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''
""? f
THE ~T ABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
c,
by
P. S. BULSON
Military Engineering Experimental Establishment, Christchurch, Hants and Civil Engineering Department
Southampton University
.
1970 CHATTO &WINDUS LONDON
Chatto & Windus Ltd 42 William IV Street London W.C.2
•
Clarke, Irwin & Co Ltd Toronto
0; . \SBN 7011 1478 9 \
© P.S. Bulson 1970
AU rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherWIse, without the prior permission of Chat to
& Windus Ltd.
Printed in Great Britain by Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press) Ltd Bungay, Suffolk
CONTENTS
.. _ Preface
. Notation CHAPTER
1 Calculation of Initial Buckling Stress 1.1 Thin plates in bending
1.2 Elastic plate stability
page viii ix
1 5
2 Unstifl'ened Rectangular Plates in Compression and Shear . 27
2.1 Rectangular plates in compression in one direction with
loaded edges simply supported . 27
2.2 Rectangular plates in compression in one direction with
loaded edges restrained 53
2.3 Rectangular plates uniformly compressed in two directions: 57 2.4 Rectangularplates compressed in one direction by linearly
varying edge forces . 63
2.S Rectangular plates in shear 77
2.6 Rectangular plates under combined loading 85
2.7 Rectangular plates compressed by a stress varying linearly
in the direction ofloading 10 1
3 Unstiffened Rectangular Plates  Miscellaneous Problems 109
3.1 Rectangular orthotropic plates 109
3.2 Rectangular plates with small initial curvature 113
3.3 Rectangular plates with intermittent support 116
3.4 Rectangular plates on an elastic foundation 120
3.5 Rectangular plates tapering in thickness .] 24
3.6 Rectangular plates under locally distributed edge forces 131
3.7 Plates with holes 136
3.8 Dynamic buckling of rectangular plates ] 46
3.9 Thermal buckling of rectangular plates 150
4 Stiffened Rectangular Plates 155
4.1 Edge reinforcements on uniformly compressed plates 155
4.2 Intermediate reinforcements on uniformly compressed
plates 175
4.3 Transverse reinforcements on uniformly compressed plates 189 4.4 Longitudinal and transverse reinforcements on uniformly
compressed plates 192
4.5 Oblique reinforcements on uniformly compressed plates 194
v
vi
';_('
~fI:
.{ .
. 
198
200
208
220
224
224
234
241
243
253
264
271
271
272
274
280
287
288 CONTENTS 4.6 Intermittently connected longitudinal stiffeners 4.7 Stiffened plates with linearly varying end compression 4.8 Stiffened plates in shear 4.9 Stiffened plate in compression reacted by shear
5 NonRectangular Plates 5.1 Circular plates 5.2 Annular plates 5.3 Elliptic plates 5.4 Triangular plates 5.5 Oblique and rhombic plates 5.6 Trapezoidal plates
6 Sandwich Plates 6.1 Introduction 6.2 General platebuckling theory 6.3 Simply supported plates under uniform end compression
(general buckling) 6.4 Simply supported plates under combined . loading (general buckling) 6.5 Simply supported plates under linearly varying end compression (general buckling) 6.6 Builtin plates under uniform end compression (general buckling)
6.7 Face wrinkling 289
7 Structural Sections with :mat Plate Elements 295
7.1 General stability equations for uniform compression 295
7.2 Structural sections in uniform compression (exact analysis) 299 7.3 Structural sections in uniform compression (approximate
analysis) 361
7.4 Panels and multiwebbed box columns in uniform com
pression (exact analysis)  369
8 Large Elastic Deflections 376
I
8.1 Introduction 376
8.2 Large deflections of rectangular plates 376
8.3 Postbuckling stiffness of long rectangular flat plates 380
8.4 Postbuckling deflections of rectangular plates 384
8.5 Initial deviations from flatness (rectangular plates) 388
8.6 Stress distribution in buckled rectangular plates 392
8.7 Measurement of critical stress 397
8.8 Rectangular plates under combined axial load and normal
pressure 398
8.9 Postbuckled stiffness of structural sections 400
8.10 Large deflections of circular plates
.dOl
CONTENTS
9 Maximum Plate Strength 9.1 Introduction
9.2 Inelastic buckling theory
9.3 Inelastic buckling of plates and sections
9.4 The ultimate strength of a postbuckled plate or section 9.5 The effective width of plates
9.6 Circular plates
10 PlateBUCkling in Structural Design 10.1 Introduction
10.2 Local buckling of compression members 10.3 Buckling of beam flanges and box structures 10.4 Buckling of beam and girder webs
10.5 Buckling of structural plating
Author Index Subject Index
406 406 406 409 410 418 420 424 424 424 447 449 459 465 469
vii
,~
.t'KbtACE
in many technical libraries the supports of bookshe1ves containing works on the stability of structures are in danger of buckling under the weight of literature. Can another work on this subject be justified? As an engineer who has taken a middle course between design and research I have been conscious of the need for books that strike a balance between the requirements of the progressive designer and the research engineer. The former, faced with problems beyond the scope of codes of practice, needs a concise handbook of existing knowledge, and I hope he is happier if he knows something of the analytical background. The postgraduate about to embark on a research project wants a readable summary of his subject, with special reference to recent work. The object of this book is to provide this midfield support for those whose prob
lems involve the stability of flat plates. . ...
In summarising the available work onthe subject a wide range Of literature was examined, and because of the extent of the task there are. a number of shortcomings in the presentation. May I apologise to those authors who feel that their contributions have not been properly acknowledged, or unjustifiably omitted, and to readers who feel that certain areas of the subject have received only superficial treatment.
During the preparation I consulted and obtained guidance from a large number of friends and colleagues, and I acknowledge their help with thanks. It is inappropriate to name them individually, but I particularly wish to thank Professor A. H. Chilver, of University College, London, who firstsuggested that this book be written. I must also express my gratitude to Mr. R. A. Foulkes, Director of the Military Engineering Experimental Establishment, and Professor P. B. Morice of Southampton University, for allowing me the facilities necessary to complete the work.: Finally, I am indebted to Miss V. Gull and her associates for preparation of the typescript.
P. S. BULSO N
viii
/ "'; "
NOTATION
Only the basic notation, common to most chapters, is given here: A number of coefficients, dimensions and subscripts occur intermittently, and are defined where they appear.
a plate length. plate radius (external)
b plate width, width between plate girder transverse stiffeners,
plate radius (internal)
d girder depth
I strut length
m number ()f halfwaves in xdirection
n number of halfwaves in ydirection
r radius of gyration
thickness
w normal plate deflection
X crosssectional area of stiffener
A. B amplitudes of displacement
CL torsional stiffness of edge reinforcement
D flexuralrigidity t.E'. r . r po. ,~ c. "
E modulus of elasticity
G modulus of rigidity
K platebuckling coefficient
K elastic foundation modulus
L plate girder web length
M:r. v bending moment per unit distance M:r~ twisting moment per unit distance N:r. v edge forces per unit distance N:rv edge shear forces per unit distance
P concentrated end load
Q concentrated lateral load
Q:r. ~ shear forces per unit distance (internal) .: ..
S moment·petunit length per unit rotation of plate edgetestraint
T work doneby edgeforces ~.,::'
U strain energy in bending . ...•. .:
V total potential energy, also energy in elastic restraining medium
i'",~ shear strain ..
8 deflection .
€:r. ~ direct strain
T) reduction factor
II<
ix
1 •.. ~ . '. ~ .•.. 
v Poisson's ratio
p radius of gyration
a x,), edge stress
r., shear stress
rf:, length/width ratio (aspect ratio)
~ALCULATION OF
INITIAL BUCKLING STRESS
1.1 Thin Plates in Bending
Before any discussion of the stability of plates can take place, it is necessary to establish the theory of bending of plates, leading to a differential equation connecting applied loads, flexural rigidity and curvature. This is analogous' to the equation defining bending of an elastic beam. The platebending theory has been discussed in detail by a number of authors, and as an introduction, only the major elements of this theory will be repeated here. The basic
assumptions are: .
(a) deflections are small (i.e. less than the thickness of the plate),
(b) the middle plane of the plate does not stretch during bending, and remains a neutral surface, analogous to the neutral axis of abeam,
(c) plane sections rotate during bending to remain normal to theneutral surface, and do not distort, so that stresses and strains are proportional to their distance from the neutral surface,
(4) the loads are entirely resisted by bending moments induced in the~ elements of the plate and the effect of shearing forces is neglected,
(e) the thickness of the plate is small compared with other dimensions.
The first step in the analysis is to consider the action ofruriiform moments along the edges of an element of plate, formed by two pairs of intersecting , planes parallel to the xz and yz planes (see Fig, 1.1), The zaxis is positive downwards, and positive curvature is produced by downwards bending.
The strains C'x, .. J in a plane element, distant z from the neutralsurfaee,
are given by .. .
"x = ~,}
x
Z " =
Y r/
(l.1)
where r" and ry are the radii of curvature of the neutral sUf'face pataUeJ'tO''the.
xz and yz planes. .
Further, by elastic theory,
(1.2)
2
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
where a x and d"y arc the stresses in the x and ydirections at the plane element, and y = Poisson's ratio.
Ny" Oy.~ 1IIIIIIIIIIIIIIImlllllllllllllllliliITI
< L L
0: 11 Nyx, ... (!'1J:t.t/ II
Nx = X: ;' I ~ Nx ~ O"xt
) !~
N rO: .t. ~ ~ r ~ N =0: t
X~i xy 1IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIqlllllllllllili xy xy'
!:J N!f :: O"y.t
o
1"''''' ....
l~.r! I
II! I
I~ I
I I
...... __ .J ... ..::j ..
"
Fig. 1.1 Thin plates in bending
from Eq. (1.1) and (1.2),
Ez (1 Y) f
ax"" 2  + ,
I ~ y rx ry
a}. = ..!:!_ (.!.. + ~ \ .
I ~ L·2 r . r. J .
(1.3)
l
INITIAL BUCKLING STRESS
3
By integrating the couples formed by the distribution of these stresses, and equating their sum to the external moments Mxdy and M;dx, where M" and My are the edge moments per unit length, it can be shown that
(1.4)
where D = EtJ . 2 • This is an important quantity known as the Flexural
12(1  y ) .
·.:Rigidity of the plate, corresponding to the EI of a beam, but per unit width . . The effect of the (1  1'2) term is to increase the rigidity compared with that ofa beam, and it occurs because moments in one direction produce a curva.ture in a perpendicular direction of opposite sign (to form an anticlastic
. . ; the resistance of the plate to this second curvature has the effect of
;;c:1:ncreasmg flexural rigidity in the original direction.
If the deflection of the plate is w, then, as for beam theory,
I 02W
r: =  or' ry
(1.5)
u, = D.(~; r v ~~),} M; =  D (~:~ + y ~~;) •
effect of a twisting moment on a plate element can also be examined.and it can be shown that
0.6)
()2W Mxv = D(l  l')~. uX Y
(I. 7)
±he analysis here involves an examination of the distortion of an element due shear, and is clearly set down in reference 1 .
. If the bending of the plate is caused by a uniformly distributed lateral of intensity q, it can be shown by examining the equilibrium of a small .. lp'MP,,,t that
(1.8)
(1.9)
. ·u.+,;('n i~ analozous to the riasic eouation for the bendinc of abeam under
4
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA,,:cS
lateral load (~~ = if)' Note that the first and third terms represent bending of longitudinal and transverse 'strips', and the second tenntakes account of the twisting action required for continuity between adjacent 'strips' .
Eq. (1.9) was first discovered by LAGRANGE in 1811 and NAVIER (2) in 1820. Previous to this the twisting action had been neglected, and the second term was missing from theanalysis (BERNOULLI (3) in 1789). The inclusion of the 'twisting' terril is important because the resistance of the plate to twisting can considerably reduce deflections under lateral load.
If, in addition to the lateral load, there are forces applied at the edges of the plate, acting in the middle plane, the effect on plate bending (and plate stability) can be considerable. Ifthe edge forces are tensile in two directions (Nx and N, per unit length) and include shearing forces (N;.p and Ny", per unit length), Eq. (1.9) is modified to the form
J4W 2J4w a4w 1 r iPw E2w..: a2w J a? + ox2oyZ + oy4 = 15Lq + Nx or + Ny oyl + 2N",y axEy ,
(1.10)
an equation originally derived bySAINT VENANT (4) in 1883.
Eq. (1.10), or modifications of it, forms the basis for much of the work on plate stability discussed in this book. It does not, however, cover the problems of large deflections (involving membrane action) orjnelastic buckling, which are discussed separately later. Further, many problems of plate stability can only be solved by using an energy method; this involves expressions for the strain energy of a plate in bending, which are. derived as follows:
The strain energy stored in a plate element (Fig. 1.1) is the sum of the work done by the bending moments, M",dy and Mpdx and by the twisting moments M"ydy and Myxdx. This neglects, as before, work done by shearing forces and by any stretching of the middle plane of the plate. This is in alignment with beam theory, where strain energy due to compression or tension along the axis, or due to shear distortion, is normally ignored/The work done by the bending moments is tx moment x angle between the sides of the
element after bending. In the xzplane the angle i~  (~)dx, and i~ th7 yz
plane  (~:~) dy. The negative sign occurs becauseasagging downwaids curvature (positive) has a decreasing slope as x increa.~es.
The energy stored due to bending (dUb) is therefore given by
(. 8zw E1W) :.' .
dll; = tMx Er + My ay2 dx4y·
(1.11)
;>,:... t32w
The relative rotations of the element faces due to twist are axel' dx and
o~w_ ,{,. Since Mclv and M"Tdx are the twistingm oments, and M =
. "y
iNITIAL BUCKLING STRESS
5
MyJ", the same amount of energy is stored by both couples. Then, total energy due to twisting (dU,) is given by
azw
dll, = M"y ax8y' dx dy.
Substituting the expressions for the moments from Eq. (1.6) and (1.7)and adding dUb and dUt to produce the total energy stored in an element (dU), we get
dU = iD[ (~:~ + ~~) 2  2(1  l')[~:~ ~~  (o~;y) 2]Jdx dy. (1.13)
(1.12)
The function is composed of the following elements: .,
'.... . D[(a~W) Z .(. azw 8Zw)]
1 X xdirection bending moments x rotation: 2' o~. + v ax! ayZ .,
, . .
D[(02w):I .... (OZW OZW)]
1 x ydirection bending moments x rotation: '2 oyZ' + v ax" oy~ •
t x twisting moments X rotation:
D[ i .( oZw) iJ
 2(1v) _ .. _' .
2 ... ox8y ,
The strain energy stored in a complete plate is obtainedby.integration of Eq. (1.l3)over the surface. This leads to the expression forst~inenergy
derived by a R Y A N (5) in 1891, ., ·l":~'
:"' .. ,.,;..:':
'_'.: ..
. :'
.. 1.1 ElI~tic Plate Stability
, ,':, '" When a . combination of lateral and edge loads acts_.ona~lat~,'as in Eq. ..  rr. 10), itcan be shown that the effect of compressive end loads is to increase t)le deflecmons that would normally occur under lateral Ioadit'tg .only: By : :;'iiicreasing· the edge loading a stage is reached when. deflectiQn.becomes '.:  ~ large and eventually infinite (i.e. instability occursj.The iq\Vest value of :  .. ;~ge force to accomplish this is. the elastic critical lead •. ',  ._ 
_ If a plate has no lateral loading, but is under theaction of edge forces only , ,.>instability occurs when the energy of the plate in aslightly,berit condition
.<:is equalto the energy of the plate if it remained cpmpl¢telX ft~~'under the '. ,' .. ·influence of the same compressive edge forces. This is the posifi6!"iofneutral .. equilibrium, and the edge forces to produce it arelhe critiCal edge forces the plate. The assumptions here are that the plate.is perfe~tlyflat Defore
"&V,AUlul!..and remains elastic. If the energy is greater when the plate is bent 8.~:tban it is if it remains flat, the system is stable. Thecritical fOTGes, are thus the forces which are just sufficient to keep the platein a. bentf9rn1. This is
6
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
the basic concept used by EULER (6) in establishing his famous 'Euler' formula for struts in 1744, The position of neutral equilibrium is often referred to as the point of bifurcation.
The many methods of evaluating the critical load for a plate can best be illustrated by means of an example. The simplest to take is a flat elastic rectangular thin plate simply supported on all four edges, and loaded by a uniform compressive stress a along one pair of opposite edges; we will apply each method in turn to the solution of this problem.
1.2:1 Integration of differential eqaation
.. /~
From Eq. (1,10), N; = ct, N, = 0, Ncv = 0, q = 0, so the fundamental
equation of equilibrium is
04W 204W 04W at a2w 8x4 + ox2oy2 + 8y4 =  D ox2"
(1.15)
Let us assume for the moment that the plate buckles into m sinusoidal halfwaves in the direction of compression. The solution can then be in the form
fir ) . m7TX W= \y sm. a
Substituting Eq, (1.16) in (1.15) gives the differential equation
._·c. ....
d4j _ 2m27T2 dll (m41T4 _ at m2~) = 0 dy' a2 dyl + a4 D' a2 f ,
the solution of which is
fey) = Ai cosh ay + Az sinh ay + A3 cos f3y + A4 sin f3y, where
{a = [m21T2 .(. ~ ml7T2) T
(3 = ± a2 + D' a2 •
(1.16)
0,17)
(1.18)
(1.19)
,~r
The constants of integration, Ai ... A4, are determined by Writing down four equations, using the solution for ICy), which represept two conditions along each of the boundaries y = 0, y==]». In the particular example chosen here this is straightforward, since we know that along a simply supported edge w = 0, and bending moments are zero. The latter condition means that M; = 0 along the edges, and referring to Eq. (1.6), this gives the equation
i)2w 3zw
oy2 + v ax2 = 0,
The four boundary conditions are often written as:
f02W. 32w l
[II' = O], ~ 0, band ;:>,,2 + v ;:h.2 = 0 I
(1.20)
(
INITIAL BUCKLING STRESS
Applying these to a combination of Eq, (1.18) and (1.16) gives
(Ai + A3) sin mrrX = 0,
a
(Al cosh «b + A2 sinh I'J.b + AJ cos ~b + A4 sin ~b)sin !!!::!=o
a '
(Al'?  A382)sinm1tx = 0, a
and
(Aly cosh I'J.b + Azy2 sinh I'J.b  A3~F cosf3b  A4~)2 sin f3b) sin m;x = 0,
where {')II {1'J.2  m1T2 .
82 = ~2 + V (i2 . (1,21)
The four simultaneous equations in Al ... A4 are satisfied if the constants . of integration equal zero. This would mean, from Eq. (1.18), that w = 0, •. and represents the unbuckled form of the plate. The equations, however, . will have a nontrivial solution if their determinant is zero, so we may write
1 0 1 0 [.AA.·.zi] =0,
cosh ab sinh I'J.b cos flb sin ~b
Y 0 _82 0 . A3
Y cosh «b y2 sinh".b _82 cos f3b 82 sin f3b A4
.. _(y2 + 82)2sinh ob . sin ~b = 0.(1.22) .This is known as the 'characteristic equation' defining the stability of arecrangular plate hinged along four edges. If the following important parameters
. are now introduced: .
atbZ K= 2' 1TD
(L23)
a
q,7j'
. substitutedinEq. (1.19), it can be shown that
(1.24)
(1.:25)
. imd .~b are nondimensional, and from here on are designated p and q. ijrnilB.rly 'fb2 and 82b2 are nondimensional, and will be caned ,2 and sZ.
.{r2 = {p2  vmZ1TZ (~) 2
$2 q2+ a'
2m1Tz
(r2 + $2) = (Pl + q2) = q,VK,
(1.26)
. ,,22) can be expressed in the formofa relationship
This is found bv taking m = 1. and fixing d> at a specific
7
<,
8
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PL./ .. " . .2S
value, then calculating the value of K which makes the function zero. However, for the particular case we are discussing here, it is possible to write this direct relationship:
(1.27)
The form of this function is shown in Fig. 2.2.lt takes the shape ofa 'garland' curve, reaching a minimum value of K ( = Kmin) when cP = 1. This can be seen by minimising the K function in Eq. (1.27), which gives +4 = I at Killin'
Then,
(1.28)
From Eq. (1.23),
The values of (J derived from the values of K found by solving Eq. (1.22) are the critical values, known as (Jcr' K is known as the platebuckling coefficient. Problems of this nature, the solutions of which are unique or 'critical' values, are 'eigenvalue' problems.
Further discussion of the significance of m or Killin will not be embarked on at this stage, but saved for the next chapter. The important points to remember here are that an 'exact' solution to the buckling of a simply supported plate, by integration of the differential equation, involves the following steps:
(a) Take w = f(y)sinm'1rX and susbstitute in equilibrium equation.
a .
(b) Solve the differential equation so formed in general terms.
(c) Use four boundary conditions to form four simultaneous linear
equations.
(d) Solve by a determinantal form.
(e) Expand the determinant to give a basic stability function.
(f) Find by computation values of K and cP which make this function zero, i.e, find the roots.
(g) Find the critical stress for a given cP from the equation
K7T2E (/)2
(fer = 12(1  l'~) b .
1.2:2 Energy solution: conservation of energy ~g Fourier series
The principle of the conservation of energy states that the strain energy stored in a system is equal to the work done by the applied loads during the loading process. This enables the stability of a rectangular plate to be
examined in a very direct and simple way. .
The plate we are considering has simply supported edges, so that the deflection can be represented by the double Fourier series
. ~ ~ A . m7TX . n'1ry
IV = £., " mn' sm _ sm ,;;.
" (L '9
(I.29)
 (
.,_"NITIAL BUCKLING STRESS
9
This is more general than the form used in Eq. (1.16). It obeys the boundary conditions of Eq. (1.20) since each term of the series vanishes when x = 0,
02W 02W
X = a, y = 0, y = b, and so do the second derivatives ox2 and oy2'
The strain energy stored in a plate deflected in this form is found by substituting the expression for w in the expression for U given in Eq. (1.14), and integrating between the limits 0 and a, 0 and b respectively. Thus
u = tDfJ:[(~; + ~~r  2(1  l')[~:~ ~~  (o:~rJJdx dy,
becomes
u = tDralb{ I I Amn(m2; + nb~:~)sin m7TX sin n7Tby}2dXdy,
'lo 0 m=l n=l a a
since it can be shown that the term
(1..30)
[~; ~;  (:;;y)] vanishes.
This simplifies on integration to u= Dab i
8 m"",l
(1.31)
As the neutral plane of the plate is being considered inextendable (see the opening statements of §1.1), the displacement of the end load over an element is equal to the difference in length of the deflection curve and the length of
. the chord connecting the loaded edges of the element. The length of the curve
. . ( a 2)i
.. ' is equal to dx I + ( a:) ,and the chord length equals dx, so that the
'displacement, neglecting powers of ~:greater than 2, is
dX( 1 + !(~:r)  dx = t(~:rdx.
