Penguin Reoders Young Teocher's Guide to Dromotizing Stories

Margoret Lo

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Gontents
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lntroduction
What is drama? to Why use dramato teach English younglearners? stories? Why dramatize dramaactivity? How do I choosethe most appropriate When shouldI usedramafor stories?

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Part One: Drama techniques
Mime and Usingstory dialogues scripts Role playand improvization

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Part Two: Exploring the story
Sounds Objects Characters Scenes Exploring one story

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Part Three: Making the story real
Puppets Masks Propsand costumes Scenery

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Part Four: Drama productions Part Five: Drama and your pupils
dramato your class Introducing positive attitudes towardsdrama Establishing management Classroom The role of correction

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Bibliography P hotocopiable Worksheets
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 l0 || 12 l3 14 l5 Working with sounds objects Miming lnterview Role cards the Mime andguess scene Characteractions Creatingdialogue for a Choosing character a stick puppet Stickpuppet puppets Finger handpuppets Simple Drink box puppet Headbands masks and Script Dramaactivitychart

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lntroduction
& What is drama?
Dramais essentially creativeactivity a movement, language, involving imagination, emotion,and social interaction representa story, a to situation. momentor an act. Drama a canalso involveclothing, objects, scenery and music. When the word 'drama'is mentioned several words acting, cometo mind:roleplay, performance, pretending, miming, scenes... theatre,puppets, characters, the list is endless. the classroom, In dramaactivities rangefrom simple games movement, an involving to projectculminating public in extended performance.

world and givesthem practicein adult situations a safeenvironment in dramainvolves using language Since for interaction communication, and dramaactivities havefound their way The into the language classroom. in emphasis realcommunication on learning also meant has the language needto that language teachers and body consider context,intonation language well asthe actualwords in as Dramaby its oral communication. very natureinvolves of these all elements. need When teaching English, teachers to concernthemselves with more than just children's learning. language and Children are still developing growingphysically, emotionally and intellectually, this whole and development not separate is from learning. This needsto be their English when choosing activities considered for the language classroom. Drama activities idealin this regard,as are they develop whole childand the develop child's the language skillsat the sametime.

* Why use drama to teach English to young learners?
Dramais an impoftant part of the schoolcurriculum manycountries. in Throughdrama, children expand their knowledge the world; they learn of social skillsand develop their communication skills. When they take on the role of anothercharacter, they consider thoughts, the feeling and perspectives peopledifferentfrom of themselves. the sametime dramais At a naturalpart of child'splay.Very youngchildrenplay'let'spretend' for example, they feedtheir toy animals, or drivetheir toy trainsto the station. Childrenoften act out eventsin their lives which helpsthem understand the

& Why dramatize stories?
Storiesare a major part of a child's Iife.Childrenhearstoriestold to them or readto them by parents, siblings and teachers. Storiesare broughtto children throughsongs and rhymes, but alsothroughtelevision the and cinema. Manypreschool children naturally want to act out storiesthey

enjoyand invitetheir parents, friends, siblings eventoys to playdifferent and characters. Events storiesoften raise in complicated issues they life or introducechildren aspects the to of adult world they may not have experienced before.Dramatizing storiesallowschildren explore to theseissues. example, the For in Penguin YoungReaderSnow Whiteond the Seyen Dworves, Level3, jealousy, romanticlove,loyaltyand revenge, and familyrelationships all be can exploredthrough drama.Dramaalso givesmeaning the language the to of story. While familiarization the of story is supported throughreading and language activities, suchas those in the Penguin YoungReaders Factsheets, story is further the reinforcedthrough dramatization.

vocalactivities. Somepupilsare more concerned with accuracy and are less willingto try fluency activities, no matter what their level. iThe sizeof the class. Most of the activities this Guidecan be adapted in for differentclasssizes, some but activities requireparticular numbers in eachgroupto matchthe numberof characters the story. in lThe classroom environment. You will needto consider useof the classroom space eachactivity in and choosethose that can be adapted to your classroom iThe natureof the story and the text. Somestorieshavemore action in them and are thereforemore suitable for miming activities, somehave and little action.Somestory texts contain dialogues act out, some storiesare to primarily narrative and do not have muchdirectspeech. You needto consider whichactivities naturally arise from the story and the text.

* How do I choose the most

appropriate drama activity?
Choosing the right activityfor your pupils and for the story depends on manythings: OThe language abilityof the pupils. Pupils with more language greater and fluency can better handle improvization activities, whereas beginning pupils canmimeandspeak selected lineschorally. lTheir general confidence level. Some classes havea higherenergylevelthan others and will enjoy more active,

t When should I use drama?
Pupils shouldbe very familiar with the story before usingdramaactivities. Because dramarequires confidence, spontaneity imagination, and pupils shouldknow the story well and be comfortable with the language the of story.Having pupilsimprovize or mime a story they do not know well can be demoralizing because it presents challenges they cannotmeet.

PARTONE

Dramatechniques
there are three main Broadlyspeaking to stories: techniques dramatizing without speaking, Usingmovement the printed mime;using which is called word either from a story or from a from a story; and freer script devised where pupils roleplayor improvization resources and usetheir own language creativemovementto act out what the charactersof a story sayor what they might sayand do. There are infinitevariations thesethree broad on techniques. Pupils be the can or characters themselves puppetscan be used.The whole story can be dramatized just one or two scenes, or Real can or a character be explored. objectscan be usedas props;simple costumes suchas a hat canbe worn. Each thesetechniques be of can adapted give more supportor to depending on createmore challenge of and the leveland needs your pupils, they can all be usedwith the support of a narrator,most often the teacher, to give structure to the story.

