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1. Vocabulary Skill

1. Vocabulary Skill

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EI.

IGLISH FOR ADl/AllCED STUDIE \/OCABULARY SKILLS

Asst. Frof. Dr. Pratin Pimsarn Language lnstitute Thammasat Universityr
August, f 991

TABLEOF COttTENfS I ,;r ',",.',, PAGE

1. 2; 3. 4.

LEARIUI.IG lr{ORD PARTS

1 26 69 76

gofinpcr cLUEs , f,JSIl'tc
FAITILY CI.OZEPROCEDIJRE

I

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l-'.'r';. ,u ,i...r..i, irl

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Thereare three possible waysto learn the meaning an unfarniliar word. of Ore way is to 'interrupt your reading immediately and lmk up the word in a dictionary. This is,the safest way. It should be used, holever, if the fol'lowing two ways are impossib'le. One is using what you knour word roots and rrcrd of f o r m a t i o ni .e . p re fi xe so r su ffixes to make intelligent guessat the meani ng an of a newtord. The other is by looking carefu'lly at its context. Wor:ds have meanings relation to other words and the situation in which they are used. in To provi.deyou wjth practice and understandingof howyou can overcome y o u r d i f f i cu l ty i n re a d i n gd u e to your ljmited vocabular y,this guide bookw i l l be concentratedon the word attack skills. This guide book is div'ided into 4 parts as fol'lows: L Understanding Vlordparts
A.
D u.

Prefixes
cl,*^+^ t\:^/LJ

C.

Sr-r'ffixes

II . III. IV.

Using Ccntext Cl ues U n d e rsta n d i nWo rdF a mi ly g Cloze Procedure A. WordParts Understandihg

Learning the use and meaningof r,trords English can be madeeasier and in even enjoyable, if you understandsomethingabout one way in which manyEnglish words are formed, The root of a'word is its basic form, the fundamental elementwtrich is common a'l'l the other forms of the word. to
A n r e f i x i s a form which 'is fixed to the beginningof a root. A s u f f i x i s a ' form which is fixed to the end of a root. For exanple:-

root suffix pref i x

= = =

measure measurable immeasurable

A p r e f i x u s u a l l y c h a n g e s t h e m e a n i n go f a w o r d , w h i l e a s u f f i x u s u a l l y changes its parts of speech. For examp'le, tfre suffix -able changes verbs into adjectivcs (breakab'le, enjoyable). The prefix rm- changes the meaning to the opposite: measqrabl.emeans "capable of being measured" but immeasurable means "not capable of being measured". The Eng'iish lahguagemakes frequent use of this methodof word formation. !\,lotir-,e the ntlneror-rs urcrtdsformed on the root aet=

pref i;x + act react enact reenar3t i nteract t ransact

ix act + su1'f action active actively actioni ess actabl e act'ivi ty activate activat ion actor actress

prefix+ait+suffix reaction enactment reenactment reactor reactive i reract vate r eactivation inter act' ion transaction inactive i naction

i}.gr.;:ningon'ly a few pref ixes arrdsuffixes, you will be abl.eto recognize of gue.u,th,a meaiingirf hundreds English words. Word roots, also can enab'ler or 'look them up in a of manywords without hav'ing to you tc enalyzethe ireaning d'ic t i c n a r y .
:;uppose that yo.r read the following passagelin a short story:
t r'. \ r,
i , ..- . ,

" I t w a s i n c o m p n e r h e n s i bt'c eM r , B u r t t e r f e l d r a r hh i s w i f e cculd never foresee y i t 1' of the consecuences her extravagant talk." There are several words yciu might not knowlr incomorehentiib]e, foresee' extravagant. You might stop at thrl first new word' consequgnce,g, incom;:refrensinfe,foot< it up in a Oict'ionary, wlite its meaning in the book or yoLlr vocab,.lffry iecord, then sterrt reading the srntence again, stop at ?gr"**", look it up,, wiit* it dcrwn,then iead agrtin, stop at_ggnSggWncg, "ld Soon,Butthiswouldbetiringandtime-consum'ing.Itwoulda'|soserious'|y Instead you mightinterrupt your understand'ingan| pleasure of the story. you probably analyze the newwords and guess at their meaning, For example, ix forms an :ible suff means"utnderstanding"; the -:ngpf*:ansibie knol tl"rat gonrprehension probably the in: pref ix makes the word negaiiv,l. adjective; such words as means"not understandable.l' You have seen the fgre'of fgre$gg.in ioiewarO o1 before, Foreseq mus;tmean so{nething-l'ike "to see before"' (as in meaningof "follol" tf you know that the root;-s€ou- has a g€t1€rFal gtoodguesis "close;, y,oucan makea fair]y sequence)-andgon- meims "togeth,il;iF without knowing the meanjngof extraltag.ant.,' at tfre rn"aning of cottsequences. llven Mrs.Butterf ield ta]kls you know that extrimeans "more than necessary", a6,parent'ly too inuch. of to approa'ch the rneaning words is limited arrrl Cf course this,rnalfticai occas'ionallt lead you'into mjstakesi' c a n n o tn a u s e d . w i t h a ] ' t w o r d s . A l s o , i t m a y it meansthe An intrajuab]e thing, for examplel,is not iomething of no valu'e; figured; it is price'less' Very often' thing has so muchva.lue that it cannot be confidence.' however, YoU can analyze the meaningof rvorOl with a good degree-of master keys. A fey of themwill opern Word *or;ti, prefixe$, and suff ixes are like you already knovrto help the conrs'to manymeranings. practice using what words 1-he you 1€;a-t1 words that you do not know.
lr

Learning Wordparts (P re fi xes, Rootsand Suffixes)
1.

mono-

meanso n e , s i n g l e , o r a l o n e . Whenused as part of a word, jt 'indicates one of something.
-E;

-b.

monorail monopl ane monotone

= = =

-d.
-a

= monotonous monochloride=

a train that runs on one rail an ai rpl ane wi th one wi ng ,,,' ,,y, , i ,all in the sametone, uslally in reference to one's voice continuing in the sametone; boring or dull, due to sameness a substancewhosemorecu'res contain a single chloride atom
mintire in (Oifferent tints of ) one color a p'icture with various shadesof the same. co'lor someth-ingaffects/invo'lves only one eye at a time vision with only one eye an eyeglass for just one eye something for use of both eyes at once

2.

chroma

meansor refers to co'lor - a. monochrome. = - b.

p i ctu re
2

a monochromatic

=

ocul

meanseye - a .' mo n o cu l ar - b. - c. - d.

=

mo n o cu l ar vision = monocle = b i n o cu l a rs =

4.

gram

meanswritten or dravm - a' monogram = severar letrers, usuarly the initia'rs of one's name, combirredto form a s ' i n g ' l ed e s . i g n means far - a. a telegram = meansto write - a. telegraph - b, a messagesent a long distance by te1 egraphy a device for communicatingover a distance via wire or radio a written document, usually a book, written on one subject the practice of being married to only one person at a time one who is the sole ruler a state having a sing'le ruler

5.

te'le-

6.

graph

=

a monograph=

7.

gamos

meansmarriage - a. monogamy

=

6.

arch

meansruie - a. monarch = - b. a monarchy =

-2-

9.

matri

meansmother - a. matriarchY = means father - a. Patriarch - b. - c. Patrimony Patricide

a family group that is ruled or dom'inatedby the mother m a ] e h e a do f a f a m i l y / t r i b e ; f o r m e r l y a bishop property 'inherited f rom one's father or ancestors killing of one's ownfather a single thing or a group of things considered as one to bring a numberof things or people together to form a uni t v a one-wheeled ehicle that is often ridden by clowns at the c'ircus the uniting or joining of a groupof things or people to unjte or bring together as one one chamber or one room. It is most f reqr.rentlyused to refer to a system of government that has on]y one r l e g ' i s l a t i v e c h a m b eo r b o d yo f e l e c t e d offic'ials a l l t h e s a m e ,o r a l l i n o n e f o r m the f irst or the toP m'in'ister in a governmentbodY a beginning reader the first coat of paint a term for primitive human beings, IiterajIY "first to give bi rth", a forefather f irst to be born; o'ldest chi'ld

10.

pat ri

= = = = =

11.

unr-

meansone - a, unit - b.
-c. -d.
-A E t.

unite

unicycle un'ion

= =

= u n ify uni camera'l =

- g. 12.

j u n ifo rm(a d )=

p r i m e ( p r i m a ) m e a n si r s t f - a . a P r i m em i n i s t e r = - b. - c. primer(prim-er) = primer(pry-mer) =
= =

13.

genus/genermeans rth bi - a . P ri mo g e n i tor - b. primogeniture

14.

du-

two of something means - a. duet = a piece of music composedfor two -b.
- c. - d. - e.

duo
dual

=
=

dual PurPose= = duel

voices or instruments two singers or musicians who perform together two. It is often used to refer to two t h ' i n g s t h a t a r e a 1i k e . having two aims an armed fight between two People

*3-

15,

plex or plic

- a. - b. - c. - d.

m e a n so l d f duplex a dup'lexhouse duplicate (n) . d u p l i city

= = =

two-fo'ld or having two parts a two-family house one of two things that are exactl y al i ke. Dup'l cates are i usually copiesor reproductions doubleness thought, speec h of' or action

16.

bi-

means tlvo - a. bjcycle - b. bicamerai - c. - d. bimonthly b i fo ca1

= = = = .

a two-whee'led vehicle a systemof government that has two legislative chambers bodies of or e' lectedofficials twice a month, or every two months having two focal lengths,.usual l y refers to eyeglasses

17 '

ann'enn

- b. 9. 18. cent-

i"::" il?3i^r"l
annual bienn'ial

=
= " =

yearly every two years

tw.ice year a

means hundred,one-hundredth - a. centennial = a one-hundredth anniversary (centenary) - b. b'icentennial= a two-hundredth anniversary - c. century one hundredyears i - d. centimeter = one-hundredth a meter of meanshand - a. manual(adj )= - b. bimanual = meansfoot - a. biped - b. pedestrian - c. pedal - d. trjpod pertaining means - a. b'inary - b. military - c. primary means two - a. dioxide = = = = to = = = = donewith the hands donewith or needing two hands a two-footed creature someone who travels on foot a lever pushedby the foot a three-'legged stand or stoo.l madeup of two parts pertainingto the rife of a sordier most important or essential a compound which eachmo'lecu1e in has two atoms of oxygen two poles, a paii of magneticpo l es a division into two, usua' llyopp os i te parts

19,

manus

20"

ped/pod

21.

-ary

22.

di-

- b. dipole = - G. d i ch o tomy =

'r

23.

plo

comesfrom -ply or plex meaning fold - a. diploma = o r i g ' i n a ' l l y a p ' i e c eo f p a p e r o r parchmentthat had been folded in two. The orjgina'l Greek meaningwas a o l e t t e r o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n ,r a l e t t e r of license or privilege. Its first w English meaning asa state paper, or documentor a document official an bearing recorcl of graduation from a s c h o o l, u n i v e r s ' i t Y o r c o 1 1 e g e . - b. diplomat = a person who has been awarded or , entrusted with official documentsor a person ski I led in conduct'ing r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e nn a t i o n s - c. diplomatic = o f o r h a v i n g d i p l o m a c y ;s k i ' l l e d i n relations with other Peop]e - d. d'iplomacy = the art and practice of conduct'ing negoti ations betleen nations meanseyes or vision - a. diplopia = meanswing - a. dipterous - b. pterodactyl m e a n st h r e e - a. tricycle - b. - c. - d. - e. - f. - g. triplicate triplex triple triennial trio triplet = = = = = = = doublevision = = having two wings a flying dinosaur

24. 25,

opia pteron

26.

tri-

a t h r e e - w h e e l e dv e h i c l e o p e r a t e d b y foot pedals t o m a k et h r e e c o p i e s t a t h r e e - u n i t a p a r t m e nb u i l o ' i n g ; h a v i n g 3 parts t o m a k et h r e e t i m e s a s m u c h every three Years t h r e e s i n g e r s o r m u s i c i a n sw h op e r f o r m together one of three babies born at the same t'ime to the samemother

27.

quad/quartr/quardrim e a n sf o u r ( L a t i n ) - a. quarrer = cne of four equal parts into which a th'ing maybe div'ided - b . q u a d r a n g ' l e = a f l a t g e o m e t r i c f i g u i ^ ew i t h f o u r a n g ' l e s and four sides - c. quadrant = a quarter of a circle, an instrument using a quadrant to measuredistances - d. quadruped = four-footed creature - e. quadruple = fourfold or four times - f. quadrennial = continuing for tour years' or occurring once every four Years - g. quadrennium= a four-year period - h. quadruplet = one of four babies born at the same time to the same mother

-5-

28.

twi/twe

meanstwo -4. tw'in
-b. -^ -d.

V.

tw i ce tw i 1i g h t between

= one of two babies born at the same time to the samemother = two times = the l'ight in the sky between sunset and ful'l night = in the spaceor time separating, .in the m id d i e
a plane f.igure having four angles or si des a sorid figure having four faces a solid figure havini mor" than four faces an instrument for measuring speed an instrument for measuring tfre distance of an object from the observer

zY.

tetra-

means four (Greek) -4. = tetragon means face - a. tetrahedron = - b' polyhedron =

30.

hedra

3 1.

meter

. means to measure - a. a speedometer = - b. telemeter "=

32.

hydra/hydro means water - a. hydrate - b. - c. - d. - e.

a co{npound formed by the union of water w.ith someother substance hydraulic ' = operated by the pressure of water or other liquids in motion h y d r o p h o n e ,= a n i n s t r u m e n t f o r r . i s t e n i n g t o s o u n d s transm'itted through water hydroplane = a seap.lane hydrotherapy= the use of water in the treatment of di seases

=

33.

quint/quinque- a. - b- c.

m e a n sf i v e ( L a t i n ) quintuplet = one of five babies born at the same time to the samemother quinquennium = once every five v"uii, rasting for quintessentiat = [:Y;rt:f,:"*o"t typicai or representative exampl e

34.

folium

m e a n sr e a f - t h e r e a f o f a t r e e , o r a i e a f o f p a p e r - a. fol.iage = the .leaveson trees - b. foliate = to sp1.it into layers or leaves, such as gol d - c. folio = a page numberor an oversized book meansfive (Greet<) - a. pentagon = a piane figure with 5 sides and 5 ang.les - b. pentagonar = something that is in the shafe of a pentagon

penia-

-(;

-

36, 37.

-oid

means appearance or form - a. pentagonc'id= like a per,tagonin fornt b l'ike a human eing in form or appearance &fi sXF€rt in tlre science of humart b ei n g s described or thought of having a q h u m e nf o r m o r h u m a n u a l ' i t i e s t o i : . t t r i b u t e h u m a nf o r m o r qua'l'it i es to ani nral or obj ects s

anthrop/anthrog> meanshumanbe-ing * a, anthropoid - b. anthropologjst =

38,

morphic

mearrs form * a. anthropomorphic - b.

=

anthroponorphize =

39.

atkrlon

meansa contest - a. pentathlcn = - b , ath'let i cs = - c, athlete =

a contest consjsting of five events 'l sports or gamesengaged'in by ski l ed sportsmen a persontrained or ski]led in sports r o r E a m e s e q u i r ' ' i n gp h y s i c a i s k i 1 i , c o o r d i n a t ' i c r ra n d s t r e n g t h

40,

homo-

meaf)ssame (Gr'*ek root) - a, hornographs = words thail are spei'led the samebut ng d i f f er i n meani or pronunciat'ion - b, hornonyms : words that are spelled and pronounced the same,but have different meaning, homophones - c,, homogeneous= having the samenature or a uniform st ructure meansman (Latin root) - a, homosapiens :: humanbeings meanswith or together w'ith - a, synonym = a word that has the sarneor almost the samemeaningas another word - b, synonymorls:: having the sameor neariy the same ng meanl - c. synchronize = to occur at the samet'ime; to operate in unison to mearrs put or 1ay down - a, synthetic = not natural, man-made - b. synthesi:r = the combination o'i parts or elements tcl form a who'le

41. 42.

homosyn/sym-

43.

thetic

44.

pathos;/path/patirymeanssuffering - a, sympathy - a sharing.rf feelings of another's sorrow or troub'le - h. sympathe'lic = having or showing sympathy - c . s y m p a t h i : r e = f e e l o r e x p r e s s s y m p a t h yw i t h - d. apathy = "irrdi f erence, or I ack of feel i ng or f emotion abrut something

-7-

45.

bio

meansl i f e -4. symb i osis = the ljving together in clcse associ ati on of two or moredifferent k'inds of to organisms the mutual benefit of each organism -b. biography = a written accountof a person's life meansnameor word -4. = afalsename anonym -b. unknor,ln anonymous = without a nameacknow'ledged, name

46.

-onym

47.

anti/ante-

48.

meansagainst or opposite -4. = a word that has an opposite meaning antonym -b. to antisociai = being opposed society, unsociab]e _a = opposed trusts or monopolies to antitrust -d. ant'ipathy : a strong disl ike decay olinfected means sepsis/septi c -4. a substancethat prevents the growth antiseptic = 'and spreadof micro organismsthat cause i nfecti on hexmeanss l x
-4.

49.

-b, -c. - d.

hexagram hexagon

= =

hexahedron = = hexapod

asix-pointedstar a polygon having six angies and six si des. a polyhedron having six faces hav'ing s'ix feet

50.

rc1ogy

means sc'ience or studlr ef 'l'iving -4. = the science of things biology -b. anthropology= the study of humanbeings smal'l means
-4,

5 1.

micro-

m'icrobioiogy = microscope =

- b.

a branch of biology that deais with microorganism, or very smal'l f iving thi ngs an ol:tical instrument cons'isting of a lens or a combination of lenses for magnifying things that are inv'isible or unclear to the naked eye

52.

zo/z@

means anima], anima] kingdomor kind -4. = a place where living animals are kept and zoo put on disP]aY for the Public -b. = the branch of biology that deals with zoology animals and animal life
means -4.

53.

geo

earth geology
geo'logist

= the study of the history and structure
= of the earth and its life, recorded 'in rocks an expert in geo'logy especia'llyas

- b.

-rl-

54,

sept-

means seven - a. September = meanseight - a. October - b. - c. octagon octopus

the seventh month (of the eariiest calendar) Roman the e'ighth month in the ear'ly Roman cal endar a p o l y g o nh a v i n g e i g h t s i d e s a n d e i g h t ang I es a sea creature that has e'ight arms' or tentac'les

55.

oct-

= = =

56.

gen/genus/genos meansbirth, race or kinci - a. generato = t o b r " i n gi n t o e x i s t e n c e , o r t o p r o d u c e - b. generation = t h e a c t i o n o r p r o c e s s o f c o m i n go r a bringing into being; a'lsomeans group peopleconstituting a single step of in the line of descent from an ancestor - c. genealogy = the study of family ancestries or hi stori es * d. genetics = t h e b r a n c ho f b i o 1 o g y t h a t d e a l s w i t h the principles of hereditY - e. genes'i$ origin or creation nona/rpve- meansnine - a. November - b. astro novena = = the ni,nth month 'in the early Roman ca I en0ar Catholic devotion that lasts a Roman for nine daYs the study of the various aspects and posi'L'icns stars and plarets in order of 'luences to determine the'i r supposedi nf af on hurrnan f ai rs

57,

58,

meansstar - a. astroiogy

=

59.

-nomy

means system of laws or arrangement - a. astronomy = t h e s c i e n c e o f t h e c e ] e s t ' i a l b 'oa w s ; l dies l i ' t e r a l l y ' m e a n st h e s Y s t e mo f governing the stars - b, astronomer = an expert in astronomy - c. astronomical= related to astronomy; or enormous'ly large or great m e a n ss a i l o r , s h i P * a. astronaut = - b. nautical = 'into outer space a person who travels perta'ining to sai 1ors, navigation or shi ps

60,

naut

61.

cosmos

meansorder or universe - a. cosmos = an orderly, harmoniousurriverse - b. cosmology = a h:ranchof astronomy that deals with the origin and structure of the universe - c. cosm'ic = related to or characteristic of the cosmosor the whole universe - d. cosmonaut = a sailor of the universe or astronaut - e. cosmopolitan= representative of the world

-9-

62.

decem,/deca - a. - b. - c. logue/logos

meansten December = the tenth monthof the old Roman calendar = a period of ten years decade decathlon = an ath]etic contest comprised ten of field and track events means word or speech monologue = a speechby one person
d'ialogue =

63.