, .: .. The load on an element is atdy, and the total work done by the compressive ~ forces during buckling (T) is given by
T= t(ftff(~:r dxdy.
Substituting for w gives
(1.32)
(1.33)
10
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
It can be shown that the lowest value of O'er occurs if all the coefficients Amn except one are taken as zero. For an explanation of this, see reference 1, which also gives details of an approach proposed by TIMOSHENKO when only the first few terms of the trigonometric series are used.
_ 1T2a2 D_ ( m2 n2) 2 O'er  mrt 1 a2 + fii .
?
Then,
(1.34)
As in our analysis for integration assume m = I; also, O'er is clearly a minimum when n = 1, so that
or
(1.36)
(1.35)
. which is the same expression as Eq. (1.28), with the value of K substituted from Eq, (1.27). As before, Km1n = 4.
1.2:3 Energy selutioa: the Rayleigh method
In § 1.2:2 above, the deflection surface of the plate was represented by a double Fourier series. This is a more elegant extension of the original strain energy approach devised by LORD RAYLEIGH (7) in connection with the calculation of the frequencies of vibrating plates, without solving differential equations, in 1877. Rayleigh's method consists of choosing arbitrarily a deflected shape, involving an undetermined coefficient, and using this expression for w in the same way asEq.(1.29) was used above. This is a very powerful method because it allows approximate solutions to be obtained for cases involving awkward boundary conditions which make th¢.differential equation method difficult or impossible to use. The equilibrium conditions of a small element are not necessarily satisfied by this procedure, but the boundary conditions can often be satisfied by choosing the right deflection functions.
SUl1pose we had assumed that our simply supported plate WaS of reasonable proportions, and buckled so that its deflection curve would be represented by the function
_ A . rrX . 1Ty
IV  sm 7i sin 7i' (1.37)
It so happens that for this particular case this is the exact shape of the surface, but this would not ordinarily be so. Then, by similar procedures to § 1.2:2,
and
0.39)
(1.38)
11
(1.40)
1.2:4 Energy solution: Minimum potential energy
The total potential energy of a rectangular plate is the sum of its strain energy and the potential energy of the load. At the critical stress the plate is in neutral equilibrium, and in this state the total potential is always a minimum. If we call the potential energy of the load T (equal to the work done by the load at buckling) the total potential is U + T. Then, for a minimum to occur
au + aT = O.
(1041)
Note that the conservation of energy method used in § 1.2:2 above is concerned with energy, and not with its derivatives, whereas the principle of the .minimum of total potential (which is the energy form of the principle of virtual displacements, to be discussed later) is concerned with the derivatives of the energy with respect to displacements.
In practice au + liT only equals zero if the form chosen for the deflection is exact. Any approximate form, when Eq. (1041) is applied, will give for the critical stress higher than the true value.
Take the expression for wfrom Eq. (1.37):
A • 71'.'.: . 71'Y
w = SIn ' sin b ' a
which gives
(1.42)
Since U + T is to be a minimum,
au aT
JA + JA = 0,
Dab (1T2 71'2) 2 rrzb .
so that T A aZ + p.  4a (J cr fA = 0.
This leads once again to the equation
(1043)
Note that the T term is negative in Eq. (1.42), because the compressive . stresses caused by the end load ad in the opposite direction to its movement
when buckling occurs. In the simple example chosen here toiUustrate the . method. the advantages of the minimum potential notion have not really been demonstrated. .. at value lies in obtaining a close approximation to the true value of 0;, bychoosing a judicious form for I\'. The approximate
12
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLAL,,_
method is known usually as the RayleighRitz method, since it stems from RITZ'S (8) classic paper in 1909 on the minimum problems in mechanics.
1.2:5 Energy solution: Virtual displacements
We have seen earlier that if the deflection surface is taken as a double
trigonometric series, the expression for the strain energy of bending is
U = Dab f ~ A2(m2rr2 n2r(2) 2
8 c: £., mn 2 + b2 '
m=1 n=l a
and the work done by the edge forces is
The principle of virtual displacements is to give the plate a small displacement SAmn from the equilibrium position, and equate the increase in strain energy to the work done by the external forces when the displacement occurs. If we give anyone coefficient this displacement, the corresponding virtual deflection of the plate 3w is given by
(1.44)
., ., . au ~A d h
The correspondmg increase in strain energy IS oA .0 rnn' an t e corre
mn
spending increase in work of the compressive forces is aa: . 3ANln•
rnn
Now,
(l.45)
and
er "'A rr2 b lA2 "'A
BAm •. 0 non = 4a ctm: mn' a "'n'
(1.46)
Equating (l.45) and (l.46) and taking m = 1, gives
Ucr = 12(72~ v2) (~) 2 (;2 + ¢2 + 2), as before.
This is a very powerful method, because by studying only the effect of a virtual displacement on one coefficient, the difficulties encountered between Eq. (1.33) and (1.34) in reducing the infinite series to the consideration of one term are avoided.
1.2;6 Galerkin's method
This is an alternative to the RayleighRitz solution. As before, an approximate shape is assumed for the deflection surface, but instead of investigating enemies. the expression for w is substituted in the original equilibrium Eq.
~_,r AL BUCKLING STRESS
Jj (1.15). Since w is not truly accurate there is an error, and GAtERKIN'S (9) method is to make this as small as possible. It was first suggested in 1915.
Taking w in the form of Eq. (1.16) and assuming the approximate transverse deflection curve as a number of terms of a function Anfn(Y), gives
N m7TX
w1 = I AnJ,.(y) sin,
,,=1 a
(1.47)
where Wi is the approximate value of w.
The equation of equilibrium Eq. (1.15) can be written
[84w 2(i'4w 04W]. 02W
D BX4 + aroyl + oy4 r at OX2 = 0,
and this can be interpreted as stating that the sum of the vertical forces due to the resistance of the plate to bending are equal to zero (there is no externally applied load q in the case we are considering).
(1.48)
If we call the operator that produces this equation Q, we can write
Q(w) = 0
[ a4 2a4 B4] 62
Q = D ox4 + OX2(}y2 + oy4 +ot ox2'
and when w is the correct function, Eq. (1.49) is satisfied. When w is only. approximate, however (i.e. w1 from Eq. (1.47», there is an error e, so that
(1.49)
where
(I,50)
or
[ N m"TTX]
Q L AnJ,,(y) sin  = e.
11=1 a
(1.51)
e is the vertical force resultant at any point in the plate, and this multiplied by each of the N deflection functions in turn, and integrated over the plate, should vanish. This gives a series of simultaneous equations in 'the coefficients A., and means that the values found for the coefficients satisfy equilibrium conditions.
Thus fffn(y) sin m;x. Q[.~l Anfn(y) sin m:xJdX dy= O. (1.52)
An alternative description of the method is as follows:
1 • mtrx y
W = Stn. , a
where Y is a polynomial function of y in the form
Let
N
Y = L AnJ,.(y)·
n=1
14
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATb,s
Then, the Galerkin expansion can be written
N jb{ ar,
Jl 0 Q[Y.l dA~' dy = O.
(1.53)
As n andj vary over the range 1 to N, a square matrix of coefficients An will be formed. The determinant of this matrix is equated to zero and expanded to give a function. This can be solved for linked values of K and ~. The accuracy of the result depends on the number of terms included in the poly. nornial, and if the function for Y is well chosen, an excellent approximation can be obtained using a small number of terms.
...
1.2:7 The Lagrangian multiplier method
The energy solutions discussed above give approximate results because of the practical necessity of considering finite numbers of simultaneous equations leading to finite determinants. The approximate analysis gives critical stresses that are always higher than the true critical stress. In the Langrangian multiplier method, however, it is possible to obtain approximate solutions in two ways, which permit the computation of a lower limit as well as an upper limit to the true critical stress. The original theory of lowerlimit procedure is due to TREFFTZ (10) and the Lagrangian multiplier method is basically a more quickly convergent extension of this theory,
In the energy methods, the deflected form of the plate is represented by the sum of a set of functions having undetermined coefficients; each term must satisfy the boundary conditions of the problem. In the Lagrangian multiplier method the restriction that the boundary conditions be satisfied by every term is discarded, providing the expansion as a whole satisfies the boundary conditions. In the energy method, the total potential energy is minimised with respect to the undetermined coefficients in turn; in the Lagrangian multiplier method, the conditions that the expansion as a whole satisfies the boundary conditions is satisfied mathematically during the minimisation process by the use of Lagrangian multipliers,
An alternative explanation of the difference is this: limiting the number of terms in the Fourier series for the deflection, in the energy method, has the effect of restraining the true deflection of the plate, which stiffens it and increases the critical stress. Limiting some of the constraining relationships, in the Lagrangian multiplier method, has the effect of giving the plate greater edge freedom, thus reducing the critical stress.
As an example of the lowerlimit method consider a square plate simply supported along loaded edges, builtin along unloaded edges, This has been discussed in detail by BUDIANSKY and HU (II) in an authoritative report on the method, and the following example comes directly from that source.
Let the deflection surface be represented by the expression
.~.
(1.54)
l(lTIAL BUCKLING STRESS
l o which satisfies term by term the boundary condition that the slope at the edge is zero, but does not satisfy the condition of zero deflection, unless
<iO
2 An = O.
"~O,2,4 ...
(1.55)
Eq. (1.55) is the constraining relationship on the coefficients An. TJsing Eq. (1.14) to calculate the strain energy, U, and Eq. (1.32) to calculate the total work done by the compressive forces, T, we find
(1. 56)
and
(1.57)
where 80n is the Kronecker delta, such that 80n = 1 if n = 0,80n = 0 if n oF O. The principle of minimum potential energy (see § 1.2:4 above) gives the equation
oU or
8A + vA = 0,
where T is negative,
but since the minimisation is subject to Eq. (1.55), Lagrange's method makes it necessary to minimise
ro
(U + T)  x I Am
.=0,2,4 ...
(1,58)
where A is a Lagrangian multiplier. The conditions for a minimum then become
00
o( I An}
o(U+ T) _ \ n=O,2,4 ... = 0 (J' = 0 2· 4 )
oAf 1\ oAj , , , '"
I An = 0.
n=0,2, 4 ...
Differentiating and simplifying leads to the minimisation equations
(1 + 8a)) [(m2 + P)2  m2KJ Aj  :~~ .'\ = 0, (j = 0,2,4 ... ), (1.60) (a)
00
IAn =0.
.=0,2,4 ...
(1.60) (b)
These equations form a set of (~ + 2) linear homogeneous equations in Ao• Az, A4 ... Am A, and in order that they be compatible the determinant of the coefficients must vanish, This condition provides the deterrninantal equation that may .·(ved for the buckling coefficient K by trial. It is simpler in this examph.rosolve Eq. (1.60)(a) for AJ and substitute in (1.60)(bt
1.6
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA 1:.:;;..,
This gives the stability equation
ro 1'_0
j=t2.4.JCm2 + P)2  m2!'](1 + SO})  ,
(1.61)
which can be solved for K. A very accurate value is obtained if ten terms of the series are taken.
Suppose that, instead of Eq. (1.54), we had started with the expression
. m1TX ~ A' n1Ty
W = Sin  £., . n sm ,
a n=I,3,5... a
which satisfies the boundary condition of zero deflection term by term, but does not satisfy the condition of zero edge slope, unless
(1.62)
co
In. An = O. (1.63)
n= I, 3,S ...
This is the Trefftz method, and following the same method of.solution, leads to the stability equation
(1.64)
which converges less rapidly than equation (1.61).
For a discussion of the use of the Lagrangian multiplier method to obtain an upper limit solution, see reference 11.
1.2:8 Finite dlft'erences
The finite difference method, which is particularly useful forplates having mixed boundary conditions or varying flexural rigidity, is all approximate numerical procedure. It is based on tile use of approximate expressions for the derivatives' of the deflection which. appear in the fundamental differential
equation. . . '.
The technique is to subdivide the plate longitudinally andtransversely by a grid system, such that the coordinates of any intersection$l?int, Allin, are mdx, nLly, where ,1x and Ay are the distances between adjapent grid lines. If the spacing between the points is SUfficiently small, the firSt derivative, or slope at a point, can be given as the difference between adjacent deflections divided by the distance between them.' Similarly the second derivatives can be given as the difference between the slopes divided by the di$tance between adjacent points. The method of designation is illustrated inP.ig.l.2. Fourth derivatives can be found by deducing the second derivatives.ofthe second derivatives.
Substitution in Eq. (1.1 5) then gives the difference equationvalid at each point CmLlx, nLly) in terms of the deflections at the surroy.l1ding points. Applying this equation to each point of the grid leads toa system of simultaneous 1 inear equations in the unknown deflections; pointsnear the edge "'re inflilencea hv the boundarv conditions. Setting this deterrnit'1ant equal to
r
11'11 AL BUCKLING STRESS 17
. zero gives an approximate value for the critical load which improves in accuracy with an increase in the number of gridlines or 'subdivisions'.
f 
m6~ 4~r_
1.!, _:_
: m6x.~
Fig. 1.2 Finite difference notation
It is also possible to produce the system of equations in terms of the slopes.
Tbis method does not feature greatly in this book, and no attemptwillbe made here to furnish the reader with a complete descriptioIl.F6r. further reading the works of BLEICH (12) and TlMOSHENKO and WOINOWSKYKRIEGER (13) are recommended.
. . ~ :.
1.2:9 Finite elelllents The solution of platebuckling problems by means ofFiniteE!~Ili~pt Theory has been increasing in popularity in recent years. Thepla~e~s.I<.i9~' into a number offlat elements joined only at specified nodes and.cOl1tiril;j#Y and equilibrium are established at these nodes only. ClearIyavery.)ar~e . number of very small elements gives a virtually continuoufstrhcture,ytpe behaviour of which is similar to a complete plate. The mostattractivea?ya:n~ tages of the system are that it makes use of matrix formulatiqn'suita~le..fqr use with computers, and that mixed boundary conditions and varyingfl~xt;lral rigidity can be examined without difficulty. ..,,' . . .•.........•.
A rectangular plate is cut into a number of rectangular elements, asshqwn in Fig. 1.3, and these are connected to each other at th~i1'.,cotner$',fo,r continuity at the corners the deflections of adjacent elemeJlts.must llethe same, and the rotations of adjacent elements perpendicular.jo.the.xiandj» axes must be identical. In addition, there are two moments and ,atransv:~rse
force due to the~~displacements. The nodal displacementsareli?I,~;a.nd
~,i.e. the deflection and two slopes at the node i in the figure,andtp~'s~can be listed as a 'vector' {hi} where
(1.65) .
18
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
The list of twelve displacements for the four corners of the element can then be designated VW, where
(1.66)
A polynomial expression, due to MELOSH (14), is normally used for w; it ensures that there will be a continuity of w along the junction between elements (the interface), and takes the form
IV = (Xl + (X2X + (X3Y + (X4X2 + ~5XY + (X6Yz + (X7:2 + (Xsxiy + (X9Xy2 + (X10y3 + all:2y + (X12xy3.
(1.67)
B diff .. hi . ·ow d ow d i
y itterentiatmg t s expression to get ax an  oy' an inserting Xl' Yr;
d . h .. f ow d ow·. btai
Xj' Yj; Xk, Yk an Xl> Yl mto t e expressions or w, aX an  oy' we can 0 tam
a set of twelve equations which can be set down using matrix notation as
This equation can be written
{sy = [c]{a}.
I:tl 1
I:tl
I:tl 0:4 O:s
«ti. .(1.68)
0:, 1
0:8
~o I
0:11 I lGtll J
(1.69)
Wemext consider the curvatures and twists at any point in the element, which are listed as a vector {e}, where
(1.70)
The factor 2 is required because work is done by twistinv .;.~elits on both faces of an element. The internal moments, Mx, My an J are related to .l.,p ",,,·,'~tnr,,< hV l='n (] (i) i1nrl (17), which can he set downas.
(
INITIAL BUCKLING STRESS
o ~
r ~
1 1
1 ! I
I 1 !
_~1~u:jfN1 e
I ,(; 1 ik
I ' I
I 1 I
I 1 1
I : 1
I I 1
.(... +1
I I I
I I I
Itt
I I !
1 \
1 I
X
Fig. 1.3 Finite element notation
M", 1 v 0
My Et3 v 1 0
= 12(1  v2)
u.; 0 0 (1  v)
2
and condensed to OZw  ox2
6zw  oyZ
2ci2w oxoy
{M} = [D] {e}.
19
(J.71)
(L72)
8zw c)2w . 282w
Expressions for ai T and ~8 can be found from Eq. (1.67), giving
x . Y ox y. ..
I')  { 2:X4 6(X7X 21XsY 6(XllXY I
2(X6 2Cl.gx 6(X1OY 6Cl.12XY (L73)
2(X5 +4Cl.ax +4~y +6Cl.llXz + 6:X12y2
or {~} = [0,0,0, .2,.0, 0, 6x, ~2y, 0, 0, 6xy, 0 .. J .r.:X.1 l (1.74)
0,0,0, 0,0, 2, 0, 0, 2x, 6y, 0, 6XY 1. 1X .. 2 '.
0,0,0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 4x, 4y, 0, 6x', 6Yf' f,
I . J
l (X12
20 THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATeS
which condenses to {E} = [Q] {et}.
Then, from Eq. (1.72) and (1.75)
{M} = [D] [Q] {cr:}.
(1.75)
(1. 76)
Now, the total strain energy of the plate element, V., from Eq.Tl.H) and (1.12), is
u, !:: ! 11 (  u, ~;  My ~:~ + 2Mx)' :;;y) d~ dy,
which can be written
(1.77)
U. = HJ[M] {E} dx dy,
(1.78)
where the integration is over the whole area of the plate element, and
From Eq. (1.72),
{M} = {M;<.}
My ,
M"y
a matrix 'vector',
and by the rules of matrix transposition [M] = {M}T, where. the transpose of a matrix means reordering the columns as rows. We may then write
U. = HHM}T {E} dx dy, which, using Eq. (1.75) becomes
Ue = HHMV [Q] {IX} dxdy.
Now, from Eq. (1.69)
{IX} = {C]l {W.
SO that, substituting in Eq.(1.76),
{M} = [D] [Q] [C]l {sy.
(1.79)
(1.80)
(1.81)
(1.82)
Further, by matrix transposition
I {M}T = {WT [C]IT [Q]T [DY,
(1.83)
and Eq. (1.80) becomes
tr, = tfHSyT [C]IT[QY [DY [Q] [C]l {SYdxdy. (1.84)
This expression reduces to
o, = t{SyT [KBle {sy, where [KBle is the 'Stiffness Matrix' given by
[KBY = JS[C]lT [QY [D][Q][C]l dx dy.
(l.85)
(1.86)
Note that, since [D] is a diagonally symmetric matrix, [DY = [D], For a given 1_.,_+ r:~o rrl1T ,>",1 rrl1 ~re innf'nf'nrlf'nt nfthf' v1ri~hlf'~ y ~nrl Y ;:Inri
,
n .. l. 11, BUCKLING STRESS Eq. (1.86) can be rewritten:
[KBY = [C]lT(ff[QY [D][Q] dx dy)[CJl.
21
(1.87)
The expression within the integral sign can be multiplied out in terms of x and y and integrated term by term.
The work done by the edge stresses, Te, due to the stresses fr.", a;; and ax, applied in the middle plane of the plate is
tff[ (0 W) 2 (a w) 2 ow aw]
T" = 2:.. ax ax + ay ay + 27"x, ax oy dx dy,
(1.88)
as discussed earlier in Chapter 1.
The term within the integral is
(1.89)
and, using the expression for w from Eq. (1.67)
{ ~:} [0 1 0 2x y 0 3x2 2xy y2 0
:; = 0 0 lOx 2y 0 2xZ 2xy 3,1
which can be written
{Ga:::}
(/ = [G) {IX}.
.(1.92)
nJ ~ {oj" [C]" [~T, Eq. (1.88) finally becomes
T" = !{8}~T [KG]" {W,
{KGf is the 'Stability Coefficient Matrix' given by
[KGY = tJf[C]lT [Gy fax 7"XV] rG] [C]l dx dy.
7",y ay
(1.93)
(1.94)
(1.95)
22
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
The matrix [ax TXV] is designated raJ, and Eq. (1.95) becomes, in a similar
Txv ay
manner to Eq. (1.87):
(KGY = t[C]lT (fJ[G]T [a] [G] dx dy) [C)i. (1.96)
The total potential energy Ve of the element is then given by Ve = U; + T, so that, from Eq. (1.85) and (1.94)
Ve = HS}"T [KB + KG]e {cWo (1.97) i
At the critical stress, the potential energy is a minimum (see Eq. (1.41»), :
and it can be shown that if this is so the homogeneous equation !
[KB + KG] {S} = 0, (1.98) i
I
has a nontrivial solution. (The matrix for the complete plate having been' found by the addition of all the component stiffness and stability coefficient' matrices.) .
The critical stress is therefore the smallest root of thedeterminantal equation
(1.99)
The expression for [KG] and [KG16 includes the values of the stresses a;c, a1 and a .. y since they appear in [a]. It is convenient to compute [KG] for unit I conditions, and denote it as [Ks), and then apply an intensity factor, F, to take account of the magnitude ofthe applied stresses. Eq. (1. 99) can therefore be rewritten as
[KB + F .. Ksl = 0,
(1.100)
where [Kd = FlKs]·
The factor F, giving the buckling stress, is found by choosing a low starting value, increasing it in small steps, and evaluating a new determinant each time. From the plot of these results the lowest zero intercept of Eq. (1.100)
can be located. .
As an example of the application of this method, consider a simply sup. ported isotropic square plate Wider uniform edge cOmpression in the xdirection, cut into four rectangular elements, as showniu Fig. 1.4. The stiffness matrix for each rectangular element [KBle is'
ku
ku k21 Symmetric
k]l k,> k33
k.1 k42 k'3 kl1
k~1 k~2 k~3 k21 kn
k61 k6Z k63 ~k31 ~kH k"
kn kn k'3 klD,l klOl klO, ] kll
kal k,2 k'3 ku ,1 kU:l kn,3 k2t k'l
kg, kg2 kg] kn.l k12, l kIl.3 k31 kll,_
klO, I klD,2 k1O,3 kn kn . kn ku q .. ku
k .. , k" kll>' k" k.2 .ka3 kSl ".~ '. k,! k21 ..'
, . '5" ,
I.' [, , k,;' k·1,j k), k,3 r:
IN:f~.LAL BUCKLING STRESS
23
where
ku D 20
kll k12 = 15ab 15. 20
k'l k31 k" (304> ~ 15v4>~I) (3o,p1 + 15.",) 'OW ~ ,'] "'1
kd ku k.3 10 0 3",
kH k$2 k" 0 10 (15",1  15.",)
~! ~2 ku 301> (15rl  15."') 30(",' 2P)  30v.
kn k7l k'3 10 0 (154> + 15.</>')
k,! kS2 k81 0 10 304> I
kg! kg] kg) (~15", + 15.4>1) 30.pl 30(,' ~ W') ~ lO. J
klO, I klO 2 kiO, 3 5 0 15",
kll,l ku: 2 ku, l 0 5 15",1
kU.l kU,l k12• ] 154> 15,pl 30(,P + </>2) t 30.. DCI  v) +~
4<{>2 o
_34>1
'" 2 o 34>1
_4<{>2
o 3</>1 </> 2 o
3fP
421 ..
