 6.9.

Figure 6.9: The final Manual and DAQ control circuit

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As shown from Figure 6.8 the motor can be operated either by the manual circuit drawn in blue or using a
computer signal converted to 5V signal by the DAQ (data acquisition card). As such we started to imply
the circuit into a workable board. The following is the truth table of the circuit mission.

Table 6.1: Truth Table

DAC1 DAC2 A B C D Response


0 0 0 1 0 0 Stops
1 0 1 1 0 0 Moves
right
0 1 0 0 1 1 Moves
left
1 1 1 0 1 0 Stops

All the experiments we undertaken on the circuit were in the department’s lab with our own tools. First
we used simple copper boards as shown in Figure 6.10 with lead welding and low quality wires.

Figure 6.10: Circuit connections views

When we were sure the circuit worked we made a good circuit board ourselves. We bought the
components which are 15x15 cm copper board, special marker, solution that reacts with the copper. After
that the circuit was drawn on the board as shown in Figure 6.11.

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Figure 6.11: The circuit drawn and marked on the board

Figure 6.12 shows the circuit after it was putted in the Figure 6.12: The fabricated board.
solution and the copper removed.

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Then we connected the circuit components to the board as shown in Figure 6.13.

Figure 6.13: The final connected board top view

6.3.2. Testing and Assurance

The different components of the educational stand passed through tests and experiments to ensure
functionality, reliability, optimality, and safety in their positions or when they interact and perform the
power production operations.
The tests were applied on each component alone to ensure it performs its task, and to measure the
performance parameters in the laboratory environment. Other tests were applied on partially assembled
systems, which include two or more simultaneously operating components to measure the parameters of
systems included in the project equipment.
Tests were done on both hardware and software components to assure that the system operation,
measurement process, and calculations are done in a numerically and logically accepted manner.
Components manufactured by the project group or under their direct supervision were designed and
tested during various manufacturing stages to eliminate the chances of accumulating errors or software
bugs occurrence.

The automation components include: the lamp positioning system. This system includes a software
facility used to operate and control.
The lamp positioning system consists of the DC linear motor, the power supply, the controlling circuit,
and the lamp mounted mechanism.

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6.3.2.1. DC linear motor


A 36 Volts DC motor is used to move the lamp mechanism in a linear path. The motor was tested using
a 36V power supply designed for this type of motors. The motor operated normally and smoothly in the 2
directions with no load applied to it.

Figure 6.14: 36V Motor power supply

6.3.2.2. Controlling circuit


The motor movement in two opposite direction needed a circuit that can reverse polarity on the motor
wiring as discussed in section 6.3.1, and this should be available through manual and software-automated
means. An H bridge circuit was designed and manufactured by the project team.

Tests were done on the experimental sample assembled by the group for evaluation purposes. A small
5V DC motor was used as the motor, and a 5V wire from a computer CPU power supply was used to
power it through the H bridge circuit. The first sample didn’t work due to connection faults and it caused
a short circuit in the power supply. Further samples were assembled and tested; the second test was not
successful due to the fail of the relays used in the circuit. Relays are used to alter the polarity of the motor
according to the signals or the switch position. Relays used did not conduct current on the normally open
side, thus preventing the current from flowing to the motor. Other relays were bought and tested before
making the third sample circuit, shown in Figure 6.13, which operated the motor successfully.

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Figure 6.15: The H bridge lamp position control experimental circuit

6.3.2.3. Controlling software


The software used to control the circuit is LABVIEW. Several minor programs were developed to check
the working procedures and the effectiveness of components and main program parts. For example, some
minor programs were used to check the relay controlling system, and their results indicated that the
current produced by the digital output channels of the card is not capable of energizing the relay coil.

6.3.3. Programming
6.3.3.1. Introduction
Programming the software tools used in the project is a main part of the project. Although not
containing a lot of physical actions, but programming usually proves to be a mental challenge for every
member of the team. Programming also needs a special type of team work, as every piece of software
contains the personality of its programmer.

The project experiments need software tools to control and monitor. These tools should contain friendly
user interface easy for students that never used these tools before to cope with. It also should be designed
to produce output in formats that are easy to understand when viewed, and also produce editable outputs
that can be used later to write reports about the experiment.

6.3.3.2. Programming Language


LABVIEW, the programming kit used, is a platform and development environment for a visual
programming language from National Instruments. The graphical language is named "G". Originally
released for the Apple Macintosh in 1986, LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering
Workbench) is commonly used for data acquisition, instrument control, and industrial automation on a

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variety of platforms including Microsoft Windows, various flavors of UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS X. The
latest version of LabVIEW is version LabVIEW 2009, released in August 2009.

The programming language used in LabVIEW, also referred to as G, is a dataflow


programming language. Execution is determined by the structure of a graphical block diagram (the LV-
source code) on which the programmer connects different function-nodes by drawing wires. These wires
propagate variables and any node can execute as soon as all its input data become available. Since this
might be the case for multiple nodes simultaneously, G is inherently capable of parallel execution. Multi-
processing and multi-threading hardware is automatically exploited by the built-in scheduler,
which multiplexes multiple OS threads over the nodes ready for execution.

LabVIEW is a development system for industrial, experimental, and educational measurement and
automation applications based on graphical programming, in contrast to textual programming - however,
textual programming is supported in LabVIEW. LabVIEW has a large number of functions for numerical
analysis and design and visualization of data.

LabVIEW now has several toolkits and modules which brings the LabVIEW to the same level of
functionality as Matlab and Simulink in analysis and design in the areas of control, signal processing,
system identification, mathematics, and simulation, and more. In addition, LabVIEW has, of course,
inbuilt support for the broad range of measurement and automation hardware produced by National
Instruments. Communication with third party hardware is also possible thanks to the availability of a
large number of drivers and the support for communication standards as OPC, Modbus, GPIB, etc.

LabVIEW is a graphical programming language that uses icons instead of lines of text to create
applications. In contrast to text-based programming languages, where instructions determine the order of
program execution, LabVIEW uses dataflow programming, where the flow of data through the nodes on
the block diagram determines the execution order of the VIs and functions.

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Figure 6.16: LabVIEW Block Diagrams

VIs, or virtual instruments, are LabVIEW programs that imitate physical instruments.

In LabVIEW, the user builds a user interface by using a set of tools and objects. The user interface is
known as the front panel. He then adds code using graphical representations of functions to control the
front panel objects. This graphical source code is also known as G code or block diagram code. The block
diagram contains this code. In some ways, the block diagram resembles a flowchart.

Objects on the block diagram include terminals and nodes. The user builds block diagrams by
connecting the objects with wires. The color and symbol of each terminal indicate the data type of the
corresponding control or indicator. Constants are terminals on the block diagram that supply fixed data
values to the block diagram.

The front panel is the user interface of a VI. Generally, you design the front panel first and then design
the block diagram to perform tasks on the inputs and outputs you create on the front panel.

The user builds the front panel with controls and indicators, which are the interactive input and output
terminals of the VI, respectively. Controls are knobs, push buttons, dials, and other input
mechanisms. Indicators are graphs, LEDs, and other output displays. Controls simulate instrument input
mechanisms and supply data to the block diagram of the VI. Indicators simulate instrument output
mechanisms and display data the block diagram acquires or generates.

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6.3.3.3. Codes
I. Control Code
The Automatic control system designed to move the lamp closer and further from the solar panel needed a
simple code. The code aims to produce signals by the DAQ card to either move the lamp up, down, or
stop it. The relay board takes 2 signals from the program and executes accordingly. The front panel
consists of 2 input Boolean Data type in the form of buttons. The connections are shown in the figure.

Figure 6.17: Lamp Controller

II. Measurements Code

II.1. Introduction
The measurements code is much complicated than the control code. Its Block diagram contains Daq
assistant task which produces matrices of measured data. These matrices are then divided into the data
that is then collected, drawn and recorded into a spreadsheet. This is done for a number of times using a
‘for’ loop. The number of measurements and measurement time step are selected by the user before
execution.

II.2. Front Panel


The front panel shown in Figure 6.19 contains 2 inputs in which the user enters the number of
measurements and the Delay time. The front panel shows, while executing the program, the
measurements in the form of tables and figures.

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Chapter 6 Measuring Devices and Control

Figure 6.18: Front Panel of Measurement recorder

II.3. Block Diagram


The Block Diagram is shown in Figure 6.20 and contains a ‘for’ loop to repeat the cycle for the number of
measurements needed, and a flat sequence to reset values before starting. The measuring task takes the
average of 100 measurements for every recorded reading. The data of the current, voltage, power, and
temperature are arranged into a matrix that is finally printed into a spreadsheet. A user interface appears
to ask the user for the path to save the spreadsheet.

II.4. User Instructions


1- Select the number of measurements and the time delay between two points.

2- Press the run Button.

3- Adjust the lamp position using the Up and Down Buttons.

4- Press OK button to start recording measurements

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Chapter 6 Measuring Devices and Control

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Figure 6.19: Measurement recorder Block Diagram


Chapter 6 Measuring Devices and Control

Table 6.2: Block Diagram Main Components

Icon Name Objective

Contains the measurement orders, specifies the


Daq Assistant channels where volt, current, and temperature are
measured to control the hardware.

Executes its sub-diagram n times, where n is the value


For loop wired to the count (N) terminal. The iteration (i)
terminal provides the current loop iteration count,
which ranges from 0 to n-1.
Consists of one or more sub-diagrams, or frames, that
Flat sequence execute sequentially. Use the Flat Sequence structure to
ensure that a sub-diagram executes before or after
another sub-diagram.

Time Delay Inserts a time delay into the calling VI

Arithmetic
Performs the arithmetic operations + , _ , / , …..
operators

These icons perform operations on Array Data. It add a


Array operations new element to the array, converts it to matrix, builds a
new array from elements, or transposes the matrix.

X-Y Graph
Formats data to be displayed on an XY graph.
Constructor

Converts a 2D or 1D array of strings, signed integers,


or double-precision numbers to a text string and writes
the string to a new byte stream file or appends the
Write to string to an existing file. The data type you wire to the
spreadsheet 2D data input or 1D data input determines the
polymorphic instance to use.

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Chapter 6 Measuring Devices and Control

III. Characteristic curve drawer

III.1 Introduction
The characteristic curves of the components; i.e. the solar cell, the fuel cell, etc…; are to be plotted
using a code that allows the user to request the measuring process to start after he has adjusted the case he
wants to test. The time between measurements is not critical. The user needs to specify the number of
measured cases i.e. loads, connection methods, etc…; then the user starts the program. The user presses a
button that enables him to start the measuring process. The graphs needed are plotted accordingly. Due to
the difference in curves needed in each experiment, two sets of charts are available, and the user chooses
between them before starting the experiment according to the component he is testing.

Figure 6.20: Characteristic Curve Drawer Front Panel

III.2. Front Panel


The front panel is shown in Figure 6.21. It contains a button used to read 1 measurement and draw it as
a point on the corresponding graphs. The user selects the number of measurements points and also the

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lamp control procedure is imbedded into the program to allow for lamp adjustment during working. A
button is used to choose the corresponding graphs of the current case. The current two choices are fuel
cell graphs or solar cell graphs.

III.3. Block Diagram


The block diagram shown in Figures 6.22 and 6.23 shows the event case used to force the execution of
the measuring process to wait until the READ button is pressed. A case structure is controlled by the case
selection button, and is used to vary the inputs to the used graphs and disable the non-used ones. The
measuring task takes the average of 1000 measurements every time the READ button is pressed. The
‘number of measurements’ input specifies how many times the ‘for’ loop is repeated.

III.4. User Instructions

1- Press the run Button.

2- Adjust the lamp position using the Up and Down Buttons.

3- Select the Component you are testing using the Experiment selector

4- Press OK button to start recording measurement

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Chapter 6 Measuring Devices and Control

Table 6.3: Block Diagram Main Components

Icon Name Objective

Contains the measurement orders, specifies the


Daq Assistant channels where volt, current, and temperature are
measured to control the hardware.

Executes its subdiagram n times, where n is the value


For loop wired to the count (N) terminal. The iteration (i)
terminal provides the current loop iteration count,
which ranges from 0 to n-1.
Consists of one or more subdiagrams, or frames, that
Flat sequence execute sequentially. Use the Flat Sequence structure to
ensure that a subdiagram executes before or after
another subdiagram.
Has one or more subdiagrams, or event cases, exactly
one of which executes when the structure executes. The
Event structure waits until an event happens, then
executes the appropriate case to handle that event.
Event Structure Right-click the structure border to add new event cases
and configure which events to handle. Wire a value to
the Timeout terminal at the top left of the Event
structure to specify the number of milliseconds the
Event structure should wait for an event to occur.

Arithmetic
Performs the arithmetic operations + , _ , / , …..
operators

These icons perform operations on Array Data. It add a


Array operations new element to the array, converts it to matrix, builds a
new array from elements, or transposes the matrix.

X-Y Graph
Formats data to be displayed on an XY graph.
Constructor

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Chapter 6 Measuring Devices and Control

Converts a 2D or 1D array of strings, signed integers,


or double-precision numbers to a text string and writes
the string to a new byte stream file or appends the
Write to string to an existing file. The data type you wire to the
spreadsheet 2D data input or 1D data input determines the
polymorphic instance to use.

