EXPLORING WIND ENERGY

Teacher Guide
Hands-on activities that provide a comprehensive understanding of the scientific, economic, environmental, technological, and societal aspects of wind energy to secondary students.

GRADE LEVEL
7-12

SUBJECT AREAS
Science Social Studies Language Arts Technology

Teacher Advisory Board
Shelly Baumann, Rockford, MI Constance Beatty, Kankakee, IL Sara Brownell, Canyon Country, CA Amy Constant, Raleigh, NC Joanne Coons, Clifton Park, NY Regina Donour, Whitesburg, KY Darren Fisher, Houston, TX Deborah Fitton, Cape Light Compact, MA Linda Fonner, New Martinsville, WV Melanie Harper, Odessa, TX Linda Hutton, Kitty Hawk, NC Barbara Lazar, Albuquerque, NM Robert Lazar, Albuquerque, NM Hallie Mills, Bonney Lake, WA Mollie Mukhamedov, Port St. Lucie, FL Don Pruett, Sumner, WA Larry Richards, Eaton, IN Barry Scott, Stockton, CA Joanne Spaziano, Cranston, RI Gina Spencer, Virginia Beach, VA Tom Spencer, Chesapeake, VA Nancy Stanley, Pensacola, FL Scott Sutherland, Providence, RI Robin Thacker, Henderson, KY Bob Thompson, Glen Ellyn, IL Doris Tomas, Rosenberg, TX Patricia Underwood, Anchorage, AK Jim Wilkie, Long Beach, CA Carolyn Wuest, Pensacola, FL Debby Yerkes, Ohio Energy Project, OH Wayne Yonkelowitz, Fayetteville, WV

The mission of the NEED Project is to promote an energy conscious and educated society by creating effective networks of students, educators, business, government and community leaders to design and deliver objective, multi-sided energy education programs. In support of NEED, the national Teacher Advisory Board (TAB) is dedicated to developing and promoting standards-based energy curriculum and training.

NEED Mission Statement

Teacher Advisory Board Vision Statement

Correlations to National Science Standards ................. 4-6 Teacher Guide ........................................................... 7-12 Grading Rubrics ............................................................. 13 Turbine Assembly Instructions ......................................... 14 Transparency Masters ...................... 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21 Energy Measurements and Flow Explanations ................. 17 Wind Vane & Benchmark Blade Templates ...................... 22 Genecon Activities ......................................................... 23 Building An Electric Generator ........................................ 24 Alternative Blade Design Instructions ......................... 25-29 Wind Survey ................................................................... 30 Evaluation Form ............................................................. 31

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXPLORING WIND KIT: $500 Materials In Kit

1 KidWind Turbine 5 KidWind Turbine motor assemblies 1 KidWind Geared motor assembly 100 KidWind Turbine dowels 12 KidWind Turbine hubs 12 alligator connectors 1 Genecon with guide 1 wind gauge 6 multimeters 1 fan 40 pencils 200 cone cups 80 long straws 40 straight pins 75 foam cups 2 plastic cups 1 food coloring 1 compass 1 PVC cutter 2 duct tape Teacher Guide & Class Set of Student Guides

Not In Kit

PVC pipe and connections glue hole punch scissors markers 100 pennies for mass hot water watch with second hand meter stick materials for generator demo posterboard (1 per student)* *other materials, such as cardboard, corrugated plastic, or foam board can be used.

EXPLORING WIND ENERGY was developed by the NEED Project in cooperation with the KidWind Project with funding from the American Wind Energy Association.

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

PAGE 3

APPLICABLE NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONTENT STANDARDS
(Bolded standards are emphasized in the unit.)

INTERMEDIATE STANDARD–A: SCIENCE AS INQUIRY
1. Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry
b. Design and conduct a scientific investigation c. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data d. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence e. Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations f. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions g. Communicate scientific procedures and explanations a. Identify questions that can be answered through scientific inquiry

2. Understandings about Scientific Inquiry

a. Different kinds of questions require different kinds of scientific investigations, including observing and describing, collecting, experimentation, research, discovery, and making models. b. Current knowledge and understanding guide scientific investigations. e. Scientific explanations emphasize evidence, have logical arguments, and use scientific principles, models, and theories.

3. Change, Constancy, and Measurement

a. Although most things are in the process of change, some properties of objects and processes are characterized by constancy; for example, the speed of light, the charge of an electron, and the total mass plus energy of the universe. b. Energy can be transferred and matter can be changed. Nevertheless, when measured, the sum of energy and matter in systems, and by extension in the universe, remains the same. c. Changes can occur in the properties of materials, position of objects, motion, and form and function of systems. Interactions within and among systems result in change. Changes in systems can be quantified and measured. Mathematics is essential for accurately measuring change. d. Different systems of measurement are used for different purposes. An important part of measurement is knowing when to use which system.

INTERMEDIATE STANDARD–B: PHYSICAL SCIENCE
3. Transfer of Energy
a. Energy is a property of many substances and is associated with heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound, nuclei, and the nature of a chemical. b. Energy is transferred in many ways. e. Electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy. f. In most chemical and nuclear reactions, energy is transferred into or out of a system. Heat, light, mechanical motion, or electricity might all be involved in such transfers. g. The sun is the major source of energy for changes on the earth’s surface. The sun loses energy by emitting light. A tiny fraction of that light reaches earth, transferring energy from the sun to the earth. The sun’s energy arrives as light with a range of wavelengths.

INTERMEDIATE STANDARD–E: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
2. Understandings about Science and Technology
a. Scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities and differences. Scientists propose explanations about the natural world, and engineers propose solutions relating to human problems, needs, and aspirations. c. Technological solutions are temporary and have side effects. Technologies cost, carry risks, and have benefits. f. Perfectly designed solutions do not exist. All technological solutions have trade-offs, such as safety, cost, efficiency, and appearance. Risk is part of living in a highly technological world. Reducing risk often results in new technology.
PAGE 4
Exploring Wind Energy Teacher © 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

g. Technological designs have constraints. Some constraints are unavoidable, such as properties of materials, or effects of weather and friction. Other constraints limit choices in design, such as environmental protection, human safety, and aesthetics.