;r1 •
42 j"
31>_1 .•.... '.' . 31>' .
42 '.
34>1 .:
3</> .'
42 .
(1.101)
41>' 3</> o
44>'
31>
o </>'
3</>
o 2",2
61>
and the stability coefficient matrix is
F[Ksle = 0
_ a .. tb o 15!foz Symmetric
15a 0 0 0
015 o 20!fo1
0 7'5fz 07'5 Srp2
0 0 00 0 0
015 o 22'5rpz 7,5 o 27rp 2
0 7'5!foZ 010 51p o 11,25 6j4>2
0 5rp 05.pl 3·75.p 0 5rpl 3'754> 3,0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 7'5rp2 011'25 5rp2 013·5 7, 5,pz 3'75¢ 0 g;p'
0 3·75!fo03·75q,1 34> 0 3·75rp 31>1 2'5 031>2:+ When the component matrices have been extended to cover theeiltite 'plate (4 elements), and Eq. (1.100) applied, the critical edge stress is ,giV¢~ by .
·3.77rr2E (t) 2
{axL = 12(1 _ 1'2) .. ]j ,
whereas the exact value of the buckling coefficient is knowntbbe4,By . reducing the grid size arid increasing the number of elements a moreaccurate . value can be obtaine . '\ square plate KAPUR and HARTZ (l5)givethe following table, relating ~~J size to the value of the buckling co.efficieDt:·'
24
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATb~
Grid size 3 X 3 4 X 4 6 X 6 8 X 8 10 X 10 12 X 12
K 3·645 3·77 3·887 3·933 3,96 3,977 Note that the value of K is a lower limit solution: KAPUR and HARTZ suggest that this is because the stiffness and stability coefficient matrices were calculated on the basis of a deflection surface that gave a slope discontinuity along the adjacent edges of elements. Because of this relaxation of boundary condition the method seems to correspond, for this particular loading condition, to the lower bound solution of TREFFTZ (discussed in § 1.2:7),
~/b=¢
y
O';v
Fig. 1.4 Plate divided into four elements
The above brief summary (intended as an introduction for readers not familiar with matrix structural analysis) is taken directly from the works of 'KAPUR and HARTZ (15), ZIENKIEWICZ (16) and ROCKEY et al. (17, 18). The notation used by the latter two authors has been employed. For a more detailed examination of the method a study of their work is recommended.
. The finite element method is extremely powerful, and can be applied to a wide range of problems, including most of the buckling conditions described in this book. There is a close link between this method andthe RayleighRitz procedure when the latter is applied locally to stations introduced throughout the plate, using 'localised Rayleigh functions'. The advantages of these functions in dealing with cutouts and plate deflections for distributed or point lateral loading has been examined by THOMPSON (19), WALKER (20) and BOGNER et al. (21).
c1 ~~ •• 0 f'"l'"ll h~~ "."rI Inr~lised Ravleizh functions to find the
.AL BUCKLING' STRESS
buckling coefficient ofa;imply supported square plate in compression. He chose rectangular elements, and showed that his solution was equivalent to the
fini I h db' ... ( ow oW 02W )
nite e ementmet 0 , ut with Jour degrees offreedom w, ~'T and~·
uX uy oxoy
at the nodes. The result of including the twisting term is to rapidly improve the accuracy of the method. The relation of grid size to buckling coefficient is:
Grid size 2x2 3 X 3 4 X 4 6x6 8 x8 lOxlO
K 4·01576 4·00325 4·00104 4·00021 4·00007 4·00003 The value of K for a grid size of 2 x 2 is nearer to the correct value of 4 than the figure given by KAPUR and HARTZ for a grid size of 12 x 12 (using three degrees of freedom at the nodes).
REFERENCES
1. Timoshenko, S. P., and Gere, J. M., Theory of Elastic Stability (McGraw
Hill, New York), 1961, p. 319.
2. Navier, L., Bull. Soc. Philmath., Paris, 1823.
3. Bernoulli, J., Nova Acta, VoL 5 (St. Petersburg, 1789).
4. Saint Venant, discussion in Theorie de l'elasticite des corps solides,by
Clebsch, p. 704,1883. ..
5. Bryan, G. H., Proc. London Math. Soc., Vol. 22, p. 54, 1891.
6. Euler, L., Methodus inveniendi lineas cur vas maximi minimive proptietate gaudentes, Lausanne and Geneva, 1744.
7. Rayleigh, Lord, Theory 0/ Sound, 1877.
8. Ritz, W., Journal/iir Reine und Angewandte Mathematik, Vol. 135, No; 1, p. 1, 1909.
9. Galerkin, V. G., Rods and Plates, Vestnik Ingeneroff, p, 897, 1915.
10. Trefftz, E., Joumalfiir angew, Math. u. Phys., Bd 15, 1935,p.339.
11. Budiansky B., and Hu, P. C., NA.C.A.,Tech. Rep. No. 848, 1946;
)2. Bleich, F., Buckling Strength of Metal Structures (McGrawHill, New York), 1952, p. 87.
. 13. Timoshenko, S. P., and WoinowskyKrieger, S., Theory of Plates and Shells (McGrawHill, New York), 1959, p. 351.
14. Melosh, R. J., Journal A.I.A.A., Vol. 1, No.7, p. 1631, 1963.
15. Kapur, K. K., and Hartz, B. J., Proc. A.S.C.E., E.M.2,p:l77, 1966.
16. Zienkiewicz, O. C., The Finite Element Method (MCGrawHill, london), 1967.
11. Rockey K. C., and Evans, H. R, A Finite Element Solution for Folded Plate Structures. International Conference on Space Structures,
University of Surrey, 1966. .
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATl::.S
26 18. Rockey K.C., Anderson, R. G., and Cheung, Y. K., The Behaviour of Square Shear Webs Having a Circular Hole. Symposium on Thinwalled Steel Structures, University College of Swansea, 1967.
19. Thompson, J. M. T., Int. Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 3, p. 285, 1967.
20. Walker, A. C., Proc. A.S.C.E., E.M.6, p. 139, 1967.
21. Bogner, F. K., Fox, R. L., ~ Schmit, L. A., Proc. Conf. Matrix Methods in Struct. Mech., Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright Patterson A.F.
Base, Ohio, 1965. .,.
22. Rolls, M. S., The elastic stability of discontinuous systems, Ph.D. thesis, University College, London, 1968.
FURTHER READING
Argyris, J. H., Aircraft Engineering, Vol. 26, Oct. and Nov. 1954.
Argyris, J. B., and Kelsey, S., Energy Theorems in Structural Analysis (Butterworth, London), 1960.
Bolotin, V. V., Nonconservative problems in the theory of elastic stability (Pergamon Press, London), 1963.
Budiansky, B., Hu, P. C., and Connor, R. W., N.A.C.A., Tech. Note No. 1558, 1948. Notes on the Lagrangian Multiplier method in elasticstability analysis.
Cox. H. L., The Buckling of Plates and Shells (Pergamon Press, London), 1963. Duncan, W. J., Galerkin's Method in Mechanics and Differential Equations, A.R.C., R. and M., No. 1798, 1937.
Gallagher, R. H., and Padlog, J., Discrete Element Approach to Structural Instability Analysis, Journal A.I.A.A., Vol. 1, No.6; 1963, p. 1437.
Hoff, N. J., The Analysis of Structures (Wiley, New York), 1956. Kollbrunner, C.F., and Meister, M., Ausbeulen (Springer Verlag, Berlin), 1958.
Martin, H. c., Proc. Conf. Matrix Methods in Stru~\. Mech., Air Force Ilnst. of Tech., Wright Patterson A.F. Base, Ohio, 1965.
Salvadori, M. G., Numerical Computation of Buckling Loads by Finite Differences, Trans. A.S.C.E., Vol. 116, 1951, p. 590.
Tirnoshenko, S. P., History of Strength of Materials (McGrawHill, New York), 1953.
Todhunter, I., and Pearson, K., History of the Theory of Elasticity, Vol. 1. Williams, D., The relations between the energy theorems applicable in structural theory, Phil. Mag., Nov. 1938.
Yettrarn, A. L., and Awadalla, E. S., A Direct Matrix method for the elastic stability analysis of plates, Int. Journal of Mechanical Science, Vol. 10,
1968,p. 88~ ?
,,
{
2
UNSTIFFENED RECTANGULAR PLATES IN COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
2.1 Rectangular Plates in Compression in One Direction with Loaded Edges Simply Supported
2.1:1 Longitudinal edges y = 0, y = b, simply supported
This is the simplest loading condition, and the one used to compare methods of evaluating critical stresses in Chapter 1. The equation of equilibrium is
8'w 284w 84w at 8~w 8;x4 + oxZoy2 + oy4 =  D 8xz'
and the boundary conditions are (see Fig. 2.1)
(2.1)
(2.2)
b
Fig. Z:j Rectangular plate in end compression
28
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA'n.",
Taking IV in the form
I:(y) . m1TX
W =J' sm, a
(since the plate is simply supported along loaded edges, it is assumed that it buckles into m sinusoidal halfwaves in the direction of loading), the solution to the differential equation becomes
!(Y) = A, cosh o:.y + A2 sinh o:.y + A3 cos f3y + A4sin f3y.
This leads to the characteristic equation (see Eq. (1.21) and after) _(r2 + S2)2 sinh p sin q = 0,
where
and'
{r2 _ {p2 _ m21T2
S2  q2 + V </J2 • (2.6)
The solution to Eq. (2.4) is expressed in the form of a relationship between K and", in Fig. 2.2. The characteristic function in Eq. (2.4) is designated (S) S.
10
r
"" , . 'CS)SO. V
...... /
\ .:
\ V
1\ .: [!]]II]]]
s
, .> V 0'
'.
. s
J,.' ffiIillIII] s
6 K
2
00
o·s
I'6
1'0 '.1·2
D./bJ1.
Fig. 2.2 Buckling ofsinip1y supported plates
The same solution is obtainable by the energy method; as discussed in Chapter l, it can be shown that theinfinite series
00
II''''' I
~ .. m1TX. n1TY .L.. Am" sin  sin J::""'
 4. 'J
(2.7)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.5)
l~'
PLA'l~~ . .r COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
satisfies the boundary conditions. On this basis the strain energy of bending is given by
_ Dab 00 co 2 (nP712 n21T2) 2
U  8! ! A mn a2 + b2 ,
"'=1 n=l
and the work done by the edge forces is
(2.8)
1T2b 00
T = 8 . at 2
a m=J
By virtual displacements
au or
aA . SAmn = oA . SAm",
mn mn
(2.9)
Dab (mZ7r2 n2712) 2 7r2b
thus ;;t . Amn 7 + fj2 SAm" = 4a atm2 Amn.SAmm
which gives (when m = 1)
ae. = 12(I7r~ v2) a r (f2 / cp + 2) ,
so that K = ~ + </J2 .!. 2.
(2.10)
(2.11) ".
This is identical to the curve in Fig. 2.2, which is the solution. of the characteristic equation. This curve takes a 'garland' form, reaching a minimum value when
</J = 1
and
Kmin = 4.
If the elements of Eq. (2.10) are examined, it can be seen that
1T2E (t)21 712E (t)2
12(1  v2) b 4>2 = 12(1  v2) ~
is the critical elastic Euler stress for a flat strip of plate inthe longitudinal direction, simply supported at its ends, but otherwise unrestrained. The second term is 4>" X the same critical stress, and the last term is double the elastic Euler stress for a flat strip in the transverse direction.
In computing the value for ITer> we used m = 1. This mea~~$thatonIY.9ne. mode of buckling was considered. a single halfwave in nleditection cif loading irrespective of the length of the plate. As the curve inFig, 2.2 shows, the value of Kincreases steadily (and therefore O'er) as the length of plate, represented by the parameter </J, increases from 4> = 1. In fact, for large values
of 1>. ~ + 0, andK oc 1>2 (approximately).
Suppose a second mode is considered, given by m = 2. This represents two halfwaves in the longitudinal direction. The values of p, q, r2~nd S2 from Eq. (2.5) and (2.6) willbe unaltered, and the value of the critical stress unchanged,
if the fraction 'ljiS replaced by ~;, where N is an integer. Tfm= 1 andN= 2,
':,.
30
THE STABIl....ITY OF FLAT PLA1LS
it can be shown that the critical stress for a plate with length/width ratio up buckling into the two halfwave mode is the same as that for a plate of length! width ratio 4> buckling into one halfwave. Similarly, a plate oflength/width ratio N4>, buckling into N halfwaves, has the same critical stress as the m = I case.
The wellknown K ,..., 4> curves for several values of m, plotted on this basis, are shown in Fig. 2.3. It.can be seen that the higher modes are obtained
10
I I I illIIIIIIII
\ 1 I s
I I SO"
~ \
I I \
\ T \
\
\ \ \
\ \ \11 5
\ \ .1 illIl1IIIlI
I '\ Ir \ I '\ '"
\ ;<, '"
, .... _,'" ..
r '\ A r ..... <, . ....
I ... 'r ..... ... _  1 ........
~ ~ ... 
mol In 1. ttl .. ! m .... ..
6
K
2
o
134 o/b .¢
Fig. 2.3 K "" rp curves for long plates
6
by merely multiplying the abscissae of the original curve by N. Consider now a plate having </> = 2; in a single halfwave mode its Kvalue is 6'4, whereas in a two halfwave mode the value is only 4; in a three halfwave mode, K = 4'9; and when m = 4, K = 6'2, and so on. Thus the minimum critical stress will be associated with m = 2. The locus of the minimum K values merges into an almost straight line as the value of rfo increases, and for long plates of any length, Kmin "" 4. The transition from m to m + I halfwaves occurs when successive curves have equal values of K.
The general form of K (see Eq. (2.11)) is
Z .i..2
K = ;2 + ~2 + 2, (2.12)
so that, when In is replaced by m +1,
(m + 1)2 4>2
K = J,2 + (m + 1)2 +..
(2.13)
PLA£S IN COMPRESSION AND SHEAR When these values are equal
</>2 = m(m + I),
and as can be seen from the curves, when m = 1, the intersection occurs at a value of 4> given by
.J!
'" = \1'2 = 1·41.
For very long plates, 4> "" m, consequently a change of mode occurs every time the value of rp is increased by unity. This implies that long plates hinged along their longitudinal edges buckle approximately into squares.
2.1:2 Longitudinal edges y = 0, y = h builtin The boundary conditions are
[w = 01_" = o. band [~W = 9J '
oy y ~ O. b
since both deflection and slope are zero at a builtin edge. The equation for w
satisfying the equilibrium equation is .
w = (At cosh ~y + A2 sinh ocy + A3 cos f3y + A4 sin fly) sin~,
. a
and the four boundary conditions lead to the following simultaneous equations
(Al + A3) sin ~ = 0, a
(pAz + qA4) sin m1TX = 0, a
(Al coshp + A2 sinhp + A3 cos q + A4 sin q) sin ~,= 0, a
(2.14)
The determinantal equation is then
1 0 1 0 rro;
0 p 0 q A2 '
P sinh p p coshp q sin q q cos q A3 (2.15)
coshp sinhp cos q sin q A~ on expansion this yields the equation
[2pq(1  coshp cos q) + (p2  q2) sinhp sin q] = 0;
(2016)
the 'characteristic function' above is designated (B)B, where'B stands for builtin, and the brackets refer to conditions at y = O. The reason forthis apparently complicated nomenclature will be apparent whenthinwalled structural sections are examined in a later chapter. The solution to Eq. (2.16) is shown as the'!'! . urve linking K and ~ in Fig. 2.4. This is the 'exact' _ solution, found by a ccnputer program. Note that the minimum value' of
32
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLAl.i.c<o
14
V
/
/
1\\ 7
\' I 17{r~)&·O
/
\' ENERGY SOLUTION >/ :
,\ \ /
\' ,// rnmmn
s
" ~~~ V ,D,
697 ,
EXAGT SOI.UTION
5
0·.6 rnmnm I~
10
K
e
6
0'4
0·6 0&
nib. ¢
),2
1·0
Fig. 2.4 Buckling of plates with builtin longitudinal edges
K is 6'971, occurring when e = 0·661. Thus, a plate built inalong both longitudinal edges buckles into shorter waves than a hinged plate, at about 1·75
times the critical stress. .
Using the energy method, the boundary conditions are satisfied (for example) by the deflected form
00, • n1Ty.' m1TX
W = 1 Ansm2b Slfl,
n=l a .
since W = 0 and ~; = Oaty = o andy = b.
Applying Eq. (I .14), and integrating, the strain energy in bending is
u = Q ~ 4Az [3, m4b + n4a + m2nZ] ,
2 n=l7T n 16a3 b3 2ab'
and the work done by the edge forces (Eq. (1.32)) is
T = at ~ 2,A2 3m2b
2 £.. 7T n' 16 .
n=l a
Annlvinz virtual displacements SAn, we know that %y . SAn =:~. SAn.
(2.17)
(2.18)
(2.19)
PLA rf. N COMPRESSION AND SHEA R
[3m4b n4a m2n2] 3m2!J
7T4DAn 16a3 + 77 + 2ab = 7T2arrfAn. Ina
For m = 1, the lowest value of ae, occurs when n = I.
so that
and
1 16 2 8
K = ~i + jrfo +}.
(2.20)
In Fig. 2.4 this function for K is compared with the exact solution Eq. (2.16). Km1n in Eq. (2.20) occurs when rfo4 = /6' i.e. rfo = 0'66, and its value is 7'3, which is about5 % higher than the exact value. A closer approximation can be obtained by choosing a better expression for w than Eq. (2.17).
2.1:3 Longitudinal edge y = 0 builtin, y = h simply supported The boundary conditions are
[OW ~ [22W PH', ~
[w = O]y = O. b, 'll = 0 and"?11 + )J~ =0 ,
uy y=o uy OXY=b
since slope and deflection are zero at a builtin edge, and curvature' tion are zero at. a simply supported edge. Substitution inthe general expression for w leads to the following equations
(A ' A) . m7TX 1 + 3 sma
= 0,
, m1TX
(pA2 + qA4) sin  = 0,
, a
(Alr2 coshp + A2r2 sinhp  A3S2 cos q  A 4S2 sin q)sin m7TX =0, a '
which give thedeterminantal equation
1 0 1 0 = 0"
0 p 0 q (2_22)
r2 coshp r2 sinhp _S2 cos q _S2 sinq'
coshp sinhp cos q sin q This reduces to
+ (r2 + S2)(q sinh p cos q  p cosh p sin q)= 0,
(2.23)
10 that the characteristic function (B)S is given by this expression. The solution to Eq. (2.23) is shown in Fig. 2.5. As might be expected, both K and rp lie between the values in § 2.1 : 1 and 2.1 :2 above, and it is worth noting that Kmin is approximately the average of the values.
,3
34
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATl::S
9
/
/
/
(&)S.O, I
/
/
L ,
, '.
\ /
\ / IIlIIIIIID
./ S
6'41 ·0·
0,.,91 S
IlIIlIllTIl s
i
K
6
s
0·5 [·0
o.,/b s ¢.
Fig. 2.5 One longitudinal edge' builtin, one simply supported
o
2.1:4 Longitudinal edge y = 0 builtill, Y = b free
The solution for this conftgurationinvolves the boundary conditions for a free edge. The conditions are that the bending moment anc,I':shearing force ate zero' along this line. The expression for bending momenthas already been dealt with in earlier cases, but the shearing force at a,free edge needs
careful consideration.' ..
It can be shown that the shearing forces Qy on an elementof'plate are given
by the expression .'
Q = aMy +oM"y
y oy ox '
(2.24)
Since at a free edge the resultant shear is zero, the for.:lTlu,st be exactly ~~\1l'rcri.l'l tl.\\...WfQ.iV'J,.I!"['t 5heRrinfl: force due to the di;t~ibtJ6on of twisting
.(
PLAu:::S IN COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
35
moments Mxy along the edge. A full explanation of this is given in TI MOSHENKO and GERE (1), page 330.
Then
Q  3A:!",y = 0
y ox
at a free edge.
Substituting the expressions for Qyand Mxy found earlier, we obtain the equation
(2.25)
and this is the boundary condition for a free edge.
The boundaryconditions for case 2.1;4 are therefore
and
[OW ] [02W a2w J" .• 1
[w;;; O]v=o. a = 0 p + v P = 0, .••. · '
y y=o. Y X ')'~b
[33W iPw ~ l'
3'3. + (2  v) ~ = o. ..
vy ux oy Y=b
(2.26)
Substitution in the general expression for IV gives the equations
. mn x
(Al +A3) SIll = 0, a
(PA2 +qA4) sin!!!!0 = 0, a
(Alr2 cosh; + Air2 sinh p .: AJ51 cos q  A 452 sin q) sin tn,"~ ,C/
which lead to the deterrninantal equation
1
o
,2 coshp pS2 sinhp
o p
r2 sinhp pS2 coshp
1
o _52 cosq
qr2 sin q
o
This becomes
+[2pqr2s2 +pq(r4 + 54) coshp cos q + (q1r4  p1S4) sinh p sinql=O; ,(2.29) "
the characteristic function will be designated (B)F. . '. '..:
The solutionto Eq. (2.29) is shown as the heavy line in Fig. 2.6. Notethat the effect of fr7eingone edge of the plate is to lower the 'valueof. Kminto' about t x value when this edge is hinged (§ 2.1 :3), andconsiderablyin~ crease the wavr  'of the buckles. The exact values are Kmin ""J.·247
occurring when 1> :,1 ·636 (taking v = O· 3). .
36
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLAIc ...
4
I 1
I /
'/V
I /
.~.
I /~
\\
\~ ENER.aY $OLtITlON / V
//
~\ :/ (&)F. 0
",/
~ ";:/ v IlIDlIIIIl
~, .... ' S
, ~ DF
',1+7
EXA,r ,OLUTION
s
1,6,6 !IIIIIIII1J 3
K
2
...
o
o
2 ~ 4
()"/b •. ¢
6
Fig. 2.6 One longitudinal edge builtin, one free
Using the energy method, the boundary conditions can be satisfied by the deflected form
w = A" ( 1  cos ;t) sin m;x. (2.30)
Applying Eq. (1.14) and integrating, the strain energy in bending when m = 1 is
I
(2.31)
and the work done by the edge forces (Eq. (1.32) ) is
T = Cft 2A2 (377  8) ~ 277 n 4n a'
(2.32)
Applying virtual displacements SAn> we know that :~ . SA" = :i. SAm so that
(2.33)
Then
PLA .~£ COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
_ 1T2 E ,(!) 2[l 1T~2..L 17  4v ]
(Ie,  12(1  VZ) b tP2 + 16(377  8) , 2(317  8) ,
) 7
and
1 1TtP2 77  4"
K = (f>2 + 16(377  8) + 2(377  S)"
(2.34)
III Fig. 2.6 this function for Kis compared with the exact solution (Eq, (2.29)), Km1n in Eq. (2.34) occurs when ~ = 1·636.
