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MANUAL OF

L A T 11 E OPERATION

AND

MACHINISTS TABLES

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

ATLAS PRESS COMPANY

1822 North Pitcher Street Kalamazoo, Michigan, U. S. A.

Copyright 1937 ATLAS PRESS COMPANY Printed in U. S. A.

Price One Dollar in U. S. A.

CONTENTS

1 LATHE CARE AND CONSTRUCTION

2 THEORY OF METAL CUTTING

3 CUTTING TOOLS

4 THE MACHINING OF VARIOUS MATERIALS

5 HOLDING THE WORK

6 DRILLING AND BORING

7 THREAD CUTTING (Supplement)

8 LAJ'HE A TT ACHMENTS AND THEIR USES

9 WOODTURNING ON THE METAL LATHE

10 MACHINISTS TABLES

11 INDEX

12 PAGES FOR YOUR SHOP NOTES

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PREFACE

This Manual of Lathe Operation has been prepared to provide authentic, up to date, and complete operating information for owners of all types of metal cutting lathes.

Fundamental and concrete theory, as well as operating procedure, is included in order to make this book suitable for students, apprentices and vocational schools. Much of the data will prove invaluable to the machinist and the more experienced lathe operator.

It is our hope that this Manual will further the advancement of the lathe user ill all walks of industry. If we have helped him, even in a small way, the research and labor involved in the preparation of this book will have been well worth while.

Oltlas Press Company

We wish to extend our sincere appreciation to the many manufacturers, engineers and machinists who have assisted in the preparation of the technical material in this manual. If the reader desires further information on any of the metals or plashes mentioned, we w:ill gladly furnish the name and address of the manuf acturer.

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The history of modern machinery started in the last years of the eighteenth century when Henry Maudslay, an Englishman, built the first practical screw-cutting lathe. When compared with a modern precision lathe, this machine was slow and clumsy, but from the basic principles of Maudslay's lathe have come nearly all modern machine tools. The skill of early New England machinists in developing his theories soon put the United States in the front rank among industrial nations of the world.

Henry Maudslay's Screw C LOtiing Lathe 18~O

Original Now at South Kensington Mu-se-um London, England

Courtesy Popular Mechanic. Magazine

Today, nearly 150 years after Maudslay, the screw-cutting lathe is still the heart of industrial manufacturing. It seems odd to consider the lathe so vitally important when large batteries of automatic machines are used in every modern factory. But pay a visit to the factory tool room where the machining is done which makes possible the construction of these huge automatic machines. There you will find a lathe, easily the most important tool, busy at

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the hands of an expert machinist turning the plans of designers and engineers into new tools and machines for modern industry.

The lathe is the "King of All Tools"-more jobs of a mechanical nature can be done on a lathe than with any other dozen tools. In the machine shop, experimental shop, or home workshop, the metal lathe is called upon for many operations. Turning, milling, grinding, drilling and boring must be performed on iron and steel' wood, plastics, alloys and soft metals must be shaped into form:

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springs and coils wound; threads of all size-s ana shapes have to be

cut; and machin-e parts need repairing or replacing. Manufacturers, tool and die makers, experimenters, automotive men, model builders, inventors-thousands of businesses, hobbies, and professions depend on a precision screw cutting lathe with its many attachments.

THE MODERN SCREW-CUTTING LATHE

A Mod~nl Backgeared Screw-Cutting Lath",

For years a screw-cutting lathe required an investment of several hundred dollars-a huge demand existed for an accurate, popular-priced lathe. The lathe shown above was built to meet this demand-backed by a manufacturer with over a quarter-ceIJ.tury of experience in the producing of precision tools and machinery for industry. In planning this lathe, designing engineers, who for years had been intimately connected with the modern methods of automotive manufacturing cooperated with practical machinists of long experience in lathe operation. A sizeable fortune was- spent

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on tools and dies for its manufacture. Machine toot builders were called upon to furnish special machinery so that modern precision methods of manufacturing could be employed. As a result of all these combined efforts, this modern lathe was introduced.

From the very first, hundreds of shops in all parts of the world found that an investment in such a lathe quickly paid for itself. Factories and tool rooms soon learned that it performed a large percentage of their work Faster, cheaper and more accurately; inventors discovered that it was just the tool for the development of their ideas.

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THE MODERN LATHE IN OPERA nON

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WALL CHART

This large blueprint chart (31%" wide, 25%" high) presents the most important basic iDfo~rnat:ion OD the Function and care of lathe part s and ro.akes 8 u'BcJul wall pie-ee for machini.t, apprentice and student, 'I'eolmical materia) 1,. this ohart lta~ b."rt adapted from "Manual of Lathe Operation."

The wall chart shown above is one 01 " series published by Atlas Press C.ompany.

Kalamazoo, Michigan. The complete series, covering important Jlbaaes of fathe-operation and. machine shop practice, will be mailed upon request to any pt>lnt in the United States. When. ordering, enclose twenty-five cents For each set in coin cr -stamP~ to cover acs ts of printing and poste.ge,

Part 1

LATHE CARE AND CONSTRUCTION

LATHE CARE AND CONSTRUCTION

PART I

SETTING UP THE LATHE

Most bench latbes are shipped completely assembled. All unpainted surfaces have been greased thoroughly and wrapped in oil paper, and the entire lathe strongly crated. Take care in removing the crate-a crow bar or hammer can slip easily and damage some part of the lathe. If the inside cross braces of the crate are first removed and the side boards loosened at the bottom, the entire top of the crate can be lifted off.

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Bench Lathe ready for dcmestic shipment. All machined' surface are .gr eased, and the completely assembled lathe is then wrapped in ail paper. an d solid. Iy crated.

As soon as the lathe is unpacked, oil it completely and thoroughly at all points shown on the Oiling Chart on pages 6 and 7. Choose a well lighted location that is dry and with enough room for maximum efficiency and convenience.

Floor .standa and cabinets (page 2) make ideal supports for the lathe. If the lathe is to be mounted on a bench, use one that is solidly built, well braced and with a good dry lumber top at least two inches thick. The precision of any lathe, regardless of size, depends a great deal UpOD the rigidity of the base under the lathe bed-a flimsy, warping bench top can, in a few days, spoil a careful mounting of the lathe and in time will impair its accuracy.

A bench height of 32 to 34 inches is correct for the man of average height. Adjacent edges of the top boards should be carefully joined and planed smooth. It is suggested that the top boards either be heavily dowelled, or that four or five ~'r steel rods, threaded at both ends, be run edgewise through all of the top boards and pulled up tight. This latter method is preferred and

l calls for an accurate boring job. The top should also be planed smooth and level.

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MANUAL OF LATHE OPERATION

FIG_ 2A (Right)

Lathe on Boor cabinet-a new style of machine support which Iurnishes covered shelf spa,. for tools and • Ita chmenm.

FIG. 2 (L"(L)

L_atb_. on. HooT s tand. Thi. type of '''''Uoting. pr~ides • tigi{I au cr L and avoIds ""perfecUons of ~ny sbop beneh es,

LEVELING THE LATHE

The first step in successful lathe operation is to keep the lathe pedectly level at all times. When carelessly mounted any lathe bed will become twisted or bent, and with a slight amount of twist the centers became out of alignment and accurate work is impossible. Expert machinists agree that the better the leveling, the more accurate the lathe.

Here is the proper way to mount and level the lathe: With the lathe in position on the bench, mark and drill six ¥a" holes for machine bolts under the corresponding holes in the legs. Dilferences in height must then be detected with a good machinists Level. Be sure the lathe bed is level ALL WAYS. including crosswise and longitudinally near both the headstock and tailstack ends (see Fig. 3). Differences in height are then taken up by the use of wide

LATHE CARE AND CONSTRUCTION

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FIG. 3. Three Different Level Poaiticns [only one level is required).

shims to insure a firm base. Shims should be thin metal or cardboard strips, preferably metal.

Repeat the checking operation after the legs have been bolted down tightly. It may be necessary to relax the bolts and adjust height by adding more shims. Most machinists check these leg shims regularly and whenever the lathe is expected to be in use for a long _period of time. Before heavy work or whenever the lathe is moved to a new shop location, it is advisable to repeat th.e checking of the level position.

Do not slight the leveling of your lathe. In order: to make precision cuts on long work it is absolutely necessary to have the bed perfectly aligned and horizontal. The precision built into a lathe can be made entirely useless by faulty, uneven mounting. Extra care and time spent in installation and leveling will give the lathe every chance to perform the accurate work for which it is built.

MOUNTING THE MOTOR

These lathes are designed to be run from a. 1740 R.P.M. motor, either % or Yz H.P .. depending upon the type 0-£ work being handled. With the lathe in place. mount the motor on the motor bracket and connect the switch wires as shown in Fig. 4. Before bolting down the motor, run it for a moment to make sure that the

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MAN U A L 0 F LATH E 0 PER A T ION

direction of rotat:on is clockwise when facing the pulley end of the shaft. If the motor pulley does Dot fit readily on the motor

shaf~ scrape the pulley hole or dress the inside with emery cloth wrapped around a wooden dowel. Si£ht along the edge of the large pulley on the countershaft to obtain alignment with the motor pulley. Slotted braces are provided under the motor bracket for adjustment of belt tension. V belt drives require only medium tension, and the motor drive belt should be adjusted with the tension lever in the middle position.

KEEP YOUR LATHE WELL OILED

Before using the lathe, oil it thoroughly at the points shown in the chart on pages 6 and 7. It is well to memorize the exact order of the chart. Use a good grade of machine oil-automotive oil, S.A.E. No. 10 is excellent for general lathe use. Automotive cup grease is suitable for the countershaft grease cups,

Both top and side surfaces of the bed ways should be oiled whenever using the lathe. These ways, as well as all other unpainted surfaces, should be covered with a generous film of oil when the lathe is not in use. Keep the lathe completely covered when it is in a dusty location or standing idle for a long time. Some types of gritty dust or soot are nearly as hard as emery dust and will cause wear unless lathe bearing surfaces are protected. Be sure to cover the bed ways during grinding operations.

Form the habit of oilit,! }'our lathe reeulari».

It)~I'VE:It.5E:~PU''-PII.~ lIIaTD' IUI'OVE Wl n ~,,~ "0'1 T.~M"in 'It TO 1 E!tMI".tl ~B~ "'L§C IliUlO~! wiU f.O'l'Q".(IoM mM~.H.u "'I" ra rulll.III!IIIL '.('

TO 0: EVtUI DTKE.l MOTQRS fClL~gW I"'~~U ,~.-ruo;.x~ I~Sl"CT1"S.

FIG. 4

Connectlng the switch wires to the meter,

BREAKING IN THE NEW LATHE

The high-speed, close-fitting babbitt bearings pictured on page 9 are similar to those of large industrial machine tools and automobile motors. Before the lathe is used, these bearings must be "run-in" carefully to insure long and accurate service.

To run-in bearings properly fill the two headstock bearing cups

LATHE CARE AND CONSTRUCTION

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wi:th a good grade of machine oil no heavier than S.A.E. No. 10 and adjust the belts to obtain a speed of 164 RP.M. (see page 47). Operate the lathe at this speed for about an hour, keeping the bearings well flushed with oil. An especially good lubricant for running-in bearings is a mixture of one part Pyroil and four parts S.A.E. No. 10. "Pyroil" is the trade name of a special automotive oil made for breaking in new bearings (also supplied under other trade names).

Use plenty of clean oil during the running-in period. If the bearings heat abnormally, reduce the spindle speed for a short time. Always keep the wicking- in the oil caps loose so that oil can be readily absorbed as needed.

CAUTION: Do not use speeds over SOO R.P.M. until the lathe lias been run at least 10 hours.

Mod~rl) Lathe Prcductlon Lin,e •.

CONSTRUCTION OF THE LATHE HEADSTOCK

The precision of a lathe depends to a great extent upon the care taken in the manufacture of the headstock. The headstock shown 011 page 8 is heavy, close-grained grey iron, ribbed and reinforced for absolute rigidity and solidly anchored to the bed. The front of the headstock casting extends up to the bearing height, providing a heavy, permanent truss between the right and left bearings

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MANUAL OF LATHE OPERATION

FIG. 5

La the H eadstock,

an~ insuring perfect alignment even under the heaviest loads. A switch to start and stop the motor is built into the headstock casting.

HEADSTOCK SPINDLE

FIG, 6

Headstock Spindle. Take-up l"ut and Collar Ball Thrust Bearin=. Center a"d Sleeve. •

The headstock spindle is special alloy steel - accurately ground and polished to extremely close tolerances to provide a perfect surface for the bearing. The spindle diameter is 1]4" -the nose has 8-pitch National Form threads. A 25/32-inch hole is bored through its entire length, allowing full-sized %-inch stock to be fed through the spindle (see Fig. 188). The spindle nose is r::amed for a No.3 Morse Taper, and a reducing sleeve is furnished to permit the use of a standard No.2 MOIse Taper center.

LATHE CARE AND CON:.LKI"I .... "V.~

SPINDLE BEARINGS

Bearing Cop

FIG. 7

Exceptionally fine spindle bearings are required in the headstock of the modern lathe. The bearings shown above are made of- special high-speed, copper-hard babbitt - precision line boring equipment insures a true bearing fit and perfect alignment of spindle and bed (see Fig. 8). This type of bearing is being used universally in automobile main bearings and maintains its original accuracy and alignment under heavy loads, Among lathe and machine tool builders, bearings of this kind have been a custom of the trade for many years. A removable bearing cap and shims with five .002-inch lam-

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Custcm-buildtng; spindle bearinge. B"arinl[" are preciaiO"nbored after the headstock ls Iitted ee the bed-insuring pcslelve align m"nt with. t.he wa ys.

inations are provided-adjustment for wear is made easily without special equipment or destroying the alignment of the spindle.

For metal turning, a rather tigbt bearing is essential. After the lathe has been broken in, the spindle should turn with a slight "drag," which can be felt when rotating the spindle by hand. No adjustment of the bearings should be necessary for hundreds of

hours.

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BEARING ADJUSl'MENa"

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Laminated

lamina tions, ~

easily with a sharp knife.

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IMPORTANT-When

SPINDLE, END PLAY AD}US1',:ryfEI\rT

Adjustment ofthe ball bearing (Fig. 10)' fo abMrhspindle eird ' thrust requires simply loosening th,es~t screw ~(A) in:thei'thl"e'aa~

, ed .collar (B), and turning.it to give a. rrrirrimumof end 'pJa.r:. 'B¥ pulling this collar up ,tight, then backing h<off',i). H~iJe,;the spinl;\1ie is given just enough play'to turn, freely. Wh,ehe,ver end 'IlIa¥, can be felt by pulling lengthwise on the splildle~.this a,djusttttent should be made in "order to eliminate chatter rand :inacctlr'i:ic¥, ':y,io}licl'i

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LATHE CAWE AND CONSTRUCTION

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would otherwise result. Oil the end thrust bearing every time the 'lathe is in use.

FIG. 10

'Cros" Section '(top view) of the lathe headstock 'and :back,geadrig mechanism, Note/ end thrust hcarhig and adjusting nut; 'spindle idler pulley and bronze sleeve bearing, "I:lieoperat;Q!l of back gears is 1\.\l1y explained 'on pages" 13'

and 14, ' '

Adjustment cfend play on lathes equipped with babbit thrust bearings-is made in the same way as on thosewith the ball thrust bearing. To remove Timken -Bearing ~l?indle for replacing belts,

se,e page 16. '

LA THES, WITH TIM KEN ,BEARINGS

FIG. 11

Lath'; H~adofock Spin d I eequipped with 'I'Imken Tapered Reller Bearings. "Phe , tallered design 'and pos-

'i t iv e Ly a l i gn ed r o.l l s

mean that both radial and thrust loads are' carried with "minimum

of ·friction. ' .

Lathes .. · equipped with Timken Tapered RqlH;r Bearings ate recommended whenever the l'athespindle speed must be exceptionally high for long intervals_These anti-friction bearings are ideal £.or,contill uous -production jobs, wood turning and metal

LA,THI; -<;::AR:E AND CONSTRUCTION

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MANU,-6;1. OF LATHE

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Fig~ 12A) on 'the thrust' nut, C, at the extreme Ieft end cif the spindle, A, and turn it up to a point vv;here no play can-be detected in the spindle. Advance this thrust nut )/16 -turn past that point (equal to two teeth-on the,,~spindle gear) ill- order-to ptQyide the correct pr_e~lbad.Tigh.ten the set screw.

CARE OF TlIViKEN~BEARINGS

Lathes equipped with Timk~n Bearings c,ipb¢ set to work Immedi'ately. Oil the hearings, ,eyery tjmathe lathe is:in lise with S.AE: No, 10 motor all or a good gradecif-'machine oil,

OPERA TION: OF THE BACK GE:ARS

The back -gearsre_duce the lathe; spindle speed, prOviding power for-heavycutsand correct- surfacespeeds for large-diameter work; The back gear ratio is approximately~6.to 1. The back gears .are conveniently Iocated, easily used and take up ver-y little space. Iron guards provI,de,_ a safety covering, "TheIT.lechanism fo.l" <changing from direct driye to back g'eareddriye is quick and simpleIn operation. Adequate 'bearings and goodg_ears are bothvitallyimportant

in 1~~heCci!l-st~uc;ticm. , "'. _ __ '. "

The-lathe backgearingniechatiism ispictured in Figure 13, and Figure lO,page H,explains the detaiIsof operation. The "btillgear;"C, is keyed solidly tel th~spind~e. - The small gear, D,and the spindle pulley; E, are fastened together rigidly..,._;ihey have wide, perfectl yfitfing bronze,

, - hearings for rotation on the spindle. This small gear and pulley - assembly is 'free to rotat~ unless the pin;I\is pushed in, locking the pulley to thebull gear and spindle, In- this locked position. with the 15a'ck -gears disengaged, the' spip.'dle, is driven directlyfrorri the countershaft,

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,ADJUSTMENT OF - TIMKEN. BEAR~N(}S

.' ,Adju~tment ~£ the Tfrnken Bearing is not often n'ecessartY;;",_.b'fl,f lfth.espmdle sprnstoo f-re¢ly or plat is-neticeatile when the ~pIn"" dl:'lS pushed back arid forth~. the following simplf;: ,pl'o.ce,du:H~ ,?,,11Uadjust the headatockbeanings.:

FIG. 13

Top view oflatl;e,:he,\dstock ehowing-

: 'the b~t:k.·g~al"'s. '.

When . the pin, P, is pulled out of the bull gear and the back gears areengagedby pulling forward the -eccen tric shaft leverv K, the beltErom the countershaft drives the small g~ar and pulley assembly, D and E, the small gear meshes with and drives the large back

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screw 13

FI_G. 12<\

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MANU~L OF .LATHE O,PERATl0N

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LATHE CARE AND CONSTRUCTION

15

The nouriterahaft spindle revolves on roller hearings, amply lubricated through the hollow spindle. These fine beatings, trapsmit maximum power to the spindle and give years of trouble-free

performance. ..

FIG. U'(Right)

.Suppor-t bracket for hostzontal , CQUO-. tershaft is mounted 011 'the ,lathe 'bench

or s-tand. . .:< - .

INDEXING MECHANISM

FIG. 15 (Left)

Vertical t::ou~fersha.ft is attached .direetly" t'o "headstock and be,d., mak- , iilg, lathe a 'sell-contained unit.

DiVisions Desired

,10"

12 :is

:20,

30 60

Divisions

Desired 1

2

3

4

5

6

eN",. of. Space.

, 6"

5 4 3 2' i

No.Q{ Space. 60'

aD 20 IS 12 10

Degrees "fAre 360 180 120

90 72 60

ADJUSTING BELTS

The driving belt is-adjusted easily and .acctirately 'by means of the four countershafr cadjusting screws. Make' the. countershaft belt adjustments with the belt tension lever in the middle position so that the. center of the belt can be pushed in about one inch with· a rrroderate-amount of .pressure. V~beltsdo not have to-be tight in order' tod't·ivenqrmal'loads, and belt life- will be lengthened by running them fairly loose. The tightest position of the belt ten-

" sian lever is for very 'heavy {oads only, not for ordinary turning.

,;>:,_,In tig-htening'the fou'I: -countershaft adj~sting screws, it 'is not necessary to draw them up too ··tightly"':'_the ':cmnpressing of the outer sleeve will distort the bearing arid might cause permanent damage. TUf!I these screws up until they, are -finger tight, then a'boutYs turn moreyand lock.

The motor drivebelt is adjusted by moving the motor bracket

- THE LATEE COUNTERS HAFT

Two styles-of-lathe countershaft are illustrated in Figures 114 and 15. The support bracket for the horizo:rtta] ,counte-fs:ha'ft -is'

,. mounted on the lathe bench; the vertical countershaft i'5, aHacli,e<1 directlyto theh.eadstockand bed. .Bothtypes arevquick chatrg.e;'" with the belt tension lever within easy reach for ~pee,d clian"g.es. Sixteen. speeds are available, ranging from 28. to ?~Q?2 R.F.M.

These modern vcountershaft designs do away wIth the ifr.i-, tating disadvantages. of a currtbersome,space-takingftatbe.lt drive, with its limited speed range and difficultie$oJ~ adjustme;ntThey' provide a smooth, even flow of power to the spindle at, the .exact speed most efficientFor the work being done.

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MANUAL OF LkTHEOFE'RNIJON

'V -B,ELTOPERA TION

Do not run V-befts too, tight. Relax belts when lathe is iiJfe.

Keep belts 'free Fro moil-s-ail shortens, beft life'. I<

. Keep puIf~y sheaves, smooth. 'Jf',' accidentally nicked". or marred, dress them down with a file sndpolisl: with'emery,t:.IQffJi.

Dq =: try to shift belt positions-while=the lath~ i~' ;unning, , or Without loosening the belts with {he belt tensiqn lever., '

.Replecing belts: The motor drive belt is easl'lyr:eplaced. H(he!lr(;placFng spindle drivebelt, reril,?ve splntile;a.T!i1;' ~fter in~ stelling new belt, see that the , besring: caps and shims ,ax:e plac.ed exactly as they, were originsllg: Safety' beIt-guaids;ife recommended For industrial,and eilucatlonal 'use; 'See page ~:

T?'remove T'imken Bearing' Spindle" for repia~ing: -belts ." See 'F{g. /2A. Remov s gear guards. .Loosen. :set'scre_w B,;'2_ set

,screws D, and set screw F. Remove-thrust. collar e' feedgeat G, and flanged collet H. .. Place 2pieces,oi woodbet.we~n b:ea'd an'! 141-rge':'!pindlegear I." Hold pieceo/wQdii_' ort [fijt,end 'p,f spindle ag.d. tapJirmlywith hammer. .Coiniiiu« tapping sni-nille from left 'to\filth1;,until key f' comes out 0.1 gear 'I. Reinov» kry with, pl~'ers,':,'6B'e~i?t~ burr irOtI: spitidl~ fjell((a~ilF.,€cl'qtinue to dnve spmdZe,>untl1 there IS 'suHie!ent -cootn iOF beU .. Tet reassemble,rever~e';fJf,ocess. '

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LATHE CARE AND CONSTRUCJION

17

THE LATHE BED

The accuracy of the lathe bed is most important from thest'iind-' point of 'precision and good lathe work. The use 'of specially de-, V

'; signed mfllingandgtinding'machinery andexfreme care in manufacture and Inspection, has succeeded in producing lathe beds-today with a degree of precision previously 'gnknown,' Inpopular-priced lathes.

FIG. 16

The fini'hed CIa the bed-seas~n"d., milled, precision-ground and ready for the assembly line. ' '

The accuracy of, the bed, regardless' of design, is almost en-

, tirely dependent upon the-finish: it. -receives in the process .of manufacture. The milling or planing operations used to reduce lathe beds to .appreximately final 'shape, do neegive-accuracy of more than-two at three thousandths of an inch. Thelled-wa:i~:~urfaces,.mustthen beeither hand.scraped or machine ground." ,

.Modern industry has proved conelusive lythat surfaces can be, precision-finished by grinding to unbelievably ,~16s~: litriits':_a pro-

. duction accuracy undreamed of ten years ago, Old Iashioned, expensive methodsofhand scrapingbave nearly disappeared-better and mote adequate equipment is trow being produced by 'machine, grindinli(,at a more moderate. cost 'than' ever before: ~ "

A precision grinding machine (Fig~ 18)mac:1E;e~peci!llly to produce the accurate finisbpp. the ways of thelathe bed-shown-above _ requires a huge expenclituredf money, ,bilt.a precision lathe demands,

a precision bed-s-there can be, no. cd~prort,tise:, ,.

, Lathe beds' are madefrorn selected cidse~grained semi-steel iron castings. The entire bed, comprising tbecroasrlbs.ways and base;,

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MANUAL OF LATHE OPEJ!;A1"tOI'il

/

, , FIG. 18 " '. "

Special-built modern grinding equipment 01 the type shown above gives the final

pred.i"n finish ·to tlie Ia the.bed ways,' .

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lATHE CARE AND CONSTRUCTION

is made in one piece, , The heavy box-type cross :tib~, spaced every four inches, rigidly brace the bed wafs against hea"Y turning forces. The heavy ways 'on top and theInner bead at the bottom resist lohgitu'dlnal stress. The heavy.streamlined legs with crossbraces have a total bearing surface of 48 inches on the bed., 'This unusually large bearing surface rprovides a .sturdy base for the eriti're 'lathe and keeps vibration at, a -minimum .

. ~ ". _' - .~.

After the bed is cast, it is first rough-milled, and' allowed to. season, or age, for a number of months .. This' permits internal strains in the metal ~obecome normalized; ~6 that wiirping and t""isdng, will not occur in the 'finished' bed. After seasoning, a finish .milling cut 'js taken, and the ways ate ,then 'finish-ground on especially designed. surface grinders. 'The completed bed is' checked thoroughly; inspected innumerable times during 'the assembly.of 'the lathe,and careful'ly-checked again by the final inspectors,

BE CONSIDEEATE oz TFELATHEBED

With normal ruse no appreciable bed wear ' will occur even over a period of years,' but any finelvfinished metal surface .can be damaged byabuse, and your Jathe bed is no exception.

,Tools or other objects should not be dropped on the ways.

"Donbt use the lathe. bed as ananvil,

'Do hot 'drop, chucks or the bed when removing them from

the spindle; ..

Do not' allow chips to accumulate. on, 'the bed, When filing .or, gi'ifidiiig 'on the lathe, remove the fine dust and oil the ways liberally. as soon as' the operation i1) finished, J3 etter 'still, keep the lathe bed .covered dur ingrsuch operations. ."

Keep therbe d 'well oiled when 'not' in use-s-when 'ready to use, the lathe,wipetheway~C\ri.dcover them with . clean oil.

CHECK LEVEL POSiTION OF LA'THE ATREGYLAR INTERVALS

,~, ,-' .".- . ," .'" - . - ,

,19,

20

/v1ANUAL OF. LATHE:_. o p'E'ib,TI O-hl ,

CARRIAGE AND tOMPbtrND-REST

'FIG. 2(1·

Carria~.~ ~,nd Compound :Rest As se rril>(v,

The

r

-" ,,;

Four gib screws are located 011 thebifc1; o'i tEl'e:carrip.g!,! {otad,

justing_horizcmfal play between the c3riiag¢ and the b'ed~_t"li,ese screws - should b.e ti'ghtened just enough+to 'gj.v:~i fi-1'iJl, 'slicltr-ig .filE between carriage and bed. Bearing, plates 'on' {he: car'i;Jage" which hear onrhe under side of both -the front.and the1i1ack b.edWays, anchor the· ca:rdage firmly to the b~d .in a 'll'erticqJ J~1!e~ti(m. These bearing plates have laminated shims f~radj1;lstmen-t"o£: pos~

sible wear (see Fig.- 9). ' ,.

~ PI ~

rr~ \:~~.

LATHE CARE AND 'C,ONSTRUCTION

21

The large carriage handwheel on the front of the apronoperates a set of gears, the 'last Of which, meshes ~ith the rack on the bed.'rhese gears can be, adjustedfor play: by loosening the screws. on the -f ron t: of the apron, moving' the gear case toward the rack,

and tightening - the screws; - '

FIG. 21

Detail of carriage' apron showing lead screw with keyway to drive I'0~er doss: feed, and half nuts for. power longitudinal feed,

REMOVING THE CARRIAGE FOR CLEANING, AND ADJUSTING

In order to clean' or make adjustments on the inside of the apron, ids preferable to take the carriage completely off the bed. FlTst remove the tailstock, then 'unbolt the bearing on the .right

_ end of the, lead screw and remove the- lead l)cl'e~ '(half~~,ut .lever must be up). One of the bevel rgears in the reversing gear box will -come out with rthe Iead screw-s-watch its position so that it can be-put back correctly, ,With" the lead.screw out; 'it isa simple matterto loosen-the gibs 'on the, back of the carr iage.rand slide the carriage off the bed. " _

When reassembling, turn the lead screw unti lt.he. keyway slips into the reverse shift collar'in thereversing-gear box,

.-, . ,".,. ". .' ".::.

. AD]USTlNG-CROSS FEED -AND COMPOUND FEED GIBS

._. - ~ ,_ - • ~ I '.

The gfbson the cross feed s-lide. and the .compound feed slide should.be adjusted at regular intervals;'The crossslide gibsshould always fit snugly, because the crossrslide is in 'a~;:nost continual 'LIse. The compound" sIidegiJ;>s should be. .kept tight: unless using

: the compound feed.

For best results, do not takehea?Ji:i::uts 01' llse the cut-oU, tool with 'the compoun,d.rest overhailg~i1fr._ thecOli1p(jhnd rest 'slide.

._"::

22

- MANUAL, O'p. LAT'HE ' ~

9PE~AI19N

-FiG: '22. Cross-,:,I!;llde and '0,ompound

-. R¢st.:'"

P0\N'ER FEEDMECHAN'i:S~ AND ~EAD' SGRE:W~ Theautorna tic 10ng'itudinaI power feed c;nsi~ts of th' e g'e' ' .. -, .'

_. , ' b' " "- ' 13,11 o:ua;tn,

re;rersmg ge~r ox, lead screw and half-hut mec~a:ni~rp_. Ret Cle-

tarI~,d oper~tlOn ~f th~ f.eei:.1 gears, together with 'f4e,set--u,~s c,uttmg various _ threads; refer to the Threading Suppleufent.

FIG.2lJ', A,rrang':m¢nt of the Feed 'Gears" ReVersing- GMr

Box and Lead Screw.,

, "

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,

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. LATHE CA~E AND CONSTRUCTION

23,

Instead of the feed gears driving the lead-screw directly, a reversing mechanism is sornetimes built between the two as shown in Figure 24. This mechanism makes it possible to reverse the direction of the lead screw rotation, and consequentlythe.direction 'Of the .power ;feeds, while the ,lath¢ is running. The shifting-of gears to obtain. this change of feed is done at the point of lowest speed. The usual method of reversing the power, feed conststs of"

'two small gears betwee~ the spindle ", , ,

gear and the rest of 'the gear vtrain, which is at the point of highest speed and necessit~t'es stopping the,'-lathe-t~ avoid-injury to the gears;

-In boringvknurling, finishing cuts, and many-other lathe operations, it is advantageous -to reverse the power feed without stopping _the lathe and without changing the setting of the tool. With the above, reversing mechanism the feed can be: reversed quickly by simply shifting the lever;

Figure 24 makes dear the operation of the reversing mechanism. No.Hce -thar the center notch of the .re-

FIG. 24

An inside view of' the lead .screw reversmg mechanism, The feed .reverae lever engages the shift collar 'with either of the two' 'reo verse gears. reversing instantly the' load screw -rotation which .changes travel of power feed s, '

verse lever.'3san~utral posi tion-c-wherr thereverse lever is shifted. it. takes only an instant for the shift collar to align and mesh Vfith the slots in. one of the bevel gears. Do not try.to force the lever in-to' either side .position-vpush it firmly toward one side or the other-and It will-immediately .mesh into place.

The lead screw is accurately cut with a pitch of%ip:ch, (eight t1Jreads pet inch). Itsaccuracy is maintained by, keeping it clean andfree from 'chips. 'Once a month or oftener. clean tl1e threads with a stiff bristle brush rand kerosene, <;I:-hdoil freely ,along-its

entire length; -; -- .

The lead screw hearing on thetail end _of the lathe serves asa "safety valve"' protecting the lead screw, One of the most commoil acciderits on the lathe is letting 'thepower feed drive the car-

FI\l. 25

,cioseup of a:~ l~",d screw -(8" Acme threads per inch) • A, high degr~eol ~cc.~racy is e3sentl~1 f~r precision tliread cutting.

24

MANUAL OF LATHE dPER~'HON"

c,

FIG~ 116 A view .of the. half-nuts and tp.ir .diia'l1g me,chanism, P'Osit've' -closing- action, combined with the, u •• , Of two half~nuts,>in.u"es smooth

:a"lld accu.tate threads~ -' '. .' "." ",

I

[,

the construction of the

THE TAIL,STOCK

The taiistock of-a lath~ must line-up perfectly' '\v:itl-l: the hea'd'stock'at anY<PQint on tl;te,Jathe>bed., TIle pre:ci$ion<Qf tl}e, gTlill:uitf ways and the extra ,c__are:t'ak_en in the fitti'tig of the 'taHst:bdkias,sui::e

accurate aIignII\erit at any positi~n. .: ,

- - The rani - i-s~ade of sped~l -steel" finish gFo_u-nd, and '~h'as a.',_il acctirately reamed NO.-2 Morse Tape1" hole .for the lailstotk e~hfe.t. T~rnfng the tailstack hand ,wh.~el in-a cotinter-c1odkw:i~e 5fti?eQtio~ _ to the eng of its travel aui:omaticallyejeSt:sth~ 'center. A:c:p~,r,ate grad_uations on .the taiIstock ram (Fjguro 27) simp Ii !¥ a CC"lilta:t:' boring arid drilling. The inside tailgtockbeadn-g on rthe rear .bed wayis gihbed for take-up adjustment. Tw:o;gi,b screws, iJp.e '01"\

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LATH,I: CARE AND CONSTRUCTION

25

'Roar_ View:- o(,T,dl.tock Showing' _G;b-

.' - , - , ,', 'thetihtnessofthe.-tailsHklthetween

each end of the.gib, regulate "gh- - I'd' -l~e' adjustedevenly so that

' 'h twc 'crewss ou .., _' ,

the bed ways, T :ese. wo s , " . "it, ay with the same amount

both ends of the glb WIll bear agamst t _ e W. "

of pressure, ., ' Th"

' ' , be t ~ inch for turning tapers. us IS

The, t~ilst()ckca.n: seohver ~ 'h- dlessscrews after, loosening

" . I djusring t e two ea • ._

done; by simp y a, . ',,"", p'~g and the proper Yealigning

the tailst.ook-c1a~p nut.,Tapei~ t;:;~_ ~8 af't~is Manual. Keep the of the tailstock are, explam:d ,',' ',' B f e Tnserting the center

' 11'1 d onrhe.outsideenly. , e or " ,,' " d

ram we, 0.1 e, b ' h - iers ' thoroughly .with a_" ry

,in the tailstock r~m, clean ot taper, , ' ,

doth.

LATfIECENTERS

FIG, 28_

Both the 'headsto~k; and ,he taild' ~tock '. ~ re hardened and :~r01.1n car-

.centers a I' N 2 Morse taper.

bon ·~OO] stee - o. , ..

,,' . -d'" - d -t t~e standard NO.-4 Mo~~e_ Taper

Pi. sleeve rsf,1,1rmshe_ ta_ a, ap "h d ' tockspindlenose. Before

C" " to the N a; 3 Morse 'I'aper ~a" s , -, ,". ,'_ , rs

en~er" ',,~,:,' - ,,' .: dean both 'external and Internal tape ,

placing.centers m, the lathe" A", d'; t' r chips between - these

' ',. h . dry' cloth ny lr 0 '_

thoroughly WIt ,a, ,',,' , ", ,- -th' :'1' accuracy, Do not oilthe

'n both and -destroy ,e r '" , , '

tape~s wur.score .' a ofoil w '11 'prevent a firm fit and cause

tapers. Even a. shght film 001 wi "

trouble in turning,

It is vi/aily important to keep flU- tapers very clean. -

26

MANUAL OF

THREADING· GltARS

FIG;.29 Threading Gc\hs.

,~, I •

Feeds are available for springmaklng.zwire ~inding and~ele~~rfcaQ

coil winding with all sizes of wire hetween' N'Q. i 2 ah~-40~. $i: S .. ·and all types of magnet wire in{>ulation~Mul~iple thtead~\ m'aGlrine screws, pipe-typefhreads 'and special screws cart. also be: cut wfth . the 0 standard gearsfiitnished;Compl,ete set-U~~)sand cB];ect,ilms for the most' common ',~hread$ andfeeds.are given in the 1':qrea~iRg

Supplement. ' ' .

ZAMAK :PARTS

An outstari~ing.improy:elJlent in~ strew tuttitit lathe- .1l1a!1!ufaclure was the use of the modern alloY-"Zamak." 'Gears,pu'lleys, handwheels, reverse mechanism; lead screw beai'i~J:g,aJ;ld(jt&el',srti'al~ parts are made of this metal. Radical.Jrnprovements in,desi-grtah'cl

added' strength-have res-Ulted. ',,' ,

ZamakIs an alloy composed 6£ aluminum; m~gn~si\rm"co:p.l?-~r . and zinc, Its tensile strength is over twice that of·cgs.f- irqn~ Its Impactstrength is over four=times that o{ cast iron, Exhausthte

'. ;,

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LATHE CARE AND CONSTRUCTION

27

~; EQUIPMENT USEP.IN' MANV,FACTURING ZAM-AI{"PJ\RTS

P ..

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..

FIG.a1 ., ..

The type of ,predsion,. hand ntade'dies used in the manuIa~ture of z,,~ak parts.

FIG; 32

:H u.g-e m,,3chi n e s., .~:x er t in ~ many tons .of pres5uTc! ,arr ,re .. qu Ir ed to" f orm Zanta k l' arts . T'he 'dies are wate~ cooled ·to prevent warping ql ,tile parts as

they cool. '

28

-MAN U.Al 9 F LATI;fEOPE'R;a.11}O,N ,"

FIG._SO

Lathe, parts, mad" dflhe, rugged aJ1,,~, "Zamak.;_'

laboratory research, and thepracticalexperience'.~f la1lheoYlFl:elZ_s

h~ve proved the superior wearing qualities .of Zama:'k. -

Small part - production costs are Iowe~,~d_ by 'thei;j_se, ,of Za'rtiiak.

