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The Call for National Service Training Program (RA 9163) What is the National Service Training Program? It is a newly mandated program in the curricula of all baccalaureate degree courses of at least two (2) year technical-vocational or associate courses in State Universities and Colleges (SUCs), Private higher and technicalvocational educational institutions, and is a requirement for graduation in compliance with Section 4 of Republic Act No. 9163 otherwise known as the National Service Training Program (NSTP), Act of 2001 and Section 4 Rule III of the Implementing Rules and Regulations. What is the National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001 all about? The National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001 is Republic Act 9163 that had been signed into law by Her Excellency, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo in response to the public clamor for reforms in the Reserved Officers Training Corps (ROTC) Program.

Who are required to take the NSTP Law? The following are required to take the NSTP courses a. All incoming freshmen students in any baccalaureate and at least in any two year-technical and or vocational associate courses. b. All male students who are not covered by Section 12 of the NSTP Law Implementing Rules and Regulations and are currently enrolled but have not taken any of the Military Service (MS), Civic Welfare Service (CWS), and Law Enforcement Service (LES) programs shall be covered by the NSTP Law. c. Male students who are not covered by section 12 of the NSTP Law Implementing Rules and Regulations and have taken only one semester of the Basic ROTC or Expanded ROTC/ NSP shall take one more semester of any of the NSTP components for grauation purposes. Who are not required to take NSTP courses? a. Males students who have completed all their academic requirements for the respective courses as certified by the schoolon or before the effectivity of the NSTP Act of 2002, which was March 23, 2002 may apply for graduation with their respective schools. b. Males students who have completed two semesters of the Expanded ROTC (E-ROTC)/ National Service Program (NSP) are deemed to have complied with the NSTP requirement. c. Bonafide students of the Philippine Military Academy (PMA), Philippine National Merchant Marine Academy (PMMA), Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA), and SUC's of similar nature NSTP Components What are the components of the NSTP? Section 5 of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of RA 9163 provides that the NSTP shall have the following components that the students can choose from: 1. The Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC)

ROTC refers to the program component, institutionalized under sections 38 and 39 of R.A No. 7077, designed to provide military training to tertiary level students in order to motivate, train, organize, and mobilize them for national defense preparedness

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Literacy Training Services (LTS)

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LTS refers to the program component designed to train the students to teach literacy and numeracy skills to school children, out-of-school youth, and other segments of society in need of their services. 3. Civic Welfare Training Services (CWTS)

CWTS refers to the program component or activities contributory to the general welfare and the betterment of life for the members of the community or the enhancements of its facilities, especially those devoted to improving health, education, environment, entrepreneurship, safety, recreation, and morale of the citizenry and other social welfare services. What is the emphasis of these three (3) program components? All programs, the ROTC in particular, shall give emphasis on citizenship training and shall instill patriotism, moral virtues, respect for the rights of civilians, and adherence to the constitution What is the duration and equivalent course unit of these program components? Each of the NSTP components shall be undertaken for an academic period of two (2) semesters and shall be credited for three (3) units per semester, for fifty-four (54) to ninety (90) training hours per semester. A one (1) summer program in lieu of the two (2) semester program may be designed, formulated, and adopted by the DND, CHED, and TESDA, subject to the capability of the school and AFP to handle the same. Is the Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) still recognized for graduation even without NSTP? The completion of ROTC training as a requisite for graduation is set aside for students who have completed all their academic requirements for their respective courses as certified by the school on or before the effectivity of the NSTP Act of 2001, which is March 23, 2002. Said students may apply for graduation with their respective schools. Male students who are not covered by Section 12 of Rule VI on Transitory Provision of the Implementing Rules and Regulations and are currently enrolled but have not taken any of the Military Service (MS), Civic Welfare Service (CWS), or Law Enforcements Service (LES) programs shall be covered by the NSTP Law. Male students who have completed two (2) semesters of the expanded ROTC (E-ROTC/National Service Program (NSP) are deemed to have complied with the NSTP requirement. Males who are not covered by Section 12 of the Rules and have taken only one (1) semester of Basic ROTC or E-ROTC/NSP shall take one more semester of the NSTP components to qualify for graduation. Implementation of NSTP Constitutional Bases of NSTP Law Under the 1987 Constitution, there are two provisions, which serve as the guiding light of the NSTP Law. Article II. Declaration of Principles and State Policies Section 4. The prime duty of the government is to serve and protect people. The government may call upon the people to defend the State and in the fulfillment thereof, all citizens may be required under conditions provided by law, to render personal or military services.

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Bernas (2002) states that the phrase ³under conditions provided by law´ in the second sentence of Section 4 emphasizes the primacy of serving the interest of the people and protecting their rights even when there is need to defend the state.

Section 13. The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual and social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism, nationalism and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs. This provision was lifted from 1973 Constitution and was due to the rise of youth activism that transpired before the framing of the said constitution. In due time, the elders finally realized the youth¶s responsibility, maturity, and competence in the resolution of public issues. Afterwards, they began to give greater recognition to them as an important player in nation building.] In order to promote the civic efficiency of our youth, Republic Act No. 9163, otherwise known as the National Service Training Program (NSTP Law) came into existence. The statute became effective on January 23, 2002