- b' prolosue =
: - cr

- a.

to or a prerace rol:::'3T"1?H,:i:::^
a conversation or discussion between two or more peop'le

64.

epi-

meansafter, on or upon - a. ep'ilogue = a speech fo1'lowing the conclusion of a p'lay, or an appendedsection at the c o n c l u s i o no f a . l i t e r a r y w o r k . means between or across - a. diagonal = .across from one angle to another meanstenth - e. decimeter - b. dec'igram means people - a. epidimic - b. = = a tenth of a meter a tenth of a gram

65. 66.

diadeci-

67.

dem/demo

= the rapid spread of a disease amonga , large group of people within an area ep'idemiology=a branchof medicine dealing with the ' causes, d'istribution and control of the spread of diseases in a commun'ity " o n e h u n d r e ds t e p s " , r e f e r r i n g t o a temperature scale based on one hundred degrees betweenthe freezing and bo'i1ing temperatures of water taking place by steps or degree little by litt'le to move'up a step from one 1evel to another; usually refers to completion of a course of study the act of graduat'ing to raise in rank or level of importance 'lower-ranking position to reduce to a bring someoneinto dishonor, to put someone down to move backwards or to degenerate

68.

gfade/gradus - a.

means step centigrade =

- b. - c. d. e. f. g.

graduai graduate graduation upgrade downgrade degrade

= = = = = =

69, 70.

retro-

means backward - a. retrograde

=

m iI I i - l i 1 ' l i o n * a. * b.

rneans housand(Latjn) t = a t h o u s a n dt h o u s a n d s ( 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 ) million m i l ] e n n ' i u m = a p e r i o d o f a t h o u s a n dy e a r s

7 1.

ki]o-

m , e i m sh o u s a n C( G r e e k ) t - il. k'iiogran = a thousand grams - tl. kilocycle = one thous;and cycies per second mei\nsten thousand - it. myrlao = - tr. myriameter = meins ha'lf (Greek) - er. hemisphere = a great nlany, countjess ten thous;and meters half of a. round body, two sides of ther bra'in or lhe north and south d.ivisions cf the ea.th at the €euator = takr: p'lace twice a year = a f.iftieth anniversarv = p,al^r.iautomatic y = onl y partly conscious = pari:ly 'literate, or able to read a n dw r i t e o n l y t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t = not permanentbui: not transient orrewho is par-t'lyd.ivjne; parily humar.l = = = comm;nicationcircuitsthatcarpy severa'l d j st'inct si gnals at the s a m et i m e a great number h a v i n g m a n ya s p e c t s , o r f a c e t s ;

72.

myria-

73.

hemi-

74.

semi-

j mea.ns f ( Lert n ) hal - e., semiannual - b. semicentennial - c. semtautomatic -' d. semiconsrc'ious - e. semilite,rate - f. sem'ipermanent

75. 76.

demi multi-

m€,a,ts f ( Frerrch hal ) - a. demigod : mearlsmany(Latin) - a. multiplex - b, - c, m u ]t ' i p l i c i t y multifac,eted

- d
- e, 77. poly*

murt'irarious
multiple

=
=

partsor ;;:l?lE**un, cJirrerent
fcrms; diverse neny

mearrs many (Greek) - a, polygon = - 15. polygamy = - (t. - d. pol ygraptr polyglot : =

a m a n y - . a n g l ep l a r e f i g u r e d marriag: to several peop'le at the
Same I l ine

a I i e-diatector machi ne 'languages a persotl who knows several or a book prrnted "in 2 or more l anguagr:s the f ir."rt t:rpe of thing; most typ'ica1 t h e m a i r rc h a r a c t e r . i n a p ' l a y , s t o r y or nove'i to brinti to an etrd the end the clol;e cr termination of a drama; the lasi event in a s;equence

78.

proto/prot-

meansf .irst (Greek) - il. prototype| : - b. protagonist = means nd e - eI. f inish * b. final - c. f inale

79.

finlfinis

= = *

80.

term,/termi num
a. b. c.
/.1 u.

m e a n s i m i t , boundary or end (Latin) 1 terminate = to f injsh; to end = terminus an end'ing point; a goal = term'inal e'ither end of a rai 1road, bus or 'line terminat i on =
ai r an ending; a conclusion

81

ultirzultimus
-4.

means last or f j n a l ( L a t i n ) u 'l ti ma te com'ing o the end, f inal, the last t ultimately
possib'le thing 'ly f i nal

-b.

*******!i********

-12-

Frellxes
Stud)' the fo1 lcwing prefi:es and the words containing these prefixes. 1. T h e p r r e f x e n r b i : m e a n s" a r o u n c l " , " a b o u t ' o r - " b o t h , , ( d o u b l e ) . i 1' Z. 3' 4, ambivert gu'i ambi ty ambivalernce ambi dextr,>us = = = = a p e r s o n D o s s i e s s t nc h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b o i l " r g the introverl: and the extrovert dou6le mean.ir,E c o e x i s t e n c eo f t o n t r a , l i c t o r y f e e l i n g s a b o u t a particular person, object or action sk.iI l ed w.iil.i botir hands

t.

" The pref ix Ad: usual 1y mea,ns t o " , " t o u l a r d "o r " n e a r " . 1. 2. 3. 4, 5. 6. adSourn address (v) adjacent advance admission adverse = = = = = = to put of f or defer to another^ ay or until d a latei penicd to speak, to pr-onounce joined to a thing or person move furthei' in f ront p e r m it t o e n t e r acting in a c:ntrary direction

?

T h e p r e f i x a n t i - 1 o r e r y [ m e a n s" a g a i n s t o r , ] p p o s i t e " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. antipath,y a n t ' is e p t i c antisocial anti trusi antarct i c; antonym antidote = a strong distike or a feeling of intense dislike against or prrlventi ng cjisease not open to fr^iendliness and companionshipr o p p o s e ctio t r r i s t s o r m o n o p l i e s o p p o s e do f t h e n o r t h p o l e ; s o u t h p o l e a wr:rd that liiis the opposite meaningof another word 'rst a poi son a remedyaga-i

4.

T h e p r e f i x b i - m e a n s" t w o " o r " d o u b ' l e " " 1. 2" 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. I . g. 10. 11, binary bi I ingual biennial bifocal bi annua'l bicyc'le bi peds b'icentenn ill i b'inocuiars bi I atera'l iricameral rna.de wi th 1.woparts up can speak two languages every two yea/'s e y e g l a s s e $w i l h m o r e t h a n o n e f o c a l l e n g t h twice a year wi th tvrc whee ls two-footedthings (includjng man) a two-hundred anniversar:r' a double telescope that is joined for use by both eves with two sides h a v i n g o r c o n s : i s t ' i n gc f t w o l e g i s l a t l v e chambers, or houses

-13*

6

The prefix col- is actuaily a form of com-or co- meaning"with,, or " t o g e t h e r " . T h e c o l - s p e l l i n g i s u s e db e f o r e i r o o t t h a i b e g i n sw i t h ' 1 ,
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

col I ect co]l ision co1league co'l'lapse col I aborate

to gather together c]ash,ing together ; str iking together people who work together to fai I down to work together

6.

T h e p r e f i x c o m - a l s o m e a n s" w i t h " o r " t o g e t h e r ' , . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. commerce commence cornpile combat compose compete = = = = = = business dealing to start to put together to f ight a batt'le tO create to.strive with one another

7.

The prefix co- means " w it h " o r " t o g b t h e r " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. cohere coexist cooperate correspond coequal to stick or hold firmly together exist together at the same place or time to work or to act together to be in agreement; to exchange'letters with another person equal with one another

8.

"fr The prefix de- u su a l l y me ans om " or "down".
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. clepart derive dec'li ned descent deport degrade p r e f i x d i - m e a n s" t w o " .
I

go away to trace from bent down to climb dom to ship from; exile to grade down; jower

9.

d'ialogue dioxi de di chromati c d'ichotomy di pterous
=

2.
4. ^

a conversat'ion or discuss.ion between two or more people a compoundin which each molecule has two atoms of oxygen having or shorrying two colors a div'ision into tw<rparts or categories having two wings

4t

10.

T h e p r e f i x d i s - g e n e r a l l y m e a n s" n o t " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6, 7. disclose d'isagree disloya1 disregard di sbel 'ieve disconnect dislike = = = = = = = to aliow to be seen not agree unfaithful pay no attention to not bel i eve to separate or sever the connection between not like

11.

T h e o r e f i x d u - m e a n s" t w o " . 1. 2. 3. 4. duel duet dupl ex duplicate = = = = a f o r m a l f i g h t b e t w e e nt w o p e o p l e for two voices or a piece of music composed i nst ruments a two-f ami]y house; havi ng two main parts m a k ea n e x a c t c o p y

12.

T h e p r e f i x e x - m e a n s" o u t " o r " o u t o f " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ex'it export exhi bi { exhaust exclude = = = = = to to to to to go out carry or shii, cut hc,ld out ; to show wear out; use up shut out

13.

T h e p r e f i x e n - o r e m * m e a n s" i n , i n t o o r o n " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. embark endanger emplace endemic encourage ens'lave embrace = = = = = = to to to of to to to begin a jounrey put in danger put in a place cr position a d i s e a s e , p e c u fi a r t o p e o p l e put heart into someone put into s'lavery tal<einto one's arms

14.

T h e p r e f i x t - q 5 i s a f o r m o f t h e p r e f i x 1 l : w h i c k rm e a n s" i h " , " i n t o " , o r " n o t " . T h e i m : f o r m i s u s e c lb e f o r e a r o o t t h a t s t a r t w i t h f r , F , b . f. 2. 3. 4. 5, immature immortal improper immigrant imposs'ib1e = = : = = not mature; not r ipe not liable or subject to death not suitable o n e w h o m i g ra t e s i n t o a c o u n t r y o f w h i c h h e i s n o t a n a t i v e f o r p e r m a n e n tr e s i d e n c y n o t p o s s i b i e ; n o t c a p a b ' l eo f b e i n g o r b e i n g oone

1r_

15.

T h e p r e f i x i n - m e a n s" n o t " . f. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7, inconvenience inf requent insincerity insuffic'ient inseparab'le 'insensib]e inconsiderate = * = = = = = not favourable for one's needs not happen'ing often, rare having no sincerity not enough that cannot be separated u n c o n s c i o u so r n u m b not thoughtful

16.

T h e p r e f i x i n t e r - m e a n s" b e t w e e n "o r " a m o n g " . f. 2. 3. 4, 5. interval interdenta] international 'interfere i nter'l i nk = = = = = t i m e b e t w e e nt w o e v e n t s between the teeth b e t w e e nn a t r o n s enter into the concerns of others to I i nk one wi th another

17.

T h e p r e f i x m u ] t i - m e a n s" m a n y " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. multipurpose mult'ifaceted multiplex m u lt i p 1 e mult'ifarious = = = = = h a v i n g m a n yp u r p o s e s h a v i n g m a n ya s p e c t s , o r f a c e t s o f a s y s t e m f o r s e n d i n g t w o o r m o r em e s s a g e s o r s i g n a l s o v e r t h e s a m ew i r e , c i r c u i t o r air wave at the same time ma.ny h a v ' i n gm a n yd i f f e r e n t p a r t s o r f o r m s

18.

T h e p r e f i x n o n : m e a n s" n o t " o r " w i t h o u t " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. noninflamable nonsense nonresistance nonrestrict'ive nonentity nonprofit = = = = = not easily set on fire something without sense not fighting back free; not restrict.ive something or sorneone without importance not making money

19.

T h e p r e f i x p o ' l v - m e a n s" m a n y " . 1' 2. 3. 4. 5. polygamy poiyglot pol ygraph po'lyhedron pol ysyl 'labi c = = = = marriage to several people at the same time a perscn who knows several languages a I 'ie detector a,s.o1id f igure having four or more faces or s'loes of more than three sy1I abl es

20.

T h e p r e f i x p o s t - m e a n s" a f t e r " o r " b e h i n d " . 1. 2, 3. 4. 5. postpone posterior posthumous postscript postdate = = = = = delay; set the date back comingafter born after the death of its father sentence added after the signature put a date later than its actual date

-16*

21.

T h e p r e f i x p r e - m e a n s" b e f o r e " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. pneview predecease prelude preliminary prejudice prefer prefabricate = = = = = = : a p r e v ' i o u ss h o w i n g to die before a n i n t r o d u c t o r y h a p p e n i n go r p e r f o r m a n c e before the main work; preparatory work to judge bef.grehand : to want or lixe better to build before

22.

T h e p r e f i x p r o - i s u s e d f r e q u e n t l y w i t h t h e m e a n i n g" b e f o r e " o r " f o r " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. prologue project promote propose process proceed proc'laim proF,el = = = = = = = = a preface ar introductory of a discourse to stick out to go before or in front of to put before the group; to suggest a f o r w a r d m o v e m e n ta s e r i e s o f a c t i o n s ; to move forward; advance to announce; make knownbefore the public to push or drive I'orward

23.

T h e p r e f i x r e : m e a n s" a g a i n " o r " b a c k " . 1. ?. 3. 4. 5. 6. replace reprint recollect recognize recensider renew = = = = = = to taKe or fill the place of to print again to recover contro'l of (oneself) to know c,r remember aga'in to cons'ideragain to begin again; to cause to continue in effect

24.

T h e p r e f i x s e m i - m e a n s" h a l f " , " d l m o s t " , " p a r t l y " o r " s o m e w h a t " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. semiannual semiautomatic sem'icentennial semiconscious s e m iI i t e r a t e semipermanent = = = = = = occuring svery six months,or twice a year n o t f u ] i y a u t o m a t i c ; o p e r a t e dp a r t l y automatical'ly and partly by hand a fiftieth ann'iversary the state of be'ingpart'ly conscious able to read and write only at a ]imi ted I evel intended to jast for a long time, but not permanently

25.

T h e p r e f i x s u p e r - m e a n s" o v e r " , " a b o v e " o r " m o r e t h a n " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. superscribe supermarket s u p e r fi c ' i a 1 superv'ise superheat superpower = = = = = = t o w r i t e o r - 't' h e t o p store brgger than the usual market on the surface; sl ight or partial to look over; to watch over to heat to an extreme degree power on an extraordinary sca'le

-17-

26.

" T h e p re fi x u l tra - me a n s beyond" "exceedingly". or 1.

z.
3. 4, 5. 27.

ultramundane u'ltrahigh u l tra tro p 'i ca 1

thesea I ur*aconservative :Xi::filT;tLlJli;"rike
= = =

u l tra ma ri n e

=

situated beyond acr oss the sea or

being beyond what is norma'|,ordinary beyondusual frequency exceedingly opical tr

" T h e p re fi x u n - me a n s n o t". 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. u n f i ke i Y u n 'i n fe l l i g i b 'l e unemployed unhealthY ungratef ul unbeaten = = = = = = not pr obably not capableof being under stood out of work sickly not f eel ing thankful never defeated

***:i**,t)t*,******

lo

-

Roots word roots and the worr:jsderiving from these roots. Study the fol1o,'.ring 1. The root ann or enn comesfrom the Latirr w:rrd annus meaning "year". 1. ?3. 4. 5. 6. 2. annual annu'ity annivers;ary biennial centennial perennial = = = = : = somethinglhat con'Linues/ear after year ) pa:rmentf i g -tr"'ed the year by year'iy celebratjon e v e n t o c c u r i r t g e v e r y s e c o n dy e a r hundredtli-yei:ll event c o m i n qY e a r l ' r '

'[teart". The root Eqr, clur, f rom the Latin, means 1, ?. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. di scord cordiar ly accord concord uncordial courage encounage = = = = = = = d'isagneemeilt w a v ' r n ' l yf,r o n t t h e h e a r t c,f hai^monY mind with hearts t;oget-her,harnony fiot welcoini;til braverY to insp'ire wi'ih courage

3.

T h e L a t i n r o o t C j . c , o r d i c t m e a n : l" s a y " . 1. 2. 3. 4, 5. 6. = verd'ict = contradiction = dictatirrg machine bened'icti,:n dictator dictate = = ' t h e a n s w e rc ; 1 a j u r y g i v e n t o t h e c o u r t s p e a k i n gi n o p p o s i t i o n e a n r a c h ' i nw h j t ; h r e c o r d s v e r b a l d i c t a t i o n f o r and transcniption la'ter playhar:;k tospeakr.vell;tobless a personwho te'lls others what to do to g'ive orders to someone 'to do" cr^ "to make".

4.

The word root fac or fect means 1. 2. 3. 4. 5, 6. 7, factory faculty perf ect manufacture facilitata factor facsimile = = = = = = =

t a p l a c e w h e r ' : rh i n g s a r e n t a d e ex'traordinar;'talent or sfiill eted marlewi thout a f 1aw; compl tc make t o m a k ee a s y o r l e s s d i f f i c u l t somethihg th;irt can makeor cause a change an exact col:\'ol^ ]ikeness

5.

"wall<"' T h e w o r d r o o t g r a d , S F € S S ,f r o m ' t h e L a t i r ^ . ' m e a n s" s t e p " o r 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. graduallY degrade d'igress graduater transgress regress grade = = = = = = s'lepbY steF to Put dowrt, steP down to steP asidc' to steP oitt , f i ni sh to steP acrosis to go bacrrl a steP r:r le','el

*19_

6.

The word root jec, ject, jet comefrom the Latin mean.ing throtrr", "to or "to Iie''. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. co n j e ctu re dejected ej ect reject i n j e ct ej acu'late project a d j a ce n t = = = = = = = = thr ow ( ideas) together , guess cast dom, downcast, in 1owspirits thro'rrout forcef ul l y throw back thnow; intr oduce exclai m liefonruard,stickout lying near or next to

7.

The word root iur or'ius and the associated iud comefrom a Latin word "to take an oath" and later came.tomean"the law". that first means 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. judge injure justify juror adjudicate' jury = = = = = = a person who says what the law is and what is right to do unjustly; harm or to make prove someone be guiltless or to b'lame;less a person among group sf,rorn a to.seek just'ice js just to tell what a certain number personsse'lected of accordingto law andswornto determinefacts

8,

" T h e r oo t i a t me a n s b e a r, car r y,. car r ied". 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. re l a ti ve co l l a ti o n translation su P e rl a ti ve d i l a to ry l e g i sl a tu re = = = = = = car r ied back; one of the sam e fam ily the act of putting som ething together words carried across.fromone languageto another excellent car r ied aside fr om the m ainpoint; delay i ng bodywher emotions( ]aw) ar e car r ied

9.

The Latin root mit means"to send" or "to place". The root m'it has a n o t he r fo rm, mi g s (mi se ). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. o mi t transmit permit emit mi ssi l e admit mi ssi o n = = = = = = = to place out; leave out to send something from one personor place to another allow to send out a weapon pr ojectile thr own to be thr o1n or or to al'lor,rr into the sendingof an individual gr oup by an authority to perform a specific service

-2C*

10.

T h e L a t i n r o o t n a t m e a n s" b o r n " . 1. 2. 3, 4. native nat'ion nature natura'lize = = = = beionging io a country by b'irth acountry a man's character, as born in h'im t o m a k ea m a n a c i t ' i z e n

11.

T h e L a t i n r o o t p e t m e a n s" t o t r y " o r " t o s e e k " . . 2. g. 4. 5. 'l petition compere 'impetus impetuous perpetua'l = = = = = to seek permission; a request to work or play to seek victory something that makesyou try something trying eagerly on impulse seeking on and on, forever

12,

The root word phone tneans"sound". 1, 2. 3. 4. megaplrone pftsnograph xylophone phonetics = = = device foi' enlarging a sound mach'inethat amplif ies or piays records mus'ical instrument that has di fferent sounds when tapped the study of speech sounds

13.

The root word sens, sent, which comesfrom the Latin sensus meaning " t o s e n s e , f e e ' l, o r P e r c e i v e " . f. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. insensitive consent nonsense assent sens'itive resentment sentimental = = = = = = without feei ing agreement in oPinion someth'ing that makes no sense to express an agreementof the m'indto what is aileged or proposed subject to keen feel ing; responsive strong displeasure s h o w i n gd e l i c a i e f e e l i n g , t e n d e r n e s s

14.

T h e L a t i n r o o t t e m p m e a n s" r e g u ' l a t e d , p r o p e r l y m i x e d " o r " t i m e " . 1, ?. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7, contemporary temperate temporary tempest temperature ate contempl temperamental = = = = = = = gojng on at the sametime a good mixture for a shori or specia'l period of time bad wea.'iher degree of lrotness or co'ldness exami the qua'li t i es of someth'ing ne acting up from time to time

-21

J

15.

The 1.

root tort means" t w i s t " . d i sto rt extort contortion retort tortoi se to twist out of shape to twist out of someone twisting ( of face or body) to twist one's words right back a low-lying animal that stands on twisted feet

2.
e

4"
F

16.

The word value comes from the Latin r oot val, m eaning "to be str ong". 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. deva'luate equivalent available convalescent inva'luable to lower the worth of someth'ing of equal worth accessible; capab'leof being used growing strong again of inestimable value

17,

The root ven, vent from the L a t i n ; m e a n s" c o m e " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. co n ve n ti o n 'intervene ve n tu re avenue reveRue i n co n ve n i e n t comingtogether for a meeting comebetween an undertakingof chance way of comingto a place income nol comingor working together eas.ily

18.

The root verg or vert means" t u n n " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. avert divert vi ce ve rsa convert su b ve rsi ve v e r s a t il e to run away; avoid to turn or di rect awayfrom turned around, the other way to tur n w' ith other s; to change be1iefs to overturn; to derno'l i sh able to use 'in many ways

19,

r o o t v i t , v i v are from t h e L a t i n , m e a n ' i n g1 i f e , I i v i n g " . "
1. 2. 3.
4. 5.

co n vi vi a l revive survivor vi ta'l vivacious

enjoying f iving (and feasting) together to set going or activate again or bring back to I ife one who goes on iiving (even though others die) wi th the power necessary for l i f e full of 1ive, f ively

i( * x ** :k,t ti )t * :r ** :l(,t

-2:2-

$uf f i xe-q study the follo,,r.ing suf f ixes and the words conta'ining t h e s e s u f f i x e s '
4

"capable of being T h e s u f f i x :4llg or -ible appearsfrequent'ly, mean'ing or ma.king" 1. 2. 3. 4. credible deductihle dl e s ti r u c t i b l e ' eg b'le
carpable capable capable capable of of of of bt:i ng be] i eved being taken awaY bt:ing destroYerl milking terrified

2,

"abie to be" The suff ix -aU.e or - i b l e a l s o m e a n s f. 2. 3. 4. 5. incalcu'lable dePendabie Presentahie e respectahrl workable that abl e able able able cannot lre calculated c,n ts be d,rpelrded to be p^esented to be r':sPected to be w:rKed

The suf f ix -a] means" r e l a t i n g t o " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 4. nava'l term'ina] e x p e r im e r r t a 1 setrtimen'!:al = = = = relating to the navY stat'ion where buses terminsls (end) relating to an exPeriment rerlat i ng to sent i ment

"connected ith". w T h e s u f f i x - a f l l m e a n s" r e l a t i n g t o " o r 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. commentat'Y evo'luti oflarY I egendarlr momentar)/ s o 1i t a r Y = = = = = rellated related related rerlateti related to to to to to comments the act of evo'lving ]egends a iloment heing alone

5.

The rsuff ix *or'1 means " o f o r r e l a t i n g t o " 1, 2. 3. 4. mandator'/ sensory a u d it o r Y PreParatorY re'lat i ng to ( requested) relating tc relating to rel at i trg to what has beert mandated the senses being heard bei ng preParerd

6.

