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THE DUALITY OF MATTER AND WAVES

Frank Znidarsic*

ABSTRACT
A quantum measurement may detect a particle or a wave. The bias of the observer appears to influence the outcome
of the experiment. Newton’s laws of motion are not dependent upon the bias of an observer. The nature of the
influence that the observer imparts upon the observed is mysterious. I contend that observations progress through
the action of the quantum transition. Both matter and waves consist of undulating fields. The local fields of matter
are pinned into the structure of matter at elastic discontinuities. Vibration at a specific frequency shakes the fields
free from the grip of the discontinuity. The process of vibration is that of the quantum transition. The radiated
fields of light are not attached to a discontinuity. They propagate at the luminal velocity.

THE UNIVERSE IS COMPOSED OF PARTICLES THE UNIVERSE IS COMPOSED OF WAVES


Sir Isaac Newton proposed that light consists of particle like Christian Huygens proposed that light is a wave. He sug-
corpuscles. Arthur Compton measured the angle of rebound- gested that the amplitude of the wave determines its inten-
ing X-rays and discovered that they bounce like particles. sity and that the frequency of the wave determines its color.
This result confirmed Newton’s hypothesis. In the late nine- The diffraction of light by a prism seemed to support this
teenth century, it was discovered that the spectrum of a hypothesis. The dispersion of light which passes through a
black body contains much less ultraviolet radiation than pinhole also indicates that light is a wave. Thomas Young
classical wave theory predicted. Max Planck came up with a offered some of the first theoretical proof of Huygens’ propo-
solution to this problem. His solution employed particles of sition. Young passed light through two closely spaced slits.
light. These particles are called photons. The energy of these An interference pattern was produced as the light was pro-
photons varies directly with their frequency. Planck’s parti- jected on a screen. This interference pattern revealed the
cle construct solved the ultraviolet problem by showing that wave-like nature of light. Radio technology was developed in
the higher frequency ultraviolet photons are not energeti- the twentieth century. This technology directly displays the
cally accessible. Albert Einstein applied Planck’s constant to amplitude and frequency of a radio wave (a form of light) on
the photo-electric effect and showed that the maximum an oscilloscope. These observations demonstrate that light is
energy of an ejected electron equals the energy of the composed of wave-like stuff.
absorbed photon. These observations demonstrate that light Louis de Broglie proposed that matter is a wave. In 1927,
is composed of particle-like things. Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer of Bell Labs conducted
The ancient Greek philosopher Democritus proposed that an experiment in which an electron was passed though fine-
matter is constructed of particles. These particles are the ly divided slits.1 An interference pattern was produced. It
smallest unit of the substance that still retains the properties was discovered that the electron exhibits wave-like proper-
of the substance. Chemist John Dalton offered some of the ties. These observations demonstrate that matter is com-
first theoretical proof of Democritus’ proposition. His exper- posed of wave-like stuff.
iments revealed that particles (elements) combine in whole It appears that the substance of the universe simultane-
number ratios to form compounds. Ludwig Edward ously exists as both particles and waves. The property that
Boltzmann extended this idea and showed that a gas consists emerges depends upon the bias of the observer. This duality
of a collection of particles. Boltzmann discovered that the has been a fundamental mystery.
properties of a gas are established through a statistical inter-
action of its particles. Robert Millikan experimented with PROPOSED RESOLUTIONS
electrically charged droplets. His experiments revealed a first Niels Bohr produced an atomic model that contained a par-
sub-atomic particle, the electron. Ernest Rutherford’s particle ticle-like nucleus. Particle-like electrons orbited around this
scattering experiments detected a few alpha particles that nucleus. These electrons carried an amount of angular
bounced directly back. This result disclosed a second sub- momentum that is an integer multiple of Planck’s constant.
atomic particle, the nucleus. In the twentieth century, the Angular momentum is the product of length, velocity and
tracks of a host of sub-atomic particles were directly mass. These terms did not emerge from a fundamental
observed in a bubble chamber. These observations demon- analysis and are empirical. Bohr’s model described the radii
strate that matter is composed of particle-like things. of the atomic orbits and the frequency of the emitted pho-