These savings make it possible' to isupply more Gomplet'e: ~quipc ment, a better 'bed and bearing construction, and supe1~ior -ace-utacy - without imposing an additional burden on the purchaser, ~ in!;iqe'rn lathe requires modern manufactjrring methods« and materi'a}:s.,

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Part 2

THEORY OF' METAL CUTTiN,G

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THEORY OF 'METAL GUTTING

. . "

PARr'2

Every lathe owner should have a basic knowledge of the cutting action of the tool bit, With this knowledge the lathe tool calf be ' properly i~ound and applied to the work ' Extrem~~ar~j~ takeri in the design and manufacture of the modern Iathetozprcvide maximum' accuracy and rigidity. Clean, 'accurate lathe work results only when equal care is takendn the grinding and usevof the 'cut.ting tool, In the next

three sections of this ,

Manual are given act u a I "r e a so n s why" tool bits 'are' 'ground to certain angles, how tools are set into the work and what tools are, used for different types of work. One important

~~;~:~:I:t:~~~ .!J_':'" _p,,,:,,,",

ing is i more essentia, 1'>:' CU!TING," .: ,

for clean, a ccu r a.t e ",ANGLE,·",

lathe work or , does rna r.e to ;'ren gth en lathe tife.

FIG:;I3

Cross .sec tlcns of a knife and, a cold chisel" showing the great' diff~rence' in' cutting, angles.

A'n cutting tools employ a wedgirrgcaction. 'The d~ffere'ncer;; are. in the angle-of the two 'sides of the tool which fqrp thecptting 'edge and th:e 'manner in ,which !he tool js iapplied toi the work. The edge of a, pocket kriife would-beeuined in trying' to cut a nail, even though the metali~' the knife is m uch 'harder ,than that j,I,1 the nail. A cold chisel; 'however, shows no signs' of, damage In cutting the same-nail, although the chisel.Is usually a poorer grade of steelthan the k~ife. Obviously.rthedifference lies in the angle of the tool. ,Figure 33 shows these two, tools in profile.

29

30

-

.....

MANUAL OF LATHE OPER,AHO'N

COMPARIsqN, W:rT~ ~~OOIl TbdLS ...

I

FIG.-.35 .

Jl., ,.wood chisel cutting across the ~nd"of a ,bl~.ok'-of hard wood, T~e smaJ.! 's~ctl?n5, are' ~xa'ggerated In site.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WOOD and METAL-eUTT~ING

, Woo4 cutting toolsere tisuallyno~damped in. a :6:~ed,.po.~it'i0h~. blKguided by-the, operator. Metalcutting,_,on the other halld"r:e'. quires .holding boththe work 'and the tool, _itS,' fi~mly~ a§P,Qssi,ble, Absolute' rigidity is' impossible to attain; but every .~~ffo:tt, $houJe,l

'pe mad~t9 approach it. '. ..' ,

fh~, cuftipg: edge of. a Iathe tool for- .metal tt,lrn~pg is groulld ' to an angle of between s'ixty iand ninety degre~s., . 'rjiiso 'w:~dge . anglernusr be large because the tooL.edgemusld:;taqd ,ul'!, '\In,der enormous pressure-an. actual dbwnwatdpressuni. :as: higfi aJi 2S0;OOO.pounds per squarejnchhasbeen 'measured ·on a lathe 'toql in turning steel,

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I

THEORY OF METALCUTTI NG

31

METAL CUTTING· ACTION'

FIG. 36 .

Pro" rcsaive steps in metal .. cutting; A"t ~4AU: .the tool.i is j':l5t entering .the met~l;· at 'uB~~ the 'cut has. progressed to -a point where _ the ~fl~pgul~F shape ~f the small. section~ ca~' be seen, ~.~CU shows ~he. - ~tart _~f the cu.rled. chip, For clearness; da. "sttalght'''sheai cut isFllustrated and. the size of the -smalfsecticns '. greatly exaggerate .

Figure 36 shows, the action of a metal cutting tool, It. is assumedthatbcth.jhe.tool and work are held rigidly. A shearing cut i~ pictured-e-Iathe cuts are siTi1arbut made on.a rounded sur- .

Eace, , .' .' .. , .

The first action, Figure 36A, ,is that ,of,):he tool edge. forcing iritothe' metal-i-an .. enteri'ngcut; Figure 36B shows-the wedging action more clearly, th~ariglepf"thetoOlfoteing the metal apart and the compression squeezing jhe srnal l sections into triangular

. shapes; Figure 36C iIlllstrates the tool further ad;variced" wit~ the

sheared sections Iorrningfhe .start of a curled chip. .

' There' js.·suffi.ci~nt Iqrce from the wedge of the tool to.sh~a:r off small sections. of the work at short intervals. The CUt .. lS no~ cont'inuous but ha;a finite 'fluc(uation per iod measured ip: small fractions oi a second. The:wedging. force rises to the shearing limit 'of the ~~~llse'ttion; drops .and gradually-rises again: untiltl1eilextsedion ihe"l:rs,aii.d so On. If this fluctu~tioI1 time happens ' ·to s;nchtoni.?ewith the .. natural-vibration ~eriodpf any part.of t~~

toot; holdervor W9i}t,a., vibration called' "chatter" occ~rs.. .'

, It must be realized that thechip 'and thesrnallsectiens in -Flg-

ure S6, ~re greatly exaggerated in size. Actually, .thechip i~pnlJ1 , several .thousandths of an -inch, in thickness. The deformatl~l1 of the metal on_the1nside of" a - reasonably ,thkk chip can be. seen clearly,

'?,)~,.:_\-~

32

MANUAL OF LATHE OPERATION'

FA,LSE CUTTING .EDGE ON '1:'aE TOOL

I.

,/ / /.

I i I 1

i

I,

I

'l'h . FIG. 37 .

e falsi: au\tiug; edge formed 'at the. 'tip .of it tool bit Th", dark" POf;tJon_ IS : doposl~ed on -, the tool when. tiI:kiii n~"N.I' cuts. I'hu. wedgIng . or- . cutu;,>; is done' with Hli~

bIt of metal"not the edge of the:tool bit. ,.

, A tool bit that has been used on rather heavy'Cl,its:,ha:;ta sinall .n~ge ofm~~al directly over the tt:ittfng edge~' 'This'bit'o£. metal IS much harder tharr the -metal being' eIlt ,ana is ajmos't--weic'l~d to the edge of the~ fool, indicating'that an iITlmens~ amounr, bf h;!:1.R

.and 'p~essure' wasdev,e~,ope~ 'at this point.--' .

.' ThIS ."falsec;utting ~dge" acts as the,actir.ar,euttii~g edge,io_,;W,r.nmg. It rs a decided adv~t;tt-age In 'heavyturnin:g because' it relieves thee~ge of the, tool bit from mo~t of, the 'work o( cuf~ihg and lengthens tool hie. F6Fc~n ti nuous:heavy cuts; the': speedshciii14 be ke_~t lo~. e~oug-h, anq the -rake ()f!h~ tool. sm<l.U 'enpugb,i'It ot1det to,. bUl~? up this falseengec H9weveri in takil1g fine:fini'i~i'ng .t:Ut$, thlS'-:bUllt~up edge should be av_oTded by taking finer cuts. 'at lijgber'

speedsand withlargei .ralre angles...' , "

- . .T'here are severaltheciries as;'to tqe forming ~f thi.s'-f~lse 2'lti_tl,ng :e4r;e '. It.is gene'rally agreed; however; t~~t the :Gtltti~g acfi.0n, BIded by the heat and,pressi,tre,at the end of thetool l:Jit, cilg$e~ the

.meti::l_particIe~ to deform, or 'flow whichproduc,esw;hat .is' called :,,"wor_!l: hardening' of the metal.: Whether It is due: to-the com~ression (If a small strip- of metal ~.head of theedg;e' 'of. theto'aT Itself, .9!-" is siIT)ply a. wbrk~hardened-portion Of the main --diip ,isja clebate'dquesti'on. The important point to remember i:s' that i:h'e" false cutting 'edge is desirable forb'eavy c-uts~o~ fine finish' cU'ts

it shpuld be' avoided.' '.- .. " "

~,.,~ .. ----

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TflEOR'y OF METAL CUTTlNG

33

THE'SHARPNESS OF THE TOOL EDGE

How fine the edge of a tool bit should. be depends upon the class-of -work (roughing or finishing) and uponvthe-rnetal being cut. '-Fot --heavy roughing cuts insteel, there j's 'no"point in honing the edge of th~ tool. 'A fine edge lasts for only a few feet ofcut .. Hngl then Itrqunds off to a more solid edge and re~ains in app'rox.imat ely thia.same condition until. the tool breaks qow~. A ·60 gnt wheel is satisfactory for grinding-tools for heavy roughing cuts.

. For fine finishing cuts, the tool should be ground to shape and then honed with a reasonably fine stone, In most Instances, the finish is' directly dependent upon the keenness of the. edge' 6f the tool. Tools for soft metals should be honed carefully to. as fine an edgeas possible-both the .cutting action and the finished sur".

face depend upon the edge of the tool.' . •

For threading tools, grinding on a 60 grit wheel is sufficient for. roughing cuts, Jjutthe :'edge of the tool should be honed ibefore

taking the finish cuts. .,

HEA 'rDEVELOPED IN CUTTING METAL'

All of the power used in cutting metal is ultimately expended in heat. ,_The shearing ot the chip by the;-wedgingactionof -the tool,th~ small eectionaof metal sliding over each other, the pack ~£ tQ.'e chip rubbing oJ.? the face of thetoolbi~;thi compression at the point of the tool=-all of theseactions generate heat which must be dissipated.T.he tool should. have a large cutting anglefohelp' 'carry this heat away from the cutting edge as rapidly as possible.

.. In production work.. where high :speed is' in1portan~, coolants compos ed ·of var'i ous chemical. mixtures help' absorb this. heat from the edge of the to'al'-a' steady stream of ciitting compound' is directed at the.point of_thetobl~o t)1at it spreads arid covers-both the' .tool arid the work. A large-pan under 'the Iathe, bed collects this compound,' catries it toasettling' tankand then to a pump.

Co';lants are seldom used' in small lathe work.brdrnat]~ c1,ltting i~done-dry,or sometimes with~the aid 'Of a cutting oi-lfor lubrication only, If must be remembered when cutti~g dry, that the work wilihep.t considerably higher than the surrounding ternperatureyoften 'as much as 100° Fahr:This in.;:rease in +emperature- causes the work to expand, and the t~ghtness of. the_~ lathe c'enters· should be watched carefully; lit taking uneasurements

, with a caliper or micrometer, be sure to cool. the work before measuring to a final dimension,

i !.

I:'. -

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Part 3.

CUTTING TOOtS

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PART 3 CUTTING TOOLS

LA THE TOOL· BIT DESIGN

The angles of the tor and sides of lathe tool bits, together with their official A.S.M.E.designations, are shown in Figures 38A,

38B and 38C. .

TOP R~KE ANG'LES

In the preceding section of this Manual it has been shown that the wedge or-cutting angle should be as large aspossible for maximum strength at the edge and to carry heat away from the cutting edge. On the other hand, the larger the -wedge angie the greater the power required to-force it into the work. Thus,tnere are two opposing factors 'and a compromise between them is necessary in' arriving at the best rake angles. There has been a great amount of experimental work in this connection, notably by F; W. Taylor and O. W. Boston: Recommended values of both' back and side rake for the various ki~ds of metal have been' determined. Rake~ angles for general use with many types of metals andplasti cs are given in Part 4 'of this, Manual,

CLEARANCE ANGLES

Clearance angles allow the part of the tool bit directly under '

the cutting edge to clear the work while taking a chip. Too 'n;tut:;h ' ,c, clearance weakens the cutting edge, and-the highpressureex~l't~a' ~-::~' downward on the tool bit-demands that clearance be 'as small as ,,,}:' possible and still allow the tool to cut properly.

A 'tool wi th excessive, clearance also has a tendency to chatter.

Taylor'S experiments snowed that for hanel ground tools a side clearance of 120 and a front-clearance of 8° is satisfactory for general turning of steel. The larger side 'clearance ;Si'ilJ-eCessary because the lathe tool feeds and cuts at the same time, making the actual path of the tool helical, or spiral, instead of straight •. Recomrnended angles -of clearance for metals .. other than steer are given in Part 4- of this Manual.

. Whenever the tool digs .into the work or refuses to cut unless forced, checkthe clearanceof the toolb'it. . Diggi ng-in Qccurs most often during fadng and threading operations. For light turning it is usuallybetter 'to-allow justa little more than enough clearance .rather ,than to rrisk having too little;

35

-.- ... -.-

36

MANUAL OF LATHE OPERATION

~ .

LATHE, TOOL BIT DESIGN, -

OFFICIAL A.S.M.E. DESIGNATIONS OF TObi'~IT AN~GLES

,CUTTING EDGE ANGLE

C_PTT I NG ED,GE ANGLE

SIDE

c'LEARANCE ..

ANGlE'

fRONT CLEARANCE ANGL ' FRONT C LEARA~CE GR I NO 1 NG ANGLE

i"f

WORK SURFACE

CENTERLl NE OF WORK?

_AN GLE

~;UG);S8:A

Tc~l - bit ~ngles with .the t~ol bit_

_ hqr-i2on.tal, aria .at a dg:l1t ang1e with ,the "centerline of the work.

F'IP: ~8B

Tcol ,bit, angle" as d:esignat'ea.'~or"us.e 'in' -the tool h0tdeI~

FIei'.3BC

.. ~ngI~s: of~~9.e~< t~'oI:~ -bit in <,chitinn 1.0" tlie work,

.,·-.,:tD,

• •• ·1,:"

--CUTTI NG TOOLS

37

, THE TOOL HOLDER

FIG. '39

A :'1001 holder for holding >1" x ,~" tcol bits. 'Tho;" holder makes, uqnec""s;~ary tho use of larger f"r'!;ed 'tool. '01 expensive high, speed steel. and 'prO-.vidcs a Hi,%" front -rake angle. without spoiling 'the, entire end of,th. tool.

Tool holders or the type .shown ln .Eigure 39 are used universallyon engine lathes, permitting the use of' small, inexpensive and -replaceable toolbits. The toolbit is, set at an angle of It!}f°. This angle serves two-purposes: it provides a front rake angle without spoiling the entire end of the, tool; and it directs alarge portion ' of thecutting pressure directly toward the-base of the tool post. Allowance for this 16M 0 anglemust be made when g'ririding tool bits for use in the tool holder. All of the angles and-diagrams in this. and the following section take this at:lgl~ into account ..

In order: to. avoid undesirable overhang". tool- bits should be clamped so that t/~e cutting end 0/ the' tool hit is as dose to the tool • 'ai- holder as, ike work will penni(- also ihe end 0/ the to~l holder which holds the tool bit should be cis close to the. tooipost as @lS,-:!::?-'

Ia': ~ possible.

GRINDING TQOL BITS-

Figures 40 through 44 show five forms of tool bits for use: in the tooi holder, These shapes are suitable for practically all lathe

, turningand the cutting of 60° V-type threads. Part 4 includescor-

. rect clearance-and rake angles for using these tool shapesJn the machining of many differentmetals, alloys and plastics. Thteadin:g' and boring tools are described in detail in later sections' of this Manual,

A good tool g!inde~ is essential, preferably motor driven such as the one shown in Figure 45. The grinder should have, one .medium grit-wheel (about 60 grit) on which high speed t901 bits

can- he ground. Some practice is necessary before tools can be properlyground but by 'followingcarefullythe dire ct fa ns , given in this section, the beginner will soonbecome adept at this important

.part of -lathe operation, . ,

The -tool can -be sharpened 011 either theside or 'the. face of the wheel, -although the regulat cutting face is used by most machini~ls andgenerally considered better grinding practice. Grind the shapes and angles as idirected to - ':;'ithin .reasoriable limits. Be careful not to burn the-edges-a cup of water should be kept handy to coolthe.tooland avoid spoiling the temper of the steel.

Always keep tools sharp.

38

MAN UA L OF LATH E OPERATION

TOOL BIT SHAPES FOR USE IN THE TOQL I{o:ci)E~

The five .standard tool forms on, these two pages will be=fourrd suitable for most lathe turning. When grinding tools for special work, simply keep in mind the-shapes and angles recommended- £01; . general turning. and apply these principles to the special tooi b~in:g· ground,See the examples .on page 41,

. SIDE CLEARANCE ANGLE

SECTION A-A

FROIIT

FIG.,40. Round :Nos" Cutting. Tool suitable-for' ttlllg.hinjr and, :g~'":_1er~l.purp?se 'turning.

c7t SU)E RAKI:;· ANGLE

.. ~.~ r 'SIDE

.' CLEARANCE

'. 'ANGLE

, ' .

. ~ .... '

• I .' __

S.EeTIOH A-A

SIDE CLEARANCE ANGLE

, F R.O~T FIG. 41 .. Excellent R,c H.·Tool to.r general turning arid -s hou.ldet-ing toward, headstock; alsofacing. Point should' be rounded for

fini.hing work. .

. ..,._.

CUTTING TOOLS

39

-, FIG: 42

. Eic'ellent·· L. H. 'f~oi for g~ncral tur,ning _. and shcul-.

rl er ing -toward .tail- 5toc1~; also Iacing. P'o i n t s h oul d be rtronded- for finish- .M_, ing work.

SIDE.~

J~ SIDE

'" CLEARANCE

e.JANGLE ,

·SECT.lO~ A-A

:SID,E CLEARANCE ANGLE

FeROH

'~SIDE RAKE ANGLE I ~~L~AI~AENCE FIa'~ ~I ANGLE

Heavy Duty R.H. . -I

Roughing T'ool for' ,

inking deep cuts to- . SEC T,I 0)1 A -A·

ward headstock. Clearance ana -rake an g los should be rev.e r-s e d for L. H. tur-ning;

S I DE ...

CLEARANCE ANGLE'

FROIIT

A

FIG. 44

R. H:BOO. V-Typo Thieadiijg Tool for cutting tow ard head"stock. Side deafance angle should be .evened .for'L.·H. .threadirrg.

51.DE ,

CLEARANCE 'ANG~E .

FRORT

40

MANUAL O,F LATHE OPERAn6N

FlO. 45

An ideal lyp" "of tool grinder.. A % or V. H. P., 3450' R. -Po ,lIf. motor, fully -enclcaed and protected' from .dust, furnishes power for- last, accurate, grinding .. The' right wheel is' used, for rougher giades 9f ,,;or,1< and -th. left for, smooth finishing. Floor' pedestals, water pet and safety, eyesllield"

are available. "

Usiilgthe type of grinder shown in Fig'ure 45,- the tool i!3 TC)ughed to shape on the coarse wheel and f!nisll ground_qu_tne fine wheel. ,A - properly ground tool will have continuous. Wheel, mark,s on each facc----------:that is, each, face is one: clean cut ill -the way'" across. The begiilnertan grind tools quiteaccurati:!Iy by co~paring';l'!'acl't, side of the tool with the ang.Jes given in the drawings on pages 36~38 arid 39, w~iIe-grinciing the tool. -

GRINDING TOP AND SIDE- ·RAKE.

G~INDrNG FRONT ANGLE

ROUNDING ,END &-SIDE ANGLE

FIG. 46. Th" •• views of the procenof grinding a R. H: turning todl bi:t.

'- - ;

CUTHNG T0'9L5

41

SPECIAL FORM~CUTTING TOOLS

In using form fools with side faces such as shown in Figures 47A and 47D, side rake is out of the .questlon. Front rake, however.sshould be used except when turning brass. It, is recommended that tools wider . than 'Ys". never -be used on steel. Form cutting tools as wide as (2" can be used on brass, aluniinurnandsimilar metals -,

FW.4S WALL CHART

This large blueprint chart (ICV. q w~d~, 21 (; high) display s, ~al~abl. reference "data on )athe,.cutt~~lg tools and' makes- a useful wall .piece Icr

: machinist, apprentice and student . . Tech ni c al materi al in fh ls chart has been adapted from "Manual of La th e O,pei'atio)1."'-

"Lathe Cutting Tools" is' one of , a ,seri e s of bl ueprin ~ wall chart. published by Atlas Pres" Co'inpany,. Kalamazoo, Michigan. The complete series covering important phases ,of lathe ",operatio,!,- a~d -machine, shop practice; will bemailet;i1.l.pon._.request to any point' in. the" United 'State.. When ordering; ,enclose rwenty-five cents for each set In. coin or stamps. to cover cos~s.·.Qf printing and, postage.

42

MANUAL OF LATHEOPERAHON

SETTING THE Tooi TO THE WORK

FlO; 49

, '""" -, "", " ' "

TYPES OF TOOL aOLDERS

'FIG: 50A

Top 'view 01 'a R. H, .Tool Holder, Used ,for' cutting.' up to chucks, -. face p'~ate) dogs, etc. at .the headstock end of the work., '

Fto, 50!r

A Straight '1'001 Holde'( Used for' g en eralou (tin it where no' clearance is needed ..

FIG: 50C "

,A L', .a.. -Tool, Holder. Used for 'cuttirtg up tosjloul-' ders, pr ojections; etc., .. at the tailstock end of' the work.

j ,

C __ :

e:-.· C5-:@

,:",,1.

CU'TTINe TOOLS

43

FIG. lilA

When the tool is set like this, h tends to swing . into the work on -heavy cuts,

p r od u c.l n g r o n gh

work.

Cuts, especially 'heavy ones, should always, be made toward the headstock. In this way most of the pressure is dlr~cted toward the live center ~hich revolves with the work. Cutting toward the tailstock puts a heavy additional pressure on the tailstock center and. is quite likely to damage 'the center.

The type of tool holder, 'and the way it is

-set into the work, should always besuchthat

it te~ds' to swing away from the work on heavy cuts, As shown in Figure SIA, hogging' tends to pull the tool farther into the work, producing a rough, inaccurate cut. If the tool is set as shown in Figure S1B, it swings out away from the work. When cutting at an

, ..

The tool shapes and artg1es. appearing' on the 'follOWing pages' show the tool being set approximately at right 'angles to ,theceI'l,h~'t :

line of thework (the line between the lathe cente_n~)., _:;

The - true rake angle of a, tool bit is a combination of the front and side rake (see Fig. 38C) andean be changed slightly by swinging the tool at an angle with the work for some cuts it is necessary to set the tool at an angle, and occasicnally Lt will result in cleaner cuts and less chatter. Generally, how.ever, the tool should be set directly into the work or

. ata slight angle as shown ihFigUre 49.

FIG: UB

, ,

The cort';c t way to· set' the tooL W,h en taking lj ~avi "cnt. ,the 't~Ql "tetlds 'to swIng , Qht ,. aw"ay - ironi "th·~' work, eliminating li'og_ ging and -inaccuracy.

angle ~ith the compound rest, the tool should be set ai .a right 'angle to the surface of the cut, not at a right angle; to the center line of the lathe.

I

'"

44

MAN,uAl OF LATHE- ~OPERATION

FACING CUTS ON :THE LATH~

'. Fa.cingcuts_ represent different cuttingrelations'and tool, angles, and tools should preferably be special ground. for- that nm:;p0se; Smoother cutting and a finer finish can:1l'e- obtained genetaiiyb.y cutting toward the outside-c-that is, feeding fromfhe cgnter.'ofthe work. out. Inasmuch as+the tool l11ustcut to the 'cePtet, h:lrg~t clearances should be used than-when tU1?ningcyHilQri«tir v{or:k.

FlO. 22

An excellent tool 'bit fer fad ng ~ de s.i gned to cut from the inside toward the outside.

, Although Ordinary R. If. cutting tools can be 1;l,sed .fpJ: small amounts of facing work, any large 'amount .of. f a,ci:ng s1:).01,114 ~"e done with a tool ground especially forfhe purpose, Flgtrre '9,2 $J;}:ows, a tool which will be found excellent for this type of cutting;, It is design~d to cut from -i:hecenterof the work 'toward tne·outside.Notice, that the shape ·differ~,some~hat. :fro~ thaf ofa,s:t:an-d<ird turning toolvthe effective rake of thec:i.itting edge:beitlK:Clep'endent upon the rake angle shown. This rake angie should be the same- as, or slightly gr'e'ater than, the angles i'iv¢n if,or Jrptltr~kefor the. various' metals an-d plastics in the following s;ectipg o~;t;his

Manual. ',' .

The clearance angles -of 15° are suitable for f:;:icing r m,acr~cally any material. J!igure 53- shows how the tool sno:Lj:id qe' s,'))t' i'J:1f(!j

the work.. . 1-.

.1.:'.

i

'-

'-,

,(.r~

I _.

CUTTING TOOLS

45

FIG. 1i3

Wh on - faein g with," tool of tho tyP". show" in' Fi-guIO 52, 'the" to 0.1 should be ,.et to the .work 'in ,this Planner:

The angle. of 800 is - approximate and -can be changed for ,- the .Ii Heren t tyP"" of f~cin g

tool a.

SET THE POINT OF THEl'OOL ON THE CENTERLINE If. the -tool, is. ground properly, 'the point of the tool will not -- havetobe set above or below the centerIine of the work. Figure 54-A shows a tool bit with .an go, front clearance setInto a piece of - work 'exactly on the center line', The clearanceangle is measured-

- between the toolandthe line Als, which is tangentialtothe work . at the point of contact of the ,tool. The front rake' is measured

FIG. 54A

FIG. MR'

between the tool and the line CD, which is a radius of the work to the pointof contact and is at rightangles toth~ line' AB. '

, . ,

Now, if the same tool is set, 'above- _center as shown' in Figure 54B, an entirely different condition exists, The frorrt vclearance is ,still measuredbetween the, tool and the tangential line AB. but AB is, no longer vertical and the angle of clearance has been greatly , reduced. The radius line en .has also been moved so that-the

. -

~

. \; ....

. ~;.

. .~'

back rake angle is now larger. Atool setto the work '1.11, this~;"BSi:'---c---

tion would have to be .ground entirely different in Clrderto cut ct.' . correctly,

46

MANUAL·O F LATHEOPERAT JON

A tool with an 8° front clearance, - working on.a piece 9fsto'ck one inch in diameter, would have to be set i:mly a trifle~'or·e.· than 1/16 inch above center iti-order to have the line AB-coincide Wi;th the front line of the tool, producing a zero clearance.. Wifh the same setting, an original back rake of 20<1 would' became 28°;

Some machinists make a practice of setting too-Is above the' center line, but they must grind their toola especi~l1yfor that ,txp.e: of setting. For the average 'operator, student.orb'eginner,if':is, recommended that the tool bit be ground .to the give~ angles and set exactly .on the tenter line.

Several methods can be used to set the tool on the center line.

The point can be lined up with either of the lathe', centers, or the distance from the bed way to the headstock .center can be measured and transferred. Another excellent method is to scribe a line along the tailstock ram : set a sharp pointed tool sidewi~e in the tool holder .and align it with the headstockcenter. Then use. this pointed tool to' scribe a light line along the side of the tailstock ram (remove burr). This line will ,serVf! asa g~ideto set-the tool. even when the work is in posi~'ion between centers.

I.

(

~.- --

-/.- -_

Rart II

THE ,MA·GHINING

OF VARIOUS, MATERIALS.

- 1· I

;, _.

"

-¢ "--

MANUAL OF lATHE OPERATION

'Cutting speeds for metal turning' .are usually, expresse,Q, iu: f~et per imirrute, measured~m thecirc:umference.of the worK.. Spindle revel ufionaper 'minu te are then determined' by using this .£6r~ula:

i _

12XSfM

........... ---,---.,... = RPlv,I 3.1416 X D'

which IS simplified to.

3.82 X SFM_R M" D ._p

SEM. is the rated surface feet;per' minute

R:PMis. the spindle speed iii revolutions p~trriinu:te~ D is the diameter of the work in inches,

\,

, -

In order to simplify the selection of th'~properspeed; F:igure 56 gives the exact speeds obtainable, which corr esporrd' apjlll:,cixi, matelyto surface speeds in feet per minute for. th~. va'ri'ous wO'rk diameters, Thus, knowing the .surface speed "rEicDmmE!llded fq.r various. metals and plastics, first use Figure 56 to-find the I1roper-: lathe speed .for the diameter being turned, ,t,hen refert6 Figure 5'5

for the correct belt set-up to obtain that speed, .

DEPTH OF CUT' AND 'FEED PER R.EVOLUTI0l\J

The· .speeds recommended for the various metals: and jrlaetrcs are for cuts of VB of an inch orlessin depth; The harder the metal, the less the depth of cut should .be.: Ordinary' 't-qrriipg does not" demand unusually deep cuts-s-more metal per minutecaii.·,usual1¥~ he removed hy turning at recommended speed 'with a Toughing ,cut of between .100 arid .i25 inchi~ depth." -:

_" ~

. Finish cuts are taken after the roughing cuts aridshotild be

approximately .015 iricll or Iess-in depth; taken atthe-recommended speed. The work can be roughed down to within-apprQ};:iInately

.. 015, inch '0.'£ the final diameter, then. finished with a'. sharp tool, usingliglJ.t cuts. Before taking firiis~ cuts to size be sure Jh.at the work ha:s cooled to 'a:pproximllilily room teiTip~t:ature.:;:_th'e~hdnk~ age of a hot piece oJ work c.ih easily spoil .the intended fit.

The six most-common carriage feeds 'are shown on .. theiathe threading chart: .0087, .0070! ':0060, :OOS(), ,,0035 and .0018i7

~~.-'-----

,I

~:: ~'

~\

I ,1.1

'" J' ~ -

~".

-;:;:z::r ~i

. ~i'!' • "", ".

, .THE MACHINING' OF VARIOU,S MATERIALS

49

ci
~
0
..d
w:
</J
"0
Q)
'<lJ
.Pi
r/.I
cU
o
CII
'+<
so ...
;:::I
'P. Cf.l
Ii! 11)
Ii! ,J:l
+"
~ .>;
rIl 0.,
0 .....
ctI
'0 Z E
'" .... '~.
iii H
P::' 0
H ....
p .~ 0.
'C! <'
H U.
~ ,~ <!l
0 ;:..
a
r:i! 0
H ,-I:'
~ '(1)
<t: "0
<!l
~ <lJ
Pi,
o:
Q)
:0
.c
",..
Pi
rIl
.....
u
<lJ ..
...
...
0
u I:l I <"1.00 1.f')tnorX) ~-\O "=J"'v vN"""" 00"'''' ",cooo
,".'"-1' ,Q .r--..r;:-...,t-.: OC:O.O.,;..,a 10 '" "'''' .. \,0-"""'..-1 to t':'--t--.~:'I:T '¢.NN
..00 o "".N . • r:p~tr)"'¢ N('..:I'r"""'I.'t-i 'P""'I...--4~
N'I"""Io~
~
·cu
. ., I No>t:i vi 0 '10 00 "' .......... ""N<'"lC;> 0...,...,..., co 00 eo
~ ~. .t'-oo~o 00 0 t"-4,,-I 1.0 1iO.\CI \0 .,......~QOD-o. .... v,.;- ... NNN·
°""00 "' . ..., ........ N~-..--!;.....· .... ....
tJi N~'·
.,.
'" I Nol.ri· lj'i'c:OCiO~ "'1",,00 \I")\I)'.Y'"i(:Q 0000.00
",,' IO"''¢.N
·0 t--.t'--.o CO.-r--..,...:.I1iO ~ \C!"O r-~ . .,.....1 00 t...:. t-w._ .... :'¢ '-1'(>1 <"I «: .... ::1
,~. '"" '0.<"100 ~.V·'l!:TN .~~;......r..-l ....
N..--t·
.. ,
:::I
rJ] i o..n·lil· 0?O'-O\C -e-. '¢NN· MOO~ lI'li.r)tCoo ""IlOilO
0 t-o'o. O'l""'1\,()\O \0 \O_.. ........ "" ........ 'l" "''¢NN N"'1N
"> N 00.00 ~'d"""NN ~,-.....l""'''''''
...
I oU"}'I.,f':I 00'10.\0 v ... NN&l 0'0"" in ~.'.~~ .. ~' '·0000 ""
<:i .... 000 ...... !,O.\C \0 .1.0 'r"""'I ........... OO t- .... ,;;-v NNN
'<t- ~CQ.\O "'NN,:", ........ .....-1..1-1
NV)'lrj~ 'O,,,,v,,", N~'Oq' ...,vii(loo '00 00 00'c:Q "".'00 00
'0 ~O'OO'l""'1 10 "'10 ID ...... ~t'--t'- .... "' ... N ""NNN NNN
""l '~c:Q''''~' N·N"I"""II:,.....,. ._
- ..
~.l:4 Ul
:lij.l) <1)
8~~
!1l .. .:
'i:S'iSH ,D :0 ,
,....co·~v ""N·c:Q-.t- :~~~;t :~ :;1: ~. '0
-......:...-.......~-....;;,_ ................................. NN..,"" vtri.~-~ 'OQ~....-t
....... '!""""I~'I"""'I ~,,......-.I It')ct) ............... .....j;......!I 1-"';'.

j I ·1 I I I Is NOO'O ";...,...,0 '0 c:Q.", '" "'ocr· ....
C ~.t--.t-o..~. O·.~ccc ··O· ..... ID'" \OIO~
C O·N~~('!';I. ,00 ""10..., "'''''.('>IN N.,.....~
"'" '. :::~;.. ,.N ('Q·.-f....;...~ ........
I I I I INNO o "'.in..., OQO 00 10 ·.o..o''<I'v "'NN
.Q ~~'J;-. t~~:g' O'l""'4....-{\O .\0 "'''' 10 \O....t:~
C . 'OON "'''''''N ·N'('\l";-.j-' ...........
""l ~('.:I~ .... II I· I

50

MANVAL OF· LATHE OPERATION

- inches p,~r spindle revolution; - Ordinary cutting; O/J:t:ere_thefin'ill finish can be touched up by filing and w'ithen::l~rycH'!th, sli'oul'i:lbe clone with the ~OOB7 inch feed. The .0050, .-0035 <ina ,.0:01'877 Inola feeds' are used for a .fine finjsh and for Wo_~kin'g orr ,t0ugh_, haFi.1,-t0~ machine ~etals,-The .0035' inch£eed is ideal for- tal(ip:g' tr'H'~m:gcuts on commutators; The .00.60 inch feed'- is anintel'rriedJate·;feetJ. often-~seful fo1.', work not Ealling into these :'ci~he1:c.lf."~;¢'9. - --ge~r' set-ups for the various cat:rial{e feeds q"re given.jn :P~j;t '7,

I_~ lr -

F:ri!t 51;,

l{"ed i~dng. thr.~. dHi'~~'t~i

of ii' \):t~~i Y.J]i~:~ft.· ~,rf 'i:l) one i1l~:. .~~~~p"t for.' '!Re :cXl}ef.i.em:~.ed .mra.c h'i n:.1.s:,t

c u ts- ·1 i1t~. ,t,hi» ;s.h 6:.~:lfJ never be. ta,k'eu..:..._lfse -1h,,~

f' I !

-CUTTING- COMP{)VNDS,

Ordinary tu;rqing, on the lathejs done dry> Hut'ing threadlcFi;g¢ operations tl:tells_e6£ a c:utting compound, oil'or fl uid. T,e.s,vilts_ip <!. better classcfwork,' Lard oil or any .one, gf the gtr,llftral p4rp9se cutting' fluids should-he- .keptihandy for ,this purpose: GonfiIju:6iJ.s producticn work ~spally requires-the -use of-liberal quantities, '01 a cutting compound to carry the heat away from the toot oit; .. <

~ACHINING STEEL,

Steel ismanufacturerl in hundreds of grades, 'eac4 with' a.di:f£'eient carbon andalloy content, The grades of steel listed: and descdbedin this Manual are ; carried itt stock. bY'm'ost stee'Lsupp1ie~s' .. They are purchased from the warehousebytheir S,A.R. (S;pc,re;t.y:

- of Automotive Engineers) numbers; listed in detail ttl P~:rt 10, Some of the harder grades shouW be: purchaser] annealed f6r:q:r1'lchilling ptii:'~oses.

'The toot' angles and cutting speeds ;given in, Fig-pre _59 at.¢: . approximate. and 'will be found suitable )9raverage. work. G;l1¢Y

~------

'~fH EM:Ac.H LN'I NGOOF VAiOOu.S MATERIALS

51

FIG: 58

A'.mall anoy",ee;lgrinde~ shaft being turned in ti]e-lathe: . The- fini~~ed' .haft is: also shown Note the,groove~.,ma,de by -the cut-off tool for, l{lockm,g, out the,work_lor roughing (~ee~p,.ge-162).

represent the consensus of cpirrionofa Iarge number of factcr ies, steel companieaand machinists, It is'-impossibleto give precisely the tool angles .and speedsmostsatisfactory for ea'ch grade of steel, since feeds, depths of: cuts; 'temperuf wcrkand other coridifions vary' for each job. Some'experimentil)_g rt).ay be necessary for production work. form tools andspecialshapes,

The machinability rating of each steel is an -arbittary figure deteiriijne'd bY' averaging machining, time,' over h undreds of jobs -and operations, UsingS,AE. 1.1t~2 steel as a basis arid -rating it 1009"0, the percentages given for the other-steels indicate the ease of mac~l~ing, or machinahllity-cthe lower - tbe.raHng the IT10re

difficult is the rriac:hit),ing., '

. In ge_neraI, for.steel, the clearance angles' ofthe tool should- he as small' aSC,al1 he, used withotit l;ioggingor- having. the tool ed'ge break-down tOOs.ciOn.The !ront cleararrceof.B" 'and side clearance ~f IDOto 12° are faitlyshmdard for hand ground tools . .Smaller . clearaaceengles-can _ be used in some cases, hut are not recorn-

mended except for .production work . .'