',fu T h e su ffi x -fu l me a n s ll of ,,. Fi 11 i n the bl anks wi th the fol 'lowi words: ng helpful , harmfu'l graceful, careful , ioyfu.l, pi ti fu.l , a. b. c. d. e. f. P r e e c h as . . i Pong is a . in trouble. ....; everyone dmires is dancing. a h

. person; he is ready to herp whenever are we h e h a s a t t a c k e dm a n y e o p l e . p whencrossing the street. becauseshe passes her exams. . . . . . . . ; h e d o e sn o t e v e nh a v e enough

T h a t m a ni s . . . . . . . . . . . ; you should be . 'looks Sunee That small boy looks clothes to wear.

7'

" Thesuffix -ous meansful'l of" or':having the quality of,'. F i l ' l i n t h e b l a n k sw i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s . contemptuous, extraneous, incredulous, prosperous a. b. c. T h a i ]a n di s a . It is countr y. t h a t ' a l l t h e s t u d e n t sf a i l e d t h e i r e x a m s . look.

T h e c r i m . i n a lg a v e t h e j u d g e a . . .

d'
8.

:::.:::::.i::

iffii;J:;;I""

because was much there too .

The suffix 1. 2. 3. 4.

-ate means "to makeor cause to be,,. = = = = giving someone r something'tiberty o frightening someone give more importance or emphasis to cause frustration It means of of of of of ,,having

l'iberate intimidate accentuate frustrate

9.

The suff ix -ive appears f requenily in Eng'lish. q u a fi t y o f " . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. compet t i ve i sensitive executi ve definitive relative = = = = = hav.ing the qua'li ty having the quality hav'ing the qual .ity having the quality having the qualiti

the

compet.ing sensing di rect i ng, commandi ng defining being related

-

2A -

10.

T h e s u f f i X l Q h c € u s u a l ' l y m e a n s" a s t a t e o r p r o c e s s , , . f. 23. 4. impatience intelligence residence existence = = = = the the the the state state state state of of of or restle$s, eagerness having a keenmind I iv.ing in a piace process of living

11.

T h e s u f f i x _ - g r m e a n s" a p e r s o n w h o " . A l s o , : _ Q ri s u s e d t o f o r m t h e . c o m p a r a t i v ed e g r e e o f a d j e c t i v e s . C o m p i e t et h e b l a n k s w j t h t h e f c l r o w . i n g o r d s . w I eader, gd'inter, s'inger a. b. c. Nant'ida is a good We need a good His houselooks old. she is welcomed wherever she goes. to lead our nation. H e n e e d sa . . . to repa.intit.

12,

The suffix:gglF'iI a. b' c. 'l

i s u s e d t o s h o wt h e s u p e r l a t i v e d e g r e e , t h a t i s , t h e m o s t .

i n the bl anks of the fol I owing wi th aprrropliate words. April is the The . The .... npnth of the year. r u n n e r i n t n e O l y m p ' i cg a m ei n 1 9 8 2 ' i s C a r l L e w i s . . . . y r a yt o g o t o H o n gK o n g i s b y p 1 a n e .

13.

T h e s u f f i x - i c m e a n s" 1 i k e , b e i n g , o r r e ' l a t e d " . 1. 2. 3. authentic exotic strategic = = = being genuiine being unusual related to strategy

14.

'l'he s u f f i x i s h m e a n s" l i k e " . C o m p l e t et h e b l a n k s w i t h t h e w o r d s g i v e n b e l o w . 'ldi chi s h , g r e e n is h , d e v i I i s h , f e v e r i s h a. b. c. d. His face is red. H e s e e m st o b e

Nobody wants to associate with h"imbecause he looks E v e nt h o u g h h e i s o v e r t h ' i r t y y e a r s o l d , h e s t i l ' l P a i n t i n g a r o o mi n g r e e n m a k e se v e r y t h i n g l o o k looks

-tq-

15.

T h e s u f f i x - l e s s m e a n s" w i t h o u t " . Complete the blanks with the words given belour; breathless, worthless, doubtless, painless, merciless a. b. c. d. e. That r ' l o o old man was , f of the bui'lding. Talking to you is .. It is by the time he arrived at the top b e c a u s ey o u a r e r g n o r a n t . that he is a capable man. to help people. w h e n s h e t r e a t s h e r e m p l o y e e sb a d ' l y .

It is That lady is ...

*****X*****,r*x**

i,.
-) '" t '.'

.1,,.

*26*

t--, .' l_
'A "' i

- :

!$inq qontext Clues :

. ,.

,

Good readers usie context c'lues to find the meaningsOf unknown words as' t h e y r e a d . S o m e t i m e sh e a u t h o r g ' i v e s d e f i n i t i o r r e o f u n k n o w n o r d s i n t h e t w c o r r t e x t , a n d s o m e t i m e s h e r e a d e l r sm u s t l o o k f o r c l u e s i n t h e c o n t e x t ' i n o r d e , r t to guess the meaningsof the words. Context Clue Exampl e_l "'1 r' .' -" (,'i[* m u s i c ' i n t h e f i l m w a s d f g a d f U - l . I n f a c t , ' i t w a s s o b a - dt h a t I had to leave the theatre. , 1 ,. . - , . i , , Nowwe can guess conl'ident'ly that I hcidto leave th'a theatre becauser t h e m , u s i ci n t h e f i l m w a s u n p l e a s a n t o r b a r l . Example 2 P r e s i d e n t A q u i n o i s a f r a i d c f b e i n g l r s s a s s i n a t e d ,a n d s h e a l w a y s wears a bullet-proof vest, but she cannot :;tay away froln the crowds who love her W ec a n g u ( ) s st h a t a s s a s s i r r a . t e v e r y c l e a r ' l y m e a n s i l l e d ; d k the President wruldn't have worn a bu'llet*frroof vest. otherwise = = what conresbefore and af ier a word, plrrase, statement,, etc. hel pi ng tc f i x the rleaning f a c t , i c l e a , e t c . t h a t s u l l g e s t s a p o s s i b l e a n s w e rt o a prob'lem

I n a d d i t i r n t o g u e s s i n g t h e m e a n ' i f i g , : ia w o r d f r o r n i t s s u r r o u n d i n g f words, we can also use other k'inds of cont*x.tual c'lues as follorug: 1. Definitjon w S o m e t i m et h e a u t h o r g i v e s t h e d e f i n j t i c n o 1 ' u n k n o w n o r d s . s i , T l " r e l u e s t o t h e m e a n i n g s r d e r f n ' i t i o n a r e B E , M E A NB E c o DEFINED AS, BE CALLEI]. :,. Feocle who study the stars'are called aqXronomers.

Examples: 1. 2'

n"no il.;--l:llo"l':?-';'[]?l['.::,:"1,3i*,.o* Elilffil:gY-l: different source$.

2"

Explarratipl'jSc,m,:times the author uses strirrg$ of words or statements to WORDS, res[ate unknown words. Signa] clues are OR, iN OTHER TilA'f IS. Punctuation marks f ike COMMAS, DASHES and BRACKETS are also used to exp"iain unknon'n words.

_27-

Exampj es: 1. ?. ,:. T h e a n s w e r ' i s i n t h e g g n c l u s . i o n ,t h e l a s t p a r t o f t h e story. The testing center will prov'ideyou with all the materia'ls you need. That is t-g*.ggy_, will not need you to br.ing pencirs, give you al'l of the things you need.
J '( ' , l' :.,l: : :l _. , l.. I'.

pens' paper' taaftnonar'ils because testing.Cinter the witt

3.

Contrast r. \
Exampi es:

sometimes connectivesshowing contrast irldirecily help define an.unknourn word. context c'rue words are BUT, H6!VEVER, . NEVERTHELESS, ALTI{oucH, WHILE, EVEN Tl{otJcH, rHe orHERI{AND. or'j
/'t i i' 1'l

1 t.

+

2.

z Anc'ientastronomers studied on]y the stars they could see with thei r eyes. wi th radio telescopesand sate'l.lites, rrowever. -'t modern astronomers can study stars which our nakJ"v""tt*nn6t se e . If the farmers do not grow enoughtqq{this year, we w i l l havea food ghortase. .gn the other hand', wilr have a food we surplus if they grow too muih food for ih" *ns.rr"r. to buy. t, ' ' , 1 ..i
'i|\'" '' ./ ',i[.r':.i';.' r,'..

\

4.

Il'lustrat'ion

Examples pictures given in the text can aiso suggest and meanings unknown of words. EXampie clues are FOR ]he EXAMPLE, INSTANCE, AS. 11,, ., FOR SUCH
/r-

Examoies:

'

,-l
I I : r r.. , .{t

1. 2.

people are angry they insujt each other. _lomerines_{ren (--[9r gr-ample] whena person ignores a "No snloking"sign, anotherpersonmight say, ,,Whatls t_hqlnatter,can,t you read?., T e l e vi si o n .i s addicti\ze. { gl -if nnost cnildr en spen d more than three hours watching "*qtplA day, and very often each th e y ca n n o t fi n ish their assignments necause oi "it"hing- it. .,J
Sometimesthe author gives the meanings a nevr-word of by using a synonym(words that have the samemeanjl9} in another sentence. . | ' , '/ ' _ , t . 4 i / \ t . i ;
t "i ii,

5.

Synonvms

Exampl es: 1. z.

-\ "in sand.. whereas diEmonds treaied tromcaiton;'*r.,i"i",'r;' are r;ruL 'in G l a s s i s m a d ef r o m s i _ { i c a , w h i c h i s m o s i l / f o u n d

found the form of coal . The companyshe works for is A T M . S h e j o i n e d t h e f i r m in 1 9 8 0w h e n i t w a s v e r y s m a l l . No{^, ATM is the. largest business in the area.

-28-

wor 1 Ex e r c ' i s e : U se th e co n te xt a s a cl ue to def ine the under ' lined d in each C 'i e th e I etter of your choice. rcl s e n te n ce . they can k' iii you' if you play with them. 1 . G un sa re l e j h A l w e a p o ns;
-h; 2.

a,

modern

c.
d.

useful
extraondinary

dead'ly . L',

The little a. b.
' ,,,

a bcy is lachrvmose,i'cryingll day 1ong. ' " c. d-; resentful tearf u] I candjdlv replied, i ;,.. ,,

awful c h e e r fu l
j1 tat ';.l.5rei

3.

Wt19asked if I f iked her new hair-style, n "No, it looks terrible." a. b. poljtel y cautiously
i , ..1 (, r,.q,.. . t

9. d.

frankly kindlY

4.

M y m a ' i du s u a l l y i s i b l a g q a r d ; h o w e v e r , t o d a y s h e w o r k e d ( energetical ly.-.. !,c",,.{ ;,.. I a. b. a slow person a hard-workingperson c. d. an active Person a siily person

5.

My teacher is..so punctil'ious {hat he always corrects my sloppyspeech or points out my incorrect use of certa'in words. a. b. hel pf ul prec'ise '. , c. d, stublrorn Punctua.l he can save most

6.

P ' i t u k i s v e r y f r u q a l . E v e nt h o u g h h e e a r n s 1 i t t l e , of his money nd l'ives on very little. a ' c a r e fu ' l ' c,. a. wise thriftY.:.iavi,sft.'' b. 1.41 l.. rlf lr^i"".)

l

7. i

She thinks of herself as the elite her nose at others. ( {
.4

p e r s o n o n c a m p u s ,l o o k ' i n g d o w n si rnPl est tal I est

e.. l b;. B.
l. I,-.i'

best worst

,.' '.1\ -, tr-

c'

M y f r i e n d i s v e r y a s t u t e ; h e b o r r o w e dm o n e ya t a v e r y l o w i n t e r e s t rate and bui'tt it rn'to a small fortune through wise "investments. ;i4 'b. cunning inefficient'.',.'', '' d. wealthy

g.

people enhar.rce their own property by mowingthe lawn, platrting Some l s o m ep r e t t y f l o w e r s , a n d d e c o r a t i n g t h e ' i r h o u s e s ' A. Fl destroy improve c.
d,

cultivate
secure

)',
,Ci'"'i

,j. .ot|

-2q-

1 0 . The war in Kampuchea consideredto be one of the most heinous is
' ..) | distjnguish;' '
l ' . 1 - ' -

'i " ' "

acts of aggressionli' li iarge number people including innocent of c h i l d r e n h a v eb e e nk i l l e d .
"1'J(
l

a, b.

c.

disadvantageous
_

d.

t. ," ; ,, horrible , 1 1'',,' i honorabls ;

Exercise 2 Use the context as a clue to choosethe correct meaningof the u n d e rl i n e dw o rd s.
,:' ,.j i d

1.

A s th e su n g radually em er ges over the mountain,the gr ac eful golden-coatedpagodabegins to coruscate a. b. melt d i sa p p ear
F,. split /l

Fl

shine

I

Vrrhen the volcano Mount Helena in Washington eruoted in 1980, 'lot it released a o f l a v a a n d k i l l e d s o m ep e o p l e w h o j i v e d nearby. :, a. b. formed was heated : i'. d. broke out evolved "-.'

*),

The doctor told hjm to abstain froml beer and any other a l c o h o l i c d r i n k s ; o t h e r w i s e , h e w ' i 1 ' l n o t b e a b l e to recover from his illness4 ...4.' b.
-A.

hold back , c o n s u m e, . , , r ' o

l.' r'r '

i .t! '"rri"l,

l'{'t't

I

rrr"

c, d.

reduce keepup with you eat

4.

S p o i l e d f o o d i s n o t e d i b ' i e ; j t w i I I m a k ey o u s i c k if it. /'' . ''i ''&t a. d e l r'ci ous eatable poisonous b. d. noti ceable
i,f,.r, i \

5.

The scouts scoured the deserted town for signs of the enemy.
d. b. c. d. qaqrged ovei , as in search , a r , \ . : r ' : ' . fought agaiRst g u a r d e da g a i n s t chased betlind
!(t', I
i 1\3't' t i':

A

F e e l i n g f a i n t e d , t h e o l d w o m a nr i e d t o f i n d a s e a t b e f o r e h e r t a. Y trinsferred'' 'lapsed "' co1 '"""' ' ? --l--r d. a t t e m p t e d , ' 1- i ^ i vani shed ,-r-r r^ir,-r

7.

How can she vei I her emotions whenshe obviously cares greatly?
:..t .i.,., , i

a. b.

pi ty scream

.,..

c. (% ,/

i '! appreci ate ", ! ' conceal (h'ide)

'
\\ / ; \ . t
..

-tto'r
;i -

',()

'""/\

;
\ .t i \

r' 7, -; '';'''

t " 't ' '

,',

B.

I often [eCge into things whenI am in a hurry. -4" "'' b " m o v ec j u l m s ' i ' l y col I ect c, (J. divide forget

9.

W eh a v e t e n a p r p l i c a n t s f o r t h i l ; p o s . i t i o n . A c t u a l l y , w e n e e c i only one qua'lified person so we have to weed out those who a r e l e s s q u a ' l i fi e d . a. b. supervis;er''',' '\"compromise .1 : <;) rl. eliminate'. supply

10.
I,i, .. ".

,

s h e i s a t e n a c , i o u sp e r s o n : e v e r r t h o u g h s h e f a i ] e d h e r f i r s t biology tests, she kept studyirrg and.erlentua'l1ypassed the
COUfSg. I ,,1 ;

"

a. b. E x e n c i s e3

humorous stingy ' i :;

( ;:

r;:li

f i ne trersistent

R e a dt h e f o ] ' l o w i n g p i l s s a g ec a r e f u l l y a n d s t u d y t h e u n d e r ' l i n e dw o r d s by app]yittg the skil ls you have learned to f ind the closest meaning for each ,vord.

'like Bangkok, o t h e r b j g c i t i e s o f d e v e l o p i n gc c u n t r i e s , i s f a c i n g t h e problem of urban .m1griittglrby rural people. But rvhat seemsto be more alarming 'is that the majolity rf the migrants are women. A recent study cy the National Council of Vlomen Tha'i'landand the of Departmentof Social htelfare shoured concern abotrt the large inf'lux of women intcr " N a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c n c l s o c i a l d e v e ' l o p m , ; n t; l l f a l l s h o r t i f n o t h i n g l the city. a w i s d o n e t o $ e m t h e f - o w o f w o m e n n t o B a n g k o k , "l ; a i d t h e s t u d y . T h e m i g r a t i o n i r e v o l v e s a r o u n d e c o n o i n i c ,s o c i a l , c r i m i n a l , e m p l o y m e n t e d u c a t ' i o na n d h e a l t h , p r o b ' l e m s . A n d a s w o m 3 n o n s ti t u t e a m a i o r p a r t r : r f t h e m ig r a n t s , r e s i d e n ti a l c p r o s t i t u t t o n a n d c h i l J p r o b l e m sa r e f i k e l y t o b e a g g r a v a t e d ,t h e s t u d y p o i n t e c l out.
I

1.

migration=fi/'t'\

ii'i

'

z.

grow'ingmi)re mature moving f rrm one place to arrother to Eiett'le coi nci den,)e cu'ltivati,:n .r 'l ,rr-r' l' aiii*ng = d: bi c. d. .81 b. c a u s ' i n gf l a r o r e x c i t e m e n t waking sotneone up i \"'' i ' 1i \ i 1 r " 1 " ' influx= deve'lopmetrt occupatiorr c. d. ,' ,d d. €,xciting c;onfusing

3.

a. b.

c : o n t ' i n u a lf l o w i n g i n 'impact

-31

-

4.

fal I short = a. b. decrease-t ' decl i ne : .. ,\/ . stem= part of a tree ' '.[i;',-ti.,, c. d.r 'i' capture fail to meet a goal

5,

y:.
6.

a"-.

stop
\r r '.,^,

c. d.

support arrange

feVOlVe =

a. b. 7.

enc'lose attach

c,' d.

cause to go around br ' ing to an end

constitute =

8.

Illdjor=ir"

1

'

a, b.
9.

necessary the course of study
^ lit"" ')' I -\' "

q. d)
't " : /r

the h'igh rank off icer greater in amount

aggravate =

a. t'6.., ^: Exercise 4

exaggerate m a k ew o r s e

, ,.r,\.,r, '

c. d,

:' I inform : . . , ' t t ' ,' \ ' f luctuate '',,j , ,.'

. ,.,

R e a dt h e f o l i o w i n g p a s s a g ea n d t h e n f i n d t h e c i o s e s t m e a n i n g o f t h e under'l'ined words.
nlr"i tr " '' ''t' t''

in The bodies of three men \,!ere found dumped the bushes yesterday near the in Province. The bodies, which were stuffed into Bangna-Highway Chachoengsao Pol Lt-Col were discovered by a gardener, who a'lerted police. three sacksl," SuwanHoonsawat,chief inspector of Bang Pakong police station, said the three v i c t i m s w e r e e a c h m i d d l e - a g e da n d h a d b r u i s e s a l l o v e r t h e i r b o d i e s , w i t h o n e bearing a kn'ife wound in the neck. Their legs and hands were bound. .-: 1. = dumPed 'uU. b. 2' t c. d. unconscious diminished , ' ":'

thrown ' s t a b b e d- - r \ " ) . ' "

stuffed = a. b. chopped transf erred c. d. f i l]ed forcibly ' ' -' ]ay

1/

-

\...' 3. alerted = {"''.,'
, ..,

''
\\ -,i..

'a) b. 4.

.-

ilarned or informed got ready to act

c. d.

convinced escorted
_l : ,

b r u ' i s e s= a. t6; s c ars injuries by a blow
i' it " /'"il:r.

c. d'

tattco mar ks PimPles
\' ""
:.i

5.

bearing=

a. b. Exercjse 5

giving bi rth resisting

\

c. d..

carrying showing

,'

of Read the follow'ing passage and then f ind the mean'ings the under'li ned words' OF MANACCUSED CHILD ABUSE

The Labour Department is to take Leggl action aga'inst the Phasi Charoen g o 1 d s m i t hw h o a l l e g e d l v t o r t u r e d t w o c h i l d r e n w o r k i n g i r r h i s s h o p . Pojana said the suspect, Peera Ponual, would be DepartmentCtrief Chamnan , t i ' l l e g a l e m p l o y m e no f V i r a j K a m p o n g1 4 , a n d h i s s ' i s t e r W a r a p o r n ' fined for the 15. T h e f a t h e r o f t h e t w o c h i l d r e n , N a r o n gK a m p o n gl,o d g e d a c o m p l a i n t w i t h p o l . i c e o n T u e s d a ya c c u s i n g P e e r a o f t o r t u r i n g h i s c h ' i l d r e n , w h o w e r e e a c h p a i d 400 baht a monthto help in the shoP. M r . N a r o n gp e t j t i o n e s l t h e p o l i c e a f t e r b e i n g t o l c t b y h i s s o n , h e a n d h i s sister had been f requently bLutalisel by Peera' 1. a b u s e= a. 6,, 2. over-usage ' ill*treat 'legal = '' '' ' t':\ '-' gentle strict 'legedl = Y actively reportedly : i 6. d. c. d' oPtimistica'l1Y overwhelmjnglY :.' cause severe suf fering to have a Power upon 'r ri'! i I ' c. d, kidnap assassinate l ' ' ,.,' : , , r ' \ . : . , comproilising w concerned ith the law

, .i3ri \ 1, c. d.

a. b. 3. al a. , bj 4.

torture = a. b.

dece.ive i . betraY

*33-

5'

fing{=

d. b. c. d. 6.

pun'ish,by paying some money the state of a good condition a cooperatjon between two persons the officiaj support '/
i,, i . 1., f n,. ...,.,t , _.

tr

lodge =

?: b. 7.

a p l a ce to sta y to v3'ice a statement ,.,i',

c. d. 1c. d.

to discuss to exploit

,(

petition = r,/i'r-,
a. b. Permit "r\:" exemption i.-

i' cooperate |,1,jfftr,fi: make an appeal

8.

brutaiise = a. b-

u('\

l c. d. to look downupon to interfere with

to perform a cruel act t o g e t i n v o r v e dw i t h '

,

\

*******'t{(****:f*

. lrC_

1

l('rl

'l

'

/a:

Wiih Contrastinq Words (11 Qgn'!.exts '{erd Studv 1 MEANING p e r s o n w h o i s n o t a m e m b eo f t h e m i l i t a r y , o r r police, or fire fighting forces :"'u'' not simple or easy; intrjcate : "' agree; be of the sameopin'ion ''' state or prove the truth of ; substantidt€ 'in speak'ing turn aside; gel of f the main subject or wri t i nS

WORD civi l'ian (n. )
',

,, . .ii.;.

cdnpl icated (adj . I
COnCUf (V. ) ,

i-

lir' rtlf

,

_
oflit'

' ' . *

d' i g r e s s 4 v . )
)'' -'

-i,

.i..

i

fragile

(adj,)..y1..

g a l o r e ( a d 1 .) ) . g e n u i n e( a d j ' ) ' n : r i hostile (adj. ) '

impat'ient (adj. ) ... inter (v.), m i t i g a t P z ( v .) ' " . ' '
nOViGe (h.)i'rr'-

original (n.)^ _ original (adj.) , FOritY (n. )', ,r r e s u m e( v . ) shrink (v. ) sobep/(adj.) ',,'
-t 1,.