1 INFINITE ENERGY • ISSUE 92 • JULY/AUGUST 2010


ton. The model did not disclose the mechanism that binds pilot and replaces Heisenberg’s and Schrödinger’s superposi-
the electron to a state, determine the probability of transi- tion of waves construct. The use of a single binding mecha-
tion, or explain the intensity of the atomic spectra. nism is a simplification, in accordance with the principle of
Werner Heisenberg extended Bohr’s particle-like analysis Occam’s razor.
and developed a mathematical technique that produced Charles Coulomb studied the force between electrical
intensity of the spectral lines. His technique employed charges. He qualified the energy E contained by the interac-
matrix mechanics and the mathematical function known as tion of two electrical charges Q. Coulomb’s formulation
the Hamiltonian.2 The Hamiltonian describes particle inter- (Equation 1) did not disclose the mechanism that binds an
actions as a function of their energy. The correspondence electron to a state.
principle was invoked. It states that the energy drop in a
2Q2
quantum system is equivalent to the amplitude of a classical E= (1/r) (1)
system. The position of the particle was obscured within the 4πeo
Hamiltonian and the amplitude of the particle’s vibration The energy contained by a classical spring is proportion-
was brushed aside with the help of the correspondence prin- ate to the product of the spring constant K and the square of
ciple. The question of the fundamental nature of a substance the displacement x (Equation 2). This formula is usually
was avoided. employed with a fixed spring constant K and a variable dis-
Erwin Schrödinger proposed that matter is a wave. His placement x.
solution was slightly better than Heisenberg’s in that it incor-
1
porated de Broglie’s electron waves. The use of the de Broglie E= Kx2 (2)
wave presented a conceptual problem. The de Broglie wave 2
consists of a packet of waves that travel together at the group I regrouped the constants in Equation 1 into the form that
velocity V. The length of the packet decreases as its velocity expresses the elastic energy of a spring. This formulation,
increases. It is a curious mathematical construct with no Equation 3, expresses both wave-like and particle-like prop-
classical analog. It has become accepted because it produces erties. It describes electrical energy in terms of the move-
results. Schrödinger encountered a second conceptual prob- ment of the fixed (particle-like) displacement 2rp within the
lem. How do the discrete properties of matter naturally variable elastic medium K-e.
emerge from a continuous wave? He proposed that the
1
superposition of an infinite number of waves localized the E= K (2r )2 (3)
wave function.3 Wave patterns repeat at intervals. The solu- 2 -e p
tion suggests that the particle appears at intervals in remote The displacement 2rp is twice that of the maximum extent
locations. Matter’s particle nature did not spontaneously of the proton. It equals the classical radius of the electron.
emerge from the analysis and Planck’s empirical constant, Mass and kinetic energy are pinned into the structure of
and had to be injected ad hoc into the solution. matter at this discontinuity. The phase velocity of distur-
Max Born offered a solution, known as the Copenhagen bances within the pinned fields is luminal. The group veloc-
interpretation. It proposes that matter’s de Broglie wave is ity V of the packet is that of the discontinuity. The condition
not real. It is a subjective construct that exists only in con- resembles that of stuck light. de Broglie suggested that the
figuration space. The amplitude of this wave represents the matter wave naturally emerges from the superposition of the
probability that a particle of matter will reside at certain Compton wave and its Doppler shifted reflection, under this
locations. A particle emerges, from the probability wave, condition.5 The properties of special relativity also emerge as
upon the immediate collapse of the wave function. The solu- a condition of stuck light.6,7
tion attempted to extract a particle out of a wave and resolve The variable elastic constant K-e (Equation 4) also emerged
the problem of wave particle duality. The interpretation did as a result of the regrouping of the electrical constants. I
not provide for a mechanism to bind the electron to a state, employed this elastic constant and produced the atomic
disclose the whereabouts of configuration space, or explain energy levels and the intensity of the spectral emission.8
how a continuous wave collapses at velocities greater than This analysis showed that the wave-like properties of matter
light speed. Schrödinger and Einstein never accepted this emerge from its mass and elasticity. This harmonic is real; no
interpretation. The nature of the substance of the universe configuration space is required.
remained a mystery. The duality of nature remained irrecon-
Fmax
cilable.4 K-e = (4)
r
ZNIDARSIC’S INTERPRETATION The product of the harmonic frequency and the particle’s
My model reveals the mechanism that bundles a wave with displacement is the velocity Vt. This velocity, as expressed by
a particle. The binding mechanism is classical. Classical sys- Equation 5, was extracted from the results of cold fusion
tems are constructed by fastening components together. experiments. The first term in Equation 5 equals the diame-
Fasteners are mechanical discontinuities. The same binding ter of the active nuclear environment. The second term rep-
mechanism can attach a field. The electromagnetic field is, resents the natural frequency of an active environment.
for example, pinned into the structure of a superconductor
Vt = (2πnrp)(fc/n) (5)
by introduced defects (discontinuities). This interpretation
states that the natural force fields are pinned into the struc- I presented my theorem at a conference of the American
ture of matter at elastic discontinuities. Discontinuities nat- Nuclear Society in 2000.9 It describes the action of Vt: “The
urally emerge when the intensity of a field exceeds the abil- constants of the motion tend toward the electromagnetic in
ity of space to support that field. The discontinuity acts as a a Bose condensate that is stimulated at a dimension fre-

