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After the Beginning - A Cosmic Journey Through Space and Time5.0

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5 Einstein Equations

Einstein’s equations are Gµν = −8πGTµν + Λgµν, where Gµν is

the Einstein tensor, composed of the Riemann tensor, Rµν, which

characterizesthe curvature of spacetime, and the Ricci scalarcurva-

ture R. Newton’s constant is denoted by G. The presence of matter

and radiation appears in the stress–energy tensor, Tµν. Einstein’s

equations tell spacetime how to curve to the presence of matter and

radiation, and then tell the latter how to arrange themselves and

move under the inﬂuence of gravity. It is in this equation that we

see that spacetime is not merely an arena in which things happen,

but is itself shaped by what happens.

6 World Lines and Cosmic Time

Time always progresses, and in one direction only. Therefore, even

if a particle sits still, nevertheless, in four-dimensional spacetime

it traces a track called its world line. A mathematician, Herman

Weyl, hypothesized that world lines of particles in a universe such

as ours do not become entangled. (If any two world lines were to

cross, the single-valuedness of functions of time would be lost.) In

a uniform and expanding universe, an observer could see the world

lines diverging from a point at some distant ﬁnite or inﬁnite time

in the past, but never again would they meet. It is remarkable that

Weyl introduced his hypothesis before Hubble had discovered the

expansion of the universe. The idealization is altogether reasonable.

Of course, sometimes galaxies collide. But, as to the overall history

of the universe, we are not disturbed by these events.

If on each world line a common* time* t is marked, the points so

singled out form a* spatial* surface. The surface might simply be

a plane, in which case the geometry would be Euclidean, like the

geometry of lines inscribed on a sheet of paper on a desk. In fact,

recent discoveries in cosmology have conﬁrmed that this is indeed

the curvature of our universe—ﬂat. It need not have been so. The

surfaces at any slice of cosmic time could have been spherical or

hyperbolic. The three possibilities emerge as the only curvatures

that are possible for the metric of a uniform homogenous universe.

Robertson and Walker discovered this metric independently.

July 13, 2004

Book: After the Begining

bk04-004

82* Norman K. Glendenning
*

7 Metric for a Uniform Isotropic Universe

Express Weyl’s hypothesis in terms of coordinates and metric. A

world line is labeled by three space coordinatesxm

(m = 1,2,3)and

a time coordinate x0

. Consider a 3-surface deﬁned by an orthogonal

slice through the world lines at a common time x0

, which we use to

label such slices. To satisfy the Weyl hypothesis, the metric tensor

gmn

must have the following properties. Orthogonality is expressed

by g0n = 0. Each of the world lines, xm

= constant, is a geodesic.

Therefore,

d2

xm

ds2 + Γm

kl

dxk

ds

dxl

ds = 0,

where the line element is ds2

= gkldxk

dxl

. For xm

= constant

(each m = 1,2,3) we obtain Γn

00 = 0, and ∂g00/∂xn

= 0. Thus

g00 depends only on x0

; we can therefore replace it by a suitable

function of itself that makes g00 = 1. The line element then becomes

ds2

= c2

dt2

+ gmndxm

dxn

, where t≡x0

is cosmic time.

1. Example: Surface of negative curvature

x2

i −(ct)2

=−R2

.

Substitute

x1 = Rsinhχ cosθ, x2 = Rsinhχ sinθ cosφ,

x3 = Rsinhχ sinθ sinφ, t≡x4 = Rcoshχ.

This gives

dx2

i −(cdt)2

= R2

[dχ2

+ sinh2

χ(dθ2

+ sin2

θdφ2

)].

Now substitute r = sinh χ to obtain

ds2

= c2

dt2

−R(t)2

dr2

1 + kr2 + r2

(dθ2

+ sin2

θdφ2

)

.