INTERMEDIATE STANDARD–F: SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES
1. Personal Health
b. Natural environments may contain substances that are harmful to human beings. Maintaining environmental health involves establishing or monitoring quality standards related to use of soil, water, and air. b. Human activities can induce hazards through resource acquisition, urban growth, land-use decisions, and waste disposal. c. Hazards can present personal and societal challenges because misidentifying the change or incorrectly estimating the rate and scale of change may result in either too little attention and significant human costs or too much cost for unneeded preventive measures.

3. Natural Hazards

4. Risks and Benefits

a. Risk analysis considers the type of hazard and estimates the number of people that might be exposed and the number likely to suffer consequences. b. Students should understand the risks associated with natural hazards, chemical hazards, biological hazards, social hazards, and personal hazards. c. Students can use a systematic approach to thinking critically about risks and benefits. d. Important personal and social decisions are made based on perceptions of benefits and risks.

5. Science and Technology in Society

a. Science influences society through its knowledge and world view. The effect of science on society is neither entirely beneficial nor entirely detrimental. b. Societal challenges often inspire questions for scientific research, and societal priorities often influence research priorities. c. Technology influences society through its products and processes. Technological changes are often accompanied by social, political, and economic changes that can be beneficial or detrimental to individuals and to society. Social needs, attitudes, and values influence the direction of technological development. d. Science and technology have contributed enormously to economic growth and productivity among societies and groups within societies. e. Science cannot answer all questions and technology cannot solve all human problems or meet all human needs. Students should appreciate what science and technology can reasonably contribute to society and what they cannot do. For example, new technologies often will decrease some risks and increase others.

INTERMEDIATE STANDARD–G: HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE
3. History of Science
c. Tracing the history of science can show how difficult it was for scientific innovators to break through the accepted ideas of their time to reach conclusions that we take for granted today.

SECONDARY (GRADES 9-12) CONTENT STANDARD–A: SCIENCE AS INQUIRY
1. Abilities Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry
b. Design and conduct scientific investigations. c. Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications. d. Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence. e. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models. f. Communicate and defend a scientific argument. a. Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigation.

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

PAGE 5

SECONDARY–B:

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

1. Structure of Atoms

a. Matter is made of minute particles called atoms, which are composed of even smaller components. These components have measurable properties, such as mass and electrical charge. b. Each atom has a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The electric force between the nucleus and electrons holds the atom together. c. The atom’s nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons, which are much more massive than electrons. When an element has atoms that differ in the number of neutrons, these atoms are called isotopes of the element.

4. Motions and Forces

c. The electrical force is a universal force that exists between two charged objects.

SECONDARY STANDARD–D: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE
1. Energy in the Earth System
a. Earth systems have internal and external sources of energy, both of which create heat. The sun is the major external source of energy. Two primary sources of internal energy are the decay of radioactive isotopes and the gravitational energy from the earth’s original formation. c. Heating of earth’s surface and atmosphere by the sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents. d. Global climate is determined by energy transfer from the sun at and near the earth’s surface.

SECONDARY STANDARD–E:

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1. Abilities of Technological Design

a. Identify a problem or design an opportunity. b. Propose designs and choose between alternative solutions. c. Implement a proposed solution. d. Evaluate the solution and its consequences. e. Communicate the problem, process, and solution.

SECONDARY STANDARD–F: SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES
3. Natural Resources
a. Human populations use resources in the environment to maintain and improve their existence. b. The earth does not have infinite resources; increasing human consumption places severe stress on the natural processes that renew some resources, and depletes those resources that cannot be renewed.

5. Natural and Human-induced Hazards

d. Natural and human-induced hazards present the need for humans to assess potential danger and risk. Many changes in the environment designed by humans bring benefits to society, as well as cause risks. Students should understand the costs and trade-offs of various hazards––ranging from those with minor risk to a few people to major catastrophes with major risk to many people. a. Science and technology can indicate what can happen, not what should happen. The latter involves human decisions about the use of knowledge. b. Understanding basic concepts and principles of science and technology should precede active debate about the economics, policies, politics, and ethics of various science and technology related challenges. However, understanding science alone will not resolve local, national, and global challenges. c. Individuals and society must decide on proposals involving new research and the introduction of new technologies into society.

6. Science and Technology in Local, National, and Global Challenges

PAGE 6

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Teacher Guide
BACKGROUND
Exploring Wind Energy is a kit-based unit with teacher and student guides containing comprehensive background information on wind energy and electricity generation, graphic organizers, hands-on activities, inquiry-based activities focused on wind turbine blade design. A wind history time line activity, cooperative learning wind farm siting activity requiring additional research, wind logic puzzle, play, and rock performances on wind and electricity are included. The kit contains most of the materials to conduct the hands-on and inquiry based activities. One complete KidWind Turbine is included, as well as motors and wiring for five additional turbines. To conduct the blade design activities with small groups, additional PVC pipe, connections, and other materials must be purchased.

INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY AND WIND
MATERIALS: 1 turbine, 1 fan, 3 dowels, duct tape, 1 hub, 1 set of three benchmark blades Preparation 1. Thoroughly read the Teacher and Student Guides and decide how you are going to implement the unit in your classroom. 2. Assemble the KidWind Turbine and become familiar with the operation of all the equipment. 3. Using the Benchmark Blade Template on page 22, make three blades out of posterboard and attach to dowels with duct tape. Insert the blades into the hub and attach the hub to the turbine. 4. Obtain the additional materials needed for the hands-on activities. 5. Make transparencies of the Sources of Energy, Forms of Energy, Energy Flow, Electricity Flow, Wind Gauge, and Multimeter transparency masters on pages 15–21. 6. Assign students to groups and topics if you plan to have them conduct the Wind Farm Siting Activity and/or complete a Culminating Project. 7. Make copies of the templates on page 22 and the Wind Survey on page 30 and other copies as necessary if you don’t want students writing in the Student Guides. Additional class sets of Student Guides can be obtained from the NEED Project for $50 per set of 30 by calling 1-800-875-5029. 8. It is suggested that students use science journals during the unit. Introducing the Unit 1. Have the students take the Wind Survey on page 30 as a pre-test. 2. Introduce the unit by demonstrating the basic operation of the wind turbine and leading a discussion about why it is important to study wind as an energy source. 3. Have the students read the following sections of the backgrounder in their Student Guides and use the Sources of Energy, Forms of Energy, Energy Flow, and Electricity Flow transparencies to reinforce and expand on the information: What Is Energy? Conservation of Energy Sources of Energy Potential and Kinetic Energy Energy Efficiency Electricity