On SC17ew machine work-where-a Jong,.curled chip is undesir~bfe~the r-ake angles o{-th~ tools tshould usually be reduced in :prde'r to br,eaJ~ upthe-"chips. ,:M:ore power will be teCi4ired 'when ~sj'ni -thes,!! smaller rake angles:

52

MANUA LO F LATHE OPE R'ATI ON

FIGURE 59

TOOL ANGLES AND ,SPEEDS F6RMACHINING'STEE-L These A~gles Refer to _Tool Shape$ 'OF! Pages J8~39

Description of Steel'

S.A.E.

No.

S\jeed' Side :Front

M adiln- feet Clear- ,Ciear-

a bj~l~y per an ce ance

. mlriute Angie" Ang,Je

Bessemer Screw,

~tock .. ,.......... 1112 Special Screw 'Stock X1l12, High Manganese

Screw -Stock ..... X1314

High Manganese' --

Screw Stock •.... X131S

HigIi Manganese

Screw Stock .... , X1335 Open Hearth

Screw Sto,ck 1120

carbon'Sfeel 1020

Carbon Steel , .. ' xruzo

Nickel Chromium

Alloy ......•..... 3115 Nicker Chromium

. Andy .. -. .• .. . . . . 3120 Chrome Molybdenum 414P, Mangan,ese Alley' ... T13~5

3Yz% NiCkel',

A:nnealed - ... :. . . . . 2340 3Yz% Nickel·

Annealed' :. ,' .... _. 2345 3%% Nickel, '

_ Arine1l1ed :~........ 2350 Nickel Chromium .. 3130

Nickel Cl1t:o'mium,

Mnealed .

Nickel Chromium, . ,Annealed ...•.....

Chrome- Vanadium Anmiaied ' ... ".: ...

High Carbon Steel ..

Nickel Chromium Annealed ..... : ...

Chrome: Vanadium,

Ann~al~d .

. ~

Carb'onS.teel ' .

Carbon Steel - -' - Nickel Molybdehum Catbon Steel . ' ..... ,

30 % Nickel Alloy .. 3~% N!ckel All oX .. 3Yz% NIckel Alloy, . 3Yz%~Nickel Alloy

. Annealed ' ..

I.·

1035: 104.0 4615 1045

2315 2320 2330

2335

3135

3i40

6140 1095

3:ZS0

- ,

35 35

100% 120

120 1Z·

150 12"

100 12-" 100: I,?"

,S'

" lo¥~ ·16,%"

16;:s6· 16Yz·

1~,· .

"ISO , 140'llf·

1.2° 12°

-l2'

95 95

7S

100 12"

100 12"

. 8.6 12"

80 . 12"

. 80 12"

80 fZ"

80 12"

70 10'

8010· 80 j 10"

80' 10·,.

70 10-"

80 50· 70

62 51 60 55

50, So 50

50

50 50 50 50

70 10"

70 .10·

70 '10.

-50 1'0'

45 45

70 10"

60 10·

50 10·_

70 10·

60 60 50 ,SO.

10'

10." 10" 10'0

.50. 50

100

1(1,0

15;%" 1li%,· ~~%. 16%"

1.6:'%· I~,%:D, 15,~o

12°-

12"' 12,~ 12"

$."

12,·

lZ"

8'·

-10·'



1'0,0 .

s~ S,-,

10' 10·'

io·

10·

,10· gH

8"



so,

22,0

1'4'0 _

~

I

12°

THE MACHININE?- OF- ,VARI9U$ .. MATE"'-I.US

,53

High 'speed tool bits areperfectly satisfactory for turning any

of the steels listed iil Figure' ss, . A~ mentioned before, toa,ls for . 'roughing cuts can be. ground satisfactorily .on- a 60 grit wheel -without honing. -For finish cuts, the' fool should be honed to as .fine an edge-as possible.

Thecutttng speeds-are-given in surface feet pet minute; tor "theccrreot lathe spindle speed see !i'igur~ 56: 'Speeds shown are for machining dry. .For best results and e~asietmachinability, lard oil, 'or equivalent should be used, especially with the rharder-to-

' .. machine steels. A lubricant also permits approximately 25% higher cutting speeds. For production and automatic SCrew machine work, comme~cial types of sulphurized mineral oils; at base compounds mixed with mineral oil or water are usedbothas coolants arid for their lubricating properties.

In machining the softer-grades of steel, roughing cuts ca;nb~ taken with the.0087 Inch feed, with 'depthsof cuts 0,£ about 1/16 to .:% i~ch when'turnirig ;:tt the rated speed. De'epercuts can 'be taken easily at slower speeds, but it is recommended that "the machinist never take rOttghiRg cuts of 'more than VB inch=-deeper cuts at rated 'speeds require a larger-driving.motor than the, size .recommended for the .lathe, Finish cuts can be taken with any of the four' feeds available, the "finer feeds producing the smoothest finish. The depthof the finish cu1:' sho~ld be .015 inch or less.

A . little experimenting soon tells-the operator the proper feed and depth of cut t01'-_ a giv¢n steel, J'he figures in Figure .5~, are suggestions only.cand the '~achinist can'usuallY tell fromexperi- ' ence and "feel" just how much cut and feed to' use.

MACHINING TOOL STEELS

It is impossible to group the many hundreds of tool steels ior give definite tool angles or any description of their properties. Only annealed 'tool steels should he machined on the lathe. Some experimenting is necessary to determine the proper rake and clearance angles- for' tool bits. The harder gracles, such as high speed tools~eel_ or high carbon .steel, will machine best with 'tool angles similar to those given for S.A.E. t09S steel -in Figure 59. Some of the die+steels, while exceptionally hard when+tempered

54-

MANUAL OF LATHE OP-E'RATION'

TH,E MAcHI NING OF VARIOUS MATER,IALS

S5

~I

A turning speed of 50 feet per minute is generally satisfactory for 'cast iron, although higher speeds .are.jsometimes used -i:rt ,production or with specialtool bits.

HG.:60- -' '-c,.

Machining ..bl,ishing driver Irom -rcol. -ateel ..

_ Th,.finished tool is ~~1so s:howti. 1'001' a-ngihfOr -" fool steel w-il1 - reqll.ir~ some cipe"r:imentiqg on th6 pat, ;'f t_h.e op:e'iiltor -tI:"el"e ax~ '·nh"ndi."eqp '0'£ grades, each 'having' Cllf, !~r~ht· ch~ra·ct.~dsticsy ."

CUTTING BENEAT}:ITHE SCALE

A: hard scale con raining sand particles, f,Qr-t!i;:; .on We outside of j:ron castings, Unless the first icut 'is taken deep' enough to cut through this scale and into the softer metalvthe cut-. ting edge of the tool will be -dulled quickly." First cuts on castings should be at' least 1/16 0[,0625 inch in depth, A speed slower than 50 feet per minute may be necessary for this depth of cut, but-the speed should. be reduced, not the deltth-9f cut.

The .0087 inch feed can be .used £01' turning; most cast iron, with a depth-of .cut of between 1/16 and % inch running at rated speed after the scale isrremoved. In this connection it Is-interesting that much .superior finishes can be obtained on ~as~ .iron by the- use -of high .speeds and shallow cuts.- Exceptionally finefinishes have been produced with speeds as high as 150 feet perminute, a depth ofcut of .015 inch and the

.0087 inch feed. -

ate furnished annealed; These steels can be machined b,~st wi;:th rake angles as Iarge 'as those recommended for, S.A.E', i 112 steel in Figure 59.

MAGHINTNG FORGED STEEL PARTSi

Forgings are .made from practically any type ot~t'e~l a:qa are

usuafly -annealed after: -

-forgIng. They are machined in the same, manner as thebar stock from 'which, they are

,~ni.ade (S~e Fig. S9) " 'Cilts should be, deepenough to cut through the scale.

FIG. 6'2

Machining .a cast iron' collar on the lathe. _ ::Note ",that the"cut is, deep "enough, to' get beneath the scaler;

FIG': 61 Machini'ng·a. forged mcrcht'ne' 'part 'on the lathe.

MA'CHINING cxs'rraon

C-0,m~bncast ircn.sometirnes called "grey iron,'lis_ n,6t:so ~asy;: to machine as soft stee ly.nor- can it be turned at so high .a spe,e('l.; The. structure of this metalcauses the chips to break outIn small sections, not in aqmtinyouschip. .Raks angles must he sma'llE;Or than for the softer steels, The tool nose should be sna-rper,othan

for .steel. '

- ,

" ,

Cast iron-is machined d'rYi with l_1o lubricant at cutting oil.' The

structure of the metal contains 'a great deal of free carbon which provides the .needed lubrication. ~

Cast iron 'parts-that are to, be machined to very accurate liinits should be rough turned to within .015: 'to .030 inch_ of their- finished size; and then allowed to age for three months or longer. Internal s;~raJn\> are-set upIn the ~etal while it is being cast; and if time is not allowed for these strains to normalize, the casting will warp after it is machined.

Approximate Top} Angles for Cast Iron

Front de~rance '.S·

Side Clearance .•.•.. .- -, 10"

Back Rake .- :. ; .". , . . . . 5"

Side ~ake , :: :.12·

TO:01 BitShapes,Pag~s 38-39

56

MANUALcij:: LATH'E, OPERATION

MACHININGSTAINJ.,ESS STEEL

.. , ' __ '. I ',:" .'

,F'td:611 "'

Machiili;nga,stainl~s!i' .t~:el' h,alj.~l~' for.' use on i1 ereamery pl'an{,rr,achine;

Tljes e,·-.:steels . are. often' used . where I: orrcsion . IiI u~ t.. 'he :a_ void ed, -

Stainless steels .are ,eiihe:r 'high chromium (12 to' .14% ;cn:h'>ih~ ium} or cJlI:ol11e-nI.;ltel(1,~% chrome, ·8% nickel) .Th~' ,a"Cl(;li'ti~oh of 'this"aUoY'l11al,tes. stainless steels highlyresistant to cO'rtosion -as w#l',af) ull,usuallyJough,and siron,g---""'they are .beh~g used more and, more' W herever . these, 'quaHties are desired, $pme;i~,tai.Ii1:e'sss't~~l~

-a~e hard to machine, but ifproperg~<l(fes:,ares~i'ect~1l ,they: "YUle .rnachineEairlj- welL Two,gra,des,- No. 303 and NQ.'4i'6, ave :liur:' nished as <:!Free ·I\IIaclJ.{ning",QuaHty'·!intod arid bat ;fb'rm anll,can be obtained from your steel .supply house.'

Staitiles>i steel is :a toil~h,. dia€"g;ymeta~an.dregl1il!es, 'w,ore';Fai~~ than_.would he expected. 'S~altrake angles, wjll,'inv:~fiaJ.?ly cause. hoggmg,and the material will "work~harden" badly; that~rsJ .t.fie, action of· the tpol in. cllttiqg causes the 'surface at'" the' finished

work to harden, . .

_ T6pte:vent rubbing, clearance angles are, sligllny, .more tn,a'ij standard. Threading tools should have-a pronouneed' $lc;le"t'ak:e of 5?t6 100• "Chips. produced when tllrning:~tainless"ste'el arc' sti,ingy and. hard t9 manage and should be pulled '~awa:y fruRI the ·WOFk. They will. be hot and sharp and should he handfed with, he:iwQ!: cotbmgloves,or athick. doth,

TooL angles suitable fcir,mQst,grades ofsJ~inless steyl)

Frorrt Clearance ., ,.. '10'" Bfl:ckRake t6:;A~

Side -Clearances. ... ,., .. 12° Side ,Rake : : .. ,(0'0'

Tool Bit Shapes,Page's.38-39 -' ...

The tool angles o'n page 56 'and the following speeds and feeds apply tq both .'. Nos. 303 and 4.16. ~ome eXJ;Ierime:i\t:ing may be necessary: for other grades. Thes"efi,gures, can be changedsomewhat if conditions are unusual.

Slow' speeds an,d heavy cut's are.best.for {utrtings.ta'ihless steel.

Speeds of 40 feetper-minute. will be satisfaetofyjq,I!,'l.QStCaS~s'----, much higher' speeds cause the too] to hre?f:, ~Q'\Yn alter a: shqrt time. For.roughing, the ... QQ87 inch feed-should be,\ised with .depths of cuts-of between lji6, and 1/8 inch. Finishcuts should be, taken

with a well rounded too'l.'preferably using'th~.8Q50in0ii :fee:cI: and with a depth ofcut -of .010 to .ois Inch. ormore, 'If 'possible, 6hly one finish cut should be taken~the work-hardening dftpeI?etal makes a second shallow cut . difficult,

Both No. 303 arid NoA16"canbe cut dry; but a starrdardIubricant results ina better finish. and easier cutting, 'High-sulphur cuttiltg compounds, lard oil or .equivalent will he found satisfa¢I!l~=m!lil:: t()ry;A_hibri~ant should always be used when threading,

CA; UTION: When machining stalnlesssteel, check the tightness of 'thework. 'he.tweeh centers after eacb eut, Wheri.Jieated, stainless steel-expands approxirp.ately twice as much as ordinary. stt;el,esped~hy\Vheri cut dry, 'The tailstock .. .center cart 'berutned quickly if extreme care . is not taken .in vkeeplng' just the right

.arnountof 'pr,essure, betweenthecenters ..

,~

THE MAGHil';lJNG OF VARJOUS MATERIALs

57

This tendency to heat upmust be rememberedW.hen t)irnihg ,pieces·'·to an exact size, and me asurem ents should not be taken while thework. is hot, A good rnet'hodIs t~ roughdown to w-ithin about .015ihch of the finished diameter, rernovefhe work and cool it with water or oil,then rnount dt. and preceed.to take the -finishing cuts.

. MACHlNINGCOPPER

Copper", due to its' combination of' toughness and softness, rerquJres diffete:nttools than brass.or other copper alloys. These tool angles 'Win, generally prove satisfactory.:

Fl:,ti!Jt c;learanc.e 12" Back Rake '16'y,;-"

,Side Glearance ... , .. 14° S'fde Rake ;, :,20·

Too] Bit. Sh§!pe~, Pages~8-39

MANI,JAL 'OF LATHE OPE~ATION-

MACH'ININO COPP-ER(C9ntiuued)

-FfG. H

Ma'~hhiin:g- a .ci_lid - <:opt1:e~ .electrorle . on

t h e: la Iii e. fl< '[,l; islie d e.lec·trod~· is also, shown.

- AtUl'ningspeed of 120 surface feet.per minute isr~comme-ndea for copper; although~lighl:ly lower speeds may sometimes be -~ee,~ 'essary with wi de - faced, tools. The .0087 inch. feed - should be ,,}lsed-. except for finefinish' cuts~where tne.0035-inch feed.:is best.T.He depth of cut f9r roughing- can be .030 to .o_50 inch, and £O'T; fi,nishing abotlLOlO inch." Rather deep .cuts at 'rated speed will<gel,1et:aily be most satisfactory. Onfinish cuts, use a round nose tool with about 1/16 inch radius. To produce asmQoth ,finish on, Cbpp,el'" tools should be honed 'to askeen an edge as, possible. Chip~ ah tough and stringy- and should be pulled away from the work;~wear' gloves or use a ,thick cloth to prevent burning your hands;

No lubricant is necessary, but 'it is sUggested that lard oil C!Jr paraffin oil be used for threading.

Using the cut-off tool on soft copper is unusually difficult, due to the tendency of the _chip to ispread and jam iri fp~ grooye. 'A 'method recommended by many machinists 'is to start a €,Foo:v:e - wider than the cut-off blade and move the cUt~9ff tool, bcj,c}C and forth continually as it is fed into the work,allo:w'ipg the chip to clear thew?r'k without jamniirig.- Allowance for the tdrt:l'-a wiotn' _ 0.£ the groove should be made when laying;out the work.

t.~9:

J~!

THE MACHINING OF VARIOU'S MA:-TERI.~LS

59

MACHINING BRASS AND GOPPER ALLOYS

FIG,65

A bra ss bushing being turned on the lathe, On rna'ny production jobs, brass will be!ouri4 more economical than steel, due to increased- .Pl""Oiluc'i-ion "and' h';gher

, scrap .value.

Free cutting brass, commercialbronze, commercial yellow brass, red .brass, cast bronze, and' other of the softercopper alloys.iare machined quite differently than steel.. Because the tool, has a tendency to hog into theeoftmetat, tool angles ate . required as follows: .

Front Clearance _, _. 8° Back Rake .,....... .0·

Side Clearance 10° "SIde Rake "',.; _ O·

Tool Bit Sh~pes, Pages 38-3~ -

A very slight-side rake of not more than 5" cap. ofterrbe used on the ftee-~achi-ning grad:es of brass and bronze. On some of the tougher alloys, anegativeside rake of 20 to 40 is sometimes used to pr~venthoiging .. If hogging and arougb fi,p.ish occurs, check the -clearance angles' and try as-liKht amount of negative rake.

On production work free-machining brass is turned 'at speeds as high. as 600 feet per minute, For- small lathe work wheripro-

duction is not .importarit, these speeds arerecommended: .

Fre,e Cutting Brass .. ',' .... -300 feet per minute Yellow Brass ' .....•...•..... 200 feet per minute

Commercial Bronze: 80fe-etper- minute

Cast Bronze -. .. ,............. 50 f¢et :p'er minute

. Use light cuts at rated speeds rather than deep cuts 'with slower speeds. _. For, r;_oughing, depths of cuts shouldb~ from 1/16 to 1/8_ inch. Tl_1e"70087 inch feed can be used for roughing, and the .:0035 inch feed for finishing, Lubricants are not generally- used, although paraffin oitor equivalent will. assist in threading.

60

MANUAL_OF LATHE OPERATION

THE HARDER COPPER ALLOYS

. SP.ecial bronzes ahd, nickel silvers, which -con~ai~ elemel'lt~g~~~-' Ing hIgh strength, hardness and toughness, a-re more diHlc~lt to machine. than tl:Ie freer cutting brasses, - Phosphor bI'on~e -and si.licon .bronze are in thls Class. ~Experimetit with toofangles '£91':~ these metals if large amounts of work .are to be done.~ugg:f;!J?{ed angles:

,Front Clearance _ 12° - .Back RaKe ... ".,.- .. _. -100

Side-Cleaian~e ;; 10· :13ide Rake ._ .. ,. ~O~ to~2°

Toot_Bit S11apes, P;l?esj8-39 -~,

if hogging occurs, indicated by a Tough irregular finish, reci.~f~e

the rake, angles, ' - -',' - -

Speeds may vary from 80 to 126 feet per minute. A fee'd' of .0087 inch _is recommended for roughing, .Q035 for finishing: Take cuts of .015 inch to .125 inch in depth-at rated speeds. No lubricant is necessary, although paraffin gil or'equivalent ,will.'be fgund helpful for bothturning and threading,

Some of these. alloys, have asmalI percentage 9f lead in tHeIr composition which improves their machinahili.ty.LRake angles of 0° should beused intumingthe le aded copper alloys.

I. I,

;.;.

}

J\iIACHINING l_fARP BRONZE

The alloy known commercially as hard bronae ris sold 'under various trade names. It is used forsuchpurpoaes as non-sparking wrenches and tools and 'has many applications where inflammable materials are Tiandled, Its. strength is. comparable to te.tTIpereO mild steel.. Too! bits should be ground tothese angles) .

--

Front - Clearance, .. '... ,BOBack Rake ' _ ..... ' ·o~

Side Clearanc~: ...... 1'0° Side Rake ;.- Oqo ~2·

Tool Bit Shapes,_Pages 38-39_ . '.

Cutting speeds for the various 'grades of hard- bronze. tang,e P:ec tween 40 'and 100 feet per minute ~ the manufacturer's recommendations should be followed. Use the ,0087 inch f.eed w~th moderately deep cuts about .030 inch in depth. No lubricantd's~ necessary. although, in turning some of the harder grades. ·kerpsene. will be helpful. .

r

I

Aluminum especially with high scr~por siliconco~ten:t is diffi~ cult to machine, due to its- tendency to h?g and pi-le up in front of the tool. However, free,"mac.hining ,alurpirium alloys have b __ een

·deveI'oped. and are available .at most "warehouses. '

Two ofthese,a,Iloys, Alcoa 17S-T arid Alcoa l1S-T3" are partic~

ula~ly' interesting to the machjniat. No,~ 17S-T hasbe.en ci~ .the

Ti,- - market for .sorne years, while No. llS-T3 is comparatlvelyneV\7' Both have ,a tensile strength approximately equal to that of mild steel-the higheststrengtho( any of the aluminum alloys 'availablein rod 'form. Similar alloys have been marketed ~nder various trade names, suchFts "Duraluminum" artd are used wherever strength and lightness are desired, such as' _inauto~opiles, a.ir-

planes and dirigibles. B?th Alcoa 17S-T .and 11S:-T.3 areeasdy machinedon. the lathewi~honly a few SpeCl<3.1 precauUo~s.

Cast i1luminumalloys have lower tensile strengtl;tsthan the wro~ghtalumirturpalloys mentioned-above and are ordinarily more difficult to machine ... Most oUlle reputable foundries casting aluminum use pure-alloys and: turn out castlngs that can be machined without trouble. However, if large p~rcentages of scrap are

used or if the silicon contentof the metal is allowed to become too high, there is considerable difficulty in machining.

Aicoa'alJoys No. 12' and No. 112 are 'quite. easy to .. machin,e,. a~d 1£ caStlngs are made from these alloys, they can be wdrked-sa:lsfactorily,i-ligh siliconahimim:im alloys can beturned better with

-J_

-r_1

THE MACHIN1N§o OF- VAR.IOUS MATERIALS

61.

MACHINING ALUMIN1JM

_~I FIG __ 66

M ac h in-ing an allo y aluminum cylinder 'for a on 0 Ii 01 gas, en gine.. Engin'.s. fo; model' alrp'lanes and motor beats are gene:r~llY. made p~ alu~bnl::m to .red u ce weight.

62

MAN'UAL OF LATHE QPERATION

special tool bit~higher apeedscan be us_ed-and the c;uttiI!g' edg,¢i of the tOQI stands up longer. - -,,'

"

TOOL ANGLES: T091- bits :£01' turning: aluminum usually

have more r~ke on both side and fro-nt than lor steel. The, 'fo1l0wing angles' are satisfactory for turning practically all types- of aiurpinurn alloys, both cast and wrought:

"

Front Clearance ., .. _" go- Back Rake

Side Clearance ... ,.,. 12° Side - Rake

Tool Bit Shapes, Pages 38~39

35" 15·

The edge of the tool in contact with the work should be, rounded but not too-bluntly, If -chatter occurs,decrease the- radius <i;f the tool pcint.. Cut-off to:ols 'for aluminum should have abo'ut 1,50 back rake and only 4° to 50 -Eront clearance.

The proper cutting speed js very important in- tUt:'tling .ab;ll!l'!-.inurn, and in many case:; trouble can be traced to the rise of bae Iowa cutting speed. While surface speeds for turning steel vary between 7 ~ artd J 50, feet per minute, , aluminUln-- is turned best at sp'eeds from 200' feet to ashigli as 800 feet per minute, For-general work, 1tis'r:~comriiended that wrought ~luminurnalloys; sUt::h, _a~ i1S~T . and 11 S-T3 -1::1 e cut at ·'surface speeds o~ 300 to 500 feet :pet minute, while cast alumiriumishould be turnedbetwee,n200 and 300 k~tperminute, depending upon the composition oithe <:a:st~,ng; To determine-actual spind-Iespeeds for various .d.iamefe'ts of work refer to J!igure 56.

Both Alcoa 178-1' and llS-T3can often bej.urned dry, but fot best results oriall aluminum some form of cutting o_iIshou:1ob:e used, .. _ Equal parts ofkeroserre and lard -oil. or ·~miivale.tit .~a1te.a ... ~er'ysatisfactdry cutting-compound, PUre lar-d. oil is q.uite,,$'a'tisfact9ry for .hea »s cutsand slow feeds, . Alc.oholaQ-dsome <comro~1':- • cial cutting c()mpoun,ds produce excellentfinishes,

GE!'1ERAL, FRECAUTIO~S: Light cuts_andfeeds',a:t:fG .hfg1'ierspeedsgive best results with aluminum; The ... 005Q inch £.e${~, withe: depth of cut of about ,020 inch, will produce exceti~nt""?lotk, but finishing cutsshouldb~ shallower, On finishi:ngputs,t\1-eedge of the tool bit should be honed very sharp. and smootb~- Eve'n

I slightly rough tool edges will leaye marks all. the ~ork;_.

IIt1G .~

cr·"'···.·,;

J' - '

4,

t

THE MACHINING OF VARIOUS MATERIALS

63

Roughing cuts will 9ften .leave a built-up "false ,c\.j:ttin~. edge" of work-hardened material on the edge' of the tool bit. This edge should be removed and the top, of the tool bit honed before, it is_

used for firiisl1ing cuts;" .' .

When heated, aluminum 'expands morethan steel or brass, Care

should be taken when turnin:gbel",:een' centeis~the lathe sh~uld

_- d f'" , tly to'c:heck the tightness of the wo,rkag~llnst_

be steppe r.eq~en , .. ' .... '. . .' . . '.' '."" k '

" it T~' he work should be allowed to. cool before ta mg

the cen ers, , ,'.' ,

~;asurements with a caliper 01 micrometer. This is 'important

when t-ur~ing a!um_intlm. ,

.MACHININGM_-ONEL. M~T AL AND NI,CKE;L

-Due to the toughness of rnoriel metal and nickel, the -proper lool angles, speeds and :feedS are especially important.

A special quality of mon~l metal, TypeR, is available and. will' prove fairly easy to mac chine. _A round-nose tool with a. tadiusofabp'ut Iji6 inch is best 'with the following' rake and ,clea,ia:nce ang:les :

Tool hits should be honed 'af.ter gI;'i_nding; A good cutting

., hibrica:ntshould be used for,t~rhillg alld drilfing as well' asfor threading. Cutting speed should be about. 10Q feet per

rriinute£ot cast monel metal, and nickel and 120 feet per ~inu,te 'for rolled monel 'metal. , Take cuts ofnoi: more than .020 t~ .0'30 in~h, usingi:he ,·0087' inch feed. F-or ,smooth finishing

, cuts use the .0050 'inch feed. Deeper cuts can be taken' at lower speeds but are. not n:commended. TO'Llgb.,st~iI!gy ~hips, a~e producedwhenmachin:ingtlwse~rnetals and should be _kept clear of the work~use g16:V,es, or a heavy cloth i;il: handling,

i

'I

- Fr ont 'Clearance , 13-a

Side Clearance. _ '. 15"

, . k ' 8°

Ba,GkRa e .. - _ ""- . 40

Sid'e Rake .. , .. , - ,. 1

1'06) es« Sh~pes, Pages: 38-39

FlO. 67

. Machlning a monel metal hai1d.. wheel for use on. ,;'. d.~"ing machine .. A ~nlshed, ~and "iihe.d "is also shown. ,'After bemg ,!,-ach~n~d_ to, approxiInaie'"~ze, .:-the hand wheel IS .drl'lled .and. reamed and pressed on a mandrel lor finishing '(see pag-e81),,, _ "

64

~ANUALO~ LATHE QPERAT,ION

~"-

-

- -: -,

MACHINING PLASTICS

The t~rm '~plastic" applies to many types of artifi~lally.' p;o~;;, 'duced s01tp.s. Oneof the earliest plastfcs was celluloirl _:_i;f :has been followed by- various other plastics, moulded and -cast _ frtnnsuch materials as phenol, urea, casein and ceilulose aceta.te. - r -

For n:achihing purposes plastics t:an be-divided into twogr:~:)Ups:

Grou~ I includes.molded Bakelite, Formica and Durez,.a'1I6:fwhich are phenol plastics moulded under heat and pressure.O,rCl1.1p, 11 includes all -'of the c-as,t- ~ani::l formed plastics of vadou$-:ba~es~, sold under such trade'namei:--a:s Cataliri, Plaskon, cast 'B'~kelite (called Bakelite Transparen~): lVIarhle-W:, J oanite, Beetle,' Amel'oid, Pyralin, Celluloid, Tertit,e and Trafford. '

Machining .a salt shaker from o';e of the unere commonly used plastics. The finished -shaker "is also shiiwn.-" N ote the

c~ tera'

MACHINING PLASTICS, IN;, , GROUP,!

Tha' machining of plastics: 'in Group Tis done pest withspee:i:<ll tool bits; and if ~any quantity p~, plastic turning is necessary, such tools 'will save -beth - time and - money. For a small amount 0£ machining; - hlgh jipeed .' tonl b-its may be used, although i,t rp.q_y he necessary _tD resharpen~h<;rp.sev~ era] times before the: jqbh; :gJ;lished, The toolshouldbe ground to 'these'angles: -

; ,

Front Clearance '.','. 8" Back Rake' .. , _~ 0_'

Side Clearance ,.. 120 SIde Rake .. __ '.() 0

Tool Bit 'Shapes, Pages 38-39

'Cutting speeds of-IOOto 120 feet per minute should ;be 'used, No lubricant is n~'cessary 01'- advisable. Take rather -neavy cut§,

using the .0087 inch feed. _"

Because of the heat generated when drilIiqg' Plastic,S, 'fliE;! fin,isqedhole becomes smaller. than the drill. Foran exac't sized hole, use anoveraiaed. dr ilfor a drill ~rounds~ight)y off c~~ter~ Apply

THE- MACH1NrNG OF VARIOUS MATERIALS

65

plenty of, oil when. drilling and back 'out the drill frequently to remove chips. .. Specialdri-lls for Bakelite ate avail ab 1 e if any quantity of drilling ,S done.

MACHINING PLASTICS IN GRQUP II

Regulation high speed tool hits . are perfectly satisfactory for the general turning- of plastics in Grbu:p:'II. Tool bit ~ngles:

Front - Clearance _11)' _Back Rake I)' to _5°

Side', Cle~ra:nce : 140, _ Side Rake .. ,. .. o-

Tool Bir.Shepes, Pages 3.8-39

For most turning the- 00 angle of back rake Will be satisfactory, but where there is evidence of hogg~ng, grind a-negative rake of ~bout _5°. '

TIle cutting speed should be around 200- feet per minute. No lubricant is- necessary or "advisable for turning, -Light cuts of about .OIO'inch or le~s should he taken, using the .0087 inch f-eed. or, for a finer finish, the-.0050 inch feed. I{the wbr~' js being 'turned between centers, watch the=tightness of the w~rk against the tailstock center" a~ these plastics expand considerably w4el1 heated. For threading, use-plenty of gc;>od cut!ing lubrtcant-and. -reasonably high speeds ..

W9.e"n drilling these plastics, refei- to theinfor~ati(m listed forGroup I plastics.

MA.CHINI,NG FORMICA GEAR MATERIAL.>

Formi~a is alaniinated plastic made of cotton duck impregnated with.e phenolic resin, TDOls with the following angles will be sauisfactory r

B:_ioni: Clearai;.ce "'!. 10° B'ack .Rake 167'2.°

Side Clearance .. _ . . . .150 , Side Rake , _ ' 10"-

Tool Bit Shapes" Pages 38-39'

'The besi::cutting speeds are between20band 300-feet per minute with the,.noso inch feed. Depthsof cuts of about .020 inch or less shouldbe used. No Iubricant.fa.necessary, Special tool bits are . advisable it any quantity is to be turned.' . Grind drills to an ineluded angle of :55°:

66

MAN U A LO F tAT H E' 0 PERATfO N

'MAtHI'NING MICARTA

Grind tOols as for Formica geat in at e rial, High speeqs a'r9u:ria'- 200 to 300 feet poeI;' minute are re_commended(qsipg ,thej:>QSO:' igch - feed, and light cuts of~OlO to .020 in91;L. M_ae::qine'dry.

,I

rvj:AGHININ,!) TEXTOLIT;E

Use, tools-ground as for _{trOMP -II pl?,~t'ici>. l\_ ver:Y_li:e~Q.:e:uge must he maintained and special tool pitljl should be'lls}~4 ;1f ~9.n''Y: quantity of th_is material is to-be rtla~hinet:1.Cufting~pe~d _ShO:til_d be around 20Q' feetperminute.when using' high--spe'e'Cl tool.bits and 300 fe'e'1;. - per-minute with speciaftool bits. The ;0050 inch £eccf'i's recommended witl? depths of cuts of .015 to .025 incli:An rtla~

_ chlning is done d~y. - ,

MACHINING FIBER

Fibet'is an, extremely hard, '~ough-:thateriaI,rriade, in the J"Otm of sheets, rods and "tubesand -is: used extensively -due to -i;t'fL iehitively h?;1cdst. -ltii:;: not commonly ferrried a pl<J.stie.T001s

should be ground 'rith theseangles : ' "

, 'I

~r£erit~?l~;!~~?;,::;;;g:, ~i~\!ek lJ~~' .:: : .. ;,:: ::,::: g:

-ToolBit Shapes; Fagt!s$8-39'

Cu:tting 'speed -should be about 80 feet pet 'minute, usirt'g the ~b:08? inch Eeedand cuts. of ,Ol(} ttl _,025indl, Keep,th~ tooi-ed;ge honed sharp.with _.?rathe-r broad. nose at thapoint. ' M~'cijit_le 'f):rJl;,

MACHINING HAR'D RUB~ER2 "I'oolsahould .be groundto - the followingung'les:

". I ' ...... ..

F'ront 'Ciear ... nce _ ISO Back Rake

'. 'Side, Cle?tance - 20°· Sid_e Rake

To-dl_ EH Sha_pes, Pages 38-39'

If .the ~ype -of. hard r-ubbe'rused causes hoggingQr tear.;i'h,-g:?

;make the back rake negative, about _$". .,

High speed tool bits ate perfectly satisfactory. S'pee;ds. Of a'bQilt ISO (eet per " minute should be us~d when cu:i:t-ing ·'gr.y, buf c2'l'.e must be taken that-the-work' does 'not become too w~rm;' 'The ",OOS';'7- itWh Ieed "~is ' .. sa tis_f~ctoryWith depths qf' c:~ 1::;;,0'£ 'allon!:- .:'bl6- to" :.·O~'Q

inch. -

r-

,

.:~:.

••

THE MACHINING -OF VARlbU'-S MATER'JALS

,67

FINISHING AND POLISHING

'Figuresfj9a_nd '70 show two, steps in obtain,i1fg a: finelyfini:;he,!d .surface, First, the work isfiI.ed untilt,he -~001 marks disappear. Never hold the file stationary while the 'work is revolving; Take full-cutting str_okli:!s .across the work ~H:h, 'a: $lowspitld~espeet:1 so that ,th.e:"bite'; of the file can be felt, Alw~Y!lt11edry and keep the file perfectly clean and free from oil.. Elling is also: a favorite method.for such jobs as rounding work corners; -srnoqtr,irtg concave cuts, finishingo{f.lmnd:wheels, and similar [obs.

F1G.69

Fm"g- a raper before polish" ing 'witli emery 'cloth.

FIG. 10

P,01i,hi n g s to el wi fh .ab raaive ..' cloth-cthe emar·y· is "n.o,t held in erie 'place but, moved b a ck and, .Ic rth- ' con tinually.

After, filing, the·Work.Can be further polishedwith em.ery or ,some oeherebraslve cloth. See that the work is turning at a rather, r~pidspeed.IJo not hold the emery in one' place-keep movi~g it backand' forth, A few drops of oil placed on .the work tends td.;giVE:'.;a';bettet finish and eliminatesscratches, Crocus cloth is also 'recommended for a highly polished finish,

" I

nij~jE~' L~J~,

HOL,DING THE WORK

r :

,-

",

J =-

, _"

"

.z.,

, .

1. -

" ,

PART s

HOLDING THE WORK

This 'section describes .the - most cot;rimonm{lthods of holding the work-in the lathe: between ·centers, in a' chuck, on the face plate, in a collet, and on a mandrel.

BETWEEN CENTERS

FlOc ')"i

Tu:~in gap ieee . of bar :steet·b etween ~c<n ters, showing p osi tiona

" 01 the lathe 'dog, work and centers,

Whenever -practicable, the work ,is held between centers. Thismethod is usually more accurate and has the advantage of permitting removal and replacement of the work without affecting accuracy. There are two steps. in mounting work between centers: locating, the: center points at each ei;ut_of the -work,and countersinking and drilling the ends toaccommodate the lathe centers.

LOCATING: THE CENTERS

On round work" centers are usually located with either the hermaphrodite caliper or the center head attachment tor a steel scale. In.the centeringof square; hexagon and other regular-sid-ed r- stock, Jines are scribed across the ends from corner to tarrier. The work IS then center punched at the point-of intersection.

In' using the hermaphrodite caliper, .set the caliper to a Iitfle more-than half the diameter of the work and-scribe four lines as shown in' Figure 72 .. Hold the work in a vise and center punch as accurately :a;spossible in the center of these marks. A little

, chaUs::rubbed over: .theend of the work before scribing makes the

_ marks easily .seen: .

69

! ;

70 _J " ,

MANUA.l OF LATHE OPERATION

. 1

FIG .. 72

Using the hermaphrodite caliper to locate center polnjs. on .the . end of round shafting. The four lines have. b'een scribed to rnar-Ic the approximate con ter poal tion~

When'the center head is used, set the center head as '!how~jn Figure 73 and scribe two lines approximately at rightangies;, Use a sharp scriber and keep the Iines as close to the edge of the scale, as possible, Then .hold the work.In a vise.and -center punch:at the.

'intersection of the two lines, '.. ,

_Usi';g' !h~ .center head to .locate work center.

., I

, I

~;_ .•. ~~

"'I .-

If the rough stock is large enough to, permit a trueing cut, .the ends may be countersunk after punching; Howevervwhen the finished diameter is smaller than the stockby only a few thou::sandth~of an inch, it is necessary to- check for trueness he£6re countersirrking;

:Figure 74 shows the most common. method for checking tvueness ; Mount the work on lathe centers, Hold a piece of chall~ ,so

that it just touches the. high spots of the work as it is r09.ta.t,eq by hand. A tool bi't-mounted in the tool post can be used itt _p1a:ce' of chalk. Make marks close to each end, then remover the ,'work. Hold the work in a vise andd~ive the two center-puriehed- mark·s toward the chalk marks by striking at,anailglewitq. the certt:eF

punchand then slowly bringing it back to a straight positipn, I (ffJit-::'1I

H_OLDING THE WORK

71_

FIG. 74

Rotating work against chalk to test true- . ness" before countersinking. The top of the compound test is steadying the hand.