This is known as the Robertson–Walker metric. Here, R(t) is the

previously discussed scale factor. For a homogeneous isotropic uni-

verse, Einstein’s 10 independent ﬁeld quantities gµν(xσ) have been

reduced to a single function of cosmic time, the scale factor R(t),

and a curvature parameter k. The constant k can take three values:

k = 1 for spherical subspace, k = 0 for a planar, and k =−1 for a

hyperbolic.

July 13, 2004

Book: After the Begining

bk04-004

Big Bang 83

8 The Friedmann Lemaˆ

itre Equations

For the Robertson–Walker line element derived above correspond-

ing to a* homogeneous and isotropic* universe, only two of Einstein’s

ﬁeld equations are independent. They can be taken as

˙

R2

+ kc2

= (1/3)(Λ + 8πGρ)R2

and

¨

R = (1/3)[Λ−4πG(ρ + 3p/c2

)]R.

Here ρ = /c2

is the mass density, the energy density, p the

pressure, Λ Einstein’s cosmological constant, and k the curvature

parameter.

Take the derivative of the ﬁrst of the above pair of equations,

multiply the second by ˙

R, and eliminate the Λ term from the re-

sulting pair to obtain the conservation law implicit in the Einstein

equations (divergenceless stress–energy tensor),

˙ρ =−3(p/c2

+ ρ)( ˙

R/R).

This equation can also be written in two diﬀerent ways:

d/dt(ρc2

R3

) =−pdR3

/dt,

which is the energy–work equation for expansion or contraction.

Another way in which the conservation equation can be written is

dρ/dR =−3(p/c2

+ ρ)/R.

The independent equations governing expansion may be taken as

the ﬁrst of the Friedmann–Lemaˆitre equations together with the

local conservation equation in any of its forms. This was our im-

plicit choice on page 74.

We can derive rigorously the behavior of radiation and matter

densities that we arrived at by logic in the text from either of

the conservation equations. The equation of state for radiation is

p = (1/3)ρ*r*c2

. Therefore

dρ/ρ =−4dR/R.

This yields the conservation equation ρ*r* ∼ 1/R4

. For matter,

p ρ*m*/c2

and we obtain instead ρ*m* ∼1/R3

. Thus, as we learned,

radiation dominates early in the history, and matter next.

July 13, 2004

Book: After the Begining

bk04-004

**4 Elementary Particles —
**

**Fundamental Forces
**

It remains therefore that the ﬁrst matter must be atoms. . . .

— Sir Isaac Newton,* Quaestiones
*

String Theory and Non Commutative Geometry

Spacetime Calculus

Introduction to Groups, In Variants, And Particles - F. Firk

Bananas

Recycle PC (Funny)

Tutorials in Probability

Treatise on Quantum Clifford Algebras - Fauser

Treatise of Plane Geometry Through Geometric Algebra - R G Calvet

JLPT Vocabulary Level 2 3 4

New Scientist Careers Guide 2008

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

Don Lichtenberg - The Universe and the Atom

Time and Space

Our Universe-- The Thrill of Extra Galactic Exploration

Understanding the Universe and the Elegant Universe

Abhay Ashtekar-100 Years of Relativity_ Space-time Structure Einstein and Beyond-World Scientific Publishing Company (2006)

Beyond Einstein

Swami Krishna - Physics of Comets

An Introduction to Modern Cosmology

astronomy-buying-first-scope

Modem Astronomy - Startling Facts

Cosmos

Modern Cosmology

Jain, Pankaj [en] - An Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics [CRC]

An Introduction to the Science of Cosmology.pdf

From Quarks to Black Holes Copy

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Reading Metaphysics

The Complete Idiot's Guide to Astronomy, 4th Edition
Christopher De Pree

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Stars - Planets and Galaxies - Sune Engelbrektson - 1975

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76340823-Astronomy

Dark Matter in Universe

Colour Atlas of the Universe - (Malestrom)

Schopf_2002_Life's Origin_The Beginning of Biological Evolution

Introduction to stellar astrophysics

Space, Time and Einstein an Introduction

Light and Matter [Physics for Non Scientists]

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