4. Revisit the discussion of why it is important to study wind as an energy source in light of the additional information the students have learned. 5. Review the Student Guide with the students and explain how the activities will be completed. 6. Give the students their assignments for the Siting a Wind Farm Activity and Culminating Project. 7. Assign the students to read the remainder of the backgrounder, completing the Wind Organizer and Wind Time Line on pages 17-18 of the Student Guide. Remind the students to add relevant information to their Role Group Organizer on page 32 of the Student Guide as they read the backgrounder. If the students have been assigned culminating projects, remind them to note relevant information.
© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029 Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

PAGE 7

SITING A WIND FARM ACTIVITY
1. Divide the students into ten groups. Assign each group to one of ten specific roles, as listed below. Government Agency Representative—BLM Developer Investor Site Planner Farmer/Rancher Consumer/Neighbor Environmentalist Economist Utility Company Representative Member of County Commission 2. Explain the activity to the students. Have the students read the description of the activity and review the list of questions for all of the role groups on pages 30-31 of the Student Guide. Discuss. 3. Guide the students to the Role Group Organizer on page 32 of the Student Guide, and explain that the questions will guide their reading and research. Explain that they will be involved in completing the organizer individually over several days as they participate in the other wind-related activities. They will meet in groups to organize and present the information they have gathered to the class at the end of the unit. 4. Instruct the students to use the background material, as well as outside research, to answer the key questions as completely as possible. Guide them to the list of wind websites (page 33 of Student Guide) where they can go to find additional information. 5. After the other activities have been completed, have the students meet in their role groups to discuss their findings. Instruct the students to add to their organizers any additional information provided by group members. 6. After the students have met in the role groups and completed their discussions, have each group develop a presentation to be made to the community meeting. Each group must choose a spokesperson to represent it at the meeting to make the presentation. 7. Give the groups a timeframe in which to complete their presentations. 8. Conduct the community meeting and have the students vote on whether or not to support the development of the wind farm project.

TEACHER DEMONSTRATION––CONVECTION CURRENTS IN WATER
MATERIALS: 2 plastic cups, food coloring, cold water, very hot water 1. Place 50 ml of very hot water in one of the plastic cups. 2. Fill the other cup with cold water and place inside the first cup. Allow the water time to still. 3. Place a drop of food coloring gently on top of the cold water and observe. The warming water from the bottom of the cup should rise and the cold water descend, forming a convection current that is visible as the food coloring flows with the water. Explain how the water molecules on the bottom of the cup become less dense as they warm and flow upward as the colder, denser water flows to the bottom.

OPTIONAL TEACHER DEMONSTRATION––CONVECTION CURRENTS IN AIR
MATERIALS: Gas Convection Apparatus and Touch Paper can be obtained from Sargent Welch on their website––www.SargentWelch.com: Item # CP77590-00 ($41.10) & Item # WL1728 ($10.80) This gas convection apparatus with touch paper shows the formation of convection currents in air and is a good visual demonstration of how wind currents are formed. Instructions are included with the apparatus.

PAGE 8

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

WIND SPEED EXPLORATION (PG 19 IN STUDENT GUIDE)
MATERIALS (FOR EACH STUDENT OR GROUP): 1 pencil, 5 cone cups, 2 long straws, straight pin, glue*, hole punch*, scissors*, marker*, watch with second hand*, and 1 wind gauge for the class Preparation 1. Decide if this will be an individual or small group activity and plan accordingly. 2. Assemble the materials not provided in the kit––marked with an asterisk. 3. Make a transparency of the instructions for the Wind Gauge if you have not done so. Conducting the Activities 1. Review with the students the instructions for the activity on page 19 of the Student Guide. 2. Use the transparency to explain how to use the wind gauge. 3. Provide each student or group with the materials they need and give them a timeframe in which to complete the activity. Explain that the students will need to share the wind gauge. 4. Discuss the conclusion questions. 5. Discuss the possibility of siting a wind turbine on the grounds of the school based on students’ data.

CALCULATING WIND POWER (PG 20 IN STUDENT GUIDE)
MATERIALS: 1 fan, 1 wind gauge, 1 turbine with benchmark blades, meter stick* Conducting the Activities 1. Review with the students the activity on page 20 of the Student Guide. 2. Conduct the inquiry as a demonstration, providing the students with the measurements, or have a group of students conduct the activity and report the measurements to the class. 3. Have the students complete the calculations and discuss the results and conclusion questions.

WIND DIRECTION EXPLORATION (PG 21 IN STUDENT GUIDE)
MATERIALS (FOR EACH STUDENT OR GROUP): 1 pencil, 1 straight pin, 1 foam cup, 1 piece of cardboard*, 1 template*, 1 marker*, and 1 compass for the class Preparation 1. Decide if this will be an individual or small group activity and plan accordingly. 2. Assemble the materials not provided in the kit––marked with an asterisk. 3. Make copies of the wind vane template on page 22 of the Teacher Guide for each student or group. Conducting the Activities 1. Review with the students the instructions for the activity on page 21 of the Student Guide. 2. Provide each student or group with the materials they need and give them a timeframe in which to complete the activity. Explain that the students will need to share the compass. 3. Discuss the conclusion questions.