FIG. 75

- Using a dial gauge to check trueness _of work

before . c cun ter"inking. ,

Whenthe'- center must be accurate to within one or two thousandths of an inch or when the diameter -of the work is too small to permit a trueing cut, check trueness with the dial ga).lge .before countersinking. The dial gauge is mounted in the tool. post as

,

shown in Figure 75_

COUNTERSINKING

There.are three methodsof.countersinking the ends of thework after center punching, If a drill press is available, the work is held firmly on thetableduring the.countersiriking operation. The other two. 'methods are illustrated in Figures 77 and 7K The-size and shape of the work usuallydetermine which method is better.

, FlO: 76; 600 countersink drill lor' accurate centering of wo;,k to be

" "mountedbetween'- lathe centers. The eides of'- the drill form all ·arg1 .. of 600 which exactly matches .the angle .·of the lathe, 'centers and provides ihe proper

bearing" surface. . .

Figure71 sh6VJS the quickest and. probably the most common way to countersink centers for stock up 'to three inches in diameter, 'The left end of the work is m_ounted In.a three-jaw universalrchuck. If the work is more than ten: or twelveInches long, the right end is held in position with the steady r~st, _relieving strain from the

72

MANUAL OF LATHE OPERATION

chuck jews=-otherwise there is rio need .for-supportlng' ~lte rig·hf end. The center punching is tested for trueness with chalk; to'o1 bit 017- dial gauge. The right end, can be tapped lightly'With a

- hammer until the work runs true. T'hen with the spindle turning , at the proper speed, the.countersinking hole-Is bored-with the6po countersink drill held in the tailstotk with a drill chuck, Do not, '

make the centers too large..

NIVERSAL 3-JAW SCROLL CH\JCK

wo

TAILSTOt.K

FIG. 77

The quickest way to countersink,

Another method of countersinking is illustrated i~ F~gur~ 78. the countersink drill is chucked in the headstock aIrq syppOftsthe left end of the wo-rk. The right end is supported by-the tail stock. With, thespindle ,turning at 685 or 805 R.P.M.~ the work is 'fed,to - the, countersink drill from the tailstock and kept from turning with the left hand, Do 'not force the" drillirig-or feed too fast--'-th~ advance can be felt. when turning the tailstock hand wheal, If ~'e countersink is forced and breaks off, the simplest way to r:~move the broken piece is to cut about one-half inch from the end cit'the stock. If the: work cannot, be shortened, heat the piece o£¢bunter-, sink; cool slowly by coveri_ng with .ashes or annealing 'compound, and drill .out.

I I"' !

FIG. 78. AnQther, w~y tQ'"countersink.

-'

" . ,

.~ ..

HOI.DI~G- THE WOij,K

- '73

MOUNTING WORK BETWEEN CENTERS

=-

FIg, 79

. Worlc mounted .bet'\y~en centers.

'-F>';CE PLATE

F· ' 79 shows how work is' mounted between centers. afte. r igure . '. '. . .' d . in Fi ure

the ends have been coun~e,rsunk.c . The set of four ogs 1 g

80 'handles diameters up to 1Yz inches.

, C~re must be taken in the selection of the "'' size of the dog. The "'ta:i1" or bent portion

must fitirifo the face 'plate slot without resting on the bottom of the slot. _Figu.re

81 shows the result of making this m1S-

take. The dog tail r, ests on.the face plate, FIG, 80

at A and the . headstock center do es not Lathe dogs for .driving workup

"seat'; properly in the countersu:nk hole to 1~ inches in diameter.

at B.

FIG, 81

Result .of choosing the' wrong' size dog.

74

.MANuAl ,OF lATHE OPERATION

Work ovet"l:% inches in diameter can beheld in the clamp type, dog (Fig. 83A) or adapted to the 1;4 inch dog as shown in ;Figur;:e . 82. The latter method requires light cuts; a rather loose tailstock center and is not recommended as standard practice. .The. \wo, sizes of clamp type dogs hold stock up to 37'i inches in si:ie: and have .several other advantages. They drive work of many 9-ifferent shapes (Fig. B3H) and tan .be applied if necessarywithout rernov-

ing wotk already mounted between centers. . '

FIG. 82

Turning- down a shoulder t?..f1t the l~:', dog. This methodof adapting large work

to 'a dog IS, not. advisable for' general turrnng. .

THE CLAMP TYPE DOG FIG. S3A

(Left). Clamp Type Dog.

FIG.83B

H oldlng .rectangular work in the"

clarnp-Iype dog. "

L

i I

I

THE FQUR JA-W' INDEPENDENT CHUCK

Muchof the work to beturned or threaded on ,the,lathei-s not of a size or shape whkhpermits mounting between centers. 111 such cases' it is cusJomary to mount the work on a f~ceplate"or hold it ill a chuck, a device with jaws which grip the work't'igidly while 'it is .being machined.

If only one chuck-is to be 'purchased; it should be . the four-jaw independent chuc~ shown in Fi&,ure 84. It is easily othe most versatile type of chuck The four jaws are adjusted separately and are reversible so that work of any-shapecan-beclamped ftom the inside or the outside; Some independent chucka.arefhreaded

i,

1\ I

,_'.

HOLDING' T,HE WORK

75

to fitditectly on the spindle nose, others are bolted' to an adapter pl~tewhich fits the spindle.

. Mounting work in the fourjaw chuck is, largely a matter of centering., Determine. the portion of the tough worktha:t 1S to run true" then clamp the work as closely centered as possible, using as a guide the concentricdngs

'on the face" of the chuck, Test for- trueness,marking the high,

'spots with chalk rested a.gaillst the tool post or a tool bit mounted in the tool post (see Fig. 85). The chuck jaws should be adjusteo until the chalk or tool bit contacts the entire circumference of the work.

FIG. 84"

The four-jaw independent chuck. 'rho concentric rings on the -fac.e "ald in adjlisting the positio~ of 'the work.

If especially accurate centering is desired: the truene~s of the work should be checked.with the tailstock center by means of an &Iii instrument called. a center tester (see Fig. 86 ).

FlO; 85

{Right) Testing, for 'trueness.

'FIG, 86

Using the center teeter."

76

MANUAL OF LATHE OPERATION

THE THREE-JA,W UNIVERSAL SCROLL CHUCI« '

The three jaws of the umi-. versa! scroll chuck <ire J"eIJ c~l}tering and adjust ecl''by t,i1:rp!ng one Screw. 'This construction saves' time ,in the centering ;',of round' or hexagon', w6r1i:!, bUt means that the universal. chuck cannot be used for square OJ: irregula:rshapes.0/4 ip.chstq.c~ can be fed tllrough th.~ headstock spindle- and- held in' the. universal chuck £61- turning or, drilling.

'Careful machining of; fhe scroll controlling the, Oja;ws

makes most universal I:!p.ucksaccurate to withih .d03 inch. For extremely accurate work, 2hec~ for trueness with chalk and' place' shims over one of the jaws until the work runstrue. To insure accuracy, 'the piece being machined should never 'be removed or reversed" until all operations have, been completed,

'The teeth ~f the jaws are cut in a circular 'shape to mesh with the scroll threads. " Consequently; the universal chuck jaws ca:nnqf be reversed, An extra set of jawsvcarefully fitted to the chu,ck,. is furnished so that large diameters can be held From the inside or outside.

FIG. 87

··To change ·univ.rsal 'chuck [aws, first remove jaws from slots by. turning Wren ch, If [aws s tic k tap Ii gh tly with a piece of' wood Or a brass hammer, N o.to ,th;u:;,a~ .jaw and jaw 019t is marked "L;" "21 It or '~~3.'·J Place new jaws opposite slets with 'the same number. See that jaws" jaw slots, and scrnll are fr ee from dirt. Turn scroll 'until the .outside start .of .i'the scroll thread Is just teadyto pass the,. No. L jaw slot. Slide No. 1 jaw .,as far vas possible into No: 1 slot .. Turn ;,croll until i aw is engaged. Advance ecr oll and repeat. for . Nos. ·2 . and 3 jaws. Scroll thread must engage the fir-st tooth in the No.1,. No. II and No.3 jaws in order; and each jaw must be hi-

its own slot, ..

FIG:S8 . "

T_urning a :ia.r:ge brass- hydr-ant. cap·Iie~d.}n the univer .•. al chuck. Note .that.Jaws: are gnw ping ·the in.ide·of the work.

HOLDING THE WORK

77

. THE JACOBS HEADSTQCK CHUCK

, FIG. 89

Turning a small screw held in the headstock- chuck.

The Jacqbs headstock chuck is a most versatile chuck for holding small work in theTathe. Its, accuracy is surpassed only by precision-made' collets, The machinists handling any quantity of small work usually considers the headstock chuck an essential part

of his equipment." .

The headstock chuck is furnished in two sizes: capacities, Ys to % inch and 3/16 to.3/4'ins;h: Both are key-type chucks, with a hollow construction so that work can be fed through the headstock spindle. Theyare threaded to fit the spindle nose of the lathe. The smaller size.canalso he used as, ':3 drill chuck, the irtnersection being tapered .to fit an arbor adapter for mounting in the tailstock,

When mounting work in the headstock chuck, take special care . to clean between' the jaws as well as the jawuurfaces.. Always remove lathe center and sleeve. Never tighten the jaws' until the

- work has- been,' centered-keep twisting the work as the jaws are

tightened. .

RE;MPvtI\TG CHUCKS FROM THE LATHE SPINDLE Almos.t evety machinist has a favorite way, to remove lathe chucks, The following method, illustrated in Figure 91, is simple and does. not harm the chuck: .

TUrn tlie chuck until wrench hole is at the top. Lock the spindle in position by engaging the back gears without !lulling out

FIG. 90

T'h e- Jacobs h e ad s t cc k chuck showing internal taper .for tail~tock mounting;

78

MANUAL OF '-LATHEOPERAII0N,

-e ", ••

;). pr:~per m:f~h~c{~,dfu_?y'rig;,

, '"

the lock pin on .the face 'of tJ:re front spindle pack'",ge,ci.r., P-ll:t#Je chuck, wrench" in itshqle: and pull as shown irtFigure, fin,. Ii£: nec~ssary" tap the, jaws with, a pieeeof woad or a brass h;ailjtrte,(., Donot removethe chuck carelessly. - You maydam"3;ge the'_l>pinare-

or chuckthreads ordrop the chuck.on the bed ways. ' "

GENERAL RULES FOR USING CHUCKS

-'~'" ~ ~'

, - -

- .-

E,-,II

_ Keep the chuck clean arid do not~il extes~ivel'Y-a; light fi1rii< onall working parts is ample.LBefore .mountlng work,clea,n -the' threads5n1;l'oth,the chuck and the lathe spindle withapi'ece:of'l>:~nt' wire, Clean -the face uf the shoulder on the sptndJe n:qse:_'and, !h~e' back f<ite of the chuck Put a 'few drops o£ oilon sp;indi,e\ ni:i~~.

, Mount the chuck carefully .and not too tight, first retfi'Q:yi-p.'g the center and sleeve from the spindle. When the chuckis aboutlXJ2 inch fromthe.shoulder, finishwi th one more tllx:ninglIJ"dtiqn. The soft thudindicates a gocdfirm seating_agi\ipst the slto1Jld~r., Runningachuck.suddenly against. theshoulderst~ait1$tb:e spin4I:~ aJilA makes. removal difficult. .

Be carefulwhen.tightenirrg work in the chiitkjaws. 'Tb'd'~hi~¢b pressure on. the jaws win affect theqccriracy of the chuckattdciU'ajf s p,ring the wqr,k U .a light pi.,e~e. is b,e_Ing turned,' tT'l'Y. to fiaie. the

jaws: tighten around the 1119re S91id parts. of tbe_:wpr k,A._1wa'~~' us:tIL :I[ the wrench which comes with 'the chuck, WheFichuc~tng w,qck i~

the universal or headstock-chuck, turn th'e,wQrkas t;4ejaws",l:lFe R'.:""'-::_I"

tigh,t", e,ned---'an, accurate "£orm,fit'''Will result. .

Small diameter 'work should not proje~t{rom the chuck jaws: 1ft II

HOLDING TH.E WORK

79

more than fouror five times its :diam,-et~r-cuts:.shoul:d 'be shod and. ,light,! Hea vycutting pres s,tlr:e s will '.often ca ti~,~ 'slti~il wdtk.·· to . spring out and "r'ide t,he.: tool," in -som~jnstarice_s, extra longwo~k

can he supported in the tailstockceriter. .

Do not force a chuck to carry work 'larger than the diameter of the chu:k - body. Repeated- overlo~di_ngr:nay damage. the chuck

lfthe J~ws stick, tap lightly-with a Riec~ __ of wood .01' a brass .. hammer. "Sticky", jaws indicate, that the- .chuek; should be taken apart for a.thorough <,:lea1)illg.An old toothhr~&hmak~s'anex:ce1- lent chuck cleaner, Wash .and brush ch uckp3:rts' in a pari of ketosene, When reassembling, do not apply 'too much oil. ''Oil collects dust and chips which sooner 01'- later clog the chuck mechanism.

Chuck jaws are carefully fitted- tothe chuckat the factory and are .not interchangeable, When new jaws- are necessary, return the complete chuck tq the manufacturer . .- Inspect the chuck regulady to see that all parts are in good working order.

Keep the chuck protected when not in ti.se~' Dirt, dust, chips and falling' tools can 'cause much damage.

THE FACE PLATE

Many types of lathe work which carinot be machined on tenters .or in_a -chuc1~arefastened toaface plate with bolts, stud~ or damps,' Some of the most accurate tool and, dieoperations ate _

,handled in this way .. Faceplate _work also ineludes the' turning of large, flat-ot' Irregular shaped pieces such as jig-s. The 8:71 inch' face plate shown in Figure 92 iste-cornmended' for-all

type_ ~ of face plate turning, or boring, ~. . FIG .. 92

8:% .inch Fai:e

The face plate 'should be mounted ¢areftilly' Plate'· ,

~t;L -the same lTIan,n:er as a chuck (seepage 78). Forordinary turnmg the w:o_rkis simply boltedor clamped dire-ctl:r_to the face plate.

When maximum accuracy is desired,a- ·1ight trueing cut is

"F[G,93 Angle ;Pli(tc,

FW .. 94 U"[ngth~ Ang-iePlate

80

MANU AL 0 fLAT HE 0 P E RAT I Q N

._

TOOL POST

FIG. 95' . .', .. ' I . k

HoW.thel!)!.gle l>la~e centers a. portion of-an irreguluplece..o wor •..

first taken aCrOSS the face' of the' face plate. The face plate can B~ removed by tapping. the slot at the outside edge with a piec~(jf

wood or' a brass hammer. ,.

The angle plate shown in Figure.93is·.bolted to any' ,p~iN' on the face plate for machinin,girtegul~tshapesandfQt: ()ff-.q¢nt~ti driIlillg 'and boring. 'Figures 94artd 95 show' ·tWo typical j:ohs ....

. NoM: When heavypieces are 'mounted off center, bo;}t~a CQt'ln:ter-balancecfequal weight on the opposite edgeof tneface ).ihite. The counter-balance protects lathe accuracy by equalising pr;essu~e on thebe-<{dngs; and red~ces:~~cessive vibration caused by out'~of- _

b~lat1ce turning. ..

.n,RAW-IN 'COL:LET CHUCK . ATTACHMENT

FIG. 96 . '. ·'.hl

Dr.aw-frt· ,CQ'Ue"t chuck.attachment :~i:hci.w~ng .u~i~s '~n 0:.f9~,r of -thelr- a~~~.~,.]1 "intorthe .1atheheadsi6'ok; draw-in spiTld.le, .tape"ed.~losmg ~lee,,~,·_a.n4"ph~

:holdirig . collet. -

wheiiever extreme accuracy- is required on-small dia!Ue:tel\~; the draw-in collet chuekattachment is the logical 'method df:cJiucK'fn~, When-equipped wH1nhe collet assembly a;B'~ 'tpe vadous s'iz~, ,cole lets, the lathe hah(lles;~he,:mostexlltting',work:tnt_o?lTP9n:~·a~(ltqol anddie sbops.· Some typical collet .work:·pte:'dsion: ~901s!'~nJ?tFlF merits. gauges and small production parts, . . . , .

The collet attachmentvas shown iii Figure 9!;\ includes a. h(jIIpw_

HOLD I N G TH E WO RI(

81

' .. , .... ;.

.dra w-inspindlewhieh extends through the 'Ia theheadstock-spindle, ~a tapered. hotdirig sleeve ,and the 'split ho,idingscoIie:t$. 'J:'he collets . '-'1 ate released or tightened on the work hy t,1,ln.ri.ng the hand wheel ~i."'I .. ~-" {see Fig, 97},. Work ca:g be fed through tb,e'lathe',headstockspiii.

'dle.'Theindivirjual coile.t§l are furnished TIi all 32nds' between i/32 andY:; ip.pb"Speciql sizes' and shapes iflpli.lding_ metric diameters

,are also·avaihi.ble.·· ,

tc-

FIG. -97,

Cro.5O section showirigdra""i,! collet '\sicm]jl:t inla~he' headstock, ,Tul"liing handle A prills . collet C. mto 'sleeve' B, tlj;rhten1.ng· collet on work.

There"aretwo important rules for the use of the draw-incollet chuck attachment-first; absolute cleanliness and, second.iseleetion of the proper size collet. . The 'collets, tapered sleeve, and the inside of fhe spindle nosemllst 'be wiped cleanand dry. ACi.:illet·must never be used to hola work which is more than .005 inch larger or sn1aller than the rated diameter of the collet; A cclletattachmenr i~':the most accurate type of precislonrchucking -and must be heated With ,greatest care.

MOUNTING WORK ()N THE _MANDREL OR'ARBC)R

FLG.098 Expa';di';g'ma,;di-el'

Figure'. 98show*-a commercial type of expanding mandrel or arbor designed. to 'provide work centers for fadng or turning, the. outside diameter of work that is nearly finished or difficult. to .niount i:n a chuck Themachinlng Of pulleys-and gears is a typical mandrel job,

The mandrel consists of the ground and hardened body, tapered _ _'_~ih through rts entire length, and a cast iron expansion sleeve with an internal taper to.fit the body. Fotdng_theslee've on the 'mandrel pauses it to expand and hold the work firmly in position.

82

MAN UAL 0 FLATH E OPERATION.

FIG. 00

Turning-a cast iron p!tIJey on,~'.m:and:Fe1,

A mandrel; such as the one used in Figure 99, is oftenttiade' on the. lathe: for an}" special p.ieceof 'work. T:he~e~arrdL~l!'l' are turned From round bar machinesteel stpck and the~n4s~p.s·e-ha(,d~

ened if possible; Cast' iron, with hardened -tool steel plugs fo!! the 1&'''''. ends, is often used in making .a mandrel for large. work; 'th.e

mandrel should tie tapered about .006 .br.008 inch per foot and' .ilb±ll' polished or gTound. When finished, the mandrel diameter :;;1)011,10. be a force fit for the hole in'the work and the taii~tockendshouid' be.003 or.004 inch smaller. It is recommended that the mandrel be turned undersized at both ends for about %inch:~opre.vent

, da:rita~e.'

- .. A mandrel is a 'precision: tool ~~r:ac~ curate work and must behandled w:Fth care. :The end~are centered and cQl1nt~rsunk .exactly like other WOrK. Tb m-ake

, removal easier; put a drop or two of oil on the portion of the mandrel ~hith win grip the work. Never drive. .a mandrel with a steel Jrammen ~thoutpr:otect_i1.1g the 'end. The "best top! for fp.t:eing 'C! mandrel in or out of the Work isa:n.arbor

-press, or hrarid~el press (Fig. 10Q).' Bi!

'su'r~ the work.' is-started perfectly. strai;gh. 't_ .~. e1iio'

, d~ .¥

and on the entering end of the mandrel.

Do not allow .the 'tailstock -~!!nfer-to becom~ too.hot-durirtg the machining.op,er~

/--

- Pressing mandrel on bushing • ~,efoTe machining .. ,

ation.

_,._"_

.,

'.

DRILLING AN~D·l30RING

- J"r:-

, i

"

, ~.-

'.

'"

-"-

-, I'

"

..

!?l\RT Ii DRILLING ANDB'Q.RING

DRILL,ING

Lathe drilling can 'be- handled .in two ways.: F1gJJ:relOi shows i:~e wod~:' revolvingwhile the dtIit is ,hf<ld s:tati-o,n,:ary"in-ib,e tailstock; _ This trieth6dres'tilts iri a straighter l'rol~·«1J.dihsure::; greater ~ccur~cy. tharr-any other method.J'he,se'Gond rri¢th~d of dtilling -is shown in Figures 1+4 and 115-thewoikis-he1d rigid while the; - drill turns inthe headstock. The shop with considerable drilling, reaming and 'tapping wili find a drill Press a profitable investrrreht, because' the .lathe requir~s special attachments fbrptoducHon_

dri lling; .

FIG; 1111

Dri.lling with the work revolving in the head.tocl" Thl" ty~e of setup msures maximum. -acc·u.ra.¢.y, Note .. use pi:. graduated -'tailstock ram til' -ind;cale depth:

FIG, 102

Jiocohs -drill. chuck- heid in ·the eailstock on an··,ar-. b6r. These chucks hOld wQr.k up to .v. 'inch in diameter arid can "be. used irr headstock .ortaibtock; Foll'lwgeilet,,:i rulesTorusiri'g 'chucks-e-Part 5 ..

TWIST DRILLS

,After. the driU.p6in t, is dulled for the firsttlme;: its effectiveness depem;isentire1y upon'how it is reground. For clean, accuratedrIlling, the OPerator must know-how to,reshllrpent'he drill properIi. Figure$' iQ3anq 104 give the usual shop terrns used in drill

grinding; The cone-shapedsurface at the end of the'ddtl is called th,c '''pCiirit;~' and the ,edge'at theextteme tip end' is- the,'\dead center,'

,I

MANUAL ,OF, LATH~O".'ATION '~'I.

----------------------- . :,-.~~ ~;.

THE TW 1ST DRILL

84

FIG. 103 T~istDrilL

LIP OR ~~~r" {rtTING EOGE

MAR.GIN'

BODY

LL!, 'CLEARANCE

c

'FIG:'~04

Point of Twist Drill-End View.

.FIOc·105A

Drill. without lip clearance, The cutting lip and heel;· S; are in -the ::fam.e plane,

- ."

, ,

, FIG. lQ5B

Dili! . with,' proper lip. clearance.

Heel lii1.e'·B; .is. Iowen than cutting lip' line, ~A;. D~5tan ~ e b e,t~~en . I). and·B'm.asures amount of"lip,dear-

an.ee, -

':-~"---'.'~==

,DRILLING. AND BORING

85

Basically; a drill cuts metal exactly like aIathe tooL In order to 'penetrate thework, the 'cutting edge-must have the-correct cuttingangle and "lip clearance" <it -the 'center of the drill .( Fjgil04). Figure 105B,sllowS how .the "heel,':' the.pact directly back ()f the cg.tting edge, must be ground away. The word "he.el,~;: when used in' thissense;'inciuges the entire surface back of the cutting 'edge" not the Circumference only,

I,

_I',~

FIG. 106,' THE PROPERLY GROUND DRILL

FIG.1ll6A

Drill p<oint showing proper lip clearance .angles 'at the circumference of:the drill.

FIG. 10GB

End ,~ew 'Of drill point showing. proper angle 'between point and _lip. ..

FIG.I06C

nan point with lips

, ground identic!illy. l;.ips, are .of equal length. clear-'

anc," and ·angle. .

Two rules are especially important when grinding drill points.

First, the' lip clearance angle (Fig .. 106A) should be between 12 arid 15 degrees., Second, the two cutting-edges must be of equal length and angle, Figure 107 (below)" shows the unsatisfactory results of disregarding these two rules .. In'FIgure,s 106A, B andC, tht':properlyground drill ·poi'n~ is shown=-ncte lip clearance, angle between point and lip, and the identical lips. Refer.to thesedrawings while the drill' is being 'grOurid---.they will aid in grinding drills which willcur true-sized holes with a minimum of at ill wear. The angle of59;Ogiveriih .Figure 106C is sati!'Sfilctory for the. general drilling-of 'steel, iron and brass=-larger angle.~ are used frequently iri production work and on softermetais.Both lip angle and lip,'length should be cp.~c}t£<s1 with, a drill gauge (Fig, 108).

. . -c : _, .; ~ J::

FIG; i07

Common. mistak~sof d;m g_rinding; Noje that In each -caee the resulting hole '

, fuust be oversfee, "(Li;(t) Lips "of un- . equal angle. and: unequal length. Drill point. actualll':tra:"elsARQUN'D the center of .the, hole, '(c:enter)" Lips of .unequal angle. 'The' 'riKht lip is doing all tp.!twork.; :fRighf)' Lips : o~' equal a,!&:le,

~ u t " u n equa leng~'ll·' causmg, ex c essi ve

wear on 'right: lip:". " '.

86'

MANU_ALOiF LATH,E dPE,RATlO:N

FI'G. .ios '

Drill gauge at\a'~hin.nt',I<>~ or>!irtaFY"11ook -,,11; ;o'r.·"trajghf 'ste.irui., Checks .both i.ngthand,'itngl~15f dijll,llps:

DRILL G_RINDING AT'I'ACHIYIEN.T

Shop men agree that it is difficult to grind a-small drfll <\-CC'UI',-

" ately by hand-e-very 'Often a .good portibn ofib-e' drill; i'sgI'otJ-!1d, away without giving service: The attachment shown in;:Fi,giu,~, 109 has proved to -be -a great help in -overcomingfhese difficultres~' It is moderately pdced,,',simpleinoperationand 'can, be attached quickly to any ,grinder; _ Any drill between 3/32 arid 1}2tirtth can

FiG. 109-

D,ii! 'Gdnding- .. Attachmeritr

be ,centered automatically in the,'-novel chuck: and V~bh)ck. _,Up' ang le is controlled by -adjusting the :'Swiv~l base ~;lt_h the -O<:Ll'l handle -at the" left'. The desfgn of this atta'chPie'rtt~:anows' the drilf to be turned in an esacthalfcircle andaccurately recliueked ,a:H;er o_ne Tip has been ground.li;I this way;_ the ~wo,lips'!i/f fhe ddIl are

always ground i~entically. - - ,

&tfl Ilt -€I . I:" .' . ~,._I;.

DRILLING AND BOR'ING

_87

DRILLING.sPE;EDS .. .

When high speed drills-are used, dfilliq,g speed~jn surface feet per minute fat the various metals are tl,Ie same as,tlie.spee;ds for gene{al turning &,iven in Part 4;· The_ upperpol,"tlotCoJ the Table of Cut.ting~peeds,'page 49, .will assist "in theselection of the propel' drilling speed. 'the'figures inthe column oelow'''Diameter of Work" can. be consideredas drfll.sizes. Belt positions are determinedby locating the 'proper spirid)e sp,eedin;'F-i,gllre 5~and then referriilgto Figure, 55, page 47,'Tt;.e speed. should be reducedone-half with, carbon drills.

. . Make sure, that the 4rill runs truewh'en starting-v-lt may be:n-ecessarJ7'to' coimte:rsinkthe. wor k (see page 71 ). Small drills, should be fed into the wor'k carefully since they aredesigned to be run at very high speeds. Avoid too high. .. a speed,espe,Cially with the largerdriIls-Figure no shows _how - an' excessive speed W,e8.)'S' dff (hill' cor-

ners. Too high a speed.also draws, the te:n;Ipere! the drill and may even burn

er break the drill tip. -

~~l J

.<b

S-

o f-''i\J T'I

.::-

FIG. III Dri,ill'o;,;tfor'ddllingb"aS5~

FIG. 110

Ddli .with edge. burned by excessive heat from high .speeds or dr'illin g hard rna teriaL

NOTE: When driIling brass.ralumlnurn, lead andother soft materials which cause . the tool to ",hog in," reduce the rake-angle of the -cuttin,g edge by - grinding as .showri at the left., This reduced, rake angle is .also desirable when drilling very_ hard mat erial f!. because it lessens. the _~traj_n em the dJ;lll., This_ change

., mattes drilling: easier-and smoothernnd te.sulfs in" a more accu,rateddl.1ed.hQl~,

LUBRICATION'

A cutting compound is essential when drilling practical.lyany me~<lLThe following compounds will give, best results:

, ,. 'H~rd, tough steeis , ; -;; .. .Turpentirre ,01' keroseri~

"Softer steels ; •.... ., ., Lard oil- or equivalent

.Aluminuin and .other soft alloys. ,.,. ; ; .. ;.Ke'roserie

Brass.~.: ; Dtilldry or use paraffin; oil,

,g~:/t:~~n.~~: .: ::. " ': ' .. .: '. ' .': ",.~~~~l. t: .~~,.~~~~:ilis~~;

88

1'10, .112. Reaming a cast irnn vhandwheel,

REAMING

.When a hole must be.accurate-to within.002"inclror less~it'i~ first drilled a few thousandths of an inch undersize an'd-tlien h~'nd:reaped orceamed on the lathe to 1be finish-diameter, ' ci;;'i;g,uf,eH2 shows a typical teaming job on the lathe. For best resuli<!ffolloy./ the-same rules in reaming as ihd.rilling and ,general turning: - -U~e; slow speeds, _ feed in evenly-and be 'sure there are no "bnrrscn th~ reamer teeth. The.typeo] .reamershown in Figure 113 r~ 'geneJ~_il;

used in .the lathe. . ',' -r: ,

A 'realJ'ling,aIlowance between .0iO- and, 1/64, inch 'is usually sufficient f011 machine-reaming holes with diameters ,0£'1 inch, or less-an a}lowanc:ebt 1/64 t~,1/32 inch is recommended for D1~c .chine-teaming .hclesbetween land 2 inches indiamet~r., .OQ3 to '

.005 inch isusuallyallowed for hand reaming opera'tipl1,s., ,

GROTCH CENTER AND DRILL PAD

The crotchcenter anddrllfpadare tWoimport~nt att~chm:-en:ts ' recommended for drilling work that ',cannotbechuck~d: in; the l~the. Both are mounted 'in the tailstock rani as shown in Figul1e~

114 ancJl15'.- . <, ~

The drill pad eerves as: a table for flat' 6tsquare work- ahd11._s'r

. .especially valuable, fot ,driIliri~ large holes wnena "drill pres!> is .notavailable.. The.crotch canter.automaticallycenters round work for cross drilling: The work is held in the l~ft hand ~i1i:fadvanc~d against the, drill by turning the tailstock handwht:dl. <ihe left

89

FIG; 114

Using the drill -pad to sup' port . flat work while drilling a large hole. -

FIG. 115

'Cross drilfing a round shaft cen tered in the v-alor "of the crotch .cehter.

;; ..

hand and workcan be restedon a piece of: wood to steady the work

and protect the bed way as 'shown in Figure 114' above.' ,

D~ILLSET$,

Every'shop req uires.an assortment of the, more commorily used drills. The sizes necessary depend upon the -amount and character 0'£ the opeJ'atiq!Js QrdiifariJy: pet;f9rm,¢d: There is a, marked trend toward the h~gh,:sp~ed drill in preference to '~he -ta~tion drill. The . '" drill set in Figure 116 Includes high ,speed 'or' carbon drills ,between ,,1/16 , , and i /2' inch- hy~64ths, and; :is .adequate

~- . ,

.. j,

FIG; 1l6,'Dri1l setinciu-ding' ",.;al carrying case 'and.tand- for 29,

_ • 0 •• •• 0' ,- • • - - - ~_.'"_ ~ ~ - ,.

90

MANU) .. L OF ~lATHE OPERATION

for most small shops. The metal stand has ahole for ~ea:ch drill with the drillaize and its decimal equivalerrtclearly marked -. Tll'e -

drills .can also be purchased separately. .

The tables in Part 10 of this Manual give the decimal equivalents.of the numbered and lettered drills and the proper diills for use with various sizes of-taps. Drills in metrlcsisesarealec-aoall-

able. . ::

BORING.OPERATIONS"

FIG. lI7

Boring- t1l~._inside 'of .a .large_ .teel bushing. -. Note high-speed' boring .. tool . .mounted directly in t601 post for maxirilUmrigidity.

I

\

Boring operations requlrevonly i>JightlY -different tools, and _ methods than those for external tti~nipi_ The big problem is tbat of tool rigidity, because . most internal tools project consldera,J:>ly from th!'lirsupp:ort- Figure 117 - shows a -typical 'bodhgoperation:~

There_~re severaltypes of hoti~g tools and rrrounting; ·m.etlfods,; The tools shown, inl1igure 119 are-mounted directly in the'; tool post, 'T.hesolid one-piececonstruction 'a44s to rigrdi~y ;~y el~init!atfrrgthe extra joint ~hich- would result if the to61"Wete ,held in a separate. holder. In addition-to five i~ter'Q.anools, ,this"$'et includes a-small v-b lock, two blocks for height spacing,_ ahd 'J-wo %-inch heavy-duty externalfools for use-directly in the'toolposC'

! '"

(p;i' ·:tMl~

It 1ft;

I

DR1,LLlNG AND BORING

91

TOOL SHAPES-FOR '-BORING

- Although boring tool angles in t,elation to the work. are .some- what different than those of an external tool, the terms m FIgures 118A and, I1SB are fairly standard ahdwill aid in proper tool

grinding.

FIG. USA

This drawing shows construction and· ang~es of the boring tools ·shoWIi in Figure. 119 below:

These angles make this type. of. tool extremely _ practical ~or all-around

boring.

BORING T6oL~

-~

,\slqe .

CLEARA.NCE

,-

E FRO T CLEARANCe

SIDE

FIG, USIl'

The boring tool .angles sh own in Fi gure 118A: often resemble angles like' these after cc n't ~ 11 u.e d grinding. .New' ang les, such as the rake'. angles s.hown", here, may be ground a. deaii.ed. lo'r speci al j" bs,

I ,

,

: 1'\ ........ '----------'

I \

~$IDE CUiAIlANCE

F~G. 119

S:et 01 tools' for __ .use. directly in .the tool post. This set include's four. boring" tools. one -inside tli.rec(ding tool, two spacers, _-v-block, %- i!,ch high-speed thre.adiilg tool s, and .% 'inch high.speed turn-

ing too'l, '.

-'.llbilii1J!i

L .(Y

... fl

92,

MANUA'tOF lATHE OPERATlON

TOOL SHAPES FOR BOR1NG (Continued)

Frontclearance must be increased in order to prevent the heel., from rubbing-von the surface; 'of-the cut. ' Tht:: exact amount '0£',' ~ front clearance depends upon '. the size of the holebei~g .b~:red;

Figure 120 shows how a fr'ont ciearance angle'can, be t00s~ail

fo~ one hole but satisfactory ford-larger hole. '", ,

FIG. 'no

-T'his d)r~win'g 'shewshow "a" certain angle 01

. fiont ·':-cle~i.an·ce !,.may be~· too- small for, 'one 'hole hut sati.factpry' for" 'a larger hole. A t ··A" the heel of: the tool -Is- rub, .birig, .At' '~B" 'in 'th4!, larger. hnl e xhere -is' ample, CI ear-an c e." .'

6

H EE L O-!:! TOO::.. RUBBI NG - AM Ft.E LlEA~ANCt

\.

"~Bbring - also reg tiiressmaller 'rake angles, and. fi:ner cuts. and feeds, , due to t,-*o reasons: (1:) the, strength of the tool edge .has' ",9'g~~educed by the largerclearance an41'(2)ihe, boring t~:)QL'he~ a . itendency to twist and "spring.' 'The tools-shown in Figures Jl~A and 118B are excellent for most boring operations.

- ._. --- _-._ - -.--.-~ -- - , .

BORING TOOL ANGLES

Front Clearance: Depends upon size oihole, Neyer,less diatr

, ': 10° ; up to 20" for very' small holes. ' -

SideCleerenc«: Same as for exteriisl. tools.

Back. and SMe_ Rake: 4bout Jia[f'ol t)xternal sngles-s-in. S011f1! cases, less thanhaH.

SETTING THE BORING TOOL

._ '-', - '. .~

With theround tool shank parallel to the Iathe center 'Iine, set, the boring tool into the work with the shank below the center line., Thel)' bi _putting, the cutting edg~ ,. on, ~e~a~t center, 'the" ~O,rI'e~ct amcurrtof-baek-rake-is ,pI'ovide&--~,T,.he .. ger;_e'r:ai'r41es£or--the°tis¢·Qf. ~xtet~aJ. toolaapply to boring tools, except' that rake angles d:epend a great de-a.l 'OtX,h_qw 'ire boring tool is set -inthe h01~er.For maximumrfgidity; chp_p_se:the largest possible b~dhg, too'l., ,

~ ... . ~

,,' ,',

BQRIN(i::~HINTS I,

, W,heMenl~tg:i1)g; an o-qt~o£-tound-'hot~:,-;tq:ke s~yeraLs!'l,1al!~' cuts ,J;~tll<;Jthan;'ditiJ'hih~ayj(~ub~ :Thi$.g:~aq~a.i::1?1~0~;s:,s:~.~yqiq{, sp'fi\1g ifo.

the",t6'&EsJtlt'e'(fiilal'finishicut' should': be, ·continuo;us.r" '" ,

• ~. -'" . . - • ~;:c ,_

D RI LUNG AN D BO,RING

93

After the last; finish cut it is common practice to shift the reversing lever at the end of the forward cut. and take a last fine shaving cut with the tool coming out of the-work, This last cutis taken without resetting or disturbirrgthe tool and avoids a: slightly undersized hole which might otherwise result- from tool spring.

Use the .00356r .0050 inch feed and talk ~hal1ow cuts.

BORING WITH THE WORK HELD STATIONARY

~,Fi~ti1i'e_121·shows a method. of . taking longo.r heavy boring cuts. The work is clamped rigidly in a boring table and Vise on the carriage, -and a boring; tool hit is set into an arbor mounted between centers.

" 'I'he tool bit 'is resetaftereach cdt.

Larger . rake angles and heavier" feeds and cuts may 'beus~d,.~i:i';.c~the tool has less spring.

Boring bars of this type, can be purchased or made,' in, '; th~: shop. Figure 122showsconstructiop details. of a bar which can be made quickly and simply.