JULY/AUGUST 2010 • ISSUE 92 • INFINITE ENERGY 2


quency of Vt.” The convergence of the motion constants is the state of the universe. The velocity of quantum transition,
an effect of an equalization in the strength of the magnetic Vt, is qualified in Equation 10.
component of the electrical, gravitational and nuclear
Vt = f λ (10)
forces. The equalization in the strength of the forces match-
es the impedance of the interacting states and allows the The strength and range of the natural forces converge as
fields to slip into a new configuration. Energy flows, the the quantum transition proceeds. The wavefunction’s nega-
wavefunction collapses and the quantum transition pro- tive gravitational potential increases to the point where it
ceeds. The constant Vt, like Planck’s, has produced the atom- equals its positive mass energy. The zero energy wavefunc-
ic energy levels and the intensity of spectral emission. The tion then collapses without restriction. Deterministic classi-
convergence of the motion constants provides a clue as to cal reality emerges, from probabilistic quantum waves, at
the origin of Vt. It is a condition where the velocity of light this instant. One half of the quantum information is lost in
within the electronic structure of the atom equals the veloc- the crash. Equation 10 was solved for length. This is the
ity of sound within the nuclear structure of the atom. In the range at which the natural force fields strongly interact.
case of cold fusion, the velocity of sound within the nuclear
structure is determined by the vibration of the optical Vt
λ= (11)
phonons within the mass of the dissolved deuterium. In the f
nucleus this velocity appears, as shown in Equation 6, as the The amplitude of light, as expressed by its capacitance,
product of the harmonic motion of the nucleons and the was given in Equation 9. The action of the transitional quan-
spacing of the nucleons rn within the nucleus. tum state (Equation 11) fixes the geometry of the light. The
simultaneous solution of Equations 9 and 11 produced
Vt = 1/2π √ Z(Fmax/2nrn)/nMn x 2nrn (6) Equation 12. It expresses the relationship between the capac-
itance and the frequency of the photon.
The equalization of the velocity of light and sound with-
in the transitional atomic state is the effect that pulls the 2eo V t
motion constants together. Vt is an emergent classical prop- C= (12)
f
erty and, as such, it is fundamental to Planck’s constant.
The potential energy E of an electrical charge is a function of
capacitance C. This relationship is expressed in Equation 13.
THE PARTICLE OF A LIGHT WAVE
This paper extended the prior analysis and produced the Q2
E= (13)
energy of the photon. It was accomplished through the use 2C
of a fundamental analysis that did not require an ad hoc
The great scientists described the energy of a photon in
injection of Planck’s constant. The geometry a photon expe-
terms of its frequency. The energy of a classical wave is a
riences during emission is approximately that of a flat plate
function of its amplitude, not its frequency. This discrepan-
capacitor. The capacitance C of a flat plate capacitor of area
cy has been a long-standing mystery. The principle of quan-
A and spacing D is given in Equation 7.
tum correspondence was invented in an attempt to circum-
eo A vent this problem. It proposes, with some slight of hand,
C= (7)
D that the frequency of a quantum system appears as an ampli-
tude in a classical system. I have rejected this proposition
The area A was set equal to the displacement of the photon
and shown that the energy of light is an effect of the light’s
squared. The displacement between the peaks in the ampli-
displacement. The energy, of the captured photon was qual-
tudes, D, equals one half wavelength. The capacitance expe-
ified through the simultaneous solution of Equations 12 and
rienced by a cycle of light is given in Equation 8.
13. The result (Equation 14) expresses the relationship
eo λ2 between the energy and frequency of the photon. Equations
C= (8)
.5λ 12 and 13 reveal that the energy of captured light is a func-
tion of charge and capacitance. The voltage produced by an
The reduction of Equation 8 produced Equation 9.
electrical charge increases as its capacitance decreases. The
C = 2eo λ (9) energy of a photon is proportionate to the amplitude of its
voltage. The action of this voltage replaces the principle of
Equation 9 describes the capacitance of the captured pho- quantum correspondence. This is the state of the light that
ton. The capacitance of the “in flight” photon is indetermi- produces Einstein’s photoelectric effect.
nate. Its energy is strictly a function of its momentum and,
Q2
as such, it is independent of the photon’s displacement. The E=[ ]f (14)
lack of restriction allows the displacement λ to vary. The 4eoVt
geometry of the traveling photon is that of a boundless Planck’s constant emerged from the terms within the
wave. This variability may produce, as Einstein called it, “a brackets [ ]. Planck’s constant was substituted for the quanti-
spooky interaction at a distance.”10 Its state is, as Feynman ty within the brackets. Einstein’s famous photoelectric rela-
called it, the sum of every possible history.11 This is the state tionship was produced.
of the light that simultaneously passed through the two slits
in Young’s experiment. E = hf (15)
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle associates the pre-
cise velocity of Vt with a boundless wave.12 This uncertainty The intensity of a light wave is a classical function of its
in position couples the quantum transitions to a change in transverse amplitude. The voltage of a light wave is a classi-