of what they hearthroughtheir lt actions. is, therefore,particularly for with lessEnglish appropriate pupils to a or as a lead-in using scriptor improvization. Certainstorieslend ven/ well to mime because themselves they containa lot of concreteaction. in For example, the short story 'Arnold'sSpofting Adventures'in ond Story ShopsWrnners LosergLevel can mimeeachspot'tArnold 3, pupils Goosg tries. In the stoD/ TheGolden Level2, pupilswill enjoygettingstuck to eachother andwalkingaround the Youngpupils room with Simpleton. can pretendto tastethe porridgeand sit in the chairsin 6oldlocksond the Three Beors, Level l. Actingwithout words canalsobe donewith puppets. simplehand Worksheet t t suggests puppets Levell. forTomThumb,

& Using story dialoguesand scripts
either from a Usingwritten dialogues, story or from a script basedon a movement with story, combines lt controlledspeaking. is importantto that choosedialogues pupilscan learn easily suchas thosewith repetitionor rhythm.Again,puppetscan be used propsor costumes can and scenery, alsobe broughtin to aid pupils' imaginations. ThreeBillyGoots Ihe Gruff,Level l, containsboth narrative and simplerepetitivespokentext. Pairs pupils of canalsoact out the Hood,Level2, scenein little RedRiding betweenthe wolf and Little Red Riding Hood on pagesl0 and | | with its

& Mime
Mime involves pupilsimagining themselves a characterin the story as and usingmovementwithout words to depictthe story as the teacherreads it aloudor describes scene. a This technique focuses the listening on skill as pupilsdemonstrate understanding

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simplequestionand answerpatcern. Manychildren's storiescan be turned into scripts plays. the script for lf includes somechoralspeaking, narration and simplelines, then all pupilscan participate. Worksheet l4 is an example a scriptbased the of on story, The Musicions Bremen, of Level l. It is possible turn this scriptinto a to full stageproduction(seePart Four for more details).

Two ) PART
Exploringthe story
A story containsseveral elements sounds, characters, objectsand scenes - whichcan be exploredthroughthe dramatic techniques described Part in One. Focusing a pafticular on element of a story helpspupilsincrease their imagination creativityin a and structuredway.

* Role play and improvization
In this technique, pupils out a story act or scenecreating dialogue the themselves they go along, as without memorizing scriptor reading from a a story text. Pupils thereforeneedto usewhateverlanguage they haveto express character's the meaning. the lf roleplayis based the story,the on pupils' dialogue maybe very similar to the dialogue the story.This shows in the teacher what language pupil the hasacquired from the story already. Roleplays alsobe based a can on narratedscenefrom a story (without dialogue), on an entirelynew scene or introduced the pupils teacher. by or repetitivestoriessuchas Simple, Level l, Goldilocks the ThreeBeors, ond for are suitable improvizing this at level.For Level4 pupils,The Pied Ptper has scenes of Homelin several suitable for improvizing, suchas the meeting between the Mayorand his men on page9, or the meetingbetweenthe Mayor and the PiedPiperon pages| | and | 2.

* Sounds
Addingsoundeffectsto your story is a simpleway to bringthe story to life. The sounds can be actualsounds in the story, or narrativeexpressions to giveresponse meaning the lines and to of the story.All pupilscan participate in making sounds the and it can be done with classes any size. of First,establish varioussounds in the the story and at what point they occur.Discuss with the class the if soundshouldbe loud or soft,longor short,and so on. Havethe whole class makethe sounds unison in while you callout the scenes. Then readthe story aloudin a dramaticvoice pupils showing the illustrations the in book at the sametime. Pause the at momentwhilethe whole appropriate the sounds. Alternatively, classmakes the class couldbe dividedinto smaller groupsand eachgroup is responsible for a soundor, if they are confident,

pupilscan makeup their own sounds. Readthe story and pause each as group makes their soundat the appropriate moment.

Here is the text of The LittleMermoid, Levell, with suggestions sounds for in Worksheet I alsogives brackets. sound effectsfor ThePrincess the ond Frog,Level3.

The sea kinglivesin a castle.His castleis underthe sea.The king has six sisters.Theyare girls with fish tails (swrsh swish swishy swish). looksat the ships.She likesto see the men and women One mermaid (Oooh!).Men and womenhave legs, not fish tails (stompfeet rhythmically). can see a handsomeman (romantic She Ahhhh!). is lt very windy(whooo! whoooo! otherblowing or sounds). ship is going The jump in. (Help! down.The men and women The Splash!) little mermaid does not like to see the men and womenin the water.The little youngman.She likeshim (romantic mermaid helpsthe handsome Ahhh!). She swimsto the sea monster, will help her get legs.'Drink he 'Swimto the sand.Findthe youngman this,' saysthe sea monster. you,'saysthe littlemermaid again.'Thank (glug, and drinksit quickly glugglud.The little mermaidswimsto the sand and has legs! (stomp likesthe young f"ut).She speaksto the youngman.The littlemermaid man, but he likesanother (aw!!). Shegoesto her sisters.She is a {irl mermaidagain. (swish swish swishy swish) She is unhappynow. (crying 'What'sthe matter?'ask her sisters. sounds) She does not answer, she looks at the ships (bigsigh).