FIG. 121

Boring,' a ,;mall gti rid" r ap in: dle bearing housing held in the bodn'g table and vlse, '

\~

- "

,.

Pait 7

THREAD ,CUT'TING

'f': ..

-,

s:

.,- ..

- III

~ n_

_ ,

,.;. l

I

I

i

I

THREADING SUPPLEMENT

" To Adapt the

"MANUAL OF LATHE ()PE~ATIOl'l'''

to

'SEARS MASTER CRAFTSMAN LATHES

S:EARS~ ROEBUCK & COMPANY

:C.H1CAGO

ILLINOIS

;1 i

. 'j

..

t-- -

THE FOLLOWING PAGES ccmprise.Prrrt 7 (Pages 95-156) of "Ml=tnual of La~eOperatil;m and Machinis-ts, ..1'aplest

THREAD GUTTlNG,

ON THE SEA-RS MASTER CRAFTSMANLAiHE

No phase of Iathe voperation is more- interesting or,profitable than the .cutting of screws and th reads.trarrd DO operation re-, q uiresmore care and . study. Thethread cutting ra,nge 'of ihell4:aste~ Craftsman is practically. unlimited-c-a 'few sample threads are shown in Fig; - 1.

:...._

....

This section. deals with the, two classes o'f thread cutting problems: (1) those connected with thechange gear train and its proper set-up forcuttihgtlie various 'siaes of threads. and (2) the actualcutting of themany thread forms.

::.

FlG. 1. A few· of the threads that can be cut on the lathe.

Every Master Craftsman lathe comes equipped with change gears andthreading dial for cutting threads in the followingstandards; :r~rati0n~1 Coarse (U,S.S_), National Fine (S.A.E.), Acme, .Square, and Whitworth. Gear set-ups for standard threads are shown on the pictorial threading chart on the inside ofthe change-gear guard . Figure4is asl'ightly enlarged. reproduction of this threading chart. ~ G_.:·Gear data for odd-size threads.aregiven inTable-r, page 38._ .Metrlc

ihre:adsinay ~~so be-cut with the standard change ~gears furnished_ 3

MANUAL OF LATHE OPERATION

FIG. I

Left end of lathe with gear guard open, showing change gear train.

READING THE GEAR CHARTS

To simplify gear set-ups, the three different gear bracket positions have been assigned letters as shown in Figure 3. These designations will be found on the lathe threading chart as well as

in all of the following gear data. BRACKET ADJUSTMENT

SLOT

POSITION C

ROSITION A POSITION B

/ . \

,.-- -~~ - - - - - - - - - - '- ~ 4,- --,

IC ~1

'--' - -I'

POSITION D

FIG. 3. Gear bracket ppSitions.

The outer end of the longest bracket slot is called "Position A," the inner portion of the same slot is "Position B." The-short slot adjacent to the long slot is Position "C," and the next short slot is Position "D." These gear positions are approximate-they will vary with the size and number of the 'gears composing the train (see diagrams in Fig. 4 and on the following pages).

CHANGE GEAR STUn ASSEMBLY

Before setting up a train of change gears, examine one of the change gear stud assemblies which hold the change gears to the, gear bracket (Fig. 5). Each stud assembly has an outer gear bushing long enough to accommodate two gears. The gear bushing has a double key which fits into the keyways in the gears. The gear bushing and two gea~s fit over a stud bushing, and the assembly is bolted to the gear bracket. The washer is a bearing for the outer end of the gear bushing,

THREAD CUTTING

5

C:, S)

THREADING, CHART FOR MASTER CRAFTSMAN LATHES

I: II D4

t: Ai:'

FIG. 4. Threading chart for cutting standard threads between 4 and. 96 per inch.

For additional gear train data, refer to Table I. page 38.

6

'MANUAL OF LAlHE OPERATION

NUT

- IDLER ,BOLT

, ,_ GEAR,BUSHING}

FI G.'!>. Cross.-section 'of_ change .gear stud assembly,

, , No~ice_ that in. order-to make thisassei:nbjy"c()n1pl;;t~, twoge~H!must be mounted on the_ gear bushing at one time. When both of -the g~ars ona gear bushing mesh with' other gears in the -ttain, they _fOFlil a "compound" gear assembly, When only' one~f'two!5e~rs on a gear bushing meshes-with the other geara in the train' It IS caned a;n _ "idler." The smaller gear, whichis mounted 'on 'th~" ,gear bus hi rig vy.ith an idler, is called a "spacer" gear and does'not mesh "with any gear in the train (see Fig. ,7). '

GEAR CLEARANCE,

When setting up ;the gear train, be, sure to al- 10ws,ufficien t cl~ar~nce CLEARANCE-CLEARANCE ~etween, tw~ m~sliing

gears' (Fig. 6). Gear "clearance ,does not reduce th_eaccuracyof a threadcut~ ". tirig operation, because a,llpl~y 'rn the gears is taKen up in one di-

FIG: 6 rection., 'A method -oft~ntr~ed to ~"0b~

Proper g~al"·:Clearahce., . ~ '_,. _. ~ . ".~'" ".

, .: '," _,;", " .. ',_, tam proper, gear-clearance 'is': < 1) 'mace a" sheet of thlck" wrrtrng paper between -the"teet'h 0' f t'h' e f , " -- h . ----

. ". ", - "",,' " "" womes lUg

gears" (2) tlghten gearsin.positlon, and (3)reniove paper. A-sthaU

, a~ount" of ,gre~se; preferably graphit~greas,e-, applied to -gear 'teeth .wilt often .aid In ob,taining smoother, _more quiet, dperatiQ~·.

THE REVERSING-- MECHANISM '.

Right hand threads are cut with the carriage traveling toward ~he headstock; Left hand threads are cut with the c~rdage:tt;a_yel-

lllg toward, the, tailstock.. .. " "

Whenever anew gear train has been set up, - ~h:ift thE; Wrrib~i;r gear lever to test the dlrecrion of ~hecarriagetraveI:. B¢,ca:~se jsorne set-ups ar,!::' simple-geared and sortie ate compi:ni--rid(i)d,- the carriage travel. may be right for one set-up and left for anb.i:her ~et-up, eventhough the lever has been shiftedto the same position m each case. Alwtt]JsJestthedirectioll f{j carriage ti-avelbejo:Te--

stQrtillg to cut a thread: __ : . ,,, .

; 'j

it , i

" ,

: -~.

·"t··

THREAD C'UTTING

7

After the reversing lever has been shifted to the proper position, it should not be moved until the thread has been completed, This is especially imPQrtqnt because a skiff iti the lever positio_n destroys the relation between the thi:ea.ding' di.aland -the' lilthe spindle and causes sp1itting_ of the thread.

GEAR TRAINS FOR STANDARD THR'EaDS

The following pages give detaiiedjustructicns- fOI: mounting gears for the' more-common tlireadsizes,. Refer ~o. these pages and thelathe threading chart when making set-ups, "Back-Position" 0'£ it bushing or the screw stub mearis the p9si1:ion towar.d ·the headstock. "Front Position"is the position away from .theheadstock. The gear bracket is tighten~d in position by locking .the.nut behind large washer on the inside of the "Bracket Adjustment-Slot' (Fig. 3):'

COMPOUND TUMBLER GEARS

GEAR $_I':E CHART

FIG,· 'to Gear set-up for·! through "I thi_eadsp~r inch.

GEAR TRAIN FOR 4 THROUGH 7 THREADS PER INCH

, ..' ,

L Place on' front position of screw stub the gear listed in

"Gear on Screw" column of threading chart, '.

2. Place 32tpothgearand 64,tootl1gear.:on bushing and-mount .. 'in Poaition B on gear bracket with 32 tooth gear in: back position. Tighten so that- 64' tooth gear 'meshes withgeari~ 'screw 'pcsition., 'Exception»' _When cutting 4 and 4.5-threa,dsper inch, the .32 t;oth

gear ;jpd~64 toorh gear are rejJ,Iacedby 24 and 48 sooth gears t espectively. WheIj" cutting 7 threads Per inch, tne 32 and 64 toorhgesrs

. 'a,t,e usediii Position Cinsieaq (if Position B. '

3. PJace64 tooth gear, and spacer. on a bushing- and mount in position 4 with '.6~ tooth gear in back position. T'ighten so_that 64 tooth gear meshes, "'?fththe 32' tooth.gear_ in Position B. The 64 tooth :gear is an idler; the 20-t,c:ioth gear is a spacer.

·4. Swing enth'e gear :br~~¥erupward and~lghtenso that- 64_ - tooth~ear- 'in Posifiori. A rii~sh,es' w,itlj" th:e A'2.:~iooth compound

tf1~bler gear, __ 'o'.~_/ 'i. .~c -i;;!~~lii~~~';-' - ~:',,~;,'\

" .

. f

if, II

II,

8

MANUAL Of l-ATHE OPERATl()~

, FIG, 8. Gear "..et-up for 8 'through 16 threadS; pednch.

~EAE TRAIN, FOR 8 THROUGH 16 THREAD$ PEE, ING:ij.

"

I,

,

r ~:

, .

,

'irIii.~'9. ',!Jea~ set.uP',fo;.tS'th;,cI1ighc:311 thr~'1'd~,:piklnch. , 'T,l!l

~ -"~ -z

'. .~; .. ' '.-, ,: ' ~:'"_', '. . - ._ ~ • ,;; • '"' .• ' _- .]1

4. Swing eritire 'gearbratket upwa,rt'\ 'and' tightC::}l sC:i,_Jhat 6~ , ,,-,

,',1l00th ge';r i~':R()siH9~A ~.e$ne~,with 32 ~o6tti, ":sgirtdle:st1id{~e'cir! '

-_ =';:,

1. Place on back position of screw stub the gear listed in "Gear {)n Screw" column of threading- chart.'

2, Place 64 toothgearandan tooth-gear on bushing in Position ,;Il~.I; ,B with 04 toot:h gear in ba~k position, Tighten so'fhat 64 tooth gear meshes withgearin screw position. ,The 64 toot4 g,eq_r' is an

idler; the 20 tooth g~ai' isa spacer. . ' '

3, Swing entire gear 'bracket upward rand. t{ght,en, 59' that 64. tooth, gear il1.~ Po~itipn Brmeshes: with 32 tooth compound tumbler - gear,

GEAR'TRAIN FOR 18',THROUGH32 THREA])S'PER INCH

. .' .' - ... - ".' . .

(See Fig. 9, page 9.)

1. Place on front posi-tipn .of iscrew stub the' gea:r lisfed in, , "Gear on Screw"colu'rrin o~thieadiri;gc1?art.

2~ Place 20'-i:ooth gearand'64 tooth gear OIn~ushingand ;h1bunt in ~,osi~ion Cwit'h20 tooth gear in back pos'iti"on. Tighten so .that 64 toothgear meshes with gear in screw position. The 64' tooth gearIs an idler; 'the 20 tooth ~ear is a spacer.

Exception: Whe~ cutting :]2 thI~a.ds. pCI,'inch. substitute, a 56 tooth gear ipr the 64 toothge,a.r:

'3. Place 64 tooth ~eat aitd3~ tooth gear on bU'shing and mount in Position A 'with _64 to'rith~gearinb_~(;'kpos~tiQn. 'Tighl~n'so t)'ja! , 32' tooth gear, mesQ~.s with 64 .tooth 'g~ar ip'Posi iion' C. (Cp~~~l;r)

. ·~.v:y-t·~]. .

-~.~'~;0i?·~; :-;~

. .:""

j ',-- ;., 1

=- .,~"!' --'

PITCH

1't'>

,_ , '~' ". ._ ... '~' ~ + t, ,~.~. _ _~_.~: " ··· __ · ... ~_It. '''',_.

There are two,se{ilarafe'gr_o:oves,bt helices arounQ' the screw,. each" , ~f:\vnic1i "ad;an~est\yi~etii_e'-pi t~h . in' a singl~thrn:- - I{:,~he pitch b{

. ',"this'screW IsYs',)n~h,ihe- iead' i~"0.'iQ.Cli." , - - '.

" ,- THREAt> CiiTTING-o TOOLS ' , t.

T, . Thr~ad' cutting, tools~ust -be:~~~~~a ioc1;h¢ 'form_~i: -,threa:~' ~ -"

" 4e-si~ec1,: .Clle,aian~~. hlust. De ihcrease{hec~t1s~- _ _QL#ie:~,'\lPciq ady:p'l~~~,

yf th~:Jool:. ' . '( Se e., "<fi; Fi~;, 40).' ; ~thefwise:~h'e:'~r1~dit1j?;-, 0'£ ,thread~,

FIG.lr;-

. -:..~'A..u'.sliows·tool ;'ith' '. "ri 15cieft tile iI:r. it. n.c e ;c _ .

, 'when'ihread: pitch' ':is, ·in~re~-se.d,.· as- -: at . '~B;~ ~ -', 'same tool has Inade'<I#a t~ ~!,eatance. - ..

c-

::~ _ _ _ -.1 t, ;'.

A __ ", B', ,. ' ".' ,,:-

" ~ cu:ttingto()ls folloWs th~ -sarne g~p.eralrulesasihe g~inding '~f C': ;\C'i

i :~xferna\, 'tools~(;rvrap.mil Patts 3 ,~~4':.4)· - " " " ... ,' ,,' -

, "C1eap, ac~ur-ate tllfeads are Impb~sible'unlessone:sidea:ri.d the ",,:; -:i.fot\ t' ~f ~thetciol ine'gi veri. eriot,tgJ! cie~ranc~'~o· pettrlit!tietoolt?, _ -h ~ ~: ;a~va~~e>as- 'th~,w,O:rk ,reVoives. 'Figur~ .is 'shoyvs,hbwc- 'fl_,tOot'·j :'; which 'isaa{i!:l!actory f(j~r' ~uttirig.a'fine thread jnay' not ~lillVIi;". -

, ,~ ,~ , eho\igh' cfe:a-rap.ct;io cut a, coa:r~e <thread. ',:"Hogglng'{ ;~nd)r.Qiigh," ,:

. '''': lh'read~areusua:lly ther~sult,~of it1.sufticien( cfeatartce.· . --c,, _

__ '_, ,. ,C ',' TJitead-to6Isa:regr6und ne~tlyflat '<lCJ.:QS$ the: top. ,;wh~n 'tli~, '>

. < f ':;,'." O-;toQr:'i~:£e? int~t_p~.,*orka:t: ,~q anJ~ic:,' ,asv.:'it~Natiori.aJ _-tot§

.' ," ,:th'reads;the-to,ol s4o-&ld'-have,afClWdegre:i::s_,ofl!!i('1e_J;'ake"_".Wheh; r- : 't_heritOb~';'is,feCqj~to,r'tlie;' work ~t-~ightang¥es, as: wi't'b thr~ads; _ it' should-hav"e"-a' s'm~n'ain6J'nt' of .b:ack(take." -

.. : _. . ,", ".,_ .. :,J -.-:: .... . _ T' < ,- -' .-

"

CUTTING,600;'TY'PE, THREADS

c= ...., • • ·KS·0~~.:~< ..

- .

~ -z, :·b.~··;·64·9S·2 x p, - 'f ~.B. ",', :

FtG.~t -~;Derican''N"~tl~nal :~r N~tion";F~~-:;'~re"d'~-!ld'F~H~as: -_;,

_1h~s~i;les6( this "tool varesready ,fi~lj*~i:i '-~fo~ah:~ip~lud~d ,

- a.pproxiniat,EHY 6~:qegrees; '1'~ee~tra'5Ci<;oll1,:pensates:for ...... ee-. ... 1>

.a~d;~qe:~~in,ging.oftheto9'~-a p¢r.f~st:~09,t'h~e~d ' " , "

, ~he, tQoli$s~X,imi)~h~::work_pr9per1y ,Cs,ee-pag¢' 11)., The: ;£qrmj!)f this;:~ool also.p:r,ovi des 'arUple"cl'ea ranee' {cir, even, .the cdar~esfthre"a'ds: _ ,"·TIl'e, fool is r'es'ijarpl$ned)y,;~imply,'g;lridingJhe top,edg~ •. ird~!ls~ti.n,g;·

,~," ·the;<fhol-as"i:t'weafs. ", ", "',;, '.,~;"" - "

, ,-,~cr ,~ -':'," "'0'" ~--- "

. TbRNE:b. ~'TO~ ':SAME', " -_ TU.R·Nt:b~ 'ro. --- ~

" ",_-Q:fA-MET'ER'AS ;"CNM,INCiR DI_AMElqEi~

-- FI.G. 27 (Right)' 'using :the,\eni:er'ga~~,"to , . set' the threading' to.oJ at an

, exa,d" right:_ 'ahirle ",to the,

w'ork. ;,: '" ;:

.. .,..,::

.:1 '-,!:-

-,

.';:

.~ <_

- Afteithe work hasb;en p~'op'er1y'-prJpared, for 'threi~ling~},$et ,~\,' {

the-coiTIpound':~.~s{ at tJ-i.'~.",29?,an&J~, ~ljow~:.iri,Figure ~5 .. :~ ~d?P~, " .. ,., the l001-h61def:lii~the ,tciqlpos.t,so';thattlle point of"the:tool IS e.xa~t-:-:

•. '.... ';~~~fS:~f;f~sr~tifj~J~:;~~;l~~ifi!l~~;1~;if[~~k0 ....•

hrInging':lt intop:()~ition.c A piece of-Y-'hitep:fperplaceq under',Jl}(! .. _ . ,denferg;?i1g;~ ~il~:<li~l.il1 .. hh·e~pp:g_f~~'fit bE:hei'?ol irr't~eX~'~ O:~'" <~, th~ gauge.. With.th~ tool- rlJ~ntat atl,exa~t,r;rght a~~letp J~~:w,o,t;~,,. , r.eGheck the'centedirieposi,Hon,·ap.(rtigb;t~p ~ooLpost screw.c-t '

" - - -__ :._. i· I ". -.; _ "_.,. ," , _ .• .~-:_

-_ , _ ... _ _. :' " _ 'I·' .', .:J -

, :.

"'TIlE .. CtJ'tTING'OPERA +IJ)N,~,

." _',,' . .~ -.' ~ . - .

. ·~~::t;i:~:~::~!!~~~!!;;ft!~:mf.·.· .

" :t!o*'a:fd_Jhe"headst(lCk'.,' Adjusf:be1ts' lora ~spe~§cil 28 :f{:P.~< ~:(~ee, =, ,- WinuaI; pag~' 47}.,· ,', . " ,

.' ·S.et~th~ ~dIripbun4iestapproximately)n t1ie.isert~~r of its, ~ay~'.

'., - ~, t '. - ,_ "" - -~

«. I,~ .. ~,' , ," _:. .:.~'.!".

"'" ;:::: .

~ '-~-

'< , - ~ -'·1 . ... .. ~'~-.'. ': .~. : .. ,' ..... ~ .• -' ..

_._ 'RULES--F-OR THE lISE QF_~T-H-E :TfI~E~D,_IN'G plAp ,

• ._ 1 -

- 'W1:th ilith"&r' '~r~ or «2""--on' tli!!,-,

:;!)~t~~:~~:~1t~~r.~:;·

.0.-; -1::

_. _:.,

~: ."

'F":R::O;III;,"f '-:FiG~,3(l;

, -rVl~~~~:t,~~~J!:li~~~n~~~:J~~R;-':tfI:ti~1;-

~,' ,.Qmlt,-$L.d~_rake.l. F,g;;;!;_O_explalns -how

, - ,- t1;I¢ ~ngle;r.4mii~t:);>~ 'd_~ter~itied.

. y-!

'PREPARING'THE WORK F-OR TNTE:RNAT, .

-, . _NNfror~r~L~ F'C>RM-~HREAD~ -'<: :',. _~ -

-" ,-

- , ,-.

"

'CO'MPbUND- "

':-,,'rO--~RE SET A'("2:~b-

-

: I

, -PRECA UTldN:S"~INCU'l':TIN.G, "THREA:DS _-

_ -: ;": 'v t , s= J • _ ~_.:._.' 'F' .," -. ;

_- N~ve; disenkag~ th~' 'half~l1ut le:~er it/the niidille of ;he" thieaa I

....•• ;i;:~~t:£~;~t.'::~,:;:~:t,:'v~i(:n:~'t~~':~;;lq'i,,b"~-' i

-(~iIf\~!:!~~~(i~l!~;~1ef!1r~1~t~~:!f~~! -

'm~; ke_:1:e_Iferated;,-c~ll~lt;tg;t1ie yiorli' focxpand,'._, N- ~h.e.-\Vfork., -is· ." mouiiie.,d;:be(V;-:~r~#,'ceiitets,- stbp;-ti-j~ 'tatii_e' at:r.f!g'uii1{j:nt~~~41~:. : ' cand 'checkt,he ti'gJit-nessoI.- ihe,:'work aga·inst;,thd.-i:f!ntf!'Fs~ :'g;:_-a/fe '

',,_ ,: - i~-'i~g1zt:-'i~taftiji'~biickirig; ill. tiijL'w~Y;_"b'eca~ie:_the:';Yei.k" :n~y~ '" , __ h"av~, sblfttld ,8. -tfii;J'e iiJ.' tela.tio,lj _tp'th~e:-po'sition" bf';_,dfe {()'oj 'b}.L

" "If the tQol~bas a tendency. to 'fh'tJg in,'! ~heck tool clearance. '

.~ '::'; - ~~ 7'- _ _ - _ .'/0;(.:. ~ -.,_ ~ ~

.'. ..:....- :-,:-0

'. '-

,t'. '~I--

. .!~~~:~;::;:;;tf\:~~~~;:::c~~·t:e~~:h;\~i,~ f~i:'~~"l~::~d ••.. ,

,~"dtoo've D

--.:

-r

~ 'j.. '-

. ~ 'The:ihtef~~l·qlttini:op,erati:d'riis'.th~' ifa~e as the'

"'ex1;~tQa(tfir'ead> tp:~ge, .ttl" ~it~H~e>:!qllciwip.'g ,ex;cep!totis,: ' =',".~"'._,.", }h'e ~9'o -ahgle, of the- cqm,IYOl,Ind r,<st'is: :trieasui'ed'frorilithe ,'.IJ, .. ''' .... , ... ,~

~i(:fe o£',~h~graq:qP.t~q.Jla;;e: (F~g,' 3_~).-_, . .,-

.~tti~~:d ~;~'X.i:::.i:e:;,,~~a.J,t~:~~d:;:t,'~;9':f., '. ,

_ .E?Lte-to' tlj¢-,spiip.g,:o(ah.-iriteiI_liil tool;~cvtsf\lhould- j5:e .Il1upn ,:- , .,

.:;~;~~:~~!;::~~~:~:~:~iJ~~~~~~.;:,.

"'-. CUTTING. ACM'ETaR~AD~"

. '

.:

-'CUT.TING LEFT' HAND -'Tf:(REA:QS" "

.~.

--F.\~u~e 3'3"shows t~t;! ~l,It~ing':o£:a lefrhandthread..' fh~ pi:6e~~ '~ib~ o~sair:iage .feed. isto~~rd th~Jtailst6ck.,_ 'Gear ,'s:et~~ps''''!ld

, ;g~nera'l.,CUtti~g ,p~bcedur~_ate"exa.ctIy' th,e sa~e,as for:r,lg4t)1.;t:nd ,,:tilrea(ls ,iWithJhe changes in· to_i::iLagglesmad.e .necessary:by,,:the J::1ct. -, :~f_et,eq f '~~ir~#tion "Q0~' - , ~atr~age, -'t~~~,~l; . (£i.e'qr~l1ce'~pg:ie~ :ando siile ~.

.,

'~';';'~RP~

IfIG.' 36. ~To~l\lh "!orm'ed ·-to~;- -, ,. c;"tti;;g "an ."teinaIAc>'re ~re~.d-.:-'

"To :det.;m:in era ngle '~4; rel~,

",," ~.FI&u~~io~~page~(, .

'.:

" "-

Yh29::t>.N:GL~ ',SIDE

... . 'i.,' , . ~

I;:1G.:.37 '(L';;£t)~ ,

- Tool -hit f~£in.id' lor "cut-_ . '~i~g· ~ .fiji_'« J4't~r.?:~1.. ~~,~~:.

" -thtead,· .To:,detertn)ne an-

- , "gf.'q" re£~r':to ; Fh,ure; 4.0, , ,', . .: " J:, p'age":~~ ... '_ ' ,-'

~J<~' ' r <:0_

\ . , ':. ,".: ~ . '.

"'~ .. -: ,- :Figures '36~nO' .. }'l·'sbo:w,-· thepr6per ::.toot" fQr~s ,fqr cuttin:g,-

-external - air9 ifiterllal fo.c;me,ihreaqs'·'~ The foims must be checked; ":'lith the {\cll;e,thiead.gau~,e· (Fig;. 35)' during ,tl}~f~uiti.tl~ pr6~ess;

, -,.. :The various steps ~'in the, cutting, qf an, Acme thr~ad are si~il~r ' . to ~hose .for '600' type t~r~ads. (pages 13 to 'j9).' Set the: c~mp'ouna< r:esfat 1431°:and· adv'atlbe compound feed aftercutc,7e:tit~hiI;lg,'s-rhss;

~'" ,. ,{eed _;e'ach tirri~ to' ~?e'same setthi:g.·Take'~lighte,r. cut's' ,):lui.n 'with

'\' ':-" ~:;i~we tnre;,d, beqU'~ the total ,u;ting fa'i~t ih~ '~8( i,

.. I: -

- _ i ': ~.-.. .... -

,'r~,:.- ; "., 01jT.T1t~rG,.sQU4REJH:R,EADS" 0.,',"

: .... ' , " ,.~·t~e,s~uarethn;a'd (Fig. 3~)is rarely 'cut pecaus~ iti~,adirn;;,

~ ',:'.,," ,'~ult job.and'cesults. ina: threadwhich IS riot i>ostrong:.as,tlie 'Acme,,.

It.Js .:cut~ however; for many vise- aha :clainpscr'ews .and:o.th!ar' " ".w',9Itn-screw forms: __ The' :At'rttc' thread is, r'e'd:nfimended f011 all such, ~pp.1i~ati()n_.!1~it ·is. stronger.ceasiertocut, a.~d ~capable. 'o'f,plp;er:6;1is,

~irt¢:utti~g, a.:square,' th:f~fid -wi th~,a la~g~; lead, '1;_he .fb'O:l'~angle's ; _~m:ust h'e, ~bs61ute'ly"corr~ct... Clearance should b.e.aI19w.edoii "'t~0 .:S:ides~,.>~apei:ing, £:rqm,:_both 'ihe top. a'nci fton,t of .the tool" rse~-,cFigs. 39:and~1).··:-Figql'f~ 40 eXP:laih$'·how th~ jinpofiant ·g,O;glecp.-nFl,l;st

.- ~t d'et"£l;11iJnet1;"O " c." '_! , .

7:-" ~_ I

;1 ~. '::.

{or'com~ourtd' r~s~ ':£eed/;,t,~rtd:c~re'niustbe:':t~!teh to: avdi~_ ih~~t~r' and"hoggi:!1g~in;;' :the .s"itI).ple;s.tmethol;i :is, N,"s~f 1h.~ ,_comp(;lU~d test 'a:t'Oo. Jeecr-'in'\f;i'th We; -cotnPO.tinq, ~nd'1:Ja:~K:/Put and ,ret"ul:~ .. tlJ.«; .\:001 .withthif.cross Eeed> Take very Hght, cuts "Yh~n' turning- or

:'bbr:i.l1g_.,~,-Sq~~re·.·~hr~e~~·~~ ,I c.

- - _" '.! ". ~ .-

'.;;

",

. ,. ..... :

,' .

.r-

. F MltjlUS.006 '!~,

-.' :."

'Or

.~~. -,

, ' ,

•• I ~;

'=':"_

TOP.

, ,

CLEARANCE ~'N~GL.E '

_,' -.,"" - '. "

, '

~ • ,-"f

t'" .-~

~,,' .

','r' " ','

!"-

I T '"

Ft;.' ~9.<t~OI biOOr<:iit~;;g 'externarsi.i~ar<; U,;'eiids,

, <-;_.~~

( .

.;.,',

EX:t~tn:al squate·thre'ads, sh'oul'd'be cut t6 the,rriln6r''- aiarhe;tei; plus about .005 .irtch,- inter~a,i' '~q~ar_~thr~a~ds to the. major afa~,,_ eter, plus about .005 inch. The additional .005 inch 'allows a'smaU

I" _. I - _. ~ .1 "

-' FiG: 40 .jjetei"mii;i~g the ·,/t;;gle.p. DraW, lin¢ I

r +j,ab~':.~.4u~1 to, the' _ci:rctir:lfer~I}.ce. of- ~Jt.e'"" W_retiq,lS;1~,16,;x~maior d\ameter)'. !hell. _ ,dr,aw" lme ""ae -s: at.:r1ght, ,angles, to ",,!'-b .' ,arid{"equa1..in- 'length' to .the .. tbread .. pltch,,_, _COY'leil(l;"if;a-ri}tiNp!<; 't)ii:!,ad).. pr';'." ,line,:, ,1 '''be''''." 'l'tie .. angle"q. ' .is 'equal tp"the angk.,

.~(':: . ~ . in,aBe ·~'.t'1Te_~,~."tl~'·._and, j:ltc/J '-".~

:: " ~.

.. . . :' CJ!::J - , .. - I G _:;".

~:~:---MI~'U~' ~O~6;;: ':~;\

VC~"I\RiCE 'AN,G~'

.;1-' ,-, ,.,'::_".

~: ,,1

-FIG: 41:"-'~ - , " Toor.bitJO-tctittiti"ginternai . . ~-s9~~"~e.;:thr·ea:d.s!:

C',

," ., .... '-

F,IG, ,SS:. $quare Thr'~"d~nd,.FocmuJ~;;. -'.'

- :-.'

-',

'. ,,·WHITWO!iT.RRORM THiuiAD

. - • I ~ ,.., •

. --, ,- :.-. . iFi gtire"-42"sh~\"lS :tne 'vvr,hitWDtth thr;ea:9.,~'~~ ,fl?;~~:,;w:hi~his,' ;!;!a:l1.d;. '0. t.r . aid in the 'Bd~i~hJs,l~~ forn-e<:n;ly.,a}1tyge,~.otthf~~~l~.:,- the;s,~a~,l'e~, sizes, ofthe. Whitworth fo.tm are .called B:rHish'Stan;dardFlri¢:-

• _.... ,_: • ,,_ •• :_, -, • ".1" _." • ~ • '::' , ... ' ,;." ..... _ ~ ': .,,' ~,'

• :- I

'_:..-;.

. ~,

~tn 'orifer 'to. c.u,t (he':Arrie~ican' Stahdar,cJ -llipe thl~~~'d':on,'th¢' l~the -witV?JJt special ''qie!i',' or' equipment, some :vatlatioifirifo'rm'.is· neee.sfi\arY.:;· '~x~~llerit. pipe-tzye . th:H~aa:s ,satfsfactoryft;lr-'coin-~e;cia;_use=:~n:o'liavi'rig the'~

- .. ,,', ... .: ...• , " =, -.,. 'ff··t"-, hen

':. ~aIl}e. .-]ar,nm!ng e J~C ,< w: " _

'.fdrc~a.'irif6 . the . nut or co~p~ ·'lin'g;~ .. ·~aft,:ebc::. ¢'ut' .vJitb" a'§Oo-, Vee tjpefoo't _andil:set~ov~r, '~f.' 'the·' 1:ailsfock to' cbtain. a .

. 'fape~_' ai' --~pp.roxhnatelY· -%>,

jnch per:foQt. ,I£·th.estoek .v- , FIG\'" " Annat be rri:ount(:db~tyv-~en

" - .. .. " ". <..,. I" -- X~; .. ~

lathe: 'centers, . the, . t,aper 'lit-,' -- ,.

,!t~dimerit (Part 8hik~t:equ!r~~ ;,~.~ ·f~r. the ' cutting ,op:eratio~., .... .

Th"~:-'thteadit'fg ,operatiort.Js, '. ~.c

'Similar to ;ttlat' fo.i 'a-stannar:d~ .. 'c' ,; '~ee~1:hread • a:tid,pioo~ce~;:,a~- , ~ . '-., fhie~d r~s¢rnbiingth.e 'thread~ - . ~.;.

, ,~d':~br.tfci~.-s~hp'Wn ·:t~ :Figur(' , :~ ", 44. ',' .F'igiire . ~5; ~hQwsa' ty,p'~ .:

'. .;!~ P"i.~~~~~1~!,~~~~~;km~;!~~: .

vlihite C.uttlJJ.g ptpe t.ypej. -~~- th're.aa~~ ':, .. ~',.,c-:.,. ".

0-- \ .,

..

, . _,,~ :

,.: s: A W·hitwoi:th,1ihread is cut In much .the same inauner, ,'as art

AcW:ethI:~ad.'· Th~~e a~e-t~d maj;;;diff¢r¢,~¢~s: 'Il1e'thre~d '"~rtgk, " . . ts,s~~Jfei',,;~nd ~ir~~adiusali'thetoP'ahdbo'ttd'm p:ith!,\ thr'ea&'ri?-~s~ . '.

·p~:.:sliap'i;!.d' i:),r<>,ped.YC :With; i('f~~iped to61v' .,'

,--;'. I' . . - - "~-... :"

I -.'~

. -x.,

(

. .W;;;649·!>,:.Xr,;{~~" ". '

, ~'F'Id. '-~.6. Metti~' Staridard Sl:rew, Thread Forinand 'Formulas ~ -:. ' <:'.

, " "', ..' . '," »: , -, '. " "". -:.'. -, ", " ' , ,1.,< ~

"" The foH6W:i'ng¢utting: ~'ef:ho~:iappli~s' to.metric~thi~ad's . a~'d ~ , " 'also .fo::~pec.al fnic~i~n~l,t»read~, '",-:ire, fe~d~, arid .ihJ'thi;~ds'Jn <.

" ~a~[s l, p~ge }?,p,ot'- mC!r~~d."'Ex~ttr,:"" t\:£ter·tl}.e "h:alf~nufie~~r .' '. on the',:c:ijtri~ge is eng~ged;fbr' the :fif~t cut; ft;shouldnot,be mov~d '. , PJJ.til·the, Cth~ead, has been cbmpleh~_d.' As the toot·teaches th~ ~nd ~ Of each 'ciIt;oackout, the:crSss fe~d;stoP the 'iatli~;,andi'rfi~erse 'tile '

,.~ .. rt(otoI""utJ.ti_l t6e·:,f~bI:·.hal1/~#crAretu~.?e~to ~the.starii~g':~p~,~i~iop~. " .: ,'Then ~d~B:.n.ce tl;).ec~oss:re;e:,d,t9 #s:origin,!I. Qpos,ifion;,:tllrn J~n ,t!1e .-

'59'npql{l1d';~est ,fe,eQ,:for ,:th'e.neiKt cPt, start=the .

''tlir(;~?ttihg~operat,~on'~:.· "~ <., :~' ,. .",',

. '.' ".' '. ~MULTl:PLE-·THR.EADS , . -e ..

: ~:,IWul,!ipfe. t;hte:~ds' Q~ajm~~;tany p'i~¢h, <lnd:.fltiinber,~pf :~f;i;rts"ta'n ,'be,~utby. t.~6·rpethods;' ' '1'¥e threa'diiig,diaF isqllkli;siruple'arid ,

", ;~';~~~2{~f!i~~I:,~~::~~fi£;~i;!~~~t, "

:ure ,.14 "sh.(}~:;;.a,.do1ible screw, .. tb~;eaW and ,Figtir,e~ 4tsp'Qws\;a;

",';.! ~-'~:J-, -,~;'I_': -_ -, _:- ',; _. - ." _.' . . '.-~', _".; . ",_ -,_.'.:- . ';': 'j ~,

,~, lE~~d ~ . ". ",

1 USINGrr'HE' THliEAI:n:NG .Ji>IALEOR'·MiiL'TIP~E .

. ' "'jTIi~E.~J)·$ . " . . , ..

.. J).1th(H~gl:i'oIr~y four tl1a;~~s,~~r~' qit':i1:)!o the-top qf t~,e't'p:readin~ ',diaI;thfm! ·~re. aciuallYsi~tee:iJ.diff~rent·po.sitro.~s~~~whiCff..tl1.e·h~~f~' :' ~nut lever ,cari be, engaged. .Eigtite48.sh()vvs the il;1:term"e4i~.(e ", .' PQit~t~. ,betyv~eri' ,.the,'fo·ur main?la:i'kill~S~ ,)'h;e.$eppints ~~tl.~'})~·." 'marked wi'th penci], orzhe ~ositioris.·easily:.estiina:ted~. '~ft~th¢'~()l:. . lowing Paragraphs, 'L.~ap' in.Threa~sPer 'Inch .is.;equal·,t{{ 1" di:V~.d:'<

· . «;d:,byl>ead in;Inch~~. .' :' ' .' , . r ' '.

CUT T'I N.G . 'nou'J!.LE THREADS, , WIT.H LEAP:I):{ 'rHREADS_PE~ iNCH' nnnSIBLEf :JiY' J.<'9U';R; , ':aUT NOT .. BYEIGHT·t4, 12, 20~

, ~ . 28; .et~:) . , . " . ;

A singlethread ~r thi!;'lea~ 1's 'cutoy' ert'gagingthe"~a1f 'nuts ,at· emy ~r the fiJutm'a~nmarkings oil the"t4readi,qg dial or at any 'of the" c

, . fOllr"ll', p'psi~~on$'~., T~ cut ':the. 'second:g-J;Qove.of a donble thread, tlienalf .nuts are ~:engag~d>at any,

of 'tire, "a" ot ,i ~;; p~sitiop.&. ", .

" , ' .. ', 'FI.G.48 ", . .. ...' ..

