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Presented by Susan Shrestha 062BME645
Cooling y Solar absorption y Combined solar heating and cooling y Solar mechanical cooling y Solar related air-conditioning
What is Solar Cooling?
Use of solar energy directly to drive cooling cycle for two propose, to provide refrigeration for food preservation and comfort cooling.
Why Solar Cooling?
% of annual electrical consumption (Commercial buildings in India)
8% Lighting (60%) HAVC (32%) Others (8%) 32%
4% 7% 13% 4%
% of annual electrical consumption (Residential buildings in India)
Lighting (28% ) Airconditioning (7% ) Fans (34% ) EV Coolers (4% ) Refrigeration (13% ) TV (4% ) Others (10% )
Cooling consumes 30-60 % of Energy Bill y Oil prices exceeding 100$/Barrel y Production of 1 kWh (oil) results in 0.4-0.7 Ton CO2 y Burning 1 kg Natural Gas produces 2.6 kg CO2
Why Solar Cooling?
y y y
Increasing in cost of energy Need of alternative energy source (clean energy) to meet the need of cooling. Contribution to primary energy savings regarding the global warming by CO2 emissions (Kyotoprotocol) Contribution to reduce the increasing peak power demand due to electrical powered cooling units Crucial for improving life standards in developing countries
Global cooling demand exceeds heating demand
Solar Cooling Paths
Solar Thermal Collectors
-Flat Plate -Evacuated Tube -Concentrating
150°C ETC 100°C Fla Pla e 70°C
Food, Vaccine Storage
Che ical reaction
Thermo-electric cycle Freezing
How Cooling System Works?
Coefficient of performance
The performance of cooling equipment/system is usually rated in terms of COP, defined as the cooling output, or refrigeration effect divided by the energy input. In general,
Absorption Cooling System
An absorption cycle is a heat-activated thermal cycle. It ex-changes only thermal energy with its surroundings³no appreciable mechanical energy is exchanged. y no appreciable conversion of heat to work or work to heat occurs in the cycle y The two great advantages of this type of cycle in comparison to other cycles with similar product are No large rotating mechanical equipment is required Any source of heat can be used, including lowtemperature sources (e.g., waste heat)
All absorption cycles include at least three thermal energy exchanges with their surroundings. y Flow two cycle (a) Forward absorption cycle(FAC) (b) reverse absorption cycle (RAC) y In FAC, the highest temperature heat is always supplied to the generator Qhot Qgen and the coldest heat is supplied to the evaporator Qcold Qevap y In RAC, highest temperature heat is rejected from the absorber, and the lowest temperature heat is rejected from the condenser. So, for ideal system, using energy balance Qevap §Qcond And, Qgen §Qabs
Absorbent Refrigerant LiBr H2O H 2O NH3
Solution Pump ² A dilute refrigerant is collected in the bottom of the absorber shell. Pump moves the solution through heat exchanger for preheating (regeneration). Generator ² After exiting the heat exchanger, the dilute solution moves into the upper shell.The solution surrounds a bundle of tubes which carries either steam or hot water. The steam or hot water transfers heat into the pool of dilute refrigerant solution. The solution boils, sending refrigerant vapor upward into the condenser and leaving behind concentrated lithium bromide. The concentrated refrigerant solution moves down to the heat exchanger, where it is cooled by the weak solution being pumped up to the generator. Condenser ² The refrigerant vapor migrates through mist eliminators to the condenser tube bundle.The refrigerant vapor condenses on the tubes.The heat is removed by the cooling water which moves through the inside of the tubes. As the refrigerant condenses, it collects in a trough at the bottom of the condenser. Evaporator ² The refrigerant liquid moves from the condenser in the upper shell down to the evaporator in the lower shell and is sprayed over the evaporator tube bundle. Due to the extreme vacuum of the lower shell [6 mm Hg (0.8 kPa) absolute pressure], the refrigerant liquid boils at approximately 39°F (3.9°C), creating the refrigerant effect. (This vacuum is created by hygroscopic action - the strong affinity refrigerant has for water - in the Absorber directly below.) Absorber ² As the refrigerant vapor migrates to the absorber from the evaporator, the strong refrigerant solution from the generator is sprayed over the top of the absorber tube bundle.The strong refrigerant solution actually pulls the refrigerant vapor into solution, creating the extreme vacuum in the evaporator. The absorption of the refrigerant vapor into the refrigerant solution also generates heat which is removed by the cooling water.The now dilute refrigerant solution collects in the bottom of the lower shell, where it flows down to the solution pump. The chilling cycle is now completed and the process begins once again.
SingleSingle-Effect Absorption Cycle of LiBr-H2O
(100oC) (6.5oC) (12oC) (53oC)
Assumptions for Single-Effect SingleWaterWater-Lithium Bromide Model
y y y y y y y y y y y y
Generator and condenser as well as evaporator and absorber are under same pressure Refrigerant vapor leaving the evaporator is saturated pure water Liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser is saturated Strong solution leaving the generator is boiling Refrigerant vapor leaving the generator has the equilibrium temperature of the weak solution at generator pressure Weak solution leaving the absorber is saturated No liquid carryover from evaporator Flow restrictors are adiabatic Pump is isentropic No jacket heat losses The LMTD (log mean temperature difference) expression adequately estimates the latent changes
Ideal Properties of H2O²LiBr
The generation process is one of increasing the concentration from 55 to 60% while the equilibrium temperature of the solution rises from 72 to 82oC at the condenser. In the absorber, the solution concentration drops from 60-55% as the solution temperature drops from 48 to 38oC, all at the evaporator pressure. In a real cycle, some sensible heat will have to be transferred in the generator and absorber. y Many LiBr-H2O machines have nearly constant COP as the generator temperatures vary over the operating range, as long as the temperatures are above minimum. The thermal COP is usually in the range of 0.6-0.8. y The generator temperatures are in the range 7090oC as water used as coolant. y So, temperature of the fluid supplied to the generator must be higher than this.