& Objects
Manystorieshaveobfectswhich are centralto the plot,for example the magiclampand the magicring in Aloddin ond the Lomp,Level3. Miming objectsfrom a story or several stories is a simple technique, the and concretenatureof objectsmakes them easierto mime.Worksheet2 is gamewhichusesobjects a miming from Sleeping Beouty, SnowWhiteand Dworves Honsel ond the Seyen and Gretel, Level3 stories.Pupils all work in groupsof four to six.Checkthat pupilsknow the meaning the words of group hasa set of on the cards.Each in cardsfacedown on the table.Pupils turn take a card and mime the object. The other pupilsmustguess the object and the story it comesfrom. The first personto guess correctly getsto keepthe card.The pupilwith the most cardsis the winner.

mentioned pupilsdo the actionfor the that character.For example,for Liule RedRiding Hood,Level2, here are possible actions eachof the main for characters: I Little Red Riding Hood Arm bent as if holdinga basket, skipping t The Wolf Handsup as pawsand a snarling face I Grandmother Handsover facein a gestureof fear I Woodcutter Swinging axe an

Wolking characters lf possible, in cleara space the for to classroom pupils walk around.lf the sizeof the classroom furniture or restrictsthis, ask pupilsto walk between the desks and up and down the aisles. Call out the nameof a must character from the story. Pupils imagine that they are that character the and walk the way they imagine characterto walk. After a few seconds. out anothercharacter. call pupilsnot to follow each Encourage in other. For example, the story Snow Red,Level2, the two Whiteond Rose sisters would walk sideby sideor arm in arm,the bearcouldwalk with big the dwarf fast little steps slow steps, and with a grumpyexpression; the princecouldwalk with relaxed strides, hands behindhis comfortable backor on his hipswith his headheld high.

* Characters
Dramaactivities can focuson more words. Pupils than just a character's can also explorethe character's actions, their voice,the way they walk,their innerthoughts andfeelings, and their pastexperiences. Action symbol With the class, decideon an actionor simplemimeto represent that Practise character. theseactionswith out the whole class calling the by The then does character. whole class the action.Next readthe story to the is Eachtime a character class.

Find your ponner/group In this activityeachpupilis givena nameon it. cardwith a character's There shouldbe at leasttwo cardsof depending your eachcharacter, on class sizeandthe numberof characters the story. Shuffle in the cardsand handout one to eachpupil. Tell the pupilsnot to showtheir card to eachother. Pupils shouldwalk aroundthe classroom saying line a spokenby their character the story. in The pupils should findthe other pupils who havethe samecharacter. Pupils shouldbe encouraged speak the to in voiceof their character. givepupils To more support, the line couldbe written on the card.To makethe pupilscan activitymore challenging improvize linethat the character a mightsayor think. Here is an example usingTomThumb, Level2 I Don't eat me! (Tom) I I was scared! (mother) O You canwork for us. (2 bad men) I What a cleverlittle boy! (policeman) t Well done,Tom! (the Kingand Queen) Interuiew a chorocter This activityallowspupils explorea to character more depth,for instance, in to find out a character's intentions. or their point of view. In this way characters givenreal,human are qualities which leads a deeper to understanding the story but of perhaps more importantly, encourages

pupils examine to stereotypes or negative portrayals peopleand of found in traditional animals sometimes stories. One pupilplays role of the the character one or two other pupils and interviewthe character. The activity demands degreeof creativityand a sPontaneity. more suPPort, For Worksheet3 is a planning sheetfor pupils' questions. the sametime, At thosein character rolescanget togetherto discuss their character in preparation the interview. for As pupilsinterview character a they can take noteson their responses for reportingbacklater.This activityis for suitable storiessuchasA Thiefin Level4, where the the Villoge, characters' intentions and feelings are not explicitlyexpressed the story. in Pupils couldroleplay and interviewBig Walk and Duke,for example. In Honsel ond Gretel, Level3, pupilscan interview stepmother find out the to her point of view. Worksheet 4 provides evenmore supportfor interviews betweenthe policeand andthe policeandthe two JakeLima, children the first carcoon in story in Story Shop:ThePresent, Level2. A variationon this activityis to have one or two pupils givea character advice discuss particular problem or a the character having. is Again, in Honsel Gretel, ond Level3, pupils could try to persuade fatherto standup the to hiswife and not leave children his in the forest.In lhe Pied Piper of

Homelin, Level4, pupilscould persuade the mayorto paythe PiedPiper,or tr,vto convince PiedPipernot to the take the children from the village.

* Scenes
Dramatizing scenes helpsto break down a story into more manageable parts.In theseactivities, scenes are exploredthroughmime,dialogue or both. Snopshot scenes from the story. Chooseseveral scenes Put pupilsinto groupsaccording to in the numberof characters the story. A sceneis called out to the whole or class, that part of the text is read quicklydecide who is aloud.Pupils and poseas if they which character were in that scene. For manyscenes, pupilsmayarrange like themselves the in illustration the book. For example, Level l, the scenes in Sleeping Beouty, might be: t The kingand queenare on the balcony speaking the crowd. to linedup to seethe I The good fairies baby. I The princess fallenasleep. has i The Prince walksthroughthe castle. is Everyone sleeping. I The princess wakesup and sees everyone. i The princeand princess get married. Guessthe scene In this activity, the scenes mimed are by a groupof pupils andthe other pupils to guess describe try or what is happening. scenes be written The can

on slipsof paperfor the miming group to read.An exampleof this is Worksheet 5 for Gnderello, Level2. This activity couldalsobe done as a team activity, with one team miming the scene anotherteam. for Dialogues Manystorieshavea combination of narration and directspeech. Pupils can createa dialogue betweencharacters where the originalstory hasnarration. This allowspupils bringparcicular to scenes life throughthe spoken to word, and to explorecharacters in more depth. Written diologues ln Ropunzel, Level4, pairsof pupilscan betweenthe man write the dialogue and his wife after he hasstolen vegetables from next door, the Prince andthe Princess they chat in the as tower, and the Princeand Rapunzel when they see eachother again. After the dialogue beenwritten, pairsof has pupils canpractise them and act them for out. This activityis suitable Levels for 3 and 4 but can also be adapted LevelsI and 2. Worksheet 7 demonstrates way to adaptthis one activity for a Level I story, Sleeping Beouty. Improvized diologues from a scenes Prepare list of several a story the pupilsknow well, andthe in numberof characters eachscene. ask To encourage spontaneity, pupils to walk aroundthe room in no to particular direction. Ask pupils

form a group containing number the of characters the first scene. in When pupils in their groups, are describe the scene from the story.Groupsquickly decideon characters act out and scenewith whateverlanguage they have. Pinocchio, Level4, hasseveral distinct scenes this activity:Geppetto for makesPinocchio, policeput him in the prison,puppetshow andthe puppet master,the cat and the fox, the blue fairy, the donkeychildren, meeting Geppettoin the fish,andgoinghome.

l$,Exploring one story
The ideas abovecan be usedin a series lessons of exploring one story throughdrama. After pupils very are familiar with the story they can build up their dramatization first through simple mimes sounds, or then recreating scenes, extending to scenes throughimprovization or character exploration. helpsto lt 'brainstorm' various activities around one story beforeplanning seriesof a lessons choosing particular or activities.