3 INFINITE ENERGY • ISSUE 92 • JULY/AUGUST 2010


cal function of its longitudinal displacement. The photon 3. Fourier, J.-B.-J. 1827. “Les Temperatures du Globe Terrestre
does not physically exist. The coupling of a light wave to the et des Espaces Planetaires,” Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des
nuclear velocity of sound produces an artifact that appears as Sciences de l’Institut de France VII, 570-604.
the photon. 4. Einstein, A., Podolsky, B., and Rosen, N. 1935. “Can
Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be
CONCLUSION Considered Complete?” Phys. Rev., 47, 777-780.
The nature of the substance of the universe has been the sub- 5. de Broglie, L.D. 1924. Ph.D. Thesis, “Recherhce sur la
ject of debate since antiquity. Some philosophers have sug- Theorie des Quanta,” U. of Paris.
gested that the universe is composed of particle-like things. 6. Einstein, A. 1905. “Does the Inertia of a Body Depend
Others have suggested that the universe is composed of upon Its Energy-Content?” Annalen der Physik, 18, 639-641.
wave-like stuff. In the twentieth century, it was discovered 7. Znidarsic, F. 2005. “A Reconciliation of Quantum Physics
that the quantum realm consists of wave-like stuff. This and Special Relativity,” The General Journal of Physics,
“stuff” is governed by pure chance and exhibits many December, http://www.wbabin.net/science/znidarsic.pdf.
unusual properties, such as quantum entanglement. This 8. Znidarsic, F. 2009. “The Control of the Natural Forces,”
realm can never be directly observed and its properties are Infinite Energy, 15, 87, 30-33, September/October.
subjective. This wave-like stuff is converted into particle-like 9. Znidarsic, F. 2000. “The Constants of the Motion,”
things through a process of quantum transition. These Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 83, November 12.
things obey Newton’s laws and interact in a deterministic 10. Bell, J.S. 1987. Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum
clock-like fashion. The properties of these things can be Mechanics, Cambridge University Press (original 1964).
objectively measured. It is believed today that size is the 11. Feynman, R.P. 1948. “The Space-Time Formulation of
divide that separates the wave-like continuum from the par- Nonrelativistic Quantum Mechanics,” Reviews of Modern
ticle-like reality. Physics, 20, 367-387.
The process of cold fusion was discovered in the late twen- 12. Heisenberg, W. 1927. “Over the Descriptive Contents of
tieth century. Scientists have suggested that the cold fusion the Quantum Kinetics and Mechanics,” Zeitschrift für Physik,
reaction proceeds at the fringes of our contemporary under- 43, 172-198.
standing. I have shown, to the contrary, that the process of
cold fusion rests squarely at the center of a debate that has About the Author
been raging for hundreds of years. The observable results of Frank Znidarsic graduated from the
the cold fusion experiments have exposed the nature of the University of Pittsburgh with a B.S. in
divide that separates the quantum and the classical realms. Electrical Engineering in 1975. In the 1980s,
A quantum wave is transformed into a classical particle as it he went on to obtain an A.S in Business
follows a path through the divide. The speed of the passage, Administration at St. Francis College. He
Vt, invokes the magic of a convergence in the motion con- studied physics at the University of Indiana in the 1990s
stants. The range and strength of the natural force fields are .He is currently a Registered Professional Engineer in the
adjusted, by this convergence, to the dimensions of the state of Pennsylvania. Frank has been employed as an engi-
opening. The opening is large enough, under the condition neer in the steel, mining and utility industries. Most
of cold fusion, to encompass a cluster of nucleons. recently he was contracted by to start up power plants in
The terms that describe this passage have produced, in a North Carolina.
past publication, the energy levels of the hydrogen atom and
the probably of transition. This paper extends the analysis to *Email: fznidarsic@aol.com
the energy of a photon. These constructs form the founda-
tion of our contemporary understanding of the natural uni-
verse. The path of the quantum transition has been exposed
and a new perspective on the nature of reality has emerged.

NOMENCLATURE
eo = 8.854 x 10-12 A2 s4 kg-1 m-3
Fmax = 29.05 Newtons
fc = 1.236 x 1020 hertz, the Compton frequency
Mn = 1.67 x 10-27 Kg
rp = 1.409 x 10-15 m, half the classical radius
of the electron
rn = 1.36 x 10-15 m, the nuclear spacing
Q = 1.602 x 1019 Coulombs
Vt = 1.094 x 106 m/second

REFERENCES
1. Clinton Davisson received the Nobel Prize in Physics in
1937, with George Thomson.
2. Hamilton, W.R. 1853. Lectures on Quaternions, Royal Irish
Academy.

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