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Chapter 6 Measuring Devices and Control

Figure 6.21: Characteristic Drawer Block Diagram (part 1)

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Chapter 6 Measuring Devices and Control

Figure 6.22: Characteristic Drawer Block Diagram (part 2)

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Chapter 6 Measuring Devices and Control

6.4. References

[1] Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_measurement. Wikipedia.org. [Online]

[2] www.engr.usask.ca. https://www.engr.usask.ca/classes/EP/155/notes/Basic_Meters.pdf. [Online]

[3] Cambridge, University Of.


http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/UTC/thermocouple/pages/ThermocouplesOperatingPrinciples.html.
http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/UTC/thermocouple/pages/ThermocouplesOperatingPrinciples.html. [Online]

[4] Co., Tempsen Instruments. http://www.tempsensindia.com/catlog/HandBook/topic-3.pdf. [Online]

[5] Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrheliometer. www.eikipedia.org. [Online]

[6] Abbot, C. G. and Aldrich, L. B. The Pyrheliometric Scale. Astrophysical Journal. 03, 1911, Vol. 33.

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Chapter 7 Bill of Materials and Cost

Chapter 7

BILL OF MATERIALS
AND COST

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Total Unit
Company Price price Fabricated Materials Specifications Date Item #
Chapter 7

Quantity
L.E. L.E.

Esperanza 25888 1 25888 Purchased Dr. Fuel Cell professional 1

1205 1 1205 Fabricated Aluminum 21.02.2010 Frame fabrication 2


Delta Technology
1931 1 1931 Purchased 23.02.2010 Computer 3
Elbostan mall

Elbehery shop 4 4 1 Purchased Aluminum Computer screen fixing bolts 4

Elkasr Elainy street 4 1 4 Purchased Glass 11.02.2010 Heater jar 5

1.5 1 1.5 Purchased Glass 06.05.2010 Heater water cylinder 6

0.2 mm diameter
2, 4, 1
Najeeb Elrehany street 2, 8, 5 1, 2, 5 Purchased 0.95 mm diameter Heater wire 7
m
2 mm diameter
6 2 3 Fabricated Electric heater 8

Spero plastic 510 2 510 Purchased Acrylic 24.02.2010 Acrylic plates 9

Nasr Eldeen street 10 1 10 Fabricated Acrylic cutting 10

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General shop 99 1 99 Purchased 36 volt DC, 1 A 10.03.2010 Lamp motor 11

158
Elameer 36 volt DC Lamp motor power supply 12
Bill of Materials and Cost
Total Unit
Company Price price Fabricated Materials Specifications Date Item #
Chapter 7

L.E.

Quantity
L.E.

Relays, fuses,
board, fuse base,
Ram shop 25 1 25 Fabricated 15.03.2010
optocouplers,
resistances

Relays, soldering
Ram shop 40.5 1 40.5 Fabricated 21.03.2010
lead

Transistors,
Ram shop 3.5 1 3.5 Fabricated resistances and 24.04.2010
daiods
Transistors, Lamp motor
13
resistances, control circuit
Ram shop 35.5 1 35.5 Fabricated daiods, op amps, 05.05.2010
terminal
connections.
Electric
Elnekhely 26 1 26 01.07.2010
components

Copper board,
Elnekhely 13 1 13 03.07.2011
marker, acid

Elnekhely 9 6 1.5 Switches 04.07.2011

36 V and

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Control circuit
Ram shop 275 1 275 computer power 26.06.2010 14
power supply
supply

0 1 0 Fan 15

159
Elnekhely 1.5 1 1.5 Purchased Led 01.07.2010 Bulb 16
Bill of Materials and Cost
Total Price Quantit Unit price
Company Fabricated Materials Specifications Date Item #
Chapter 7

L.E. y L.E.

Temperature
Najeeb lrehany street 148 1 148 Purchased 07.05.2010 17
sensor
Temperature
Najeeb lrehany street 655 1 655 Purchased 07.05.2010 18
indicator
Nationa l Instrument Data Acquisition
1500 1 1500 Purchased NI 6008 31.03.2010 19
Card

Bab Elouq Connection


108 10 10.8 Purchased 26.06.2010 20
cables

Bab Elouq
18 1 18 Purchased 26.06.2010 ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎء‬ 21

Steel shop 4 1 4 Purchased Fixing bolts 22

Acrylic printing
97 1 97 19.05.2010 23
and cutting

Electric wire
22 1 22 04.07.2010 24
terminals

20 1 20 01.07.2010 Electric wires 25

57 1 57 Phinel printing 19.05.2010

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20 10 2 Stickers one 01.07.2010 Sticker printing 26

20 20 1 Stickers two 04.07.2010

160
Bill of Materials and Cost
Chapter 8 Fabrication and Assembly

Chapter 8

FABRICATION AND
ASSEMBLY

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8.1. Educational Stand Fabrication


8.1.1. Bench Fabrication
8.1.1.1. Design
The project team intended to introduce the project idea in its shape as a first impression to the viewer.
So, we started a brainstorming session to get a different design which confined in expressing the
renewable energy system and our results were in Figure 8.1.

Figure 8.1 (a) shows the bench in shape of tree. This design has the advantage of viewing the renewable
and clean energies with analogy with what trees do in environment cleaning from CO2. On the other hand,
it was estimated to be very high and students would not be able to see the solar cell.

Figure 8.1 (b) shows the second design which is a house model demonstrating the independent energy
source “home refueling station“. The design was with movable solar roofs and full of internal stairs for
components placement. This aimed at putting the components in different levels to have a good view for
all components. It was large in size, complicated, costly and takes much time in fabrication.

(a) First design (b) Second design

Figure 8.1: Early bench designs

As we went further in thinking about the better design, we all agreed about the house bench in a simpler
design. The simple expressing design of light weight shiny colored was made from Aluminum alloy
''Alumetal''.

In a usual progress meeting, we generated the following ideas:

1) Solar panels to be placed on the sides of the house and changing the light source displacement.

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2) Placing the components on windows in the front of the house (in order to hide the case and undesired
connections)

3) A compromise between the other designs was: solar panels on the internal side of fixed roofs with a
matrix of lamps on the top of the house, only a half of the house front with windows for components
placement and table with wheels for the whole bench as shown in Figure 8.2.

Figure 8.2: Third bench design

A great change in our plan has happened, see chapter 3, when we had to down size our system. The new
system is characterized by small range and size of components (Solar panel-Fuel cell-Electrolyser).We
tried to save our main design of the house although the changes which were imposed on us (sizes-filling
material-sliders system), so we began to develop the design and make some modifications on it which
were:

(a) Placing all the components in the front of the bench in a geometric symmetry.

(b) Adding sliders to support the movable plates of the components.

(c) Resizing the bench/table to fit the new components and the average height of the students.

(d) Decision to make a market survey to determine the plates (filling) material from: acrylic, fiber and
wood.

After that we drew the design using AutoCAD and Solidworks programs with plan views and isometric
drawing as shown in Figure 8.3, Figure 8.4 and Figure 8.5. Also we made our market survey for getting
the best materials and fabrication workshops and getting their prices. We selected ‘‘Acrylic’’ because of
its pretty view, strength, preferred colors and durability (water and dust resistance) however its high cost
over the other materials.

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Figure 8.3: AutoCAD bench isometric drawing

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Chapter 8 Fabrication and Assembly

Figure 8.4: Solidworks bench and table 3D drawing

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Chapter 8 Fabrication and Assembly

Figure 8.5: Solidworks bench and table 2D drawing

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Chapter 8 Fabrication and Assembly

8.1.1.2. Manufacturing
The bench took 5 days to be finished with our design and materials as follows:

1. Saturday, 20-02-2010: We discussed the design with the worker, Mr. Gamal Rashad, the final
details for the bench and the table and agreed to make and finish them by Sunday, 28-02-2010.

2. Sunday, 21-02-2010: The worker bought the materials (Aluminum beams).

3. Monday, 22-02-2010: The materials were gone to the painting workshop to be colored with the
required color.

4. Tuesday, 23-02-2010: The materials were delivered to the Aluminum workshop and the worker
stared the fabrication.

5. Wednesday, 24-02-2010: At the morning, the bench was without the sliders and the worker gave
us the Acrylic sheets dimensions to buy them. We faced some problem with the table as follows:

a. The table was unstable, so we put small Aluminum triangles at each corner in the table and it
appeared stable at that moment.

b. The worker installed four wheels to the table. Some instability was noted, so we decided to put
another two wheels in the midpoint of the two beams.

6. Thursday, 25-02-2010: The worker fixed the sliders in the bench and in the table and put the
Acrylic sheets in its places. The surprise came when we put the bench on the table. Because of the Acrylic
weight, the table started to vibrate again. After thinking for the alternatives which could be used to fix this
problem, we decided to put triangular acrylic sheets at each corner in the table using the extra Acrylic
sheet, as we bought two large acrylic sheets (200 x 130 cm), to not spend additional money in extra
Aluminum beams and to save time wasted in buying and painting them. Finally, the table became stable
again and ready to use as shown in Figure 8.6.

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Chapter 8 Fabrication and Assembly

Figure 8.6: Fabricated bench and table

Notes

 The bench was designed so that it is easy remove any part for further fabrication of components
without the need to disassemble the lateral supports of the bench. We can just unseal the sliders
screws and get out the plates.
 The angle of the roof is not a 90˚ one. This is due to easier fabrication and better shape of the
house. This only affects the relative positioning of lamp to the solar panel which is solved as will
be shown in the next section.
 We covered the rear of the bench to minimize dust. This was done under the consideration of
permitting enough aeration for cooling the electronic components.
 When choosing the ’’Acrylic’’ material, we made estimation for the sheets required by calculating
the bench areas and simulating them by paper cuttings.

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Chapter 8 Fabrication and Assembly

8.1.2. Solar Lamp Movement Fabrication


8.1.2.1. Idea
It was not easy like expected. This was because the inclined roof for the bench which imposed a specific
movement for the stand and consequently the lamp relative to the solar panel (PV) such that the
perpendicular distance between them becomes the only parameter for the light density variation.
The stand design began after the determination of the bench design but before its fabrication in order to
make sure that the shape and mechanism attached to the bench will work and to determine the
requirements needed in bench fabrication for its design. The position of the stand relative to the bench
was discussed and there were many differences and objections on some ideas.

We started to regenerate ideas and determine its degree of compatibility with the fabricated bench. The
first two ideas were about positioning an inclined stand on the front of the bench to be seen or on its side,
but they were refused as they will give a bad view. Besides, the first may conflict with the components
while the second needs a complicated mechanism to drive the lamp. The third idea was a modification on
the idea of the previous meeting that the stand will be inclined and hidden on the back of bench but the
driving mechanism would be a wire-pulley system fixed on the side of the bench.

8.1.2.2. Motor
After we finished the control circuit we started to install the lamp to the bench. We mounted the lamp on
a straight bar which makes a right angle with the power screw of the motor (in order to simulate the
variation in the sun’s light intensity by the changing the distance from the photovoltaic) Figure 8.7, then
the whole system with the motor was placed at the back of the bench on an inclined aluminum bar to give
the perpendicularity motion of the lamp for uniform light distribution.

At the end of installation we used aluminum slots and two acrylic plates one was screwed with the power
screw and the second was screwed to the bench to ensure the vertical motion without rotation or tilting
due to lamp weight as shown in Figure 8.8.

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Figure 8.7: The photovoltaic placed on the inclined roof and the lamp is perpendicular on its face as the Sun

Figure 8.8: Lamp stand installation

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Chapter 8 Fabrication and Assembly

8.2. Educational Stand Assembly


While we were designing the lamp stand, we managed to finish the boring and installing the components
on the acrylic plates. We installed the Fuel cell, Electrolyser, switches (main switch-computer on/off -
lamp’s switches), loads (fan-heater-small lamp) and measuring devices’ panels as shown in Figure 8.9.

After we finished the lamp stand installation, Figure 8.8, on the bench we fixed the solar panel on the
roof as was shown in Figure 8.7. The following figures will show the whole bench assembled and some
components installed.

Figure 8.9: The bench with the assembled components

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Chapter 8 Fabrication and Assembly

Figure 8.10: Back of the bench

Figure 8.11: Monitor and DAQ Card


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Chapter 8 Fabrication and Assembly

Figure 8.12: Different components assembled to the bench

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Chapter 9 Operating Procedure of the Educational Stand

Chapter 9

OPERATING PROCEDURE OF
THE EDUCATIONAL STAND

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Chapter 9 Operating Procedure of the Educational Stand

There is a variety of experiments the students can undertake to understand, compare and analyze every
component in the system and/or the system as a whole. Nevertheless, 5 main experiments are minimally
required for a complete understanding of the system. The procedures of each experiment are
demonstrated in this chapter.

9.1. Experiment 1: Investigating the Solar Panel


9.1.1. Procedure

Figure 9.1: Solar Cell investigation

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 9.1. Set the variable resistance to ‘Open’.

2. Illuminate the solar module with the lamp by pressing on the lamp push button.

3. Adjust the position of the lamp to a certain distance e.g. 8cm.

4. Wait for approximately 5 minutes until the module has warmed up and the characteristic curve can be
recorded at a relatively constant temperature.

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Chapter 9 Operating Procedure of the Educational Stand

5. Measure the respective values for voltage and current output at different resistances starting with the
rotary switch in ‘open’ position (open) and then setting to decreasing resistances. The final measurement
is taken in the ‘short circuit’ position.