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Legislative History of the NSTP The history of National Service Training Program started with the creation of Commonwealth Act. No.1, otherwise known as the National Defense Act, was the first statutory enactment by the Commonwealth government on December 23, 1935. Commonwealth Act No.1 required the compulsory military training of all college students to take compulsory courses of military instructions pursuant to Commonwealth Act later issued Executive Order No. 207 No.1 (Final Action: RAN-9163, Congress of the Philippines, Senate Records and Archive Service). The rationale of military training service is the defense of the State, either actual or in preparation to make it more effective in case of need. The responsibility for national defense is stated in the law as follows: The preservation of the state is the obligation of every citizen. The security of the Philippines and the freedom, independence, and perpetual neutrality of the Philippine Republic shall be guaranteed by the employment of all citizens without distinction of age, or sex, and all resources (Paragraph (a), Section 2, Article 1). With the passage of Act, college students, specifically males were then required to finish two years or four semesters of military training to be reserved cadet for the national defense of the Philippines. On August 8, 1980, President Ferdinand E. Marcos, repealing Commonwealth Act No. 1, issued Presidential Decree No.1706, otherwise known as the National Service Law (Final Action: RAN-9163, Congress of the Philippines, Senate Records ad Archive Service). The decree made it obligatory for all citizens to render national service in any of the three programs, namely, civic welfare service, law enforcement service, or military service (Section 2, PD No. 1706), provided that such service shall be credited in his favor for the purpose of fulfilling educational requirements established by law (Section, PD. No. 1706). It is in this connection that college students were given an option to chose one among these three components to comply with the requirement for tertiary education. After the ouster of former President Marcos, Presidential Memorandum Order No.1 of President Corazon C. Aquino suspended the implementation of the National Service Law except the provisions on the Military Service. It became the Basic Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) effective school year 1986-1987 In the year 1991, the Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of Republic Act 7077 modified the Basic ROTC Course into the Expanded ROTC program, as mandated. In contrast to the traditional ROTC program, the expanded ROTC program offered two curriculum years of training students. It consisted purely of basic military training in the first curriculum and any of the three service components such as Military Training Service (MTS), Civic Welfare Service (CWS), and Law Enforcement Service (LES) in the second curriculum year. This modification aimed to address the clamor of students to be provided with options to fulfill their personal service

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obligations to the State other than military training by incorporating the concept of national Service Law. The move to expand the ROTC program satisfied the demand of the youth for non-military options, which is considered to be the main source of the AFP Reserve Force. During its implementation, all male students enrolled in the initial baccalaureate degree programs must take and complete the Expanded ROTC course. Female students, on the other hand, may take it in an optional basis, and may then be exempted from the required physical education subjects. However, students enrolled in non-degree courses may not undertake the expanded ROTC program/course (Handbook, Expanded ROTC Program Recent events call for the re-examination and review of the 60-year old law requiring college students to render a two-year military service in ROTC program. Noteworthy, out of 13 bills filed by the different senators, 12 proposed that ROTC he made optional and one favored total abolition. The two committees, the Committee on Education, Arts, and Culture which was headed by then Senator Renato Cayetano and the Committee on National Defense and Security, headed by Senator Ramon Magsaysay Jr. both conducted exhaustive dialogues with concerned government agencies like Commission on Higher Education (CHED); Department of National Defense (DND); Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP); and administrators, presidents, and student leaders of private and public schools. Two public hearings was to make ROTC an optional course (Final Action: RAN-9163, Congress of the Philippines, Senate Records and Archives Service). It was in this light that the late Senator Renato Cayetano and Senator Ramon Magsaysay Jr., sponsored and co-sponsored respectively Senate Bill 1824, entitled:AN ACT PROVIDING FOR AN OPTIONAL RESERVE OFFICERS¶ TRAINING CORPS (ROTC), ESTABLISHING ALTERNATIVE NATIONAL SERVICE PROGRAMS SUCH AS PEACEKEEPING AND COMMUNITY SERVICE IN COLLEGIATE INSTITUTION, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES, which eventually Republic act No. 9163 or otherwise known as AN ACT ESTABLISHING ALTERNATE NATIONAL SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM (NSTP) FOR TERTIARY LEVEL STUDENTS, AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE REPUBLIC NO.1796, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. Republic act No.9163 was signed into law by Her Excellency Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 23, 2002. NSTP is comprised of three program components namely, Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS), Literacy Training Service (LTS), and Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC). Guiding Principles of NSTP What is the guiding principle of this Act? Section 1 of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the NSTP states thus: ³While it is the prime duty of the government to serve and protect its citizens, in turn, it shall be the security of all the citizens to defend the security of the State, and in fulfillment thereof, the government may require each citizen to render personal military or civil service.´ Therefore, the National Service Training Program (NSTP) reaffirms the prime duty of the government to inculcate in the minds of the students and youth their role in nation building as embodied in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. It shall be the responsibility of all citizens to defend the security of the state. Such responsibility, however, not only calls for a response to do personal military service but also personal civic service. What is the guiding principle of NSTP on the role of the youth? Section 2 of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the NSTP provides: ³a. In recognition of the vital role of the youth in nation-building, the State shall promote civic consciousness among them and shall develop their physical moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall inculcate the ideas of patriotism, nationalism, and advance their involvement in public and civic affairs.´ ³b. As the most valuable resource of the nation, they shall be motivated, trained, organized, and involved in military, literacy, civic welfare programs, and other similar endeavors in the service of the nation.´

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Lesson: Youth's Self-Awareness and Values Development Topic: Explanation of true knowledge

What is true knowledge? True knowledge is knowing: y Who you are? y What you are in this earth for? y How you can get there? y Life would not be meaningful unless we know and understand what our reasons are for being in this world. Remember, you are unique individual created by a Great God who loves you and gives you the blessings you need to fulfill your reasons for being in this world. You are nothing without him but you can be everything with Him. You must be a witness to His greatness by following the golden rule: "Do unto others what you would wish others to do unto you." He has given you talents that you have to put to good use because you willaccount for them in the final reckoning. Share them to others, to your community so that your life shall be filled with joy. Topic: Meaning of values What are values? Etymologically, the word "values" comes from the word "valere", which means - "to measure the worth of something" Values are: y y y y y y y the elements of life prevailing in any society they lie at the core of man's life. they color man's choice they shape and determine an individual's or group's decision, to like or dislike favor or disfavor change or not to change

Axiology is the philosophy of values. Acts reveal the person's value preferences. Like a prison that reflects the invisible spectrum of colors, a person's acts manifest his invisible order of values (Max Scheler, Philosophy Today 1989) Values may be positive or negative. They create an atmosphere-hence, the sense of values. They are diverse types and they transcend facts and clamor for existence and realization. There are also subjective and objective values. Value experience involves a subject valuing and object valued. For example: A watch has a sentimental value to someone, which is subjective value. Life opposed to death is an objective value. There are also moral values that refer to the good or evil nature of acts