Read story,pupils make sounds

Readstory, pupils mime objects

Sounds Creaking castledoor, Giant'sfeet stomping, Giant eating, Giant snoring, breadoven door closing, hen clucking, feet running, axe chopping, beanstalk, Giantfalling

Objects Beans, cow, plate of Giant food, bagof gold, hen, harp, axe

Jack and the Beanstalk Level 3

Scenes Mother tells son to sellcow, Jackand old man trade,Jackshowsmother the beans, Jackmeetsthe Giant'swife, Giant looks for Jack,wife talks to Giant,Jacktells his mum aboutthe Giant and the castle

Characters mother,old Jac( Jack's man,Giant,Giant'swife

lnterviewJack's mother,Giant, Giant'swife

PART3 Making the story real
Concreteitems,suchas puppets, suPPortdrama ProPsand costumes, based stories. on They help activities to bringthe story off the pageof the book and into real life.Pupils find that thingsthey cantouch,hold,see,and of wear, helpthem with the meaning the story. Youngpupilsare ableto in believe puppets, in someways and 'real'to the pupilthan they are more a classmate actingas a story character.

your story,your pupils and your resources. Here are simplepuppets that can be madewith few materials. Stick puppets Worksheet 9 shows how to makea stick puppetfor The UglyDuckling, Level3. The worksheetitselfgives pupilsreading practice.Worksheet 8 is a planning sheetto help pupils remember the characters the all in story and think aboutwhich character they want to make.Of course,if you planto dramatize whole story, you the will needto makesureall of the characters made. are Finger puppets Thesesimplepuppets involve drawing, colouring, cuttingand sticking. Worksheet I0 givesfingerpuppet for in templates the characters lhe Tinderbox, Level2. Hand puppets Thesepuppetsare madeby drawing on your handwith non-toxic, colouredmarkers.Worksheet t t ways of doingthis using showsseveral in Level2. the characters lom Thumb, Drink box puppets Manytypesof puppetscan be made materials. with 'junk'or recyclable This puppetis madeby cuttingand foldingan empty drink cafton. Worksheet l2 is a readingactivity where pupilslabelthe pictures, follow completethe words and finally, to the instructions makethe puppet.

* Puppets
Pupils to and enjoytalking puppets makingpuppets talk so they are ideal for dramatizing stories.Manyof the storiesand activities alreadydescribed Pupils are suitable puppets. for can maketheir own simplepuppets. a As craft activity,makingpuppetsgives pupilsexposure and practice the in language instructions of and reinforces of language describing characters a the story.When makingpuppetsin class, a makesureyou show pupils modelof clearlyhow the puppet,demonstrate to makethe puppet,haveenough materialfor everyone, and make'clean up' a structuredpart of the lesson. There are several typesof puppets you can make.Somehavemoving mouthsand somedo not, somework somefor people. better for animals, for Choosethe type of puppetsuitable

I Masks
Masksrepresenting characters the in the story are worn over the face. Pupils will enjoymaking masks as much as they do puppets. sure to Be keepglitter and other decorative materialawayfrom the eyeholes it as mightcome off and get into a pupil's eye. When makingelasticmasks, make sure they only cover the eyesand hole upper face,or makean adequate for the mouth and noseso the pupil can breathe.Worksheet 13 shows the robber's mask in lhe Musicions of Bremen, Level l. Stickmasksare made just like stick puppets. The pupilholds the maskover his/herfaceas they are acting.Stickmasksare easyto make and allow the pupilto breathe, but movementis restricted one handis as alwaysusedto hold the mask.Stick maskswould be suitable for dramatizinglhe ThreeBillyGoots Gruffi Levell.

story. Usually, hat or a jacketis a and enoughto representa character, removedso pupilscan they are easily like hats switchroles.Somecostumes can be madeby the pupilsas a craft activity.Old adult clothingis often enough put the pupilin an adult to role. Here are suggestions props for for and costumes differentPenguin YoungReaders. Level I ) Goldilocl<s the ThreeBeors, and Props: bowlsand 3 spoons, small a 3 chair, pillow. a Costumes: elasticmasks from Penguin Teocher's Young Reoders Guide Using to Stories Closgphotocopiable in worksheet; headband a with yellow hair madefrom stripsof paper. t lhe Golden 6oose,Level2 Props:an axe, bread,a goldengoose madefrom cardboard and coloured PaPer. Costumes: greencoat or green a button-up shirt broughtfrom home. I SnowWhiteond the Seyen Dworves, Level3 Props: makea mirror and a sword from cardboard aluminum foil, an and apple, and a hair comb. Costumes: makecrownsand hats from paper,bring in a headscarf. ) The PiedPiper Homelin,Level4 of Props: recorderor a plastic a whistle. Costumes: hat with a feathermade a from paper.