2.1:5 Longitudinal edge y = 0 simply supported, y = b free The boundary conditions are
[OZW a2w ~
[w = O]y .. o. 32 + v '32 = 0 ,
uy uX y .. 0
[02W a2w ~ [02W c»w ~
32 + v"52 = 0 and "'53 + (2  v) ~ = 0 .
uy uX • y .. b UY ux uy y = b
After substituting the general equation for w in these conditions, we find
(Al + A3) sin m1TX = 0, a
(r2At  s2A3) sin ~ = 0, a
(A1Pslsinhp + A2Ps2coshp + A3qr2sinq  A4qr2cosq)sin m77X = 0, a
(2.35)
(Alr1 cosh p + A2r2 sinh p  A3S2 cos q  A4S2 sin q) sin m77X = 0,
. a
which leads to the determinantal equation
0 0 = O.
r2 0 _S2 0
r2 cosh p r2 sinh p s cos q _S2 sin q
pS2 sinhp pS2 cosh p qr2 sin q qr2 cos q Then, on expansion
_(r2 + s2)(qr4 sinhp cos q  pS4 coshp sin q) = O.
(2.36)
The characteristic function is designated (S)F.
The solution to Eq. (2.36) is shown as the heavy line in Fig. 2.7. Note that for this case the curve does not take a garland form, but K approaches a constant value as tP increases. The minimum value of K is therefore always associated with m = 1, which infers that a plate hinged along one edge, free on the other, always buckles into a single halfwave regardless of length.
The energy solution gives a very close approximation to the exact analysis if it is assumed that during buckling there is no transverse bending, and that
38
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATeS
the transverse deflection surface of an element is a flat plane. Then, an expression for w satisfying this assumption is
2·5
, IIIIII1lI1l
_. s
D
\I S IF
\1 S
IIIIl1lIIII
,
It
1\\
'V eNEMY SOL.UTION
~ ~
:::. 
 
E~A"T SOLUTION ($)F·O' 2·0
K
1·0
0·5
o
2 3
a/b .¢
Fig. 2.7 One longitudinal edge simply supported, one free
o
4
Using Eq. (1.14) to find the strain energy,
DfOjb[ y2 m41T4 mnx AZ mZ1t1 .m1tX]
U = . A2nbl. 4 sinz  + 2(.1  v) ban. z cos'  .dx dy,
I 200 a a· a a
which after integration becomes
_ D AZnm21T2 (m21T2b2 )
U  "2 . ab . gar + (1  v) .
The work done by the edge forces Eq. (1.32) is, after integration,
T  '!! AZ m21T1b 2 n 6a'
and equating U and T gives
rr2 E ( t ) lr 1 6(1  .. r
Ocr = 12{]  vl) b I ~ + :;;zJ
(2.37)
5
Then,
..
PLAteS IN COMPRESSION AND
K 1 6(1  l/)
= ;p + 1tl •
SHEAR
(2.38)
Taking l/ =0'3, this gives a value of K as <p + co (i.e. very long platesjequal to 0·43. Values of K computed from Eq. (2.38) are shown as the dashed line in Fig. 2.7, and the accuracy of the speedy energy analysis basedon Eq. (2.37) shows how powerful this method can be.
2.1:6 Longitudinal edge y = 0 simply supported, y "" bl2 in plane of symmetry
This is an alternative method of examining plate stability when the conditions of support along the longitudinal edges are the same. The boundary
conditions for a plane of symmetry are zero slope (~; = 0) and zero shear
ing force (D[~~ + a~~YJ = 0). .
Note that the expression for shearing force is not the same asthat for a free
edge; in this case it equals a:;v + a:;v.
For y = 0 simply supported, the four conditions are ~
[w = O]~ ~ 0, [~:~ + ~ = 01 = 0' [~; = oJ=~, [~:~ + a::~y = oJ
Applying these to Eq. (1.16) and (1.18) yields (AI + A3) sin ~ = 0, a
(rZA1  s2A3) sin~ = 0, a
( AlP sinh ~ + AlP cosh ~  A3q sin ~ + A4q cos ~)
( AlP sinh ~ + A2P cosh ~ + A3q sin 1 A4q cos~)
sin m1TX == 0 a '
• m71X· Sln = 0
a, '
leading to the determinantal equation
1 0
r2 0 _S2
0 0 q sin ~
p sinh ~ p cosh ~ 0 o '·=0.
o
q qcos'2
o
This expands to
(2,39)
 "I]{r2 + S2) cosh ~ cos ~ = 0, (2.40)
and the characteristic runction is designated (S)Sy.
40
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA_
It can be shown that the values of K and cp which satisfythis equation are identical to those which solve the equation (S)S = 0 (see Eq. (2.4) ).
2~1:7 Longitudinal edge y = 0 builtin, y = bj2 in plane of symmetry The boundary conditions are
[lI' = O]y ~ 0, [~;' = 01 ~ 0' [~; = oJ= %.[~:~ + o~:;y =oJ=t
Applying these to Eq.(1.16) and 0.18) yields
(AI + A3) sin m11X = 0, a
(pA2 + qA,) sin~ = 0,
a
( AlP sinh ~ + A2P cosh ~  A)q sin~ + A,q cos ~)
(AlP sinh ~ + A2P cosh ~ + A3q sin ~  A4q cos i) leading to the determinantal equation
(2.41)
..
sin mrr?, = 0
a '
. mstx 0
sm = , a
1 0 1 0 = O,
0 P 0 q
0 0 q sin; q
q cosZ
. hP P cosh~ 0 0
psm "2 This expands to
pq (p sinh ~ cos ~ + q cosh ~ sin~) = 0,
(2.42)
and the characteristic function is designated (B)Sy.
It can be shown that the values ofK and cp which satisfy this equation are identical to those which solve the equation (B)B = 0 (see Eq. (2.16) ).
.JII
I 2.1:8 Longitudinal edges y = 0, y= b equally restrained
In addition to builtin, simply supported or free e~es, there is an intermediate condition of elastic restraint, where the restraint provides resisting moments along the edge which are proportional to the angle of rotation. This applies, for example, when support is provided by a stiff flange which offers restraint by twisting (neglecting warping rigidity). If, however, the restraining medium is such that rotation at one point influences rotation at another, bending moments are not necessarily proportional to rotation.
The general expression for platebending moment per unij length,
[OZW a2w]
D ayz + v OXZ '
PLA 1.1'1 COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
reduces to
D[~;J
along a hinged longitudinal edge. If S is the moment applied by the restraining medium per unit length, per unit rotation, the restraining moment is
th Sow. h . le of rotati h d . OlV f .
en  8y SInce t e ang eo rotation at tee ge IS Jy' I the restraint is a
flange having torsional rigidity Ct, S = 7TZ~L. Then, for equilibrium
a
[SOW _ D02W = 01
oy oy2 Jv ,. 0, b'
(2.43)
which is a boundary condition that can be introduced into the deterrninantal equation. Solutions are best presented by introducing a 'coefficient of restraint' or 'coefficient of fixity', If. which is a dimensionless number given by the equation
Sb
" = D' (2.44)
r.!;"
When (i = 0 the edge is hinged, when E = co it is clamped. Note that € is the
ratio of edge moment to edge slope. .
The boundary conditions can therefore be written as
[ E oW (J2W ~
[w = O]v = 0, b, E8 7J2 = o .
y y y ~ 0, b
Using the general expression for w (Eq. (1.16) and (1.18)), we obtainthe following equations .
(Al +A3)sin~ = 0, a
(Al cosh p + Az sinh p + A3 cos q + A4 sin q) sin ~.= 0
a '
1
(A1P2 + AZPE  A3q2 + A4qE) sin ~ = 0, a
(AlIfp sinhp +f coshp] + AZ[E"p coshp + p2 sinhp] + A3[ f.q sin q  q2 cos q] + A4[Eq cos q  q2 sin qJ) sin m;px:"" O. J
These equations, presented in a different way, have been solved by TIMOSHENKoand GERE (1), and LUNDQUIST and STOWELL (2). The computation is tedious, and the range of values so far obtained from this exact solution is limited. However, Lundquist and Stowell also used the energy method, allowing for the work done by the edge forces, thestrain energy of bending, and the energy absorbed by the restraining medium. They argued that a plate with no restraints buckles with transverse. deflections in the form of a sine curve, and a beam with equal and opposite end moments
42 THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
deflects in a circular arc. On this basis the assumed deflection was the sum of a circular arc and a sine curve.
Using the coordinate system shown in Fig. 2.8, the assumed deflection
surface was
w = [~~ (y2 _ ~) + (4:+ B) cos 1TtJ cos m:x,
(2.46)
where A and B are arbitrary deflection amplitudes. Note thatA = 0 represents the condition of hinged edges, and B = 0 the condition of fixed edges .
• 0.{1
0 + biZ
bit y
ta../t
X Fig. 2.8 Coordinate system for Eq. (2.46)
The ratio i is therefore a measure of edge restraint. Substitution of w in B
b.43) gives (remembering that because of the axis change the edge is y = bt2),
A = !!:. B, 8
(2.47)
and substitution in Eq. (2.46) gives
[1TE ( b2)
W = B 2b2 y2  4" +
(E) 1TY] .. msrx
1 + 2 cosb cosa'
The expressions for the work done by the edge forces, T,and for the strain energy in bending, U, are similar to Eq. (1.14) and (1 J?).but with the integration limits changed. The expression for the en .n the two elastic r e ~ f'(".::t , " ''''.,.. M'l" .N<..t··JMj V tJ
(2.48) .
PLAT( IN COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
v = 1[sf_~[(~~) y= _~JdX + sf_~t (~~) Y= +iJdX,
for bending in one halfwave in the longitudinal direction. When T '= V + V, it can be shown by substituting the expression for win Eq. 0.14), (1.32) and (2.49), that
(2.49)
Note that when E = 0, K = (i + .p ) 2, which agrees with the expression given in Eq. (1.27) for a plate with simply supported edges.
Eq. (2.50) was used to calculate K for a range of .p and E. The values obtained were compared in a few cases with the exact solution found by solving Eq. (2.45), This established the percentage error in K at these points, which was used to adjust aU the values of K found by the energy analysis. The corrected values of K were used in the construction of Fig. 2.9.
2.1:9 Longitudinal edges y = 0, y = h unequally restrained
LUNDQUIST and STOWELL proposed that plates with unequal side restraints E'l and E2 could be examined by finding two K values; KI and Kz, where KI is the buckling coefficient from Fig. 2.9 for a plate with equal restraints COl and K2 is the coefficient for equal restraints "z' The average of the two values obtained is taken as the total value of K, thus K = 1(K1 + Kz). Values of KI and K2 will normally be required at the minimumpoints, and it can be shown that the error in this region of taking the arithmetic mean is small, probably less than 3 %.
2.1:10 Longitudinal edge y = 0 elastically restrained, y = b free
This case is treated in a similar way to the analysis of equal restraints on longitudinal edges. The 'coefficient of restraint' is introduced in the same manner, to give the following boundary conditions:
[w = O]y = 0, [~b~W _ ~2~ = 01 ,
uy uy 'Jy = 0
[')2w. ozw ~ [03W 03W J
ay2 + IJ ox2 = 0Jy = b' oyJ + (2  v) oxZoy = 0 ~'''' b·
Using the general.r ion for w (Eq. (1.16) and (1.18)), the following
. equations are obtainCd,~
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA~.
( ). mnx 0 Al + A3 sm _. = , a
(A1P~ + Azp"  A3q2 + A4qE)sin mrrX = 0, a
(A1Ps2sinhp + Azpszcoshp +A3qr2sinq A4Qr2cosq)sinm;x = 0,
44
(2.51)
These equations have been solved by TIMOSHENKO and GERE (1) and LUNDQUIST and STOWELL (3). LuNDQUIST and STOWELL also used the energy method, using the assumption that transverse deflection is the sum of a straight line and the cantilever deflection curve for a beam. The assumed deflection surface was then
[ [(y)5 (y)4 (y)3 (y)2JJ· mnx
w = At + B b + a1 b + a2 b + a3 b Sllla'
(2.52)
6·4
K
5·6
4'£1
4'0
04 O'S j'2
o.,/b •• ~ f:i rr '1 Q Flasticallv restrained plates (LundquistandStowell)
_",..,
PLATk.\'
• '.no'/
COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
A and B are arbitrary amplitudes, a, = 4'963, a2 = 9'852, aJ 9,778. The values for ah a2 and a3 were chosen so that the cantilever curve combined the deflections for a beam with lateral uniform load and for a lateral load proportional to y. The condition A = 0 represents a hinged edge at y = O.
The condition B ;;;; 0 represents a clamped edge at y = 0, and the ratio ~ as before, is a measure of edge restraint. Substitution of the expression for w in the second boundary conditions gives B = 2Ae, so that the final expression
aJ
for w is in the form
w = A{~ + ~E(tr + al (tf + a2(if + a3 (i) ]}Si~m:x.(2.53)
By substituting this value into the expressions for T, U and ,y, the value of the buckling coefficient can be obtained. LUNDQUIST and STOWELL calculated K for a range of rfo and e. The values obtained were compared with, .' a number of correct values found by solving Eq. (2.51). The percentage errors in K were therefore established at these points, and these.were used to adjust slightly all the values of K found by the energy method .. The corrected values were used in the construction of Fig. 2.10.
2.1:11 The chatacteristic functions
. ,' .. ~~
In the notation for the characteristic functions deduced above, thesYrt.b~~i~ S, B, F and Sy have been used to denote simply supported, builtiu;free,a:pd symmetrically disposed edges respectively. Brackets have beettused..to.q.ellbte the edge condition at y = O. Thus, for example, (B)F is the characteti~tic function for a plate built in at y = 0, free at y = b. Later, wh~nthest<J.bi~i.ty of thinwalled sections is examined, it will sometimes be necessary t6c.Onstder , a reversal of edge conditions; for example, a plate free at y "",6, built~irlat y = b, will have a characteristic function (F)B. The solution of(B)F '='Ob'1' (F)B = 0 must clearly lead to the same values of K and .p, buttorcertaihc~s~~ . there is a change in sign of the function. This does not affeRtthescih:ition$ for isolated plates, but often the stability of sections comjiosed cof piate assemblies involves combinations of the characteristic functions. In these cases sign can beimportant, and a list is presented here oft!:te relationships
between complementary functions: .
(S)S= (S)S, (S)B = (B)S, (B)B = (B)B, (S)F = (F)S, (B)F = (F)B, (S)Sy = (Sy)S, (B)Sy = (Sy)B.
46.
THE STABILlTYOF FLAT PLA~'::S VAI.UE$ Of 6
K
0'4 L_L __ __!_ __ ' __ ....! __ .;.L_~.....___J
o
6 &
Mb.¢
Fig. 2.10 Elastically restrained plates (Lundquist and Stowell)
2
4
10
J2
2.1:12 The approximate form of the buckling coefficient
In applying the energy method to our earlier problems, a deflection function 'fas assumed .for transverse deflections. This was eidi'er in the form of an infinite series, or a simple trigonometric or algebraic function; the accuracy of the solution depended on the accuracy of the assumeddeflection, Suppose, in the general case, we take the deflection, for a buckled mode of one halfwave,
as
w = A sin 7TaX • fey),
where fey) is a function depending on the conditions of support along the longitudinal edges but not specified. This is not strictly accurate, because the
true form for w (see Eq. (1.18)) is ~
w = sin rr: (Al cosh ocy + A2 sinh ocy + A3 col.~ A4 sin py),
(2.55)
PLATt" IN COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
where 0: and f3 are functions of K and 4>, whereas Eq. (2.55) assumes that transverse deflection is a function of y only. It will be shown later that for single plates under uniform end load this assumption gives very accurate ~esuIts. Using Eq. (2.55), the strain energy of bending, as defined in Eq, (I.14), IS
u = DA2alb{?T4fJ(y)]2 + If''(y)]2  2rr21' [fey) .f"(y)]
4 0 a4. 02
+ 2(1 ~2 v)rr1lf'(YW}dY, (2.56)
where of(y) =f'(y) and 02j'(y) =T'ts),
oy , oy2 ,
T = at11a .; f [f(yW dy,
and equating Uand T gives
also
b~( ~blf'(y)]ZdY flfll(Y)][f(Y.·.J.l.)~.
+ 2(11') . Zv .
?T2 rb lb
10 If(y)P dy 0 [f(y)12 dy ..
This can be written in the form
where
 . fflE (t)2[C1 .J.2 ]
Uer  12(1 1'2) b +2 +CZ'f +C3 ,
C1 = 1,
b4f[f"(YWdY Cz = 17"4 trf(YW dy ,
o
(2.57j
(2.58)
(2,59)
. (2.60)'"
... bZ( f[f'(y)F dy ~b[f"(Y)][ji(Y).]dY) ...
C3= ?T2 2(1  l) b  21' b .• (2;61)
~ l!(y)f dy ~ [f(y)F dy'
. Note that in evaluating the integrals, when y is taken in simple geometric or trigonometric form ,,_ 1,4 term in C2 and the b2 term in C3 cancel, so that C. and C3 are numerics; _
40
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLr __
Eq. (2.58) can be applied rapidly when a function for thetransverse deflection has been assumed. For example:
(a) Simply supported at y = 0, y = b.
Take
fCy) = sin '"{,
then
I 11' 'lTY I 2 172 2 'lTy
f (y) = b cos b' [fey)] = b2 cos b'
Now,
Jb rry 2b Jb 1Ty Jb 1TY .jb 'lTy b sin b = , cos b = 0, sin' b = cos" b = '2:
o 1T 0 0 0
Thus
1 .
K = 4>1 + .pz + 2.
This agrees with the form given in Eq. (1.27) and (1.36).
and
(b) Builtin at y = 0, y = b.
Take
fey) = sinZ '"i
It can be shown by a similar process to (a) above that
which agrees with Eq. (2.20).
(c) Simply supported at y = 0, free at y = b.
I Take f(y) = ~.
This leads to K = ;2 + 6(1 :;; v), which agrees with Eq. (2.38).
(d) Builtin at y = 0, free at y = h.
Take
1Ty fey) = I  cos 2b'
This gives
1 '/TIl} (1T ~ 4v) .
K = cp2 + 16(31T _ 8) + 2(31T _ 8)' as 10 Eq. (2.34).
"'
PLATl:...' COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
From Eq. (2.59),
(2.62)
and at the minimum point of the curve '::: = 0, which leads to the equation
K  2Ct.+ C
min  1>2 • 3
occurring when
4> = (~:r·
(2.63)
In the four cases considered above, C1 = 1, so that Kmin occurs here when
;2 = Clf·
Now
rr'E (t)2(1)
12(1  VZ) b 4>2
is the Euler buckling stress of an isolated longitudinal strip of plate under end compression,
12(~2: y1) (i) 2 eCz.p2)
can be shown, by examining the derivation of Eq. (2.58), to be the Euler buckling stress of an isolated transverse strip of plate in terms of the end longitudinal compression. That is to say, it is the stress foundby equating the strain energy in bending of a transverse strip to the work done by edge forces in a longitudinal direction.
When the proportions of the plate are such that these two critical stresses are equal, the buckling coefficient reaches a minimum value. It is important to note that the second stress is not the Euler buckling stress ofan isolated transverse strip under transverse compression, but is C2.p2 times this.
We have seen earlier that the solutions given by the transverse deflection functions used in the four cases discussed above, lead to values of Kmin that differ by 5 or 10% from the exact solutions. Suppose, however, we apply the form of Kin Eq. (2.62) to the true values of Kmln found by the determinantal solutions. It is reasonable to assume that for the uniform end compression
.. considered here, C1 = 1 so that Kmln = :2 + C3•
and
From Fig. 2.4, the true value of Kmin for a plate built in along two longitudinal edges is 6'97, occurring when ~ = 0·661. Using these values gives
2
Kmin = 6·97 = (0,661)2 + C],
.. SO that
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLArES ;2 = C2'P,
C2 = 5·29;
1
K = rp2 + 5'291i + 2·37.
Values of K computed from this equation can now be compared with the exact solution, for a number of values of rp (v = 0·3):
50
and since
then,
.p 0·4 0'5 0·6 0·7 0·8 0·9 1'0 1·1 1·2 1·3 1·4
~  _       
K (Exact) 9·45 769 7·06 7·00 730 786 860 9·51 10·57 11·75 13·06
_     ~  ' 
K (Eq. 2.64) 9·47 769 7·06 7·00 Bl 788 8'66 9·60 10·67 11·91 1323 Over the range given in the table agreement is close, the error at 1> = 1·4 being I 3 %. Since for long plates the curve for m = 2 gives lower values than m = 1 for rP > 0·9, then for practical purposes Eq. (2.64) is accurate. The important conclusion drawn here is that the garland curve for K can be represented simply by defining the values Ch C2 and C3, and this has been done for all the boundary conditions investigated So far. The results are presented in tabular form below, and the variation of C2 and C3 withe for elastically restrained plates is shown in Fig. 2.11 and 2.12. Similar methods of representing K for elastically restrained plates have been suggested by BLEICH
(4) and KOLLBRUNNER (5). .
o
C1 ::.'

_LJ ~
...... ~
/" : illJ1Il1IlI
s
/' C~ o
S
l1IIIIIll] o
4
s
2.
6
€
Fi" ., 11 Valnes of C, and C for elastically rest~ained plates
(2.64)
PLAT( IN COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
5
4
/ ~
( el I
;
!
L , i
I
I
,
I
V
c, IlllIIIIIIJ
s
,Oe
·s
mnnnn o
o
200
400
E
Fig. 2.12 Values of C2 and C3 for elastically restrained plates
Table 2.1 Isolated plates under uniform end compression:
Values of Cll C2 and C3 in the formula K = ~f + C2,P + Ca, v = 0·3
EDGE CONDITIONS I C1 Cz C3
Simply supported, y = 0, y = b 1 1 2
Builtin, y = 0, y = b 1 5·29 2·37
Builtin, y = 0; simply supported, y = b 1 2·50 2·25
Builtin, y = 0; free, y = b 1 0·139 0·505
Simply supported, ._ ; free, y = b I 0 0390 5:?
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLn.