6. By connecting the fan and the lamp two extra points can be located on the characteristic curves. This
procedure can be repeated at different lamp positions.

9.1.2. Evaluation
1. Draw the IV diagram.

2. Interpret the characteristic curve.

3. Determine the maximum power point by drawing a graph of PV; power against voltage.

4. If this experiment is repeated at different lamp positions, a graph of maximum power can be plotted
against the corresponding voltage as will be shown in chapter 10.

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Chapter 9 Operating Procedure of the Educational Stand

9.2. Experiment 2: Investigating the characteristic curve of the


electrolyser
9.2.1. Procedure

Figure 9.2: Electrolyser investigation

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 9.2.Check the polarity!The positive terminal of the solar
module unit must be connected to the positive terminal of the electrolyser, and the negative terminal of
the solar module to the negative terminal of the electrolyser. Adjust the rotary switch of the load
measurement box to ‘short circuit’.

2. Adjust the current from the solar module by varying the solar module by varying the light intensity by
varying the lamp position.

3. Take a set of measurements of voltage and current during electrolysis and tabulate your results.

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Chapter 9 Operating Procedure of the Educational Stand

9.2.2. Evaluation
1. Draw the VI and PI characteristic curves of the electrolyser.

2. Interpret your results.

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Chapter 9 Operating Procedure of the Educational Stand

9.3. Experiment 3: Investigating the characteristic curve of a fuel


cell
9.3.1. Procedure

Figure 9.3: Single Fuel Cell investigation

The fuel cell must first be provided with a supply of hydrogen and oxygen from the electrolyser.

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 9.3. Check the polarity of the electrolyser.

2. Check that the gas tubes between the electrolyser and the fuel cell are correctly connected. Adjust the
rotary switch on the load measurement box to ‘open’ circuit.

3. Record the characteristic curve of the fuel cell by varying the measurement resistance. Start position at
‘open’ then decrease the resistance step by step by turning the rotary switch to the right. Record the
voltage and current for each resistance. Tabulate your results. Finally, measure the voltages and currents
of the fan and lamp.

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Chapter 9 Operating Procedure of the Educational Stand

4. Further, connect the fuel cells in series as shown in Figure 9.4 and another in parallel as shown in
Figure 9.5 and repeat step 3.

Figure 9.4: The fuel cells connected in series Figure 9.5: The fuel cells connected in parallel

9.3.2. Evaluation

1. Draw the VI and PI characteristic curves of the single fuel cell, series fuel cells and parallel fuel cells.

2. Interpret your results and compare.

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Chapter 9 Operating Procedure of the Educational Stand

9.4. Experiment 4: Solar Heater


9.4.1. Instructions

Figure 9.6: Solar heater experiment

1. Set apparatus as shown in Figure 9.6.

2. Adjust the lamp position either manually using push buttons or using buttons on the monitor screen.

3. Set the number of readings and time between each reading taken by the LABVIEW program on the
monitor screen and press start.

4. Record values of voltage, current and temperature e.g. every 30 seconds.

9.4.2. Evaluation
1. Draw voltage, current and temperature curves against time.

2. Interpret your results.

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Chapter 9 Operating Procedure of the Educational Stand

9.5. Experiment 5: Fuel Cell Heater


9.5.1. Procedure

Figure 9.7: Fuel cell heater experiment

1. Set apparatus as shown in Figure 9.7 by connecting the fuel cells in series.

2. Adjust the lamp position either manually using push buttons or using buttons on the monitor screen.

3. Set the number of readings and time between each reading taken by the LABVIEW program on the
monitor screen and press start.

4. Record values of voltage, current and temperature e.g. every 30 seconds.

9.5.2. Evaluation
1. Draw voltage, current and temperature curves against time.

2. Interpret your results.

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Chapter 9 Operating Procedure of the Educational Stand

9.6. Other Experiments


The educational stand can be used for a set of experiments other than the basic 5 discussed above
including:

1. The change of power output or photocurrent (in short circuit position) of the solar cell with lamp
distance from the cell

2. The change of power output or photocurrent (in short circuit position) of the solar cell with the
incident angle of the light.

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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

Chapter 10

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

10.1. Introduction
A monitoring system is used to monitor the characteristics of the components of the system. The
software codes along with the measurement devices can test the components under different loading
conditions. The educational use of the apparatus is greatly focused on this process. A student studying
renewable energy should be familiar with the electrical characteristics of a fuel cell, an electrolyser, and a
Photovoltaic cell and familiar with their behavior in a system. This chapter shows the results of
experiments carried on the apparatus components.

10.2. Results and Discussion

10.2.1. Electrolyser Characteristics

The electrolyser is tested under different voltages, and the relations between voltage and power versus
current is shown in Figures 10.1 and 10.2

Figure 10. 1: Electrolyser voltage-current curve

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Figure 10. 2: Electrolyser P-I characteristic curve

In Figure 10.1 the experimental results gives a standard VI characteristics for an electrolyser giving an
open circuit voltage of 1.36 V and increasing voltage with increasing current. Figure 10.2 shows nearly
linear Power-Current characteristics. The experimental results give an acceptable agreement with the
theoretical predictions. The electrolyser used 0.31 W of electricity when a voltage of 0.49 V was applied
on its terminals. The experimental data are limited due to the limit imposed by the photovoltaic cell used.
The cell was operated at intensity of about 2200 W/m2.

10.2.2. Single Fuel Cell

One of the two fuel cells is tested under different loads while working using all the available Hydrogen,
by varying the resistance which is attached in series with the fuel cell. The relation between voltage and
power versus current is demonstrated by a standard VI curve with an open circuit voltage of 0.93 V and
power was raised to reach 0.63 W at 0.61 V. The theoretical curve gives higher predictions of an average
of 0.18 V higher than theoretical voltages. In Figure 10.4, the theoretical power has a linear relation with

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the current, but the experimental data gave some deviation from the linear relation. The cell gave power
as high as 0.63 W at a voltage of 0.61 V.

Figure 10. 3: Single Fuel cell characteristic curve

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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

Figure 10. 4: Single Fuel Cell power - current characteristic curve

10.2.3. Fuel Cells in connection

Fuel cell characteristics were investigated while it is working in a series or parallel arrangement. In both
cases there were small differences from the single cell case. Nevertheless, these experiments allowed us
to expand the curves range by dividing the load on the two cells.

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The results, shown in Figures 10.5 and 10.6, show the difference between the two cases. Parallel
arrangement gave higher power and voltages and was closer to the theoretical results. Series arrangement
ranges of voltages are narrower due to the fact that voltage is divided upon the two used cells, so the cell
whose performance is being investigated gives lower voltages to supply the load than if performing alone,
and the loads used in tests are identical. Open circuit voltage for parallel cells is 0.923 V and for series
cells is 0.95 V. The theoretical open circuit voltage is 1.12 V which is higher by 0.18 V in average.

Power characteristics were nearly linear in the range calculated. At higher currents the curve tends to
deviate from the linear relation. Power reached 0.84W at 1.68 in case of series set of cells and 0.8W at
1.165A in case of parallel set of cells. Generally, theoretical are experimental results are close.

Figure 10. 5: V-I curve of a fuel cell in a set of cell

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Figure 10. 6: P-I curve of a fuel cell in a set of cells

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10.2.4. Heaters

10.2.4.1. Heater Powered by Solar Cell


The heaters use the power of the photovoltaic cell to heat 10cm3 of water. The code measures voltage
and current to compute power instantaneously and measures temperatures. Temperature data is used to
compute the power gained by the mass of water in form of heat. Energy input of the system is calculated
by adding the value of energy gain during the time delay to the sum of the preceding values.

The results are shown in Figures 10.7 and 10.8. The efficiency gives scattered characteristics at the start
due to non-homogeneous temperature spread in the water. The efficiency then approaches about 25%.

Figure 10. 7: Temperature change of 10 cm3 of water heated by a Heater powered by PV cell

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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

Figure 10. 8: Efficiency change of 10 cm3 water heated by a Heater powered by PV cell

10.2.4.2. Heater Powered by fuel Cell


The heaters use the power of the fuel cell to heat 10 cm3 of water. The code measures voltage and
current to compute power instantaneously and measures temperatures. Temperature data is used to
compute the power gained by the mass of water in form of heat. Energy input of the system is calculated
by adding the value of energy gain during the time delay to the sum of the preceding values. The
equations are mentioned in section 10.2.4.1. The results are shown in Figures 10.9 and 10.10. The
efficiency gives non-sense characteristics at the start due to non-homogeneous of temperature spread in
the water. The efficiency then approaches about 25%.

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Figure 10. 9: Temperature change of 10 cm3 of water heated by a Heater powered by fuel cell

Figure 10. 10: Efficiency change of 10 cm3 water heated by a Heater powered by PV cell

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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

10.2.5. Solar Cell performance

10.2.5.1. Characteristic curves


On 20 May 2010, in Cairo (longitude 30°, latitude 30°) experiments were carried out to determine the
performance of the PV cell in sun light normal conditions. The measurements were obtained 3 times
every hour. The Data is then averaged for every 2 hours. The detailed results are given in Appendix C.
The averaged data are shown in the following graphs

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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

i. From 6:00 to 8:00

Voltage (V) 1.94 1.73 1.56 1.28 1.02 0.60 0.44 0.31 0.20 0.11 0.07
Current (A) 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13
Power (mW) 5.82 39.24 66.54 119.51 170.87 138.64 104.90 73.54 52.30 28.03 18.11

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ii. From 8:00 to 10:00

Voltage (V) 2.29 2.28 2.27 2.25 2.21 2.08 1.90 1.52 0.80 0.46 0.35
Current (A) 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.12 0.22 0.44 0.55 0.64 0.67 0.69 0.69
Power (mW) 6.53 59.88 117.73 259.63 492.38 908.40 1053.43 1013.22 560.93 331.68 257.07

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iii. From 10:00 to 12:00

Voltage (V) 2.29 2.28 2.28 2.26 2.24 2.17 2.13 2.01 1.29 0.73 0.56
Current (A) 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.11 0.22 0.45 0.61 0.85 1.08 1.09 1.10
Power (mW) 5.22 59.29 117.04 243.34 501.06 985.38 1300.03 1710.71 1403.43 808.48 624.86

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iv. From 12:00 to 14:00

Voltage (V) 2.27 2.27 2.26 2.25 2.22 2.17 2.12 2.03 1.40 0.81 0.63
Current (A) 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.12 0.22 0.45 0.61 0.86 1.17 1.21 1.22
Power (mW) 4.87 57.03 115.69 258.90 495.68 978.82 1295.85 1734.55 1660.41 985.60 776.04

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v. From 14:00 to 16:00

Voltage (V) 2.26 2.25 2.25 2.23 2.20 2.13 2.06 1.87 1.08 0.62 0.48
Current (A) 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.12 0.22 0.44 0.59 0.79 0.90 0.92 0.93
Power (mW) 4.52 63.66 116.56 256.65 490.20 944.12 1224.65 1486.42 1000.56 586.00 458.73

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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

vi. From 16:00 to 18:00

Voltage (V) 2.19 2.18 2.17 2.14 2.08 1.78 1.47 1.05 0.55 0.30 0.23
Current (A) 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.11 0.21 0.37 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.46 0.46
Power (mW) 5.47 54.93 107.23 229.70 432.84 672.42 648.99 492.18 264.35 148.16 110.90

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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

vii. From 18:00 to 20:00

Voltage (V) 1.92 1.70 1.61 1.21 0.85 0.44 0.32 0.22 0.11 0.06 0.05
Current (A) 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.10
Power (mW) 5.15 37.04 62.47 104.06 113.11 65.70 48.61 32.97 16.82 9.26 7.09

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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

viii. The Average Data

Polynomial regression of 4th degree is used to get the average curves all over the day.

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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

10.2.5.2. Voltage at maximum power


The previous data were used to get the voltage at maximum power. The theoretical analysis gave lower
predictions. The error might be in the specifications of the solar cell and its performance constants as well
as environmental changes like global warming.

Figure 10. 11: Theoretical and Experimental Voltage corresponding to maximum power through the day

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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

10.3. Further Interpretation


This part possesses what we aim the students to understand after undertaking the experiment. Some of
the interpretation should be realized solely by the student but some need to be explained by the teacher
assistant supervising the student group.

10.3.1. Solar Cell


Generally, if we wish to increase the output of the solar module at a given current, we must connect
several solar cells in series: the overall voltage is then the sum of the individual voltages, while the
current remains constant. If we wish to increase the current at a given voltage, we must connect the solar
cells in parallel; in this case, the voltage remains constant, while the overall current is then the sum of the
partial currents.

In practical applications the load is the crucial factor that determines the number of solar cells and how
they are connected to make up a solar module and in turn a solar generator. The power consumption of
the load should always be as close to the MPP (maximum power point) as possible.

In conclusion,

1. The characteristic curves differ from module to module.


2. For a fixed light intensity the characteristic curve for a solar module shows a constant current
output for a range of voltages, i.e. as the load resistor is varied.
3. There is a MPP at which the module outputs its maximum power for a specific illumination.

10.3.2. Electrolyser
The IV curve of the electrolyser shows that a current only starts to flow at a certain voltage, and it then
rises continuously. The initial application of a small voltage does not cause an electrolysis current leading
to the release of hydrogen at the cathode and oxygen at the anode; nothing appears to happen.