TURBINE BLADE DESIGN INQUIRY ACTIVITIES ON PAGES 22-28 OF THE STUDENT GUIDE
MATERIALS FOR INTRODUCTION: 1 turbine with benchmark blades MATERIALS FOR EACH OF SIX GROUPS: 1 hub, 6 dowels, 1 multimeter, 1 fan* (one provided in kit), duct tape, posterboard*, pennies*, KidWind Turbine (one provided in kit) Background Information The inquiry-based turbine blade design activities encourage students to explore all aspects of blade design. Through a series of design, test, and redesign activities, students consider many variables, including blade material, number of blades, shape, size, mass and mass distribution, and pitch. (A more structured approach to blade design is also included in this guide––pages 25–29.)

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

PAGE 9

One complete KidWind turbine assembly is included in the kit, along with five motor assemblies with wiring and a PVC pipe cutter to build five additional turbines. To conduct the blade inquiry activities as written, five additional fans and PVC pipe and joints must be obtained from a hardware store at a cost of $150–$200. Each turbine assembly requires five feet of 1-inch PVC pipe, 4 90-degree elbow joints, 2 T-joints, and 1 cross-joint. Instructions for building the turbines are on page 14 of this guide. Preparation 1. Decide how you want to conduct the activities in your classroom and formulate a timeline. 2. Gather the materials not provided in the kit––marked with an asterisk. Assemble the additional turbines. 3. Make a transparency of the Multimeter on page 21 if you have not done so. Day 1––Introduction to Blade Inquiry Activities 1. Demonstrate the KidWind Turbine with the fan and multimeter. 2. Explain the components of the turbine and how to use the multimeter using the transparency. 3. Have several students explore the turbine output at various distances from the fan and at different fan speeds, as measured by the multimeter. 4. Explain the goals of the unit by reviewing pages 22–28 in the Student Guide. Initial Assignment 1. Assign all individual students or your assigned groups of students to design blades for Day 2 testing. 2. The blades may be of any material, any size, any shape, and any number up to five. 3. Explain that the students will attach their blades to their dowels with duct tape on Day 2. Day 2––Blade Testing: Designing Turbine Blades 1 & 1-2 (pg 22-23 in Student Guide) 1. Set up six stations, each with one turbine, one multimeter, 2 hubs, and one fan. Place the turbines at the same distance from the fans and set the fans on the same speed. Place duct tape in a central location. 2. Have all groups use the benckmark blades on their turbines in turn to obtain benchmark outputs. 3. Provide each student or group with dowels and have them attach their blades to dowels with tape. 4. Allow all students time to test their blades. 5. Allow the students 5-10 minutes to make adjustments to their blades, then have them test them again on the same turbine. Day 2––Assignment : Designing Turbine Blades 2 (pg 24 in Student Guide) 1. Assign students to redesign their blades to increase output. Day 3––Testing Redesigned Blades 1. Using same set up as on Day 2 with the students using the same turbines, have the students test their redesigned blades and record the output. 2. Discuss the variables that the students think are optimal at this point. Day 3––Controlled Variables Inquiry: Designing Turbine Blades 3 (pg 25 in Student Guide) 1. Assign the students to six groups. 2. Explain the process––that each group will independently design blades of the same material (posterboard) to determine: Groups 1 & 2: Optimal shape Groups 3 & 4: Optimal length Groups 5 & 6: Optimal number of blades 3. Allow the groups time to brainstorm and design their blades. 4. Have the groups test their designs using a controlled distance from fan and fan speed. 5. Have all groups with the same variable brainstorm and agree on their optimal design component.
PAGE 10
© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

Day 4––Combining Design Components: Designing Turbine Blades 4 (pg 26 in Student Guide) 1. Have the students form new groups of three, composed of one individual from each variable group to combine their optimal components into group designs using posterboard. 2. Allow the groups time to design and test their designs. Explain that the design with the highest output will be used by all groups in the next phase of inquiry. 3. Compare the output of all of the groups and determine the optimum design for the next phase of inquiry. Day 5––Pitch, Mass, and Distribution of Mass: Designing Turbine Blades 5 (pg 27 in Student Guide) 1. Place students into six groups and explain the process––each group will use the optimum number of blades of the same material (posterboard), shape, and size to determine: Groups 1, 2, & 3: Optimal pitch of the blades Groups 4, 5, & 6: Optimal amount of mass and its distribution on the blades (pennies & tape) 2. Allow time for each group to independently design, test, redesign, and retest their blades until they have reached what they consider to be optimal designs with their respective components. Distance from the fan and fan speed remain constant as before. Day 6––Testing and Redesigning: Designing Turbine Blades 6 (pg 28 in Student Guide) 1. Regroup the students into six groups with representatives of both variable groups. Have each group combine their information on pitch and mass to develop optimal blades, then test, redesign, and retest until they have reached what they consider to be optimal designs with all variables. Distance from the fan and fan speed may be varied during this phase of inquiry. Day 7––Competition & Adding Gears: The Effect of Adding A Gearbox (pg 29 in Student Guide) 1. Have each group test its optimal design, recording output at different fan speeds and at different distances from the fan. The group with the highest output wins the competition. 2. Have the groups compare results and determine the difference between the highest and lowest output. 3. Add the gear box to one of the turbines to demonstrate how a relatively small difference in output is important when gears are added that multiply output. 4. Discuss ways to redesign the blades to produce more output. What do the students believe was the most limiting factor in the activities? 5. Conduct the Genecon Activities on page 23 to demonstrate the relationship between generators and motors. 6. Optional: Build one generator as a demonstration or have student groups build generators following the instructions in Building An Electric Generator on page 24 to reinforce concepts of electromagnetism. Additional materials are necessary as listed. Alternative Structured Blade Inquiry For a more structured inquiry approach to blade design, you can use the procedures on pages 25–29 instead of Designing Turbine Blades 1–6 in the Student Guide.

HARRY SPOTTER PLAY AND ROCK PERFORMANCES
Materials One copy of the script of the play or rock performance for each participant (pg 34–38 in the Student Guide) and simple costumes and props, if desired. (See www.awea.org for more information on wind myths.) Procedure 1. Assign parts of the play or one of the rock performances to each of the students. 2. Allow students time to rehearse parts and plan props. 3. Have the students perform the play and rock performances for younger students.

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

PAGE 11

WIND LOGIC PUZZLE
Have the students complete the Wind Logic Puzzle on page 39 of the Student Guide. Answer Key is below.