.-

suffice (v. ) L: vacant (a01.1
l ( |

p i e n t ' i f u l ; a b u n d a n t( g a l o r e a l w a y s f o l l o w s t h e f wor,l i t rnodi ies ) a c t , - t a l 1 y e i n g w h a t i t i s c ' l a i m e do r s e e m st o b e ; b true; real; authentic - o f o r r e l a t i n g t o a n e n e m yo r e n e m ' i e s ; n f r i e n d l y u anxi r)L's 'l not pat i ent ; not w'iI i ng to bear de1ay; rest I es; anxI ous , 'r. t * put into the earth or a grave; bury - rnakeI ess severe; I essen; sof ten; rel 'ieve - c n e v . l " r os n e w t o a f i e l d o t ' a c t i v ' i t y ; b e g i n n e r i : a v,rorkcreated f irsthanci and f rom which copies are made belongingto the beginning; first; earliest 'inf something uncommon, requent, or rare - begin again ! - dre,'rv back; recoi 1 //. 1 . not drunl(' 'c'l'": 2. serious; free from excitement or exaggeration - ' b e e n o u g h ,a d e q u a t e ,o r s u t f i c i e n t - ernpty; unoccupi J . ed; not tre'ing used

. ,t i

l - t '

' ' t

' '

-

:l?1,.;,,-

r

Apply What You Have Learned Exercise 1: In the space provided, write the letter of tlie word or expression as MEANING the underlined word. that has rnost nearly the SAME
I r n , - 'i

'!.

a valiant foe a. b. hosti le weak c. d. cowardly brave

4

entertai nment Oi.jore a. b. e x c it i n g free c. d. p"lentiful prof ess'ional

-35-

3.

the oriqinal owner a, b. tru e f i rst c. d. new legal

4.

fragi le package a. b. e xp e n sive genuine
c. d. breakable i ntr'icate

5.

co n cu rri n go p i nion a) b. a g re e i n g 'impatent i c, d. anxious disagreeing

6.

quite a rarity a. b. a ttra cti on cl e ve r deed c" - ,. sur pr rse d. thi uncomrnon ng

7.

p ri va te i n te rment
a. b. entrance buri al , .r',
J

c. d..

reception exi t

8.

u n m ' i t i g a t e df u r y 7 i , r " 3 /^'\ not lessened a. b. decreased
' l ' t c

c. d.

softened unchanged

9.

sober judgment

a. b. 10.

e xc'i te d d ru n ke n

c. d\

hurried serious

u n su b sta n ti a ted epor t r
a. authentic

e,

, u n c o n f i r m e d l ' : ' ' -"

c.

false

d.

not true

(opposite) in Exercise 2: Each word or expression in column I has an ANTONYII column I1. Insert the'letter of the correct ANTOIf/pl the space in provi ded,
COLUMNi 1. stick to the main top'ic

MLUMN II a. b. c. d. frail vacant novice genuine recoi led

r! '
C

z.
3.

stro n g
did not shrink

i -_--.--rJ-_

5.

simple

e.

-?6-

A

,,-,,,r, "i

: ,_ U i
,'
I' '.1 '

6. 7, g.
9.
'ln rv.

not being $rhatit oc:up'ied clerv
S;ClrCe
r lri S d $ l € € u r

i s c l a ' i m e dt . o b e

f. g.

concur abundant " 1

l'r. di gress i. j . confirm .icated comp1

E x e r c i s e 3 : W h i c h o f t h e t w o t e r m $ m a k e st h e ' s e r r t e n c ec o r r e c t ? W r i t e t h e l e t t e r o f t h e c o r r e c t a n s v / e ri n t h e s p a c e p r o v ' i d e d . 1. In your opinior, is the report a. 2. genu ne) i --_, b. but it b. or authentic? lrnt rue i s e x p e c t e d t o r e s u m es o o n . stopped

The'investigertion has a. begun

3.

By thei r ___-*_
a.

to the arrresting cf f icer, the vio'trators hoped to
t, LJ. raa; re5 ^+-^^^ lSLCllluE

mitigate the'ir of fense. i .' !
""

expl anertion . .' . .: 4,Wil1thesesUpp]iessuffice,or'arethey.-?

a. 5. Once ai.
I

enougn i n o u r c e n t r a l r e g i c n s , t h e w h o o p i n gc r a n e i s n o wa r a r i t y ' . common b. unknown

Exercjse 4: Fill each blank with the rnost approtrr"iateword from the vocabu'lary j.' I ist below.
.,/
\,, , i

suffice original 1. Z. 3. 4.

'

..

l

novice impatient

vacani civi'lian

'
I

i

J

hosti'ie recoi'ed

c o m pilc a t e d adequate djgresr;ed resumed
i 1

L..!The shov{ers sitopped a feu' momentsago, bu:: they have now -r [''' '

You should heiveno troubie foll,Owii'rgtheso directions.
,; "';1 ,, ,

They are not .- to me'

I can't understand why Terry has becomes() We l"rarle always been f rierrds.

t'

t'

intc our l:uild'ing as soon as an apartme,nt My couisin's fanily hopes lc move, becomes ." \rt',ii'i --l{:j:-'^\
I
L1

'

i"

-37-

(lg''

t\

'

'

5.

The reprdduction was so clever that only an expert could d'istinguish it
from the t"rr I

o.

tdhensomeoneasked Cathering how many fltore chairs would be needed, she s a i d f i v e w o u ' l db e t ' r ' q r ' \ r ' L Don't expect Paul to play the piano as we1l as Lori. ''' ' , t' 'i. only a (an) ..l.' Mrs,spears stopped Vincent as soon as he -rlr';tt'" After all, he is

7.
8.

he re tu rn to th e ma i n topic.
'

,

and suggested that

9.

hlot a single

was appointed to the d i c t a t o r ' s c a b i n e t . ' from doing her duty, even though it
lft"-r'' :'o\f('\i}'\-

Al 'l th e p o sts w e re g i ven to m ilitar y of f icer s.
10.

The supervisor never - ''t !::
,{: \ ((o{ii.

m'ight sometimes have been unpleasant.

*****)t*****x:f** i{

r , . 1r (

-38-

Contexts With Qont rast i ng U/ord( 2 )
Word Study 2
WORD aoiourn (v.) ; : .

MEANING 'c l o s e a m e e t i n g ; s u s p e n d h e b u s i n e s so f a m e e t ' i n g ; t disband' :' s h r e w d ; i ^ r i s b ;c r a f t y ; c u n n i n g a c t o f b l a m i n g ; e x p r e s s i o no f d i s a p p r o v a l; l r o s t . i ' l e criticism; rebuke tear down; destroy; raz.e.,,
unlOad r"', r1i-'li",,t-j"'

di f fer in op'inion; disagree; object f a ' i r t o a l I c o n c e r n e d ;j u s t ( ; : ' , composed spoken w'ithout preparation; offhand; or , i m p r o m p t u ;i m p r o v i s e d . f ree f rom di f f icilfrt"ieE')disentangle lose or have to give up as a penalty for some e r r o r , n e g le c t , o r f a u ' l t not able to be read; very hard to read; not 1egible , n o t d o n eo n p u r p o s e ;u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y ; ,,, t h o u E h t l e s s l y ; a c c id e n t a ' l i n o t f i t t i n g ; u n s u i t a b l e ; u n b e c o m i n gn o t ; appropri ate money-making prof i tabl e ; i a s t i n g ; e n d u r i n g ; i n t e n d e dt o l a s t ; s t a b l e forb'id; ban , . on tirne; prompt e . { p r e s sd i s a p p r o v a l o f ; c r i t i c i z e s h a r p ' l y ; censure severely; reprimand; reprove not lasting; passingsoon; f 'leeting; short-l jved; momentary visitor or guest staying for only a short time

extricate (v. ),, ,' forfeit (v.)

'.1

.

-

\ l . rl tld

' '^d i 1 1 e s i b l e( a d j . ) \ ' l (a in a d v g r t e n t ' ly d v.)
.r\ r l!.'.;' t ' .,.t't, il ...,

("

,rl:'l

"

'inappropriate (aC1. I l 'lucrative (adj. permanent(adj. prohibit (v. ) p u n c t u a ' l( a d j . 1 rebuke (v. ) transient (adj.
r '{' li

-

*

transient (n.)
!rtl:ii::lL

.

,:*r

I

Exercise 1: In the space provided, write the letter of the word or expression that has most nearly the SAIIEMEANING the underlined word. as
4

t.

vote to adjourn
t'

a.

join
Otsband - \\ r r
' ' 1t /(r\

(D.

ri

di sapprove approve

)

ca te r to -tra1n si e nts ---. a. h.' civi I ians s h o r t - t i m ev i s i t o r s
n

permanent guests novices

3.

severely censured
b. banned obj ected
a

u,

t,

d'ischarged rebuked

-39-

4.

re co rd o f p unctuality a. b. promptness attendance c. d. achievement lateness

5.

t e m p o r a r yi ' l l i n g f a. b. not 'intendedto last fra g i 'l e c. d. endur'ing not painfu' l

6.

i n e q u i ta b l e tr eatm ent
a. b. fai r crafty

c. d.

unw' ise unjust

7.

omitted i nadvertentlil iio"t a. b. temporari I y on purpose c.,' d. acc'idental i y permanently

8. '

d i s c h a r c i n q s u p p li e s a. b. . unloading (, destroying ." i 'l c. d. unsuitable fleeting

f.

impromptu remark a. b, 'inappropriate cunn'ing c. dl-l hosti le extemporaneous

10.

completeiy exonerated a. 'b:' set free freed from blame c. d. disproved prohibited

Exercise 2: In the space provided, write the letter of the word hCIT in RELATED m e a n i n gt o t h e o t h e r w o r d s i n e a c h l i n e . 1. 2. 3. a. object a. ban a. stab'le b. disagree b. exonerate b. legible c . d e m oils h c. prohibit c. permanent d. dissent d. forbi6 d. lasting r l "" ^ t i I ; t C'"' 'ictri l n r '( '
a

4.

a . a bu n d a n t

b . p l e n t'iful " n . o u " l b u iO"n
,..'1'l '

c. lpr cnative c. encumber
c. mitigated c. prompt

d. galor e d. dischar ge
d.'lessened d. short-lived

r '" .r " '"
vtSi

5 . a . h in d e r
6. 7. a.'improvised a, temporary

' ''r

b. softened b. momentary

i-'

'

8. 9.

a. appropriate a. reprimand

b. transient b. forfeit

c. becom'ing c. censure

d. sui tabie d. reprove

I

-

10. a. shr,ewd

l). extemporaneousc. offhartd

d. impnomptu -

--

the senl:encecorrectlr Exerc'ise 3: lt/hich of the two terms mak,es Write the letter of the correct answ()r'in the spaoeprovided. 1. m t T h e i n s c r i p t i o n o n t h e c - r l d o n u m e rils h a r d 1 . or e a d ; i t i s a l m o s t a. Z. 'leg i b1e b. 'r11egib1e endant wi the clef b. rrot gu'iI ty 'l 'l ' be exonerated

i f the j ury's verdi ct 'is _--_-___, a. guiI tY

3.

Rhodahas a'lready had two slices of pizza, while somecf, us haven't had ! even one. I t 'isn' t a. inequitable '' b.-: equitabl e

4.

I f y o u a r e i m p a t ' i e n t , y o u r n a yf a l l y o u r s e lf . to a. extricate

into a trap from which 'it w'il'l be hard
b. l'aze

5.ShoutdthenewklusinessF,rc)Vejucrative,martyinvestorsw,i.|l-it' a. enter b. avo'id

Exercise 4: F'ii'l each blank withr the fi|ost appropriate word from the vocabulary I ist belcw. short-l'ived razecl rebuked 1. Z. 3. 4. intentignal ly astute originaf t forfei'[ed di ssen'ied inadver^tent'ly '' ' accordirrg permanent'ly 't '' e;(temporan€ous1y c o m pilc a t e d

It was no acc'icent. I d'iclit -

i.-_' : Joan fai]ed to appear for her scheduled retnatch. As a result,

io the t91i,fiT.ilt

.:otes,

v16sr'r t:'\rr{ -.-_ the same. s;he

q3 I did not expect to be I will have to speak:___f:i::-,'iinasmuclr asked to give e. talk, .:_,,:,,,,eyr,,or '"J' D a d ' s ;l e f t h a r r c il s i . . \ I L scarred as the resuit of a chi'ldhood acci clent.

-41 *

5. 6. 7.

Three of the club members who \

:r.",

Is the tpt ,ru""n or are there 'ft vacant' somestructures on it that wiil ,,li;* be L u c ki l y, th e p o w e rfa i l u re was .,, l- r 'ljghts were on again , ; in a matter of moments, the

-

8'
9.
10.

I:"

sukhothaj ; later i t was chansed t",TJJ# ;[J-:iltrv was .'J
' ,\( as an
to

y o u s h o u l d l '*.e xp e ct a n o vice at chess to be as exper.ienced player.

"": ' The officen directing traff ,1, Dl i c -% , . t - , , ' the driver who had tried make a p"ottioited turn.

*.*,3* * * rf * *:t:f ,t ** * *

-4?*

(i ) Contexts VJith $itui.1a.!.-!tlot-ds Word Studv Q WORD cache (n. ) . , ' : c o m m e n( v , ) d cur (n. ) despotic (adj.) \' \. ' .i dispute (v. ) , t,.,; ,-. ' .,, edifice (n")r era (n. ) initiate (v. ) r"'i , Jo1ly Roger(n. )., ^ m u ] t ' i t u d e( n . ) perce'ive (rr. ) - / portal (n. ) . MEANIN(] h'iding place to strlre something praise, mention fa'rorably worthless dog h of a despot (a monarch aving absolute power); d o m ' i n e e r i n gd i c t a . t o r i a l ; t y r a n n i c a l ; a r " O u b b o u t ; .d e b a t e ; d e c l a r e n o t t r u e ; c a l l i n t o a quest'lon; oppose hi stor'ical period; period of time 1, begin; introduce; origjnate 2. admit or induct into a club by special ceremont es pi rates' f lag; blar:k f 1agwith white skull and r crossoones crowd; throng; horrie;swarm bercome aware of th^ough the senses; see; note; oklserve d c n r ; e n t r a n c e , e s 6 r e c i a 1 1 ya g r a n d o r . i m p r e s s i v e ,

.*""

-

I

'

,' -'retract (n. ) ispine (n.) a .. i stro]1 (n.)', ' " t i m o r o u s( a d j . ) tui tion (n. ) version (n. )

reserved t*ci.l , restrain il,. j .,.i- '.),'.r ' t
' l' {rr, ,,

?il3t."tnedin speer:h actlon; uncommunicat'ive or rrcrid' back; crreik; r;urb; repress' ,:
,, ; d t ' a wb a c k ; w i t h d r a t ^ r ;t a k e b a c k s c h a i n o f s m a i l b o n e r d o w nt h e m i d d l e o f t h e b a c k ; berckbone fu]l of fear; afraid; tim'id p e r y m e nfto r i n s t r u r : t i o n 1 . a c - c o u no r . d e s c r i p t i o n f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n l : t
' '()T vlew ;i

.. ,,, ., .:. '

)

2, translation

b 1 E x _ e r c i s e : I n t h e g ; p , l c € e f o r e r : a c he x p r e s s i o n i r r c o l u m nI , w r i t e t h e l e t t e r o f i t s e q u ' i v a ] e n tf r o m c o ] u m nI I .
I COLUMN

II COLUMN

i

1.
2, 3.
I

i n o u ct ('i n to e rc'tubor soc' iety)by
special ceremonies irnpressive uiiding b h'istori cal period
h'iding place 'innp ressi ve doc,r

a" cur
b. cache

c , , s p i t r e le s s d. e" portal thi rteen

4. .,\ \ o.

-43-

!

i

6.

account from a part'icu'lar viewpoint

f.

initiate

7, 8. 9.
10.

without a backbone b a ke r's d o zen i\' ' ."' ' , "' " worthless dog
black flag with white skull and crossbones

g. h. i,
j.

Jo' lly Roger era version
edifice

Exercise 2: Eachword or expression in column I has an ANToN\?f (opposite) in colunn II. Insert the'letter of the correct ANTONIYIVI in.ttre provi ded. "pa"e
@LUMNI
'l and'rll qr tvgu .. .

COLUMN II
^ q..

SLt(Ji

^lqAl1-J

ittu

2. i 3,

not afraid censured u - .

b. c. d. e.

perceived m u lt i t u d e disputed initiated retracted commended': " r' timorous

4.

ran

---=-

l^

6.

democrati c

f. g. h.

|
-

7,
8.

reserved
small group

: i

10.

not argued about

j.

,Jespotic

Exe.rcise 3: which of the two terms makes the sentence correct? write the letter of your answer .in the space provided. 1. Isn't it a p'ity that this beaut'iful edif ice is going to be
a. raised
'2,

fi

, b.r

faZed

-"

''

2.

Sandra shou'ld have been a. commended

for being punctual. b. reprimanded freedom

3.

Whenit comesinto power, a despotic governmentusually of speech and press a. bans b. permits

'fT

4.

If you

, there is nothing to d'i:;pute.
.. bj ooncur

a.
5.

d'issent

wished that you couid retract somethingyou Haven't you somr:times you had sa'id? G."
!

regretted

b.

vv'i shed

Exercise-4: Fi'll each blank with the most appropt'iate word frem the vocabu'lary I 'ist be'low. impatient timid ,"'.' di sputed
I

'

perceiveci inducted version '
, -+.; r ..,

tui tion val i ant "
.1

restrained retracted

1. Z, 3. 4.

to The rivals were going to tfa+e blolvs, but 1. managed hold one of them ! r:'ir- "'\ tri'leother ' back and my f ri end The firm must,expand to se,rve thr-. increasing numbersof clients knocking at its !''\;r1 --' 'luc|li'ly my mistake I ' I was about to take the wrong bus, but i n t'ime. our picposa'l for sharingl the expensesl. it seemed No one p e r f e c t ' l y e q u 'ti a b l e . ,

If ycu go to en out-of-toq'n college, you w:l'l have expenses for room and b. '.'r''i < board, as well as for ----'---6. 7. B. g. After the plane took off , the pi'lot the landing gear.

iSk J u l e s V e r n e ' s i r a g i n a t i v e n o v e l ! - ' I L E M Y S T E : R I E Us E n o w na s T H E ''' '' i s[ -\t '''i r- -_ ' ISLANDi n the Engl MYSTERIOUS F o u r t e e ns t u d e , n l sw e r e \ BecauseI got url jate, usual r i n t o J u n ' i i i )A r i s t a a t t h r el a s t a s s e m b l y . There was no time for my' ' - about jumping

. I h,ad to rush to sclr,:o'l \

10.

Before I learned to swim, I used to be Very into the pool.

:F****{.)ti*******t

1\ ,,.,\A tC

. . . :

. 1 "

'la. /tr a/ l,
J

-

i

\

, .j ' . -11

Word Studv 4

MEANING personor nation that begins a quarre.l;,assailant h e i g h t ; . e l e v a t i o n ;h i g h p o s f t i o n ; e m i f e n c e - , ; , ,, , , ,, .,.* ,..,:. .great misfortune; c_e!Ag_!e"FJre; Ojsas{eFl.: cometogether into a crowd; assemble;gather . meet or cometogether in a group for-a-specific purpose cordiality (n.),.. l friendliness; war mth r egar d \ .. of -cr o n y ( n . ) ,. c' losecompanion; ., , intim ate ir iend; chum, .i , I deliberately (adv.1 f. in a car efully thoughtout manner ;- on po" " ; pur purposely ...1 mannei s.low.ly ?, in an.unhur r ied ; ( dispense v.) e ,' - '(fotlowed by the pr eposition witlr l Oo without; get along without ,.r d u b i o u s ( aOi .)rr., . t .. d o u b t f u l ; u p c e r t a i n ;q u e s t i o n a b l e , . , : , , e x t r e m i t y( n . ) v e r y e n d ; u t m o s tl i m i t " " h i b e r n a t e( v . ) . host (n. ) 1. lar ge num ber ; ultitude; thr ong; cr owd m Z. person who receives or entertains a guest or , ', ':., guests (Note also; hostess_a$/oman who serves as a host) .,,....., intimidate (v. ) frighten;..inf luenceby fear ; coul;over awe preface (n. ) introduct4on (to a book or speich);-ioieword;7. , tr..' p r oiogue . ,r ,.,.. preface (v. ) i ntr oducbor begin with a pr eface; usher .in; precede recoil (v.) -, . . draw back because fear; shrink; wince; flinch of reflection (n. ) 1 . thought;. especi 1y carefu'l thought i"i,, . ,;;:,, a1
rel inquish (v. ) tolerate (v. ) -.:" -- forecast( .tI
,,,,r,. ,, i' i i..

aggressor(n. ) altitude (n.) c a ] a m i t y( n . ) congregate(v. ) ,' convene(v. ) ,

predict, foretell,
! " *:

endure;bear; p'..$jr;"itx, ;iffi;'d;;iE"vs'
p r o p h e s y.
. ' : l 'i t.i o\.rn,r , '

2: blame;discredit; reproach .!.,, , , give'Lp; abandon; g o ; r e l e a s e ; s u r r e n d e rr" : {\ Jgt i..,, :> :,
' " " ' : ( l i. : ,- 1

.
' r 1 ' ' ., -, ,t .