.-' '. '" "'. ,Iritermedi'ilte .po.itions ,on. 'threadmg.'.: ..... ,

.' Example: To ,·Cut a,Double"di a li,yh.i,c:~" can lie 'u~~1;, for'tutting:· .. ",

. ~- .. ':. . _'.' -'.. • :.' i·', - .,- "6 ~ -'. - 'The numbers _j~'l':11 ~and'- 2 . are. ', lfl:arkll;:d.t

T:htead"with a Pitch of,·.1/24:1nch ',,' the.1eti:;;ieapo~i~iQiis!t)ay' b"hnarked as

a~d~ Lead" ~,f:l ;ll:?inpi. ,'. Slrt' tIzP::." ~ee'd,e~, ,: . ..;' ~7, . ..; ,',. -. ,

the; chang~~geats 'iort4.e :ie:a(;1Ah ~ljr,ealls l?e(iricij':(J?, J.':.?t <24J'. :E?~ ,:. , ~g'ag~ 'tlie·half';.n~t leve~;'fiJl:"t~e~Jfi!st ~B:t w!ie-'~ 'Jhe:,sfal~o~ar_y' ~a;~~.'; '~:' .on the outside of the·threading .d~al is in Ijrie with~ai1yorte o£:tlj:e:: ~. :r~~; ;Uain marks ,on't~e Jdta.ting.,pbrJjon i>:f 'the. d,i3:l.'~Mh'retjit~'r ")

.. , 't'~f6~~: st~rdTlg .'~Qi.I1 b:an1e.t,1g~~e' ~alt:~uts,';a:t: :~I1yon'e. pf the"~~~i ~r,,' ':,i "~"positioI'1S; ,taldt;J.g.theJirst cut on~_hesecpn(l gro9Ve.{j£ the, thread; ,<?'

,,' ~:"el::~9:id~:t,~:~::,:::d~rt, 0,", ,:WIi"g ~nyl ,b~t1:~,QQ~~~:;?

~.. I _ -

. ..;.di.JTtI~G. DobBLE AND QU'~D!,{irP+-E, '1~·REA.DS'WITI:J::·'~E~iP~· s-» •

. ,: IN'TlnfEADS' PlnflNtm DIVISIB'LEBY TW:O; BY;T.~'9J:':. ,0

_', ." ' .'.. ~X''-·F_o.trR (~,.":fl1.:tS, ,etc.), , ." . , .

;'Asihgl'e:thr¢ad.:of\thi~'-te.~o::(s'(_:_tit"()riIY'hy engaging thetJal(~~L "

· lev'et·a:l!',any one of th~'fb-qr mai;:;_'w~rkingsonthe' thi:'ea~iirlg d~aF;~ . ,~':""'::Vo ciit'the,~:ec6ild~'g:i:ocite ofthiei~o1Jbl~ :.t~r~_!filJ the',~alf,~~ts~:re ',' ~;en:gaged a't'?p }!::one,df ;the "b" po#t~oii:s;" a~d: t~e.cU_j;tmg'opera non ,<,;

· '. ![(th~ s~ipe~~r.j,n: .th'e,;precedi11g':p.ara~l'apb.-; ' .. f"' .. , .' :'~.. - .

c

" ~

, .

, ... __ r\

-- ~ . :' :,-. _"- ";

Lt:)~{~ ... ~~.·.'-'i.··-· .-,._ ,'_ . .':- ~':o(.j . ::" '; '" ,_ ~. . ... :~ .. , ", .. ' .. " '._ .,~,',., ' ~: _-: _. _ I . _' _

,'_~"CUT'FING I!Oli~_;_LE>'ANP QUJ\Il,RVJ:lLE_:TH~EADSW-IXH 'LEAD:,

'C)~T~~AriS!I}~I<~~~H~6~~I~:;;S)ON~;llUT NaT "

:\A~>:sitigl'e thread of, tpisl'eadis _cut ,by,-:e,rrg~gin;g ~

i?:~huts;_iii P?s'jti5iif" 1 ",or posItion'- ':03';"-ToFcUf_-tn.~, s~c~n4g~boyedIi