The gases that may form at a small voltage are initially adsorbed on the surface of the electrodes; an
electrochemical cell develops. This cell has a certain voltage known as the polarization voltage, which
causes a current. This internal current acts in the opposite direction to the electrolysis current. More gas is
adsorbed if the external voltage is increased. At a certain voltage, the gas pressure at the electrodes
reaches the level of the external air pressure, and gas bubbles begin to rise at the electrodes.

A further increase in the external voltage leads to continuous gas production and a steep rise in the
electrolysis current strength.

The minimum voltage at which the splitting of water begins is called the decomposition voltage. In our
case this voltage is equal to the cell voltage of the H2//H2O//O2 electrochemical cell under standard
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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

conditions. This value is 1.23V. Refer to equation 4.28.The difference between the theoretical
decomposition voltage and the decomposition voltage that is determined experimentally is termed
overpotential or overvoltage.

The overpotential is a function of the electrode material, the texture of the electrode surfaces, the type
and concentration of the electrolyte surfaces, the type and concentration of the electrolyte, the current
density (current strength per unit area of electrode surface) and the temperature.

In practical applications, the aim is to keep overpotential to a minimum. Thus, it is important to use very
good, active electrode and electrolyte material.

The student should notice:

1. The relationship between current and voltage in the electrolyser

2. The electrolysis needs a minimum voltage before it can start.

10.3.3. Fuel Cell


The processes in the fuel cell are the reverse of those that take place in electrolysis. In the electrolysis of
water, at least 1.23V must be applied before water begins to split, while in case of the fuel cell, a lower
voltage than expected is generated for the same reasons.

The characteristic curve is affected by the materials used for the electrodes and catalysts, the internal
resistance, the temperature and the volume of the hydrogen and the oxygen being supplied.

At a very small or zero current, the voltage across the fuel cell is approximately 0.9V. This voltage is
called the off-load voltage (by analogy with a battery). It is very dependent on the volume and purity of
the input gases. The more current is drawn from the fuel cell, the lower the voltage becomes. There is an
exponential increase in the current as the voltage drops.

The students should notice:

1. The voltage drops as the current taken from the fuel cell increases

2. The comparison between the characteristic curves of the electrolyser and the fuel cell

Fuel Cells in Series and Parallel

When two fuel cells are connected in series, the operating voltage doubles if the current remains
constant, as in the case of batteries. When two fuel cells are connected in parallel, the current doubles if
the voltage remains constant. However, the voltage and current of the fuel cells are determined by the
electric load.

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Chapter 10 Results and Discussion

The students should notice:

1. The connecting fuel cells in series results in a summation of the voltages at constant current

2. The connecting fuel cells in parallel results in a summation of the currents at constant voltage

3. That it is, ultimately the electric load which determines the fuel cells output

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Appendix F EWTR 910 TEMPERATURE PANEL DATA SHEET

APPENDICES

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Appendix A Thermophysical Properties of Matters

Appendix A
THERMOPHYSICAL
PROPERTIES OF
SELECTED MATTERS

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Appendix A Thermophysical Properties of Matters

The convention used to present numerical values of the properties is illustrated by this example:

Reference

Frank P. Incropera, David P. dewitt, Theodore L. Bergman, Adrienne S. Lavine ‘Fundamentals of Heat and
Mass Transfer 6th Edition’, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken NJ, 2007, ISBN / ASIN: 0470055545

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Appendix A Thermophysical Properties of Matters

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Appendix A Thermophysical Properties of Matters

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Appendix A Thermophysical Properties of Matters

Table A. 1: Therophysical Properties of Saturated Water

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Appendix A Thermophysical Properties of Matters

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Appendix B Free Convection Heat Transfer Correlations

Appendix B
FREE CONVECTION HEAT
TRANSFER CORRELATIONS

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Appendix B Free Convection Heat Transfer Correlations

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Appendix B Free Convection Heat Transfer Correlations

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Appendix B Free Convection Heat Transfer Correlations

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Appendix C Solar Cell Actual Characteristic Curve Investigation

Appendix C

SOLAR CELL ACTUAL


CHARACTERISTIC CURVE
INVESTIGATION

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Appendix C Solar Cell Actual Characteristic Curve Investigation

Abstract

This appendix demonstrates the results of the test undertaken on the solar cell to get its actual
characteristic curve. The test was held on Thursday 20/05/2010. The solar panel was directed to south
with thirty degree inclination angle (𝛽𝛽 = 30°) as show in Figure C.1. The results were recorded and
processed using a LabView program (designed by the project team) and saved in an Excel sheet. The
test was taken approximately every fifteen minutes from 05:43 AM to 7:59 PM (Cairo Local Time),
fifty readings were recorded as following:

Figure C. 1: Solar panel facing south with thirty degree inclined angle

Results

05:43 AM

Voltage (V) 0.043 0.009 0.003 0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.003 -0.003 -0.003
Current (A) 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003
Power (mW) 0.086 0.018 0.009 0.003 -0.003 -0.006 -0.004 -0.004 -0.009 -0.009 -0.009

06:02 AM

Voltage (V) 1.145 0.433 0.247 0.115 0.059 0.027 0.019 0.012 0.004 0.002 0.001
Current (A) 0.003 0.007 0.009 0.009 0.008 0.008 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009
Power (mW) 3.435 3.101 2.223 1.035 0.472 0.216 0.171 0.108 0.036 0.018 0.009

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06:21 AM

Voltage (V) 1.747 1.283 0.801 0.383 0.201 0.096 0.068 0.045 0.022 0.011 0.008
Current (A) 0.003 0.016 0.021 0.036 0.019 0.024 0.024 0.023 0.023 0.024 0.024
Power (mW) 5.241 20.528 16.821 13.788 3.819 2.304 1.632 1.035 0.506 0.264 0.192

06:38 AM

Voltage (V) 1.959 1.791 1.449 0.760 0.402 0.194 0.141 0.095 0.046 0.024 0.018
Current (A) 0.003 0.021 0.033 0.041 0.043 0.043 0.043 0.043 0.043 0.044 0.044
Power (mW) 5.877 37.611 47.817 31.16 17.286 8.342 6.063 4.085 1.978 1.056 0.792

06:57 AM

Voltage (V) 2.067 2.009 1.897 1.296 0.696 0.339 0.246 0.166 0.083 0.044 0.034
Current (A) 0.003 0.024 0.044 0.068 0.071 0.073 0.073 0.075 0.075 0.074 0.075
Power (mW) 6.201 48.216 83.468 88.128 49.419 24.747 17.958 12.45 6.225 3.256 2.55

07:17 AM

Voltage (V) 2.185 2.163 2.14 2.055 1.648 0.857 0.63 0.431 0.221 0.122 0.095
Current (A) 0.003 0.025 0.034 0.105 0.166 0.181 0.189 0.186 0.19 0.191 0.193
Power (mW) 6.555 54.075 72.76 215.775 273.568 155.117 119.07 80.166 41.99 23.302 18.335

07:33 AM

Voltage (V) 2.223 2.209 2.192 2.142 2.021 1.212 0.887 0.614 0.31 0.175 0.135
Current (A) 0.003 0.025 0.059 0.112 0.202 0.255 0.255 0.263 0.265 0.268 0.27
Power (mW) 6.669 55.225 129.328 239.904 408.242 309.06 226.185 161.482 82.15 46.9 36.45

07:51 AM

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Voltage (V) 2.247 2.237 2.223 2.184 2.101 1.499 1.121 0.774 0.738 0.377 0.212
Current (A) 0.003 0.025 0.051 0.113 0.211 0.314 0.324 0.33 0.316 0.322 0.323
Power (mW) 6.741 55.925 113.373 246.792 443.311 470.686 363.204 255.42 233.208 121.394 68.476

08:09 AM

Voltage (V) 2.259 2.249 2.239 2.21 2.152 1.859 1.393 0.961 0.481 0.267 0.204
Current (A) 0.003 0.026 0.052 0.114 0.216 0.388 0.403 0.409 0.407 0.407 0.407
Power (mW) 6.777 58.474 116.428 251.94 464.832 721.292 561.379 393.049 195.767 108.669 83.028

08:26 AM

Voltage (V) 2.285 2.277 2.267 2.244 2.203 2.06 1.803 1.273 0.646 0.359 0.277
Current (A) 0.003 0.028 0.051 0.115 0.226 0.431 0.52 0.538 0.546 0.545 0.547
Power (mW) 6.855 63.756 115.617 258.06 497.878 887.86 937.56 684.874 352.716 195.665 151.519

08:43 AM

Voltage (V) 2.285 2.28 2.271 2.25 2.21 2.086 1.897 1.385 0.715 0.396 0.306
Current (A) 0.003 0.026 0.052 0.116 0.229 0.435 0.547 0.588 0.604 0.602 0.603
Power (mW) 6.855 59.28 118.092 261 506.09 907.41 1037.659 814.38 431.86 238.392 184.518

09:00 AM

Voltage (V) 2.296 2.289 2.281 2.261 2.224 2.125 2.01 1.624 0.839 0.474 0.366
Current (A) 0.003 0.026 0.052 0.116 0.221 0.443 0.58 0.687 0.708 0.715 0.713
Power (mW) 6.888 59.514 118.612 262.276 491.504 941.375 1165.8 1115.688 594.012 338.91 260.958

09:16 AM

Voltage (V) 2.294 2.285 2.279 2.259 2.224 2.132 2.035 1.716 0.914 0.515 0.397
Current (A) 0.003 0.026 0.052 0.116 0.22 0.444 0.585 0.724 0.769 0.776 0.78
Power (mW) 6.882 59.41 118.508 262.044 489.28 946.608 1190.475 1242.384 702.866 399.64 309.66

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09: 33 AM

Voltage (V) 2.285 2.279 2.272 2.255 2.223 2.139 2.051 1.752 0.942 0.548 0.424
Current (A) 0.003 0.026 0.052 0.116 0.223 0.446 0.591 0.74 0.792 0.826 0.829
Power (mW) 6.855 59.254 118.144 261.58 495.729 953.994 1212.141 1296.48 746.064 452.648 351.496

09:49 AM

Voltage (V) 2.295 2.288 2.283 2.265 2.238 2.165 2.101 1.913 1.037 0.626 0.485
Current (A) 0.002 0.026 0.052 0.115 0.224 0.462 0.604 0.808 0.871 0.939 0.945
Power (mW) 4.59 59.488 118.716 260.475 501.312 1000.23 1269.004 1545.704 903.227 587.814 458.325

10:07 AM

Voltage (V) 2.3 2.295 2.29 2.275 2.247 2.18 2.122 1.974 1.172 0.667 0.513
Current (A) 0.002 0.026 0.052 0.115 0.224 0.453 0.611 0.833 0.984 1.002 1.002
Power (mW) 4.6 59.67 119.08 261.625 503.328 987.54 1296.542 1644.342 1153.248 668.334 514.026

10:23 AM

Voltage (V) 2.288 2.285 2.282 2.264 2.238 2.173 2.116 1.979 1.162 0.675 0.52
Current (A) 0.002 0.027 0.052 0.116 0.224 0.453 0.61 0.836 0.976 1.011 1.011
Power (mW) 4.576 61.695 118.664 262.624 501.312 984.369 1290.76 1654.444 1134.112 682.425 525.72

10:40 AM

Voltage (V) 2.28 2.278 2.272 2.256 2.228 2.165 2.111 1.988 1.171 0.655 0.494
Current (A) 0.002 0.026 0.051 0.116 0.224 0.45 0.607 0.84 0.983 0.983 0.96
Power (mW) 4.56 59.228 115.872 261.696 499.072 974.25 1281.377 1669.92 1151.093 643.865 474.24

10:57 AM

Voltage (V) 2.27 2.265 2.263 2.249 2.224 2.165 2.121 2.023 1.316 0.743 0.577
Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.051 0.116 0.219 0.453 0.609 0.854 1.102 1.112 1.121
Power (mW) 4.54 56.625 115.413 260.884 487.056 980.745 1291.689 1727.642 1450.232 826.216 646.817

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11:14 AM

Voltage (V) 2.279 2.271 2.264 2.249 2.223 2.163 2.117 2.011 1.265 0.714 0.548
Current (A) 0.003 0.026 0.052 0.115 0.223 0.451 0.609 0.848 1.061 1.071 1.067
Power (mW) 6.837 59.046 117.728 258.635 495.729 975.513 1289.253 1705.328 1342.165 764.694 584.716

11:31 AM

Voltage (V) 2.276 2.269 2.265 2.249 2.224 2.166 2.122 2.032 1.349 0.755 0.586
Current (A) 0.003 0.026 0.052 0.116 0.224 0.451 0.611 0.854 1.131 1.131 1.138
Power (mW) 6.828 58.994 117.78 260.884 498.176 976.866 1296.542 1735.328 1525.719 853.905 666.868

11:48 AM

Voltage (V) 2.305 2.3 2.295 2.284 2.263 2.209 2.17 2.091 1.571 0.903 0.704
Current (A) 0.002 0.026 0.05 0.06 0.231 0.461 0.624 0.879 1.316 1.351 1.366
Power (mW) 4.61 59.8 114.75 137.04 522.753 1018.349 1354.08 1837.989 2067.436 1219.953 961.664

12:04 PM

Voltage (V) 2.279 2.276 2.266 2.252 2.224 2.164 2.115 2.01 1.327 0.772 0.59
Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.052 0.115 0.224 0.452 0.608 0.849 1.111 1.154 1.143
Power (mW) 4.558 56.9 117.832 258.98 498.176 978.128 1285.92 1706.49 1474.297 890.888 674.37