.
' ^ ;

E x e r c ' i s e : In th e sp a ceb e fo re each expr essionin 1 colum nI, wr ite the letter of its correct SyNOt{yM columnII. f rom COLUMN I -_+__ 1.
2: 3.
+.

\'"

r

1''//'

'!.

t{

COLUMN II a. b. intimidate host
nv rrsr r{ s it t L Ja ' l i * r , n . v ,

meet for a specif ic purpose
intimate friend

i n fl u e n ce b y fear person who receives a guest u tmo st 1i mit
d.

extremity ca'lami ty

e.

-46-

6. 7.

lvar^mth regard of spendthe w'inter n a t:i o nth a t sl a rts erquar r el

f.
Y. h

i de1 berate'ly convene hi bernate crony aggressor Ir

-- J

+

9. 10.

i n a n u n h u rri r;d manner g re a t mi sfo rtu n e

i.

E x e r c is e 2 : : I n t h e ' s f l a c ep r o v i d e d , w r i t e t h e l e t t e r o f the word NOTRELATEDn i meaning1:o the other words in each 'l ine.
1

b. assemb'le hr. questionable hr. blame
',{

c. congregate c" certaln c. discredit c. bear

d. gather d. dubious d. ref'lection d. tolerate
,l

.[jjt

i' t;

2

3. 4..
A

/,.1

b," endure
1 ' . - i " , ' , t

kr. f l incfi b . sp e cta to r
;,

c. recoil c. mu'ltituder c. pred'ict c. a]t i tude c. ban c. frighten
if . i '.'. ''',,nt-

d. pinch d. crord d. forego d. em'inence d. ref inquish d. intrimate
,

i -..-

I'

6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

tr. fo re te l I
-b. elevation

)

b" surrender b. overawe

In the $pace prov'ided, wrlte the lett,er of the word that meansthe SAME or the OPPOSITEf t h e w o r d r : r nt h e l e f t . as o
r ., iltirt 6,a ,i i. . , i" .,i
I :".' ,

1.

boo,1

.Jri.. ,.

2.

i narjvertentI y
. 'r.'\l

e)
a.
h h

a.

connectic,n ca1amity

c.

y s1ow1 sel dom di scharge object .
.i .''. '-''

prophecy tie . . ' , ,. . , d e 1i b e r a t e l y quickl y novi ce f ri end d'rgress p r o h ' i b it st ress pract i ce

J.

churn for'lei t
h

4,

r e 1i n q u ' i s ; h forbi d repeat usher in '/

6

pre'Face
l i . . ,' i ,

b.

-47-

E x e r c i s e 4 : F i l l e a c h b l a n k w i t h t h e most appropriate word from the vocabu'lary 'list belov.
/

hi bernated guest r e f l e cti o n
1.

i nt i midated proh'ibi ted host

'

t.

L,

dispensed convened .' preface

toierated r el inquished Prophesied,-io..

was I surprised when the book I had left on the bus I a s su reyo u I h a d i rt, - ' ' ,,.i. all hopeoi g"lting was returned to me! it back ..v
',..-., If I leave someof my dinner, Mothertakes it as a (an) t, cooking. The socia'l committee Thanksgiving Dance fu a ' r''(,^_ on her

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. L 10.

i n R o o m 1 9 a f tr=r s c h o oIl tte p l a n t h e 2 e r ewr r\r\',, o P r W h e i . r e v e io u h a v e , r a e , . . : , \ y'- r. .: 1.7 l -, ,,t

s h o u l d w i n , w e h a ve l o st.

\ , / e r yp c o r f o r t u n e - t e l l e ; . 3ie a

Next week, al1 members the study..group of are invited to my house. , ,-_ I shall be g'lad to be their Grandpa too windy. wi th , hi s ear'ly morning st ro1 I today because i t was ''':"j
i ii. :^t-"j "

r 6r. .

and end with an index. ,'rri,^ri,when Manyasea voyager in the olden t.imesyyasI i he saw the Jolly Roger f'lyihg from the mast of a ship. ----- r.r.,-.r 'late.March, In t h e p a t i e n t r e t u r n e d f r o m F rv ' r i' d s w'hs r r e r Ih e o v a ir r e e s I had ,p.,, si nce
chri stmas.

M o s t t e x t b o o k s b e g i ' nw i t h a ( a n ;

.

1.,,,--_

The dumging poisonouschemicarwastes .into 'rakes of and rrvers cannot be V"", "
'rt

,\"

'.irrv(

'r'ih

- /

\ /

7'ii'"'i'll-:;r

i ,ir(r,

i-' /

***)r************

.l a'

'r rn lj,

-

.1n -'r v
;ll

']'
'.r-l

Com$lrnsenselQentexts -L!-) ;.,i:, ., Word Study 5 WORD capsize (v. ) r" contend ('r. ) '' MFANING

o'r'erturn; upset v 1 . c o m p e r t e ;i e ; t a k e p a r t i n a . c o n t e s t ; f i g h t ; s t r u $ g le 'r 1.1.4: i .' .' j 2. argue; maintain as true; assert - d,:ath decease (n. ) "\. :i ' , i I din (n.) , , I rf,udnol se ; uproar ' * ' t , a l 1 a p e r r t ;d i f f e r e n t ' i a t e (v.)' distinguish ' !- m a k ek n o w n ; r e v e a l ; d ' i s c ' l o s e div911g(v' ) -r e ' . ' 1 , ' , " '. t (n.) l,lng per-i_od dry weather; lack of rain; dryne;s of drought (v. ) ,'' '' l s t a r v e ; b e o r m a k ee x t r e m e l Y h u n g r Y f amsh i ' . f 1 r t u m i n a t e( v . ) ' ' ; ' 1 ir ' 1 i g h t u p ; m a k eb r i g h t w i t h I i g h t - irrcapable f bejng heard; not audible . (adj. ) "'t ',' "' ' o inaudib'le - make ext remel angry; enrage; madden; 'infuni atr: y . incense(v. ) ' :'- '' - f'lood; swimp;tduti,g6' ' i:inundate (v. ) i ,' '" t) jeopardy (n. ) danger;peri'l 'l ' ': i '; i . cari" to be or I ock arger; enl arge; amp'l f y rlagnify (v. ) - of a c'i'ty or town , ( m u n i c ' i p a 1a d j . 1 rr ' ' - ' / ' ; : ) * m a k ea h o l e w i ^ t hi t p o i n t e d o b j e r c t ; p i e r c e ; ( ' v .) ' Puncture Parforat:e AfL:"''':', ','-' - search thoroughlyby turning ov'erall the (v. rummage ) c,cntents; ransack-- )t a t t h e s ; a m ei m e ; c o n c u r r e n t i Y , s im u l t a n e o u sl y ' "later; afterwards (a ,' -r'" 6u b s e q u e n t l y d v.) ( L,i-, , i,'surv'ive (v. ) .., -,,'-. : . , . . . - ' r - l i v e ' l o n g e r t h a n ; o u t l i v e L' - pass across, over, or through; cross I r. fi'r, 1a"U"fSe (V. ) ' ' speed; r;wif tness; veiccity (n.) 9e.i,9i :Y
'-. t a .:i";. : t t t

'

5l',

the sentence correct? EIgggj-gg-l: Which of the two terms mal<es th,: letter of your ilnswer in the space prolzided. Write
i , r d

Si nce t h e j u r y ' s d e c i s i o n h a s b e e n d i V u l g r : r d , about i t .
a.

of us knpul

al'l

L-

2.

Anyone cou'ld sre that Herb was incensed; l.here was no s;ign of his usual in
,

a.

u n f r i e n d li n e s s

Ur

cordial i ty

My bowfing c'luo meets Saturday afternoon, I f y o u r p i c n i c ' i s b e i n g h e ' l c l , I w o n t t be able t<: come to i f
61"

s i m u lt a n e o u s ' l y
V\\

b.

l',-"'i)"r'

y subsequent'l /-'

, . t 1 i| 1"

' r.i
t"'\|

*49-

4.

Sunida's hopes for t a k i n g t h e c h a m p i o n s h i p will today's match. a. ]oses

be in jeopardy if she

5.

This room is poorly a. air

i:

l,i

b.

wins

,we lvT'"il.o; need more b. light

Exefc'ise 2: In the space befcre each word in column, I correct meaning from column II. @LUMNI

write the letter of its

i ,t
---------r2

COLUMN II puncture decease
drought survivor ransacked contender din audi bl e municipal di st i ngui shable

1 2.
J.

one who takes part in a contest rnoi'ougii searcheci iy through
4L^.--..-t-r-

loud notse
capable of being told apart of a c'ity or town long period of dry weather one who outlives death hole madeby a pointed object capab'leof being heard

4. 5. 6.

\ ,-. ': '
I

7. 8. 9. 10.

Exercise jl: In the space provided, write the 'letter of the word NOTRELATED .in meani to the other words in each 'l ng i ne. 1. a. upset 2. a. peril 3. a. 1ate1y 4, a. velocity 5. a. razed 6. a. ampiified 7. a. struggle B. a. ransack b. intimidate b. jeopardy b. subsequently
.-.. !

c. overturned c. safety c. later c. rapidity
c. destroyed

d. capsized d. danger d. afterwards d. speed
d. demol.ished ct r t t'a t I

b. clarity b. deiuged b. magnified b. compete b. traverse

c. contracted c. conmend c. search

d. en'larged d. vie d. rummage

-50-

9 . a . contend 1 0 . a . enraged

h

reprove

assert i ncensed

d. maintain d, argued

b , maddened

E x e r c ' i s e4 : F i I I e a c l ' b l a n k w i i l r t h e most approp^'iate word from the vocabular.,r I i st be'lcw. t raversed concurrentl y contended
.l -

-inundaterd : capsi zecl subseque,nty I '''
| .(

, \ , ' . ' . l

rummaged l eoparrly famishr:d;

perforated d i v u 1g e d d'ifferentiated

I was

Ai L ^.,1

:f

l

_ by the time I got homeb,Ercdus€ had sk'ipped I unch. I

French 1 must be taken before Frerrch2. Thel,maynot be stridi ed ; ' T h ' i s m o r n i n gI _ ' t h r c u g h t h e c h e s t f o r t h e mateto a green sock, without finding it. 4. 5.
o. R.ice f .iel ds are '':'t , r!' ! :rl

ilrce.

because i t take:: a great deal of water to grou/
I

T h e B i l l o f R i g h t s s a y s n o p e r s o r )s h a ] l b e put 'in doubl€ being trjed twioe for the rjame f fense. o

, by

I have always--' l:'. tnat it is better to get a good night's sleep b e f o r e a n i m p o r l : a n tt e s t i l r a n t o s i t u p h a t f t h e n i g h i s t u d y i n g . -'-', - ( o n o u r d r i v e f r o m B a n g k t i k o R a y o n g ,* " - 1 t * cholburi, Bangsaen, Pattayaand Satlahip. Two former employees, whoselnameshave not been' - i. ' l' ' questioned by tl.re police alput th9 robberV.
I

8.

, ar e being
i

q

T h ec o p y i s s o p € , r f e c t t h a t i t c a 6 h a r d l y b e i t .

f rom the orig'ina1 .

After stepp'ing oll the tack, i qu'ickly removecl shoe and examinedthe sole my of my foot. Lr,rckily, the skin was not g1_l:__!( .

*)F*************

-5t

-

Commonsense Contexts (2) Word Studv 6 t'{ORD
6.(:
-

i

'

I

MEANING 1. hold without crotd.ing or inconvenience; have room for 2. oblige; do a favor for; friliih with something desi red r . antisiBale*(f.qresee)"rriih t"ur; dread 2. arrest ', st i ck; adh6're';' .ing; be f ai thf ul . c1 keep secret; w.ithdraw from observation; hide satisfied; pleased one guilty of a fau'lt or crime; offenderl d r o p ; e x c l u d e ; r e m o v e ;g e t r j d o f ; r u l e o u t - . g i v e i - rt o . j o k i n g ; not to be taken ser.iousty; witty tire; exhaust; weary incapable of error; sure; certain; absolutely rel iable steal (in smal] amounts) ,. ,4 . j proper business or duty; spheie; jur.isdiction <--- think care_tull_y; meditate; contemplate turn complete'ly about; change to the opposite . ,{ .,' P o s i t ' i o n ; r e,v'o k e ; a n n u l ' ' - a defe4t not deep beyond rvffat is necessary or des.irable; surp.lus; needless. c o i i i j u e r ; o v e r c o m e ;c l i m b o v e r ( . i. ,,.. . - having to do with cities or towns neighborhood; 'locality; region about or near a pl ace occupation; cal'ling; business; trade

(v. accommodate )
tl ., | \\! L + . /(

a p p r e h e n( v . ) - . ' d c l e a ve (v. ) conceal (v, ) c o n t e n t ( a d i . 1' . : culprit (n.) , el iminate(v. ) ..
f a a a f . i a rr v v r ro

t,,,

(v. fut_igue )

t/aali \svJ.

\ /,

.

i n f a ' | 1 \ b l e( a d j . ) - , pi lfer (v.) p r o v i nce (n . ) reflect (v. ) reverse (v. ) reverse (n. ) ( sha'llow adi.) '.': s u p e rfl u o u s(a d j . ) surmount(v. ) u r b a n( a d j . 1 vicinity (n.) vocation(n.) r-.,..

E x e r ci se 1 : E a chw o rd or expression in column I has an ANTONylvl (opposite) in c o l u m n I . Insert the letter of the correct ANToNyl'l the soace I in provided.
COLUMN I
la

COLUMN II conquerred a.
b.

to be taken seriously

2.
.t,
't)

superf 1uous included -t"* facet i ous di vu'lged infallib'le

rested surmount
r^it rctrt tu -r-i.-. QUllge L. t,. i^,r ,)

'c.
)
A

i/''.

L

--.--<c+-

l
Il

F

necessary deep

6.

f

-\2

-

Kl

l'''

7. B. I .

t I r t ....t vic.:ory +d,4t'.1 .ti

'

g. fr. 1,

unrel'iable el imi nated neverse conceal€|d

s h a ll o w f a.tigued ' / acrc,)mmodate_
\-i-

:L
.

/

r','''
.i

10,

,i .i .

E x e r c i s e ? : I n t h e s p e c ep r o v i d e d , w r i t e t h e ' l e t t e r o f t h e w o r d o r e x p r e s s i o n word. as MEANINIi the under"l'ined that hasrinost nearly the Sr\ME 1. notring to dreASt a, b. 2. conceal intimjdate I
-i'r'l r'(

,ft( r:1.

' apprehend | annul

s t ' i I I c l e a v in q a" b4'' turning cl'ingih! '-, , o. il. excluding jok'ing

3.

su!e.!f I uous r€rmarks a,, b, necessary a d d it i o r r a l (1. A( wittY needlesr;

4.

g h e l ' l o wd ' i s h a. b. not f i l led emPty r,-. i. deep not deep

5.

t.ate t jnre to med'i / ' ref l ect " ,a: 'b, "' rest

'

^v -

11.

wi thdraw

6.

wil:hin Your iiUfSqLSf":Sn a. - judgmen'! br.'' province ., :' ;"' -" unlinowncul ptj t a. b, vi cttm enemy :. C. knowledge ab'ilitY

7.

C.

C f O n Y' *

^"'' .'.'

t.

offender

8.

glitd to .qggsmlnodate ga b. do a fa',ror remove c. d. get together let go

9,

far from content a. b. ful I d '6. ' . co,Jt.^\ displeased '{r*-''1.",' satisf .ied unfrappy

10.

co mmop i 'l f e rer n ,E b. thief , jeopardy ' , { 1( . . . - , c. d. criminal novice

Exercise 3: lr/hichof the two terms makes the sentencecorreot? write the retter of your answerin the spaceprovided.
'

1'

Medica] help was remote. There was physician in the vicinity. .---..---------.. ""{ rio
/\ 1. | ', ' 't,

,

\r\

'. n,,l ,. l.

.o.a
, then who.is the real culprit?

2'

I f t h e p e r s o n a p p r e h e n d e ds i a. gujlty

,W:
," i ,.

'innocent

3.

Yesterday':
a. l o st

:"iliilg.was s i n c e M a r c hB . c l . r i , , ,

our fifth in a row. we havenot _-_-

a same

.{1

won
in the

4'

p a s t. 7.

I k n o w m yj u d g m e n t i s f a l l i b r e

b e b a u s eI h a v e o f t e n b e e n - b, right

wrong

5'

out , poputat'ion keeps d#i , cont.inues grow. to
a. city E

nri{, whire our urbanpopu'ration
farm i 1

Exercise 4t

each blank with the most appropr'iate word from the vocabulary T]11 b e l o w . . t.ist el iminated 'l p.i f er reversed .luous superf f acet ious f ati gued jur.isdiction conceal surmount

a d h e r e, , accommodated vocationa'l 1. 2. 3.

A (An) )" t''" ' can help you se'lect an occupation or p r o f e s s i o n f o r w,h,i c,h "trn".*io.q u a l i f i e d . you are I have already stated quite crearry what I think about your idea. Any further comment me on this subject would by r, g be ._,,r-,1t.!1i D o n ' t m a k ea n y p r o m i s e s t h a t y o u f e e l y o u c a n n o a ' 1 i . , I r to.

-

fi,4

4. S. 6.

' ' ' ' \ ' ' " \ - - t h e f o u r t h s e n t e n c e . I t l i r r 3 r e ' l r e p e a t e dw h a t i h a d y I ef "'' al ready stated. The parents sat riown,exhaustedafter a hectic day, but ther ch'i'ldren seemecl not tlre least bit -I:!,+i-L*--. ':' t i - l il d i n g m a t e r i a l s i f t h e -_-N o o n e w o u l d h a r r et r i e d t o t ' proper'ly guarded' c o n s t t ^ u c t i o ns i : : e h a d b e e n

7.
g.

the *u* the newry'110 adderd, schoo'l---**--Befor,s
,r.'r ,.,,r 'ri.

/_'''1

"\

\

i'

only 1050students'
.

9. 10.

.i s ago yorj were for the mot'ion, and rtrw you are agarn t t . A moment \' - your opini,on? W h yl ' i a v ey o u - . l l ' " ' i '.j-.+ -- your difficu'lties' I f y o u t r y , y o u s h o u l c lb e a b l e t o j - ' '

"enjoyed" work'ing' They thought I d S o m e i d n ' t b p 1i e v e m e w h e n I s a ' i d I i 1 't ' f i { ' j _ - - ' was being

r(**********t(*trt(

r,t
( ,:'\ r

,1,,,,,

f 1

-55 -

Mixed Contexts (1l Word Study 7 WORD MEANiNG
1,, ..1-.. . -i l , ,,,i,, , ,

1 . b e c o m e e s s ; d e c r e a s e ; d i m i n i s h , , - : i J) . , i ' ' i 2. make less; rlgdycp; moderate i '+., accord (n. ) 'i , agreement; understanding .,. ..:. accord (v. ) agree; correspond .,. '1". . ' ) ' r' aggravate (v. ) , m a k ew o r s e ; i n t e n s j f y "'" ^ { : , ,: . .b e 1 ' l i g e r e n t ( a d j . :\''{'\ ( )'. fond of fighting; war'like; combative :.-,;,', ,'l consp'icuous(adj . ) r.; ) ' ' noticeabl"; easijy seen; promjnent; striking . craft (n. ) 1 . s k i l l ; a r t , , . . , - ; . , r i ' :. ' , l r " ' " ' /r 2 . s k i l l o r a r t i n a b a d s e n s e ; c u n i i i n g ; g u i l e n . . . . , ,f ' \'' '{\ craven (adj.; cowardlY currency (n.) rj.,.,' s o m e t h i n gi n c i r c u l a t j o n a s a m e d i u m f e x c h a n g e ; o rnoney;coin; bank notes -1 , ; .Lr;r, deter (v.) :.r.,. "1* turn as_idethrough fear; discourage; hinder; keep nact< duplicate (n. ) one of two.thjngs exacily alike; copy - 1. madeup; imaglnqry; f i c t i t i o u s ( a d i . ; : . i( i, i not real ('^ . 2. fa'lse; pretended; assumedfor the purpose of Irr i, ' ",, , 11.111tf ' deceiving \.,i"''; i m m a c u l a t( a d j . ) . , . e spotless; without a stain; absolgle_1y* clean i n l e r v e n b( v . ) , , , 1. occur between; be between; cornebetween 2. comefglween g-help settle aquarre'l ; .interpede t ,,ir, m i n i a t u r e ( a d-i . )';'^'n :' '(^^7 s m a l i t i n Y ' . ,, L ) , , ' - ' " ' t ; t I quintet (n.l group of'five ^.. ": i \" r 6 c o n c i ' l e( v. ) cause tg be friends again ' rural (adj.1 having to do with the country (as distinguished from the c.ity or town) security (n.) ) safety; pro_t_sction '
1.",",. 4 i

(v. abate ) tl,' '"'

stamina(n.).r. strensthf6;A;-gnar.an"; a"" . ,\, , .i . ' . _ , -'; volit'ion (n.) .r"p i.;r--l- act of wil1-ing or choosing; will; accord
Ii

Exercise 1: In the space provided, wr ite the letter of the wnrd NoT RELATED in m e a n i n gt o t h e o t h e r w o r d s i n e a c h . l i n e .
t ,i

1. a. craft
o^ 1. d. augment

b. gui1e

c. cunning

d. volition

i'

b. ekaggerate c. abate
c. belI i gerent c. genu'ine
vvruliltYty
a , r q ^ i - - 1 . ,

d. *'ririrv
d. warl i ke 1 ,r

3. a. combative b. timid 4. a. pretended
5arlnw'iqo]rr

b. authentic
h
ss

d. true
)

aef

Lu

r r ft v a ' lI r r
J

6. a. agreement D , accord 7. a. miniature
\r', \,,.,,.,..j,,' r

u, 1'r lrt' ,'' i,1,. : fV':f pli',1r

$ r ' a rr I t y

altercation

d . understanding d. sma'll i { l ' , . 1 r r ; ' !:
l.{.-r,'

b. tiny if l,'''' '

t9^

f ragi 1e

r

.,'
'i{

\

n

)o

-

tl

'-

_

}l q

a. arguec
) { tC

Lh'i intervened
: ,'l ' r.