Table 2.2
Values of Cz and C3 for plates under equal edge restraints (Cl = 1)
€ C2 C3 E Cz C3
0 1·00 2·00 16·0 3·52 2'17
0'5 123 2·00 20·0 3·72 2·20
10 137 2·00 25·0 3·83 2·27
1·5 1·56 2·00 30·0 4·05 2'28
2·0 1·71 2'00 35·0 4·16 2·28
3·0 1·96 2·01 40·0 4·34 2·27
4·0 2·16 2·04 50·0 4·46 2·29
5·0 2·38 2·03 70·0 4·54 2·39
6·0 2·63 2·02 100,0 4·68 2·40
7·0 2·73 2·05· 150·0 4·82 2·42
80 2·84 2·06 200·0 4·85 .2·45
10·0 3·08 2·10 500·0 4·90 2·51
12·0 3·33 2·08 00 4·96 2·53 Table 2.3
Values of Cz and C3 of plates restrained along one edge, free along the other eCl = 1)
e: \ Cz C3 E C2 C3
0 0 0·390 1·5 0·0351 0·435
0·2 0·00595 0·426 2·0 0·0435 0·443
0·3 0·00864 0·429 3·0 0·0555 0·449
0·4 0'0113 0·423 5·0 0'0736 0·463
0·5 0·0138 0·430 10·0 0'0974 0·476
0·6 0'0167 0·421 20·0 0'114 0·499
08 0·0212 0·429 50·0 0·129 0·513
1·0 0'0256 0·430 100·0 0·136 0·534
1·2 0'0292 0·438 00 0·135 0·545 The values of Cz and C3 at E = 0 and € = 00 do not agree precisely with the values for the corresponding edge conditions quoted in Table 2.1. This is because Table 2.1 gives values based on the exact solution, whereas Tables 2.2 and 2.3 are derived from approximate solutions.
The simplification in presentation resulting from this method of defining K is apparent by comparing the simple' curves in Fig. 2.11 and 2.12 with those ;" Fi" ~q and 2.10. Both give the same information.
PLAT:r COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
2.2 Rectangular Plates in Compression in One Direction with Loaded Edges Restrained
2.2:1 Longitudinal edges y = 0, y = b simply supported; loaded edges x = 0, x= a builtin
The restraint on the loaded edges does not alter the equationof equilibrium for plates loaded in the xdirection, which is the same as Eq. (2.1), thus
a4w 2a4w a4w ot iFw
a? + axl13y2 + ay4 =  D axz· (2_65)
Now, however, it is assumed that the plate buckles in one sinusoidal halfwave in the transverse direction, and w is taken as
w = f(x) sin '"J.
(2.66)
Substitution of this expression for win Eq. (2.65) gives a fourthorder ditfe~en
Hal equation with the general solution .,
w = Ai cos OCoX + Az cos fJox + A3 sin otoX + A4 sin f3ox; (2.67)
where
{;: = ;:[vK ± VR  4].
The boundary conditions are
[w = 0],,=0, a and [~w = ol ,
ox jx=o. a
and the solution satisfying these is shown in Fig. 2.13 as a curve linking K and rp. This was first solved by SCHLEICHER (6) in 1931. Note that, contrary to the results in § 2.1. the curve for a twohalfwave mode can no longer be deduced from a single halfwave solution by doubling the abscissae, This is because modes with even numbers of halfwaves are antisyrnmetric, as shown in Fig. 2.13. As rp increases the value of K approaches that fat a plate SImply supported on all sides, because the halfwa ve length of the buckles isapproaching a value equal to the width of the plate. Note also that the change over point from m = 1 to m = 2 occurs when cp = v3 and fremm = 2to m ,,;, 3 when r/J = v8; thus the transition from m to (m + 1) halfwhes takes place when ~l = m(m + 2). Furthermore, this is also the intersection of the m and m + 2 curves for a simply supported plate, as indicated in Fig. 2.13.
(2.68)
2.2:2 Longitudinal edges y = 0, y = b simply supported; ioaded edges x = 0, x = a elastically restrained
Eq, (2.67) and (2.68) apply to this case, but the boundarY'conditions are .'
now
54
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATE
( k + . \ . mnx . nsry
'" n m mtnJsmsIOT
,~. . [( 2 2) 2Ja 2 . 2 2 ,
n=1,3,S ••• rr4D m + ~ _ m rr. CY",t
a2 b2 a2
'~.
PLATES I},~OMPRESSION AND SHEAR. 55
12:3 Longitudinal edges Y = OJ Y = b builtin; loaded edges x = 0,
x = a builtin
The most accurate solution available for this case is due to LEVY (8). regarded the plate as simply supported, and then made the edge slopes to zero by a suitable distribution of edgebending moments. It has been by TIMOSHENKO (9) that if lateral displacements are given by the
12
I \\ IIIIIlIIIIJ
s
i\ \\ so
\'\
\\:\ \ \\ 8
./ IIIIlIIIIII
\~\ ./ V
.\ \~~ V I,'
»: \.~I ' ,,"
' ..... "
b· .. t" ' .......
~ H__>< "' .. ...... ~ "'1 ~
.... .. 
I·" r. ...... ~ _ ..
,....V IIII 1110.2 'm.z,
illIIIIIlIJ
e.
sDs
I····
e I",
IIITIIlIIII the edges y = O,y = b, x = O. It is evident that the bucklinghl~d¢'i}':' m is odd will give equal moments at x = 0 and x = a, alidinthisc·ase<.;·
.. . .". ':  , '. J~;~~'
10
'. ~ ~ A . mtrx . n1ry
W = k 4 mn SIn  sin b '
m=l n=l a
s
(2.72)
K
concentrated force Q acting at any point (in addition to the endcompressive will be in equilibrium if
,.' 4Q . mnx . nny
sm  Slll
A =' a b. (2.73)
mn· 4[{m2 n2}2 _ m2u",tJ
Dab1r 2 + b2 2 2D
a rra
edgebending moment (on the basis of St. Venant's principle) can be eonsidered equivalentto a couple formed by a force acting at a shoft distance' from the edge, anita reaction dQ at the edge. If the intensities of edge ..
bending moments are m", and my, then . .' '::
6
4
)·5 2
, a,fb. tP
Fig. 2.13 Builtin loadededges (Schleicher)
where e is the coefficient of restraint (see Eq. (2.44). and is~ven by the .
0·'
dQ = (~) mydy, (m odd); m is even, however, the moments will be of opposite sign, sothat dQ =  ( b) mydy, (m even).
edge moments ar¢,nowexpressed as trigonometric series withulldeter2
coefficients kIll and tn> thus .
.... b2 eo • m1TX
Jrlx = A .. ~ . k",sm,
': "t1T 111~1,2,3... a
a2 ro • nny
my =4tr .L tllslnT'
"=1,3.,.
;Su:bsti[tuting for Q inEq.(2.73) in terms of kill and t« from Eq, (2.74)t6(2.78),,··
then substitutingforAmn in Eq. (2.72) gives ....
. ";",
equation
Sa
e'
.  D' "
S is the moment applied by the restraining medium pe~ unit l~gth of the restraint, per unit rotation. The solutionhas been .obtruned bY.BLEICH (7) for a number of values of E, for the m = I symmetric ~ode. on1r,and values . of q, less than 1·0. Some of his results h~ve been plotted I? Fig, 2.~13.
If the elastic restraint is a flange havinga torsional rigidity CL~}hen
~ S = b2 CL,
Et3
and since
D = 12(1 'vl)' ~CLa12(1  jl2)
E = Eb2t3
co
W= L
111=1.3.5 ...
Or Z,4.6 .••
'{
56
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PL. BS
12
, IIIIlIIII1I
&
\",.1 ;0'
\
\
i I / I!IIlIllIIJ
"
A : •
I 'v 0
I
I
I
I \\
I
I , ~' /00
I \
,
i \ I
/\ , I .~
I ~~" ,;
\ , '" .. . , m ....
1\ / '" W ... ~
X ...... ~
.;)
_'1II.1 ~'1  ~., ."s. 10
K
6
o
2
a./b = if>
Fig. 2.14 All edges builtin (Levy)
where m has odd values for buckling into an odd number of waves, and even values for an even number of waves.
At the edges, (~W) = 0, (~W) = O. Differentiating Eq. (2.79)
I. x x=O.a UY y=O."
and setting the coefficients of sin m;x and sin n;y separately equal to zero gives the two equations
~ mnkm + m2tn. ( ..
s: [n12 J2. 2K = 0, n = 1, 3, 5 ... ),
m=I.3,5... + 2 m .
or 2.4.6... f2 n  T
(2.80)
i . n2km + nmtn _ 0 (m = 1,3,5 ) (2.81)
n= 1,3,5 ... [~: + ntJ _ m;:c , or 2,4,6 '
where K is the platebuckling coefficient. Eq. (2.80) and (2.81) are satisfied
PLA';
IN COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
57
when the determinant of km and tn is zero. The lowest value of Kwhich gives this for a given value of cp is the buckling coefficient. A sufficient number of terms were taken by Levy in the determinant so that K remained unchanged after taking additional terms, and convergence was found to be rapid. The asymptotic value of K, estimated for an infinite determinant was then found.
The results are plotted in Fig. 2.14. Note that, as f increases K approaches its value for a long plate simply supported along its loaded edges, builtin along longitudinal edges (Kmln = 6'97, see Fig. 2.4). Also, as for longitudinal edges simply supported (Fig. 2.13), the change from m 0:= l to m= 2 halfwaves takes place at the intersection of the m = 1, mo:. 3curves for the plate with simply supported loaded edges. The transition occurs when • = 0·66 v'm(m + 2), which gives f = 1·15 for 1 to 2 halfwaves, and </>=c 187 for 2 to 3 halfwaves.
2.2:4 Other solutions
By making the assumption that transverse deflection functions are iadependent of the length of the plate (an assumption used' earlier in. § 2:1: 12, and discussed there), WITTRICK (10) has shown that curves linking Kflild q, .. can be deduced simply for a variety of restraints along both loadedand
. unloaded edges. .. ..' ,)
The 'garland' curves linking K and cp for m = 1 reach a Jlunim1¥Pat
coordinates we have designated as (Kmln> fmlJ. Km1n is alsotheva_l'tl~;)~fK for an infinitely long plate. If a new buckling coefficientK* isinti()dll~~d.,!and
a modified side ratio f* such that ..:.,. ; ,
K* = (K  Kmin)f2 min + 4,·(i.82)
and cp* = _j__, (2.83)
<Pmin, .
WITTRICK shows that the relation between K* and f* . for a plate with arbitrary end and side conditions is identical with the relation between K and ~ for a plate having the same end conditions but with simply supported sides. This approach is used to produce K "'" f curves for plates with damped loaded edges, and plates with one loaded edge clamped, one simply supported. The solution for the latter case is shown in Fig. 2.15. Note that this curve can be produced by halving the abscissae of the asymetric modes (m = 2,4,6 ... j given in Fig. 2.13.
2.3 Rectangular Plates Uniformly Compressed in Two Directions 2.3:1 Simply supported edges
This problem was first discussed by BR YAN(I 1) in his 1891 paper. Referring to Fig. 2.16, the equation of equilibrium is
5S
lilL STAI3ILTTY or f"LAT PLATES
K
7
.. ' __ ._+...........,
...~~~i
2 ~/b. ¢
Fig. 2.15 One loaded edge builtin, one simply supported (Wittrick)
and the boundary conditions are
Ta kiuu It' in the r()rJll
 I
. ntn»: . lI1Ty 11' = AIM" SIIla SI11 b'
and substituting in Eq, (2.84) gives
(2.84)
(2.85)
(2.86)
(2.87)
Now, a.r,hD2t = K, the buckling coefficient related to the compressive stress in
1T'
the .vdircction, so that Eq. (2.87) can he written
' .
• 1.
I
I
i
I
.. ~ I
1 (
PLAT( 1N COMPRESSION
["2 + /l2J2
K _ 1>2 _
,, 2"
ml ~_n
n+
'f' (1 x
AND SHEAR
(2.88)
Fig. 2.16 Rectangular plate compressed in two directions
It can be shown that the smallest value of K" occurs whenm = n Also, the value of K; reaches a minimum K"mln given by
L
when
K" = 4(1 CJ}.) , (0 < ~ < 0'5),
min (J a
,;:;;".~ _ x x.
(2.89)
( 2crv) l ( ay 5)
1>mln= 1  ax ' 0 < ax < O' .
(2.90)
Note that for values of ay > 0'5, ~rrlln is imaginary, and the curves linking K;
ax
and e are asymptotic to the horizontal lines K; = ax, (this value is found by
ap
putting ~ = 00 in Eq. (2.88». The graph of Kx ,..., ~ for a range of values of
a~ between 0 and 2·0 is shown in Fig. 2.17. It indicates, for example, that when ax
~ = 1 (square plate), and ax = a~ (equal uniform compression on all sides), K; = 2. This is onehalf the value of K for a simply supported square plate compressed in or. '.: 'rion only.
60
ru n STABILITY or FLAT PLATES
5
J\ IIIIlIIIIIl
s
IsDsl
s
ill1TIIIIII
0,11 it
,,," I
_._._ c . .,
,,~ o·!
0'."
(
.., ..
1·0
2 .. 0' 4
2
o
:;
i'ig, 2.17 K, for simply supported edges (Ct."' r/>, (1= ~:)
Reference to Eq. (2.89) and (2.90) shows that ~Illin is not imaginary, and I\.~ . can exceed 4, if v» is negative (i.c. a tensile stress acts in the perpendicular dil:~~[ion). Thus the audition ora perpendiculartensile stress can increase the initial buckling stress under unidirectional compression of a simply supported plate. Alternative presentations of the solution have been made by I'RZUllINIECl~1 (12) ami by t.IBOVI: and. STEIN (13). PRZEMIENIECKI'S results <Ire ~h()\I'1l IEl l~ig. 2.1~; for un explanation of the pasameters, sec S 2.3:3. I
2.3:2 Builtin edges
This case has bC(.;L1 solved approximately by TtMOSHENKO. Assuming that the plate does not diller much from square; and that a.< and ay are about equal, he takes the deflection of the buckled plate as
A ( 2rr.y) ( 21TV)
II = 4 I  C()~ ;; I ~ cos b .
(2.91)
thill'; this \'\); III, ~\I\d equating \\\11'1.; .1')11(: by compressive forces to strain
lIel':;~ ell' b":llciill:;, he S\il)W~ that ' ..
PLATF,r COMPRESSrON AND SHEAR
Cd; r¥"ar) = ~:~[:~ I 41l +~}
61
so that
4 4.J.2 8
",2 + 'f' + 3
K" ==.:....
1 I a~,p 0'"
(2.93)
For a square plate under uniform compression, 4> = I, (]r = I, and
0'"
K" = 5·33.
(2.94)
This is less than 1 % greater than the exaet value found by Taylor. The value for K" is still within a few percent of the accurate figure for values of ay > 0·5.
0'",
However, if C1~ = 0, K; = 10·67 whereas the accurate value of K"for a square damped plate under unidirectional compression has already been shown to be 10·07 in § 2.2:3, Fig. 2.14.
1
O'x.
IIIIIIllIIJ
s
IsDsl~
$'
/' I11IIIIIIl1
~ <, ~ .:..
~ ../ ~  ~o 5
~ ~
 ,,.~
~ ,..,/' t"'  c
_... ""' .. 0'1
\\~ ~ 01
~ \\' ~ . .......__ O'l
\' i'.."'" <, " ::.
'\ ~7" L·H~ I .. ... "·l
. o
o
2
a)b. ¢
Fig. 2.18 Relationship between ax and 17~ (Przemieniecki)
62
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLAT.
The expression for K", from Eq. (2.93), when 0'1' = 0, is
K  i + ,01.1.2 8 f
x  cfo2 +r + 3' ( or m = 1).
(2.95)
It is interesting to compare this with the expression for ]( deduced at Eq. (2.20) for a plate with simply supported ends, which is given there as
1 168
K = </>2 + ~2 + 3' (for m = 1). (2.96)
As might be expected, the effect of builtin ends is to quadruple the coefficient
fl. hi
o </>2 smce t s represents Euler buckling of xdirection strips, . Further, the
3rd term, which is linked to the buckling of transverse strips, is unchanged, since the transverse deflection function is the same.
2.3:3 Ends simply supported, sides builtin
PRZEMIENIECKI (12) has also presented a solution for these boundary conditions; his results are shown in Fig. 2.19 in the form of curves linking
2.
~
illIllIIill
s
,·····A I'DBI~
1\ I A\ »<. J~
/~ /' 
r.... 0·' S
/)  ffilIIillIl
~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ............... .....

~.._. ~ r
\\~  r::: ~7
\\~ r
\ \ '\ r, .
\\ "" <, ~
\ \ <, <,
y" 1,\'· ~t ~I J I
o
o
2
a/b '" ¢
Fig. 2.19 Relationship between.e .. and 0'1' (Przemieniecki)
: 3
_2i.
o (!\)er 0·%
0· ...
06
'·0
PLATEC,N COMPRESSION AND SHEAR
63
with </> for various values of (0'1') ,where (a,,)cr is the critical stress of a
a" cr
·..,.11'1 .. 11" supported plate under unidirectional compression
4'11'2E (t)2
= 12(1  v2)b .
use of 'stress ratios' in this way will be discussed in more detail later, the stability of rectangular plates under combined loading is examined. work of NOE·L (14) in this context is important, since biaxial compression a special case of his more general approach (see § 2.6:1). The work of WITTRICK (I5), discussed later with respect to orthotropic plates, is also
A rigorous analysis, using the exact solution of the differential equation of eq,uuIOrlUllrl, has been made by SHULESHKO (16). The analysis is very similar that given in § 2.1 :10, but with an extra term in the equation of equi )' .• a....: __ ._ to allow for the transverse force. SHULESHKO'S results are shown in 2.20 for the condition of equal compressive stresses in two directions. that the effect of a restraint along one side, ranging between simply
·"i! ... ",,\rtf~rI and builtin, does not affect the buckling coefficient for plates
a value of", < 0·5 when m = 1).
2.3:5 Ends simply supported, both sides free
SHULESHKO (17) has also examined these boundaryconditienaHis for equal compressive stress in two directions are given in Fig. 2.21. that the lower values of buckling coefficient are associated with the ·$YIiDmtetric buckling form.
Rectangular Plates Compressed in One Direction by Linearly Varying .. , Edge Forces' ..
2.4:1 Simply supported on all edges
There is no exact analytical solution to any plate stability problem when edge loading is nonuniform, and for these cases recourse ismade to the or similar method, based on an assumed deflected form. The best:....,'u .. ' .. analysis for simply supported plates is due to TIMOSHENI(O (18), employs the principle of conservation of energy (§ 1.2:2). Suppose the .billCklled form of the plate consists of m halfwaves in the xdirectionJsee 2.22), then the deflection is taken as
• m1TX 00 • n1TY
w = Stn.2 AIIStn. b . a n=l
(2.97)
64 THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATE,
2·2
0·01 j·O /7.0 VALues OF 6
\
I" 10 ffiIIIIIIIl
 s
i·DFi
\\
w
s
\ \\\ \ .\ IIDIIIIIll
p \\'V ~\
~ ~
~ ..... K
,,0
0'0 o
0·5
2'0
1:6
Fig. 2.20 Values of K for restrained flanges (Shuleshko)
,.2,
illIlllIIll
s
~ ANTI'SYMMETPIC ~i'll
,t i'
"'. ~.
<, " s
t. []ll]]I[II]
"'... ~
SYMME'TrtIC ~ IK
'·0
o·s o
2 :5
b/o.
Fig. 2.21 Free longitudinal edges (Shuleshko)
(2.98)
PLATES!, COMPRESSION AND SHEAR 65
The strain energy in bending, from Eq. (1.31) is
u = Dabtr2 ~ A2 (! + n2) 2
. 8 ,,"f;: I n cr b2 ,
. which does not involve any knowledge of the load distribution. From 'Fig. 2.22,
C .. O
Fig. 2.22 Linearly varying edge forces
xdirection stress at a distance y from the origin, (O'x\,isrelated to the ._ .. v; .... ,,, ..... stress at y = 0 by the equation
(2.99)
c is a numerical factor. The distribution of stress for various values c is also shown in the figure.
(1 ( C ) Jafb(aw)2
T = 2° 1  bY too ax dx dy,
(2.100)
66 yielding
T = 7T2aobt ~ ,42 _ 1T2aoCI[b2::;', 12 _ 8bz ~ ~ AnAfJ' nq] (2.101)
8 z, " 4b 4~'" 2~~(2 2)2'
a ". 1 an."! 'IT n= 1 q= I n  q
In this equation numbers are only taken for q that give n + q odd. This follows from the integration of multiples of two sine terms in Eq. (2.100). Equating V and T gives a value for (aD) cr which contains coefficients A •. These must be chosen so that the value of (0'0)" is a minimum, and this is done by taking the derivatives of the expression with respect to each coefficient in turn and equaling to zero. Thus we have a system of fI equations of the type
Ar(l I n2,fl)2  K,j>2(J  2~)J  8~<pZK I (z~3l_~2~)2 "';"0. (2.102)
L' _ 1T '1=1 n q
The linked values of u and q to produce these equations are .,'f
run STABILITY OF I:LAT PLATES
PLA~~ IN COMPRESSlON AND SHEAR {,7
The solution cantf, .itten in deterrninantal form, and its accuracy dep, . on the number of terms taken, and the value of c. The value of c for pure bending is 2. and in this case it is necessary to take n up to 3 to obtain u solution within I % of the accurate value. For other cases,n = 1 and n= 2 give a good approximation, and the determinantal equation is
30
5
11 = I, 1/ co 2; II = 2, q = l; II C~ J, q = 2; n = 4, q = 1; etc.
25
o
0·$
2·0
20
K
15
10
5
0_
o
o
os
10
ttjb:; ¢
1·5
2·0
1·0 C
Fig. 2.24 Values of KmLn for various edge conditions
[·,,1 ~'1 SllIlpiy suoportcd pL,1<.''i \\i!h linearly varying edfr' r 'es
68 THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLr _~
f(l + <fo2)2 _ K<fo2(1 _ :)l _ 8c <folK. ~ [Ai] = 0 ..
L 2 'I "..z 9 (2.103)
 ~~~2 K . ~ [(1 + 44>2)2  K~2(1  ~)J A 2
It can be shown that for values of m other than 1, the results include m/.fo terms only, so that the buckling coefficients for higher values of m can be obtained by multiplying the abscissae of the K ,.., .fo curves by m.
The results for simply supported plates are shown in Fig. 2.23. Fig. 2.24 shows a plot of Km1n against c.
2.4:2 Edges y = 0, y = h built~in, edges x = 0, x = a simply supported This was solved by NOLKE (19) who took the transverse deflectionj(y) in the form
j(y) = I A (cos PnY + cosh PIIY) + B (cos P"Y  cosh PnY)
11=1 b b b b
(2.104)
+ C(SinPnY + sinhPnY) + D(sinPnY  SinhPnY)
b b b b '
where Pn is the root of the equation cos PI! cosh PI! = 1. The deflection thus described is identical to the normal modes of vibration of a bar clamped at both ends. His results for the types of stress distribution defined by c = 0·5, 1'0, 1·5 and 2·0 are shown in Fig. 2.25. Note that the ratio of the minimum buckling coefficients for c = 1, for the two edge conditions so far discussed
( 13'56). I th . c 1 . d _!C ( . 6'97)
= 7.81 IS equa to e ratio lor pates un er. U11110rm stress =4'0 ;
also that the values of Km'n for c=·2 are approximately six times those for .. c = O. The relationship between Km1n and c is shown in Fig. 2.24. .