CULMINATING PROJECT––WIND EXPO OR POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS
If you would like students to complete culminating group projects, such as Wind Expo presentations or PowerPoint presentations, you can use the suggested topics listed below for these projects. History of Wind Energy The U.S. Energy Mix Today––Where Wind Fits in the Mix Types of Winds and How They are Formed How Electricity is Generated––Electromagnetism Wind Turbines Today and Their Requirements Factors in Siting a Wind Farm The Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Electricity The Future of Wind in the U.S. and Globally

EVALUATION
1. Use the Inquiry and Presentation Rubrics on page 13 to evaluate student performance. 2. Have the students take the Wind Survey on page 30 as a post-unit evaluation. 3. Evaluate the unit with the students using the Evaluation Form on page 31 and return to NEED. Wind Survey Answer Key 1. c 2. a 3. b 4. a 5. b 6. a 7. b 8. d 9. d 10. a

PAGE 12

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

GRADING RUBRIC––BLADE INQUIRY
Grade Scientific Concepts
Written explanations illustrate accurate and thorough understanding of scientific concepts underlying inquiry. Written explanations illustrate an accurate understanding of most scientific concepts underlying inquiry. Written explanations illustrate a limited understanding of scientific concepts underlying inquiry. Written explanations illustrate an inaccurate understanding of scientific concepts.

Diagrams
Comprehensive diagrams are accurately and neatly labeled and make the designs easier to understand. Necessary diagrams are accurately and neatly labeled.

Procedures
Procedures are listed in clear steps. Each step is numbered and is written as a complete sentence. Procedures are listed in a logical order, but steps are not numbered or are not in complete sentences. Procedures are listed but are not in a logical order or are difficult to understand. Procedures do not accurately reflect the steps of the design process.

Conclusions
Conclusions describe information and skills learned, as well as some future applications to real life situations. Conclusions describe the information learned and a possible application to a real life application. Conclusions describe the information learned.

4

3

2

Necessary diagrams are labeled.

1

Necessary diagrams or important components of diagrams are missing.

Conclusions are missing or inaccurate.

GRADING RUBRIC––CULMINATING PROJECT
Grade Content
Project covers the topic in-depth with many details and examples. Subject knowledge is excellent. Project includes essential information about the topic. Subject knowledge is good. Project includes essential information about the topic, but there are 1-2 factual errors. Project includes minimal information or there are several factual errors.

Organization
Content is very well organized and presented in a logical sequence.

Originality
Project shows much original thought. Ideas are creative and inventive.

Workload
The workload is divided and shared equally by all members of the group.

4

3

Content is logically organized.

Project shows some original thought. Work shows new ideas and insights. Project provides essential information, but there is little evidence of original thinking. Project provides some essential information, but no original thought.

The workload is divided and shared fairly equally by all group members, but workloads may vary. The workload is divided, but one person in the group is viewed as not doing fair share of the work. The workload is not divided, or several members are not doing fair share of the work.

2

Content is logically organized with a few confusing sections.

1

There is no clear organizational structure, just a compilation of facts.

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

PAGE 13

PAGE 14

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

15

16

ENERGY MEASUREMENTS
1 cal 1 cal 1 Btu 1 Btu 1 Btu 1Q = = = = = = Calorie––a measure of heat energy––the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. 4.187 joules British thermal unit––a measure of heat energy––the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. One Btu is approximately the amount of energy released by the burning of one wooden kitchen match. 1,054 joules 252 calories Quad—1 quadrillion Btu. Quads are used to measure very large quantities of energy. The U.S. uses one quad of energy about every 3.7 days. 100,000 Btu; approximately the amount of heat energy in one CCF of natural gas. Kilowatt-hour––one kilowatt of electricity over one hour. One kilowatt-hour of electricity is the amount of energy it takes to burn a 100 watt light bulb for 10 hours. The average cost of one kilowatt-hour of electricity for residential customers in the U.S. is about nine cents. 3.6 million joules (3.6 Mj). 3,412 Btu Cubic foot––a measure of volume––one CF of natural gas contains about 1,020 Btu. One hundred cubic feet––one CCF of natural gas contains about one therm of heat energy. One thousand cubic feet––one MCF of natural gas costs $5–$10.

1 therm = 1 kWh = 1 kWh 1 kWh 1 CF 1 CCF 1 MCF = = = = =

ENERGY FLOW DIAGRAM EXPLANATION
The left side of the diagram shows energy production (supply) figures for 2004 in the U.S. by source and imports: The top four on the list––coal, natural gas, crude oil, and NGPL––are fossil fuels that provided 56.02 quads of energy. Uranium (nuclear) produced 8.23 quads of energy. Renewables (solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and biomass) produced 6.1 quads of energy. The bottom two show imports––mostly crude oil and petroleum products that produced 27.68 quads of energy, while all other imported energy produced 5.33 quads of energy. The adjustment figure is a ‘balancing’ figure so that both sides of the graph are equal and includes uncounted inputs. The diagram shows that most of 2004 U.S. energy supply came from fossil fuels and that the U.S. imported 31.68% of its total energy supply. The right side of the diagram shows energy consumption figures by energy source and sector of the economy: The U.S. exported 4.43 quads of energy in 2004. The residential sector (homes) consumed 21.18 quads of energy or 21.24% of total energy consumption. The commercial sector (businesses) consumed 17.52 quads of energy or 17.57% of total energy consumption. The industrial sector (manufacturing) consumed 33.25 quads of energy or 33.34% of total energy consumption. The transportation sector (vehicles) consumed 27.79 quads of energy or 27.86% of total energy consumption.

ELECTRICITY FLOW DIAGRAM EXPLANATION
The left side of the diagram shows energy sources used to generate electricity in 2004 in the U.S.: Coal produces 50 percent of electricity in the U.S., followed by uranium and natural gas. Renewables are used to generate a little over 10 percent of U.S. electricity. The right side of the diagram shows electricity consumption figures by sector of the economy: Notice that only 12.68 Q of electricity (31 percent of total generation) are actually used by consumers––the other 69 percent is lost during conversion and distribution––or used by the power plant in operation.