* Props and costumes
Propsare objectsusedby the in characters the drama,and costumes are the clothingthat the characters wear.Propshelppupilsplayout a scene and costumes helpthem stayin Propscan be itemsfound at character. home or they can be madewith paper, scissors glue.Costumes and neednot be a whole suit of clothes, and they neednot be exactlylike the in clothing the illustrations the in

@Scenery
Scenery represents arrangement the of the environment, buildings, the the land, the furniture, and so on in a story. Scenery can be as simpleas arranging classroom furnitureto representroads,houses, caves and bridges, as involved a life s,ize or as muraldesigned createdby a class and over several weeks.Somesceneryis key to the story suchas the green grassand the bridge in lhe ThreeBilly Goots Gruff,Level l, or the bed that Goldilocks in. sleeps In thesetwo stories, classroom furniturecan be used:3 chairs togethercan be a bed, and they canalsobe a bridge. Making for backdrops murals a or puppettheatre or a drama performance anotherworthwhile is craft activityfor pupilsand can provide meaningful practice pupils language if are encouraged plantheir scenery to and talk about it, or if they create scenery from a description, rather than copying from the illustrations in the book. For The UglyDuckling, Level 3, pupilscancreatebackdrops on largepieces paperto be usedwith of the stick puppetsin Worksheets8 ond 9. Thesebackdrops be can painted, drawnand coloured, cut or and pasted. for Scenery this story couldinclude following: the spring time with nest and €ggs, water with weeds,farmyardand barn,the river, a house, cold rainyday,inside a the man'shouse, andthe lakeby a castle. A simplepuppettheatrecan be made

by suspending blanketbetweentwo a pieces furniturein the classroom. of The backdrops be stackedon top can of eachother in chronological order and can be taken down one at a time as the story progresses. Pupilskneel behind the blanket and movetheir stick puppetsin front of the backdrop.

PARTFOUR

Dramaproductions
Dramatizing story can consistof a a short lO-minute classroom activity to a whole lesson series lessons. or of The resultof classroom dramatic work does not necessarily needto end in a publicperformance. it has As beenshownin this Guide.classroom dramaactivities servemanylearning purposes, most importantbeingto the raisepupils' confidence expressing in themselves. However,pupilsmay also enjoyand learnfrom puttingon a full dramaproductionas a project for the term or schoolyear.Rehearsals providepurposeful themselves repetitionof language. Makingprops develops and scenery social and organizational skills.Puttingon a production,however,involves planning. puppet considerable A theatre,like the one suggested above for TheUglyDuckling, Level3, may be production for a more manageable your class your school. in

PRODUCTION CHECKLIST Script ls the script suitable your pupilsin terms for of level,inreresf familiarity and so onl Does it needto be adaptedr the rength rs suitabrer Cost Are there enoughcharacters mosq if for not ail, of your pupirs praylrf not, to do all pupilshavemeaningfur significant and work to contribure, suchas arranging scenery working with lighting musicl or or Are the characters suitable for the pupils' curture, maturity, gender, and personarities? Director Will you be the director? you and another Or pupil? Costumes What clothing shourd pupirs the wear? What itemsof crothing you need? do What can be made? what can be broughtfrom home or borrowedl Props Which props are essentia[can you or pupirs bring in propsfrom home or gatherthem aroundyour schoor? can you'make anyof the props? Moke up what rhakeup is necessary? you using Are makeup or facepaintswhich are suitable pupils' for skin? Scenery What scenerydo you need? what furnituredo you need? who wirf makeit? When' and with what materialsl some lf pupilsare actingin the pfayand some are making the scenery'how will you manage differentpupilsdoingdifferent thingsat the sametime? Lighting What lightingis needed? what points At in the prayt How will it be providedl Music fs musicneeded? What kind of musicand for which parrs of the pray? you Do havemusical instruments, cD ptayeror a hi-fi to use a in the performance venue? not, canyou and the pupirs lf makemusicar instrumentsl

PRODUCTION CHECKLTST conrinued Performance locotion Where will the performance take placells it largeenough? there enough ls room for the expected audience? you needto book or reserve venuel Do the Offstage Do you needan 'offstage' areabefore,duringor after the playl This could be the sameroom as the performance the audience noi allowedto enter if is beforea certaintime. Reheorsol schedule Will you rehearse duringclass afterclass? you needparental or Do permission? Haveyou scheduled dateof the dressrehearsall the Dote(s) and time (s) of performance When is the performance? you haverepeated Will performancesl I nvitdtions dnd on nouncements Who is your audiencel Who will design invitations? the How will they be distributed? How elsewill the playbe advertised? Photogrophs or videotoping Do you want the performance recordedin any wayl Who will do it? Worksheet l4 providesa script createdfrom the story The Musicions of Bremen Levell, suitable a full for production. can be donewith large lt or small classes, because number the of pupils the chorusis unlimited in and there can be more thanthree robbers. Since story is more suitable 5the for 7 yearolds,the teachershouldbe the directorand the narrator.For costumes,Worl<sheet showshow l3 to makeheadbands masks. and Pupils playing robberscanwear black, and the pupilsplaying animals wear can brown and gray clothing. Facepaints can be usedfor whiskers the on animals... the robbers! and Props needed a stickfor the masterand are plates and spoons the robbers. for Pupils can painttwo largebackdrops. One backdrop the countryside is for the first halfof the story, and the other is a houseat nighttime for the secondpart of the story. A table and chairs are needed the scenein the for house. When nightfallsin the story, the lightsin the classroom be can turnedoff and pupilscanturn on torches. When the one robber returnsto the house, animals the can hold their torchesundertheir faces pointingupwardsfor a scaryeffect.