12:21 PM

Voltage (V) 2.281 2.278 2.272 2.26 2.238 2.183 2.142 2.064 1.53 0.872 0.69
Current (A) 0.002 0.026 0.051 0.116 0.224 0.437 0.617 0.872 1.281 1.304 1.337
Power (mW) 4.562 59.228 115.872 262.16 501.312 953.971 1321.614 1799.808 1959.93 1137.088 922.53

12:38 PM

Voltage (V) 2.258 2.258 2.254 2.243 2.223 2.167 2.123 2.036 1.444 0.825 0.646
Current (A) 0.003 0.025 0.051 0.115 0.225 0.451 0.611 0.859 1.209 1.233 1.253
Power (mW) 6.774 56.45 114.954 257.954 500.175 977.317 1297.153 1748.924 1745.796 1017.225 809.438

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12: 55 PM

Voltage (V) 2.272 2.267 2.258 2.239 2.21 2.142 2.081 1.927 1.052 0.607 0.463
Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.052 0.115 0.222 0.446 0.601 0.812 0.883 0.91 0.899
Power (mW) 4.544 56.675 117.416 257.485 490.62 955.332 1250.681 1564.724 928.916 552.37 416.237

01:12 PM

Voltage (V) 2.271 2.268 2.264 2.249 2.226 2.173 2.132 2.051 1.5 0.858 0.674
Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.051 0.115 0.221 0.453 0.613 0.866 1.254 1.281 1.299
Power (mW) 4.542 56.7 115.464 258.635 491.946 984.369 1306.916 1776.166 1881 1099.098 875.526

01:29 PM

Voltage (V) 2.274 2.269 2.265 2.254 2.23 2.178 2.138 2.058 1.531 0.879 0.689
Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.051 0.116 0.222 0.473 0.615 0.869 1.282 1.315 1.332
Power (mW) 4.548 56.725 115.515 261.464 495.06 1030.194 1314.87 1788.402 1962.742 1155.885 917.748

01:46 PM

Voltage (V) 2.265 2.26 2.256 2.242 2.218 2.161 2.121 2.041 1.413 0.838 0.65
Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.05 0.114 0.222 0.45 0.61 0.861 1.182 1.249 1.256
Power (mW) 4.53 56.5 112.8 255.588 492.45 972.45 1293.81 1757.301 1670.166 1046.662 816.4

02:03 PM

Voltage (V) 2.295 2.286 2.284 2.27 2.245 2.191 2.147 2.06 1.416 0.818 0.634

Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.051 0.12 0.224 0.456 0.618 0.869 1.184 1.224 1.224
Power (mW) 4.59 57.15 116.484 272.4 502.88 999.096 1326.846 1790.14 1676.544 1001.232 776.016

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02:20 PM

Voltage (V) 2.26 2.256 2.251 2.235 2.208 2.142 2.086 1.952 1.14 0.662 0.523
Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.05 0.116 0.221 0.446 0.6 0.824 0.954 0.989 1.007
Power (mW) 4.52 56.4 112.55 259.26 487.968 955.332 1251.6 1608.448 1087.56 654.718 526.661

02:37 PM

Voltage (V) 2.26 2.258 2.253 2.239 2.211 2.143 2.09 1.963 1.152 0.656 0.506
Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.051 0.114 0.22 0.446 0.601 0.825 0.965 0.982 0.972
Power (mW) 4.52 56.45 114.903 255.246 486.42 955.778 1256.09 1619.475 1111.68 644.192 491.832

02:54 PM

Voltage (V) 2.253 2.245 2.239 2.223 2.194 2.122 2.06 1.91 1.077 0.609 0.467
Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.049 0.114 0.229 0.442 0.592 0.805 0.901 0.908 0.901
Power (mW) 4.506 56.125 109.711 253.422 502.426 937.924 1219.52 1537.55 970.377 552.972 420.767

03:11 PM

Voltage (V) 2.255 2.253 2.244 2.226 2.198 2.123 2.06 1.882 1.017 0.575 0.445
Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.051 0.114 0.228 0.442 0.593 0.793 0.852 0.861 0.859
Power (mW) 4.51 56.325 114.444 253.764 501.144 938.366 1221.58 1492.426 866.484 495.075 382.255

03:28 PM

Voltage (V) 2.237 2.228 2.222 2.203 2.167 2.071 1.964 1.534 0.787 0.472 0.366
Current (A) 0.002 0.048 0.05 0.113 0.215 0.431 0.565 0.648 0.66 0.709 0.708
Power (mW) 4.474 106.944 111.1 248.939 465.905 892.601 1109.66 994.032 519.42 334.648 259.128

03:53 PM

Voltage (V) 2.256 2.249 2.242 2.224 2.193 2.113 2.033 1.798 0.96 0.553 0.426
Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.061 0.114 0.221 0.44 0.584 0.758 0.804 0.758 0.832
Power (mW) 4.512 56.225 136.762 253.536 484.653 929.72 1187.272 1362.884 771.84 419.174 354.432

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04:10 PM

Voltage (V) 2.203 2.198 2.188 2.166 2.127 1.999 1.791 1.267 0.64 0.354 0.27
Current (A) 0.002 0.026 0.05 0.094 0.212 0.417 0.515 0.536 0.538 0.567 0.531
Power (mW) 4.406 57.148 109.4 203.604 450.925 833.583 922.365 679.112 344.32 200.718 143.37

04:37 PM

Voltage (V) 2.234 2.224 2.216 2.193 2.152 2.039 1.901 1.439 0.744 0.409 0.309
Current (A) 0.002 0.025 0.051 0.112 0.216 0.424 0.547 0.607 0.624 0.613 0.602
Power (mW) 4.468 55.6 113.016 245.616 464.832 864.536 1039.847 873.473 464.256 250.717 186.018

04:55 PM

Voltage (V) 2.187 2.179 2.173 2.148 2.097 1.88 1.54 1.11 0.583 0.329 0.254
Current (A) 0.002 0.024 0.049 0.111 0.209 0.392 0.442 0.47 0.49 0.496 0.495
Power (mW) 4.374 52.296 106.477 238.428 438.273 736.273 680.68 521.7 285.67 163.184 125.73

05:12 PM

Voltage (V) 2.195 2.186 2.177 2.147 2.085 1.753 1.339 0.919 0.52 0.291 0.223
Current (A) 0.003 0.025 0.049 0.11 0.208 0.366 0.375 0.389 0.437 0.44 0.439
Power (mW) 6.585 54.65 106.673 236.17 433.68 641.598 502.125 357.491 227.24 128.04 97.897

05:28 PM

2.132
Voltage (V) 2.157 2.143 2.09 1.989 1.417 1.056 0.724 0.364 0.202 0.155
Current (A) 0.003 0.025 0.048 0.107 0.199 0.297 0.305 0.308 0.31 0.309 0.308
Power (mW) 6.471 53.575 102.336 223.63 395.811 420.849 322.08 222.992 112.84 62.418 47.74

05:45 PM

Voltage (V) 2.178 2.166 2.152 2.117 2.037 1.605 1.216 0.838 0.424 0.235 0.181
Current (A) 0.003 0.026 0.049 0.109 0.203 0.335 0.351 0.356 0.358 0.357 0.357
Power (mW) 6.534 56.316 105.448 230.753 413.511 537.675 426.816 298.328 151.792 83.895 64.617

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06:01 PM

Voltage (V) 2.129 2.112 2.092 2.028 1.827 1.021 0.749 0.514 0.261 0.145 0.111
Current (A) 0.002 0.024 0.048 0.105 0.183 0.214 0.22 0.219 0.223 0.223 0.224
Power (mW) 4.258 50.688 100.416 212.94 334.341 218.494 164.78 112.566 58.203 32.335 24.864

06:18 PM

Voltage (V) 2.081 2.056 2.024 1.905 1.366 0.679 0.491 0.331 0.165 0.09 0.068
Current (A) 0.003 0.024 0.045 0.098 0.139 0.144 0.143 0.142 0.143 0.142 0.141
Power (mW) 6.243 49.344 91.08 186.69 189.874 97.776 70.213 47.002 23.595 12.78 9.588

06:36 PM

Voltage (V) 2.052 2.021 1.979 1.791 1.103 0.543 0.394 0.267 0.134 0.073 0.057
Current (A) 0.003 0.023 0.046 0.092 0.111 0.115 0.116 0.115 0.116 0.117 0.116
Power (mW) 6.156 46.483 91.034 164.772 122.433 62.445 45.704 30.705 15.544 8.541 6.612

06:52 PM

Voltage (V) 2.006 1.959 1.887 1.388 0.755 0.365 0.266 0.18 0.089 0.048 0.037
Current (A) 0.003 0.022 0.043 0.072 0.08 0.078 0.079 0.08 0.079 0.079 0.079
Power (mW) 6.018 43.098 81.141 99.936 60.4 28.47 21.014 14.4 7.031 3.792 2.923

07:09 PM

Voltage (V) 1.944 1.858 1.658 0.908 0.479 0.23 0.166 0.112 0.055 0.029 0.022
Current (A) 0.003 0.022 0.038 0.049 0.05 0.051 0.049 0.051 0.05 0.051 0.051
Power (mW) 5.832 40.876 63.004 44.492 23.95 11.73 8.134 5.712 2.712 1.479 1.122

07:26 PM

Voltage (V) 1.851 1.603 1.603 0.508 0.265 0.125 0.091 0.06 0.028 0.014 0.011
Current (A) 0.003 0.019 0.025 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.029 0.029 0.029 0.029 0.029
Power (mW) 5.553 30.457 26.575 14.224 7.42 3.5 2.639 1.74 0.812 0.406 0.319

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07:42 PM

Voltage (V) 1.435 0.552 0.298 0.135 0.068 0.031 0.022 0.013 0.004 0.002 0.001
Current (A) 0.002 0.008 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009
Power (mW) 2.87 4.416 2.682 1.215 0.612 0.279 0.198 0.104 0.036 0.018 0.009

07:59 PM

Voltage (V) 0.245 0.053 0.026 0.011 0.002 0.001 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.003 -0.003
Current (A) 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003
Power (mW) 0.49 0.106 0.052 0.033 0.006 0.003 -0.003 -0.006 -0.009 -0.009 -0.009

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Appendix D

NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix D NI USB-6008 DATA SHEET

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Appendix E PT100 TEMPERATURE SENSOR DATA SHEET

Appendix E

PT100 TEMPERATURE
SENSOR DATA SHEET

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Appendix E PT100 TEMPERATURE SENSOR DATA SHEET

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Appendix F EWTR 910 TEMPERATURE PANEL DATA SHEET

Appendix F

EWTR 910
TEMPERATURE PANEL
DATA SHEET
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Appendix F EWTR 910 TEMPERATURE PANEL DATA SHEET

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Appendix F EWTR 910 TEMPERATURE PANEL DATA SHEET

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Appendix F EWTR 910 TEMPERATURE PANEL DATA SHEET

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Appendix F EWTR 910 TEMPERATURE PANEL DATA SHEET

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Appendix G Heater Experiments

Appendix G

HEATER EXPERIMENTS

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Appendix G Heater Experiments

I. Introduction
These measurements aim to know if the electric heater behaviour works on DC power supply and its
ability to heat 100 gm of water.

II. Measurements components


1. Computer power supply.

2. Nickel-chrome wires 0.2 mm, 0.4mm and 0.95mm (heater).

3. Jar.

4. Multimeter.

5. Electric cables.

6. Bordun tube thermometer with accuracy 2°C and range 0°C - 100°C.

7. Carbon rods (Resistances).

8. Stopwatch.

Figure G.1: Measurements components

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III. Measurements: According to H-30 Fuel Cell Voltage-Current Curve, we tried


to achieve the same voltages and currents.

1. I= 1 A V= 9.5 V P= 9.5 W

2. I= 2 A V= 9 V P= 18 W

3. I= 3 A V= 8.5 V P26 W

4. I= 4 A V=7.75V P= 31 W

5. I= 5 A V= 6 V P= 30 W

1. First Heater Measurement

Heater:

V= 10.88 v

R=13.4 Ω

I= 0.81 A

P= 8.81 W

Diameter = 0.2 mm

Length = 38 cm

Water: C = 4180 J/kg.k (assumed as distilled water).


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m= 100 gm.

* Calculations:

∆T ideal = Power*time/(m*C)

Power losses= m.C(∆Ti-∆Ta)/time

∆Ti: ideal

∆Ta: actual

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Figure G. 2: First Measurement Tmperature

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Figure G. 3: First Measurement Power

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2. Second Heater Measurement

Heater:
V= 10.71 v
R=9.8 Ω
I= 1.09 A
P= 11.674 W
Diameter = 0.4 mm
Length = 113 cm
Water:
C = 4180 J/kg.k (assumed as distilled water).
m= 100 gm.
* Calculations:
∆T ideal = Power*time/(m*C)
Power losses= m.C(∆Ti-∆Ta)/time
∆Ti: ideal
∆Ta: actual

Figure G. 4: The second heater

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Figure G. 5: Second Measurement Temperature

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Figure G. 6: Second Measurement Power

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3. Third Heater Measurement

Source:

V= 10.27 v

Heater:

V= 9.52 v R=4.5 Ω I= 2.12A P= 20.2W

Diameter = 0.4 mm

Length = 49.3 cm

Water:

C = 4180 J/kg.k (assumed as distilled water).

m= 100 gm.