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

PAGE 17

18

19

20

21

22

GENECON ACTIVITIES
Teacher Demonstration––Generator and Motor
Activity used with permission from Adventures with the GENECON Hand Operated Generator, by Gary W. Nahrstedt.

Objectives: Materials:

To understand that a generator converts kinetic energy into electrical energy. To understand that a motor converts electrical energy into kinetic energy. Genecon with output cord, 1 bulb (3.8V, .3A) in socket with leads, Dry cell battery (any 1.5 volt AAA, AA, or D), KidWind turbine, fan

Procedure: Part One 1. Plug the output cord into the back of the Genecon. Connect the leads of the Genecon to one of the miniature bulb sockets using leads provided in the kit. 2. Slowly turn the rotary handle of the Genecon with increasing force until the bulb lights. What do you notice about the bulb? How is it affected by the turning speed of the handle? 3. Rotate the handle in the opposite direction. What do you notice? (Caution: excessively rotating the handle may burn out the bulb or strip the gears damaging the unit.) Part Two 1. Replace the light bulb with a dry cell battery, with the two alligator clips making contact with the opposite ends of the battery. Now what happens? Part Three 1. Attach the alligator clips from the KidWind turbine to the leads of the Genecon. 2. Face the turbine blades into the fan and watch the Genecon as the turbine blades spin. What happens to the Genecon? Change the speed of the fan faster and slower. What do you notice? Background Information––how the Genecon works In the first part of the demonstration, the Genecon acts as a generator. A generator is a device that converts kinetic energy into electrical energy. When the handle is turned, the bulb lights. You should notice that the bulb becomes brighter as the handle is turned more rapidly. In general, the brighter the bulb, the more voltage the Genecon is producing. The bulb will light when the handle turns in either direction, although the polarity is reversed (See Activity 17 in the Genecon Guide). In the second part of the demonstration, the Genecon acts as a motor—a device that converts electrical energy into kinetic energy. The battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy to turn the handle (kinetic energy). In the third part of the demonstration, the Genecon again acts as a motor. Electrical energy from the wall outlet powers the fan (kinetic energy). The wind (kinetic energy) is captured by the turbine blades and they spin (kinetic energy). The spinning motion generates electrical energy that flows through the leads from the turbine to the Genecon. This electrical energy provides the power to turn the handle (kinetic energy). Notice the speed of the turning handle corresponds to the speed of the power source—the spinning blades. A motor and a generator are essentially the same device—the direction of the electrical flow determines what the device is called. Motor: electrical energy in, kinetic energy out. Generator: kinetic energy in, electrical energy out. Assessment Questions: 1. Lighting the bulb demonstrates a series of energy conversions. Describe as many as you can. 2. Write a paragraph describing how a motor works.

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

PAGE 23

BUILDING AN ELECTRIC GENERATOR
Objectives: Materials: To understand how electricity is generated. To demonstrate that magnets spinning in a coil of wire generate electricity.

Optional Teacher Demonstration or Student Activity

1 liter plastic soda bottle, ruler, scissors, marker, hole punch, hexagonal pencil, electrical tape, 22–26 gauge enameled magnet wire, fine sandpaper, wheat bulb, 4 strong rectangular ceramic magnets, 1” wood file, cardboard

Procedure: 1. Measure 4” from base of bottle, cut this section away from top with scissors. Discard top piece. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Measure 1” from top of bottle base and mark spot with a permanent marker dot. Find the matching location precisely on the other side of the bottle base and mark with a dot. Use a hole punch to punch out the two dots. Insert pencil through plastic bottle and test how freely it spins. Use the hole punch to expand the edges of the holes so the pencil spins freely. Leave a 6” end of the wire loose, and tape the wire at the 6” mark to the side of the bottle. Wind the wire approximately 200 times around the bottle, about 100 turns above and 100 turns below the pencil, keeping the wire tight and closely spaced. After winding, tape the wire to the bottle, leaving 6” of the end of the wire loose. Cut off any excess wire with scissors. Use fine sandpaper to remove the enamel coating from the each end of the wire. Twist one end of the wire to one wire lead on the wheat bulb. Repeat with the other end of the wire and other wheat bulb lead. Tape securely to hold wires in place. Mark the center of the pencil and use the wood file to make 1” wide indentations, approximately 1/16” deep, on either side of the pencil into which the magnets will fit. Insert one set of magnets at a time (N to S) over and under the pencil in the indentations, as shown on the right in the diagram. When you have placed the first pair, fold small pieces of cardboard to act as spacers to keep the magnets the same distance apart at both ends. Do the same thing to the second set of magnets, then tape both the ends and sides of both sets of magnets together to keep the magnets aligned.

10. Spin the pencil back and forth as fast as possible to light the wheat bulb. Background Information––how the generator works A magnetic field can produce electricity. In fact, magnetism and electricity are really two inseparable aspects of one phenomenon called electromagnetism. Every time there is a change in a magnetic field, an electric field is produced. Every time there is a change in an electric field, a magnetic field is produced. We can use this relationship to produce electricity. Some metals, like copper, have electrons that are loosely held. They can be pushed from their shells by moving magnets. If a coil of copper wire is moved in a magnetic field, or if magnets are moved around a coil of copper wire, electrons in the wire move, and a current is generated in the wire. Assessment 1. Did you observe electricity generated in this experiment? Why or why not? Explain how you KNOW electricity was generated. What evidence did you observe? 2. Write a paragraph explaining the process of generating electricity.

PAGE 24

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Alternative Blade Design Instructions 1. EXPLORING BLADE LENGTH
Purpose: Question: To determine the optimum blade length that will effectively convert kinetic energy in wind to electricity. How does the blade length of a wind turbine affect electrical output?

Hypothesis: Make a hypothesis to address the question using the following format: If (manipulated variable) then (responding variable) because … Manipulated Variable (independent, or the one variable that changes): Blade length Responding Variable (dependent, or the variable you measure): Electrical output Controlled Variables (variables that are kept the same): Materials: Three sets of turbine blades (short, medium, and long), poster board, scissors, dowels, tape, turbine, multimeter, and fan.