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Topic: Values Education What is values education? It is life it self It is search for the human good It is not prescriptive ± as values cannot be imposed. It is descriptive ± as it attempts to present a desirable value system on the basis of an understanding of the human person It is conceptual ± as it lists ideals that have to be internalized in the education process. It is broad and flexible ± enough for adaptation to specific contexts What are the foundations of values education? Values education is founded on a philosophy of the human person with all its philosophical implications. The supreme value that characterizes education is HUMAN DIGNITY. What are the objectives of values education? Values Education is directed towards: (1) Academic Formation ± where the intellect id trained to know the truth; and (2) Personal Formation ± where the human will is trained to choose the good. Topic: Dimensions of the human person What are the dimensions of the human person? The supreme value that characterizes education is human dignity, and all other values are pursued because of the inner worth of the human person. Man as a Physical being: must maintain health with nature He should not use or overuse his body ± his physical nature calls for harmony with the material world Intellectual being gifted with mind and the faculty of knowing: He must constantly search for the truth ± he seeks knowledge that would transform society and the world. It is not enough to discover data and the known facts, but he must develop creative and critical thinking to meet the challenges of the modern world.

Spiritual being capable of higher concerns and rising above the material things: Man must cultivate a sense of spirituality in consonance with his nature and respond to God in faith. The cultivation of faith is what meant by spirituality. Social being living in a community: Man must cultivate the sense of social responsibility, be aware of his unique participation in the pursuit of welfare of the family and the common good of the larger society, so that society can, in turn, look after the common good and well-being of the people.

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social responsibility, first of all, means the strengthening of the family, a basic autonomous social institution. If we wish to be vigorous in our attempt to weather the impact of modernization and technology. mutual love, mutual respect and fidelity are traditional values that preserve the unity and sanctity of family life.

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Economic being: man has the obligation to help achieve economic efficiency for the community aside from his own financial uplift. Economic efficiency is achieved by man through: work exercise of mastery over the resources of nature creative imagination in the solution of problems

The work ethic is imperative, particularly in a country with a depressed economy. Man aims to produce food, goods, basic commodities by manufacturers for the survival and well-being of the community, and the production of machines that produce answers problems. Topic: Becoming aware of values Becoming aware of values: Being aware of values is a valuing process originated by Dr. Harold Laswell of Yale University and adapted to the field by Dr. W. Ray Rucker. This valuing process is founded on a holistic framework of universal needs of man. Which are as follows: Affection Respect Skills Enlightenment Influence (or power) Wealth Well-being Responsibility (or rectitude) All human wants and needs are contained within one or more of these value categories: Becoming aware of values considers a three-dimensional process of valuing: First Dimension: to develop within man each one of these basic need areas Man needs to see himself as someone important, someone unique. He needs to be able to understand that he is the only one of his kind on earth, that he has a contribution to make that no one else can make. Second Dimension: to participate in the sharing and shaping of the eight basic needs of man in the likes of others. Man must identify those whom he respects, what characteristics in other people he respects them Third Dimension: to recognize the ways in which others influence the shaping and sharing of values within man. He must recognize those who have respect for him, and the methods by which respect has been shown. Man must see the ways in which he has been honored, admired recognized by a unique person

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Topic: Filipino traits and values THE AMBIVALENCE OF FILIPINO TRAITS AND VALUES Much has been said about so-called negative Filipino traits. They have been blamed for the weak character of the Filipino; they are the culprits, the scapegoat of our failures, or at least, the explanation for lagging behind more successful Asian neighbors. I propose to take a second look at these so-called negatives in the Filipino psyche to determine whether there might be a positive aspect, a saving face, a silver lining behind the dark clouds. In attempting to see an ambivalence in our traits, I will use oriental yardsticks to measure success or failure for it would be unfair to use Western standards to evaluate our Filipino traits. For example, is a materially comfortable life with physiological ailments more successful than a materially deprived life without physical ailments? Is the image of Juan Tamad waiting for a guava to fall such a reprehensible, if not scandalous, picture? Is the similar image of Sir Isaac Newton, also resting under a tree, more refreshing? It is very Filipino to stress our minus points, to find fault in our behavior, to compare us unfavorably with Westerners by using Western standards. It is common to hear such names as Bertong Bukol, or Ipeng Pilay or Huseng Ngongo. It seems that we take pleasure in underscoring our weaknesses, faults, defects, etc. Our standards are smallness, averageness, mediocrity; grandeur or grandness is not in the Filipino vocabulary. The West, in contrast, evokes: Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Der Führer, Il Duce, El Caudillo, Elizabeth Regina. We seem to enjoy being humble and meek, or what Friedrich Nietzsche called "the morality of slaves." There is something strange in the very way we look upon success. A person is not supposed to exert effort at the expense of sanity. We ridicule a person who teaches himself how to think and label him Tasio, the philosopher. We warn persons not to learn too much lest they be like Jose Rizal who was executed at the Luneta in 1896. Assertiveness is frowned upon because it smacks of pride and ruthlessness. Success to the Filipino, must come naturally; it should not be induced or artificially contrived. One should not be successful at an early age because that would mean exertion and hard work. Success must come very late in life, if it is to come at all. Filipino traits must be understood in the above context. Hence, they are considered negative only according to other yardsticks. The following Filipino traits show an ambivalence of positive and negative aspects. Hiya (shame) Negative, because it arrests or inhibits one's action. This trait reduces one to smallness or to what Nietzsche calls the "morality of slaves", thus congealing the soul of the Filipino and emasculating him, making him timid, meek and weak. Positive, because, it contributes to peace of mind and lack of stress by not even trying to achieve. Ningas-cogon (procrastination) Negative, by all standards, because it begins ardently and dies down as soon as it begins. This trait renders one inactive and unable to initiate things or to persevere. Positive, in a way, because it makes a person non-chalant, detached, indifferent, nonplussed should anything go wrong, and hence conducive to peace and tranquillity. Pakikisama (group loyalty) Negative, because one closes one's eyes to evils like graft and corruption in order to conserve peace and harmony in a group at the expense of one's comfort.