* Calculations:

∆T ideal = Power*time/(m*C)

Power losses= m.C(∆Ti-∆Ta)/time

∆Ti: ideal ∆Ta: actual

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Figure G. 7: Third Measurement Temperature

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Figure G. 8: Third Measurement Power

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4. Fourth Heater Measurement

Source: V= 9.37 v 1.7


R1+R2(carbon rods): V= 1.53 v R=0.9 Ω I= 1.7 A
Heater: V= 7.83 v R=2 Ω I= 3.915A P= 30.7 W
Diameter = 0.95 mm Length = 58 cm 30.7
Water: C = 4180 J/kg.k (assumed as distilled water).
m= 100 gm.
*Notes:
- Bubbles began at 180 sec.
- Bubbles on the jar body at 400 sec.
- fast bubbles at 800 sec. .
- Boiling began at 980 sec.
- High boiling began at 1200 sec.
* Comment:
There was an error in readings between 52°C -- 92°C
* Calculations:
∆T ideal = Power*time/(m*C)
Power losses= m.C(∆Ti-∆Ta)/time
∆Ti: ideal ∆Ta: actual

Figure G. 9: Fourth heater measurements

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Figure G. 10: Fourth Measurement Temperature

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Figure G. 11: Fourth Measurement Power

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5. Fifth Heater Measurement

Source: V= 8.94 v 5.25 33.1


Heater: V= 6.3v R=1.2 Ω
I=5.25A P= 33.1W
Diameter = 0.95 mm Length = 33 cm
Water: C = 4180 J/kg.k (assumed as distilled water).
m= 100 gm.
*Notes:
- Bubbles began at 100 sec.
- Fast bubbles at 220 sec. .
- Boiling began at 680 sec.
- High boiling began at 1280 sec.
* Comment:
There was an error in readings
between 61°C -- 93°C
* Calculations:
∆T ideal = Power*time/(m*C)
Power losses= m.C(∆Ti-∆Ta)/time
∆Ti: ideal ∆Ta: actual

Figure G. 12: Fifth heater experiment

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Figure G. 13: Fifth Measurement Temperature

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Figure G. 14: Fifth Measurement Power

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IV. Conclusion
1. Measurements Temperatures

Figure G. 15: Measurements Temperatures

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2. Measurements location on H-30 Fuel Cell Voltage - Current curve

H-30 FC Heaters
# I (A) V (v) I (A) V (v)
- 0 10.8 - -
1 1 9.5 0.8 10.88
2 2 9 1.09 10.71
3 3 8.5 2.1 9.52
4 4 7.75 3.915 7.83
5 5 6 5.25 6.3

Figure G. 16: Measurements location on H-30 Fuel Cell Voltage - Current curve

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A THEORETICAL STUDY TO ESTIMATE THE MAXIMUM


SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF THE EXPERIMENT HEATER
WIRES
Problem
Some nichrome heaters of dimensions shown were used to heat 100 grams of water in a jar. The wire
is shaped into a helix. Estimate the maximum surface temperature reached for the following
conditions.

Heater Length Diameter Power per Final water Isothermal


(cm) (mm) unit area temp (T∞) Boiling?
(W/m2)
1 38 0.2 36899 45 No.
2 114 0.4 8221 48 No.
3 49 0.4 32605 75 No.
4 58 0.95 17735 100 Yes
5 33 0.95 33608 100 Yes

Analysis
For the First three heaters:
Free convection relations were used to determine surface temperature by iterations.

Relations from:
Morgan V.T. (1975). The overall convective heat transfer from smooth circular cylinder. Advances in Heat Transfer
(Academic) 11 (199-264)

Where:

And
h: heat transfer coefficient [W/m2.K]
D: pipe diameter [m]
K: conductive heat transfer coefficient [W/m.K]

: expansion coefficient [K-1]


wire surface temperature [K]

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T∞: water temperature far enough from the wire [K]


ρ: water density [Kg/m3]

water viscosity [Pa.s]


Heaters 4 and 5
These two heaters caused the water to boil. Assuming local water saturation temperature near
the wire, and nucleate boiling, we used the nucleate boiling relations to obtain a solution. No
iteration was required. All properties is at saturation temperature.

Nucleate pool boiling relations:

For critical heat flux:

Where
liquid viscosity [Pa.s]
: latent heat of vaporization [J/Kg]
: liquid water density [Kg/m3]
: vapor water density [Kg/m3]

: surface tension [N/m]


: liquid constant specific heat [J/Kg.K]

: Prandtl Number

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Results
Heater 1
T∞[C] 4.50E+01 Q\\ (W/m2) 3.69E+04
Iteration Tsur [C] Tf [K] g (m/s2) b (1/K) D (m) n (N.s.m/Kg)
1 60.0 325.5 9.81E+00 4.71E-04 2.00E-04 5.35E-07
2 53.5 322.2 9.81E+00 4.45E-04 2.00E-04 5.46E-07
3 54.3 322.7 9.81E+00 4.45E-04 2.00E-04 5.46E-07
Iteration Pr K (W/mK) Ra c m h [W/m2.K] Tsur(new)
1 3.42 0.65 6.63 1.02 0.15 4352.37 53.48
2 3.57 0.64 3.55 1.02 0.15 3955.11 54.33
3 3.57 0.64 3.90 1.02 0.15 4011.54 54.20

Heater 2
T∞[C] 4.50E+01 Q\\ (W/m2) 3.69E+04
Iteration Tsur [C] Tf [K] g (m/s2) b (1/K) D (m) n (N.s.m/Kg)
1 60.0 327.0 9.81E+00 4.79E-04 4.00E-04 5.15E-07
2 47.8 320.9 9.81E+00 4.37E-04 4.00E-04 5.83E-07
3 48.7 321.3 9.81E+00 4.37E-04 4.00E-04 5.83E-07
Iteration Pr K (W/mK) Ra c m h [W/m2.K] Tsur(new)
1 3.33 0.64 56.62 1.02 0.15 2984.47 50.75
2 3.77 0.64 8.35 1.02 0.15 2234.37 51.68
3 3.77 0.64 11.18 1.02 0.15 2332.81 51.52

Heater 3
T∞[C] 4.50E+01 Q\\ (W/m2) 3.69E+04
Iteration Tsur [C] Tf [K] g (m/s2) b (1/K) D (m) n (N.s.m/Kg)
1 90.0 355.5 9.81E+00 6.52E-04 4.00E-04 3.53E-07
2 83.1 352.1 9.81E+00 6.35E-04 4.00E-04 3.53E-07
3 83.3 352.2 9.81E+00 6.35E-04 4.00E-04 3.53E-07
Iteration Pr K (W/mK) Ra c m h [W/m2.K] Tsur(new)
1 2.14 0.67 315.98 1.02 0.15 4010.63 83.13
2 2.21 0.67 270.21 1.02 0.15 3912.98 83.33
3 2.21 0.67 271.63 1.02 0.15 3916.01 83.33

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Appendix G Heater Experiments

Heater 4 and 5
Properties of water at Tsat=373.15K
μl 2.79E-04 N.s/m2
h fg 2.26E+06 J/Kg
ρl 957 Kg/m3
ρv 0.596 Kg/m3
σ 5.89E-02 N/m
cp l 4.22E+03 J/kg.k
Pr 1.76E+00
Csf 8.00E-03

Solving for surface temperature resulted in:


Q chf 1105515 W/m2
Q/A [W/m2] Δt [C] Tsurf max [C]
Fourth Heater 17735 3 103
Fifth Heater 33608 4 104

Conclusion
Maximum attained Surface temperatures of the heaters were estimated as:

Maximum surface
Heater No. Analysis Type
Temperature [C]

1 Free convection 54
2 Free convection 52
3 Free convection 83
4 Nucleate Boiling 103
5 Nucleate Boiling 104

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Appendix H Matlab Code

Appendix H

MATLAB CODE

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Appendix H Matlab Code

%% Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Modeling %%

%%The aim of this part is to calculate the radiation on the surface of the
%%photovoltaic as well as the maximum power output of the photovoltaic
%%throughout the duration of daylight at certain day n

clc, clear
n=90+30+31+30+31; % The day
m=1;

phi=30*pi/180; % The latitude angle of cairo

delta1=23.45*sin(360*(284+n)/365*pi/180);
delta=delta1*pi/180; % Solar declination angle in radians

w_s1=(acos(-tan(phi)*tan(delta)))*180/pi; % Half sunshine hours in degrees


w_s=w_s1*pi/180;

beta=30*pi/180; % PV tilt angle equals latitude angle

if 0<n&n<32
sn=0.598; Ta=18+273.15; %%January
elseif 31<n&n<60
sn=0.647; Ta=21+273.15; %%February
elseif 59<n&n<91
sn=0.689; Ta=24+273.15; %%March
elseif 90<n&n<121
sn=0.771; Ta=28+273.15; %%April
elseif 120<n&n<152
sn=0.815; Ta=33+273.15; %%May
elseif 151<n&n<182
sn=0.859; Ta=35+273.15; %%June
elseif 181<n&n<213
sn=0.883; Ta=36+273.15; %%July
elseif 212<n&n<244
sn=0.809; Ta=35+273.15; %%August
elseif 243<n&n<274
sn=0.731; Ta=32+273.15; %%September
elseif 273<n&n<305
sn=0.702; Ta=30+273.15; %%October
elseif 304<n&n<335
sn=0.693; Ta=26+273.15; %%November
else
sn=0.516; Ta=20+273.15; %%December
end

if beta==phi-delta
Cf=1;
else
Cf=1-1.17*(10^(-4))*((phi-delta)-beta)*180/phi;
end

H_o=(24*3600*1367/pi)*(1+0.033*cos(360*n/365*pi/180))*(cos(delta)*cos(phi)*sin(w_s)+w_s*sin(phi)*sin(
delta))/1000000;

K_T_avg=0.461+0.259*(sn);
H=K_T_avg*H_o;

H_d=(1.188-(2.272*K_T_avg)+(9.473*(K_T_avg^2))-(21.865*(K_T_avg^3))+(14.648*(K_T_avg^4)))*H;

a=0.409+0.5016*sin((w_s1-60)*pi/180);
b=0.6609-0.4767*sin((w_s1-60)*pi/180);

R_d1=(1+cos(beta))/2;
R_r1=0.3*((1-cos(beta))/2);

w=-w_s;

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Appendix H Matlab Code

while w<w_s
omega(m)=w*180/pi;
r_t(m)=(pi/24)*(a+b*cos(w))*(cos(w)-cos(w_s))/(sin(w_s)-(w_s)*cos(w_s));
I_g(m)=r_t(m)*H;
r_d(m)=(pi/24)*(cos(w)-cos(w_s))/(sin(w_s)-(w_s)*cos(w_s));
I_d(m)=r_d(m)*H_d;
R_b1(m)=((cos(phi-beta))*(cos(delta))*(cos(w))+(sin(phi-
beta))*(sin(delta)))/((cos(phi))*(cos(delta))*(cos(w))+(sin(phi))*(sin(delta)));

% Solar radiation on a tilted PV in W/m2


I_gt(m)=((I_g(m)-I_d(m))*R_b1(m)+R_d1*I_d(m)+R_r1*I_g(m))*1000000/3600;

m=m+1;
w=w+0.001;
end

figure(1)
plot(omega/15,I_gt,'b','LineWidth',2)
gridon
holdon
title('Variation of total hourly radiation on tilted surface');
xlabel('\omega (hr)');
ylabel('Igt (W/m2)');
axis([-1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,0,1000])

%This part is dedicated for PV Calculations for 4 cells solar panel

%%The aim of this part is to determine the values of the shunt resistance
%%and the series resistance

num_PV=1;

%% Information from DrFuelCell™ Professional datasheet

Iscn = 1; %Nominal short-circuit current [A]


Vocn = 2.3; %Nominal module open-circuit voltage [V]
Imp =0.9220; %Array current @ maximum power point [A]
Vmp = 1.8439; %Array voltage @ maximum power point [V]
Pmax_e = Vmp*Imp; %Array maximum output peak power [W]
Kv = -0.004; %Voltage/temperature coefficient [V/K]
Ki = 3.18e-4; %Current/temperature coefficient [A/K]
Ns = 4; %Nunber of series cells
length=0.2; %Length of the photovoltaic module
width=0.13; %Width of the photovoltaic module
NOCT=50+273.15; % Nominal operating cell temperature

%% Constants

k = 1.3806503e-23; %Boltzmann [J/K]


q = 1.60217646e-19; %Electron charge [C]
aa = 1.3; %Diode constant
Eg=0.7; %Energy gap of Indium(III) nitride (InN)

%% Nominal values

Gn = 1000; % Nominal irradiance [W/m^2] @ 25oC


Tn = 25 + 273.15; % Nominal operating temperature [K]

%% Adjusting algorithm

% The model is adjusted at the nominal condition


T = Tn;
G = 1000;

Vtn = k * Tn / q; %Thermal junction voltage (nominal)


Vt = k * T / q; %Thermal junction voltage (current temperature)

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Appendix H Matlab Code

Ion = Iscn/(exp(Vocn/(aa*Ns*Vtn))-1); % Nominal diode saturation current

Io = Ion;

% Reference values of Rs and Rp (Series & Shunt resistances)


Rs_max = (Vocn - Vmp)/ Imp;
Rp_min = Vmp/(Iscn-Imp) - Rs_max;