2.4:3 Edges y = 0 built~in, y = b simply supported; x = 0, x = a simply
I supported
These boundary conditions were examined by KOLLBR UNNERand HERMANN (20), who showed that the effect was to make A = C = 0 in Eq. (2.104), and give the two equations
B(cos P«  cosh Pn) + D{sin p"  sinh p,,) = O,} B(cosPn + coshpJ + D(sinpl! + sinh p.) = 0,
where PH is the root of the equation tan p,,= tanh PH'
The solution for the stress distributions given by c = 1 and c = 2 appear in Fig. 2.26. Because the boundary conditions are different along the two longitudinal edges, the value of K will vary depending on the orientation of the edge forces to Y = 0. The effects are shown in the figure. As might be
(2.105)
(.
PLATL .. IN COMPRESSION AND SHEAR 69
.expected, when the fixed edge is on the tension side of the plate for c = 2, the values of K do not differ greatly from those with both edges simply supported. In the first case, Km1n = 24'48, in the second Km1n = 23·8. Thus lies between these values for any degree of rotational restraint along the ··.tension edge. Fig. 2,24 compares Km!n with c.
s
50
D'
s
\ A ~
3,·6 
\
\ ~"' 
U·J
\ 
\ "" 
I!·' \'\ . Pro..
....
. ,) .....  
'N:) tH DIrrnn o IillIIIIl
K
20
10
o
o
j·o
Fig~ 2.25 Longitudinal edges builtin (N6Ike)
2.4:4 Edge y = 0 builtin, y = b free; x = 0, x = a simply supported
As in the previous paragraph, A = C = 0 in Eq. (2.104), and the simultaneous equations containing Band D now become
B(cos Pn + cosh PI!) + D(sin PH + sinh pJ = O,} B( sinp" + sinhp,,) + Dtcoe p; + coshp,,) = 0,
Where p" is the root of the equation cos Pn = cosh PII'
The solutions for the stress distributions c = 1, c = 2 are shown in Fig. 2.27. K again depends on the orientation of the edge forces to y = 0.
(2.106)
70
THE STADILITY OF FLAT PLATES
2.4:5 t.uge y = 0 simply supported, y = b free; x = 0, ... = II simply supported
By assuming, as we did in the energy solution for plates under uniform compressive stress, that there is no transverse bending, and that the deftection surface can be represented by the equation
y . m1TX IV = ASlfl'
" b a'
50
\
\ A ./""...
~"'1
\
\ _...........~
vHf'
\
1',1. \ r,  r..._ 
I <, j......._ 
H9 ,
~
~,.( 40
K
20
10
o
o
1,0
a./b. ¢
(2.107) K
~> 5
s
"OS
s
C..1 ~ o
1,0
Fig. ~,26 One longitudinal edge builtin. one simply' supported (Kollbrunner and Hermann)
it can be shown that, for pure bending (c = 2),
2 12
K = if} + 1Til  v).
(2.108)
.... This is ,similar ill form to the result for uniform compression; i.e, the miniglum value of K occurs when 4> = 00, and is equal to the constant term.
Fig. 2.28 shows graphs of K ..., rP for certain values of c. .
COMPRESSION AND'SHEAR
K
c
vA
J .Al11l1
, .
o lIITll1Il
a
Fig. 2.27 One longitudinal edge
10
t
c
o
a./b. ~
Fit. 2::2r  longitudinal edge simply sri'.; . ", .. ~. . 'free • _.A',' • :;;.r~~iii(' .•
72 THE STAEILITY Of FLAT PLATES
2.4:6 EUb~S y = 0 restrained, y = b simply supported; x = 0, ., ,"simply supported
It was observed in § 2.4:2 that the ratio of KmLn (y = 0, b builtin) to Km1n (y == 0, b simply supported) for linearly varying edge forces, was, to a close approximation, equal to that for uniform compression. On this basis it is possible to obtain an approximate solution for equal edge restraint by using the earlier results for uniform compression (§ 2.1 :8) and multiplying by a factor or 6. This method produced the upper curve in Fig. 2.29 which
15
I~·f&
r      1_..1.,_
.~! _
.....  _
/~  IH
r 1;1 ~ 10
s
·,Oe
'"
[lllllP' 10 KIlI&t
o
o o
40
60
10
€:
Fig. 2.30 Elasticaliy restrained edges (c = 1) (Johnson and Noel)
K
20
o
20
40
60
e
Fif, 2,2') Elustically restrained edges (c ", 2) (Johnson and Noelj....
'. ~: .. '.
gives Kmin for various restraints when c = 2. A more accurate solution, due to JOHNSON and NOEL (21) is also presented in the same figure;Hic Km1n values are seen to lie below those of the approximate curve. The xna'ximum error is about 7 %, but falls to less than 3 % for 40 < € < co, Using tli~same approximation, but this time with a multiplying factor of 7'81/4'00 tlj~ curve for c = 1 has been deduced; in f'jg. 2.30 it is compared with JOHNSON
. and NOEl.'S solution. ..i
The method of analysis is similar to that employed for plntesinlln'i(orm
t·o
0·25
1·'25
0·75 o.,/b" ¢
'Fig. 2.31 One elastically restrained edge"(c ,;;" ·2)
' .. ",,~'i""
74
THE STABILITY UF FLAT PLATES
PLATES I N COM PRLSSION AND SHt.AK
compressr, .viih edge restraint. The deflectionsurface is repre: .d by the
series
~r ~
..
<Os 

~7f ~'1
\ ._
~~~ \ \ '~.
~. ~
.>:  ~ \
~
/' \ \ . .. 
." '.
II V ,
.,.,... , .. '
/ .' \
'"''
V/ __'C
.
v:: / .... 
f I ~
V / /.
~ l j / '
!~5" ~. .; IIIIInnn
"., .. , I···· '.0'$'"
~ • 7TX ~ A . n7Ty
IV = sin =z:»: " sin b '
a n'~ I
(2.109)
where a is the length of the halfwave in the longitudinal direction, and the strain energy in bending of the plate is the same expression as in Eq. (2.96),
i.e.
The work done by the edge forces is the expression given in Eq. (2.101) which can be written more simply as
T ~ (fo~2b~ (I ._:.) I AZn + vocbt I I ~nAqn~ 2' (n ± q = odd). (2.110)
8a 2 II_I a II~.I q (II ~ q )
The energy or the restraining medium is (from Eq, (2.49) ),
30 Kmln
20
fa[(aw) 'J.2
V = !S .;; . d.c,
o 0) y = 0_
where S = ~): as before (see Eq. (2,44) ). Theil,
10
(2.ll1)
Equaling (U + V)and1gives an expressiori. in K, containing coefficients An and A</. This is
2( ~~) ~ Al + 8cK,f,2 ~ ~ AnAi1q =
Kg, 1 2.t.. II 2.t.. s: ( z·· 2)2
"~I 7T ",~I q n q
00 .24>4b2£ 00 nZTrZ
JI A2,,(l + (PZIl2)2 +.~ n~1 A1nfiZ,(2.112)
The coefficients All must be chosen to make the expression for K a minimum. This can be done by differentiating with respect to each coefficient in turn,' and equating to zero to form a system of homogeneous linear equations. Alternatively, the Lagrangian multiplier can be used, and this was the'rirethod employed by JOHNSON and NOEL (21), andearlier (for the particular case c = 2) by SCHUETTE and MCCULLOCH (22). The results are givenin Fig. 2.31 for c = 2, and the relationship between Kmin and E, for'S. number of values of c, in Fig. 2.32.
o o
20
40
60
90
100
Fig. 2.32 One elastically restrained edge (values of Kml~)
2.4:7 Edges y = 0 restrained, y = b free; X= 0, x = a simply supported
W A L K E R (23) has used Galerkin's method to give more accurate values of K than could be derived by the analysis described in § 2.4:1, for a number of the edge conditions already considered. He has also appli'· '. method
to study the condition: edge y = 0 elastically restrained.j = bfree. His values of Km1n for various e values, when c = 0·5 and 1'0, are shown in Fig. 2.33.
" '
',;1"
2.4:8 The approximate form of the buckling coeffidetit '~ , .' .
By using a similar analysis to that described in § 2.1 :12 foruniform cornpression it is possible to produce an approximate but simple expression{ot(he buckling coefficient (BuLSON (24»). It is assumed that the transverse deflections function is independent of plate length, and w is taken as
',' .. :,',, :~
W = A sin ~ ,f(y), a
for a buckled ntode of one halfwave. The strain energy of bendingis given by Eq. (2.56), and the work done by the edge forces (T) is .
T = "2t f f (1  Ct) (~:r dxdy.
76 Equating
TilL S T,\ III LI T Y 0 r I . L ;\ T r L 1\ T [ S Hi T leads to the expression
As before,
(2.115)
when therefore
Km10 = 2Ve} C1 + C3.)~~~~~~i~"· (2.116)
··:~_'~! .. is«:
Assume now that Eq. (2.114) may be applied to anY'eohdition of support along the edges y = 0, y = b, and compare values of KWith those given by an existing solution. For example, a plate in pure bending (c == 2), builtin alongy = O. y = b, has been shown to give a minimumvaltte of K of 39·6 when tP = 0'475. Solving Eq. (2.115) for Ch Cl and C3• from the coordinates
of three points on the KjIp curve, gives '~:'! i" :
C1 = 2·0, c. = 42, C3 = 21·3 (appr6~;atelY)
It can be shown that iff(y) is taken as an infinite series and the edges y = 0, y = b are hinged, the above equation can be written in the same form as Eq. (2.59), i.e.
Sf( that
6 rrI~~~~
(2.] 14)
2
K = </;z + 42</;2 + 21·3.
. (2.1l?)
thus
Values of K computed from this equation can now be compared with the accurate solution, for a number of values of</; (v = 0'25)<
·1 I 1 •
+ 0·30 0,35 0·40 0·45 0·47 0·48 .0'50 0·60 0·70
,. .
... :.l , .
. '. 
K (accurate) 47·3 43·0 40·7 39·7 39·6 39·6,; 39·7 418 45·8
K(Eq.2JI7) 47·3 42·7 40,S 39,7 39·6 39,7.: 39·8 41·9 46·0 • •
rrr~r_~I
4  ~
/
=7 .. ++'
2 !i..~~ .  ,,'
__ _l_+r' ~/l_~' =c_t  
.. ~f f
I
 _ .. _ ... ~!_I _. _
o ~_, __.__. __ r~._. ._~
+ s,
e
c
s
Eq. (2.llS) can apparently be applied to plates with a '~anety of restraints along the edges y = 0, y = b,tq give a close approximation tq the true Kirfo curve. Values orc" Cl and C3 taken from existing solutions are tabulated below. Note that when c = 2 (pure bending) C1 always equals 2·0.
C EDGE CONDITIONS c; .. C2• C3
2 Hinged at y = 0, y = b 2 10 15
2 Builtin at y = 0, y = b 2 42 21·3
2 Hinged at y =0, builtin at y = b 2 11 15
'",'
I Builtin at y = 0, y = b 1·7 9·5 5·6 2.S Rectangular Plates in Shear .,.
2.5:1 Simply supported on all edges .' ~·~~;·.e
The analysis is similar to that employed in § 2.4:1 for plates with linearly varying edge forces, and is again due to TIMOSHENKO (25). It is not possible
('i:~ ~13 One edge elastically restrained, one free (Walker)
PLAT~N COMPRESSION AND SHEAR ..,~
which is 5·34. There JS no point in continuing the gra~h.fo.~ values of l > I, because in analysing the plate the larger side dimension can always be given the designation a, so that tfo = i always exceeds unity, Since the value of K
1 .'i ;i/'~:,f.
when,+ = 1 is 9·34 (= 5·34 + 4'0) it is possible to formulate an approximate
expression linking K and tfo over the entire range, irrespective of.the mode of buckling.
78
THE STABILITY OF fLAT PLATES
in this insi. .e to make assumptions about the number of half es in the
xdirection, and the deflection surface is therefore taken in the form
(2.118)
The strain energy in bending, from Eq. (1.31) is
U = DabTT4 ~ ~ A~,". (mz2 + ~) ,
8 m= I "~I a b
and the work done by the external forces is
i _~ '!.
'. , ,.
'.~
.;.
L ~)~.,;~~ ."~ .. ;~. ,j
.,_ L ~~~
I»1CJL ; 5:~ ::~ /
1 s ~ //
,. ...,.. _" /
'" ,
.:~ \
/SYMMETMC"
1 &UCKI..I:
ANTI SYMMETIlIG·· .j' V
2 &IJ'KL~, ~ I .... ';;. '. .,
SYMMfT~IG"3 &U'Kles~ "
. \ ....
/~ \= 5'''4 + 4/"
.... I
r fafbaH' ow
T = ~T;r;yt :;: T d.v dy,
o 0 v.\. vy
(2.119)
which gives
(2~ 120)
where (m + p) and (n + q) are odd numbers.
Equating U and T gives a value for ('x,,).,, containing coefficients which must be chosen 10 make this value a minimum. This is done by differentiating the expression for {r x")cr with respect to each coefficient in turn, and equating to zero. Cafe must betaken in choosing pairs of values of m and n; this is because T involves the integration of multiples of sine and cosine terms. The equations are of the type
K
7
2 1 1 2 32(p K ~ ~'A . mnpq
Am.(m 1 Il <p) + ~p±'l (,.sI 1'(1 (mZ _ pZ)(n2 _ qZ)'
and can be set down in two groups that can be solved separately. One conrains constants A",,, for which (m + /j) is odd and represents antisymmetric buck li ng (i.e. 1 he buckle pattern gives deflections in opposite senses near opposite edges of the plate). The other contains constants for which (m + n) is even, and represents symmetric buckling (i.e, the deflections are in the same sense near opposite edges of the plate). STEIN and NEFF (26) solved these equations for two groups of ten equations.The first (symmetric) group contains the linked values (m = I, n = I), (m = I, It = 3), (m == 2, n'= 2), etc. The second (antisyrnmetric) group contains (m == I, 11 = 2), (m = 2, n = I), (m = 2, II = 3), etc.
Their results are shown in Fig. 2.34. Note that the lowest value of K, when
0·5 < ~ < 1,0 is asso~iated with one large buckle (symmetric). and when.
. 0·3 < ~ < 0·5 it is linked with two large buckles (antisymmetric). For lower
,I "J] I' 1 r . f' . 1 I I .I )
values ot '0' f... rapt Y upprouc 1CS Its \'a U~ lor an III uutc y ong p .' .~. == 0 ,
(2.121)
6
e
0·+
0·6
0·.,:
b/a.
Fig. 2.34 Simply supported plates in shear (S~i~c~rid Neff)
Thus,
'·0
, ), »>:
K = 5'34 + ~?, (tfo > l)'At~r;~~ (2.122)
a parabola shownin Fig. 2.34, and suitable for desi8tf~~q,oses. Remember that K is associated with the side b in the usual fonnula.· '.
.. K zE (t) z ::,'<~i~~{
'T~. == 12(111'_ ;J2) b' ,.:.>k.'~;.~ .
. k':!I't",o",
The curves in Fig. 2.34 are the result of an approxjniti1ff~alysis, although the value of K = 9·' ~ = 1 is the result of an extremely close approxima
, ,'~
"e>CJ .1 L 1 L ..} 1. .r.L U 1 L.. 1 1 l. V ...\ 1. ~ I ..... .L .1. "" J " 1 .&...... o....l'
tion and rr ' 'it be considered accurate. The value of 5·34 {rfo = o:' " ":':lct and
comes fro, .. n analysis by SOUTHWELL and SKAN (27). ~,
2.5:2 Builtin on all edges
This condition has been considered in detail by BUDIANSKY and CONNOR (28) who computed K values from an analysis by the Lagrangian multiplier method. The results, which take into account antisymmetric as well as symmetric modes of buckling, are stated to be within 1'25% of the true value
16
"
I! " L K Ie e'9S of. 5.6/¢!L
b1C3~ 7
1 8 ~
~ '"'7' '7 ~
a., /
K
/: SYMMETR.IC.
~ ANTI SYMMETRIC.

SYMMETRIC
< 14
12
K
10
o
0·'
0·4
'·0
b/o.
Fig, 2.35 Builtin plates in shear (Budiansky and Connor)
. of the buckling coefficient. They are shown in Fig. 2.35, with an approximate
parabolic curve given by the formula . A .
I 5·6
K = 8·98 + 17"' (rfo > 1)
(2.123)
which is suitable for design. The value 8·98 (rp = 00) is exact, and was computed by SOUTHWELL and SKAN (27) at the same time as they solved simply supported plates.
2.5:3 Edges y = 0, y = b builtin; x = 0, x = II simply supported
On the assumption that the builtin edges are the longest edges (i.e. 4> > 1), COOK and ROCKEY (29) have produced the solution plotted in Fig. 2.36.
1 . . ...
r.L..('\..l.c~ J..L"; \._..v l'''A.J.:,J'\.i..,....)..,).1. V 1'" il. .... .ILJ 1J.1J..i..... ... IL........ "1
Included in this figu r.~ference, are the K values for x = 0, X= a built
y = 0, y = b simplJ"'~ __ orted, and also the values given by Eq. (2.12",) and (2.123). For design purposes the values of 4> are taken from 1 to 3; at this stage the curves are rapidly becoming asymptotic to the K values at tP = 00. Less accurate results by IGUCHI (30) (who did not consider the antisymmetric buckling mode) are shown as the dotted curves.
16 L " L L L...., '
1~~
1 ~
, . ,
.
L.. L L
1C3~
1 s . ~
~ ~ ~ ... 7 K
10
20
a./b .. ~
Fig. 2,36 Shear buckling coefficient for various edge con_ditions
2.5:4 Edges y = 0, y = h elastically restrained
STOWELL (31) examined this case by employing the energymethod, and also the exact analysis to solve the differential equation of equilibrium. The energy method was. used to produce approximate values of K fora range of 4> and coefficient of restraint e, Certain results were then obtained by .the
exact sol 1 and the error found; with these as a guide a c ction was
made to the approximate solution.
In the energy solution, oblique coordinates were used, because under shear buckling conditions the nodal lines are inclined at an angle to the side of the plate. The oblique coordinates (x, y) are related to the cartesian coordinates (x', y') through the equations
x' = x  y sin 8,} l' = y cos 8,
where
(2.130)
82
THE STABlLITY OF FLAT PLATES
(2.124)
The buckling coefficient is therefore a function of .p, E and e. The angle of inclination (8) will adjust itself for given values of 4> and € to make K a minimum. By differentiating Eq, (2. t 29) with respect to e, and setting equal to zero, it can be shown that
where + is the angle ofinclination of the nodal lines. In the oblique coordinate system, the expression for strain energy of bending (V) is given by
(2.131)
(2.125)
JI ~r~~~
..
and the work done by the edge forces is
f~ JI {ow ow (ow) 2. }
T = TXyt b, :!!. ax oy + oX sm edxdy.
2 2
(2.126)
9
6 I
~~~~~~4~~~~+~~~~
The expression for the energy in the two elastic restraining mediums (see Eq, (2.42» becomes,
s J~ caw oW. J2
V = 2r'. e 0 + 'a sin e dx
cos::,!! y x y=~
2 . ~
. S ri caw ow. ;12
+2cos28Ji ay+oxsm8Jy=~ldx. (2.127)
Using the Slime deflection function as Eq. (2.48), but expressed in oblique coordinates,
I
w 0: B[2~:2 (y%  b,() + (1 +;) cos rJ cos m;x. (2.128)
.
11rt~~~~rr~~~?~~I&
where
7
b
b1 = cos O·
When T = U + V, it can be shown by substituting the expression for w in Eq. (2.125), (2.126) and (2.127), that
04
0·,
10
1·1 1,6
o../b.~
Fig. 2~ 1'7 "Elastically restrained edges (Stowell)
._;..._ .. _._
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
3 2"1
iC3  cp2
C. = 4C3 + C2f2'
3
cp2
C.=
" 4C3 + C2cp2'j
When values of tP and f: have been selected, Cl and C3 can be found from Eq. (2.130) and substituted in Eq. (2.132) to give C4 and Cs. cp is found from Eq. (2.131) and used in Eq. (2.129) to deduce K.
Using this method, and applying the correction discussed earlier, the curves in Fig. 2.37 were produced by STOWELL (31). In Fig. 2.38 values of Km1n are compared with E.
84
where
(2.132)
10
9
100
~
~ ..,...
/ ,r
I
I
I &0 I
.._ .._ .._ .._
l~ e
€
H+ .__, ~ ..,. ,
I e Kmin
7
6
5 o
20
40
60
C
Fig. 2.38 Km1n for plates of infinite length (Stowell)
2.5:6 One edge builtIn, three edges simply supported
COOK and ROCKEY (32) have developed solutions for this cas2, when the builtin edge is (a) the short edge, (b) the long edge. For desigripurposes the values of cp are not taken above 5; at thisstage the curves are ~~coming
PLATF"'r COMPRESSION AND SHEAR ?~
asymptotic to the ~'_'/3 at cp = 00. The results are shown ill Fig. 2.3 •. The value K = 7·07 for cp = 00 is taken from all extension to the theory of ~ SOUTHWELL and SKAN (27).
1.6 Rectangular·Plates under Combined Loading 2.6:1 Loogitadb'lll·beading and compression, lateral comp,r~iont$'DlPty
supported~ges . . .. ' .
A general theoretical analysis of this type of loading is du~tdNOEL(14), The same deflectioJ1 form is used as Eq. (2.97) for bending and ~orl1pr¢ssiOrl only, and the linearly distributed edge forces are defined·by,Eq. (2.99).
Then, taking . . . .. . ..
. . I1mx ~ . nny
W= smk Ansmb, a n~1
If
\.
~\
\,
\' ,
\ <,
\ " ....
\ \
,
I,
<, <,
........... I 10
9
K
7
6
5
1 o.,/b = ¢
Fig. 2.39 Shear buckling of plates with one builtin Rockey)
the strain energyin bending, as before, is given by
U _ Dab,"· ~ A2 (1 + n2)1
 81I~ n a2 b2 •
.:~ £_'L
. ... ,.:
The wor' ~one by the linearly distributed edge forces in thelongitudlnal
direction, .iich produce bending and compression, is (from I: 2.100) ),
t; = a2t (I  C:) f I: (~:) l dx dy,
and the work done by the lateral compression is
(2.135)
a faft> (aw) l
Tz = 2 0 0 ay dx dy.