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Positive, because one lives for others; peace or lack of dissension is a constant goal. Patigasan (test of strength) Negative, because it is stubborn and resists all efforts at reconciliation. The trait makes us childish, vindictive, irresponsible, irrational. Actions resulting from this trait are leaving the phone off the hook to get even with one's party line; stopping the engine of the car to prove that one has the right of way; standing one's ground until the opposite party loses its patience. Positive, because it is assign that we know our rights and are not easily cowed into submission. It is occidental in spirit, hence in keeping with Nietzsche's "will to power." Bahala na (resignation) Negative, because one leaves everything to chance under the pretext of trusting in Divine providence. This trait is really laziness disguised in religious garb. Positive, because one relies on a superior power rather than on one's own. It is conducive to humility, modesty, and lack of arrogance. Kasi (because, i. e., scapegoat) Negative, because one disowns responsibility and makes a scapegoat out of someone or something. One is never to blame; one remains lily white and has a ready alibi for failure. Positive, because one can see both sides of the picture and know exactly where a project failed. One will never suffer from guilt or self-recrimination. Saving Face Negative, because, being closely related to hiya and kasi, it enables a person to shirk responsibility. One is never accountable for anything. Positive, because one's psyche is saved from undue embarrassment, sleepless nights, remorse of conscience. It saves one from accountability or responsibility. This trait enables one to make a graceful exit from guilt instead of facing the music and owning responsibility for an offense. Sakop (inclusion) Negative, because one never learns to be on one's own but relies on one's family and relatives. This trait stunts growth and prevents a person from growing on one's own. Generating a life of parasitism, this trait is very non-existential. Blaring music, loud tones are a result of this mentality. We wrongly think that all people like the music we play or the stories we tell. This mentality also makes us consider the world as one vast comfort room. Positive, because one cares for the family and clan; one stands or falls with them. This trait makes a person show concern for the family to which he belongs. Mañana or "Bukas na" (procrastination) Negative, because one constantly postpones action and accomplishes nothing. This aggravates a situation, a problem grows beyond correction, a leak or a small break becomes a gaping hole. This arises from an indolent mentality that a problem will go away by itself. Positive, because one is without stress and tension; one learns to take what comes naturally. Like the Chinese wu-wei, this trait makes one live naturally and without undue artificiality.

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Utang na loob (indebtedness) Negative, because one overlooks moral principles when one is indebted to a person. One who is beholden to another person will do anything to please him, thinking that by doing so he is able to repay a debt. One condones what the other person does and will never censure him for wrongdoing. Positive, because it is a recognition of one's indebtedness. This trait portrays the spirit behind the Filipino saying, "He who does not know how to look to the past will never reach his destination." Kanya-kanya (self-centeredness) Negative, because self-centered; one has no regard for others. So long as my family and I are not in need, I do not care about he world. Positive, because one takes care of oneself and one's family: "Blood is thicker than water." At the end of our exposé of the positive and negative aspects of the Filipino psyche, one asks the question: What after all, is its ideal of personality, activity and achievement? Regarding personality, if the ideal is a personality without stress and tension, then Filipino traits contribute to this. The contention is that success necessarily means hypertension, ulcers and sleepless nights. Could there exist a state of success without these physical aberrations? Regarding activity, if the idea is that one should engage in a whirlpool of activity or if the work ethic is workaholism, then the Filipino indeed is in very poor estate. But is this not more of the Occidental or Western concept of activity? In contrast, the Oriental emphasizes conformity with nature; hence, one should never exaggerate or overact. Regarding achievement, if the ideal is that one must achieve an earthly goal, then the Filipino, as a race, will occupy a low rank. But again, is this ideal not more Occidental or Western, according to which one must always set a goal and accomplish it? Setting a goal is not wrong in any culture, but the manner of achieving it which can be questionable. Does one have to expend one's total energy in the pursuit of an ideal which, after all, is a personal, earthly goal? If for the Filipino smallness, meekness, and humility are ideals, could it not be that he is not this-worldly? Could he not perhaps be aiming, consciously or otherwise, at the life in the hereafter where the last will be the first, the weak will be strong, and the small will be great? Topic: Filipino culture and tradition * Hospitable * Closely knit family ties * Respect to elders * Bayanihan About Courtship and Marriages * Harana - is a traditional form of courtship in the Philippines in which a man woos a woman by singing underneath her window at night. Although this is universal, it was widely practiced in old Philippines with a set of protocols, a code of conduct, and a specific style of music. * The groom should shoulder the expenses in marriage About Religion During Christmas * One of the world¶s longest Christmas celebration * Misa de Gallo (nine day "simbang gabi") * Noche Buena

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* ³Aguinaldo´ (gifts given to children) During Holy Week * "Pabasa" or the chanting of the life of Christ is held in private homes during Holy Week * "Visita Iglesia" on Maundy Thursday * "Prusisyon" a solemn procession where the people walk the main town's thoroughfare with lighted candles as the church's best antique carosas and santos Celebrations * Town Fiesta - usually held in honor of the patron saint of the town * Making noise and lighting firecrackers during New Year's Eve - placing of 12 round food stuff on the dining table, to signify good health, wealth and luck in the year to come Topic: Filipino identity The question of Filipino identity answered In order to understand the Filipino identity it is necessary to describe it in terms of the following areas: geographical identity, racial identity and cultural identity. But first and foremost, Filipino is a term used to refer to people living in the Philippines who were born there or acquired their Philippine citizenship. It likewise means someone who can trace in his family tree a "Philippine Connection" - someone who was Filipino or born of Filipino parent/s. GEOGRAPHICAL IDENTITY: Some people question the Filipinos' being Asians. Maybe because when people hear the word Asian they always think of Japanese, Chinese and Korean. To settle this, it is essential to know what "Asian" really means. Asian is most commonly used as a term to refer to people coming from or living in Asia. That being said, the Philippines is geographically located in Southeast Asia, thus its inhabitants or people of its origins are ASIANS. In addition, the Philippine Islands, just like Japan, is located in the western side of the Oceania or the Pacific Ocean. Thus those who think that they are PACIFIC ISLANDERS are likewise correct. ETHNIC/RACIAL IDENTITY: The Filipino of modern times is a mlange of racial blood. They maybe a combination of the following races: Malay, Indonesian, Chinese, Spanish, American, and British among others. One of the first inhabitants of the archipelago were the Itas/Agtas/Aetas. They closely resemble the aboriginals in Australia. They are small in stature, have dark skin and kinky hair. Then there are also the Malays and Indons who sailed from nearby islands either for trading or migratory purposes. The Chinese were likewise active traders in this part of Asia even prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. The finding and naming of the archipelago by Spanish conquistadors and their eventual colonization which lasted for more than 300 years has led to inter-racial marriages. And then the Americans followed suit, and now the modern inter-racial marriages. This is the primary reasons why non-Filipinos or those who are or were not exposed to Filipinos sometimes find it hard to distinguish them from other races. Some look Chinese, some have western physical characteristics, some closely resemble Indonesians or Malays, and others are just in between. But funny enough, a Filipino knows a fellow Filipino regardless of their physical characteristics. You may look very Chinese, but they will still know if you're Filipino.....They have FILIDAR - Filipino RADAR!