PARTFIVE Drama and your pupils

Establishinspositive attitudes towirds drama
I Establish safeenvironment a by giving pupilsplentyof chances use to dramawith trustedclassmates, to or do mimeor saylinestogetherwith the whole class. Not all drama activities needto end with performances front of the whole in class. I Be sensitive aboutcasting some boysmaybe uncomfortable playing female rolesandviceversa, some or pupilsmay not like to tal<e the on 'bad'characters. However,it may be appropriate encourage to pupils to take on differentroles in order to explorethem and expand personal boundaries. I Praise pupils their efforts. for I Offer constructive feedbacl< do and not to be over critical. I Neverforce pupils performor to useperformance punishment. as O As pupilsincrease imagination in and confidence, them contribute let their ideas the activity. to I Makedramatic activities regular a part of the teaching programme.

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:lir, Introducing drama to your class
I Introducedramainto your classroom small in amounts, pupils so becomeusedto movement, mime, voice,soundand so on. Adaptthe simple activities this Guideto use in as warmersor short activities in other topicsyou may be workingon in your class. example, For pupils can do the Walking Characters activity (page7) with the teachergiving instructions suchas 'you are latefor school''you are very tired', 'you are walking hot sand', on and so on. I Use dramatic elements when you tell or readstories.For example use gestures, differentvoicesfor the use characters, bringin propsto hold and up and useas you tell or readthe story. I Start with simpleactivities that pupilscan do all together,and slowly buildup to activities whichdemand more spontaneity, confidence and creativity.

@' Classroom management
I Planthe numberof characters and numberof pupils your activities for in advance eachpupilhasa role to so Play. I Planthe useof space your in classroom. I lf groupsare performing the for whole class, sureto givethe other be groupsa purposeful taskwhilethey watch. pupilsin helping arrange I Enlist to the classroom. this on a regular Do basis it becomes paft of the so a classroom routine. misbehaving I lf pupils are deliberately then askthem politelyand nonjudgementally sit down andwatch. to Invitethem to join in again after they havecalmeddown.

I For activities with more controlled language some self-correction use, maybe useful the pupil. for I Correctionof mistakes should nevertake over the mainaim of a dramaactivity. I Rehearsals performances for provideopportunities work on to language In pupils accuracy. this case, seethe purposeof the correction and are motivatedto be accurate.

& The role of correction
I Refrain from correctingpupils' grammatical mistakes during improvization taskswhich are intended focuson language fluency to and expression. I After an improvization activityfocus phrases vocabulary or on particular itemsthat pupilsneeded express to themselves better, but avoidfocusing grammatical on small errors.

) BiblioElraphy
Alison( 1999). Dromo7 to 9. Chaplin, Ltd: Scholastic UK Drama McCaslin, Nellie (2000)Creotive ond seventh in the Clossroom Beyon4 Inc. AddisonWesley Longman edition. ( Phillips, Sarah 1999)Dromowith Oxford UniversityPress. Children.

I

Working with sounds
The Princessand the Frog Knock,Knock "R'ibbit' ribbif' Hurray!

hop Creaaakl hop, Hop, hoppity cloP cloP, cloP, CloP, Slam! Ahh hhhl Srrrrlu(b! patter Patter. Pitter Pitter
Sptash, splash, splash! R,ibbir, ribbil.

Match the sounds to the part of the story

into Qu) bgunced the pond Thegolden Uotl

.N

, Shesow smal @frog. shesowq

The ffi

ffi

foster' ron princess fosterond

uP hoPPed the hill. He guickly on He knocked the door. the s Theprinces oPened door. quicklY. r Sheshutthe doo ve?Y jfu ond tongue out his longpink He stuck lettuce. tooksome uP Shewolked tha stoirsquicklY. she "6oodnightmypretty f riend," soid' got ondprincess morrted. The prince looking next to the Pond They we?e

for six frogs.

Miming objects
ffiwmx-wms mxred ffi*wmsx Srxspw W&ru$*m &fum aaxxd Mmmmqsx$ffi*.m*m$ *$xm ffimmm* ffiwmux*y mms*

the queen's magic mirror

a sword

poisoned apple

a poisoned comb

stick

small white stones

bread

cookies, cake and chocolate

a bone

a hot oven

wood

the Beastts magic mirror

zS(KrSFz/

A.=t

l//

,zr\

a flng

a new blue suit and grey shoes

4q

lnterview

Title of story:

Charactert

My guestions

Choroct reply er's

L

2

3.

4

5

Role cards

You are the policemon. Ask loke Lima some guestions.

QUESTTONS
Were you at hometodayl Where were youl Why did you go there? your house? When did you leave Do you know thesetwo childrenl
Qjr\

ANSWERS

fiirl c,Tn,5 V$--r

You ore the policemon. Ask Morio these guestions.

QUEST'ONS What is your full name? How did you get to Jal<e Lima's housel Who were you with? Why were you in JakeLima's treel

ANSWERS

ls this your first time at JakeLima's house? What did you see?
(9)s

You are the policemon. Ask Som these questions.

@,

/r^-'"\
ANSWERS ,_6Ly'1

QUESTTONS What is your full namel Who were you with?

ffi=

\g/

How did you get to JakeLima's house? Why were you in JakeLima's tree? ls this your first time at JakeLima's house? What did you see?

Mime and guessthe scene

ffi$mdmne&$m
makeCinderella The two uglysisters work.

decideto go to the ball. A letter arrives. The uglysisters

is Cinderella sad.Thenthe FairyGodmother arrives.

gives The FairyGodmother Cinderella a beautiful dressand shoes.

The Prince dances with Cinderella. The uglysisters watchthem. It's l2 o'clock.Cinderella runs away from the Prince.

The Prince findsher shoe.

The Prince tries the shoeon the uglysisters.

The Prince seesCinderella. shoeis hers! The

The Prince get and Cinderella married.

Character actions

msx# ffiwmwrem*m$$q $mm$w tr$.sm

The old man showing fiTf the magicbeans. \,6\

Motherthrowingawaythe beans angrily.

the Jackclimbing beanstalk andseeing castle. the

The Giantstomping around lookingfor Jack.

jumping into the Jack breadoven.