SingleSingle-Effect Absorption Cycle of H2O-NH3 The working principle of Ammonia-water cooler is similar to that of the LiBr-water. y Rectifier is used between generator and condenser to reduce the amount of water vapor going to the condenser. y The pressures and pressure differences are much higher and mechanical pumps are needed. y The condenser and absorber can be air cooled (generator temp. 125-170oC) or water cooled (generator temp. 95-120oC)
Ideal Properties of NH3²H2O
NH3 -H2O Absorption System y Refrigerant - Ammonia Absorbent - Water y High operating pressures y It is suitable for refrigeration and air-conditioning y High generation temperature y Condenser is both water cooled as well as air cooled y Rectifier is required y COP is low (0.5 to 0.6) y No crystallization problem y Health hazard as it is toxic y Inflammable y Mechanical pump is required y LiBr -H2O Absorption System y Refrigerant - Water Absorbent Lithium Bromide y Low operating pressures y It is suitable for air-conditioning or heat pump y It is relatively lower y Only water cooling is necessary y Rectifier is not required y COP is high (0.7 to 0.8) y Crystallization is a major problem y It is not toxic y Not flammable y No need of mechanical pump can use (vapour lift(bubble) pump)
MultiMulti-effect absorption cycle
NEED y To improve the COP Drawback y Need high generating temperature
DoubleDouble-effect absorption cycle
y y y
y y y y
The double-effect chiller use two condensers and two generators to allow for more refrigerant boil-off from the absorbent solution. Heat is transferred between the high-pressure condenser and intermediate-pressure generator. The heat of condensation of the refrigerant (generated in the high-temperature generator) generates additional refrigerant in the lower temperature generator. Thus, the prime energy provided to the high-temperature generator is cascaded (used) twice in the cycle, making it a double-effect cycle. With the generation of additional refrigerant from a given heat input, the cycle COP increases. Commercial water-lithium bromide chillers normally use this cycle COP ranges from 1-1.5 Temperature of high pressure generator should be 130160oC for H2O-LiBr
COP vs Heat Supply Temp.
LiClLiCl-H2O Open Cycle Cooling
Solar absorption AC
Combined Solar Heating and Cooling CSHC
Many application of solar air conditioning will be done in conjunction with solar heating, with the same collector, storage and auxiliary energy system serving both functions and supplying hot water.
Important Consideration in CSHC Design
Summer and Winter loads: y Collector Capacity, its size and design is governed by the one of the above dominating load Climate Condition: y Terai, Hilly, Mountainous region y Commercial buildings are likely to have design fixed by cooling loads. Building Design: y Fenestration(window design), shading by overhangs, wing walls, building orientation etc COP y Less COP require a larger collector area.
Location of heat storage tank y If heat storage tank is inside structure, the heat loss from storage become uncontrolled gains during the heating season and additional loads during cooling season Heating loads are higher in morning and cooling loads are higher in the afternoon
High Initial cost of Setup Design problem for optimum collector area, under design may lead to excessive use of auxiliary energy whereas overdesign may lead to low use factor on capital intensive solar energy system y Absorption air conditioners are more expensive than mechanical air conditioners y In climates where annual cooling loads are low the absorbers coolers have higher cooling costs due to low use factors on the coolers y Its dependency upon the availability of solar energy throughout the year
Solar Mechanical Cooling
Works on the principle of Rankin cycle y To develop mechanical work to run vapour compression refrigeration cycle y Used in large scale for combine AC, electric generation, water heating Drawbacks y Occupies large space y Not economical on the scale of AC operations y Difficult to envision a household-scale system as conventional system is less expense
Fig (a) The efficiency of the solar collector decreases as the operating temperature increases while the efficiency of the heat engine increases as the operating temperatures increases y Fig(b) shows the overall system efficiency which increases and then decreases after certain optimum temperature
Solar related air-conditioning airy
i. ii. iii.
The components installed for the purpose of heating a building can also be used to cool the buildings without the use of direct solar energy Night cold storage system Sky radiation systems Heat pump systems
Night cold storage system
Night chilling of pebble beds can be done to store ´coldµ for use for the following day which can provide some cooling capacity y Pebble bed storage of solar air heating systems can be cooled by passing outside air through an evaporative cooled air at night. where the ambient temperature were at most 15 to 20 C y When cooling the building the air flow from the rooms, up through the pebble bed, and returned to the rooms.
Sky radiation systems
y y y y i.
Radiation to the night sky has been used to dissipate energy in several experimental systems The nearly horizontal radiators are also used as collectors for solar heating These system can use nocturnal(night-time) radiation to chill water for subsequent cooling. There are two limitations The characteristics which make good collectors are not those that make good radiator. Neither covers nor selective coating can be used as they reduces nocturnal radiation level Second limitation is climatic one. It could only be used where night sky temperatures are low i.e. atmospheric moisture and dust content are low and night time wind speeds are low.
Heat pumps used in the solar heating systems can also be used in the air conditioning systems thus making it dual purpose pump. This makes the use of heat pump fore economic and favorable.
Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes y ASHRAE handbook y Internet
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