% Initial guesses of Rp and Rs


Rp = Rp_min;
Rs = 0;

tol = 0.001; % Power mismatch Tolerance

P=[0];

error = Inf; %dummy value

% Iterative process for Rs and Rp until Pmax,model = Pmax,experimental

while (error>tol)

% Temperature and irradiation effect on the current


dT = T-Tn;
Ipvn = (Rs+Rp)/Rp * Iscn; % Nominal light-generated current
Ipv = (Ipvn + Ki*dT) *G/Gn; % Actual light-generated current
Isc = (Iscn + Ki*dT) *G/Gn; % Actual short-circuit current

% Increments Rs
Rs = Rs + .001;

% Parallel resistance
Rp = Vmp*(Vmp+Imp*Rs)/(Vmp*Ipv-Vmp*Io*exp((Vmp+Imp*Rs)/(Vt*Ns*aa))+Vmp*Io-Pmax_e);

% Solving the I-V equation for several (V,I) pairs


clearV
clearI

V = 0:.1:Vocn; % Voltage vector


I = zeros(1,size(V,2)); % Current vector

for j = 1 : size(V,2) %Calculates for all voltage values

% Solves g = I - f(I,V) = 0 with Newton-Raphson

g(j) = Ipv-Io*(exp((V(j)+I(j)*Rs)/(Vt*Ns*aa))-1)-(V(j)+I(j)*Rs)/Rp-I(j);

while (abs(g(j)) > 0.001)

g(j) = Ipv-Io*(exp((V(j)+I(j)*Rs)/(Vt*Ns*aa))-1)-(V(j)+I(j)*Rs)/Rp-I(j);
glin(j) = -Io*Rs/(Vt*Ns*aa)*exp((V(j)+I(j)*Rs)/(Vt*Ns*aa))-Rs/Rp-1;
I(j) = I(j) - g(j)/glin(j);

end

end% for j = 1 : size(V,2)

% Calculates power using the I-V equation


P = I.*V;

Pmax_m = max(P);

error = (Pmax_m-Pmax_e);

end% while (error>tol)

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Appendix H Matlab Code

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

disp(sprintf('PV Model info:\n'));


disp(sprintf(' Rp_min = %f',Rp_min));
disp(sprintf(' Rp = %f',Rp));
disp(sprintf(' Rs_max = %f',Rs_max));
disp(sprintf(' Rs = %f',Rs));
disp(sprintf(' a = %f',a));
disp(sprintf(' T = %f',T-273.15));
disp(sprintf(' G = %f',G));
disp(sprintf(' Pmax,m = %f (model)',Pmax_m));
disp(sprintf(' Pmax,e = %f (experimental)',Pmax_e));
disp(sprintf(' tol = %f',tol));
disp(sprintf('P_error = %f',error));
disp(sprintf(' Ipv = %f',Ipv));
disp(sprintf(' Isc = %f',Isc));
disp(sprintf(' Ion = %f',Ion));
disp(sprintf('\n\n'));

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
T=Ta+((219+832*K_T_avg)*((NOCT-273.15)-20)/800)*Cf;

Ipvn = (Rs+Rp)/Rp * Iscn; % Nominal light-generated current

Ion=Iscn/(exp(Vocn/(aa*Vtn*Ns))-1);
Io=Ion*((Tn/T)^3)*exp((q*Eg)/(aa*k)*abs((1/Tn)-(1/T)));

m=1;
w=-w_s;

while w<w_s
omega(m)=w*180/pi;

Ipv(m) = (Ipvn + Ki*dT) *I_gt(m)/Gn; % Actual light-generated current


Isc(m) = (Iscn + Ki*dT) *I_gt(m)/Gn; % Actual short-circuit current

clearV
clearI
V = 0:.1:Vocn; % Voltage vector
I = zeros(1,size(V,2)); % Current vector

for j = 1 : size(V,2) %Calculates for all voltage values

% Solves g = I - f(I,V) = 0 with Newnton-Raphson


I(j)=1;
g(j) = Ipv(m)-Io*(exp((V(j)+I(j)*Rs)/(Vt*Ns*aa))-1)-(V(j)+I(j)*Rs)/Rp-I(j);

while (abs(g(j)) > 0.001)

g(j) = Ipv(m)-Io*(exp((V(j)+I(j)*Rs)/(Vt*Ns*aa))-1)-(V(j)+I(j)*Rs)/Rp-I(j);
glin(j) = -Io*Rs/(Vt*Ns*aa)*exp((V(j)+I(j)*Rs)/(Vt*Ns*aa))-Rs/Rp-1;
I(j) = I(j) - g(j)/glin(j);

end

end% for j = 1 : size(V,2)

% Calculates power using the I-V equation


P = I.*V;

Pmax_m(m) = max(P);

% PV efficiency in percentage
efficiency(m)=Pmax_m(m)/(I_gt(m)*length*width)*100;
zrd=Pmax_m(m);
location=find(P==zrd);
V_m(m)=V(location);

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Appendix H Matlab Code

if abs(w-0)<=0.001 % @ noon of the day

for j=1:size(V,2)
Vs_cr(j)=V(j); % PV characteristic Voltage
Is_cr(j)=I(j); % PV characteristic Current
Ps_cr(j)=Is_cr(j)*Vs_cr(j); % PV characteristic Power
end

figure(2)
plot(Vs_cr,Is_cr,'b','LineWidth',2)
xlim([0 Vocn+0.2]);
ylim([0 1.1*max(I)]);
gridon
title('Photovoltaic I-V curve at max. intensity of specific day');
xlabel('PV voltage, V [V]');
ylabel('PV current, I [A]');

figure(3)
plot(Vs_cr,Ps_cr,'b','LineWidth',2)
xlim([0 Vocn+0.2]);
ylim([0 Pmax_e+0.2]);
gridon
title('Photovoltaic P-V curve at max. intensity of specific day');
xlabel('PV voltage, V [V]');
ylabel('PV power, P [W]');

end
m=m+1;
w=w+0.001;

end

%% Outputs
figure(4)
plot(omega/15,V_m,'b','LineWidth',2)
gridon
holdon
title('Variation of optimum voltage through sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('Optimum PV voltage, V_o_p_t [V]');
axis([-w_s*180*1.1/pi/15,w_s*180*1.1/pi/15,0,max(V_m)*1.1])

figure(5)
plot(omega/15,Pmax_m,'b','LineWidth',2)
gridon
holdon
title('Variation of PV maximum power through sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('Maximum PV power, P_m_a_x [W]');
axis([-w_s*180*1.1/pi/15,w_s*180*1.1/pi/15,0,max(Pmax_m)*1.1])

figure(6)
plot(omega/15,efficiency,'b','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('Variation of photovoltaic efficiency among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('PV efficiency, \eta');
axis([-w_s*180*1.1/pi/15,w_s*180*1.1/pi/15,0,15])

Pmax_max=max(Pmax_m);
zrd1=Pmax_max;
location=find(Pmax_m==zrd1);
Vmax_max=V_m(location);

disp(sprintf('For the day = %f',n));


disp(sprintf('Max. PV Power over the day [W] = %f',Pmax_max));
disp(sprintf('The corresponding voltage [V] = %f',Vmax_max));
%%
%%Electrolyser
Telec=Ta; % electrolyser temperature equals ambient temperature

% reversible voltage (V)


Urev=1.5184-1.5421*10^-3*Telec+9.523*10^-5*Telec*log(Telec)+9.84*10^-8*Telec^2;

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Appendix H Matlab Code

Aelec=0.003; % electrolyser effective area (m^2)


%%%%

electrolyzervoltage=1.8; % electrolyser voltage (1.4~1.8 V)


forcounterofelectrolyzer=[1 2 3 4];
m=1;
w=-w_s;

while w<w_s
omega1(m)=w*180/pi;

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

% first guess for the current of electrolyser


Ielec(m)=Pmax_m(m)*num_PV/electrolyzervoltage;
IA(m)=Ielec(m)/Aelec; % current density (A/m^2)
del_m=0.1/1000; % thickness of membrane (assumed in range) (m)
sig_m_ref=14; % reference membrane conductivity @80 C (0.14 S/cm)
sig_m=sig_m_ref*exp((1/353)+(1/Telec));
res_ohm_m=del_m*(1/(Aelec*sig_m)); % membrane resistance (ohm)
res_ohm_c=0; % neglect with respect to the membrane resistance
res_ohm_an=0; % neglect with respect to the membrane resistance

% activation overpotential of cathode (where jo,c=10^-3 A/cm^2) (V)


eta_act_c(m)=(8.314*Telec/(96485))*asinh(IA(m)/(2*10));

% activation overpotential of anode (where jo,an=10^-7 A/cm^2)(V)


eta_act_an(m)=(8.314*Telec/(96485))*asinh(IA(m)/(2*(10^-3)));

% directly proporional with the current (approximate method)


eta_diff(m)=0.1555*Ielec(m);
U(m)=Urev+eta_diff(m)+eta_act_an(m)+eta_act_c(m)+(res_ohm_an+res_ohm_c+res_ohm_m)*Ielec(m);
if (U(m)<1.4)
U(m)=0;
Ielec(m)=0;
n_H2(m)=0;
Q_H2(m)=0;
else

%Hydrogen molar flow rate from the electrolyser (mol/sec)


n_H2(m)=0.99*Ielec(m)/(2*96485);
Q_H2(m)=n_H2(m)*60*0.022414*1000000; %Hydrogen volume flow rate (ml/min)
end

P_w_sat=exp(13.669-(5096.23/Telec))*1.01325; % in bars
t_elec=Telec-273;
Y=42960+40.762*t_elec-(0.06682*(t_elec^2)); % absolute humidity
phi_w=(1.5*P_w_sat)/(1.01325-P_w_sat); % relative humidity
V_HHV=1.4756+(2.252*(10^-4))*t_elec+(1.52*(10^-8))*(t_elec^2);
V_tn=V_HHV+(phi_w*Y/(2*96485));

O(m)=V_tn/U(m);
if U(m)==0
O(m)=0;
elseif U(m)>0 && O(m)>1
O(m)=1;
end

eta_elec(m)=O(m)*0.99*100; % electrolyser electric efficiency


Heat_gen_elec(m)=U(m)*Ielec(m)*(1-O(m)); % Generated Heat (W)
Heat_loss_elec(m)=(1/0.167)*(Telec-Ta); % Lost heat (W)
Heat_cooling_elec(m)=Heat_gen_elec(m)-Heat_loss_elec(m);% cooling heat (W)

if abs(w-0)<=0.001 % @ noon of the day


l=1;
for Ielec1=0:0.001:Ielec(m)

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Appendix H Matlab Code

Ielec_cr(l)=Ielec1; % electrolyser characteristic current


IA_cr(l)=Ielec_cr(l)/Aelec;
eta_act_c_cr(l)=(8.314*Telec/(96485))*asinh(IA_cr(l)/(2*10));
eta_act_an_cr(l)=(8.314*Telec/(96485))*asinh(IA_cr(l)/(2*(10^-3)));
eta_diff_cr(l)=0.1555*Ielec_cr(l);

% electrolyser characteristic voltage

U_cr(l)=Urev+eta_diff_cr(l)+eta_act_an_cr(l)+eta_act_c_cr(l)+(res_ohm_an+res_ohm_c+res_ohm_m)*Ielec_c
r(l);
l=l+1;
end
P_cr=Ielec_cr.*U_cr; % electrolyser characteristic power
end

m=m+1;
w=w+0.001;
end
P_elec=Ielec.*U;
electrolyzervoltage=abs(max(U))*1;

end
m;
P_avg=sum(Pmax_m)/(m-1);
P_tot=P_avg*num_PV*2*w_s*180/pi/15;
Iaxis=max(Ielec);
Qaxis=max(Q_H2);
eta_elec_axis=max(eta_elec);
P_elec_axis=max(P_elec);

Heat_cooling_elec_avg=sum(Heat_cooling_elec)/(m-1);
Heat_cooling_elec_tot=Heat_cooling_elec_avg*2*w_s*180/pi/15;

Heat_gen_elec_avg=sum(Heat_gen_elec)/(m-1);
Heat_gen_elec_tot=Heat_gen_elec_avg*2*w_s*180/pi/15;

Heat_loss_elec_avg=sum(Heat_loss_elec)/(m-1);
Heat_loss_elec_tot=Heat_loss_elec_avg*2*w_s*180/pi/15;

Q_avg=sum(Q_H2)/(m-1);
Q_tot=Q_avg*2*w_s*180/pi/15;
%% Electrolyser outputs

figure(7)
plot(Ielec_cr,U_cr,'b','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('electrolyser V-I curve at max. intensity of specific day');
xlabel('electrolyser currenct, Ielec. [A]');
ylabel('electrolyser voltage, V [volts]');
xlim([0.9*min(Ielec_cr) 1.1*max(Ielec_cr)]);
ylim([0.9*min(U_cr) 1.1*max(U_cr)]);

figure(8)
plot(Ielec_cr,P_cr,'b','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('electrolyser P-I curve at max. intensity of specific day');
xlabel('electrolyser current, Ielec. [A]');
ylabel('electrolyser power, Pelec. [W]');
xlim([0.9*min(Ielec_cr) 1.1*max(Ielec_cr)]);
ylim([0.9*min(P_cr) 1.1*max(P_cr)]);

figure(9)
plot(omega/15,Ielec,'r','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('Variation of electrolyser current among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('Electrolyzer current, I (A)');
axis([-1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,0,1.1*Iaxis])

figure(10)
plot(omega/15,U,'b','LineWidth',2)