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CULTURAL IDENTITY: Just like race, Filipino culture is vast. It is made up of various ethno-linguistic cultural practices and norms. To describe it, one needs to know the different regions in the Philippines and their respective cultures. However all of these different cultures have similarities. Thus, it is safe to describe it using these similarities as springboards. Family: The family is not only the basic unit of society in the Philippines. It is first and foremost the center of society and culture. Filipinos are very family oriented. And when you say family, it does not only mean their immediate family; it likewise includes the extended family either through consanguinity or by marriage. Religion: Pre-colonial Filipinos were mostly animist and some were Muslims, since Muslim missionaries came to the islands prior to the Spaniards. Currently, the Philippines is predominantly Catholic. Filipinos are generally religious regardless of what faith they are practicing. Language: The national language in the Philippines is Filipino (Tagalog). Almost all Filipino can speak and read the language. However, different regions in the country have their own language, which is their langue maternelle or what is commonly called as lingua franca. There are a number of regional languages in the Philippines namely but not limited to: Kapampangan, Tagalog (the basis of the national language), Ilocano, Visayan, Pangasinan, Hiligaynon, and others. TRAITS: Filipinos are caring, loving and respectful. They are very understanding and accommodating. They value pakikisama, utang na loob, at pakikipagkapwa tao. They are a happy people, humorous one would say. They are not afraid of laughing at themselves (although sometimes it gets too much!), their mistakes even the trials they experience in their lives. For them there is always a "pot of gold at the end of the rainbow". Being Filipino is likewise a question of "personal identity". Anyone who recognizes their Filipino heritage is a Filipino. If you deny it, then you are missing on a lot of things. For those who have other illusions, just take a good look of your passport or birth certificate that should tell you the truth. For others, your family tree will tell you if you have any Filipino connection Topic: The Desirable Traits of the Filipino Youth Needed for National Development * Love of country - > love for the mother tongue > patronizing our own cultural arts, products, and inventions - * Serving our beloved Filipinos ‡ * Continuous interest to learn ‡ * Thrift ‡* Industry * Sense of service * Perseverance * Creativity or inventiveness * Honesty * Personal discipline * Respect * Integrity * Sense of responsibility * Assertiveness * Sensitivity to the needs of others

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Lesson:The Youth as a Citizen, an Advocate and Volunteer Good Citizenship What is a good Filipino citizen? A good Filipino ciitizen is: plays an active and intelligent role as a member of the community. one who fulfills his duties and obligations to the government and society possesses the traits of respectfulness, courtesy and consideration for parents, elders, and for others observes punctuality, promptness and gooid moral conduct

How can we become good citizens? We can become good citizens by living in accordance with good citizenship values which we can derive from the Preamble of the Constitution such as: Faith in God, Unity, Patriotism, Work, Respect for Life, Respect for Law and Government, Truth, Justice, Freedom, Love, Equality, Peace, Promotion, of the Common Good, Concern for the Family and Future Generations, Concern for the Environment and Order Preamble of the 1987 Constitution. "We the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity, the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justrice, freedom, love, equality, and peace do ordain and promulgate this constitution." Value of Service The Basic Building Blocks (Our Basic Values) 1. Unity We want to be one as people. We cherish oneness ± as co-citizens of out country, as members of our family, as co-workers in an institution

2.

Patriotism We want the best for our country. We want our country to be respected and honored by its citizenry and by the whole world Faith in Almighty God We want to have God present in our lives. We want to have a relationship of trust in Him. We want to ask God¶s help beyond what we ourselves can do Respect for life We want human life to be preserved, nurtured and safeguarded Respect for law and government We want that the rule or law be upheld by all and at all times that Government be accorded respect and all laws be complied it Truth Justice -

3.

4. 5.

6.

We want that we ourselves and others be true, that truth reign in our land

7.

We want that everyone be given what is due him/her as a human being, and that what governs all relationships is morally and legally upright

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8.

Freedom We want that each one of us be able to exercise our freedom of will Love -

9.

We want that each one of us desire to love and be loved. Love begets love. If love reigns in our hearts, the harmonious relationship of all people will prevail. We want that each one of us have the opportunity to be fully human, and that no one be the victim of prejudices or biases of any kind, and that the interests of one not be sacrificed against his will for the good of another

10. Equality -

11. Peace -

We want to live in a serene and secure community, with a harmonious relationship with our neighbors. A place which is tranquil and could expect harmony among others and ourselves as well as with the environment

12. Promotion of the common good We want all Filipinos to meet their basic minimum needs and to have opportunities to develop and use our God-given potentials

13. Concern for the family and future generations We want what is best for our family and for every single member in the present and future generations

14. Concern for the environment - We want the environment to be preserved and nurtured, and for ourselves and others to be good stewards of the environment. 15. Order - We want organization, system, and predictability in all aspectsof our daily lives and our life as a nation 16. Work - Everybody wants to have a job to support the basic needs of the family Advocacy and Voluntarism Advocacy is a set of actions whose main objective is to sensitize with a view to influencing decisions about a cause or policy in a stated direction. It is done through pleading or arguing in favor of something. Advocacy operates on the assumption of a collective set of values and common good on behalf of another. In social advocacy the people are the objects of the stated good to arise from such actions. Advocacy by an individual or by an advocacy group normally aim to influence public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions; it may be motivated from moral, ethical or faith principles or simply to protect an asset of interest. Advocacy can include many activities that a person or organization undertakes including media campaigns, public speaking, commissioning and publishing research or poll.