,rt

'l

c, c;ontended c. diminished

fl

asserted reduced deter

a . m a g r r i f i e d b . m it i g a t e d

A

10. a. hinder

tr. discourage -9) tolerate
fir !rr -

d.

p E x e r c i s e 2 : I n t h e r 3 p s 6 s r o v i d e r d ,n r i t e t h e l e t ' t e r of the word or expression that has most nearly, the SAME MEANIN(j t h e u n d e r l i n e d w o r d . as
1'l!' ; I'ti i t-' r"

A4SeOted worl.l force 'ler a. smal b. trai ned

i.,, unski I I ed en'larged

t*'

2.

f icti tioug hero a, b/, crafty i m a qn a r y i (:. (1. belligerent val i ant

3.

gl:ayen retreat (. a" b" : l c o n s p ic L r o u si ' ) . d e l i b e r e r t gl ' t r ' ' ' ' :
.x: .

ci.

coward'ly ari fuI

+.

urban affai rs a" b,
:,:f

national rural
1 tr"--:

c.

community

ei 'TYfi nai
{ f iitl ! ' ,'

j-gmacu4ts-'l.v clressed 1 a. b"
o.

richly appropriately

o. -Jt<

becomi y ngl spot'lessl y

' rn not to be dete,rred'1 6 tr" di scourerged repeated
(:.
(1

divu' lged surmounted
l('
,'- // i i

7.

inconspi.cuous posi t ircn a" -fu: prominert unnot i ce,able

,r.1.

(].
1{

permanent striking

B.

dUBlrEa.ljpn ma.chine a" b. folding adding

.u"
tl

copying e n ' l a r g in g

9.

""' urlrQggngj_Le_d f oes €'o'-o -'{ b. hostile t'; lt"''' Jt',, timid
(;.

cl ever f ri endlyt

-57-

10.

guileless answer a. b. tricky crafty

c. ,K

'incorrect honest

Exercige 3: which of the, two terms makes the sentencecorrect? Write the letter of your answer.in the spaceprov.ided.
1. Lama'iwas conspicuous at the dance. Almost noticed her.

a. 2.,

everyone

b.

no one

I n t h e i a te st d i sp u te b e tween the junior s and senior s, Mr .Alber ti has f o l l o w e da p o l j cy o f n o n i n ter vention, He has inter ceded on side.
a. each \ i.b,i neither

3.

Janipa expects to be aggravated. r'( ., a. absent

tomorrcrw, unless her cold becomes

,V)

Present
it corresponded with the

4.

I wou'ld be more one in the book. 'd certain i"

about my answer if b.

dubious

5.

T h e t r ip to th e th e a te r i s usual]y ionger for f o r t h o se f i v'i n g i n th e ci ty. a. urban
p:) ruraI

r esidents th an

Exercise 4: Fil'l each blank with the most appropriate word from the vocabu'lary list below. . ,, .. intervening stamina quintei abating currency duplicate vo1ition,. security ' r \ . be11igerent1y. y i mmacul atel cc'nsp'i cuous'ly i nc-reasing i nconspi cuousl y
J t L4l1 "' 1

1. 2.

'lived The pioneers who through the f irst bitter winters in the rugged...,",'l,, w'ilderness must have had rbqarkable 91.,,, , . .
'.', ,l

WhenI asked your'brother to stop shout'ing out the windorrr, said: "you'd he better mind your own businessl" I was surprjsed that he answeredme do
.,,,;i t .: I rr.i'r "

3. 4.

S a v i n g g b a n k sp a y i n t e r e s t o n d e p o s i t s a n d p r o v i d e ! ( ( t r " n \

against theft, .

our basketball teamwas more than a match for the opposiflg 1i.'"lti

-64-

.

t.

t

t,'. l':

5. 6. 7.. 8. 9. 10.

Entering 1ate,, Juta tr.ied to take her seat noticed her.

but the teacher

J a r i y ' a w a sa n n , o ) / etd a t s h e h a d q p i l l e d s o u p o n h e r w h i t e b ' l o u s ej u s t a f t e r 'launderred h she had it so _!:_,.:t:::", . I f y o u l e f t t h e l i b r a r y , a s y o u s a y , a t 1 p . n r . a n Cd i d n ' t r e t u r n h o m e n t i l u 5 , w h e r ew e r e y c u i n t h e r r I r - , v l r l r f .f O u r h o u r s ?
, 't .' L

T h e b u r g ' l a r s t o o k s o m eg o l d a n d j e w e l r y , a i ; $ 1 5 0 0 i n

Lrnn '' "

__,

Nori had to Ue,uigeO repeateOty to try ,eut for the team. She would not have done so of her own ju',t,,, . t ' 1 f l* !
i,i'tt'

Meta used to-!e-fg!d_gl j' -l 'is _=, l-'.,
,-i,, .,1 n - .r ,
''r ',ri,.:

the gr:itar, but hisj interest in that instrument

t r* * t ( * * * * * * * * * * *

( l ' . r 1 ,'

1\,

|

-

6- -q

!f

t >'"'t-r- 1

t'a

'''

f r''{

rr\''',i

a

"'tr'l "'i'"

(, ti
L-,"'l
. '{ "i 1 , . ' .; .(r 1, a .

MixedContexts (2) V/ord Study I l{ORD
r r,{lt .

alternatjve (n:) beverage(n. ) b l u n d e r( n . )

'll '/ ' |

MEANING
-, .1 ,

,,,

c h o i c e ; o n e of two or more things offered for choi ce

ri.r': dxclusive'ly {adv. ) exempt(adj. ) ', \- a' '',igperil (u.) l ineage (n.) ': major (adj. ) ,. objective (n. ) objective (adj.; .
/ \ 'r :

drink; liquid for drinking mi s takeor er r or caused stupidity or bi carelessness , , .{ ': d i spufq.- quar r el; . controversy (n. ) .t .. .,. debate; str ife \ ,'-custody (n. ) , . ,,. ca re; safekeeping; guar dianship ,r c F i m i n u t i v ead j . ) n ^ ,, , \r ( average ize; small; trny . s "-,dispel (v.) , ! lelow i" d ri v e awaV scatter ing;' sca3te_r ^; b1 disper se i dormant (aOi. ) ,.',, , 11" !t,, inactive, as i f ' l'l' ''i. ,as'teep;.slt'eefriglqliptl-"iuJgi"n i.o .r,/r , . resting . -'

:

r

o p i n . i o n a t e d( a d j , ) .,presenily (adv. ) pr_O}Drasti {c-,,,' nate (v. ) prodjgious (adj. ) ;.r. , t.

[irotract (v. ) retain (v. )
I

to wh.ich others are subject e n d a n g e r ;j e c p a r d i z e 1 . t r , / . n descent (in a Cirect l.ine from a cornmon ancestor); ancentry; family; extraction "*i-t- , , greater; larger; more important; principal 2 aim or end (of an action); goal inyo'fving facts, rather tfrin"personal feelings or opinions... ,i y f y l y a t t a c h e c Jo o n e ' s o w n o p i n i o n ; o b s t i n a t e ; - . . t stubborn short tirne; soon; before long put things off; delay; postpone; defeF;.r.i,. extraordinary in.size, quantity, or extent; vast; enoi^mous;huge; immense o r a w o u t ; ' l e n g t h e ni n t i m e ; p r o . l o n g i , €xt€nd keep; continue to have, f,oiO, or^ ,i"
I r . 1 . : | : ' l : t " ' i , ' . . ' . i -

' solery; 'withoutsh-ari^n *ith others; ,,,, f r e e do r r e l e a s e dr o m i o u t v , l i a b i i i iund.ividedly . , t v,'or-rule

Exercise 1: In the space before each word in columnI, wrjte the letter of its correct meaning from co.lumnII. COLUMN I 1. descent di spe'l obj ect'ive
4.

MLUMN I I a. b. c. cj.
e,
f

'

'invo'lvjng persona.l than facts

f eel ings rather. :

released from a duty extraordinary jn size involvrng facts rather than opinions extraction controversy

stri fe subj ect i ve prot ract

ai

5.
o.

-L;0-

7.
o

j cus p rc,d g"i
T

g.

tlut th.ingsoff uncju'lyattached to one's own opinion

eX€,rnpted procrabtinate
l{l-''l'' (-

i.
i

flp6y,p crt-,lt

,f t4^

10.

o p ' i ni o n a t e d

d r i v e i r w a yb y s c a t t r e r i n g

(oppos'ite) in 2 E x e r c i s e : Each wc;^cor expressiion in column I lras an ANT0NYM column.tl. provi Ced " COLUMN I
aI

I n s e r t t h e l e t t e r o f t h e correct ANTOI{YM the space in (]OLUMNI I

{
2

m'x nor
ng'l soon act'ive f ew al ternatit'es safe nr:t kept , .

a.
h

tJormant beverages irany choi ces rnajor t ' e t a rn e d

2

4.
6

L
I 7

f r1
l,r

' f,r nr'6"r1 I

fu.ll of blunde,rs
.-.._-1_--_---

frresentI y r4n '/d9'i€ goal s 'imper i ed i , e r r o r le s s a x c lu s i v e ' l y

( I

l

. )
q

n o t s o 1 e ly clear objectives sol id foods

l't .
1.

----------{J--

*.

b

i0.

1

E x e r c i s e 3 : W h i c ho1' the two terms makesthe senl:encecorrect? !Vrite t h e l e t t e r o f y o u r a n s w e r i n t t r e s p a c e p r o v ' i d e d . 1. Ji rasak procrastinatjng.
a' never f i ;t I

h a n d sl l i s r e o o r t s ' i n o n t i m e . Y o u c a n ' t a c c u s eh i m o f

M
p 6r-IS,

i:rlways No wonder we were

T h e f o o d w a s s e r v e d i r r d i m rn U t i v e port i ons w h e nw e l e f t t . h e t a b l e l b.
.l

viell fed

As sorcnas,the employeeleelrned t h a t s h e w a i ; b e r n g r e t a r n e d , she iooking for a nswposition. i,, .. .,,,, , , a. started
ri-; ;K s,iopped t

-61

-

4.

you cannot be objective if you present nothing but
/A '

opinions

b.

facts than usua.l.

5.

Because a protracted controversy, the of meeting ended
a, earl ier

/"1

rater

Exercise 4: Fill each blank with the most appropr.iate 'list word from the vocdbulary beiow.
' r' i l'

alternative
'! 2' 3. 4, 5'

custodydispel r.

jeopardjze objective

'nino.

.. major

subiective retain

protract

?fi:;g:"r"

In ccntra", *3j the dimiiiui]ve of Be_qpre ri Ti iput, Guri.iver seemed a(an) gi ant r.," , TheEmperor.' claiming to be_adescendant pt ,Kingso'lomon and the eueenof sheba, was exceptionil ty prouo oi;* - f :_*_. A b ro ke np ro mi sema y ,.'i ., ,' a f r iendship. T h e . c h a m p i o n s tw i n t o n i g h t , s m a t c h mu if sheis to (,t.. her tiile. I wantedto end the discussion,p,qry;* it- ' lwasserv.ingno purpose, but pat t. d i d e v e r y t h i n gs h e c o u l d t o I'rrin,:i-

6. 7'
8'
9.

I::JlAi:^u:,1Jr"!:r.the so.lcJ. Everything eise has been

cheese sandwich because haveno 6tt,,,,i, you

TheBritish forces wereorderedto p:t_dcwn -acr,i tne leoei.iion, out eeirelar washi ngton preventedthemtrom ;;GT;"i"=".].,,1,r.y4,1[", .
A1'l I could remember were the_1ess important causes of the industria,l R e v o l u t i o n . I c o-u,l. d" n: , t r e c a l i tLhre ."t , , ., i ', ' ; , . r G ^n e6 .c i :,. , 2l ra < ,' )! \ _' on s ! 4r i .

G o r nl e f t h i " * i G , * : + c h i n n y -_*__rr-.-._,,,-1,.-,, *-,rre befc
i r lr <

10.

d'iving into the pool .

shoutd 1.,,.1 H:e :l?:;|r_uf.r."::,u.,ia h a r m l eonh a b ieffects of smokins t h n o t i o n t h a t i t i s ir,,1""?e s s,tle. t .

************u&o

-62-

9vnonyms to D'irectionq: Choosethe word that has the closest meaninq the underl i ned wor'<l/ wonds.

Exers&il
A

b.
a

rl

e.

:;upp1emen.t an5, rn€ans p u t j n t o e f f e r 'c t ' ; ilre h'indered ng cc,nformi tcr

f. g. h. i. j,

imitation feared avenged in contact w'ith fight

e
l,'r,

1

i If the factories are not comp yi nsl'wi th : thra government :rtandard, thery wi l'l be f inef..lL,'1.'.i'.-t.r1 .''r{'i.n,^ : :.' ,.,1.'

2. 3.

l V h e nh e f a r c t o r i e s a r e f i n e d f c r r n o t 1 ' o l o w ' i n gt h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s t requlations, the workers Feel vindrcated
-';(N.-^jI:

tihe used many' {gyiEes to make herself look younger. in f,lanynew gracluates AJ:C-XAqpe-flS thei r sroarch for jobs. of l-lis shoes are not expensivebecausethey were made simulatgg[ I eather.
. r,' I t ^'

1
+

A

".'it''l

rct

flhe dreaded frrcing her boyf rietrd becausesherwas caught dat'ing another man.
7

-[he government ! s h o u l d j m p l e m e r la s t r i c t 'ii :' ''iI whcl tter. r- .'' "1-'r2 "'1' -''
-. ", '1.,

policy to fine peop''le it 'is exposed to tht;

I.
(J

l'he food wi I I t u r n b a d v e r y q u i c k l y i f
ai r. 1 As there are lrot enough lectu^ers

in our university, many

(. ,.: ' i ,

./'Adt_UnEI ecturers are hi red. I
. t.t..,

I -.-T_-

I

1n

l V e t a k e s o m ea n t i b i c t i c

o tab'lels to cr:mbat ur i I lnesses.

Exercrse 2i
h

u.

J

procuct i ve 'free ir tervail ' put up with
n6;$$ed

f
d Vr

h '1
1

,

propose remarkab'le moti vat'ion : energetica'l1y
norqr-rrra'l r t'i o'c

'1

I don't thinl.i I can tolerate lris behav'lor any longer. Berfore you tel1

m e y o u r p 1 a n , let me g_et fir_t.Lh mine.

-61 -

y:, Ife a lt h exerci=*"to,l*.i*]r'*u"., day, we wiil be perfectly h y.
4.
j

, over a span of time, we have time to think everything over. The two brothers have entirely different temperaments.

(

6. 7. 8.
q

We can judge poor people by their tattered clothes. , What do you do in your leisure time?
\ r r f r ' -

Bonusesare cons'idered to be incentives for workers. ''''..'.' if the project is fruitfu] for everyone, it wil'l be fu11y supported. John Lennon is considered to be an extraordinary musician.
i . . . . . ,1

10. Exerc'ise 3 a. b. c. d.
A

. '' mix-up r' .. force s e n s a t i o n a l1 y , : barrier : slow down

f. g. .. . 'h i. j.

unpleasant tempting impressive unsubstantia'l went on and off

f,
,1

1. 2.

To curb the spread of air po:llution is the governmentprimary ' concern. I_ .: A.serious p-bgrag.l-e the companyis due to il^qe to conflict within the management. ,_,,"ti 1,,.,,,,1.i.1 , : l, t.i.t. "- .t ;; , , In order to solve the overpopulation problem, the government should cgmpe'lpeople to use birth-contro'l meihods.
\ '" <-

I

3. 4.
tr 6.

During the celebration of the King's b'irthday, the decoration of the Temp'le Emera'ldBuddhawas speclacuiar. . of .": .,'.:r'r -l,,, t', t'tj "iI
\ ! . ) t / '

T h e m u s ' i ci s s o t a n t a r i z i n s t h a t I c a n ' t s t o p d a n c i n g . '1:
l t .).: . :,i, 1:J.

H e i s n o t g u ' i l t y b e c a u s eo f t e n u g u s e v i d e n c e . i , - , , n , .

i l' /'\. / ', ,1'\ ', r ' : ' l
f r ,,.

n.

______t_

7. L

The candle flickered and then went out. 'r.1 I,iI r . ,:. .: -. H o wt o g e t r i d o f c o r r u p t i o n ? I t i s a d i s t a s t e f u . l top"ic to d'iscuss The traffic rtas in a f.rightful tangle.
1c'1''lr'(

9. 10.

The v'ictims of rab'ies are esulelr aware of pain when they in the advanced stages of the d.isease.
,1 , i . : , ., ., , , t .. _

_64-

Exercise4 a. .' , b. c. d. e.
-.t

advanced mi clverwhel ng soon obl i gatory distant

'less

-

1i.,

f. g. h. i" j.

check on a r$gular be.sis termi naied expensive e unreadabj hid

1. 2. 3. 4. ' R
J.

It has become Ugnda'tgrythat e,very driver must pay for the i:ol l l-he govcrnmentshouid nqnflpf the factories to see whether 1 they f ol I ow the r-eguat i cns . I-he enemy_lulked irr the woods, waiting for an opportun'ity to 6 Ltta c k t h e f o r t r e s s . I'h: i"esults of the tlxamlvj'l'l be reieased gbgftli. E d r ; c a t i o n' i n E r i t a i n i s m o r e g o s t l y t h a n ' i n T h a ' i 1 a n d .
_-:

" '/

i

,;

--:.

6. 7. B. 9. 10.

,.' 'it c ' T h e d o c u m e n t o n c e r n i n g n i s w ' i t " tt i s t o r : o ] c l a n d s h a b b ys o '
\ ' / t -

;ll. 't'h,: kjng's kindness is saicl tc be stagqe-r.irg.

r\...t::ti

,, ,-t

t

is

indecipherable.
t' l^t" '

i1":'':1"1 ,

i:) i

?-

clothes, 'l'oodand medicine. areas, people liic;i< In manyrenp;ft2 tuat i,ofl i t'r the Plt'iI 'ippi nes i s backwardsbecause c Thr:economr s,'i 'is no stabi I i ty within i:he country. thrtre Marryworkers \dere ]41d_pll duel to the loss of the company'
, ;:a l I ^ \ ,.r,..-. . _i . . ,,1.

2 Exercise 5a, b. c, d. e.
i

: '" I :' goneby '' has emotiona'ly breakinrl period many facts
'] ' "' i'

f. s. h. i. j.

choice unstableness rtalkr constant]y w'ithout saying much extrem*pa'in surprised
'' "

--*-

_.--!_-

-'- _-

1

t{!'reit tarti-gS me rnost is his s;:phisticated r
' ' ,'

idea.

2,
-_--_ 3"

f4uc;h time haa elsiir€gds'ince lve started over on this new plarr,
D r ; r " i n ?t h s f i r ' . : t f : f a . _ s q f l e a r r r i n g t o s p e a k , a c h i l d o is very

serisitive to r;ounds

t {

4"
15.

H i s l f r i e n d s a r e a l r r y a y t i r e d o f h i m b e c a u s sh e a l w a y s b a b b l e s ; . s
Hewas unwil'l'ing to break his prcnise because he had no otherr

rcsQ-\]l"s€.
l:'. ''

_o?_

6.

7. 8.
q

Death can be a shatterinq *y-:alence for everyone. Sc'ientists gather a 'lot of data while makingexperiments.

Mostpeop're in a stat. ot eg;i'ni"n are
e x t r e m e ' l ys e r i o u s a c c i d e n t .

-,,..,.r

they are in an
, ., i of the

--------1,+

Many people were unempioyed during the fluctuation economy.

10.

There qre a multitude of jobs in the Middle-East. In order to app'ly for it, you shoul.d contact the 'labor department.
I ,.,. 1

Ex e r c i s e6
a.
h

tu rn
affaa* 9l t99L

d. e. 1.

al ive w'r oespread force our way into

f. g. h' i. .J.
.i,,

edge pei^Suacie r. horribie ct'r''it''' c o m p e t ew i t h involved
" ' i I .'t ' 'i '-4,

T e l e vi si o n h as an impacton"peop' le,s lives. I don't want my father to be gnggredin politics.
It was so crowded that we could not penetrate the TV can 'induce people,to believe that the products advertised on TV are worth buying.
L

2.
o.
A

t":!

.,,.,rr'i

,t:

't..

iL\l'^./(;.,

J.;,

5.
6.

Peoplealways riveir withfeach other for: the bestuiob. A t th e p l a n ec r ash site, the sight of thevictim s *"* uoit- :tj f,.o..

7.
8.

wealwavs evg+ our eves*r,"n'*uilhing''"r;tii"n*our"rlt""''
,. ' someryax statues 'rook animate becauseof the very fine craftmansh'ip used. ;._-* , ! The role of womenin Bangkok business is more pervas.ive than in rural areas. t

9.

10. Exerc'ise 7
ab. d. e.

Many factories are located on the outskirts
;i .fi r,.ri.,'r"

of Bangkok.
',t; / "-l

nA f\.ra1t te

,-

r ,

t

comparati y vbi sma l l p i e ce s physical p ra cti ca l 1y

g.
h i

j.

qu,;ckly ]mk oveirough / ,. |' obstac'le ' ''; . deep . resources

t.

-i^: |v1}{ r
I 1.,r,.1.1..1
\ i ) . i \ |

t^

-66' : , |. .r'|

i . . , . , .a ,r , . i
DGtLt-' n\

1. 2.

-+_-

His injuries resulted from his rrrorkingonditions, especiall)/ c healy manuai wlrk. ,. . trr ,trrf the people in Bangkokare a.ffected by the Virgglly'al1 tra''fic pr'ob1em.
,{i 'it,u

2

In r:rder to gain access to thi s vi I : t o l l u i l d a c r u , l e r o a c l , t ,.

'lage,
I -

the govgrnmenthad
i, ;r

A

has the maan_-q produce c'ii qujck'ly and effectively. OPE(I to
. ,., I

q

M y r r e wm a i c i i s v e r y c l u m s y . S h e b r o k e t w o g l a s s e s i n t o o freJtments n har first day.
I itr. : j.Y,gr, L ;.

6.