Procedure: 1. Cut out small turbine blades and attach to dowels. 2. Attach dowels to hub at 90° angle. 3. Attach hub to turbine. 4. Record the electrical output of the blades using a multimeter. 5. Repeat the procedure for the medium and long blades. Data Table:

Blade Short Medium Long

Length

Electrical Output

Benchmark: The blades with the highest electrical output become the benchmark blades you use for further investigations. Graph Data: The manipulated variable is written on the X axis (horizontal) and the responding variable is written on the Y axis (vertical). Conclusion: Use results from your table to support your reasoning and explain which blade length you choose to use and why.

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

PAGE 25

Alternative Blade Design Instructions 2. EXPLORING BLADE PITCH
Purpose: Question: To determine the optimum blade pitch (angle) that will effectively convert kinetic energy in wind to electricity. How does the blade’s pitch affect the turbine’s electrical output?

Hypothesis: Make a hypothesis to address the question using the following format: If (manipulated variable) then (responding variable) because … Manipulated Variable (independent, or the one variable that changes): Blade pitch Responding Variable (dependent, or the variable you measure): Electrical output Controlled Variables (variables that are kept the same): Materials: Benchmark blades, protractor, turbine, multimeter, and fan

Procedure: 1. Use the turbine blades from Exploration #1 that had the best electrical output at 90°. 2. Change the angle at least three times to optimize the energy output. 3. Record the electrical output of each angle your choose. Data Table:

Blades Benchmark Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

Pitch 90O

Electrical Output

Graph data: The manipulated variable is written on the X axis (horizontal) and the responding variable is written on the Y axis (vertical). Conclusion: Use results from your data table support your reasoning and explain which blade pitch you choose and why.

PAGE 26

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Alternative Blade Design Instructions 3. EXPLORING MASS & DISTRIBUTION OF MASS
Purposes: To determine if adding mass to the blades affects their output. To determine the optimum distribution of mass that will effectively convert kinetic energy in wind to electricity. Questions: How does adding mass to the blades affect the tubine’s electrical output? How does the distribution of mass on the blade affect the turbine’s electrical output? Hypotheses: If (manipulated variable)... then (responding variable)… because … Manipulated Variables (independent, or the one variable that changes): Amount & distribution of mass Responding Variable (dependent, or the variable you measure): Electrical output Controlled Variables (variables that are kept the same): Materials: Benchmark blades, paperclips, metric ruler, turbine, tape, multimeter, and fan.

Procedure: 1. Use the turbine blades from Exploration #1 and the pitch that had the optimum electrical output. 2. Tape one paperclip near the base of each blade, an equal distance from the center of the hub, test, and record the output. If adding mass increases the output, add more paperclips one at a time until you determine optimal mass. 3. Distribute the paperclips on the blades at different distances from the hub until you determine the optimal distribution of mass. Data Tables:

Mass 0

Electrical Output

Distance from Hub

Electrical Output

Graph data: The manipulated variable is written on the X axis (horizontal) and the responding variable is written on the Y axis (vertical). Conclusion: Use results from your data table to support your reasoning and explain which amount of mass and which distribution of mass you choose and why.
PAGE 27

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

Alternative Blade Design Instructions 4. EXPLORING BLADE MATERIALS
Purpose: Question: Hypothesis: Using your knowledge of length, pitch, and distribution of mass investigate the optimum material for blade construction. How do different blade materials affect the turbine’s electrical output? If... then … because …

Manipulated Variable (independent, or the one variable that changes): Responding Variable (dependent, or the variable you measure): Controlled Variables (variables that are kept the same): Materials: Dowels, tape, multimeter, fan, turbine, miscellaneous blade materials (cardboard, posterboard, plastic, balsa wood, Styrofoam cups, heavyweight foil, metal pie tins, paper plates, hangers and cloth, for example)

Procedure: 1. Create your own turbine blades using any material you choose. 2. Test blades and record results. 3. Choose at least one other blade material and create blades. 4. Test blades and record results. Data Table:

Blade Material Benchmark

Electrical Output

Graph data: The manipulated variable is written on the X axis (horizontal) and the responding variable is written on the Y axis (vertical). Conclusion: Use results from your data table to support your reasoning explaining which material you would use to construct blades and why. Compare your results to your benchmark blades.

PAGE 28

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

Alternative Blade Design Instructions 5. DESIGNING OPTIMUM BLADES
Problem: The engineers of the Fast Wind Turbine Company want help to optimize their turbine blades for higher energy output. They are accepting bids from companies to design blades that more effectively convert kinetic energy than their current Benchmark Blade design. Using data from your previous investigations and data from other groups, explore ideas for the best blade design.

Explore:

Make a Plan: Sketch your design, list the materials you will need, and detail the steps you will take to make the blades. Construct your blades. Data: Data Table: Test and record the electrical output from your new blades. Compare your data to the benchmark blades in Exploration #1 and your blades in Exploration #4.

Blades Benchmark Blades #4 Blades Your Blades
Analysis: New Plan: Redesign: Data Table:

Electrical Output

How did the output of your blades compare to the output of the benchmark blades and the #4 blades? Explain why your blade design is better or worse than the comparison blades. Using your data from the data table above draw and describe specific changes you will make to your blade to increase its electrical output and why you will make these changes. Using your changes, alter the design of your blades, test, and record your data.