(2.136)
Substituting for w, and integrating, the total work done (T) becomes
t'2.I37)
11 rr,
1II111111l1111l1lllU r.
~.E:3 '~.I
U1111111111111111111
10 t:"+.j
K;t. 0·5
6 ~___\_~~~~_~~~~_l0.,5
1
.A
o ~ ~ __ ~ __ ~~~~~ ~ ~
0;4
0·&
10
1·1 16
a./b¢
Fig. 2.40 Rectangular plates under combined loading (c ~I) (Noel)
(2.138)
The values of X" for a fixed K, are minimised with respect to An by taking the derivatives with respect to each coefficient in turn and equatirig to zero. This leads to a system of n equations
An[O + nl,pl)l  Kv,p4n2  K",pZ( 1 ~) J :2 c,p2Kx ~ (n:~:2)2 = O •. (2.139) which are similar to Eq. (2.102), but with the addition of the term in K".
NOEL'S (14) results for c = 1. giving the variation of K" with ,pfor set
values of Kv. are shown in Fig. 2.40. .
By representing the end loading as a combination of pure bending Ciao) at the edges, 0 at centre) and direct compression (ax), it is possible to construct
interaction charts which link (ao) , (a,,) and (a)F , and g.ive the limiting
ao cr a" cr av cr
values of the stresses to cause instability. These are expressedas a fraction
0·1. 0'4 0'0 A,S "0
~
lO'~)".
Fig. 2.41 Combined loading (rfo = l) (Noel)
D
 ~~I.I. . __ . I!":_l':'::::":'l,, y __ , c, __ • ._. __ ••••••
of the critical stress for each type or loading appued In isoiauon. rorexampie,
Fig. 2.41 ws the relationship between the stress ratios for if: and Fig.
2.42 show, .he relationship for ~ = co. NOEL (14) gives mall}'  .rcurves,
embracing a comprehensive range of cp values.
r: 1111111111111111111 ~=] ,.~
ll[~ ! ~]Il
r.; 1111111111111111111:]
0"1j
o
o O'l 0·+ 0·6 0·& 1·0
O"~
(~)""
Fig. 2.42 Combined loading{.p = (0) (Noel)
The particular case when c = 0, and the plate is in compression in two directions has already been treated in § 2.3. It is, of course, a special case of the above analysis. It can be shown that for square panels, when c= 0,
, r: r I ax Up  1 I
rr»» ) I_J~ ~'() +()  'l
ax cr (Jy cr
! ";'\~ ,~...:J r»
and this 'js confirmed in Fig. 2.41 (when (Clo). = 0).
ao cr
(2.140)
2.6:2 Shear and uniform longitudinal compression (a) Infinitely long plate, restrained edges
The equation of equilibrium for a rectangular plate under shear and uniform compression in the direction of the longitudinal axis is
um ... ..,1_=_.7_:.....L~c:~.t.u __ .. LL_. __ ::Ll AmL_cJ'u_uL
{trW 20'11' ~'1v L ()~I' OLrv
D ax' + r lyl + w) + 2'Txyt axay + uJ(;t axl =0, (2.14.1)
and the method ~S~iiltion of this equation has been given by STOWELL andSCHWAR TZ (33). They also extended the energy solution for plates under shear only. given in § 2.5:4. The analysis is similar, with the addition of another term expressing the work done by the compressive force. Thus, Eq. (2.125) and (2.126) still apply; but the work done by the edge forces now becomes
T = 'Txvt J~ f~ {ow ow + (aw) 1 sin e} dxdy
b, a ax oy ax
'"'2 '2 b, a
+ uit J~b' J:a (~:) 2 dx.dj,
22
The deflection surface is assumed to be the same as for shear only, i.e.
II' = B [2~:2 (yl  b~2) + ( I + i) cos i:] cosm;x,
where b, = co~ o' Substituting for win Eq. (2.125), (2.127) and (2.142) and .
(2.142) .
equating strain energy and work done, gives Krr2D
(1" = """"'i7t  2Txy tan (J,
(2~143)
where
K = CO!28[cp2C~S2(J + C1cpzCOS2 (J + C3(l + 2 sin18)J. .. ~(~,~ft)
:."".'~{.~'/'
and Cz and C3 are given by Eq. (2.130). . ..',:;:';;Fi
The angle of inclination (8)' and the aspect ratio cp, will adjust to m,~ke' tI,;, a minimum, so that
(~.]45l·
Using these equations, and considering fixed values of r xv and €, we get 1
~ == (C2)! cos 8,(2.146)
and
(2;]47)
Substituting the above expressions in Eq. (2.143) and (2.144) gives
_ . ilD T)}b2t· (
UI' ~ (2VCz + CJ) b1t  (2VC2 + 3C3}rr1D' 2.148)
We have earlier (§ 2.1: 12) that (2yCz + C3) 7T:l~ is the criti'' tress (ax)cr in pure compression. Further it can beshown from Eq. (2.129) and (2.131) that the critical value of shear stress for pure shear (., .n)m is
so that
. (2.149)
Substituting in (2.148)
(2.150)
or r. f( a~ + [( "x)Y J2 = I..J ..J) 1 J2.1S1)
C 1#/1) ax"" TXye,_ Y .
Note that this simple formula is based on (a) an assumed deflection, and
_jb) a coefficient of restraint independent of plate length. By comparingfigures from this formula with the exact solutlon.wr owsr.t. and SCHWARTZ (33) showed that its accuracy was within 1 % over a wide range of values, and . in the worst case only a few per cent in error. For engineering purposes it is a powerful formula, and is shown in graphicalform in Fig. 2.43.
L L ' '
I [=: .] I
¢ >1 10
O~
o
.... ~
~I
''\
, ~
\ o 0·2 0·4 ce os Ie ,.~
{1xyJ,1"
Fig_ 2.43 Shear and compression, restrained edges, '" > 1 (Stowe11and
Schwartz) '.' .', ..•..
y
1· •..
:;.'
(b) Simply supp~ plates, t/> < 1 ~
The interaction I...nula Eq. (2.151) does not hold when t/> c 1. The ern.cal combinations of shear and compression for these cases have been evaluated by BATDORF and STEIN (34). The energy methodwas used, but the oblique coordinate system was replaced by a deflection function in the form of an infinite series. The analysis, therefore, was very similar to that given in § 2.5:1 for pure shear, but with the addition of a term representing the work done by the end compression forces. The work done by the external forces is
JdJ6awaw axtJdJ6(OW)2 .'
T = 1'x~t 0 0 ax oy dx dy +:"2 0 0 ox dx dy,
(2.152)
and taking
'" eo • mnx . n7Ty
W = I I Amnsmsmb '
m~IIl~1 . a
the expression for T becomes
T _L .. ~ .. ~ ~ ~"" A",".Al"lmnpq
 "f'Txvt . .,_ ~.,_ (1 1)( 2 2)
m=llI=lp=lq= m p q n
l tb '" '"
+ ~ I I m2JJ.2mll•
Sa lit = 1 11=1
(2.153)
Equating U and T gives an expressioncontaining K; and K¥y~the buckling coefficients in pure end compression and pure shear. Carryingouttheprocedure given in § 2.5:1 to choose coefficients Amn to makethesebuckling coefficients a minimum, leads to a set of homogeneous Iinear~quat~orl~?Hhe.
~ .. :~~
A..[(m' + '"+'l' K.m"9 + 3U~K"J,t A M(m'  ;:Z'2Jt'l.J~§'~T .
which is similarto Eq. (2.121), but with the addition of thetermlrtK;2'xwo groups of equations, representing symmetric and antisymme~ri~bll~~nng can be arranged, and solved by the use of determinants .. 1JA'.fDOT{FJ~nd. STEIN (34) produced a solution for groups of ten equatiorts,Whic~itbey believed gave coefficients Krr accurate to within 1 % for give~values;6f4>~hd .
«; ......•..•...... . ...".
Their result.s •.• ··.in the form of an interaction curve betwee~.·.· ••. ( .. iU .. x) .. and .. ( ..... 1:#)'. ".
...... axcr ·.7xyc,
are shown in Fig. 2.44; for values of + between 0 and 1.' . .
2.6:3 Shear aDd uniform transverse compression
(a) Infinitely long plate,reJtrained edges
The equation of equilibrium for this condition is
{04IV. 204w 04W} OlW 82~.'
D ox4+ oxZoy2 + oy4 + 2T.xi (ixily + ayt ayi=O,
0·6 f.!=~k=''''''''''''~~+i 1X11 0.6 \.:lIf"'«~_T__"'II
(1xv),,"
0·4 ~__JIl'I~'\\I
...
o 0·2 04 0·& os ,·0
.ox, ~
Fig. 2.44 Shear and compression, restrained edges, '" < 1 (Batdorf and Stein)
and the method of solution has been given by BA TO ORF and HOUBOLT (35). The energy method was also used in a manner similar to that used in § 2.6:2(a). The change is in the work done by the edge forces, which now becomes
T = T xvt J~ l {~: ~ + (~:) 2 sin o} dxdy + (12t J~ Ji (~W) 2 dx dy.
61 a· Y 61 a y (2156)
2' '2 22"'.
Assuming the same deflection surface as for shear only, substituting for w, and equating strain energy and work done, leads to an expression for Kx, in terms of K; cp, E and the angle of inclination e.
For given values of E and Ky, Kxl' is minimised with respect to", and 8 (seeEq. (2.145) ).'
This leads finally to an expression for K"v{rxv = K"v~~), in the fonn
Kx/ = 4C1 + 3C2(CZ  Kv) + (4C2  K,,)[2(2C1  CzK,)1*, (2.157)
where
(2. t 58)
and
1:f!j O'6~+_+t"~~
(1xy),~
O·41ltttIj
0·11_1_+_+1_1
o , __ ~~ __ ~ __ ~ ~~
o 0·2 04 0·6 O·S 1·0
cr~
(O'~"r'
Fig. 2.45 Shear and compression. restrained edges (Batdorfand Houbolt)
This solution is based on (a) an assumed deflection, and Cb)e Independent of plate length. Note, however, that in contrast to § 2.6:2(a), there is no single
formula connecting the stress coefficients (. flJl) and ('T',,)p ,and moreover the
GJI cr 7':r.;v cr .
connection is not independent of e. The interaction curves were given by BATDORF and HOUBOLT (35) for € = 0,2,5, 10 and oo,a.rtd these are shown in Fig. 2.45. The curve for e = 0 (simple support) is thesameas that. for cp = 0 for plates in longitudinal compression and shear in ,Fig. 2.44.
_'t_'lI_l' :l ~ ..... __
94
THE STABILITY U1' 1LA J )'LA I t:~
(b):" ly supported plate, 1 < 1> < 00
For shorter plates it is not possible to use the oblique coorainate system, but the deflection function is taken as an infinite series. The work done by external forces is
T = r",yt ~a ~b~: ~~ dx dj + it ff (~;r dxdy,
which leads finally to a system of linear equations similar in form to Eq. (2.154). These are
(2.159)
A [( 2 2.1,.2)2 _ K 2J.4] 321>3 Kxy ~ ~ A mnpq  0
"'n m + n 't' ~n 't' + 2 k k pq (2 2)( 1 2)  .
1T p= 1 q= I m  P n  q
(2.160)
The results are the same as those given in Fig. 2.44 for 1> < 1, direct end compression and shear, but with the values of 1> in reciprocal form. For clarity, this figure, with the changed designation, is presented as Fig. 2.46.
~
1111I111[!~Hllllm
1~L 11~L
_,. __, __,.
IIllHUlIlIlIlIDm
;>1
1·0 I""IIO::'~~'_.r'
o·Sf+=~~~:::!I'IIl~:.....j..._l
~
'..;', 0·6 VXY'I"
o L __ L~L_ __ ~ __ ~ __ J
o 01. 0·4 o·g 0·& 1·0
0""
(~)'I'
Fig. 2.46 Shear and compression, simply supported e(l ..... "
. )
_.,J."
!
,I,
I
I
... ~·······~···· ..  .. _...:. __ o .. ~._ .. __ ~_. __ ._~ .. ,_··'·~···'_"_'··_'_"_~.'I;c.J ~J ,~_ •. J. ...  ..• ;. t. ,.~.L_ ..... _": ....... __ L
2.6:4 Sheat a~ngitudinal bending and compression
(a) Combined'ilar and pure bending, simply supported plate
This case was solved by WAY (36) in 1936. The deflection function was taken as a double infinite series, as in the previous section, and the work done by external forces was found from the equation
T = ~",t f t~: ~; dx dy + ~o (1  2t)t f f (~:r dxdy. (2.161)
The strain energy of bending was given by Eq. (1.31). Equating energy and work done leads eventually to a system of linear equations similar in form to Eq. (2.154). These are
( 2 2.1,.z\2] 321>3 Kx, ~ ~ mnpq
Am" [m + n'l' J + 1Tl p~1 q~l (ml _ pl)(n1 _ q2)
16tf.l Kxm DO nq
2 1: A",q ( 1 1)Z = O. (2.162)
1T q= 1 n  q
The calculations made by WAY used an Sthorder determinant embodying the terms Au, Au, Au. Alb All. Al3, All and A33• His results, in the form of an
interaction curve between (170) and ('I"x)" »are shown for various values of
170 cr rxy CO'
1> between 0·5 and 1·0 in Fig. 2.47. The curves alllie within a narrow zone,
•
o 0·2 0'4 0·6 O'S 1'0 1%13
(1xy),,.
Fig. 2.47 Combined shear and pure bending (Way)
96 THE ~l AI:HLll Y U~ r LA 1 l' LA !J::.~
and for .Jzsign purposes are normally replaced by a single cu of a quadrant of a circle. Thus:
(~)1 + (_!a_)1= 1
(ao)cr (T~)')cr . .
(b) Combined shear, pure bending, and transverse compression, infinitely long plate
(i) Compression edge (bending) simply supported or elastically restrained,' tension edge (bending) simply supported;
This problem was solved by JOHNSON and BUCHERT (37) in 1951. The deflection surface was taken as
1.hc form
(2.163)
• 'lTX ~ • n'ITy 'lTX ~ B . n'ITy
W = SIfl ~ A"smb + cos  ~ "smb J
a,,~1 a:·,,_1
. (2.164)
where a is the length of a halfwave in the longitudinal direction. Thisfunction satisfies the conditions w)'~o = 0, Wy~~ = 0, :(~2~) = O. The rotation of y )'~o
the edge y = b is assumed to be expressed as
• '7TX 'lTX
8 = 01 Sm + O2 cos , (2.165)
a a
where 01 and 82 are constants. In order that (aaw) = 8y=b, the following
Y )' =b
expressions for (}1 and (}2 are used:
'IT «> }
81 = b 1t~1 nA,,(l)", .
(2.166)
1"( '" .
8z = b I nBll)w.
"1
It has been shown earlier that the strain energy in bending is given by the expression
U = ~f f [(~; + ~;r 2(1 v)(~; ~~  (::~Yr)J dxdy + !1" S[(BaW) .... Jz dx,
o y ~=b
where I S = ~€ (see Eq. (2.44) )."
The edge forces are: s, = (1  2:)I1~t; N{= l1yt; Nxv = 1';tIyt; (2,167) so that the work done during buckling is
jajb[( 2y) (aw)Z (BY)! (OW OW)] ..
T =! 0 0 1 7) aut ax  l1~t By.·. + 2TXyt ax By .dxdy,
(2.168) Applying the principal of minimum potential energy (see § L2:4), the total potential energy (U + T) must be minimised with respect to all independent
(m ± n always odd).
1,0
 . ~
.....; I'.....

~ ~ ~
~'" ~" 1\.,
, r\\ ~
1'0 o.~~\ oyf
. ~
\ 1\: .\
1\
I
.
I' ,.,
...
. 0·1
o
o
.1·0
0+ oe
1:t11
(1:1.Y),f'
Fig. 2,48 Combined shear, compression and bending (Johnson and Buchert)
0·1
98
THE STABILlTY OF iLAT PLAT!::.!:) C!'"
C~= 1 IlItlllIIIlI1I II[ .: ]
...... .._ .._
  
0 
 ! 
 r 05 L
~ »> ~
I 
/ l'Sb z:
(f.;k; /"'"
I \ V
(I'''>, O'y
I / V
I I
{ /
I
, 1 1'0" . ....,. . a;,
[IIIII"lItllllllllf]
1,0
[:~ 1111IIIIII!l1111111 ==]
IrL : ~] \
   ""'"7 , '7  •  'to
[:~]0I1111!1I11111111 ::J
e
o.s
0·6 0·6
tt 1"!f
("',r '1*'Ar
0·4 0·4 {, 0·2
1·0
0·6
0,1
e
o to o
0'2
0,4
0.6
tt (0',.)""
Fig. 2.49 Combined shear, compression and bending
(Johnson and Buchert)
Th~ ~inimisati~n can be carried out by the Lagrangian multiplier method. This is.accomplished by formulating the function G, where
G = U + T  rl[81  i ~ nA.( 1)"J ~Yl [02 ::: f nB.( _1)"1, (2.170)
"I ,b.=, J
and Y1 and Yz are the Lagrangian multipliers (see § 1.2:7). The potential
energy is a minimum when '
8G 8G 'eo GG GG 8G
8At = oBI =881 = a8% = aYl = ay! = O. (2.171)
Performing these differentiations leads to an infinite set of homogeneous linear simultaneous equations in the unknowns All, Bn, 81> 8,. 'll;; Y2' These
)'
'\ tll),r
Fig. 2.50 Combined shear, compression and bending (Johnson and Buchert)
equations have a nontrivial solution if their determinant is zero. For simply supported compression edges t: = 0, 'and the solution has been given by JOHNSON and BUCHERT (37), who used a tenthorder determinant. This is shown in Figs. 2.48 to 2.50 in the form of interactioncurves connecting th~
.. 1 . 0'0 O'y "xv
cnnca stress ratios ( ) '( ) '() •
0'0 cr Uy cr r x~ C'
(ii) Compression edge (bending) builtin; tension edge (bending) stmpty supported
By setting t: equal to co, a solution can be derived for this condition from the above analysis. However, Johnson and Buchert found.it advisable to use a deflectionfunction which satisfies, term by term, the boundary conditions.
100 THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
The func::tltm chosen was
PLATr IN COMrR~S~ON AND Slti:J\K
~. [:: 1IIIIIIIlIt!Iltltll::]
\[~ : ~]j
,. ,. ,.
c:: Illllllllllllllllll:::J
'.0 tr_::~~=~:::...==::,
• rrx ~ A . mry TTX ~ B . my
IV = sin  £., " sin 2li + cos  £., n sin 2b'
a nl,3,5... a "=1,3,5 ...
where a is the length of the halfwave in the longitudinal direction. The deflection of the compression edge is assumed to be expressed as
(2.172)
• rrX 'lTX
S = 81 Sln + 82 cos,
a . a
(2.173)
where 01 and 82 are constants, In order that (lV)p" b = Oy;: b the following expressions for 01 and O2 are used:
(2.174)
00 "_1}
01 = I An(I)2· = 0,
"=1,3.' ...
<>0 nl
82 = I Bn(1)2 = O.
n=I.3,S ...
O'6~~ __ ~~~~~+~~+;
~ 11y
l~)", ~r
0·4 b,.£t+I!+t¥t~
[::: LI!lIIIIIIIIIIIIIII:::]
" .._ ..._ 00
v: :. ~~]l
;0. ....,. ......,
r.: 1IIIIIIIItlIIIIIIII :::J
1·0
r., 
..... r, ~ <, r;
, \ 'r'\ r,
~ \ \ \
,
.
I / f.'" j
/ 7 / .11 I
O'9f/ a"i 0'10 11_ :r_ 0/
I
I·" / / / V 2.7 Rectangular Plates Compressed by a Stress Varying Linearly in.the Direction of Loading
2~7:1 Simply supported on all edges, uniform thickness
A solution to this problem was presented in 1949 bYLIDOVE, FERDM.AN and REUSCH (38).The compression is not uniform, but varies from one
0·4 0'0
iL
(0"0)"",
Fig. 2.52 Combined shear, compression and bending
(one edge builtin) .'
The minimisation procedure of the total potential energyis carried out.in a similar way to the previous solution, and the resulting fourteenthorder determinant was solved to provide a basis for the curves shown in Fig. 2.51 to 2.53.
02
o o
0+
0·1
'·0
\.'2
0·8
0·6 1%y
(1~)",
Fig. 2.51 Combined shear, compression and bending (one edge builtin)
.r
lUI
·. '~' ... ..,... ._", .  _ ... _.
102
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
PLATES iN
.f'~
J L
J L
J b L
1 t
 1 ~ 
1~~~x ~ __ ==~==t
"'min , , "7 ~ ~ 0'1I14X.
COM P I{ L:iS ION
Af'<U :,11L/\t"
j\,_)
0·5 t+''"'oo.v..:~:__..,_~_+_.....,..._t
!=L
(f:q,J, ..
O·&~++~+~~~~~
Fig. 2.54 End compression varying linearly in the direction.of loading
oc.
. (ttl,,"
Fig. 2.53 Combined shear, compression and bending (one edge builtin)
...
o .1'" o
0·4
{ ( 1  r) 2x .2r l
(J x = (JOt1 i + rei + 1 + r f'
(2.175) )
loaded edge to the other, the difference being equilibrated by sheatstresses along the other two edges, as shown in Fig; 2.54. It can be shownthat this stress condition is possible, with regard to equilibrium and conti1l.Ujty, and a
.. practical example is the skin of an aeroplane wing in bending. .>
The stress (Jx, at a distance x from the line x = 0, which vad~slinear1y
between Um•n and 0'0, is given by the expression ..
e
OJ. 04 0·"
0;..,..
0.,;"
104
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
PLAT~IN COMPRESSION AND ~V a, = O.
aav(1r)(2Y 1)
T;q = T 1 + r Ii  .
The boundary conditions for a simple support are satisfied term by term by the double Fourier series.
SHEAR
IUS
where 0,," ; compressive stress at the centre of the plate,
(2.176)
a = plate length.
It can be shown that for no transverse compressive stress and no component of pure shear on the plate, for the loading condition given,
co 00 • mnx . n'll'y
w = I I A"'lIsmsmb'
111=1,,1 ,a
¢
and substituting this value for w into the expressions for strain energy of bending and work done by edge forces. leads to the equation
U + T = r~{av{m~l n~l A2mM~CfL(,;z + +nzf  mZ]
10
...... T
K
......._ r
r<,
i...
......; r,
W "t I~~ " $\'' or
e;
.....:.. ~ ~
i il ~~~PI I~ 11
CiI.i" ~ _, ...., CTI'M1'
..._ r!
r.. t.
..;;;:::: r...
r.