,n,-,ed9,ub1e'thread;:tl:i~ haH~JjpJ~ate,engaget;l at'eitl:t~~ of}:he,'I.m .. ,r' -~'

~~~Fl~W~¥~~~~t~~i~Ii~.,'·,

';'!,ati"d::;a("li~'~~orthe fourth giobye;-, TheseWng-'pfthe-_cort).Pp:und, c. - : ,2esf- fee'4_ i~ _ changed (I_Ali ~!J.fte~eacii 9ffhe, f~lUj:' g-ro_'iJ_Y~!i: lIas, ?~,er;t ~-" ,

clit to, fhe. depth 'of $~t1:hlg" .::- .: ., " '

1-'. _ ~: -

-c

~, _ !< ,~6U:T:~G-~,:uL!~PLE, :r,H,~~:A_:p~t BY SLII?P~'l':l,G'_ ,', __ '" ',,_' : --TEETH ,G>::[\I THE S'PINDLI,l: GEAR

" .. 11

".:~,~,_ .. ".'\_~.J - .~_ r- .... J-~ _,;'-;; ~~".--';; .r.

" iJiiub'i'e-:T"hri/ii;Js_:_;_SIip "l(l) teeJh<tQ' ,cue:fheslec6tld,£ti:)Q;IJ',e~'

, .' .. ,. " ,'/ "'I~5~ri:~~~;;~.U"~,g;'i.

T~';t;-~iiQftadtitpli-Thre:~J$;-c-si(p'_: '8 teeth""tb ~cll't<":tne' lecond~

>~',.- ':,' ~" " \;f ,', - ,_ "'i~tOo~T,,8':~eetJi',more~:_!o~ut ~]i,e~~~birij"1

.. :"" ' gt:9,9yt;,'}ind 8J~e~h_-~~reJ~cut'tp.~: .'

" ','r' , ",f~~r,tii'g~~o~~' ":~,l1~~(~",e~i1i-ngf ,W~~9~

. ,,,~-the'_32,,t9Ciyp' gomppund ge~J:",an<J_,

'::fiJl~:~1l~~~!~~~1:~~~;fh"

, -The a;t~~~tic': lq"ngitJdirial,/cirr'i~ge -f~(!d~p er' ~pin~le ',tevol itt~on"

.-', '1;;, o'bt.tl;ne(Lby's~itttig:itp,the ~ge~i;tr~i'n.- iii'ill7." sai.rt¢ - "" - ,:,

tnread 'c'utting_~'(pages ,'3 to n}.':Th~:':feed, in 11, iche !s<;rs

, , ' '1" " ,,,~,,, ""," ,';'- -.: --" ,,' - "J 0 _ __, ,-' '

, --" ,,-' ".'.- •. _ F9r example, "a 'fee.d of .0087

,tlileads per )_n~h - -, - -, _'

-,-geafSeN:lpas·1~i4;!::I:thread&,'-p.ednc1i - ,

'_' '1!h:~ i1ve'~,~st,:,c,~m~o~"C;a~r~ag~ .Ieeds, a~;"&ho,\\)p:: i~- tl1e , ~hr~~d~,. t~g ch~rt -(pilge })'; <l.re,~0087",d97t; .0050, ,00,3'5, arid .0024 incf1'p~r' spih81~'revolutio,ri: . Refer:Ao:the,threadi,ng':,chart and th:efb~16wlIlg~

" par~graphs:-when'charigjng the'se'>g~a:r set-ups., _Table' Il oem.:. _' " 40 i'ncliides geatset~ups [or, ofhef"tarriage fee,?s; obtaJ_n,ai>le ''W-,ith, ""

thi'st;:ipdard set' of gears: ' , '" ""

:-' - ;- ",".,~ -: ,., .. >. .'.' . -~ ' .. '-~, -

".," '," 'd)t<tp6'u~D ';~Me~ER;:C;;E;"R~j~ ,

,f56' Tbp'YH-,~Fii~ .: :" ,~-o;"-

,; , '. - rip~'~i~aTld quadrtiple" thr:eadi,r-cart, also be :.cut'-by' i:sl-fpp'ing "_" te¢tI(onA,he compoutidgea:t:T4iS:pi'adiCe is ri{)~ sO-Cotnmo1l,,~s

~',: ,iiie -use ': aI: the' thj-~ad~ng,:,:dial;, 'but is:n'6't c'~njplka:ted,' ' :' "

;-, ,; Tq cut.~ultiple thr~~d~'b;:slipping teeth -~ntbe,~ompbu~d gear :

¢h,( '*e co~plete- first groove- to a minor diameter dependent -u'pon

:' JVtch,?( t_he;:4~~i~e~ tli~e~d ... ~ ~The.Yh~n~e;~ear;- tt~rn: S~Q~I'~;.,p7'\a.-r'-; >;\;' _ti,lp_get;lfbr'th¢;:desii,'e;t;ll~ad. IHs lmp6r'tant't(Jus"e~the:.same:'O:point

, -' 0:(' te£ererice~;{aput' e'a~h thiea.-d";be sure to' -r~~etnberCthi~"~PQinf

tiidhf!h,~,th~;cittttin~~pe~~t-ioIiS, -:,,_. 0""0 - e • - "--:", -.-'

: ;.'~t;£~rto:~th,ectabl¢on ,page,31~then slip the r:egui'red nUn:iber-9t ~,;te¢th hY-' hlatld'ngadja¢e,Iit-(eet-h'on_f}ie compound g~ar" apdthr"gear

'~~"~;?:;!~;~~~~~~~~~JJ~~U~:e,'~er;s~a~ut:;:'t~~:i:~!;~~~::a~:;::_:

.:\£?r~al'(:l i,he {:i'roper n4mpel' 6£ tee,tfi by rQtat:ing !;>piqdl'e'by-han,d;· - ~:R.'a:i,~elt:iie' _g~~J~brPlI*e:r~s,o" tb'at)th:~:/pre:v~ous~Y1iJ.1~rked,:'g'ea"f -toot~, ' :;<rnes}:tes witiJ 't4cqlewly selecfi<rcompound g-ear~tb,otli. '~--, - ,

- 'F -~r' .' • _ r r _ 1- T" j ~. -.' ~ :

GEAR TRAIN-FOR- .0087 INCH 'CARRIAGE 'FEED

, , , '_ ':(See'iFig. 49, paF;i 31i _ '- -,

-,,1. Pla:ce64 --to6th_;g~ar In~_f'ro~,tjfositi'o,n "on screwstdbs

_ 2. -)?lace 56,tobth gearal1.d?O ,tooth:geat/_q-n-liushi'ng j~ Poj,i:ti9n

, ~'" whh"56 tdP~?,g'~'a:r,,~~n~-backl?ositJo~; 'ri'g}l,~en ~o that, 20,t~o1ih,i

gear meshes wit_h 64 tooth ge'ar on screw sttib.' ,'- "

3. _ Place 24 tooth gear and 4Ertoot,h gear on bushing: it:lPosit-ion A;' ~ith'24 'tootP'gear' fn b~ckpostti.o~._T,ighten s'otliaf'~4' tooth,_

gea~-meshes with:56t0Qth,g~ar i;';:Posit_h:m B. ' ,

, ". 4. _ :Swing 'eiiHie~iear bracket' up\vard_'aiid tig~ten so, .that At',- tObth--gea,r i~ Poaifion A meshes, "cith_16 1:oo'tIi! compound-fumb'ler. •

~. ,', - .. - . . - :;' ', .... 'i" .. -

gear."

, 'GEAR- TRAIN FbR' .0071 INCH -CAR;RIAbE FEED,'

, .::._ ,_.\, .,'. - .... "' ".', " . . .. - "' . - ......

G:'OMR,i:rU'Nci ,!UM_El LER:,GE~RS,

,_ :-:. ': =. - ," • ...... .. - . ~ - .. : .. "'

Flace (54,:toQth'geardn front 'posit ion 9n,screw-stub; , '

"~1~ce20 tbd~ngeat~ha -4-0_i:o~th' g~a£:~hbrt~hiri~,ii1:P6§~(i6n;, 0';'

'~ D,:- with '40 -tooth; '~ear--in hack position.: 'Tighten so, tliar 20 ,{~~()th '

, ge~r~e§he's,v;,ith:64 toothge~l;:.,<inscrew sttib, : ': - .'

, ' 3;'.·:'Plac~: 48 .tooth, gear ~rid ':st~eI,spac~~~6'h' btishi.hg' rri'B6s,it~Q~:

.-,-B "~'wi th:A8·:tootliigei'ir iii .ba ckpdsi ti'9i1, '- ,iiighfeh so that 48 ',:tob tli'

t':'~i;~:~f~:A:~:~z~~f~~~~~J~!~~~~;t~~f.~~'*:riggh~:::;~~:

, , :: ,Zb:.tootli-g'ear mesheswith 48:::~o9th'gear i_nPosif:iqn 'B~<' , ,

.::, ;;:~Swing,ehtfrt;i'.gea;'b~ack{£riI>w~rd ,a:ri~_tighferi S9,- H)-at 44'

,- to'(,{th' gear'in' Rosilioq Arriesh~s 'With'16t8o.t-h COfuPd\lIi4t4rrtb~~I:", ' '_ v

• + • - - •• ,- •• • :. • _-. -_ ~-.. •

. -.~

" -::

. "

1· j'

,.'_.,

-.- ..,.

~IG. 51.- Gear aet·up fo_~ .0050 inch carfiage f •• d,

"

GEAR TRAIl,t'FOR .005,O'INCH:CA-RRIAGEFE-E,P:

." I'· .. "." ". - • _- , .::.".: '.'

,. ....

J.T .~

. ' . ..:

-' 2,. Pla~~ !lZ~o~th"g~~t and?!} toothge<lr,_o~bu,si1il1-gi~ 'fo!Sition, 'B,,'with ,52tooth,g:,earincpackposition. "Tight~n so that' 20too;b -':; ,:'"

;ge~~mesll~~'~f~h 64' to()th,.g~a-r .onscrewstub, v , , ., , -s

, t·,

;, ' ," '.. _ , , " ~, .",- r- i .'

3. ,PI?Lce4~ tpq~hg,¢ar'an:i:L2-0 tooth 'gea{'on,brishing in ~6siti6n I'\")

,A" \v~i~}Ot0,o,_tl;(~~a~,)p'p~ckp?~n4o~. "I'ighten 'so ·~h<1-t" iQ.toptp:' ,ge-ar meshes 'With 52,-to-oth gear' inPosition. s. - '

. .: '-. ,

, I:

"_ 4. - :S\ying-~p.t,ire'g.ear ,:bracketupwa,,r4 .and - tigh~enso_' t~~t" ;48~ ~' t6Qth-geat'irl. :position :A-fuesh~s~ltl? .i'6J6O_thcomp~J.m~:t).l~:t51ero· ,

. '. ; ,. :' .. , . - '~. c... :-_. :~. "._ _ _'-.. _ •

gear. .' ,_ _.

.. <' •

»

'a:EA;R~TRA1N:FOR;':;0060"-rNCi_.-I':tA:RRIAGE' FEED-,' > ,,'<'

,; , ': . ',' _~::- -'': ,.'. . .. - ': .. , .' - " , . .'.: - ,'. . .

- . '.'- _ , ',~ -~,~-.

. .:The gei,r set-up fo~ .OQ60 ,inc4 c:ar~i~ge .Ieed 'is the s'arp.e as ~ha,t _ "',' . fot'&h'e:0050'.' inch feedexcept' 'that: ~:24: tooth gear,ds .~ubstitated '-,,:' - ':~

'f~1."':20J;O'?th"g~aJ::in ba~lt':PQsitipriat,~A."· - , , . -, -' . ' ," " ",',

_ .. -. - _"., -'=.., T·-.r. ,II

- .

. :~ngirieel~s have' chartedbvern thohs~~d thre~d~.~I1d, JeeCi~' be:,.,."

twee:'n·.:die'·to~rsest thre~d.andthe:,fi~,~~t'Jc¢d.: Tabl~~ I ilnd1II in:~·_.",:\ ., " ;'the £olJ6wl,ng;_s~c:1:ion -glY<: pr9P<::r;s~ar Set~Up~.!£ora 'fide v!:lrie~y.t "';: . . - q( spedal\l1l'~~d~;·aIid:feeds. ·.'Most·?f.th~se·sef-u.ps~t~exacF·,· -;~.-.;-",~ .,some. are.accurate.to theliriIits' meritioned.~. Table.III;cgiyes- .. slrt~ups,·· )" ~ t fot m'etiic =thiea~s:' ~it'h pitch-.beh~e·en q;5and'. 7;,6 mjji~in¢tei!i'~";:;'\;'>~

.. F I G.52;Gear.\~t;up for ,0035 i~ch carri"gefced._

~:1' - , ._, ".. . ,_

1. :Pia~e -Q4it66t.tt· gear in frqnt posi#on,orl screwstub. . ' ..

-.'i 2: ·;~i?l~t.e §~:t'Q~th: gear' an9.20'tooth .. ge;i_l~.onbushing'in l?6~iti:On .. ,B, ~iiiic64 J09thgj:a'r tn bac~':positiQIl,Tig~ten)m th~t 20 tooth "~ _gear triesh~s wit11.64 toOt~ gear.pnscrewstub, ,"_ '.. .. -' .'~'- .. .': L' , " 3.', • Place in to~JhKear ~_(l,nd; 55' toOlh:,g~a~. o~busliing-. i,l]"Positiq,ti :: -; 4;-witlY'ZO 't:b.o:~~:giea~,.in-,p~ck.:po:si-~ior:t;. ',Tigh.tf;ns·o· tt.:a~,20 tQO~ll' .;,):e'~~~~e~h~s:wlth64,t'90th:.ge~a~ ,'in ~osltl~i1'B ..... ; ". ': -.- f 'c:'.' '

. ~:' 4. :SYi{rrge,ntiJ.:e)ge,-,,:r: bracket 1;'PVV . .=t,r,4·.aIl"d :t1~ht~p~o :th<J,t5,6';

.tbpth, gear: in P6sition,A m~slies-wi~h_ ~6 !ootl'! (:ol:Dp0l:1n~~tu;pq}:~r~,

',.

_'GE~R 'T-RAIN"FP~ :0024 -·INC,.H· C-'ARRIAGE FEED'

.,;:

, "

"~

~ " ~;X. wi~li -,36·toi:;th,:·geit.in'back' pci"slti6n"'Tighteh so that, ' ..

. ··~ia~/n.~;;:gW~~i;:'i;:;\:::~ltrt ~~~~~:~Jii~$;e~,g.

" toothgeilr)~ R.Cis,itiou,,;A meshes ~itl:i ~6; t?O;tp:_,~p~I?:dle:~t~a

. -'_,,, '. . . -' . - .'~: - ....

" .' - . _ ,- •. , I '.' _ _ .' ..

GEAR_ TRA,IN F.o~ .0024 INCH J~4,RRIA,G~:FE¥-.;o.

:c:;bNLPO'UND,- ".. ' '. .. . ':". '.

T-UM'BL~RGEARS

FlO,. '63: Gean set-up for ,;00'24 i"ch cafdag~ feed (see'page, 84);

_' .. ;.,

I.. ~LEC:IR~i:AL_.cOf~. \kINPING

- ~ . " • Ii' -

• - _"3

, _ "~-1

- , t \. _- ._~,_

0.;-·

'~l ".- :~~i~u;¢.~'54. ~~ho.w.s·. a ·:c~i1. '-Winding ;operatJoh:with a

. siriiple"gilid~·:!l'iojir1ted.i~ pl~ce_ oIthe' '(99}" P9~t 011 . -,the: co.fnp_oun:~.: rest; ,~hi~-:"

~ii~:~·~~:l~rl~:;p'~~~~~~lt-. ;'-

done riilic:h i:({mak~'C'9ir' winding :on the ;lathe- a: sirp~ - . -- pIe fa!). -Thjs gui,de -i!;j,,~vail-',able'aX the ''''At1llS: f~fclQry. -Fe~ds.··'are>: avahable' -to

, ~~~:~te~~:~f~~;i~!~Bb!~)'- ~~===::::====::;::::===::::;z::=~ ..

··,.····.···.tVli·f !.~ nj~:ari,di1o;·4siiigb,are'

- '-z -;. - .••

,s rr>, .:.1;' """:"~i('~- .'j' .. t~ ::,

;!:l ':. - .«, ','-r ",_. ~:.-:

,tqA- ~U A l':"6 F' L-..tfW:e '-QP:EA~ T I 6 r

,"

, ~'

wit~ or- any ,~Q£'th.e'JoliQv.:i,I1gin~til~tion& (,sirl'gle -t,otton, dbuh'l'e-, cctton, " singl:e 'sil}c, "double silk, :enanfel,silk; enariIel;~and 'cottbn enamel, Gear 'set~'upsa'~egi veri Inthe foilQwing tables. ' ',:'

, ,- .", - _. . ,-' , -

Feeds ar~~I§?~~aHabI~ f~,r.,&priP:gtnq1tirig, wire- wfaj,iping:,and _:_> .70i~ ~i:I1dingWith:-,~t~e,~ al:1~- iron<wir,e in 'the followiilifgatiges!', ~,,-1\m7f:l~c~SJe~~1 arid Wire ,Company; -musir;' wire, American or 'R;;' &':S",a~a. V'{ashbhrri_and Moen._ Gear data for ~fir~ing',:iro9-a~d., -_steelw~~e' arid wires with other' Ulan: enamel:iilsti,iation :ar~ giveIijit;

me .f6Howing-:sec~ion. ' - ,

',._'

,!

-":_

, ,

I,

1 ,~

.','.'

'I"

",

)".".-

,_,i'

.....

'I

't. ",'

I'

,~, '

.' ~..:;

, -,'. ",

- I~ ~ j

J

.,-';-:: ,

, ,",

',;1: ' .f(

::.:: ,

! ','

TABtES-FQJ:lTHREAD 'CUTTING-

'.' ' ',' _, ' •. , .' •. ;+ I. ,t, ",

.r.

r. .. : ~, .. , ,:: .. : ;";.,, .. , , .. ;'tii:)]?-PITCH _iH~~1bs

-

~Iq / , ,.,'~. " . .-: ':'" .::. "", METRIC THREADS

IV. " DEPTH AND 'DOUBf-E DEPTH "OF

NATIONAL FORJvl> THRlj:A:DS

'<,

" VI.: ..... ' .. ' ..•. NATI()N:AL'-FINE,THR~AP DJlIiIEl'jSI-ONS

..

vrn; •. ':.;; :,.MACHIN.E SCREW- TH:EiE:AD'Di~ENSIQN~f.l

.- , ... "', - "

: IX~ .. ,.,,~,; .. ' ... r r :,WHn:WoRTH.'T~iEA])Dl~ENSIONS

X.'.- ... BRITISH AssotIATrOW'THREAD.DIMENSION,s·','-'

, , • ','_ • ,- • ~' • , , L

: ... , -. ','

,Xi",:.:.".' .<.INTE~NATIO,N~L"stA,:NP4.RD'THR~AD ,

,~,.' ;'-ri1M ENSIONS";M'ETiuc'

_XII. ~ .. : .. FRENCH: S-t:ANDkRD;THREADDIMENSIONS

~, ".1\"

. XlII-.'~ . ,., .,.. Ac MES!, AN'QAR:D' '~liaEAD'DIMEr,g;I~~-S

~ ~'

XIy: : ~(";_:\":~','-;':~" ~~q~,~'~:~,~~~1\D 'riP~,~~s,r6.N,~, __

"T, .xv .. , , : .. , .. STRAIO_frTPIPE THRi,AD DIMENSIONS "

:XVI'~ '; . ."., -:STO-VE BOLT 'THREAD 'DI'MENSIONS'

' .. ''-

~:'.

#.~~-

jl"l ! I,~ : !

1,':- "_"

:': ",

'. ;;

·:'--,

''r!\BL~:~~(*'Il:AR:S'~~ -UPS:: FO:~ ,~HR~A'RS, _F~?J;I'i,~2~-_, '\: ,!,:~:ROUG,H;"79 P;ER: INCH NOT SHOW~', ,ON' . "THE THREADIIiJGCHART

_-_ .. ~ .": ~, -" .

Compoun't . ·'TUinbler 'Not,,;

, "ear. " ,

Gear on :'S'cr~~' -

32 ,'/54 '-:,-' 4Q. '2~ .

24' 46 -: 20S 641,

20'3'6' S8 '44'[48 .24~

, ~, ".32 :'64, '''''':':,..-, '56'32'.

·":EixaCt' .. 'MY ExaCt, 48B 'l/~3(i·. 52B Exict' 56B.

'32 I :1.6 ";

'·'3:2 ."

'32" s:

16 .16 16

'16'

16 .16 -~32 '32 . 32 '~' ,_ (~' ~'. ;,--r~' ,

-16 __ :,,:" .

,45 '1'6 47-

, ,','"49

. ,50 ,~ 5.1

','52 .53 54, 55' 57

"58

:-

_- .-

EXlJ;c1:, ' 40F >: 40 32., . -'-,' -:- 441 ss 24 ''4s, .

,~~~~r .';:~ ,'~' '3~'. iO,.44,,~:5?''-,'~4' ~i" ,;ci~::!},

'1/660Q:_48:F' 36 "20, . 44 "54 ,24Sq4l Exact 48B - ~ ·"641)29S -,-\{4 54'~

1/270' 48B:-"'; ---: ' 204624-8 641

1/S000 56B ,_ :. 20 . ,'56 64 44

"V~so,", '~6B 20' 36."_SS 6:41 56 ,'2Q.

:. 1/1900:. :'46:824 4,4, ,- SS 541 '56.20

, Exa:'ct ! 48:F 4824 32 40 - ,-=- ", 2 OS54L

--fjl500: .: 54F; ,52",46:" -46i,SS,,'24,'48"

.l!6?0. 4!}F 54 46, 46t~$ 2044

";Exact':' Q4B . ',-,' -,- ~ .. 24· 54,' 56 '3)~ ,.

.'Exact ··.f'8:~"' :.4n '_t24 -:- 46[1. SS'" 3?' .,$.z.;~.'- .

~Exact ,. 6~B . 1'- .. ~~ .~ .. ?~ .. < 5·4' ~.:. ~:. ~: .. 4A" '24'"

d/160' ,~,6"tF40 2:4, " 3? ,.40 .2p~:64r

1/49:0 , 64F' 40, 36561: SS ,24 '4616 '

"Ex'acb' 64B , ,. 24~: 54, ___:: __; 46"24' " '32

"Ei~dt' 48F,~5ii32'i4"40,. - - 'iOS,64':L • 16,

. , ' . 'r'·

.' ,1/~1:S, ,'6:4'F' ','44 40 :"': .. ~" 54'1 sg '24,48 ' 16

16 "16 32 ' . !'<16::

d: .

, .

,32·' M ' '6tI 20S: , ,:32"M ,641' 20S "

32,:64 561 20S 3z'6'4'64i20S~

, 'to:8"" 482'4 241.1' '48" 24 Up 48 '32' MB 48 36

,iDE.

Z4B 441<:

SiB

Exact, --Exact

-Exact ,

~f2250',

."Exa«t Ei;'lc.t, "Exact

,E:,i~d

32, 32

. ,32

32:

-,

',-3'2

32 ., .3?

._ .

2 ';:'2;25 "

483~: "~SS 441 ,'24 '32 641, 35S;

'48'1420. 40 641<328

...,.. - 32'" 64 '641·,.20S'

. --;;'1'0 '20 2'4, 48· " 64'1:--: 32S

J",

- 40'" 20 ' '~~~ 4'8":, 66441123, ,:"',sS:_.,,,

;'64.: ,_,...", ".

~" " . 36' 48 '641,20.'$' ,,'

"~'f5' . 20 ,:' :248 481 64 4,6';,

,,2'.5 ?:75. :,' j

16 " 32' ' 'r6· 32

,16

,"" .'

'3.5 " ,Exact. ; '3.75 ' ., E~ai+t

;:~!~~":-~7~~~~':

" '9,5"0 1/1960" :52:8 _'.,: ___c:'" '40. '24 lOS: 44'156 ' 46'

s 10.5' 'Exact 'slit" '-,', '48 '64, ,'4'0" '3:2"'· "6.52411' ""22~SS, ,

~ 11",25"'~'~'" .":'EE--~x,,_aa:."cc~tt:' 40F , ~

, ., 'i _54.Z;\ ":--' .. ' ~,:....... ,-' " '40 36:'.;" 6~1JOS

:: '1/4i50 Aoii: ::..,:.., .,_,_::. 4664 ' 44".' 36

"",'j/i900: '~"40B' ':54, ~ 4'4- ,,;S$521" 56 2:4'"

":'.,EE" .~x' 'aa;cc' 'tt",'" '. '45,io·'5BF:; ",3.2' ." ' 4~P,'"'' 5'1:36 '" 641 20S, '

,- ,,~SS 56i6'1- .,3i,·' ,32,

.> '40}6 7' '- :~S'<, ~'ti.A6,!,2?": ;,: ~3;

, .,:--=-",,'36, A.o l'20S6'41: ,-16' . , ,24S54I"64 52' -# ,,;";" ~'_:'~',~:i;''4~: : 24S'6'4i, ,,>':16

5'2T~4S:' ,',' ,. - 32 ,5,4- :46ISS ,24 48 58': ,641",64," ,io - _:_:_ ",3is 641

1/730": 48F' 36 -20' 'l;is064F ,'5~ '48' . i-"-' - 1/310' 'SiB '20 ;'36', '- -

1/760 , ,'44li_' 46 '24';

, 'EXac't "48F" : "44 '2'1 481': '40' ao .5'4B :.' _,

20' 36

, , ' .

"', 461" SS', '·32 ',!l,6, .: ."',;,'1.6',

~-~.::':;.

'';:,61 S8 ; 32:" 5;2: c lQ'

,:~'-',152 ,24". 32,'

'Exact 1/2~00'

':~~:1~'" ~ J~~;

:1/i850':54B V~?'O~" ,52ji~

'248:<5,61:&4, '52. ' 40, .32'

"_";, ,M' 56,'

',~: '5,6, '45:

?O" ,46:: ."--" '';'"'''' -'-,: ~ "24'-:'48

- .. '26. 4~.

',,2'0 48

'32·

S-YMBO~~':. ",

"(,Ii-~,exua :j:,i~~:~,:::;~, ,: ,,~ .~~:,~!~~ri:,:=:~.!r'~::d~~~~~t:C:k ' .

!T __ P."~T" A·6 tooth gear' _j~icll~r gear "(pilge'$/ ' :,'

D'--exlra 56 t'ooth ge';'r',S;"':sp;a(:er gear (pagtiL6) , ' "l",-,,,,,,'tr,, 54~tQ:oth'gear','SS:_;_double k~yway :spacer,

,fo-9tl(~~,ar:" I ,:.', ':'~ "'~. '~.' -: L'

~"'ic,)).~'--,e;~:~~~:;,ln~'~yj~, bushing <iIi$} boll, ass~mtil¥-a vailiible .at .the, £aqt~i:y. , "

1 :;":: . ~'"1. ~\ .. , : I • • 1-

, 32" ~;'3'([ .

:: '32;

is.

TABLE ,UL-GEA;R SE~!VP_S·~.FO:R lVI,ETRIC. T H:RE: ADS'

P. TwO' 6£'the:_'staridat'd,'cha~nge' g-ear&: fuhi:ished>:w'ith the M.iist:e:r; ,~c;C:rafti'-m?n~ Lathe) .. the, 52: tooth :gea,r;:rid.the 44:toqtqg€ar;, combine

. i,~~~:~;::'i:!;ii::t£:~~::::2;::~h:~~:[:;F!!f~:~::f~'

. Reier ~o' page::£S :WhenCi!t't'!;g ',~~~t!ie' 't1lfead~: ' ,~

iABLEi-lf~GE'ARSET~UPS. FOR .CfAI~RIA'GE' FEEDS

"_. - -. ",.:- .' .' ~: - - . -': : ...•.. -, ~. .. -".' .. ~ . ':. - .

..

I, _,.",

-,.;-.; .:

~-', -,

, - ~ .

'". - - 'F~edi~'o :Threads' dear on' Position D 'Po,;itionC

'.:" i.n~Ij:?~,}\"t6cf.S'~~~~· B. "1"'; ':SF'

Pitch 'Til : Geai' on PQ'i~,ior;-:;o ·:POsifion C: ·'~'P05itio.n B

. MM,·'SCF,iw'., ·iI. ,F· ',:s'," -'F-' BF.

,'I'

;.06·~5' . .. oos .qOq,

Xi8:8 '.~gP\. "f4'20 --

i2,4i8\'4?F \-~8, ,20 .

._' ,"

"', ::(IQ3?,

",'0027

,1 '~:' r.. r _

~f~~Q6: 3'iiz;t

~,4B . '. 20 ., 51! _ 61J3 ", ao - :55

.A.S{'S'S- 24 5'4 46i 80S, '24 52

52 -?,.O' . 24· 4(.

32' ~4i)" 8S '-641 - ,.::-",4P· 64

-,t£i;' .: .;~;f>;,'- 16

i~6j4" :.6.4F.. _= ~

,249;$'" '64B:2fi

:\-

52' -'0":4820'

'1,-

,-.,'

:<~*" .~ e_·.:~tr<!.'. s.leeye - l bu.·,sh.lrt.:g" '~~,d':' E' ·'to~itici~ 0 avd.y· ff6rii iie~~sto'ck.

, i_?~IC~tt:a.,48 'tdo\h. &ear . ~ "1l :,P,19.~itIb~<tPWa:~d~:~~a,9st;9d~'·

bolt assembly. . -: J-j.4:1eT':·ge~aI:';(Ng'I\-f>f· . .

'Ct' "SS:....,_d.9;tibl~"ke.~,:,;ay·sp~~er'···

(-

.5 48F

.75' 4,!E

:1::'(i4~-

"A

'1.25. ,L5 "i:F5 :2" 2:5

,$ ",' 3,,5,

'c ,4-

> 4~5

,5. 5;$ 'q.

7

.1· _.

HB' MB 3'6B 40~ 44~

HB 41F ADS-. 40B·

241<'

,20E 20E 24B"

" -

" .

::-, .

40; 44 ·4Q$2 .'3240,

-. 5iis:s '24 56', , 5'4'l2Q$ .-24 ,48,:

SS,5Y "56 44'

-: 52;: 4$:,52' 40

208641, ",208: 6:4I

-~.

52 '44

56 'l8': '

20S·46L4S0'32 ".52:3:6 - -,'20,§i4:i 5? :24'20S 64'1: .. '

413 ',5'6 :'4844: 54~ 44:'

~<,

- . - '-52 -,20' :24s:€r4'1

.... '52" ·20 'i2.4$641,

-30- ·,·S2.f>41 Ms, '36.:'5~ . --',f?:41'2~~

44 52 48:'-'54 4452 40 56

:,.f>(i ?O$; --'641 ,~4$ ."641i4-S ,64['/208

; . ..;....;_.

, 52' '44'

,'."

- " o.

F_position; ·a.way .. f~otn.,head~tock: . li--position toward 'headstock 'I~id~e~rgEl:;r '(p",gt!-6j': ',' 'c·

S-spac'et"i~ai;- (,pi!'ge .6),. ;~S~_(fo(uble; ke~W:~Y'sl?~c~r .

. ~,

-,

~.16 ::16: ,32, 16:

16' -- .

'.'

'::32 ·.)6. 16' r

-,,-_

16' 16'. -·3'2.-

. ~ l_

32 ,32 '3~>. -_'.32 ..

- -'3:~;_

... ~. -

'-'

-_"

..... -. ;.

_'. ~

': .

: ~ "'.

. Pitch '·Inches .

4 •.• 2500

4:Ya ':2222 -

5 .2000 5Ya.I81f!:

'. 6 - ;1667 4';.;1429 '.8" ..• 1250. . 9:' ;l.Ut

·lo~,' .iooc 1'1.O~Q9

'12.~ ~0833

'1:3' .0769

~ J,g; ,-, :~'~~~

u ".05'56'

" 20: ,_.OSO!}

. ,;0454 .;QHii ',-.I,mo ';,.,O~57

;1624 .1'443 ' .1299 .. 1181. .

.. 1083 .0928 ,.081'2 '.0.722 .

~06S0 ,;059'0 - .';05M, ;0500.-: ,

-.0464: . . 0406 i;' .• 0361 , ,.03.25

~O,295: .0271 .02.41 . -~0232:

.. _-_.,-

'. ·.0333

" _.:03'13 " ,.027.8 ;0250

'X)2z1, .Oi48- ".0208 .0135'

-,_::g,~~.~'~'-_ ', :g}i~:'·_

.. 0156 " ,,:01=39. ' . 01-2S ''{llOf, -

.. 021:7

, --;0203,

'.ilf80" .0162:

,-T:AB~E~.-V ' 'NATIONAL 'COARSE THREAD SERIES:'

, .' __," . '. . .' ... . " .':' .,,~. :- . .- -~ "_ ~ - '," ," -. '''_'. .

. ,".- (F:dr,mer.ly U: •. S, Starlda r dY "

- , TH~EAb IJ~M~N$I ON'S'A~D ~~p D RlL!., 'SI,z'ES

Nom!,!~i Size

'Minor, ,I =Dlameter Iaches '

Pitch.

Diameter Indies'

'-._ ~"'.",

. ,3248. .288T

" .2598

, ,.2362'

:2165' ,;1856 ~1624 .1443"

"'.:1' .: ,,2'

.3' '.'

4

,5,C?i)

-6"

8,

10:

'12. ~1,/4" - 5!'16~1"

~·3/8N

.1894 .1684 .1$16 .13Z8

.1263, .1082 '.0941\· '~0842

T

;0758;' _,' '.0689'-': .0.631' ;0583"

,2525 .2165 ' .18!H .1684

;:i'5j5~' J37,7 z: ;1263' : .. 1166

.1299' , .. nSf ".1083 .:.0999 I.

'-.+

~:.iQ5-41' - .,,;1.082,

.0473" . ;0941

:0421 ;08'42

.0379, :0.75,8

.0599'"'' .O~,45 . . .. : .. 00663Q,'20,.

.0541 ~n316

:.0481 :0181' , .0562

:' .046,~ ','.Oi70 ;.-.0541:' .

1'1

'.0433 ;0253 ',.0506"

',0406 " " '~Oi37 '.'004'1,2741",

:O,3M- :'.,,021)'

~0325·.0t89:0379

-:02~5;·:.'1. ~ .01-7.2."·· -

.0271 :'. ;0157 '~·,J~n':'

':0260 "·:,;0151 ,.0.303

;6Z32" .. 0135 ' :0271, "

.0237':0210

, .0189'~'

.01802

. 09~.8, . .0812' ,.Q722, . ''.

,.06~0

it::c' .

{6

'-1%"""

t~" t%"

q.:\i'" -1%"

".034·· .• 031' .02$;

, .• 027

.. oirs. '. 0105', ".009,45 .

,.00901

! i,_'

.Q6i9~, . :(j744 ,'" :08~( ~0958

;i088 ;,1117' .1437 .1629.

:~~~;c

".2764 ;3344:

64 .;0730 r, ;OSi:7
5:6 .0860 " .O~28. ~'
48 :0990, .0119 ,'-:_'
40 .1120 ' .. 0-7~S·
". "
4'6, .l2'.50 .. '!i925'
32 : :1380 .097,4.
32 .--!, .1,23_4
. .1640
24.-, .isoo .13'5'9 24 20:II? 16

,.

~~ t~ ..

'13",~_ '11 " .':''11 .

-' io. ,9

8. 7"

f 6

"6

·.5 ",:

4%. 4:%', f, 4-, '

"'4 ,."" A:' 4.

. ,,' ;;H60 -~25,00 '.3125 .3:750'

A375 ,

: .. 5000 . ,5~25,. '.:6250 7 •

;7500 ,87.50 l.OPOQ ·1.1250

.i619 '.1850 .2403 . ,.2938'

.3447-

s • .4091 ';4542

;S069

,62tn

. ,7301,

.8376'.'

~. ' :.93~:4.~

'" "

'L2SPO .. ' :hO,644 1 ;3:750 1.}585 '1.5'000- ··1.?~:W· .1;1500 ".1.4902

: 2;0000" J.hn

, )P~~OO, : ~1.96J3

. '2.50,00 '2;l7~i ~',

2.1500 " 2.4252 .

'3;0000 3;2500 3.5000

3:7.5,00 ,4. 0 (lOO

2.1:;752 ,2.!:i2Sl $,1752 ,3:4~52, , 3',6752;

..~3~i1t -I'

- r ~~:~.9cj ;508f ' .5660-

.6850,. .8028 '.9188 1,.0322~

-'r

Lf572 .k,7/64'; ,-1::i7/64"',

, ~;:~iF .' .. 3~1~;:E·.l~mi:S,;:,·:

1:8557, '~; :' •. 12' ?Sl!;33' '22':: .:, ':22'·'~:':9f// •. ~~;\

,. 2:195.7 t

,2,.;t3i6, " '2%N' '2~l'1/3?~" .

',2:S~76,:- '2~" ,~?~25/32": _'''

','

;,

2'.8376, 3.08-16 .3:3316

3.58.76 -3,;~~7,6 '

"

'53 ~ -47
;",,50 .42
- 4,7 3.6 .',
43 .:!1 38 '36

2.~ ,2.5,.

),(j

. 1-

F 5/16;;

, 29- '2,5 .

-rs

";13)64"

.',

"//32" ;11/64(" ,21(64~' 2~/(jV:., .

2~/D4!', " ::~31:6'K " ,

. ;37/61'!

. '41-/«)4''',

- - . :

27/64" 3i)64N :17/.32/;

1)-

- ".

21i32~ .. ,4~;64~' ~.'

--4:9/6'1-" ,57:/6'1-"

. .' 7/ii?J-,:t /64);,

63/64" '1-.9l6:4",',

c:

'!TABLE Vi "NATIONAL FINE THREAD SERIE~

- ' '. - . :_ -: • '" j', • ~ • .,- '..... - '

.(FQl'iner-lyS.'A~E;)

,THR:E;AD ,DIM,EN$IONSA;';D'--Tt\PDRILL SIZES

. ,

'TAHLK VII'-

FRACTIONaL'sizE'S'

o ,.. •• _'- __ ... '

, NATIONAL_SP'ECIAL- THREAD SERIE~ THREAD DIMENSIONS AND TAp DRIl;l..:sizES"

, . ..,~ - ; . - , ' • . • ,"'. . _'.' ,j.-~

N'oniinal' TJi~e':,<l,~', Major,;.
Dfarneter
,;srze per Inch. ,ln9i,i'
l/iq" '64 - .0625
5164" :60,: ,0781 :
3732" 48 .- .0938
j,/64 " '48 .1094
, '1!8'{ 32 .125Q
9/l(4", AO '.J406_
51-32": 32, ,;1563_
5132'" ;j6 .1563
lit/64 " ,32 .17i9
- '3/16" 24 .1875
'3/,16" 32 .i875 '
131M," 24 .1031 '
1 i'J2'!' 21- .2188
tl~~'~I; 32 ;2188
'15/6:4"- , 24 '.2344
. '1/4:" ' ;,24 2500
,2,7 .2500
32 .2500
20- . 3125
27 ;3;1'25 --f.iominal ~ Ti,i:'ead;" ' Major" : -MinQr: _Pit~i\
""Si;e= -DiameterO " .Di~.me·ter Dlameter
per Inch, :r~cli.s; Lhches lncl1es:
"
0, :80, ,0600 .0438" '.051'9 ',i16:V'
" ~ t
,1'-_ 7.2 :07~q ,Q~5P~ .0~,4,o· 153,
:?: 64 ~0'860 >'-1i6~7" ,0759- ,sO
'3, .56 :.0990, .075$,' _. .0874.'- 45 " 36 " 4. 48' .,.1120' .0849 ,oMS , 42
504)' 44 .1250 ,0955' .1102 - -- ,37'
"
6 {o. .138'0 .lOSS- . -~1218 "3~
'., ~ff:: "
8 .1640 -.1,2'];9 r- :1460 29'"
- 1/4" 51_1'~"-

3/8" A/Ifi" 1/2~ 9/16"

5/8" , 3/4" i/8'" - lr'

.,1~:~ --: ;_~1~'" . 1'%'/

32' '28 28

"24,- --

_ .1900, ' ;1494_

.2160,,"';169 --' 6_. '. " • 'J

.2500" - .: .203(>:

.3125 ' : -.2584

- - ,1697

- ';1928 '

~;~268, .2854 -'"

24 ?O' -:::20 18

;3750' --'4.3i5 ;5000 .5625

:5209..3:126 .4351_

" ,_

_.3479 A059 04.675 ,".

, .5~~4' .

,.4903 '

J8

'16 14 14

,55,28,' , .66'S8

.6250

,', "

':7500

.588;9:

';70~4'-' "

--.8286', .9536

).070; .

, _ ,l.i959 1.3209'

, .7 ...

;~.750:'.7822

.. ~ .

Lo090_ ; _ - : -;9072 ,

-. '--. r .

,12

12

1,1;2,5,9' 1.0168' .

L~500, -- " 'l.14i8

12 12

"1.37,50 1.5000

1.2668:, '1-.391'8

".~ .

21,

• l!1-l

.s:

,1

.,1,-'

Q " 2'5164;~' 29./64" ~3/64;;

-,'~1, 29 25

",

:.: ,

,32 2()

, 27 "

.21' 27 1,2 2,4 2J

- , 27_

12

'27' -

U 16 .i2' '27 -10 ' "1:2' -',

,'18**

27

9,

12 27., .. 5% .-

5 ..

,_ '4,%' 4,

:3125 ;3750 ~3750 _ ~4375

~~43JS

;5000 .5000 ':5qoO:

-,56i5

• :6250"

, .625p--

:687,5 .. 6s75' ';7500,: .

. ~75do. -~. ~812S :87,50= .8750-.8750 .?375

1.0'00'0 Lotio'o, E625() 1.8750 2~1250 2~3i50

.:.Minor,~ . Diameter ' - - -' Inches :

,,'Pitch ,

:Di'itmetei" In,eheg"

004,22 '

, '.056~ ,;0667 ".0823

.0844 ,.i081 .U57

,<.'1202

.1313 .1334 .146.9.

· .l.490

···.1~46 :178.2,-, ~18.o6

· .1:959

-".0524 -, ;0673 ,:0803.

, .0959

'. ;'t!l47, >.12f4 ... 'r360

.1382

.151.6 '-.1604 .1672 .1_7~~

. :1917 ;19'85 ;207'3 .22'29-

!': .•

. 2019' ,2260

,;?094 '- ", .2297

.2476, ;2800 " .

',;~~44 ", ;,:2884'

.'2T19 ' :2922 .3100;3425

· ;3269 - :3509

.3834 -:4104-

.3894 . Ai34

:J9i8 -.4459

"" -,.4459 ' .47,29

"':{5:I9_ ' . - .4].59

;51:44 .' ~s3M, ..

. 5168-,· '.5709-

.57p9 ; _ .6009

" ,5694, ,-.- - '.6285

-,:6{)63.6469~

':6418, ' :6959 -;

--;'7019 ' - '. .-1i59

_6,826 :Z4?6~ -

.. 7668 "

-" --.8028 - .826Q

. ~9.32 ' ~89j8-

- ,.9S19

-1.388.8

1:615i -,].8363 ", 2;9502

,::~~g:

:8'51i9- ':8654

.16. "':1

'ii' ',f

10 '1/4"

. "',4 _ -"17/61("

,-3 . _ .17164" . ~ "i/32u - j 7!64u. -tt/64ff ,21/fW '

·1 . ,21/6~ ":

(al/64" _25/M-" '25/64"

~9/M~'

Aj.32~ 21/64" R -e, X '_,-

",t,-· .

-;I -," ". 2~f/64'/~- .~~ I':

27J64"33/64~ -,-

,iQ/64'~ ,'3-3/6'4",

,1'5/32'! 33/64"-

_'-17/32;' -37/64", ,J35/64,;, '4l/641', .

- - -,t:9/3W' - 4f/64!',- -- , .,,;)

- 19!32"45!64'~,

4~%~.;:;~·"1~j~,E':'",

23/32749j54r ,; -, 2'3/32" ·5~1~4":__ -

5iJ64~' "57/6;''',: "' _1

. 53/64'."57/64"-'

,.' ,2713'/.'~~; -. SV6r .; "', ,.i, ,53/64"", ,61l64'~ .

'~9164~'- \l,~-.1/~4::i: ," _,:31/32": -1-. 1,/64." '

1- 2 9/ 6'1- ~- r~,41! 64~' . 1~11/i5;" .1-51/64:'-- 1';2~f,3iu- '2~ 5/32" .2- 1/8" n ;2~13/3:2~'

"

i'-._.

-.- ., . '-

~i '

'TABLE VIII

, ~' : .. ~

.: ....

. '- . TAln:,K'IX

~ . . 1.

BRrrrSH STANDARD .. WHITWORT,H ·FORM '

.THREAD.IHMENSioNS',;ANDT'AlfD'RILL-SIZ'ES' . ,

- ., •• ", ,C •. ,_ \ - , • _

MACHINR SCREW' SIZES:

, ," -.)!

.~ T,1iit.E!\nDI~ENS~~:)NSA-~D ~Ap' P:RttL S'It:ii~ .. 'N ATIONA:L,.SPECIAt ,THREA'D' SERIES" .•

.~" "'" - "

'Thre~d:' ,per r~~h"

'Majo~:

, Diameter . In..:!> ••

., 'I .....

'l.<.'" -'56

'T ,32

'4 ,'. ~6'

'Si(3:i;) 36.

.... - ..

.:36 30· 36"·· 3p

40' 24

~~' ..

lB. '3P', ·32:

" 2'.0

if

6

,,' ',1-

'r 'J

.8';' - !V~

, :.0736".0498 "

:i 12.0 - ".071'4 : -

';1-126'" .

, .1250·:~~::~:

, .1~8:0.1019, r

;l~lJ);l.o71

',.1510 .i'i,49

,1640 .l2!)?

;164;0, .01315 '-.fu8:

.1710 < >, ~l-229' ", :i499

..1 fill. --",:i3i7 - ", '1553 ,'.-.,.

o:l'l?,p. ..,' .13'64; :1567,-._

.19,00 - .J436

.1900 -:.1467

-.~i6.o: .. .' .1754'

" 442.0 ", '.17.70"

';24?.o, .: , .. i8~'(

t;: :'-~i' ... ,;.

- - ,.... ~~"

~ , :.

.~61i4-,

• .0917 '.0940

.. ' -:101.0

azoe ;,294 - ;1$30 .1423

'; :,.-1.668 .i684 .i~,5i

:-

e;2095:

':2H9.

v . ·l'

.i/-

",,-,

34 31 %;"'-

, :30

;.'~,8" -.

29 .27: ·26

~--

"60 .. ,'48 40'

" 32

24,' , 24 .

20 .

.i6' ,18' 16 ,14·' :1·2

12 rr 1'1 lQ 10

9

8 .'

?

•. :7

6. 6 5' I .

,5 e , :

-r , ,.~}1."

~ Minoi Diameter.

Inches

Tap>:Qdl\ fot'FuU':: .Tijr'e:ad

4j

.O~z5,.04:i'2 . ';.05].8

' . .0938 0671 '.:.0804

.iasn :.0930 ';1090' ': '"

.rsss :-111)2 '.:p62".

;t'SZS "' , - .134i ,'.1608' 'e- "

- .2188: .1654 :t 921',

.25,M ~ ·":1860: .... ~2)S8606· .

.2813',;2321

. - .. 3:125" '.2414 .2769

.3750 ',4S!SO .3350

... 43·75 :3460~3918'

.s'Q() .0 ;~93}/,_ -,446,6:.

.5625 .45058. _ .' :5091

, .6250 ' ;5086: _' .5668

:6875.57i.1·· .6i93'

-~75'OO ;6219" ';6860'

il2S' ".6844, .7~'85,

'.8tSO~ .'.' .7327.8039

11.·.PI.oZ' 05.00 . i.8399·.920jf ".

A420. (:033:5

_1:2500 U)67lJ~h1585'

.. -: 1.3 7 5.0:.' ,1.16'f6~ [ 1.268-3

L5.oOO '. 1.2,866-1,3933

1.625.0. .' "I.3689~lA969 't;7'i;O.o'- " 1.49391.6219 e.oooo- 'l~71S4: • -·'usn 2;25.0.0' '. ,:1:9298" . :2;.0899 2;50.00 *,.1798.2.3399

,.- ", 'TABLE X " ,.

BRITISH ASSOCIATION STANDARD' :.i-H~E~P·PI.¥*,~S.I:()~:~, .ANDTAP·~DidL'L .SI-Z'E~

,: ':Major:.;. ,.: Mij,rir Dlam~tei . Planl.teT "

" iIi'f,iI' 'ml"1'.'

'!.'

\ ~ . .::. ...

T4B~K:,XI ,

• .,' I , .

}:N'TEENATI'ONAL S.T:AND·ARD-'-lVI}~:TRIC'

.THREJAP .,DIMENSIONS ~~N·DTAP,D:r{ILL· SIZES

. .. " .: ~ .... . ".

i~'E~CJ-i STA'NDARD.' THREADS- .~METiHC' . 'THR'EAn DI:riE:rlsIONS AND TAP DRILI.>·SIZES

. .'.' ~. ': '.', . \.- ;""" .....- -. ,.. .. ', .:. .'.'. - - '.:" ." ' ..

. L.

TABLE XII"

,'.-' ,I .- .•. '

.' '. ",

'·T"p.Dr-ilL ,Tap.Drill

:; 'D' ·!!:'a·'mit~eht_r'.· ," ," 'for,75 '1'.' for'.76", '

~ . "Thteall Til . d . .

. m/m' m/ili . 'N~.o{i~ch-';~

. ,',i2'73' J.'708, 2.208 .f. 5 f(1

s.ne ',3;513"

'.:4:013 4.41'5,

4.915

5,350' ,6.350 7;3S'(J:' '

s.sso . ,9.026, IL026 i2:701' -r

'-Y'.

29:,27:' ' 3i:727 '

" '33.402':'

, 35:402' ~

• 0 •• ;it.~'92·.· '-, 3910'n

. 41:"071 "

:.\ ...

,43:07;7 ,

'1;1 ,1~5' 2.0 2~.f,

~t9' ·,.3.25 ,j.7.S·· , 4.1.

.' '4,'6, 5.0 6,0 '7))

, _, I

,ItO. '.' . as ~

,·lO.S,

, '12:0

• <;"' .. '.

~,14';.p'

,"(sis'

· ;lts; - HtS

21:0

· ,23:0:, 25:0 26,S'

;Pit~lI. . m/m.

.'.'.:;

··;40 . ··.40·

A5 '" .50

, ~60"

. .zo ;.,

. " ;15.

.8t)

..

,Min,ir, Diahieier rr.iin

':1.4S 1.7S

::~:~~ ..

2.7i· '3;09 3.53' 3.~6:

4.33 "4.7:0 " 5.70 th?.'

, ;Pitch Diameter, ", 'mint'

.... ".

" . 'i.74()', 2;i}40 ' . .2.308 .2;:675,'

s.no 3.545,.

,4,013' 4.480

,4.,91~" 0$.350 ' 6:350 Q_.i88",.

jb'

1:00 ,.'LOo. ':,{'';S, .

1;2S<

,':1)50

. ~"_ i'.SO

':" i;~s

, ' E6"

-1 .. 9

·2.1 ,",2:5 "

2,.9, -:t~' '3'.75

4.2

" ,4.!i"

5Jf '6,'0'.,

, ,

6;8

"1.25. " ~ _\h8' '

;z:OO' . 'nAo

'2.00" '13.40:

1::50 i6:05J

,- ""2:50 2:50 " .'2',:0$'0 3':09

, 14:75;, 16.~5;' 18,75

; 20,1.0

3.00, __ 23 .. 10' ;

, 3.50,"'- ··i~.45 : 3.50 '2"8:45 .,

~ "'4:06, , , 30,8!r,

13.188:'

, ii;~7 0.:1 "~ ,-- 14;701 17.026:'

'i~.3?~ .. 18.3.76, ·20.37~ , '22.051

.25.051 ' .27i7ii .. , ,~,O}2t-, ';"3.3:402" '

36.40i· ',39.07:7 ' 42.077 ,.'g,75i·

:7.8,'" 8:6; , i6.: iO;5

13'.0";' 12;0 ':14jj" ,

'_', 1(>.5,:

, ,

;15} , 17;5 '.-"

f!P;-

" 2-1.0

2'4,0 '26.5 '

Major . Pit~ii/

DIameter.

. ~!ln' . m/m"

Minor' '. ',Db:metcr ,.~/m,

'1/15 'i 41; 4836

.' 45'31"'-

"40. . ,"29'"

33 , ::2:,3

30' ,16 ,

26', :.,:'m,

1~, ,'3

1.4'

, ',9'

;15/64:"·' <-Iv

. ~"

~f'l,6:">s ,.R~

'V

;Z:·

33/64", ·';9;1.0"'.

)5/32;{' <9/1'6Y

'35164'" ,,:2' its'2fe,

~li64';:' ; .4'-1764),'

,:R9!64" .uji6fi . 4gj64" .

, '53/64"'. :'

.','.' '"=:;'

'1.5' ,2.0 .. ~j'

3,0

,~.5 :4;0 4'.5 '5.0

.. ' ,

'5~5' -" '6:0 7.0

'''8.0.; .

,,9;0. '~'lo..o. ' ._ ,m.p

'14.0

-l6.P, , 18;0' 20.0 '; i2,0

, 24;0,

26:0, '

28.0 ::',30';0,

Sid! 34.0.,: ,

.; :" 36,0.

, "38.0.

. of..!.,.::':

'.35 ;45 A5, :60

<

. .eo

':75 '(,_ :75: :90

:96 .1,00 L.OO l';O()

" LQO -1.50 :1.5'0 ..

. 2:60;,'

z:'iJO ,2'.50."i "'2.50,

, 2.5,0 "

;,

7.70 , ., 8.0.5, ~O.Q5 ' llAO

'i'3.4o. ' ."14)0~. ; 14.i5' ,,1?~37:~: ,16:75'1.8.,376'-

·1'8,.75 20;376'

20;10" '22.~51·

~24'~-io:" 24.0'5'1' .:'"

24.Hi - '26.051:-

", '2'5:45. 27;7'27'

~ . ';. t • • ' ••• J'. _

1.05: . 1:42 . 1.92~ _.,2:~2

-.1 2~12 3~O,3

'3.53 ' 3:83' .

4~33" 4:7:0

, 5;70'

6,,70 '

,'3~00 , ·~'3.0Q 3:00' ',3.50

,3.50 -',27.45 ,3:'5Q' .?9.:{S.

4J~O -., 30;11,0

A .. OO ,. ;,: 3:2.8'0.

··-4.00 ' ,4;50

, 4.5"0.," '4:50

'<5:00 5.00"

.34.,~~~,.

36~lS; -.

. ,,;'3M'S,', , AOJ5~

57· ,

:53,

47

:3j32""

sa 'so ,~6' 2,0

14'

Major ~ ,

o ia'meter ,in(-in' '<;

2.0,: :2;3, 2.6 :3:0

·i·~ , J-

4,0

"·4:~.

S.O

5.·5 ~~,o

·to :.?:O

, '9~o.'

, 'lib)

'~'48 ,'" 41'<~ ., 32_ :29 '

23 .: 16 .ro

,',3

j5:/,6~'i. fM\' '19/64"' - '11;32" ':

.', ' "'""" ..

'9 r .

IS/tW' , ,I ,

5/11;" :~/a,i .' ~

• R:2;i/ii4". " tll2;i~ ',., ':

is/a, 2N·;. • 9Ji6 t'. ,'- '.

- "

35/64" Fl{32"O,:,

39/64"'; .. 47/.64" ' lV!6" 13/16", 4g164~- -. "57'/6;4.7, =.

S3!6~" '

'57i64~ ! 63/iW: '

1-3/64"

.,'"

2~~F.Ei~~E: .:,:.·~1~2.3';~'.~3 •• ·.~/·.6~":4I· ~,;

"; 34'.0/. . ~-~J/CW',

.... . . '. I . '~':"-: ~ . r

<35:0 . ':, 1~211iW " 1~19/32V~ . "37;0' 1-29ii4~ " -i~43/64;i

3~"q : i~li/32~: " i~3/4"'

4;LQ i.31l/54", i,.53/64":

" '. , .... ' ,.~ . .• ': . . r, "::.~

'::43,0, ,i 'M3/16"· ,; . ~

,45;0 .. '2;; '" . "', I

.:, '.,

TABLE XV

"." . ,. ;". ,.

'STRAIGHT PIBETHREADS

.. 'AMEIiICAIiJSTAI';JtiA~]).' FORM' .'

'T:HREAD niMENs':(ONS l~D."TA:P.'D,RILL SizES

. y. ".' . _ ..: ~ .. ,' . • ~. • \. .... ", _ • 't .

:;!

'4 .' 5,

'6, .

r

'8:

9 .10

. Pitch. ; Iriche •. ,

P

"Ilb'f~h, 'thread, .

:to

. $:14 ;1/2 1/J"

.1'/4 ,1/5 :1/6 "1/1,-

l/!V 1/9.

1/lt1

.1350

",.1~100 ,.0933, .tf814

.0725

" .0655 .D600,

. " 1,02.00 " :7]00 .5200, .3534

';2700

.2200

'~l~g~::,

.1450 .13V ;,120~

,~707 ;2780 - ,:1853~ .i2S5

" .. 0927

:.0741 . ',~06'Hi .... , .0530

".0463

.(J413 ,.0371

Note: .. Min,Oj . Diameterf!qli.-a.!s M;jjOT Diametei:ininus DOl!-ble'De.pth'of l'hi'ead.

. ", TABLE. XIV

:,SQlJl\~:'rHREADnIivI~NSiQ1\rS':"

Pitch' '. Inches- ' ~J)

"Deptllo£ ~.ad.

Double D;,pih'of '1;h~ead

:Loooo·,. .7$00 .6667; ".'.~,n1i

, ... l'

'1% , .~~

.' \1,f4 ,2'"

<~}':I:

.,3", ..

:~~ -4 ,4,%

, :5~i:/

;<~"

,6 ' .. 1667' ';0833 .I"

. ';'8'7"",,:, .i'l2W.), ,.'0°76'.1245.:

,1250" .. '

.. ,:9 . '., 111ii;, ,',.' 'i0556 .

. \ 0 .'1000": : .. 0500"

. "' '1"1 .• 09'09':':~" ;0'455

:"'~,}~;: ,'. " :gn~;>:'. ,·:g.ci·~r.·

'i4<" .'.Oh'4 ' ,;0'35:( <i5 ;0667'.0333"

'16~. ,,062·5 ~03;t{.

'.:-J:~'-', .:': .b$;5,~";:, ,.Q278.

: 20 , ·,0500"',

'22 "";0455,'

"2"4'"'.04:17 .

.~oj)o '.4000' "33j3 ,2857,.

.• -2500';<' ',;2222'.' ,,206o~,;:': 118t8 .

o;isoo, .• 2000 .1667' ;:j42·9

';'1'250' ,'.1111 .ieoo. ,.0909

;2500 , '.2222

~ .. ;:~~1t~, .,.

.J667·' ,.142~

• ·1'250,< .u n

',fooo, :0909 .; ;0833:"

I. ' .• 0169:

,_',

.2500" .z'60b, .f667' ',1419

.1250' :111:1 ';1000 : ':090'9

- ;08:13

:0714 '~J.0625 . "'~ '~05S6 '. "

-; ~ ,:,Q5'QO

, -: :0455" ,',. :0,411' '.'

, , ' .. ;0385 :.~ '."

"--.3655 , :',2'728 ·/.t.'80(1'

, .t:iif3i

:.o~m .:0689. .0566'

. ~.0478,

,.04H

'. -;0361: ' .031?;

,M.;{or
.Diameter
Ii'cl{;; s
%~~ -'27 ·:1-944 ..
%'( .(8 .5343
" ta" IS .6714 .
%" 1'4 ,8~56
~%" 14 1,P4.W
1" '11~,' );3082,
1%'" 11% 1;6530:
1~~' .1~.% 1..8919
'2" 11'% 2.3658.
2%i: 8 2;8622'
3,1 '8 3.4'8'85
~%ff, ~,8: 3;9888
4';;' '8 4;18.71 "
I'" !inner, :piam~t.r' In',ches.

"Pitcb": '. .i>i~nl':tcr' ''Inches ,'"

.3451 ;4455 ;5826:

, :?213,

• 9318,: 1.1690 1.5138: -i.1527

2;2267

:2;~622 .. 3.2885 3.!l8,~8:', .: 4,2871 ,

:..,

. :;3748

.. 4899 .6270 ' ;'7'184; ,

.9889 .

1-.2386, 1.5834,

).S22l

2.2963 .. 2 . .1622 3;3885

·~.8,888_ '4.3~71

59/tW 1-5/32;: f- 'i/2'" 1-47/64!'

• "1,

'2- 7/32'" 2- 51~;';

··3- U4.!'; 3- 3)'4"' ,4- 1/4 II. ", "

TABLE XVI"

- ,- ~ I

.. -":;,

, .

-'J r

",

"l

r:

MA-NtrFAC'I'lJ.RERS·"STANDARD 'Ft);it[VI~gO~'THREAD" ~'.T~R~Ab:"~~~E~:si9NS AN~ 4i~,:j)'a~LX. g'riE:'S:. "

32" :.

2$~·. 7't.

22' .

18- '.

j'8'~'" . Hi"

".1250_ A630' . , .lJI50:

.2220, '"' ,:2500 ':i3t2~ , .3750 .

',"04315 .. 5000',

:;.J~.:.,;!(

·Minor.· Diameter"., . ,. 'Inche~ ,

.,;091"0 "...1250' . ',,1510

.1140

,::-'

'/Pitch,' 'niametei, Inche.

,:Tap' Drill '

,J~~~:< :~. ~~: ",'

~1730,. .. 24

: 1980 -; ,.; '1,6'"

!2~otO ..

. ,.2764: .3344, ."39.11

29, - ..

"_ '<.

'-19

,'!!:

J

iA~{E ' XViI~GEAR' slit;t.tps; to :,CiB-r,Au\i: PROPER' :CARi<IAt~E;:FEEQS":~,QR wY~IiING' WITH 4'MERHEAN,: _, ~'" ':~iTEE:t,';AN'D,VillREMusicWIRE~'GAUGE ",' ,

. '~'. . "',' I '::" '."_' " _ I', _ 1 - ,\

T,h(vAmericall-S ,&W,gilug,e,isuui,versal,fpr delloting,' ': sizes oi'music wire. used'in J#aking' sm;ilt-spriiigs.-:

Extr.~,"gears::iwairiibl'e hom. f~i;totya(1li!minari:;ps't;~, "

';:AB-r:E'XVIII__;GEAR-SE~~':UPS 'T.O, OBTAIN ,~cROPER-

:' CA:RRIAGE FEEDS Jj'Uf{" WI,N,DIl'fdWITH '

, ENAMEL C.OVERl;CD mAGN,ET WIRE"

- : Accur.lite toC'o~~erciili Toleran~~s:,' ,

Extra gears avaifab1.efrom '-actliry ~t 'P0m,llra1cpst. '

, ,A."8, &'w{, WJre ",~G.ar on Gilug~No. i:j:iamd~r ~cr.w

" 4!) ':64'1 aos
l~, .0828 54F 36 I
~3 .074,0 :fi4F --- 'A4 52' -64f20S'
-, :641 ,2 OS':
l{ ,:0660' ;56F - '_:"'1. "52 48
, "15 .05'88 561' - 4-4 36 '641.z0~