The wife with a big plateof food.

The Gianteating and falling asleep.

the Jackstealing gold down the andclimbing beanstalk.

7\
down Motherchopping the beanstalk.
t,,/ ((
)-\ )

)(1

down. The Giantfalling

Creating dialogue
da

).i;"{'1fe; }:" f..}, i: ;":,'

*

!

qi""

e words next to the p.ri of the story.There is one missing.

,/fi

"Here a present the princess. Ha! Ha!" Ha! for is
"Ouch! My finger!" "Who are you?" "I am a prince." "My people!This is our new baby!" "Oh, she'slovely!" "Oh dear!She'ssleeping!" "Will vou malTvme?" "Yes!" "What's the matter?Everyone sleeping!" is

Page I

Look at the baby princess.
Page 2 and 3

She is a beautiful baby. The good fairies give presents.
Page 4 and 5

Oh no! The bad fairy. She givesa bad present.
Page 5

Shehurts the young princess.
Page 7

It puts her to sleep.
Page 8 Page 9

The princesssleeps and sleeps.
Page l0

ooWho lives in that castle?"

Everyone is standing and sleeping.
Page | | Page I I

He touches her ....
Page 12

ooShe's beautiful!"

and shewakesup.
Page13

Everyonewakes up.
Page14

ooHello! Hello!"

Everyone smiles.They are happy.

Choosing a character lor a stick puppet

3 characters from the story are missing?

Now, circle the character you will make into a stick puppet.

the mother duck the bobyducks the uglyduckling two whiteducks hens
geese a frog wifdgeese

the ofd womon

the hen the cot flyingswons two girls the mother the uglyduckling o swon os threeswons swimming
chi Idren

the hunter

Stick puppet
You need:

somecard e
crayons penci or ,r scissors 3k #

E white gfue
tr

Drowthe character.

Colour it.

Cut it out.

Glueon the woodenstick.

Let it dry.

Putonsome fupe.

Fingerpuppets

Whw W$xredmrbmw

Simple hand puppets

Wmmre X-$ruasmfu

Drink box puppet
Write the words underthe picture.

scrssors glue

an empty drink box colored pens or crayons

PaPer tape

Fill in the blanks

t.
2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

c

your drink box.

Cleanit anddry

it.

Dr

andc

r ears,eyes,hair etc.

aow

Cut them out.

St

them on

glueor tape.
-GP 41.r\

7.

Jf talk! / / / \ z \\<.. ,/ Makeyour puppet -

,/^ffitl

n
\ v>

-t<---'Y\--l' 'z::'t''-"''-;ut-

I

| rg\ Snll

r.q lltrl

v/

;i*!rli;di i1lt4i1tll{itstiiiiiiittli]tciri:{.lit*t;$$lsi$s$ltisltiglsil]iltillllt]le{!$ir$ii6lt4ingcBs$iid*i$ls*ssia 29

Headbands and mask

Ykn Maxs&mXmxxs *# ffirmrw*rx
The donkey

gffi
dog

Drowondcutout eors Tope glueontostripof poper. or Glue the endstogether

The cat

trru

iq

3,1:

The robbers

Punch holesin eochside. Iie someelostic stringin the holes

Script

Yh* Mus*clarxs mre*?"xes* #f
Scene I Narrator: Once upon a time there was a donkey. livedin Bremen. He His masterwas veD/ mean. Come here,donkey! Come here, you! So the donkey ran away. Runawoy donkey, oway fast. run Runowoy donkey, don't go back! Runowoy donkey, don't be slow! Runowoy donkey, go go! go Scene3 Narrator: Animals: Donkey: Dog: Cat: Cock: Donkey: Dog: Cat: Animals: Narrator: Soon it was nighttime. We're hungry! Look! What? A house! Wherel There! A house! Beds! FOOD!! The donkey,the dog,the cat and the cock went to the house.They lookedinside andthey saw... ROBBERS! Let'ssing!Hee haw! /Woof woof! / Miaow Miaow!/Cock-a-doodle do! Hear them sing,whot a terriblesong. Heor them sing,all night long! What's that?! Help! Help! Let's go! And the robbers ran away Go awoy robbers, away fost! go Go owoy robbers, don't comeback! robbers, Go awoy don't be slow! go Go away robbers, go go!

Master: Narrator: Chorus:

What now?the donkeythought. I like to sing!| can singwith friends! Hee haw! Hee haw! Hee Haw! Narrator: Then the donkeymet a dog. Donkey: Hello,dog! Dog: Hello,donkey! Donkey: Can you sing,dogl Dog: Yes I can! Woof, woof! Wool woof! Donkey /Dog: Hee haw! hee haw! / Woof woof! Woof woof! Chorus: Heor them sing,what a beoutiful songl Heor them sing oll doy long! Narrator: Then the donkeyand dog met a cat. Donkey/ Dog: Hello cat! Cat: Hello donkey, hellodog! Donkey: Can you sing,catl Cat: Yes I can!Miaow!Miaow!Miaow! Miaow! Donkey/Dog Cat: Hee haw!/Woofwoof!/ Miaow! Miaow! Chorus: Hear them sing, whot a beautiful song Heor them sing,all day long! Narrator: Then the donkey,the dog and the cat met a cock. Donkey/Dog Catl Hello cock! Cock: Hello donkey, hellodog,hellocat! Donkey: Can you sing,cock? Cock: Yes I can! Cock-a-doodle do! Cock a doodledo! Animals: Let'ssingin Bremen! Hee haw!/ Woof woof! / Miaow Miaow!/Cock-a-doodle do! Chorus: Hear them singwhot a beoutiful song:Heor them sing all doy long!