Blades Benchmark Blades #4 Blades 1st Design 2nd Design

Electrical Output

Analysis: Report:

How did the outcome of your re-design compare to the output of the benchmark blades, the #4 blades, and your first design? Explain your results. Write a report to the Fast Wind Turbine Company detailing your optimum blade design. Use data to explain why the company should or should not go with your design.
Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

PAGE 29

WIND SURVEY
1. The energy of moving molecules, electrons, and substances is called… a. potential b. mechanical c. kinetic d. electrical 2. Renewable energy sources provide what percentage of total U.S. energy consumption? a. 1% b. 5-10% c. 10-20% d. 20-30%

3. The energy in wind comes from… a. ocean currents b. solar radiation c. jet stream d. climate change

4. The direction of a wind blowing from Chicago toward Washington, DC is called a… a. northwest wind 5. Wind is measured by the… a. Doppler Scale b. Beaufort Scale c. Richter Scale d. Coriolis Scale b. southeast wind c. northeast wind d. south wind

6. An instrument that measures wind speed is a… a. anemometer b. wind vane c. multimeter d. aerometer

7. A device that uses electromagnetism to produce electricity is called a… a. motor 8. A wind turbine converts… a. potential energy to electrical energy b. kinetic energy to potential energy c. chemical energy to kinetic energy d. kinetic energy to electrical energy 9. A good place to site a wind turbine could be… a. mountain top b. sea coast c. narrow valley d. all of the above 10. Wind energy produces how much of total electricity generation in the U.S. today? a. 1% b. 5% c. 10% d. 25% b. generator c. electrometer d. turbine

PAGE 30

Exploring Wind Energy Teacher

© 2007 THE NEED PROJECT • PO BOX 10101 • MANASSAS, VA 20108 • 1-800-875-5029

EXPLORING WIND ENERGY
Evaluation Form
State: ___________ Grade Level: ___________ Number of Students: __________

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Did you conduct all of the activities? Were the instructions clear and easy to follow? Did the activities meet your academic objectives? Were the activities age appropriate? Were the allotted times sufficient to conduct the activities? Were the materials easy to use? Was the preparation required acceptable for the activities? Were the students interested and motivated? Was the energy knowledge content age appropriate? Would you use the activities again?

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

No No No No No No No No No No

How would you rate the activities overall (excellent, good, fair, poor)? How would your students rate the activities overall (excellent, good, fair, poor)? What would make the activities more useful to you?

Other Comments:

Please fax or mail to: NEED Project PO Box 10101 Manassas, VA 20108 FAX: 1-800-847-1820

NEED National Sponsors and Partners
American Association of Blacks in Energy American Electric Power American Electric Power Foundation American Petroleum Institute American Public Power Association American Solar Energy Society American Wind Energy Association Aramco Services Company Armstrong Energy Corporation Association of Desk & Derrick Clubs AWAKE BJ Services Company BP Foundation BP BP Alaska BP Solar Bureau of Land Management– U.S. Department of the Interior C&E Operators Cape and Islands Self Reliance Cape Cod Cooperative Extension Cape Light Compact–Massachusetts Center for the Advancement of Process Technology–College of the Mainland–TX Chesapeake Public Schools–VA Chevron Chevron Energy Solutions Citizens Gas ComEd ConEd Solutions Council of Great Lakes Governors– Regional Biomass Partnership Cypress-Fairbanks Independent School District–TX D&R International Dart Foundation David Sorenson Desk and Derrick of Roswell, NM Devon Energy Dominion Duke Energy Kentucky Duke Energy Indiana Duke Energy North Carolina Duke Energy South Carolina East Kentucky Power Energy Information Administration– U.S. Department of Energy Energy Training Solutions Energy and Mineral Law Foundation Equitable Resources Escambia County School District–FL FPL Energy Encounter–FL First Roswell Company Florida Department of Environmental Protection FMC Technologies Foundation for Environmental Education Fuel Cell Store Gerald Harrington, Geologist GlobalSantaFe Governors’ Ethanol Coalition Guam Energy Office Halliburton Foundation Hydril Hydropower Research Foundation Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity Independent Petroleum Association of America Independent Petroleum Association of NM Indiana Community Action Association Indiana Office of Energy and Defense Development Indianapolis Power and Light Interstate Renewable Energy Council Iowa Energy Center Kentucky Clean Fuels Coalition Kentucky Office of Energy Policy Kentucky Oil and Gas Association Kentucky Propane Education & Research Council Kentucky River Properties LLC Kentucky Soybean Board Kentucky State Fair Keyspan KidWind Llano Land and Exploration Long Island Power Authority–NY Maine Energy Education Project Maine Public Service Company Marathon Oil Company Marianas Islands Energy Office Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources Michigan Energy Office Michigan Oil and Gas Producers Education Foundation Minerals Management Service– U.S. Department of the Interior Mississippi Development Authority– Energy Division Nabors Alaska Narragansett Electric– A National Grid Company New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection NASA Educator Resource Center–WV National Alternative Fuels Training Center– West Virginia University National Association of State Energy Officials National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges National Biodiesel Board National Fuel National Hydrogen Association National Hydropower Association National Ocean Industries Association New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection New York Power Authority North Carolina Department of Administration– State Energy Office Northern Indiana Public Service Company– NIPSCO Nebraska Public Power District New Mexico Oil Corporation New Mexico Landman’s Association New York State Energy Research and Development Authority Noble Energy Nuclear Energy Institute Offshore Energy Center/Ocean Star/OEC Society Offshore Technology Conference Ohio Energy Project Oil & Gas Rental Services Pacific Gas and Electric Company Petroleum Equipment Suppliers Association Poudre School District–CO Puerto Rico Energy Affairs Administration RSA Engineering Renewable Fuels Association Roanoke Gas Robert Gorham Roswell Desk and Derrick Club Roswell Geological Society Rhode Island State Energy Office Saudi Aramco Schlumberger SchoolDude.com Sentech, Inc. Shell Exploration and Production Snohomish County Public Utility District–WA Society of Petroleum Engineers Southwest Gas Spring Branch Independent School District–TX Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development Texas Education Service Center–Region III Toyota TransOptions, Inc. University of Nevada–Las Vegas United Illuminating Company Urban Options–MI U.S. Environmental Protection Agency U.S. Department of Agriculture– Biodiesel Education Program U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Energy– Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies U.S. Fuel Cell Council Vectren Energy Delivery Virgin Islands Energy Office Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy Virginia Department of Education Virginia General Assembly Wake County Public Schools–NC Western Kentucky Science Alliance W. Plack Carr Company Xcel Energy Yates Petroleum

The NEED Project

PO Box 10101

Manassas, VA 20108

1-800-875-5029

www.NEED.org

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.