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand - Cairo University | 2009-2010 301
Appendix H Matlab Code

gridon
title('Variation of electrolyzer voltage among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('Electrolyzer voltage, U (V)');
ylim([0 1.1*max(U)]);

figure(11)
plot(omega/15,Q_H2,'r','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('Variation of hydrogen production rate among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('Hydrogen volume flow rate, Q (ml/min)');
axis([-w_s*180*1.1/pi/15,1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,0,1.1*Qaxis])

figure(12)
plot(omega/15,eta_elec,'g','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('Variation of electrolyser efficiency among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('electrolyser efficeinvy, \eta (%)');
axis([-w_s*180*1.1/pi/15,w_s*180*1.1/pi/15,0,1.1*eta_elec_axis])

figure(13)
plot(omega/15,P_elec,'b','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('Variation of electrolyser power among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('electrolyser Power, P (w)');
axis([-w_s*180*1.1/pi/15,w_s*180*1.1/pi/15,0,1.1*P_elec_axis])

figure(14)
plot(omega/15,Heat_gen_elec,'g','LineWidth',2)
gridon
holdon
title('Variation of electrolyzer heat');
xlabel('\omega');
ylabel('Heats Q (Gen. (green),Lost (red),Cool. (blue))(W)');
plot(omega/15,Heat_loss_elec,'r','LineWidth',2)
plot(omega/15,Heat_cooling_elec,'b','LineWidth',2)

%% fuel cell

P_fc=1; % Fuel cell pressure (atm)


F=96487; % Faraday constant (mol/c)
Tcell=Ta; % cell temperature equals ambient emperature
Rgc=8.314; % universal gas constant
in=3; % internal and fuel crossover equivalent current density (mA/cm2)
io=0.1; % sum of cathode & anode exchange current densities (mA/cm2)
r=2.54*(10^-4); % area specific resistance (ASR) (k?.cm2)
m_fc=2.11*(10^-5);
n_fc=8*10^(-3);
HHV=141900; % Higher heating value of hydrogen (kj/kg)
utilization=0.96;
n_cell_fc=1;
Emax=1.1;
Afc=0.0016; % cell effective area (m2)

A_fc=Rgc*Tcell/(2*0.5*F);

P_H2=2/3*P_fc; % hydrogen pressure (atm)


P_O2=1/3*P_fc; % oxygen pressure (atm)

% reversibe voltage
E_Nernst=1.229-(0.85*10^(-3))*(Tcell-298.15)+(4.3085*10^(-5))*Tcell*(log(P_H2)+0.5*log(P_O2));

m=1;
w=-w_s;
while w<w_s
% used fuel cell hydrogen is the produced from the electrolyser (kg/hr)
m_H2_fc(m)=Q_H2(m)*60*0.08988/1000000;

% fuel cell current produced


I_fc(m)=m_H2_fc(m)*(2*96487*1000*utilization)/2.0158/3600;

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand - Cairo University | 2009-2010 302
Appendix H Matlab Code

ifI_fc(m)>0
i(m)=I_fc(m)/Afc;
Vact(m)=A_fc*log((i(m)+in)/io); % Activation voltage drop (V)
Vohm(m)=(i(m)+in)*r; % Ohmic voltage drop (V)
Vconc(m)=m_fc*exp(n_fc*i(m)); % Concentration voltage drop (V)

Vcell(m)=E_Nernst-Vact(m)-Vohm(m)-Vconc(m); % produced cell voltage (V)


Wcell(m)=I_fc(m)*Vcell(m);

% heat released rate (W)


Q_heat_fuelcell(m)=(Emax-Vcell(m))*I_fc(m)*n_cell_fc;

% mass rate of produced water (kg/sec)


m_H2O_fuelcell=I_fc(m)*n_cell_fc*(18.018/1000)/(2*F);

% mass rate of consumed oxygen (kg/min)


m_O2_fc(m)=m_H2_fc(m)/(2.0158*2)*32/1000/utilization*60;

% volume rate of consumed oxygen (ml/min)


Q_O2_fc(m)=m_O2_fc(m)*1000000/1.429;

% cogeneration efficiency (%)


eta_cell_cogen(m)=(Wcell(m)+Q_heat_fuelcell(m))*3600*100/(m_H2_fc(m)*HHV*1000);

% electric power efficiency (%)


eta_cell(m)=Wcell(m)*3600*100/(m_H2_fc(m)*HHV*1000);

Powerdensity(m)=Wcell(m)/Aelec;

% 2 cells with each half the hydrogen flow rate


I_2(m)=I_fc(m)/2;
i_2(m)=I_2(m)/Afc;
Vact_2(m)=A_fc*log((i_2(m)+in)/io);
Vohm_2(m)=(i_2(m)+in)*r;
Vconc_2(m)=m_fc*exp(n_fc*i_2(m));
Vcell_2(m)=E_Nernst-Vact_2(m)-Vohm_2(m)-Vconc_2(m);
% parallel
% Power of one cell in parallel connection
Wcell_1_p(m)=I_2(m)*Vcell_2(m);
% series
% power of one cell in series connection
Wcell_1_s(m)=I_2(m)*Vcell_2(m);

else
i(m)=0;
Vact(m)=A_fc*log((i(m)+in)/io);
Vohm(m)=(i(m)+in)*r;
Vconc(m)=m_fc*exp(n_fc*i(m));

Vcell(m)=0;
Wcell(m)=I_fc(m)*Vcell(m);

Q_heat_fuelcell(m)=(Emax-Vcell(m))*I_fc(m)*n_cell_fc;

m_H2O_fuelcell=I_fc(m)*n_cell_fc*(18.018/1000)/(2*F);

m_O2_fc(m)=m_H2_fc(m)/(2.0158*2)*32/1000/utilization*60;
Q_O2_fc(m)=m_O2_fc(m)*1000000/1.429;

eta_cell_cogen(m)=0;
eta_cell(m)=0;
I_2(m)=I_fc(m)/2;
i_2(m)=I_2(m)/Aelec;
Vact_2(m)=A_fc*log((i_2(m)+in)/io);
Vohm_2(m)=(i_2(m)+in)*r;
Vconc_2(m)=m_fc*exp(n_fc*i_2(m));
Vcell_2(m)=0;
% parallel
% Power of one cell in parallel connection
Wcell_1_p(m)=I_2(m)*Vcell(m);
% series
% power of one cell in series connection
Wcell_1_s(m)=I_fc(m)*Vcell_2(m);

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Appendix H Matlab Code

end
if abs(w-0)<=0.001
s=1;
for I1=0:0.001:I_fc(m)
I_cr(s)=I1;
i_cr(s)=I_cr(s)/Afc;
Vact_cr(s)=A_fc*log((i_cr(s)+in)/io);
Vohm_cr(s)=(i_cr(s)+in)*r;
Vconc_cr(s)=m_fc*exp(n_fc*i_cr(s));
Vcell_cr(s)=E_Nernst-Vact_cr(s)-Vohm_cr(s)-Vconc_cr(s);
Wcell_cr(s)=I_cr(s)*Vcell_cr(s);
% 2 cells with each half the hydrogen flow rate
I_2_cr(s)=I_cr(s)/2;
i_2_cr(s)=I_2_cr(s)/Afc;
Vact_2_cr(s)=A_fc*log((i_2_cr(s)+in)/io);
Vohm_2_cr(s)=(i_2_cr(s)+in)*r;
Vconc_2_cr(s)=m_fc*exp(n_fc*i_2_cr(s));
Vcell_2_cr(s)=E_Nernst-Vact_2_cr(s)-Vohm_2_cr(s)-Vconc_2_cr(s);
% parallel
% Power of one cell in parallel connection
Wcell_1_p_cr(s)=I_2_cr(s)*Vcell_2_cr(s);
% series
% power of one cell in series connection
Wcell_1_s_cr(s)=I_2_cr(s)*Vcell_2_cr(s);
s=s+1;
end
end

m=m+1;
w=w+0.001;
end

I_fc_axis=max(I_fc);
Vcell_axis=max(Vcell);
Wcell_axis=max(Wcell);
eta_cell_axis=max(eta_cell);
eta_cell_cogen_axis=max(eta_cell_cogen);
Wcell_1_p_axis=max(Wcell_1_p);
Wcell_1_s_axis=max(Wcell_1_s);

%% Fuel cell Outputs

figure(15)
plot(omega/15,I_fc,'b','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('Variation of Fuel cell current among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('current, I (A)');
axis([-w_s*180*1.1/pi/15,1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,0,1.1*I_fc_axis])

figure(16)
plot(omega/15,Vcell,'r','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('Variation of Fuel cell voltage among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('voltage, Vcell (V)');
axis([-1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,0,1.1*Vcell_axis])

figure(17)
plot(omega/15,Wcell,'k','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('Variation of Fuel cell Power among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('Power, Wcell (W)');
axis([-1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,0,1.1*Wcell_axis])

figure(18)
plot(omega/15,eta_cell,'y','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('Variation of Fuel cell Power efficiency among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('Power efficiency, \etacell (%)');
axis([-1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,min(eta_cell)-10,1.1*eta_cell_axis])

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand - Cairo University | 2009-2010 304
Appendix H Matlab Code

figure(19)
plot(omega/15,Wcell_1_p,'g','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('Variation of one Fuel cell power in parallel connection among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('Power , P (W)');
axis([-1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,0,1.1*Wcell_1_p_axis])

figure(20)
plot(omega/15,Wcell_1_s,'g','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('Variation of one Fuel cell power in series connection among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('Power , P (W)');
axis([-1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,0,1.1*Wcell_1_s_axis])

figure(21)
plot(omega/15,2*Wcell_1_s,'r','LineWidth',2)
gridon
holdon
title('Variation of two Fuel cells power in series & parallel connection among sunlight duration');
xlabel('Solar hour, \omega (hr)');
ylabel('Power , Wcell(series (red),parallel (green)) ( (W)');
plot(omega/15,2*Wcell_1_p,'g','LineWidth',2)
axis([-1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,1.1*w_s*180/pi/15,0,1.1*max(2*Wcell_1_s)])

figure(22)
plot(I_cr,Vcell_cr,'b','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('V-I curve of one Fuel cell at noon of specific day');
xlabel('current I (A)');
ylabel('Voltage , Vcell (V)');
ylim([0.9*min(Vcell_cr) 1.1*max(Vcell_cr)]);

figure(23)
plot(I_cr,Wcell_cr,'b','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('P-I curve of one Fuel cell at noon of specific day');
xlabel('current I (A)');
ylabel('Power , Wcell (W)');
ylim([0 1.1*max(Wcell_cr)]);

figure(24)
plot(I_2_cr,Vcell_2_cr,'r','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('V-I curve of one Fuel cell in parallel connection at noon of specific day');
xlabel('current I (A)');
ylabel('Voltage , Vcell (W)');
ylim([0.9*min(Vcell_2_cr) 1.1*max(Vcell_2_cr)]);

figure(25)
plot(I_2_cr,Wcell_1_p_cr,'r','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('P-I curve of one Fuel cell in parallel connection at noon of specific day');
xlabel('current I (A)');
ylabel('Power , Wcell (W)');
ylim([0 1.1*max(Wcell_1_p_cr)]);

figure(26)
plot(I_2_cr,Vcell_2_cr,'g','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('V-I curve of one Fuel cell in series connection at noon of specific day');
xlabel('current I (A)');
ylabel('Voltage , Vcell (V)');
ylim([0.9*min(Vcell_2_cr) 1.1*max(Vcell_2_cr)]);

figure(27)
plot(I_2_cr,Wcell_1_s_cr,'g','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('P-I curve of one Fuel cell in series connection at noon of specific day');

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand - Cairo University | 2009-2010 305
Appendix H Matlab Code

xlabel('current I (A)');
ylabel('Power , Wcell (W)');
ylim([0 1.1*max(Wcell_1_s_cr)]);

figure(28)
plot(2*I_2_cr,Vcell_2_cr,'r','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('V-I curve of two Fuel cells in parallel connection at noon of specific day');
xlabel('current I2cell (A)');
ylabel('Voltage , Vcell (V)');
ylim([0.9*min(Vcell_2_cr) 1.1*max(Vcell_2_cr)]);

figure(29)
plot(2*I_2_cr,2*Wcell_1_p_cr,'r','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('P-I curve of two Fuel cells in parallel connection at noon of specific day');
xlabel('current I2cell (A)');
ylabel('Power , W2cell (W)');
ylim([0 1.1*max(2*Wcell_1_s_cr)]);

figure(30)
plot(I_2_cr,2*Vcell_2_cr,'g','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('V-I curve of two Fuel cell in series connection at noon of specific day');
xlabel('current I (A)');
ylabel('Voltage , V2cell (V)');
ylim([0.9*min(2*Vcell_2_cr) 1.1*max(2*Vcell_2_cr)]);

figure(31)
plot(I_2_cr,2*Wcell_1_s_cr,'g','LineWidth',2)
gridon
title('P-I curve of two Fuel cells in series connection at noon of specific day');
xlabel('current I (A)');
ylabel('Power , W2cell (W)');
ylim([0 1.1*max(2*Wcell_1_s_cr)]);

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Heater Educational Stand - Cairo University | 2009-2010 306