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Forms of advocacy

y

Budget advocacy: Budget advocacy is another aspect of advocacy that ensures proactive engagement of Civil Society Organizations with the government budget to make the government more accountable to the people and promote transparency. Budget advocacy also enables citizens and social action groups to compel the government to be more alert to the needs and aspirations of people in general and the deprived sections of the community.

* Bureaucratic advocacy: people considered ³experts´ have more chance to succeed at presenting their issues to decision-makers. They use bureaucratic advocacy to influence the agenda, however at a slower pace. y Health advocacy: Health advocacy supports and promotes patient's health care right enhance community health and policy initiatives that focus on the availability, safety and quality of care.

* Ideological advocacy: in this approach, groups fight, sometimes during protests, to advance their ideas in the decision-making circles. y Interest-group advocacy: lobbying is the main tool used by interests groups doing mass advocacy. It is a form of action that does not always succeed at influencing political decision-makers as it requires resources and organisation to be effective.

*Legislative advocacy: legislative advocacy is the ³reliance on the state or federal legislative process´ as part of a strategy to create change.(Loue, Lloyd and O¶Shea, 2003) y Mass advocacy: is any type of action taken by large groups (petitions, demonstrations, etc.)

* Media advocacy: is ³the strategic use of the mass media as a resource to advance a social or public policy initiative´ In Canada for example, the Manitoba Public Insurance campaigns illustrate how media advocacy was used to fight alcohol and tobacco-related health issues. We can also consider the role of health advocacy and the media in ³the enactment of municipal smoking bylaws in Canada between 1970 and 1995.´ Different contexts in which advocacy is used: y In a legal/law context: An 'advocate' is the title of a specific person who is authorized/appointed (in some way) to speak on behalf of a person in a legal process.. In a political context: An 'advocacy group' is an organized collection of people who seek to influence political decisions and policy, without seeking election to public office..

y

y

In a social care context: Both terms (and more specific ones such as 'independent advocacy') are used in the UK in the context of a network of interconnected organisations and projects which seek to benefit people who are in difficulty (primarily in the context of disability and mental health). In the context of inclusion: Citizen Advocacy organisations (citizen advocacy programmes) seek to cause benefit by reconnecting people who have become isolated.

y

Voluntarism the use of or reliance on voluntary action to maintain an institution, carry out a policy, or achieve an end. A theory or doctrine that regards the will as the fundamental principle of the individual or of the universe. the belief that the process of collective bargaining or the organisation of trade unions should be interfered with by government.

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Volunteering is the practice of people working on behalf of others or a particular cause without payment for their time and services It is intended to promote good or improve quality of human life People volunteer for: Their own skill development To meet others To make contacts for possible employment To have fun And a variety of reasons that could be considered self-serving Skills-based volunteering Skills-based volunteering refers to volunteering in which the volunteer is specifically trained in the area they are volunteering in [ Environmental-volunteering Environmental volunteering refers to volunteers who contribute towards environmental management. Volunteers conduct a range of activities including environmental monitoring, ecological restoration such as re-vegetation and weed removal, and educating others about the natural environment.

Volunteering in Schools School systems around the world rely heavily on volunteers and donations in order to run effectively.Whenever the economy is down, the need for volunteers and resources increases greatly.There are many opportunities available in the school system for volunteers to take advantage of, especially if you have a special skill or trade. There are not many requirements in order to become a volunteer in the school system. Whether you are a parent, grandparent or just a community member most schools just require a volunteer form be completed. Much like the benefits of any type of volunteerism there are great rewards for the volunteer, student, and school. These benefits include but are not limited to: School Benefits- Provided with additional service without having to have added costs, Teachers are given extra time for educational purposes and planning, A positive relationship between the community and the school. Volunteer Benefits- Parents become involved in their child¶s school and education, New talents that one never knew they had are discovered, A sense of personal satisfaction, Ability to meet new people and develop new friendships. Student Benefits- Students are given a positive role model, Educational success is encouraged and improved. Rights, Duties and Obligations Presidential Decree 603 - The Child and Youth Welfare Code This code shall apply to persons below twenty- one years of age. Rights of the Child and the Youth Rights of the Child. - All children shall be entitled to the rights herein set forth without distinction as to legitimacy or

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illegitimacy, sex, social status, religion, political antecedents, and other factors. a. Every child is endowed with the dignity and worth of a human being from the moment of his conception, as generally accepted in medical parlance, and has, therefore, the right to be born well. (2) Every child has the right to a wholesome family life that will provide him with love, care and understanding, guidance and counseling, and moral and material security. The dependent or abandoned child shall be provided with the nearest substitute for a home. (3) Every child has the right to a well-rounded development of his personality to the end that he may become a happy, useful and active member of society.

b.

c. d.

The gifted child shall be given opportunity and encouragement to develop his special talents. The emotionally disturbed or socially maladjusted child shall be treated with sympathy and understanding, and shall be entitled to treatment and competent care. The physically or mentally handicapped child shall be given the treatment, education and care required by his particular condition. (4) Every child has the right to a balanced diet, adequate clothing, sufficient shelter, proper medical attention, and all the basic physical requirements of a healthy and vigorous life. (5) Every child has the right to be brought up in an atmosphere of morality and rectitude for the enrichment and the strengthening of his character. (6) Every child has the right to an education commensurate with his abilities and to the development of his skills for the improvement of his capacity for service to himself and to his fellowmen. (7) Every child has the right to full opportunities for safe and wholesome recreation and activities, individual as well as social, for the wholesome use of his leisure hours. (8) Every child has the right to protection against exploitation, improper influences, hazards, and other conditions or circumstances prejudicial to his physical, mental, emotional, social and moral development. (9) Every child has the right to live in a community and a society that can offer him an environment free from pernicious influences and conducive to the promotion of his health and the cultivation of his desirable traits and attributes. (10) Every child has the right to the care, assistance, and protection of the State, particularly when his parents or guardians fail or are unable to provide him with his fundamental needs for growth, development, and improvement. (11) Every child has the right to an efficient and honest government that will deepen his faith in democracy and inspire him with the morality of the constituted authorities both in their public and private lives. (12) Every child has the right to grow up as a free individual, in an atmosphere of peace, understanding, tolerance, and universal brotherhood, and with the determination to contribute his share in the building of a better world. Responsibilities of the Child and the Youth Responsibilities of the Child. - Every child, regardless of the circumstances of his birth, sex, religion, social status, political antecedents and other factors shall:

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(1) Strive to lead an upright and virtuous life in accordance with the tenets of his religion, the teachings of his elders and mentors, and the biddings of a clean conscience; (2) Love, respect and obey his parents, and cooperate with them in the strengthening of the family; (3) Extend to his brothers and sisters his love, thoughtfulness, and helpfulness, and endeavor with them to keep the family harmonious and united; (4) Exert his utmost to develop his potentialities for service, particularly by undergoing a formal education suited to his abilities, in order that he may become an asset to himself and to society; (5) Respect not only his elders but also the customs and traditions of our people, the memory of our heroes, the duly constituted authorities, the laws of our country, and the principles and institutions of democracy; (6) Participate actively in civic affairs and in the promotion of the general welfare, always bearing in mind that it is the youth who will eventually be called upon to discharge the responsibility of leadership in shaping the nation's future; and (7) Help in the observance of individual human rights, the strengthening of freedom everywhere, the fostering of cooperation among nations in the pursuit of their common aspirations for programs and prosperity, and the furtherance of world peace. Why do we need to know the rights and responsibilities of the youth? Studying the rights of the child can build a sense of responsibility and purpose that extends beyond the walls of the classroom both in space and time. Young people who are knowledgeable about human rights may feel a greater commitment to improving society and may be able to avoid repeating some mistakes that previous generations have made. The birth of the convention on the rights of the child In December 1989, the convention on the rights of the child was adopted by the United Nations. This convention has begun to affect the lives of children throughout the world, in small ways and large. The convention on the rights of the child is one of the many human rights treaties adopted by the United Nations. Of the 187 states, which belong to the United Nations, 181 are states parties to the convention- more than any other human rights treaty. The convention is not only one of the newest and most widely accepted human rights treaties, it is also the longest. Does everyone have the same rights? The idea that human rights are a part of human nature suggests that all persons should have the same rights. Most articles of human rights treaties begin with the phrase ³every person has the right to«? Human rights treaties are full of statements, which emphasize that all persons are equal in their rights. Some rights apply to persons in specific situations. Persons in prison have the right to humane treatment, for example, and persons accused of a crime have the right to a fair trial. Human rights treaties also define certain rights as belonging to adults, such as the right to marry and begin a family, the right to be a candidate for political office and to vote in elections. The right to work is a basic human right for adults, with very limited application where children are concerned. The right to a public trial is a peculiar example: not only do children not have it, they have a right which is the exact opposite ±the right to a trial that is closed to the public.

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Rights and Duties In law, there is a saying that for every right there must be a corresponding duty or obligation. For example, if a tenant has a right to live in a rented house, the landlord must have an obligation to allow the tenant to live there. State parties must look at the way public institutions work- public hospitals and clinics, schools, homes for orphans, courts, and etc.- to see if their policies and routines respect the rights of children. The state does not have the sole responsibility for protecting the rights of the children. The convention emphasizes that it is the family, not the state, which has the primary responsibility for making sure that children are able to enjoy their rights. However, since the convention is a treaty, and can create duties only for states, it is up to the government to see to it that the national law tells parents what their duties are. When there is a danger to the child that is serious enough to outweigh the family¶s privacy should the appropriate government agency become involved. Rights and duties go together because the enjoyment of rights goes hand in hand with assuming responsibility for protecting the rights of others. The rights of children are not only violated by adults; they can also be violated by other children. On the other hand, children can be a positive force for improving the world we live in, when they help protect the environment, or assist those affected by disasters or poverty. Who is a child? The word ³child´ is normally used to mean someone who is older than a baby, but not yet a teenager. The convention on the rights of the child applies not only to this group, however, but also to everyone who is an adult. The very first article says that every person under the age of 18 should have the rights contained in the convention. However, the question was controversial that it continued to be debated until the final draft was agreed upon in 1989. The only solution was to leave each country the right to decide whether a child¶s rights should be protected from conception or at some later time. In the Philippines A person is considered a child until he or she reaches the age of majority, which is 18. The right to have one¶s views taken into account Once a child is old enough to form an opinion about something, which will affect him or her personally, he or she must be given a chance to express his/her views, and the person making the decision has to take them into account. Taking the child¶s views into account does not necessarily mean that the child has the final word; the views of the child should depend on his/her age of maturity. In the Philippines, Filipino parents do not usually take their children¶s view into account, even in many adults believe that children should be seen but not heard. Freedom of expression and access to information Freedom of expression is the right to express ³information and ideas of all kinds´ through speech, writing, publishing, art and ³any other media of the child¶s choice.´ In the Philippines, freedom of speech and expression is protected by the constitution. Freedom of religion Children have freedom of ³thought, conscience, and religion.´ In general, freedom of religion has three elements: freedom to believe in or belong to a religion; freedom to practice it, and freedom to change from one religion to another. However, there are governments that punish people because of what they believe in, or because they belong to the ³wrong´ religion. In the Philippines there is no official religion. The constitution recognizes freedom of religion, and religious discrimination is illegal. The right to Privacy The right of children not to have their name or photo published in newspapers or shown on television. People who work with children, such as teachers and social workers, have a duty to keep information about them confidential. Trials involving children, whether they are accused of a crime or are the victim, should be closed to the public.