The weiither this wintelis

.fe]el.lfgly colder than last year's.

l

7.
n

Before I jeave hometo work in the morning, I spend a few news, the newspaperfor the econcrm'ic minrrtes scernnil3g If 'rou give moreattention to tlhis matter, you will p_fCI le-lJlg understandi ng of i t "
) !: t :' t '

have a

a

H e r v a sv e r y a B p r e h e n s i v _ e k i n g h i s i n t e r v i e w t e s t . ta mor$ than one ianguagecan get rid c,f a hindrance Knotving i undrlrstand ng.

10.

ExerciseB dea'lh ver\/ i mportant ,; verify at '-he present time sol id'ly
?

g.
h
j

).

' - ' : '' : nake up "'' c I evefness *ere grouped u n c le a r 1!unctions

He lras Ljfn_];r-rJecided not to run for election.
. "i:,"i

T h e p i c t u r e s a r e b l u r r v b e c a u s et h e y a r e o u t o f f o c u s .

it*e s h o u l d t a k e It 'is such a crucial matter that the "o**i serious action.
Cungnt-1y, man'/ scfrool chi I dren are addicted to tel ev'ision.
'l

-...-.---.--]-_'1

Nowadayswomenp l a y s e v e r a l c r u c i a ] r o l e s ' i n v a r i o u s s e c t o r : ; of :;oc'iety. '' 'l
'-'"i i' ; '

t i n p u b li c u n ' i V r l F S i e r s i n T h a ii a n d , g i r ' l students const i tutt2 ' m o r e t h a n o n e l r a ] f o - 1a l l t h e s t u d e n t s . Don't forget to Eqrlflrm your reservation before you depart. l E i s ' : e i n ' s i n g e t l u j - L y e d t o m a n 5i'n v e n t i o n s .
I ,i 6,' :', ,:r( ,

C-

4,.:r

-

o/

-

9. 10. Exercise g a. b. c.
d.
A

In so me fri can countr ies. t h e m o r t a l i t y r a t e i s s t i l i A hish.

very

The campers were c'lustered ar oundthe camp e singing. fir

recent1y eventual 1y a cl o se w a tch a cce p t' too severe
1

f

g. h. i.

primary referred to comeout reserved combi ne

1.

His idea has been cited in several meetings. T h e p o l i c e h a v e b e e nt i ^ y - . i n v e i y h a i d t o m a k et h e t i u t h g emeige.
'i

J.

when ta]king to your employee, you should not oe harsrrl somchai is not very pleased about it, Paying that f ine.
(r'":'

4. 5.
6.

but he - l l resigned to is ,. .. , r., " t:

Becauseof his ret.icent nature, he was hes'itant to defend hi mse'l . f l V h a td i d y o u d o l a t e l v ? '" r (' s a l t i s f o r m e d w h e n s o d i u m a n d c h l o r i n e c o a l e s c e . / , n ,L . , . ('
1;tt\ '- '''Vri

7.
^ L

The police maintained,sgryeil.-i-anggthe arrested criminajs. of T r a f f i c i s a m a i o r p r o b ' l e m , , b ifg c i t i e s . o .

9.
l/1

ul-timatelv, the suspectedmurdererwas arrested after the w i t n e s s e s a d s u p p l i e ds u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . h r r , , . i;. r { i i . t ; setonfire,,,,-,' expresseddi sapprova'l v'i o le n t aware po'li ute

Exercise 10
c:.. h

rl

e.
I

f. g. h. i. j.

scarcity of food l without punishment spr eadout cramped

Frequentiy, there is a famine in Eth.iopia,especia'l1y in the sttmmer tima

He was not consciou-s what. he was doing when he was drunk. of Because Narongis so ta11, he feets very Sgnsld_qled in his friend's small car.

-6eIJ tc a

I

.u

- )
t:
1^

4.
5. 6. 7.

It 'i s tru e th a t l i fe eteyAid p:easur e canbe ver y unbear able. of
Dnring raging storms, we shou'lcremain in shelters. l S e v e r a ' lp e o p l e w e r e k : i l 1 e d d u e 1 : ot h e t o x i c g a s w h i c h r a { i a t e ( f rom the p] ant . ' B e l f c r ec o o k i n g , a n c i e n t p e o p l e u s e d s t o n e t o i g n i t e w o o d . rrtrrbagealrd sewageqrnlam'inate the water.
n -,*l

L''-

^ u.

10.

There is a p_en4l*"ty foli'l1ega1
l. rr rl{

parking in someareas.

*,t******:t*,f*****

_69*

Word Form/Word Fam.i v I D'irections: Choose the correct form of the word to fit
'{

into each senrence.

1.

t o benef i t, benefiii al , benefi ci a'l 'ly a. b. ^
V.

,71

'

2.

" D o y o u s e e a n y . , . - . . , : . . . ' , . . , t o h a v i n g a n e wd a mi n K a n c h a n a b u r i ? My son was .r..:.'.. helped ny tfrat herbal medicine. Learning a foreign language is :,r'j\[.\i! ]r-,].. for everyone. 'nrI \ '"u . ' t o assume, assumpt.ion a. b. Many students that the final exam is always more di f f i cu] t than the midterm €Xdrrr. W h a tk j n d o f . . . ' . . . . i . ' : i do you have about this course?

3.

i o systemat'ize,system, systematic, systematically ;. p a. S o m e e o p l e h a v e v e r y . ' . ' ' . . t 1 ' , - . ; . . ' . 1 , . , ' i n i na n d l i k e t o d o e v e r y t h i n g ds .; in order b. Good bookkeepers a'lways work j.1.;.t.'. .". .'.,r., . c. T h e y k n o w h o w t o . . , . ' i ' . , . '..j . ' . . . t h e f i l e s . A I n t h e c a p i t a l . i s t ' i c . . . ' j r ' . ' . " ; . . . , . . , t h e e n t r e p r e n e u ri s t h e p e r s o n who initiates business. t o s e c u r e , s e c u r i t y , s e c u r e , s e c u r e 'y l a. b. c. d. f (.,.\. I ' o' . ,

4.

. 5.

Every worker needsjob ....'.. Before leaving home, we shpuld lock the doors It is not to wa'lk alone in the street at night. H o wc a n w e . . our l.ives in this critical srtuationt ' i r i , ,r i { i to effect, effect, effective, effectively
r i | ,7 | (V', , , , y: ', o ,

a. b. c. d. 6.

;t;,t , 3E - . . . t

Television is the most . . m e a n so f c o m m u n . i c a t i o n He was pnomoted because he works What is the negative ... of the Visit Thai]andyear? He tries every way to his goa1.
l,.Jr

t o d e t e r m i n e , d e t e r m i n a t ' i o n , d e t e r m . i h e d ,d e t e r m i n i n g , d e t e r m i n e d l y a. b.
l-

d. e.

We need a lot of My boss always has a She . T h e m a n a g e r. . The drainage system

to run a new busjness. expression on his face. to do a good job. 'led reshuff the worker's schedule, factor in flood control is an effective

7.

to interpret, i,lterpreter, interpretation, interpretative a. b. c. d.
''-..

Economist:; economictrends f rom il,reir research s t u d ie s . 'learn There 'isi ,lfi cer,ter in the park where you can about herbs and flowers. you have to tre able to speak If you wart to be an more tha,n one language. > C o m m e n trs rnt h e s h o wv a r y a c c o r d ' i n gt o i n d i v i d u a ] ' $ . . .
' i / j

B,

to except, exc:epton , excepti'ona'l excepti cnal i , a. b. c. d. He . . Sheis.,. There are no Wipa has ;rn
t}'

'ly

.i I 1 r i r , {i ' . . ^ jr j l : 1 , 1\ - . ,

m e f r o m t h e p a y r o l1 . talentedinmusiic. to the laws. ski 1I i n I anguagel earni ng.

9.

to defend, defender, defens'iveness, efense, defendant, defensjve, d d e f e n s iv e 1y a. b. c. d. e.
' fot I

When e as;ked im about his political w h The attonrey asked the . I t ' i s n a t u r a l f o r e v a r y o n et o The criminal ?.hswer€the pof ice rJ The opponr:nthas a v,sry strong
,,r,, '. ,..r

views, he was very . several questions, himself.

10.

priva'te, privatt:1y, privac'l a. b. c.
i.

No one is allowed to enter There is no ' T h i s c o m p a n yi s . . .

property, i n t h e rp u b l i c p a r k s . owned.

11.

h o s t i - l e , h o s t i ' l e r l y ,h o s t i l ' i t y a. tl. c.
'l

T h e r ew a s a ] o t o f b e , t w e eH i t l e r a n d h i s v i c t i m s . n North an<isouth Korea regard each otherr ,.. wheneverthey' encounter each other Both Nonth and south Korea are towards each other's; ideas most of the tinre.
' ': ' ,'t'. '

12,

to justify, a. b. c. d.

justification,

just'ifiab1e, jusrifiably

Fatti ra 'is angry abou'ithe comments he's gotten. Her objer:tions about the comments are There 'is no for the way she behaves. I can't b u y i n g a c o m p u t e rt e r m i n a l f o r o u r o f f i c e .
lru

13.

t o e m p r l o y , m p " l c y e r , m p l o y , e ee x p l o y m e n t ,r : x p i o y e d , e m p ' l o y a b l e e e , a. b. c. d. e. f. At present, the . , . . . w o r k o r sa r e w e l l - t r a i n e d . Before Nitaya was . . . . a t o u r o f f i c e , s h t ] w o r k e da s a c a s l r ie r . Her ftrrmer ... a d n r i r e dh e l y v o r k i n g p e r f o r m a n c ea l o t . S h e w a s c h o s e nt o b e t h e b e s t .... of the year. Manyrecelnt graduates are looking for desperately. If you want trr .. you r;hould take somecomputer courses.

l ' t 1 ' a'

14.

to equal i ze, equal i ty, equa'l, equal I y a. b. People always claim that they have . ri ghts. In somecountries, people from low and midd'le class are strugg'ling

c. d.
15.

for It i s th e co mp a n y's policy to among all sectors of the society. She accusedher boss of not treating her

employment opportunity

t e c h n o l o g y , t e c h n o l o g i s t , t e c h n i q u e , t e c h n o ' r o g . i c a l ,t e c h n i c a l 1 y , t e c h n o l o g i c a i1 y , t e c h n i c a l
a. b.

H ew o rksa s a . .... for the Centr alDepar tment por a ti on. Cor Due to recent advanced :.... manycountries uti I ize c o m p u t e r isn a l m o s ta l l t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Many teacherscan improve thejr instruction by emp'loying new.teaching of , the pr ocess pasteur ization.isquite conpl ex . Ja p a ni s sa i d to b e the most ... advanced countr y in As i a. This is a . age for ever y countr y. Her lecture is too ...... r . . . . . . . . f o r l a y m e no u n d e r s t a n d . t

cj. e. f. g.
16.

to distribute, d'istribution, distr.ibutor a. b. c.
.",r,,'

of products is carefu'l1y arrangedby the company. KamolSukosol works as a . for ttaida automobiles. salesmen products to retail store throughout the country.
i",.' " I 't 1

17.

enormous, enormousiy, enormity, gnormousness a. b. c. H9 is very ambitious. He atways 0."#'", owning an 'piece of property. The kidnapper received 'life sentences becauseof the of his crime. The need of se'lf re'l .iance grows . . . after peop'le have been

d.
18.

w e l l e d u ca te d . I t w a s h e r f i r s t t i m e i n NewYork City. .. of the buiI di ngs.

She was impressed by the enforceable

to enforce, enforcer, enforcement, enforceability, a. h. c. d. e.

.to

The poi'ice act as the law , t t w o u ' l db e g o o d i f t h e l a w i s . . . If this is true, how can we the law? The . of tiie law is not that diff icult. The canned-food'factory doubted ttre . ... cf the new ,, regulations. ',''
.ina,i

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ili!;tSLgflI,'lnslSIenT

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ly

a. b. c. d.

His He .. demandfor tris share of the orofit. s He uponpaying his share all tfre time. I t s e e m st o m e t h a t w a t a n a i s t h e m o s t .....person I have ever met.

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20.

e v i d e n c e ,e v i d e n t , e v i d e n t i y a. b, c.
,rr

T h e d e f e n J e r w a s r e q u e s t e dt o p r e s e n t h ' i s that he was rnnocent. It was ..-i...
i,'1'r. .',;'i. '.,i,:',''; i(.

,. to the judge.

2 1.

t o c o i n c i d e , c o i n c i d e n c e , c o i n c i r l e n t a l, c o " n c i d e n t a l y a. b. c. d. . . t h a t f i v e p e r r p l e i n 1 6 i s r : 1 a s sw o r k ' i n t h e r V r l h aa t ce. sameof 1''i w"i Chines,eNewYear's Day. th Her bi rth<lay th i s yearr . . , f i v e p e o p l e v { e r et n e s a m et y p e o f T - s h i r t t o d a y . t h a t h e r b i r t h d a y a n d C h i n e s e N e wY e a r ' s D a y It is are on\ the same day..
,\,/ | ' -' ',"!t'

2?.

to appear, appearance, apF,arent, apparentl)t a. b. c. d.
't"''

It is His . The news wrong company
e!

t h a t P i t u k n t a d e m is t a k e . a is very sloppy. in the paper this morning is horrib'le. . . , P i t u k n i a d e m i s t i r k e . H em a i l e da l e t t e r t o t h e a
''i''t" i'

23.

t t o c o n s i s t , ' c o n s i s t e n c y , c o n s i s t e t r t , c o n s " i; t e n t l y a. b. c, d.
' ri

"t':

in the f ile. s T h e n a m et : f t h e c u s t r l m e r s h o u j d b e i i s t e d ... for the sake I n t h e f i i e , i t i s i r n p o r t a n ti o m a i n t i l i n of clari ty. of two parties. The governmentbody . w ebout 1:he ay you keep the files. shoitld be .' :Y o u

24.

c o m p a t i b l e ,c o m p a t i b l y , c c m p a t j b i l i t y a. b. c. M y f r i e n d a n d h i s r n c t h e r - i n - ' l a wI i v e t J t o g e t h e r .. for 45 years. M yp a r e n t : ; h a v e l i v e c t o g e t h e r i n r e l a l i v e I w i l ' l n o t n r a k ea n y c o m m i t m e ntto h e r u n t i l I k n o l vw e w i l l b e
l:

25.

"t to he,sitate, hesitatiort, heiitant, hesitanr:ly, hesitancy

a. b, c. d.

. . - . b e c i l u s eh e w a s n o t s u r e a b o u t h e r , H e a p p r o a : h e dh e r t o a s k h e r t c >m a r r y h i n . He w'i'll b H ' i sa c t i o ; 1 i s m a r k e d y . , , a s t h o u g hh e i s u n w ' i l l i n g to comm'it imself tcr anything. h ei lot before he approachedher. to It seemed her that he

-73-

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(:
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26.

t o a u t h o r i z e , a u t h o r i t y , a uthor ization, author itar ian, author jtative, a u t h o r i t a t i v e 1y
4..

b. c, d.
e. f.

This document you to sell the land granted by your parents Some higher cfficers are by nature While someare tryi n g to b e so . Thebook you bought. yesterday is the . I n r n o s tg o v e r n m e n t f i c e s , w e n e e do f f i c i a l of .......... in order to e n te r. I told the . in charge what had Eventhough she was not in charge oitni, ,uit.., happened. she acted towards everybodyaround her.

27.

to forrn, form, formation, formula, formulate, formuration, formative
a. b. c. d.
f\^^1^-i

The geo'logists were studying the unusual rock -happ;il';;;;;;';;" .. ^r-

:::llg:"ts ea rth 's

alwayshavequesiionsaboutwhat
year s.

l^:#it*:-":::i:iion
naf hamaf .ino mathemat'ics.

is usua'r .. l.v

body. :..... bythestudent

;i#;;r#'il:ffii

e. f. g. 28.

of, foreign

It is awesomd he how the theory of re.lativity. Scu l p tu re i s a - typ e study of T h emi n i ste r o f fo re i g n attair s is ."ipon*ibr e --r-' for the . ' | I v' rr rs .i
po1 cy.

a r n b i g u i t y , m b i g u o ua m b i g u o u s,." y r i , , t ' , " . a s, l,
a. b. There is a lot of .. confused. He speaks ....,....

&

f

I

f r,,

|'l.rr'' ., r;,t"fi.1.t,,,.

i n h i s j e c t u r e . M a n ys t u d e n t s a r e

c. 29.

, His lecture is so

the students are confused. . that manystudents are confused.

t o d o n i i n a te ,d o mi n a ti o n .
a. J a p a nw a n t s t o . . . . t h e w o r . l dm a r k e t i n e v e r y w a y s h e can. b. Movies are the c.AfterWor.tdWarII,Japanquick.lyeStab1i;hedeconomic.. over the other Asian countries. d. S h ei s c o n s i d e r e d o b e a . . . . . . . . . . t p e r s o na m o n g e r c l a s s m a t e s . h

e'
30.

a ::.T:.::ll:. ::Tff;';],'?"f;i":,"rn.*u:iut perhapsr itile too
. i

to 'inhabi , i nhabi t tant , r,aoiiut , hab.i ion, habitabre tat
a. b. The desert is too hostile so it

I?fr.;;:
d.

: . of cotd ct imatea.tways wear'thick ctothesin the

is

Some id animals ar-emore_satistied_with wi their natural than wi th the zoo. .Fwampy*qreas,are usuajly the .... 41f frogs and insects.

.ji_..1if

i."

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3 1.

l

.,1

,.

.' i

at\t

. .

to e x t e n d , e x t e t l s i o n , e x t d n t , e x t e n s i v e , e x t e n s i v e l y S o c i o l o g i { ; t sa r e m a k i n g ..,,. studies of the prob'lem f o rural areils, They are {;tudying this problem .. The . , , . o f t h e i n d u s t r a l d e v e ' l o p m e ntto i n c l u d e t h e rural areas is stronrlly recommended. Gradual1y, students the.ir abi I i ty to I earn. The reseinrch study by' the ar;haeo1ogisl.s led to an .. of our kncn'ledgeof our own heritage.
,' ,,)i: , . . , . ', , , i " . ' . . , :. . l

h

d

29

to r{ourish, noulishment, nourishing, nourished a. b. c.
r -)

It 'is suggested that r,,ie should eat a v€rriety of foods; in order 1o be hea'lthy. s . . . . b y r n il k d u r i n g t h e e a r ' l yo f i n f a n c y , $ab'ies houldbe . W es h o u l i l e a t a v a r i e t y o f f o o d s i n o r d e r t o h a v e p r o p e r
' ..,i, , '

33.

to perce'ive, percept i on, pt:rcepti ve, perceFrt.l y rrel a. b. c. d.
''' t, '

T o b e g o o da t a n a ' l y s i n g h i n g s , w e s h o u l d h a v e t ... minds. 'look W es h o u l r l at the world W e. . . . . . o u r n e wb o s s a s b e l i n gi n t e r e s t . i n g ; o t h e r s m i g h t : find him [oring. People a lu,ay$have di f f erent
't', "

1A

to purify, pur'ity, purifier, a. b. c. d.
, . . ri r .

purificat'ion, llure, purely, purified

I watch Ohinese moviers f or sel f ish reasons. I enjoy them. W es h o u l d d r i n k . . ., water. I f t h e w a t ( ) ri s n o t c i e a n , w e c a n u s e a w a t e r ,.. to filter the water for . Water methodshave bee,t1 develoned dirtywal:er - .i.i
l" \ ,'r"'

35.

to infect, infection, jnfec,tious, infect'iour;ly a. b, c. d.
., -.r, 1(

The cut on rny hand bec;eime .. I always develop He laughs H i s ' l a u g l ' r t e ri s v e r y . most peoplg around hjm do too,
, .., ... .-. _,

,,.. so i have to see a doctor. 1 ' r o mi n s e c t b ' i t e s . O n c eh e s t a r t s i a u g h i n g ,

36.

t o o r i g i n a t e , o r i g ' i n , o r i g i n a l i t y , o r i g i n a t , : > r ,o r i g i n a i , o r i g i n a l ' l y a. b. c. d. M a n yp e o p ' l r b e l r e v e t h a t a d v a n c e d i v i l l z a t i o n in c Greece; somedi sagree wi th that . P a it o o n , a n e w w r i t e r , w r i t e s w i t h g r e r a t H is n o v e l wonthe first prize this year. The . . . , o f m a n i : s s a i d t o k r et h e a p e he planned to opeir"ate French restaurant. a Later he clranged 'is mind. h

-75 -

i..

37.

controversy, controversia.l, controversial 1y
a, b. c. The construct'ion of the Ekamai-Ram-intra Highway is a subject. Onhigher levels, there js considerab.le ... The.results of the debat" u." ... criticized newspapers.

in al1 major

38.

terminate, term.ination, terminal, terminal(adj . ), terminally

a. b. c. d' e.
39

S h ew i l ' l U : w a i t i n g , f g .h e r d a u g h t e r r a t t h ouu rhe patient realtie:otrat r''e-[ii';-..::-::,* e b u s . . . Hewas because r.,i;';;;;;;;iir".,r".r.o;::ff:;"""_. oi rhe . of rris joo:ur""o him-toi.;; ;;;" and ... _i.t.tpJopr;;;; unabte recover. dignity. to
\v | gwY

to approve, approval, approved, approvingly a.

b.
d. 44.
4..

:

The univers.ity board of w.i11probab.ly . -regents of expand.ingnew graduate p.og.*=.vary, variety, various, variously

l?in'f,i:":,:::ff:t";:

verv no"t'p*opi;';;;; :.:::r:::.:rll.:",:;j J?;:.::"'ation soon.
the project

The

4 1.

- I n T h a i l a n d , t h e t e m p e r a t u r ei n t h e w i n t e r . from place to p1ace. b. There is a wide of fr ui ts i n T h a i l a n d . c. Before he was il;' l;l' t r i e d methods to ";";;;;frt',' operatehis business. ;.-;,. to verify, verifjcation, verifiable a. b. c. . Thjs reseach is intended to the set hypothes.is that inefficient traffic systems cause traffic congestion. The resuit of the st;;J;-ian ne Many researchers have been working on the . .,. of the theory for over five yeais.
.l

42.

t o r e q u ir e , r e q u i r e m e n t , r e q u i . . s i t e - - - i , , ( ( , t -, . - .\ ' , , ' , ' : , i t , , , He cannot graduate at the .amg time as h.is crassmates because he has not fu1f i I I ed the universi ty . . b. ... facitities ror the ru rrospita.l have a.lreadybeen JH";;;;:. c. S u c c e s s. . hard work' v . r : , . . . . , ,r advanta_ge,adrlantagecus, advantageousi y a.
t4

a'

43.