1-6 ,0534 "ji4F '54 '46 " ,5H ,20S,
" 205,
,j;7 ,.046,8 64P :48 J6 " " 641
"
, .0417 " 48F' '20S 641 64 32 "
-f8:,
1\9 ))3{)8 M'..f' 20S 541. 5'4' 3.2 "
.. .. ".0333

, <,,0298

.0~5'5 ' .. 0?~7·'

.O:;!12

. ,.1)'135'. .01'22, ,QI0,8, ,,0097,

.0987 .0077 ~h069' .

4,8B 56F . '55F ',}hB

. 48F' '48B

MB ~;4B~

'64F

"'6<1:B' '4-,8F, 48F"

'48E 48F

" .,':

64F- 6.4F.'

56F' ,,56F ·.9043;, '~4F

.0051,

:~~!'t'

-.":.":"""

'32 4020.s641 48' 20 " 641 245' . 54 '-20'641' 24S

, .' 52 . :32 .':,ZOS'61I1

" ,

- 20S64i-'

20 "4'4 245 641 2~S'5Z1' 54 32

44'~~24

3'2 32 32 32

~2 32 32 3t

: 16 32·

, ~2'~ .

15

O!,,"' ;

16 . .

. .-- i6~~:::~.·~ .; ~ _.;,

32:'e~ , :~ ,'{,f,. ~2': p, ,'0,

15 .( ..

19£:'" 16

I '.;~ '_, .~

16::

16: 16 16; " 1'6,'

'~.- -

- - ,,',.54' '20 "2Q. ',48 . 16 :~:

- ,_. ', ,56·20' '20,52 16:.1.

'.2.'0,' .. ·2" 0' .. ., $,,2' -- ",: 1-6"',:

-:- '.~::'56 _

,;:, ~ 2:.

. s a:"":'ex,tra '40 tooth 'gear

,"- ,1'":-c:ic:tra' 48 ,tootli ge"ar ,

:";: .. ~~~i~:i~~;:S~;",~a~~

F-:-po'iiHon aWay frQm h~adstoc,k :S_po'sit1ol1,toward heidstock:.."· ,

" " I.......;idie.rgear:. ('p~g~':p')':' "

p_e'~{ra ,52 .. tootJ1 gear .:" 5,-:'space( gear (page 6) T

, " " '",. S$'~,dQup.le'keyway sp~c~.r' ,"- _

_'f.':'ext~a: sjeeve~ bushing arid,'bqIt'ass'e,pibly;

- .. , '!" ' ." .~." .',. ,. ,' ..

-'.- '--,,"

",_,"",;",,",- ' ____

• . . I

40 .24

- ,-
20; 44 ..
_ " 24 54
" :56 48
2.4 64
4'6 20
"3'2 iQ
.4,0, io
,40 20 ,,_
:56 ,2Q 4615S

24' 48' '46 if 3'£'54:· 20: 54~,'

-·44]' 5S , 5USS

46ISS 20· 48 " ,

52I~.SS 20, ,54

,,,- ,32 - 52'

,56 :24' .20,44,

~J_.

: \

"TABLE"'X);x:~hE:ARSET-U'RS TO' ,OJ3TAIN:PROE:ER' '~C4aRI4GJJ}"'JrEEDS Fq~: ~I~:OIN~ WtTHAiv1E~iQ~~ s: , 'OR BROWNE ANI> "SHARPE' WIRE" GAUGE ,',-

r' .. ! •.. _ ... .;... ,' .. e· ';. "_"

il'Ns,'.gal}ge" j~ uni'(~r,sal,lo.r den9tjrigsi?;ebl~opper,b.ra.~~,. bz;o.1!.z.~,'alu!liIi].l!-ni "wIre"s:mal! Mass'tp.bmgi, s}reet'·and$trIp , ,brass ~nd.cop*r,Ii:jckel·~ilverwife.·a.i1:as·t'rip, .1leatilJJ:,'s]loV .

, .wir;,;i,;a,nd, ar~a(iire, bindi1rg wire: The"tablebiilow: jnc:1udes",'

b,are wire, oil_I!. ", '. .,'." .,.', ", ,/' , " , ,

E,_xtra gears availa.ble hQI!! -iectory atnom/nro:l cO,st ,,' ,,-_

_ r" ,.,. ...• ~

B. &8. Wire Gear ~)n. 'Position D' '.,Positiori C

paug';.~o.,Dibe'te:r ~crew, 'ii" F' S' F'

1.2 -- 'i3" 11. ,1,5

.oaQ8Q~ .071961 .0.540.84' ,0.570.6.8

44 4lV"-,- 40. ,46.,

48 40 5.240.,

;ZOS,S4I

'44 56'

32' 46

·54F ,64F, .

52F' 5,fF

1-5 .0.50.820.' ;64F

J 7 ' , .!H:S257. ' 64B; 18 .. Q40303~4B J9.Q3589,D" ',54B"

24 '46

,.20. ' '2-1 '22 ;?3 '

.Q319.61-,54B ;O~846i "S4F ,.0.253:47 , <':54B' .n2?5Z1 46B,

.. '

35.44

52 ',29 ,,20.46 24 fl6.

64:B' 48.?.' ,56B Mer

~ . -t-

36, :56';

'6'41 :208 - - '24'- \' 54 ' ~l' _

20. '44 '

.. ~-

"" " ~nI26,"tl 48~

,,.,,2.9, ,0.11-257,' 64li'

30 ,: ".t):10025',64F '31,.0,08928; 64F

32" ,:do,795o :S6E .~.)3 ~007080, 64F'-

,3'4" ;oofdo4"~'64F ',35' ,0056H'6!{P 3,~·~ .p'0,$POQ"~1,B

441,SS,

54 ,24

20 'fn 40.,

- _ 56 zo.: .,---' ,_

",6:4 ':20. 40 "?Q, ..

,44

'i'

641 20S 54I 20S 641 '20S 541 20S

,64 .52 52 56 56'

2Q~, 54r ('16, 2~' 56, ,:,.1 I6j. '20S 52.I, '-16' ii'4SS61. ",16;,;:

24S 641 24 4,~; ;36,,56~ 24'48'

2'4 ,48', ,24S;64].' ~5'M' 32;',:56; "

36." :5,6'"

,I ,

TABLE· XX-GEAR" SET.,.UP TO' :OBTAIN PROPER

GAR:RIAGE FE:gns FOR 'WINDll\rG -WIT;H WA.SHBURN;

, }\NPMq~~,<?R STEE~'W~RE G~u.Q~, '

This gf,iuge applies,tOnptactii:illly:aJT:typ,e.s o.f iron and steel ,,{;ii~ ,ex'dept steel mqsic wiie';GalvaiJ,ize,d'1r9ii.wire, ,,S"toY!i pip«: arlit sQft iron wJre, ,bipd£ng V{I1:ili'aI?i1 ~feel.'Wir{! ,for spiings (except: music .Wire)' arespecined 'in: this' 'gauge~'

'EJ{ua ,'gears: available, from, factorY,at"n-Pn;ii'n'aj"c;o·st.

«:

'. 121 .1055 64F 32 ",54 641'20$. 032
-
13 .09M 48F -!:.;._ 40. 44 Ci4:rZOS 32 ,
14 .0800 4QB, ,36 20.' _'I.__;_; ::sS' 641 54 24 . 32
15 ~0720 36B 40. 54' - , _ .64' 56 3(L
..16: .0.6,25 MB ,481.24S .. 6.41 2nS 32
1:7 ,.0.540. 5;4B, 40. 48 2QS 521 64' 56 32
IS ,.04d5, S6F .. ~ '5,4 36 G41 20.8- 32
~9 .Q!1-1O' ME' 36 48 64 56 32
20. .. .0.348 ,64$' - ,36 20 '641· 24S 32
2-1 .0.317 .': 56:F' 54 24, !'!41 20S ~2
;-22 .0286. 56B 24 48 40. 32 32 '.' " ~~~
- ,
:23 :0258; ~4'6$', 3,2 40'· -SS '52I 54 20. " $2
-. - - .. .' _-:" ..
'64B /) 52
,24 :0.230 -, - '20" 46 44 32'
Z5 J .0.204 MB 24" 46 - 20.$'481 64: 40., 32: ) '",,,
26 "Qt81 , -'.48B· ,20 46 2.4S 641 16 "
;zi .DIn ,:48B .- 2.0 A'S' 24S '641 16'
'28 ,N~2 64F' 44 40 5':4I'20S 3'2 56
"'29 ,. "Q~:§,O 52B 20. ,44 - ss. -·541 56 24-
.;'$,0 ·0.;110 48F,' 54, 40 . " 441SS; ·20.·" 44" .:'"
,,31 '.0.132 '6f1.Ji' 20.' .. ,,54, SS, ;4,61 ,56'; ",32
32 .oraa '48F 40. ,2O 461,-8S ,i 3'2. 52' 15.
33 .,Q~lS 48F' M 2.0."" 4-~1~ ',2;~8'. ~O' 54 c, 16
3'4 ,010.,4 '48F' ,40, :20 521 S8, , .: 32:, 64 'T6
3'5 .00'95 54F 44 20 24, ' 36 ' .32S'56[, "16; 4'832 44 '20 48'. 20

.4'8]'85' . 481,S5 , 4ist'5S '5?"'?0:- '_ - . }6' ~24

:20 40 24 54: ;24:, '52 '4064 24 .. 46'

54F ~48F 48F '64F ' , ,,-., ':'61F '

- ...-:~ -

, ',S;YMBOLS,:

,. ,SS,"",-:do;uble 'k¢y:o.y'ay spacer' "

F'::'__posii:ion ayfay fid'ili hiiMs't6df, ·;S;..c.;_posil:ion foward'heaostd:ck .~ ,

,.> ..,. , " <paie~6) :. . .

THREAD CUTTING

57

TABLE XXII-GEARSET~UPS TO OBTAINP:ROPER· 'CARRIAGE FEEDS FOR WINDING WITfI SINGLE

, COTTON COVERED MAGNET WIRE

Extra gears available from, f'actory at nominal cost.

Accurate to Commercial Xolerance1,t., '.

a.; &: s: .' Wi~e G<'ar'O:n G~~tg;,No~ Dia",et~r Scr~

i?'ositioil. DEosiHorl C ' Position B :8. "F'B ·.F' <'. B .. ;i

Position D Position C Position B ·Position·A· .Cornpcund

BF B F B F B . F TG~~;er

B. &'S. ·Wire Qe.ar on

GaugeNo, Diameter Screw

.09'08 , .. 08'10 :)d31

.,0661

64:1 20$, 641 20S 64'!; 2'ri~'

'641"20& .

:12 ','l3' ,14. "rs :

ME 54F ,64'F, :S6F

. 64-_F 64F· )6F

, :S4E

44,lf Ji4B 48B 48B

52B.

. '4:~:"

. '54B

48B' .if?~ 64B

54B'

4SB -64.8 54B "64.8

!1-8B ,48F '4,8.#

- 64F'

:'-64:8'

35 44'_

641 ZOS 641 20S 641 20S 641 ZOS

64120S 641 20S 64i 20S

44 4620S 641

S8 541 641 24S S8 641 56 20 64124S

641 24S

24 46 20S 641

20 36 245641

2046 ·24S 641

64 44 SS 541 64 36 20 56 «:)4 40

ZO 54

48 2(j 44 64

521 8S Z4 54

S8 541 55 Z4 461 SS24 5Z

24 48 36 20

46 44 Z4S 641 40 64 24 46

i2 ~13

14 15

16 17 18 19

20 21 22 -?3

24 25' 2.6 27

Z8 '29 30 .3.1

32 33. 34 '

35.

3.5 37 38 39 40

55F 64F 56F 52F

64F 56F 54F 48B

64B 56F 44B 55F

54F 48B .56B 48B

64B 64B 64B 48B

48F 56F 64B 48F

40B ,40B 52F 64F 64F

40 48 36 44 48 45' 40 3Z

5Z46 45 32 40 24.

32 32 32 32

32 32 32 16

16 32 32 3Z

32 16 16 16

32 32 32 15

15 16 32 16

32 32 16 . 16 16

.0858 .0755' .0686 .0616

.0553 .0498 .0448 .0399

.03,55 .0325 .0294 .026.6

.0241 .0219 .0199 .018Z

.. 01~6 .0153 .0140 .0129

.01Z0 .0111 .0103 .0096

.OO!?O .0085 . 0.0.80 .0075 ,0071

4'4' 18' 4-8. 56. 52 '48

46 44,,'

. 46;' 40' 55 5z1 4-0 24·

I....... "20S,56t

56 48

32 40 .~'2·:· 4'4 ."

32'

1

16": p' .. 18 .

"19 .

,20

641 20,S 32

6;4'.Z::208, '32

5'r 24 " ',3Z

641 acs 82

!i{, 36 ~:~

SS ,561' 16

f,QS 641 .. - :r6"

. ZdS54I 'i6

,OS98 :'0543 -.0493

.. 0014'4

.04J'0' .0.$:6~. .. Q3~4 .'0306

.(j2St :OZ59· .:0239 .'0,222'

.. ,...._ -

I.

32 -40

56 48 44 20

.21 .

'22 ,23.

. :24 '2S; '26'

Z1"

36 40

54 2'0 52 2'0

3244; ........20So$6148 ;24- 32 _ '40',S$5,61' -54;'ZO

'-- _" i51L2US S' S· '561 "35,24 .... O:,·~3,52··" ':24 '40 - -.

32 32

'16"

,32

;zst ': ,;02'0'5 . "29-' .. 0 19.3· '30_>.0.1:80 3'1' '. ;0.16!f

32~' ··.OHiO'· '3l ",0151'

"'34:.014,3':

, 35'" '~'O,i36

36' ;0130! ' 37';Og5· , iS8-.01iO,

, ,3If '.()tlS

'4:o,;OI1Z,

-,-8S:- 551 -:5.4 :'24 ,. 561 ZOS ;......... 24,5'Z - ,..c-., :zif :46 '3i{Z()' 32, .' 54 " 44 ,20'

32

20 52

-:.~~ -

20 45

'3:Z ',32" .

16 '32 32. '-:'-32

541 SS

.- 6412:.4S.' 2fr'52' .

24'- "64-~ 56 ,i6,,'

.---, ,:.".... - - 20 :5:2'4-8 ··24 .

.",-,- - --:..::;;.",20, 46<40' ·:20 :

46 .32 2'0 52 4'020

-. : 641 S8 zif64

40 24:._....,... - - :521 SS -'32.64

--4S'. :Z0 ." '44 -64'

'.48. 40 . . . ... .:',54 .

_'~·r6 -' 16 ,~.15 ')6

461 SS 48 54 20 40 52 20 55 Z4

48 ZO

.2Q. 48.

. SYIViiH~J;$: ,

SYMBOLS:

.;'.11

SS:"'_doublekeywa,Y.spacer B-position toward headstock

,F---'positi'on away. from headstock I....,...idler gear (page G)

S.,....;.spacer geat(page 6) .

,

:1

THREA'D G.un'ING

MANUAL OF LATHE, OPERATioN

59

5S

TABLE XXIII-GEAR ,S,ET-UPS TO Ol?TAIN PROPER CARRIAGE FEEDS FOI< WINDIN'G WITH DOUBLE

I '

,SILK COVERED MAGNET WIRE

illABLE -XXIV~GEAR:SET-UPS TO OBTAIN PROPER ,CARRIAGE REEDS FOR WINDING WITH SINGLE SILK COVERED MAGNET \VIRE

Aetun.ite to -Commercial T'olersnces. !!Jidiai,eafs available Fiom factory at iiominsl cost.

Acr::u.tate ;to.C;omperciat''{olerances.

Extra gears av-ailabie from f:aet(;rjr -atnomirial cost.

, . _, .. "

Posit;onC PositionBPo,,;tion A Compound "

, ' " --,' Tl;m:bler Note

B. F B ,F BF v.a;' ,

B. Il: S. - Wi'r'e, Gear nrt Ga~~~ _N·~.T~ia~~t.er Screw

.:P(j""3it.io~ D

B _F

56F 48F 54F 56F

54F 3~B 54F 64F

-, -taB 56'_F 48B 55F

64F 48B 56B 48B

64B 64li' 5~B-

48B

4811' 56F 54B -4SF

40B 40B ,52l<' 64'F ME,.

54126$ 54120S 54IioS 541 20S

M-55 20Si54J 64l20S- 64 40,

20S641 64j ,24S 54 4(l 64124S

641 24S 205641 '245M1 '24$641

54 -54

.0848 .6760 .0681 .!i6li,

12.

.'i4E 54E :55E 48B

64F 3GB 56E ,56F

48B 48B 56E 48$

5:2B_ ,56B 48B' 54F

64B 64E '48F 48F

64F :52F' 48F 5~'F-

64B- 54;F 64F 55F _54F

3540

641 20S ,_641 20S 641 20S 56120S-

64 54 20S 64.(

-64120S 641 20S

20S 641 2.oS 641 641 24S 20S641

56 39 24S 6'47 24 56

.0828_ .0740 .066f .0.591

.0528 .. 0473 .0423 .1)374

. .034'0 .0305 .0274 .0246

.0221 .0199 .017~, ;0162

.0146 .(1l~3 .0120' .Oi09

,010'0 .0091 .0.083 j)0'76·

.0.070 .00'55 .oosn :0055. .005'!

32

< 12 32 32

32 16 32

_ 32

16 16 32 16

n Hi 15 iii

·32 16 16

16

Iii 16 16 16

32 - 16'

12 13 -1'4

15

16

.. 17 18 19

2,0 .21 it ,23:

24 25 26. ,2:Z

28 29 30' ;3:1

::32 . 3.3 34 ~5

,36. ,37 38

!}

-.44 ,40

- ra

-44 .52 52 48

48 44 54 46

20S S21

14 15

24 44

40 52

32. 16 )2

~,/

32

1.6 .0548·

1./' ,0493

18 ,0443

19 .039.4

20 . .0350

21 ;0325

22 ;0284

23 ,.0266

24 ,Q241-

25 .. 0219_

26 ,0199

27 .018i

28 .0165 29 . ,0153 30.0140 31 .0l29

3.2',.0120 _ 33 .DIU 34,.0103

.35 .0096

36 .009.0

:3.7 ,.0085

38 ·;0680

39.007.5' 40 .0071

20S 521

4854

45 -54

4.024 -- 20S541

56 64

44- 20

54 32" 45. 24

44 54 ,32. 44 '5'2' 20 32 54

24 54

16 16 "32 32

:32 16 16 16_

:;A2 :32

, '_32 16 16 16 32 16

~2 32 16 15,. 16

-,20S ~41

2444

5420 52 -2'0 24 46

:;;:036 -20' 46

64'1 205

44 4.0

521SS 32 56 44 .24 S,2I20S 24 48-

- ___. M 54

- 461SS 40' 64

36 56 '32 64 2.0 46 20 55

2052 6444;

:SS 541 6436 20' 56 ,64 40

-,24 ·56

2046

4,55,4

48 20

1 .1

2Q 64 44 64 24 54 5'6 24 24_ 52

3G" 2.0 464.4 24S 541 4:0 54 2446

, 641-SS

_48 20

48 ao: 5-21 S8 ',SS 541 AM 5S

461,SS .24 48 48 54 --

64 35 24 44

46 20 52,24 40 24

46 .32. 20 52- 40 20

-44' SS 548S

h

20 64 64, '32

20 56 20 48 24' 48 20 48 24 46

20 40 -52- 20 55 24

4820

52 20 54 20

Hi

". rs 16

M 20

;

SYlVIE QLS,:

SS~doubl~keyway spacer" H-posit:Ioh -. to,w<tr.d. headstock-

'F' -position: 1l.waYfi·ofu-·he<idstoek, 1--'-idle• gear (page,6)

" S-spaeer;gear (page,6)

SYl\~BOLS':

.f-extF<i 24,to6th gear SS-do,uble ~eyway ;sp~¢er

h'------,.e.xtr~ 56 tOQ,thgea'r E'":c-position',awity from headstock

l:':"'e,:!!'tra -48 tooth,gear B_po,siri6n toward P.e'adstock

u"-exfra 31i tooth gear', "I-idf~r gear (p,age 6)

- S--,-spacer.gear (page6) ,- .. . .

, '

[

60

MANUAL OF LATHE OPERATION

TABLE XXV-GEAR SET~lJPS TO OBTAIN PROPER CARRIAGE FEEDS'FOR WINDING WITH ENAMEL AND SINGLECQTT,ON COVERED MAGNET WIRE

Accurate to CommercielTolerenoes.

B. :&'s. ·Wire·' Gear.on

13" ugeN 0; D i am et«r S\:ro W

Position .D~ Po~~doi:L'~. Pb51tion:B

B 'F B F.. Ii ,F

P,os'ltion,i\. Compound

'/ Tumbler'

, B :,'F ,Gear .

THREAD CUTTING

61

TABL,E XXV~,-GEAR: SET-UPS TO OBTAIN PROPER CARRIAGE FEEDS FOR WINDING WITH ENAMEL AND SINGLE SILK 90VERED MAGNE'!' WIRE

Accurate to Commercisl Tolerences.

Extra gesrs ~vailablelrom factory at nominal cost.

~ "

12 13 1,4 15

16 17 18 19

20 2.1 22 23

24- 25 26 27

28 29 30 31

32

., .33

, 3,r

3;;

.36 37 'S8

39 40

.0878 .0785 .070.5 .0633

'.0569 .0513 .0462 .0413

.0378 .0338 .0306 .Ont

, .0252 .0229

. ~0209

.0192

.01,75 .0,162 .0148 .0137

.0127 .01i7 ' .0109 .0101

:0095 .008.9. .0084 .0078 .0074

S6F '56F 52F .' 45F

54F 54F 52F 54F

48F, 54F A8B 'laB

48B 48B 4'8B 48B

,48B .54F 48B 5.4B,

'54F 48F 48F 48F

64F 64F .54F 64F 54F

44 54 40' 44 48 44,:

4'4 40 52' 36 40 24

4420

44 ,40

40 20

541 24S 32 64

36 . 44

44 32

36 20 .44 20·

32 44 32 48

64I.20S 5'4120S 641 ?oS 64120$

641 eos 64120S 64I 20S Ml24S

$4124S 6~U 245

, 20S 541 20S 541

24 4020S 54i 24 44 20S541 24 48 '20S541 24 52, 20S 541

20 48 521 SS

46', 20 20 32 541 SS

4M SS

481 SS

24S 641' 3255 20 55 4'6 20

20S 641 35 515 24$ 5!51 20 52

5S 641

"~5 56 24 48 24 48, 20. 46

32 32,

.. _

32 32 32 32 32

32 32 16 16

16 16 16

-1'6

Ip ~6 16 ,32,

.16 16 16 1.6

'i,6 16 16 16 16

B.& S. Wire Gel'ron

Qaugc No.:Diaroeter Screw

Po.monD B F

Po,itioh C . Position Ii Po.iti~n A Com,po\.nd

,B F ' II . F B F Tumb!er

Goat,

48 20

322Q 44 :'20

24 36 '54 24

:-$S-douQle keyway spacer B'--tJositio~ toward.headstock

F~posific:m aw~y Jr,omh~ad$tock I-iiiler gear (page 6)

,., S-sPllcer gear (p.age6)

44 20

64 32

44 -20 _

SYMBOLS:

12' 'is 14 15

16

. 11 " 18

19

20 ~21

2? '2~

24 25 26 21

28 29 30 31

32 33 34 35

36 37 38 39 40

.0848 .0760 ' .0680 .0608

.0544 .0488 .0437 :0388

.0353 ,0318 .0286 .0257

.0232 .0209 .0189 .0172

.0155 .0142 .0128 .0117

.0107 .0097 ,00,89 ;0081

.0075 .0069 .0064 .0058 ;0054

55F 481" 54F .54F

64P 64B 48B 46F

64F 56'F 56B 48B

64F 48B 48B, 64B

,48B .54B 4EIF 48F

4SF 48F 48F 56F

64F 64B 611" 641" 52F

54 36

46 20 32 20 '20 40

54 24

54 64 44 40 48 44 44 3J>

45 40 56 36 46' 44, 20S 561

20S 561 54 24 24 48 32 52

54 20

. ..2.-.

20 52 641 24S 20 52

4824 5220 20, 64 64 20

2448 20 44

. 641 295 641 20S ,541 20'~' 641. 20S

641 20S 20S 641 20S 641

. 54 24

64 36 64120S 40 32 20S 641

'641 24S 20S641 24S 641 56. 40

20 54 24S 641 24 52 36 5,5

32 32 32 3.2

32 16 16 32

32 32 32 16

.32 16 16 32

16 16 16 16

16 16 16 16

16 32 16 16 16

SYMBOLS:

4615S 46 20

441 SS 32' 54, 5215S ·20 54 5215S 24 '56

2044

40 64 56 20 32 56

461 SS 20 4.8 64 3624 4.8

SS~dotible keyway .spacer B-position toward headstock

F-poshiQn aw'ay from headstock l"'::"'idjerg~ar (pageS)

S-spacer gear (Jlage 6)

t.

We will sssist witl: yogI' specisl work by csicuteting gear trein=set-ups tor odd threads ,and feeds not, listed in F/gtir::e 4 {page 5)~, T'eble I (pages ',38~39), Table 11 (page 40), Min any of the t'ables"for coil

" winding between pages 52 and 61" -

Address you.r inquiry' to the ' T:echnicafService 'Irepurtment. ~ it will receive prompt attention,

WALL CHARTS 'ON THREAD CUTTING

The'se Iarge blueprint charts (each 16,~4"" wide, 21" high) di',plnY "al".hle re'f,erehce. data .on thread cutting and' make .usdU:l wall .pieces· for' machinist, ·appren ti.ce a'~d ~t·udetit. Technical 'mate"r:ial in' these :.ch·a"rts: has beerr adapted

,"from ~'~.$hua:l ·.~f L~the, q.l)~r·atlonL~t: -' .. ,".) .... .

-Tpe' wall char-ts: shown "above are-two in 'a' series published by . Atlas .Prese Company" Kalain~zoo 13D, Michiga,n, The eompleteeeries, covering Important :phas~~ of lathe. opereticn .arrd .machine shop praeficc, v.~in -be. TIliii1Cd_· upon ruquust td ~·ny point, in. the 1;.1 nif.e4 ·.·St:5Lt.es~ \v1;e~ .ordefing, encfcse -twcnty'five .centa. for each s;e:t In ~oin .orstarrips .tP .. c~v~.r.·.c:~sts! ·of pr in tirtg. and ·Iio~ta:g~~

----._

,I

- "

Bart 8

LATHE AT,TACHMENTS AND TH'EIR U',S'ES,

·f ,

I !

J

PART 8

LATHE ATTACHMENTS AND THEIR USES

Lathe,athi.chments £a11 into+two g:en~tal classes : '( 1) Thjjse wh'ich increase speed and accuracy of general lathe operations, (2f Those which equip the lathe to handle such wQrkas milling, gl'i:nding, undercutting, et c.; which usually'cequires-a single ,pu;'~ pose, machine. The- 26 ill*strationson pag~ :XIII (Foreword) shows how thewell equipped .lathe performs almost every irnpor-

. tantmachining operation. Attachments for holding _the work are, described in Part 5.

THE STEADY REST

The steady rest' (Fig. 180) supports long work during turning, boring - or threading operations. The base damps securely to the bed ways -,the adjustable bronze jaws 'Form a bearing for the" work and hold -it inexact position. The most

, common -methods of mounting work in ,the steady rest are; shown in Figures 181 and 182.

If the .bar is less than % inch in diameter and must he' machined near thecenter at mprethan S or. 6 inches from the.~h:utk, 'the. steady rest-should be mounted Inposi"Han near the portion of the_ work being Steady' Rest, 61' Center Rest_

machined (Fig, 181), To drill, bore, t~p, or

.maehine the end of a long piece of-any- diameter up to, 3 inches, supportrhe end with the steady restas shown in Figure 182. The, headstock end can be held in a chuck-or centered and bound to the faceplate (Fig. 18-3).

FIQ.-,180

Mo.lJNTING WORK IN THE-- STEADY REST

Accurate positioning of the jaws is essential when mounting. work in ~hesteady 'rest. Thebrcnze jawsrruist.forrn atrue beai:-' ing',for the 'work, allowing it to turn freely but without,play. The folIowing method is satisfactory for mounting most work : Clean the bed w_ays._ With the work mounted __ in the lathe" slide the steady rest- close to the chuck jaws or lati1,~ dog, tighte_n the ba-se

157

MAN,UAL GF LATHECPERATION

.. ~

/

FIG .. 181

S},;.idy rest sitppoit1:ng ~;iJ\, for t\Jrning .. "

~ _ ..

"

I

~

l

.clamp, adjust steady rest jaws an,d lock them inpositibnort-'~h¢' work. A small piece of cellophane slipped- between the ja~ api;f the :work isaometimes used tcald inoptaining theproper be~ring -ad.vance the jawuntil it just touches; then remove cellophane:

Af,fer tigi1tenin~ both- the look nut-and clamp. screw _on each jaw:, '.' loosen the-base 'dii.tnp" slide the-steady rest into-the 'proper posi;tion and, retighten base clamp,

When the work-is beirtg'_,heldin:a chuck, the-jaws' of the-steady rest canbe set more' accurately if the work, is held between lathe centers wlrile.fhe-jaws are b:eirig adjusted, Takeextrerne-carefn.

FIG,:182

Steady rest ·.~uppDrthlg- .. ~haft for - _' ,fating,'ctid: ,_ "

01-'+'

LATH,~ Au AC H M~NTS AN_D -:'rtHLR us E-S

159

·FIG. ,183 .. One end-of this 'piece, is 'being .supported Iiy:the steady. rest; . _ the other-Is bound to the-face platewlfha. wetloatller thong. ' .

19,Catihgthe, tailstock -centet{See page ,69:). _' For jobs 'requiring ,iilaxijilUm' accuracy, check trueness~f_the wo-rk 'With 'a piaL-gaUge as shown in Figure 75" page 71.

During the cutti~g operatl crrapply plenty, of lubricant on the -workatthe point ofbearing, with ~hejaws. When using the.steady _ {r:est i n 'duplica te.work, stock .is'. removed or mounted QY Ioosening :a'J'ld- replacingthe hJng,eq: top.

" -rftEFOLLOWE,R :RES)'

T'he vfo llower- rest (Fig~'f84} is l}1Qunte.:4 em the back ()f~he \can'lq.g<: gove~ai_1 slide andprovides support, for long_sl¢n,de1,"'W:9rk mount~dbetweetlc'eriters. Fi gure f~'5:shows,' a typit~l 'appficaticn.

The two -!l:djusta:ble jaws hold theworkIn exact ' - - - .

pdsitibh; .preventirig i tfiorn ,spri ngirig' a way ftOrn thetocl, . . . . ..

:The jaws ()f the follower rest", lik~ thos~pf the.st~a¢ly rest, must fo~matrlle ~e~tirig :for thew;cu:;k,_,aIldwing ina turn withr1o_trace ofhind~ ih'g:., ipsettiT1'g-the follower' rest jaws, first .fehJ:bve:, the guard over the cross feed screw - __ . place, a ,small --piece. of paper or cardboard 'over tliisscrewto keep off .chips during ,the cqtti'tig oBe'rati'on. The' :dq:vetail ways should he wiped ,cl~api';-A:djl:ls~ the-ja~s with the_cartiage close _ FoN~j~/~4ost.

+9', ·t~e, tai:.~~;to,ck alter a short ,P ortiort of'thewbr~ has b eeii thfrred P:ci_W,IJ. a,t>b·rie: erid.Set "the, follower rest so that the 'vertical jaw lo;U¢h_es. flie top oftha work.- .Iri.,tight'ening the follower .resf j~ws., ce)lop'harie maybe used to ,de'termi1,1~'the ,pr9per>ainolJn.t.ofA~ictlo'n,

. ~ .'.:~ -_; ... -v-

1-

160

MANUAL OF- LATHEOPERf.-T10N

FIG.- 185;' Threading, a long screw with the aid.

of.--the '(o1!ow,'-r rest. '

FIG.,186

Using-lioth the steady rest and-follower r~sf tQ',mpp",rt- a long, smaJ1-diaInete'~ ro~:-

THE' C,UT-O¥F TOOL

Quick, clean cutting-off requires careful machining and a properly .groundtool.. The cut-off toolmust .be set into-the work

at an exact 'ri'gh:t .angle and --±==...:......=",,-

wifh the cutting. edge, ondead center (see' Fig. 19Q).

Figures 18? and 188 show the tool recommended- for most operations. '!'histoolis,

~F"h'. -c.

,1 'r-~ l':..:~

LATH E ATTACH MENIS AND- TH.EI R ,U SES

, 161

RATE OF FEED: The r~te 'of. Feeding-in is especially -impor'fant because the chip is actually wider than the cuttingedgeof the tool blade. A fast Feed tends to cause "hggging," 'either stopping the lathe orbreaking. the tool'---'a slowIeedusually produces-chat'ter, Exper ience .aids in "feeling out" the exact rate of feed to' avoid both chatter and "hogging-in."

'.in the vsame rnannef - as with the steady rest jaws (page 158).

During the . c~ttip.goperation apply plenty of lubricant on the worK at the point i::lf,~earihg-'Nrth the jaws. After each-cut. the jaws.should he adjusted to, retain accuracy. Both the follower rest

and steady rest are often

used to brace-a slender' !

rod (Fig, 186). l'

supplied ready - ground - with correct . top rake, front and side clearance, so that the front face cuts

- Freely without binding (Fig, - ~89). .The cutter blades . are replaceable, and the holderIsoffset to . permit cut-off operations'

" close to . the, ,headstock, , spindle.

. The two most' common troubles in cuttingoff are. "chatter" and "hog' ging-in," The _ f(>1:

FIG. ·18~. Cutiing.,off bar ~tock .Ied through

towing paragraphs tell headstock spindle •.

-how.±hese troubles are avoided-fonow these rules carefully;

RIGIDITY:-Notonly 'the tool and carrlage.rbut every part of

tflc lathe must be tight when cutting 6ff':___loose, fits in thespindle, carriage and compound rest will surely cause trouble. See that the gibs on the rear of the carriage: fit snug and that the carriage is locked securely in position on the bed. Tighten thegibs "onthe cross feed and compound feed. Set the 'too] holder as far back into the .tool vpoat.ias possible and keep the tool post screw tightened. The tool is fed into the work with thecross feed ..

~

\:..FRONT CLEARANCE 8° TO 12"

FIG. 189. Clearance angles of cut-off-tool,

162

MANUAL OF LATHE OPERATION

FIG. 190·

Setting, the' cut-off to~Lilit\' .the wo~k, The bl~de must be at a .dghf angie to' the' work andthe point -ehould been the exact center line.,

SPINDLE SPEED: The spindle speed should be about 2/3 of the speed recommended for general turning of the material being cut off (Fig; 56, page 49), Do not use too slow-a speed,

L UB RI CA TI 0 N: Thorough lubrication is' absol utely necessary during the cut-off operation. In large-lathe' work, a, continuous streamof lubricant is, directed at the front of the cut-off t6ol. When cutting off on a smal'l Iathe.vthe lubricant is usually applied with a brush or oil can. Use-the.same type of lubricant recom-

. mended .in Part 4 for geiteral turriing of the various. mater'ials.

"FURTHER RULES FOR CUTTING.OFF .

.1,.. 'Seteb« cutting edge of the tool on the lathe center line-the tobl blede should be at anexact.righ.t' ang1ew_ith thewor.k (Fig. 190). '

2 .• ' If the tool "hogs-in" siul stops the spindle rotation, stop the motor and reverse the spindle !?y hand beiore backing alit the tool with the cross feed. After .reserting the fool, feed'in slowly and r,emOve the ,bad spots;

3. Never complete a cut~oR of work.' whicb tioes not swing free 'at one end.

4. Cut oR as close to- the beedsiock es possible.

$. When cutting oR soli copper oreluminum, refer to page 58 or 62. 6. To fesharpen the cutcoil t ool shown in' Figure 187, .grind the Front: edgeQ'nly, allowing front Clearance, '(see Fig. -189).

7. Figure 58, page 51, shows how grooves can be cut with the cut-oii tool to "block~out" the work .snd indicate the etid of a, cut. Each, groove:'is 'slightly less deep than the iinish-dismeter-s-this simplifies the turning oper stion=hy providing an easy stopping place after

e.ach cut. ' .

Exper.imentto_ determine the. proper spindle speed: and rate ,Of feed for the diameter. and msterisl tbeing cut-oii-s-this is th'e best '.wayto .get. the "feel" of the 0 persii on, .

~---,-.--- _j~- ~

FIG. 191. X:nu.rling.a Tool Hand.lI:;.

Figure t93shows a close-up view of a knurl' and the two formed cutters which roll with the work during the knurllng operation. A sharp, even" diamond-shaped knurl provides a: perfect gripping

q~ill ' .surface for tool handles, nuts, --,,'~,..--~=-::=_

markers and instruments.

The type of tool shown in Figure 192 is recommended for Kntuling operations. 'The "Hosting" construction of this

.toolmak~s the ro'n~rs self- FIG, 192, Knuding TQol.

ceaUering,'assuringeqlla:l pressureon each roller and resulting in two sets of lines of equal depth. The rollers are hardened tool steel,

THE KNURLING,OPERA:TION

LATHE. ATTACHMENTS AND THEIR USES

163

THE KNURLING TOOL

The knurling tool Is set rig~ i,dly in the toolpqs1;" at right angles to the face of the work' arid as far back in the tool post as possible. Adjust belts for proper, spindle, speed (see ;Fig. 55, page 47) :,

Diameters 1%," and over 83R.P.M. Diameters from ~"-l%" '164 R:P.M~

FIG, 193 Kn;':,l\ng cu\ters , at) d. p atfern' produced.

Diameters under 'y,J "

266 R.P.M.

Because of the pressure exerted-in knurling, the 'work should be mounted between centers whenever possible, and small diameters '~iII. should be supported with the steady rest. When the work isheJd'"

in a chuck,' cut the knurl-as close to the' headstock <is, possible. Bi.1iii

Advance"th<e'tpol into the WOrk with, the cross Ieed until the,dial reading has been advanced about .050 inch. 'Stop tile lathe rand. wit h out backing out the tool, check the pattern produced. Usu-' ally,with a cut of this depth, .a perfect diamond pattefn will result. When the: pattern is not as desired, backoutthe-teol 'and take "~ cut in aIlo'ther place, ontne:"'Woik :A£ter th~ cq~re'~t desrgn is

obtained the ,te"st cuts willpe; rolled into a perfect knuri during

the final cutting process. ,-

When a test cut-showsthe proper pattern, engage carriage feed.

Apply plenty of lubricant. Keep toilstocl» -eenter. well lubricated: ,

'Atthe end of the c~tshi£t the rever$e)e'qer to 'iN~utr:al,"force, the tool .0050;r .006 inch deeper and 'then s:hiftthe reversing lever t? cut 'back to thes tarting point. Continue' the kn urling op erations

until the des ire d, depth "is reached, After the knuHing prOC'ifss is started, neoer back out the tool-until tltk'knurl is completed.

'rHECARRIAGE STOP

164

MANUAL OF, .LATH EO PERAi'1 ON

Cardage Stop.

FIG; 195,

A .repea t. operation requiting' both the, carrIage, -stop .and, th'e , cross ,,,,lide stop. ,The,bar'i" being .Fed through the headstock

spindle., '

Th~ ea'rriage stop (Ftg. 194) indicates 'tlle proper stopping' p:oint of the 'carriage for .accurate duplicate work. It .is clamped 'on .the fionthed way as shoWnih Figure 195., Some of 'the 'frequent, repeat operations whichusuafly require the "carriage stop; hotin,g or fa,cing to a given depth, cutting-off at a, given-point, duplicating, longitudinal cuts (for-example, mica.undercutting) and ~ayingout' \Vor:k on a cylindricafeurface: 'I'hecarriagestop shown in Figure

LATH E ATTACH M ENTS AND TH EI.R 'USES

165

'!94 has ,a micrometer-type screw which permitssa very exact setting. AI~ays wipe the front bed way clean at 'the :poirtt where the carniage stop is to be damped.

The carriage 'stop cannot automatically, stob the, power feed'the c(irriage,sflOuidalways be.fed!J_y hand for the last part 01 acut, If the automatic feed is allowed to forcf' the carriage into the carii~ge, stop" eithetthestbp or the lead screw bearing win be broken.;

THE CROSS SLIDE ~sTbp

FIG. ·196 Gross S,lideStop,

FIG" 197

Another vlew of. .the. s-?tne .repeat ·operaticij1. ~h'o&.n "h' .F'Igur-e 19:5; Thi. angle shows h,DW_ hi~ .cross ,slide'tap, gaiige. the depth' of .fhe ;CU~, ~pt~. c·afi'i~ge s!QP

'in background., '

The cross slide stop (Fig:. 196) indicates the proper depth, at which to stop the cross feed, much infhe .samernanner .as the car~, r1\lge stop is used as. aguide ill longitudinal operations. It is espedany'yalml,bl~ for threading and.turning down a rough diameter. The cross slide stop .isenounted on the crossslidedovetall, either irHfont'ofor behind the compound rest, An adjustablescrew and lock nut permit accurate setting (see Pig, 197). In mountip.gthe cross slide stop en the cross slide dovetail, first remove the giiard~ "l,'he'q' clean th~ dovetail ways and clamp the stop in the approxim~Je ppsition .required, T1;Lrn the 'adjusting screw into exact positionand lock with the knurled nut. Place a small piece of paper :ot caYdb:ci'atd,ov:er fhe.cross feed screw tei keep it free .Irorn dirt and,

llii~I' . ~thip'sduring the cutting operation, ,

Dur'ing threadlngoperatlons or whenever-the tool. is fed in with ·Ph'l'!,~,Ompoun:tl, the cross Jeedisu1'ed only to back .the tool 'out at' t41! _ ,¢ud.of ,ea,~hc~t.The cross slide stop, combined wi ill the micrometer graduations of the cross feed control handle on the

I ..

166

MANUAL OF LATHE O.PERATION

LATHE ATTACHMENTS AND THEIR U.SES

167

lathe assureanaccurate"zero"'n~ading before thercompound rest Ieed is advanced for the next cut, "Do n~t run the co,1tIPound resragaiwst the cross slide stop with too-muchf orce,

THE MILLING ATTACHMENT

The versatile 'mi'lling attachment (Fig. 198) converts the lathe-into a small . milling machine.· Six of tJ1e mote frequent operations are .illustrated on t:he opposite page; The work is held in the' milling vise jaws, and the various' types' of cutters (Fig. 199) are held, in the h<ead~ stock spindle with the chuck or holding,

,collet shown in Figure 206.

FlG. ios

Milling Attachment,

FIG. i99, (Right)

Most cinnni<in!y-u.edmllIing cutters - sp'iral straight. shank end .. mill, Woodruff. keyway cutter, and angular eu tter or' 'fa c e . mill (with ho lding -arbor) ,

The end, mills are suitable for niilling slots, facing and routing small work, squaring or splining shafts, cutting straight keyways;" . and general milling, operations. The primary 'use of the Woodruff cutters is the cutting of Woodruff keyways=-other uses include the, cutting of slots, grooves, T slots, etc. Angular cutters cutdovetails

. and angles less' than 900 and are also used f~r facing operations. "

MOUNTING, WdRK IN THE MILLING ATTACHMENT Remove the compound restfrom the cross slide swivel.! Clean the -swivef-and ithe tbase of the milling. attachment, Mount the

':lWhen the "ompound leek mechanism is' controlled by , two. damp. screws, loosen these . screws about y.. inch only and. raise compound' rest with a twisting motion. In .this way,· .plunger pins-are kept from twisting o,nt··of·lin·e· with .. bevel 01 central pilot ,. .

Similar .precauelons must .. be taken when mounting the milling attachment and remounting the COl1'\poUl1d. rest: Remove the Clamp screws ,completely and, PUSH plunger pin. up ·W··

bevel, of' pllot-e-then reinsert and 'tighten clamp screws, . "

FIG,2f}O Milling 'a Dovetail Slot. .

Fld. 201 Milling a Ti-elct with a' Woodruff cutter. A -straight . slot was-first cut with an end mill,

FIG,202 Milling a Woodruff K~yway;

milling attachment at the desir~d angle, using the'swivel gr~d?a-· tIons as a guide. Tighten gibs on carriage, cross. feed~n~ milling attachment dqvetail.slide. Loosen milling vise j~VlS, .1nsert~or.k and tigh.tel1. The vise can be swivelled to any destredangleand 1S

adjusted for height with the graduated handwheel,

HOLDING THE MILLING ClJTTE~"

The holding ¢ollet show~ in Figure 206 il' preferr~d tor holding the milling cutter. The headstock spindle ch~ck 1S not recom~endedbecause the cutter shanks and rhechuck Jaws are extremely

ha:r:cl.ap.d would slip during the milling operation. .... .

. The complete collet set inc1u9,es one ,arbor for holdmg straight

FIG": 203 Angllfar Milling (Vet.tical) • .

FIG, 204.

Angular Millin!; (Horizontal) ,

, FIG, 205, .

Millin\{' Slot Itt End '015 halt,

168

MANUAL OF lATHE OPERATION

FIG. 206

'H~ldiJig collet set for bolding millmg' cutters; Tbis set consists of; draw bart sleeve, and an arbor for straight'. shank 'cutters, Collet bushings ar.e . reo quired to adapt end' mills to the .arhor

'of this 'set, . --

shank cutters, Two ·arbors areavailable for threaded angular cuttel'S; A collet bushing or arbor is also required.for all st~ilight shank end mills except-the % inch diameter .. The Woodruff keyway cut- _ ters are held directly in thecollet arbor without .bushinga.

Pass the.draw bar through the spindle and tighten the arbor' intospindle taper QY turning handwheel, 'I'ighten cutter in arbor .. by locking socket-head set screw. The -draw bar, arbor, bushing, cutter shank and lathe spindle must be wiped clean, and dry. Vlhen' m,ounting the mming cutter in the collet arbor; be- sure to select theproper size of collet bushing if one is required.

DEPTHS OF CUTS. AND FEEDS

_ When the work is fed acrossfhe milling cutter with the cross

. feed; the depth of cut and rate of feed is determined primari~yby the "{eei" of the operator. Take light cuts and feed in evenly and slowly until the correct feed can be judged. Never force the work into the cutter toofast .. Cuts should be about 1/16" or less.



1-

SPINDLE SPEEDS· FOR MILLING

The cutting' speed during a inillingopeta:tion should .be - approxirnately 2/3 of the speedcecommenrlerl £0(. general turning of the. material being machined (see Part 4)" Figure Z08 gives the lathe spindle speed required to obtain a desired surface speed when us- . ing·the various milling cutters. Thus, knowing ~/30f.thesurf.:i.ce speed recommended for a certain metal or plastic (Part 4), first use Eigure 208 to_find the proper speed for the cutter being used, then refer to Figure 55, page 47 for the belt set-up to. obtain tlilit speed.

MILLING EXTRA LARGE WORK· Figure 207 shows how extra. large work is held firmly in position. Ior milfing. The clamping plate is mounted. on themilHng attachment in -place of the standard vise.

FIG.·207 Diameters up to 2% inches can be held in

Holding extra' Ia"ge week tl .

in tbe cJarnpiilg plate.' llsway.·'·

LATHE ATTACHMENTS' .AND THEIR U'SES

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