Scene 2 Narrator: Donkey:

Chorus: Animals:

Chorus: Robbers: Robber l: Robber2: Robber3: Narrator: Chorus:

Scene4 Narrator: Animals: Cock: Cat: Animals: Narrator: Animals: Robber: Chorus:

Animals:

Narrator: Chorus:

The animals were happy! FOOD! I'm hungry! Me too! (slurp, slurp) But one robber cameagain. (snarl) Big monsters!Bigteeth! HELP! Go owoy robber,go awoy fost! Go awayrobber, don't comebock! Go away robber,don't be slow! Go owoy robber,go go go! Let's live here forever! Hee haw!/ Woof woof! / Miaow Miaow!/ Cock-a-doodle do! And the musicians Bremenlived of happily ever after! Heor them sing,whot a beautiful song!Hear them sing,oll day long! THEEND!

Ail:

Drama activity chart
' ' , .. '{l'lil 'r'rl -t1 lili *:l:lir l:rr:;"11! :ll.l
I

lllr,,, ;,,:lt, ;l{r i,lllll"','i'rirll{l !li:rl: ,lll q'*t :r: t'

ll irh ir lt-'.,

LI

and 5-7 Goldilocks the Three Bears

props,costumes, Mime,improvization, masks Mime scenes, written dialogue masks Controlleddialogue, and headbands, production, full script Controlleddialogue narrator, and stickmasks, scenery Sounds Handpuppets, mime,character voice and lines Roleplay interviews mimes Controlleddialogue, character Finger puppets Mimeandguess scene the Walkingcharacters Mime,pr ops, costumes Objects puppettheatre Stickpuppets, scenery, Sounds, mime objects, mime scenes, dialogues, walking characters, interviews Sounds
Mime objects,interviews,adviceto character.mime scenes

5-7 Sleeping Beauty 5-7 Th e Mu si ci a no f B re men s 7-9 7-9 L2
The Three BillyGoatsGruff The LittleMermaid

5-7 T o m T h u mb 5-7 StoryShop: The Present 7-9 7-9 7-9
Little Red Riding Hood T h e T i n d e rb o x Ci n d e re l l a

9 - t l SnowWhite and RoseRed 9 - t l T h e Go l d e nGo o se 9 - t l Aladdinandthe Lamp L3 5-7 The UglyDuckling 5-7 Jackandthe Beanstalk

5-7 The Princess the Frog and 7-9 7-9 7-9
L4 Hansel and Gretel

SnowWhite and the SevenDwarves Mimeobjects, props,costumes StoryShop: Winnersand Losers Mime Mimeobjects lmprovization Written dialogues giving propsand lmprovization, advice, costumes lnterviews

9 - t l Beautyand the Beast 5-7 7-9
7-9 P i n o cch i o Rapunzel T h e P i e dP i p e ro f H a melin

9 - t l A Thief in the Village
and other stories
32

Other

resource

materials

available free for teachers

Penguin Young Readers Factsheets Eachfactsheetis basedon one Readerand consistsof: . a summaryof the book . informationabout the story and its author/background . lively, photocopiableactivities PenguinYoung ReadersFactsheets free to downloadfrom our website are wwwpenguinreaders.com Penguin Young Readers Teacher's Guides PenguinYoung ReadersTeacher's Guidesto UsingStoriesin Class lsBN 0 582 344t9 0 Penguin YoungReaders Teacher's Guidesto Dramatizing Stories lsBN 0582 471095 Penguin YoungReaders Teacher's Guidesto UsingTopics l s B N 0 5 8 24 7 | | 0 9 Penguin YoungReaders Teacher's Guidesare free to downloadfrom our website wwwpenguinreaders.com YoungReaders series, and For a full list of Readersin the Penguin Readerscatalogue, pleasecontact your local copies of the Penguin Pearson Education office: PenguinLongmanPublishing, 5 BentinckStreet,LondonW I M 5RN. tel:020 7487 6027,fax:020 7487 6047. e-mail:catherine.timothy@pearsoned-ema.com

Pearson Education EdinburghGate, Harlow EssexCM20 2JE, England and AssociatedCompaniesthroughout the world. @ PearsonEducationLtd 2001 Designedby John Hawkins.Artwork by B. Dowty/G-C I All rights reserved; port of this publicotionmoy be reproduced,storedin o no mechoniretrievolsystern, tronsmitted in ony form or by ony meons,electronic, or col, photocopying, recording, otherwise,without the prior wrinen permissionof or the Publishers. with Penguin Books Published PearsonEducationLimited in association by of Ltd., both companiesbeingsubsidiaries Pearsonplc. lsBN 0 582 47t095

Young Reoders Penguin Teocher's Guide fo Dromofizing Stories
Reoders leocher'sGuideto Dromatizing Stories offers teachers PenguinYoung practical from simpletames adviceon the useof dramain the classroom, involving movementto publicperformances. PenguinYoung Reoders Teacher's Guideto Dromatizing Stories includes: . an introductionto drama o how to dramatize stories, usingmime,from scripts, roleplay or . how to explore various parts of a story . how to bringthe story alive, propsand scenery with puppets, o how to plana dramaproduction . usingdramain the classroom PenguinYoung Reoders Teacher\ Guideto Dromotizing Stories also includesthe followingphotocopiable activities: I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 l0 || 12 l3 14 l5 Working with sounds Miming objects lnterview Role cards Mimeand guess scene the Characteractions Creatingdialogue Choosing character a stick puppet for a Stickpuppets Finger puppets Simple handpuppets Drink box puppet Headbands masks and Script Drama activitychart

I S B N0 - 5 8 2 - 4 7 1 0 9 - 5

ThisTeacher's Guideandall PenguinYoung Readers Factsheets be downloaded from www.penguinreaders.com can

Published and distributedby PearsonEducationLimited

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