There are some to merging the two compan.ies. M e r g i n g t h e t w o c o m p a n i e si s . .-.' for the workers as well a s f o r t h e r n a n a g e r i a ls t a f f . He was directed towards crosing the contract with the architectural firm.

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-76-

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44.

to negotiate, regotiation, negotiable, nelltotiative a" b. c. T h e P r e r s i d e n to f t h e U , S . A . a n d t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e S o v i e t U n i o r r are inl'olved in peace Theystr'rngly befieve that this issue 'is ... with t T h e P r e s i d e n t olfe ah r >P h i l i p p i n e s i s r r y i n g t o ' der in order to maintain in the country, the comm;nist
-i -, {

45.

. t o i m p 1 y , i m p rilc a t i o n , i m p l ' i c i t , i m p fi c ' i t 1 y
" ',., r 1

a. b. c. d.
'

T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c hs t u d i e s i t a v es e v e r a l f or educat 'ional oract i ce . T h e g o v e r n m e n t. . . t h e b ' i1I ' i s r e j e c t e d . that the e'lectjon can be held after

The teaclter require:; the students to f ind the information in that reading passage. The main idea is .. Cloze Procedure
't'

stated in the last paragraph.

t.)

t rdlt't r , ! c " " r r ' ' ' 1 ' T h e ' a b " i l i ttyo f i l l t h e m i s s i n g w o r t l s d e p e , n do n s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . O n e o f s -,those is of tho knowledgle vocabulary. In order to choose the correct word/words (t. ' " t o f i l l i n t h e b l a r r k s , t h e r e a d e r s h o u l d r e a d t k t e s e n t e n c eo r t h e p a s s a g e is a1..,"'. thorcughly and then ask himself what the passager about. l-hen study each u s i n g c o n t e : r t c l u e s o r t h e l i k e t o d e t e r n t i n et h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r . t,,,,rt r blank;

. . ,' , ' - , . AjIggUgnS: Choose the best answento f it ' Passage 1

in ea,:;hblank.

H'istory tells; us that pecple have used turtnels since 2000 B.C. whenthe a n c i e n t P e r s i a n s d u g t h e m t o m c v ew a t e r f r o m o n e p l a c e t o a n c l t h e r . L a t e r , i n the'ir dead in tunne1s, In the f ifteenth India and Egypt, peolle often Then 2 century, fighting armies learned to dig tunnels under their 3 they cameout of the tunne]s ar,d took the enemysoldiers by (A) (C) (A) G> f ed aided coats es; .t, { enemi rR)' \ a'j (D) (B) (D)
\D/

I

r. buried \{' arrested tabi es bri dges chance petition

2.

(A) accident (C)'r surpri se

(D)

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Bassagel ' T u n n e 'l ca n _ b e u i l t i n har d or soft gr ound. s b 1 tunnels ar e s afer and easier to bui I d. Workers , 2 , - thj rock Awaywi th,.dynami and then te use big 3 to maketh; tundG bigger.--*tt-nound tunnels are more 'in],=ruXr= 4 to build, because the loose can easily s people have died doing this dangerous "ui[t.r work.
1. (A)

(c)
(A) (c) (A) (c) ( A) (c)
\ (A)'

smal I short case b l a st drills ,ii;r'" sh o ve l r.' p re fe ra b l e dangerous
cave.

(B) (D) (B) (D) ( B) (D) (B) (D)
.

hard-ground soft-ground drowse ptus tanker conductor advantageous nutritious
',

2. 3. 4.
5.

(c)
Passage 3

sob ;,

t

(B) (D)

wi thstand maintajn ' i, . ,- . o p i 1 r',

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.t.

r i - , . . . t t . .r

About four hundredyears Islands to Europq. There tfrey 1,^o-yiro can'#v birds were taken from the canary were found them to be 2 " compan'ion;;Altir"ush ff,* wi'ld canaries had aiways 3 ' their songs necame more beautiful uit". the b'irds were trained. o v e r t h e y e a rs, th e g re e n i strco ior of the wilJ canar i"r - l- 4"- ' to a br .i ght ' yellow color that tarnecanari"i h"u* toJ"v."'1. 2. 3. 4. (A) (c) (A) (c) toasted enlarged si lent cheerful
h6{6hsd '";\,'

(B) (Df (B) (D) (B) (D) (B) (D)

j issied tamed grouchy /, noisy sung embraced embarked cu]tivated - : \' ' ' / '1. $ .

'

(c) (Ai (c)

(A)

nursed turned
deported , ,, f{..ih,..."

Passage 4 An ante'loPehas four stomachs, the way a cow does. when an antelope eats, it 1 its food whore and stores the z in one of its stomachs. j Whenevert is , the uni"i"p";l;"A;prrt of the food up to its mouth

iffi.=--e-=..-)t l.,l

it.

so tl.re anterope, iust r.ik;tk
' Ll

"o*,
t',

is a1ways,, 5
,t"''{

its

r,i.1.r

1.

(c)
( A) (c)
/-\ (A) (c)

(A)

eats feeds

t11/

< 1g e s t s i c rabs 1Flxibl e e anxl0u$ conf i rms recommenos ng chewi defendr g n

( D ) r swallows

2.
3.

p r ese rve s hardware
hungry avai lable

(o1r 1'ood
(B) (D) (B) (D) (B) (D)
rl

rPl

A

(c)

(A) (A)

swal lows . chews ,''"1 recal 1i ng carting .
,i.r

1(\'i"

Passage5 In addition tc'rjtamins andminerals, citrus fru'its contain c'itric acid. T h i s a c i d _ 1 - l e n n c n s ,1 i m e s , a n d g r a p e fr u i t t d - ) a s t e s o u r . L i k e v i t a m i n C - i t ./ 3 humans rom diseases. And it erven f citric acid helps to e n e r g y f o r , c u r w o r k a r r dp l a y , C i t r i c a c i d i s a l s o u s e d t o m a k es o f t d r i n k s , 4 medicjnes. candy, and even som€'
f,/t{r:( r""''l'

1. 2.

(R)' (c)
(A) (\.,, (A)

causes spcils ' &buse "i," prevent , def i nes ', di ssolves horri bl e del i c'ious .' . ,1 ,

(B) (D)

cnhances r:'l'iminates ['rotect (:;on$ttute i {lestroys prrovices ,, (n, " ?

@) (D

4.

(A)

{q
Passage 6

(B) { D)

important 1:ratent

safet'/ Packagingtoday is more tha.nsimply wrapping up products. Economy, and handling ease are consjderations of 1 __ importance. It is over a '.2 Polysack decade noursince Bangi<ok the uror]d of modernpackag'ing, a / -consortium of three. c<>mp.4nies plbdg6b to _ 3 ._to expand'ingrequirementq irr ' z the 5 Through e x c h a n g e f c o m m o r J i t i e st.f , u ailt y i s ; o u r g u i d i ' r E o 4. _ - "''\echnology, , u our prodr;c;tswhetherst'atB'f'fbr indus;trial or househ,rlOse, sintpt],l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o r p r o t e c t i v e p u r p o s e s ,f n e e t " a n m a i n t a i n ' i n t e r n a t i o n a ' l s t a n d a r d s d of excel lency. (Bangi<ok Post, December 30). 86)
''t r'( lt

r , " 'v ''t' 1 :

\

i.

LN

(B) (A) (B)

v.ital (^"-, i mpati ent i el 'imnate,l cracked

/'4. \ \vl ,'rt\

\ u./

'inapproprr ate 'imlrl ci t j 'conf i rmed etttered 'r'

L.

(C) PY

-79*

3. 4. 5.

(A) (B) (A) (B) 'W ) (B

resume respond
suggestion restriction innovative destructive ,...,i

(c) ( D) te) (D) (c) (D)
,

prohibit demol:i sh pr incip' le , al'location ' .' ;,

supp'lementary,' temporary

Passage 7

p-qda"r in western Europe. f of changing that status' Thailandhas fqrlhs.naqt-lcu+gad;ll"veila z * with W e s t G e r m a n y . I n 1 9 B 5 , i ! o f a b o u t g , 4 a 7 m i l ] i o n b a h t , traoe accordingto the German-Thai chamber cdffid. of ]ufg:"]^iFq..ing This has been so for severa'l years anC lgg6 showeOno
4 worth 14,25g mi.r.rion baht to west Germanv, and impoiteJ-g*Jr wortfrlo,8s1 million baht -macrrin".y, 'largest in 1985. 5 Bangkok'sthi rd Qryl supplier of eilct;o-tecfrn.ical and chemica)products in 1985, and 1986showeo no changein'tr,ai position) post, December A6) (Bangkok " ovsrrrvsl rovl 80, oQ
) , \_--"'--

''

west Germanv Tha'and'". is

Rccording to the chamber, Thai rand

goods

,\

1.

(e)
(A) |.tJ / (A) (B)

(A)

benef i t si gn
deficit | oan disposed, originated

( c) (D) tef ( D) (c) (D) (C) ( D)
/

evidence requirement surplus negot' iat' ion . d o m i n a t e-d ; r . - ' . . regi stered , . ,-,-{rr( distributed im por ted rema'ined col lapsed
){'rl, , + s.'.'' i '\'

2.
,J.

,

4. 5.

(rE) (B) (A) (B)

exported produced . a c c u m u t a t e d, , a]located

Jgf (D)

Pagsage 8
t

courci mi 'ti on fi:?ol?' ;YT?::":' arr ^-** ,,ii,:^:i1?a ;i j;: 'ilI."?il"i*mt6 t;a"i-.i:dwi,je I . Not ot-trrem j n""oil. worr i"i"ir .1 be carriers. (Time, December 86) |
, 1. (A) / (n \1 , r catastrophe .elrvPrre controversy "
lvt

r - -- tTaTalmost everyone :Y:ifi:T,ins mvsteiiou.;;:*n:fl:"ilS.-.__"f,!g$":' is z z.th *,e ff-TlHn fl. hl?. prediction yet. ev 1esg,-waFned t," woril=;":ffil 8[:li::rilX-,H:

After'.lhe first casesappeSr:_d__in U.s.;heariy th_e a decade ago, the public general assumel,t\et vict jms'of ly AIDSwourdbJ q/."tineo to ceiiarn f,{Qlhdefjne,d "risk sroups,'r na,1afl1h"r"";;;rs -- ino j;f.;;;Jus_drug-u-sers. But there is an W:f"!l"li-

,',

ioo

"_r"lXl,..*

rAt (D)

evidence

prescription", ,,' . t ,

1'^" "'

-BO-

1 u h t . < ' , - ' ' '' i{r ..
(A) skept'ical v u l n e r a b i Br r ' . . r .
e,u:k , (,iJ,r. i,r ,t^.,it.'",.1

2.,

,W
o

(C) (o t (c) (D) (C) @f ' J-qY (D) (C) (D)

s ; u b s t a n ta l i nrutua] f ' r u g a l t' ' i llegible ' .;

J"4f
(B) (A) (B) (A) (B) /' (K) (B)

i n c u r a b l @: n : ' ' ' ignorant ; ,,

'ro'rd'er{

4. 5. 6.

fantast'ic^ contemporary cortsoli dated c o n t a m i n a t e dr r " r " 6 reach imProvise 1)' '

' ( : ; o n v e n t ' i o n a' 'ilA ' 1'rightening * i nf ected , : i i s c l i m ' i n a t e r i .;,' " d pul nrani ate ;,;1, '' r [)enalize ..,,; '/

Passaqe9 , ,,,,..,n! "- ... mystraryabout how the iVory goes from Africa to the There is considri11tble 'Far E a s t . O v e r t h e p a 3 1 - * , - t _ . , a s m u c ha s f o u r - f i 1 ' t h s o f t h a t i v o r y h a s b e e n cross 3 -t of 2 . o r i g i n - S a C h e d , t h e n s m u g g l e d . S o m g t i m e sh e , i t o h u n t , a s f t ' o m S o m a l i a i n t o K e n y ao r Z a r n b ' i an t o Z i m b a b w e t h e n c a r r y borders and 5 p the 4 - b a q k b y n i g h t . S o m e o a c h e r sa r e ! 1 . p ! f v i l l a g e r s , poor, who stalk th'eir 6 _ _ o n f o o t , v { a l k i i n gf o r w e e k s , 1 i ' r i n g o f f g a m e . A 7 _ _ - - a k eh i m i n v i s i b l e t o m poachelin-fenya says ne nei ieves tlibal B tusk$ in the village latrine or , 4 a n t i p o a c h i n gu n i t s . H e b u r i e s h i s tffiave'Heseljsthemforap1llenEc(aslittleas$40foratusk i b t h a t m a ye v e i n t u a l l y t i r i n g $ 1, 0 0 0 i n J a p a n ) t o a r e l : ; p e c t e d u s i n e s s m a nn a n e a r b y what he paid. (Time, e town, who sel'ls them to someone lse for three t'mes October16, Bg)
:
I

tkf (B)
(A) (B)

decade a d vo ca l e ,
el i g'ib'le '' exot i c i n v e s ti g a t o r s poacher"$t; :'
., .'.'1,' ri,..'s.1

(c)
(D)

s;tarvation :;l aughter ./ l)rogressive "i legal ilerobati cs - i r r cd e n t s i ":usks i (:arsoes rrcurishi ng <lver-fed tiisaster',
l)feY * q)(r

.',:1,41,

rt

(c)
! r\X
)/e )

a

(A)
'

(c)
[D) '(D)

- 1 1 '. , ' v , . 1 :

WT
(A) (B)

.A+ .

componentg d e h r is i1literate " n u d ih ' 1 e
combat i<'c,
__

, (c) (c)
(D)
1n\
\v,/

:' "

:,\r,\k 5.

w) (B
(B)

V.

l-KT' excursion
(A) w (A) (B) r e ' li g i o n . . / r charms 1..,:. .. .1 . , t consumes "l comprom'i$es ''

p rii.c,^rtt,

(D)
/ n, /1 \ v

\./
, !. I

.

(D) rl (D)
t rX\

'thsuF$€r'lc! r;ett I ement ' I r i c i e s" , 'il'i des r"esi
r tr ,.(t'1f-f'r'r '

a

!rj'

"

l'

ni

il"{i" ii ,

!..'r\"
d ^J ttl 4

Passage 10 F o r a 'l j th e i r sp a rkle, the most useful thing about djamonds is thei r 't hardndsE. Their slpngth makes themgooci at holes and cutting glass. For the samereason-that they are rraio-trrey are e under conditions of pressure and high immense 3 , deep ins.ideihe earth-they are arso 4 and expensive, because they do nofoften makeit to the surface. s industrial diamonds-as good as the real thing but cheapeF-are a'popuGifor research.',f'low somescientists are makingdiamonds that may even be better than those wreiifao from the bowe'ts the eaitn., J"*i of '.... ., --r;--,:?t ;'.;' t _).9ur1. ,-'7- ?, -.'trrrli, A diamond'sstrength comes from the way that its atoms 7' . Each carbonatom in a diamond'is 8by chemjcalbondsto four"."'1" others; each atom i s a t th e ce n tr" :l wittr four m or e- atoms its cor ner s. ( T he at E c o n o m i s t , A p r i l2 3 ," .]:tf"B ) \n , ^ : 1 9 g ruq- 2 :r:):;_
\ )r<.

1. 2. 3.
4.

(A) (ts) (A) -IB) (A) (B)

integrat'ing . expancii ng po]i shed formed e x p ' l o so n i accommodation rare amb'iguous B e n e f ic i a l Productive i :. '',,,, 1'7 target qual.ification detected arranged -.' ', addicted

Lq (D) (c) ( D) (c) P) (C) ( D)
ID) ' (9Y) D (C) (D) (C) (D)

) dr il I ing *i' ' ' ' ( iatr , c a t e g o r i z i n ga . i - .\ , , 1 . " . refined engr aved atmosphere temperature sanitaryrrrr,' r elevant Artificial'^''-'
Visible (, subj ect '- 1, i, dt .e;n ti . t,y. _ ' ^ t 1 . ,
:..,

w) (B
(A) (B) (A) (B) (A)

5.
A

tel

' r '-r, ' ,..,,

.

7. 8.

9{
(A)

converted compi'led . c'lashed reformed

';!

tPY
Passage1'l

I inked

1'

Brain transp'lantsfor alcoholics sJjno t'ike a sick ior,u'ou".l.reard u oro. 7l But work at London Un'iversity's Institute it fo_r 12V"n;atry.is pqu'ng-!!g_H€D/ o f b ra i n ti ssu e , taken fr om abor ted toetuses, to tFat the 2brain damage causedby chronic alcoholism. Foetal brain tissue Lu"'rir*uot'o"* used 3 to tre a t P a rkinson' sdisease in Br itain, tq]lo- uinga lea d"fr om ., sweden and Mexico. If p_rgeti!4i'pr:oblerns and mora'lob'jections s i m i l a i ^ 4 f o i ^ a j c b- ' o i i i , " b i . a i n , J " i n " g e u i " y ' , u'1 b e1 .a r a w a y . can be ovb-iome, r f - "
irir.i-. 1,^,,T,-::

Thevbabbteand halrucinite. After a .wh.i1e, - . t o = " r" ir,5-*Jn"ry;ii;''.,"tj"rp: Thev bahh'lp anr{ hn'llrrnino+^ A i + ^ ^ ^ . . , ^ i r ^ ggriisL -ar thedamagebecomesirrevers.ible.(TheEconomiffiir,r.ri...1.ll...'..'"o,

Heavydrinking over long periods oftJn leads to Korsako$r,s b , named after the Russian neurotogist-who f irst _ 6 -- lr-. p"t*;;;;*.#, f.;g;#;i and cannot 7 They may have disturbed ser and poor muscu'l ' -.+

l'. 1''

,;

-o(-

fi ,l&l!( \;

(A)

/ . i , -, . ' . ' '

.'.!B)
2.

I egacies 'laci ' ' es f a'l '',/ '' ' sevgre " \ t remendous n'i' ' '" attentiv€ly '" experimen,tal'ly'",' ',p e r c e p ti c n r ' ' termination\r ,, ' Precaut'icl'l ' "' i nfect i on defined ( J"" - 'i, : { concealeci maintai tl concentrate !.c'i
S U S P e n S I C ni ; '

( C )- - - , l s s e m b ' l i e s jtrf implants'

w) (B)
(A) (B)

(p) (c) rn)
,ldf (D) (D)

lhri11ing ,. r;ubtI e ,lompetitively i t^espect vel y treatment ngirr.t ^efiner^y , r :;yndrome r>perat ion rJonated1'" occupied ^ e t a in \/ani sh il'lustration r;o-ord'inat i on

4.

(A) (B) (A) (B)

'

w
(c)
(D)

6.

(A) (B)

7.
a

w
(A) (B)

(A)

rn\

(c)
iPr{

therapy -,''-r

'".''-tl\'') A n i m a l d i s e a s e s a r e s t i l l a b ' i g p r o b l e m i n T h a i l a n d . H c l o fa n d m o u t h d . i s e a s eh a s b e e n f o u n d " j p . s e v e r c r lm a j o r -_ regions of the country and .1 curfHi"lbd tlre potential for be:f and pork e:xports to nations 2 this has 4 3 the 'importat'ion of meat f rom . areas. In l i k e J a p a nw h i c h 5 October, the first step to set utp disease-free livgSlOek-J.e9ions was fac'i'lity to when a Frerrch firm, Fhone MerrieruxCo, won tfre Cidding to E-uf'lcl-a produce -_ 6 aga'inst hoof.end mouth d'isease. The plant was to cost 441 R a i n f ' l a k h o n a t c h a : ; ' i mP r o v i n c e . T h e p l a n t w o u l d m i ' l l i o n b a h t a n d t o b r r_ 7 2 m c B _:]0 million rJoses ,f va':c'ine',vorthOO illion baht a year'. eventually f T h a i ' l a n dt c i e x p o r t v a c c i n e < > n b e ' t h ea c t o r y w a s f u l ] y I Th'is would _ '10 Vaccine would be produceclsoon. Bu'l after only two weel'isof upward revaluation Of developmentsarising f rom tl"re French c()mpany's suUsequent problems tha'i had been unforeseen at the foreign excherngel of its b'icj bec;ause , time the bid wasmaciethe projeictwas still not officially going ahead. (BangkokPost, December 30, Bo) , r '' x'r-r ird.'{"Ct:r{r''(

1 Passage 2

1.
2. 3.
4.

(AL tW
(A) (B) 'W ) (B
(A) (B)

plantation ;l.ivestock
s.impty moderately

'

(C) (o)
J6 (D)

t l e fe c t i v e resident'ial
:;everejY '{ritc":\'' t:onclusjvely ri'r,r,'i
'i rri tates !'\'i.'| r ' $ .' (
lrl

\"t"t r}rrr' 'i lrars P{r'r''('"t r stimulat€-qr',r''' e x p tr e o
fac'i Iitated f'"'i t"""r'tr1 I

(c)
(D)

uxpands

:' '{
,-l ,trI '' l't

t

(c)
/"D)

penali zed infected i'1.

-R?-

5.
6.

W) (B
(A)
(B)

initiated.;)'\...t su sta i n e d
d'ignity . ' . l , i" '
irr rr deficiency.

(c)
(C)

s u b s i d i z e d.
ePidemic qro

\

!D)

vaccine- "

7. 8. e. 10.

(A) 9*" (Aj (B) (Al (B) lA) 1el

p o i n te d o u t ( C) s e t u p . : \ , . \ . r i1 r , . ' \r\i - ' , v b ' < 'i O i produce re ca l1 disptay ci rculate operational re q u isi te n .:, 'I
(C) (D)

car r jed out b r o u g h tu p
modfy i duplicate enable restri ct p r e d ' i c t i v e - " . .. ' -' r 1 informative ,''.

gt

(D)

(c) (D)

* * * : t * * * * * i ( : ** * , t * * : t *

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