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Protection against abuse Government must protect children against neglect and abuse by parents or other caretakers. When a child is hurt or mistreated by the person who has control over him or her, it can be difficult for the child to understand what is happening, and turn to others for help. Children should be given the broadest protection possible. In the Philippines, the ³child and youth welfare code´ makes it unlawful for parents to punish a child in a way, which is cruel, unusual or humiliating; to say things, which cause embarrassment or humiliation, or to allow a child to handle deadly weapon. The right to health care Every child has the right to the best possible health and to medical care. To make sure that all children have access to medical care. The need to combat malnutrition and disease by making sure that everyone has healthy food and clean water for drinking and washing. In the Philippines, the law says, ³every child has the right to a balanced diet, proper medical attention, and all the basic physical requirements of a healthy and vigorous life. The right to s decent standard of living Every child has the right to a ³standard of living´ which is ³adequate for the child¶s physical, mental, spiritual, moral, and social development.´ Living conditions which are related to the physical development of children include housing, clothing, food, water and a safe environment. Conditions which are necessary for normal mental development include some of those needed for physical development, especially healthy food and protection against environmental contamination. The right to an education Children have a right to an education. The constitution provides for compulsory education and free tuition for both primary and secondary public school education. Steps should be taken to prevent children from dropping out of school, and to make sure that all children have information about the educational opportunities open to them. States should also take steps to make college or university education available to everyone who is qualified to attend and facilitate access to scientific and technical knowledge at all levels. The right to play The constitution says that the state has the duty to promote sports and physical education, and that all schools must have a sports program. The state shall ensure equal access to cultural activities through the educational system, public cultural entities, and community cultural centers. Parents should encourage their children to spend time with other children, give them opportunities to participate in social, cultural and recreational groups and provide supervision for recreational activities. Child labor Children under 15 years of age are not allowed to work under Philippine law, unless they work for their parents and the work does not interfere with their education. Children under 18 are not allowed to work in hazardous jobs. The Department of Labor and Employment has adopted a list of more than 50 hazardous occupations, including operating wood or metal working machines. Despite these laws, the number of children who work has grown in recent years. Official sources estimate that 1/3 of all children between the ages 10 and 17, or more than two million children, work and that one every five working children work in a job classified as hazardous. Children and armed conflict One of the reasons the United Nations was created shortly after the end of world war 11, was to provide governments with a place where they could discuss their problems, so that wars could be avoided. The law on the protection of children adopted in 1992 contains a long article on the protection of children during armed conflict. It

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declares that children are to be considered ³zones of peace´, which means that they should not be used for military purposes or attacked, and should be given all necessary protection and assistance when their lives are affected by fighting or military operations. Topic: Importance of Leadership LEADERSHIP is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Refers to those who provide direction and guidance. The art of inducing subordinates to accomplish their assignments with zeal and confidence. The relationship in which one person (the leader) influences others to work together willingly on related tasks to attain goals desired by the leader and, or group. The state where a person or a group of persons is able to influence others to agree on a gal and work towards it. ABCD¶s of leadership To assess the full value of a leader, one has to look at his abilities, behavior, characteristics, and the dynamics of interpersonal relations. Leaders generally possess certain abilities such as mental alertness, ability to carry on abstract ideas at a high level, ability to supply the professional knowledge required for leadership on a certain subject or in a certain situation, and the ability to work in harmony with superiors, colleagues and subordinates. Leaders display personal characteristics of fairness, courage, integrity, loyalty patriotism, and other laudable qualities. Leaders manifest certain behaviors in their characteristic ways of dealing with their subordinates. They are sincere rather than affected. They keep themselves in good physical condition and their personal appearance at a standard, which sets a good example for the others. What are the functions of leadership? (1) As a leader, you are expected to have a vision for your team or organization. Where do you see yourselves after a certain period of time? What would you have achieved? To what directions are you teaching your group? To make your vision a reality, you and your team members must set goals or objectives. It is your task to see to it that your group achieves the goals. Your team members will work better if you can motivate and inspire them thereby instilling in them a commitment to your goals and to your tasks. Individual differences account for minor disagreements or conflicts once in a while. It is your task to resolve these conflicts and to promote a congenial climate. All these functions demand communication skills.

(2)

(3)

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Topic: Types of Leadership Role of Leader, Characteristics and Types of Leaders LEADER carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge and skills A LEADER IS: measured by how much influence he has in stimulating people to strive towards an objective. a good leader because he can cause and direct people to move towards an objective ³the individual in the group given the task or directing and coordinating relevant group activities or who, in the absence of a designated leader, carries the primary responsibility of performing these functions in a group´ ³the act of inducing subordinates to accomplish their assignments with zeal and confidence´ The ability to persuade others to sell defined objectives enthusiastically

-

ROLE OF A LEADER 1. A leader is a pillar in an organization 2. They identify a specific goal and assess what steps it will take to get there 3. They assess strengths and weaknesses; assemble a team that believes in achieving the ultimate goal 4. They diligently guide and encourage the team while constantly working to achieve a balance that fully utilizes every member's talent. 5. They recognize the importance of the individual and openness of thought.

ROLE, TASK, RESPONSIBILITY, SOURCE OF POWER The role of a leader is to create follower The responsibility of a leader is to bring about the change in a way that is responsible to the true and long term objectives. The greatest source of power available to a leader is the trust that is derive from faithful followers GROUP GOALS a leader must constantly be involved in creating and sustaining the mission, vision, and goals of a group. EMPOWERMENT appreciate that everyone in a group or community exercise leadership - not just the formal leader.

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TYPES OF A LEADER (1) Authoritative type (leadership through fear) (2) Persuasive or democratic type ± the one that practices philosophy of management (3) Free-rein type ± wherein the leader just allows his followers to do what they want (also called ³laissez-faire´) CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD LEADER ADAPTABLE ± a leader must adapt or suit him/ her self to a particular situation or use TRUSTWORTHY ± a leader must be worthy of being trusted; honest, reliable, or dependable RESOURCEFUL ± a leader must able to act effectively or imaginatively, especially in difficult situations. OPTIMISTIC ± a leader must be hopeful, positive and confident CONSIDERATE ± a leader must show concern for the rights and feelings of his members

FACTORS AFFECTING LEADERSHIP Risk-decision making and change initiative base on the degree of risk involved How important change is- change for change sake Organizational culture- may be embedded and difficult to change Nature of the task

Factors Affecting Leadership FACTORS AFFECTING LEADERSHIP Risk-decision making and change initiative base on the degree of risk involved How important change is- change for change sake Organizational culture- may be embedded and difficult to change Nature of the task