 1·41

 1
IH
0 50
where'
K _ a"p tb1 "p  wlD·
(2.178)
20
The coefficients AIM. as. for example. in Eq. (2.101), must now be chosen to make U + Ta minimum. Differentiating (U + T) with respect to each coefficient in term, and setting the resulting function equal to zero leads to a set of linear homogeneous simultaneous equations of the type
o 0·+ 0.2,
o
0·2
1·0
r[ 1 (m1 )1 :1 (1 _') co mp(m'1. + pl)
AIIIRS Kav ""f + ~n1. m1J + 1 + r 'P~l AplI (ml _ pl)Z
, (p ± m odd)
_4(1 ') I I A mnpq = O. (2.179)
1 +, pl q=l P4(ql  n2)(ml _ pl)
(p ± m odd. q ± n even)
The solution can be written in determinantal form. and its accuracy depends on the number of terms taken. LIBOVE, FERDMAN and REUSCH (38) obtained the solutions for (O'O)cr and (aav)~r shown in Fig. 2.SS to 2.57. for various values of ~ and r, The main conclusion was that when buckling takes place the stress of the more highly loaded end of the plate may be much greater than the uniform buckling stress for the plate; but the average stress in the plate at buckling is less than the uniform buckling stress.
O'lI\i~ O"MoW
Fig. 2.56 Kmn for plates with end compression varying in direction
. thl
of load (Libove, Ferdman and Reusch) K« .. = (1m .. n2D
106
THE STABILlTY Ur I·LA I I'Ll\! t.:;:,
7. Bleich, F., J1I.N._ing Strength of Metal Structures (McGrawHill, )\.'~w York). 1951_ . 436.
8. Levy, S., Journal Appl. Mech., Vol. 9, Dec. 1942, p. A.17l.
9. Timoshenko, S. P., and Gere, J. M., Theory of Elastic Stability (Mcflraw
Hill, New York), 1961, p. 342.
10. Wittrick, W. H., Aeronautical Quarterly, Feb, 1963, p. 17.
11. Bryan, G. H., Proc. London, Math. Soc., Vol. 22, p. 54, 1891.
12. Przernieniecki, J. S .• Journal Roy. Aero. Soc., Vol. 59, Aug. ]955, p. 566.
13. Libove, C., and Stein, M., N.A.C.A., A.R.R., W.R. L224, 1946.
14. Noel. R. G., Journal Aero. Sci., Vol. 19, No. 12, Dec. 1952, p. 829. ] 5. Wittrick, W. H., Aero. Research Lab. Report SM 234, Sept. 1955.
16. Shuleshko, P., Journal Appl. Mech., Sept. 1956.
17. Shuleshko, P., Journal Appl, Mech., Dec. 1957. .
18. Tirnoshenko, S. P., and Gere, J. M., Theory of Elastic Stcihtlity (McGrawHill, New York), 1961, p. 373.
19. Nolke. K., Der Baningenleur, Vol. 17. p. Ill, 1936.
20. Kollbrunner, C. F., and Herrmann, G., Elastische Beulung von auf einseitgen ungleichunbigen Druk beanspruchten platten. Mitte de; T.K. V.S.B., H.I., p, 28. Zurich: Leeman, 1948.
21. Johnson, J.H., and Noel, R. G., Journal Aero. Sci., Vol. 20, No. 8,Aug.
1953, p. 535. "
22. Schuette, E. H., and McCulloch, J. C., N.A.C.A., Tech. Note No. 1323; cO
1947. . .... _
23. Walker, A. C., Thinwalled Structures (ed. A. H. Chilver), (Chattoan4
Windus, London), 1967, p. 208. ..;; ,
24. Bulson, P. S., Journal Roy. Aero. Soc., Jan. 1967, p. 37.' .. ' .....•. ,1/)
25. Tirnoshenko, S. P., and Gere, J. M., Theory of Elastic StabilitY(M~r.aw:
Hill, New York), 1961. p. 379. . ··i:~:'.;,n;
26. Stein, M., and Neff, J., N.A.C.A., Tech. Note No. 1222, 1947.
27. Southwell, .R. V., and Skan, S. W., Proc. Roy. Soc., London, Series A,
Vol. lOS, No. 733, May 1924. .'
28. Budiansky.B., and Connor, R. W., N.A.C.A., Tech. Note No.J559, 1948. .
29. Cook, 1. T., and Rockey, K. C., Aeronautical Quarterly, Vol. 14, Nov.
1963. .
30. Iguchi. S., IngenieurArchiv., Part 9, 1938, p. 1.
31. Stowell. E. Z., N.A.C.A., A.R.R. W.R., No. 3K12, 1943.
32. Cook, 1. T., and Rockey, K. C., Aeronautical Quarterly, Vol. 14, Nov. 1963.
33. Stowell,E.Z., and Schwartz, E. B., N.A.C.A., A.R.R. W.R., No. 3K13, 1943.
34. Batdorf, S.B., and Stein, M., N.A.C.A., Tech. Note No. 1223. March 1947.
35. Batdorf, S. B., and Houbolt, r. C., N.A.C.A., Tech. Rep. No. 847, .1946.
o k_ __ ~ ~ ~ __ ~
0·4  0·2
o 0·2
~ O'~
Fig. 2.57 K •• for plates with end compression varying in direction of load (Libove, Ferdman and Reusch)
REFERENCES
1. Timoshenko, S. P., and Gere, J. M., Theory of Elastic Stability (McGraw
Hill, New York), 1961, p. 330. .''1
2. Lundquist, E., and Stowell, E. Z., N.A.C.A., Tech. Rep. No. 733, 1942.
3. Lundquist, E., and Stowell, E. Z., N.A.C.A., Tech. Rep,p.No.734, 1942.
4. Bleich, F., Buckling Strength of Metal Structures (~cGrawHm, New York), 1952, p. 322.
5. Kollbrunner, C. F., and Meister. M., Ausbeulen (Springer Verlag, Berlin), 1958, p. 167.
6. Schleicher, F., Die Knick Spannungen Von eingespannten rechteckigen Platten, Mitt. Forschungsanstatt, Gutehoffnungshiute Konzerno, Vol. I, 1931. Also Final Report 1st Congress Intern. Assoc. Bridge and Structural Eng., Paris, 1932, p. 123.
FURTHER READING
···Xj
108 THE STABILITY OF FLAT p",,~ rES
36. Way, S., Journal Appl. Mech., Vol. 3, No.4, Dec. 1936, p. A.13l.
37. Johnson, A. E., and Buchert, K.P., N.A.C.A., Tech. Note No.
Dec. 1951.
38. Libove, C., Ferdman, S., and Reusch, J., N.A.C,A., Tech. Note
1891, June 1949. .
3
UNSTIFFENED RECTANGULAR PLATES  MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
Rec:tangular Orthotropic Plates 11:1 General coDSideratioDS
. An orthottopic plate (Fig. 3.1) has different elastic properties,and therefore 'Aiflr.. .. t unit .stiffness, in the three coordinate planes. If the Moduli of'
o rLJ...:&....I:.....L..IL....J.&I......s.,. ~ b
Switzky, H., Design of Rectangular Panels with Biaxial Stresses, A.
Journal, Vol. 3, No.4, Apri11?65, p. 776.
,.
:;;'.
Fig. 3.1 Rectangular orthotropic plate
lutidtvare Ex and E~ in the x and y directions; and the associated of Poisson's ratio are II.., and II~. the differential equation for the ICDCI!:Unll ofa rectangular plate under end compression becomes
(3.1)
DJt = 12(f~ vxvy}' the flexural stiffness for bending about theyaxis,
a where cP = b'
The smallest value of the critical stress occurs when + =
o
PLATES MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 111
KIIlIIl = 2(1 + .y~xDJ· (3.9)
110
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLAl'ES
D; == 12({y~ VXvy)' the flexural stiffness for bending about the xaxis, .. · and H = !(vxDy + vyDx) + 2(G!)x:;.
(2(Gl).."y ".. 2i;3, and is the average torsion~l rigidity,) For an isotropic D; = D, = H = D, and Eq. (3.1) reduces to the form already established
Chapter L .
Assuming that an orthotropic plate under unidirectional edge COInptUSlIO buckles, like an isotropic plate, into m sinusoidal halfwaves in the xoureCUClIIJ the solution to Eq. (3.1) can be taken in the form
1'( ) • m7TX w =J\Y SlOa'
wheref(y) represents the transverse deflection.
Substituting for win Eq. (3.1) gives
J4f _ 2H mz,"" J2f (Dx m41T4 _ u",t "r,"".).
Jy4 Dy' a1 • axl + DJI' a4 Dy' a1 = O.
which is similar to Eq. (1.17) and can be solved in a similar way. Methods evaluating Dx, D, and H for a given material, including a method of mental determination of the moduli of elasticity, are given ina detailed by THIELEMANN (1). He also deals with the special problems of nlvwn.1"IIII plates, and plates in which the principal directions of stiffness are inclined the coordinate axes.
that for an isotropic plate, D", = DJI = H, and Km1n = 4, and also, for particular case when H = v'D;l5;" x",ln = 4. The assumption that
= "D"D, for practical cases where only D" and Dy are known can thus to a considerable simplification, for Kmln has the same value as for an jIot.ropicplate, but occurring at a different value of +. For an isotropic simply fIIUPIX)rte~cl plate, K"'tn = 4 when 1> = 1; for the special orthotropic plate,
= 4when~ = (~:) 1.
A more general way of examining the particular case H = .y DxDJI is to that Eq. (3.1) can be rewritten
Q'w JDlI 84w o, a4w u",t iPw lfX4+ 2 D", a?ay + Dx ay4 =  D" axl'
(3.10)
3.1:2 Simply supported plates in end cOtnpression
The exact solution of Eq. (3.3) shows that the transverse deflection sinusoidal, so that
gives the same result as the analysis for an isotropic plate, but with ~) t used as a variable instead of x. By this means the buckling curves of apinst + from Chapter 2 can be used if + is taken as the 'effective aspect
(!!z)1 .
• equal to + D" •
For a further discussion of the use of isotropic platebuckling curves to the behaviour of orthotropic plates, using 'effective' values for + and see a paperbywITTIUCK (2).
A . m1TX • n7Ty
w = sm,,,,,,,,,_, slnb • a
3.1:3 Builtin plates In end eompression
A solution for orthotropic plates with both longitudinal edges builtin has given by THI Et EM ANN (1). As for the isotropic plate analysis of Chapter there is no closed solution, and the solution of Eq. (3.3) takes the form of a
. equation. The minimum buckling coefficient for builtin plates'
given in Fig. 3.2 as a function of the parameter .y DxD,! H, where
Km!II'""~
(Tc. = b2t .
and by substitution in Eq. (3.1) we find
(Tc. = ;:t[~: + 2H +' ;~+2J.
and i\s value is (]c. = ~~ ( vi D",Dy + H). This is often expressed in the form
Kmln '"" Vi5;if"
uc• = b1t '
employing the energy method, and assuming a function for w, THIELENN (1) showed that the relationship in Fig. 3.2 for builtin plates could be
IQ):resllOO to a close approximation in the form .
8 ( 0.88H)
1(~!n = 3" .y3 + vD"D)I .
n.·or when H = .J75:'Yj,.
o.rn
112
THE STABILITY OF FLA T PLATl;,~
25
IIITIIIIID /
~ &UILTJN EDGES /
\
Y
IIIlTIIIlIl / V
/
/ V ~
.: ~/ ,
/ V 5IMPL'( SUPPORTED
...,....... Ett(jf5
V V
:
~ 20
15
5
o o
z
4
'JD;D;
H
Fig. 3.2 Orthotropic plates in, end compression (Thielertlann)
Km1n = J( y'3 + 0'88) = 6'97,
the value given in § 2.1 :2 for isotropic plates.
PLAT[(_ ,SCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS u,
, , (D)* H
" curves relating K and +..2 for varying values of V ,and are shown
, , ~ ~~
, in Fig. 3.3. Note that "'0' is given by the formula
(3.13)
and that the curves only apply when H < V D"Dy• '
Solutions have also been given for infinitely long plates with simply sup, ported and builtin edges. Fig. 3.4 shows the relationships between K and , ..j D"D"IH, but note that '1'&, is given by a different formula to Eq. (3.13) when " H > v'D"D,. For this condition
(3.14)
,3.1 Rectangular Plates with Small Initial Curvature 3.2:1 Simply supported plates
In this section weshaU only consider plates having an initial deviation from ftitness that is small compared with plate thickness. lfthe initial deflectio!j,s
.: ,:.:
3.1:4 Otber boundary conditions ,Eq. (3.3) has been solved by DAS (3) for rectangular plates,ynder uniform compression, with the following edge conditions
(i) simply supported at y = 0, clamped at y = b,
(ii) free at y = 0, simply supported at y = h. J' ..•.
His results, however, are linked to the behaviour of five types of plywood " sheet, and the relationship between K.and tP are set downfdrMaple SplYt, Mara 3~ply, Birch 3 and 5ply, and Birch with Bakelite membrane. The values . of the elastic constants for these woods had been given by TlMOSHBNKO (4).',
3.1:5 Simply supported and builtin plates in shear Exact solutions for long orthotropic plates with simply supported edges "
·.·rIo .... '''' hrr;t ...... 'htr'11nf.lrl 'h\I 'Ct:'Vf"\~T (~, 'l=J;~ rp'(;:n1tc:.' ("":.1" 'hp 0';·...:1P'..,,·_';:y1 f'hp' (r,,·,.,., "f'
K
5
o
o
Fig. 3.3 Orthetropic plates in shear (Seydel)
114
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA'IES
9
/~ L ' '
[~ .. : .~~]
,I \ _ ..
, \ ~ , ~
I ~.CIJ
J \
1. '" K"t~ ~
I \
'r ~
I I /' b t 
.~ , /
\. 
'< .
~r" K7?./DyH.
f. b1t <, 
r,
<, 
r_
~ 
~
'. '.'."" .
.
 s
K
7
6
c
~ )D:r,D1J. 11
Fig. 3.4 Infinitely long orthotropic plates in shear (Seydel)
J.
2
are large the problem must be dealt with using large deflection theory, which is considered later in the book (§ 8.2). Suppose the initial deflection Wo is
defined by the equation .
A . srx . rry Wo = 0 Sln~ smb, a
(3.15)
so that Ao is the central initial deflection of the plate. Suppose, after the application of an end compressive stress, ux, that this deflection increases by an amount Wi> so that the total deflection becomes Wo + WI' Then the equation of equilibrium can be written as
lJ4W1 + 204W1 + 04W1 = _ uxt iJ2(WO + w1) (3.16)
axr ox2oy2 oy" . D eer :
(Thp.pffprt (If the end comoressive stress on bending is a fU'nction of the total
PLATf~ MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
]1:) deflection of the plate, but the stresses induced due to bending depend on the increase in deflection.)
Substituting for Wo from Eq. (3.15) gives
iJ4W1 204Wl 04Wl uxt [Aorr2 . irx . 1Ty OlWl] (3 ', 17)
 + ~ +!'i::4'=  2 sm  sm b :i2 '
(Jx4 Oxoy1 fJy D a a vX
and we take the solution as
(3.18)
Substituting this value in Eq. (3.17) yields the equation . AoO"xt
A1 = 1T1D ( a2)2 '
7 1 +7)2  O""t
which is the extra central deflection of the plate produced by O":.~The t?tal deflection then becomes
Wo + Wi = Ao sin ~ sin rry.
uxt a . b
1  ~D( a2)2
7 1+7)2
(3.19)
and by further manipulation
(3.20)
This is the wellknown Southwell plot form (see SOUTHWELL (~}).theSl~pb of the straight Iinerelationship between Ai and Al is the critical stress. The
(1;c
intercept on the A~.axis is the original deviation from flatness. .
Great care should be exercised in applying the Southwell plot concept generally to plates. If we had considered a more general case; in which the initial and extra deflections were represented by an infinite series. the expression for the additional deflection would be
<0 . 00 Aut . mrrX . nrry
WI = IJ '~'...... "'~2x a2) 2 • sin a Sill b'
m= I II' . (m +  b2 Clxt
a~ m
. (3.21)
116 THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA ... _
The Southwell plot in the form of Eq. (3.20) only applies when the series is limited to the first term (m = n = 1). For plates having edge conditions other than simple support, or plates forming part of. a thinwalled structure, the interpretation of the Southwell plot is governed by a knowledge of the postbuckling behaviour. For further discussion and a bibliography, see a paper by ROORDA (7).
..
3.3 Rectangular Plates with Intermittent Support 3.3:1 Introduction
In our earlier examination of the stability of single plates under various conditions of support and restraint along the longitudinal edges, the support 'was always continuous. In design practice plates are often supported intermittently along their length, for example the component plates of builtup box and Isection struts are often joined by intermittent lengths of weld. When the intermittent supports are close together, buckling modes are similar to those for a continuously supported plate; as the spacing is increased the mode changes from 'plate type' to 'column type" so that the edges and centre of the plate between supports deflect outwards with the same amplitude.
This problem was examined in detail by NOR.RIS, POLYCHR.ONE and CAPOZZOLI (8) who carried out a theoretical and experimental study of the buckling behaviour of long rectangular plates intermittently supported on one or both long edges, and uniformly compressed at the ends. Their analysis and conclusions are repeated here, although the results of the analysis could have .. been deduced by inspection.
3.3:2 Analysis for simple supports
Consider the plate shown in Fig. 3.5, simply supported at uniformly spaced points distance g apart along the edges y = 0, y = b. A deflection function satisfying platetype buckling, with no outward deflection of the edges, is
A . 'lTy • mnx Wi = SlD7)SlDa'
and a function defining columntype buckling between supports is
B . 'lTX Wz = Sing'
Combining these gives a function allowing superposition of the two forms of buckling.
Thus,
A . 'lTy • mnx B' 'lTX W = SIn b SlD + SlD.
a g
(3.22)
Substituting for W in the expressions for U (bending strain energy) and T
PLATE']"" 'SCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 11,
(work done by edge forces) (see Eq. (1.14) and (1.32) of Chapter 1) yields the two equations
(3.23)
(3.24)
( these expressions assume that n # i) .
Equating these expressions leads to the following equation for the critical end compressive stress, f1 cr,
so that the expression in the brackets is the buckling coefficient K. The minimum value of K will be found by minimising the expression with respect to ~
or n. This produces the condition that ~ be equal to 0 or 00.
B . B (b)Z
If A = 0, Km1n = 4; If A = 00, Km1n = g ,and these solutions for
Km10 are identical when (~) Z = 4, or g = ~. The critical spacing for the supports is therefore half the width of the plate. At a spacing less than this the plate behaves as ifcontinuously supported along the edge, and
4rE (t) 2
Ucr = 12(1  vl) b ;
(3.26)
at spacings greater than ~, the plate behaves as a flat strip buckling in the Euler manner between supports, and
(3.27)
The variation of K with gap/width ratio ~ is shown in Fig. 3.6 as curve 2. g
3.3:3 . Other condltions of aapport
A similar analysis can be formulated for supports that clamp the plate, using an expression for Wi that takes account of clamped boundary conditions
118
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA~.cS C'::Ie
o
O'x.
Fig. 3.5 Rectangular plate with intermittent support
s
I /' ~fO& IIllJ1I1Ill
, to
. .:
f
\
1 1s[JS llIIIIIIIll
\
\ '"
s " ~&(J~ SOF
~
04 ~ io.. 6
Killin
4
o
o
O'S
2·0
0,4
1·2
re
f
'h Values of K~," for plates with intermittent support
PLATC MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS along the longitudinal edges. The values of K are,
when 0 < f < 0·38,
(3.28)
when
~ > 0·38 b '
Thus the critical gap/width ratio is now 0·38. Examination of Eq, (3.26), (3.27) and (3.28) indicate that the K '""' i curves for any condition of restraint at the support point can be simply derived by drawing horizontalcutoffs to the curve for K = (i) 2 at the values of K corresponding to the solution for continuously supported plates. For example, the K values for a plate free along one edge and clamped intermittently are obtained by drawing a horizontal cutoff at K = 1·28.
The construction of the curves in Fig. 3.6 is self evident, and the curves could have been derived without the type of analysis described above. However, this has been included here as an example of using a function for w that takes into account two buckling modes .
. NORRIS, POLYCHRONE and CAPOZZOLI (8) carried out extensive tests to check the critical gap/width ratio for a number of support conditions, and' concluded that the theoretical gap width ratios were quite accurate. Further, ~.", study of their test results suggested that plates having the same c1eardistan[c~'i: between intermittent supports (i.e, the same gap) will sustain thesame,lo~4;'~ regardless of the length of the supports themselves. The test results su~esf~4' L
that the theory is less accurate fOJ" plates with low values. of ~. . .. ,,:;~:;,,{,
3.3:4 IDterrivet buekJing
Eq. (3.27) assumes that the supports only offer hinged conditions to the . ends of the strip of plate between them. In practical cases of riveted construetion, the rivet heads offer some fixity to the ends of the strip. Eq. (3.27) then becomes
where Kit is a fixity. coefficient. The Engineering Sciences Data. Sheet; Aeronautical series, Structures Subseries, 02.01.08, gives the following values for Kit:
Flathead rivets, Kit = 4
~1)otwe1ds, Kit = 3·5
aphead rivets, Kit = 3
  Countersunk rivets, Kit = 1·5.
120
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA"1.L
3.4 Rectangular Plates on an Elastic Foundation 3.4:1 Introduction
Two types of foundation will be considered in this section. The 'attached foundation', in which the plate cannot separate from the elastic medium and the intensity of reaction from the medium is proportional to the deflection of the plate whether it buckles into or away from the foundation. The reaction, when expressed as force per unit area per unit deflection, is the 'modulus of the foundation', denoted here by K, to distinguish it room the buckling coefficient. It follows that the intensity ofthe reaction is Kw,
The second type of foundation is the 'detached fOWldation'. When the plate buckles into waves, the deflections that compress the medium excite a reaction proportional to the deflection, Deflections in the opposite direction cause the plate to pull away from the foundation without any.concomitant reaction.
In both these conditions of support,the assumption that there is a direct linear relationship between the deflection at any point and the reaction of the medium at that point is of course the simplest that can be made. It is known as a Winklertype foundation.
3.4:2 Simply supported plates, attached foundation
A convenient'metltod of analysis is to examine the bending of a plate in an elastic medium, when the bending is produced by a lateral force combined with an end compressive stress (Ix. The equation for the deflection w is derived and the condition that w = co at the elastic critical Ioad is. used to find an expression for the buckling coefficient,
Consider the plate shown in Fig, 3.1, resting on an attached foundation of modulus }C, under the action of a lateral load of intensity q, and an end compressive stress (I",. The intensity of the reaction is f(w, arid the differential equation of equilibrium is
LATERAL l.OAD • '1
IN .. ~
ff'Prrrffuf6il1
FOUN~ATION MODULUS. k
Fig. 3,7 Rectangular plate on attached elastic foundation
PLALr .~ISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS (j'w284w (j4wq Kw (j2W 8xi + 8x"8y2 + oy' = D  If  (I:.J {)x2'
Let the deflection of the.plate.be given by the double infinite series
(3.29)
<XI "" • m'1l'x . n'1l'y
W= I !. Amn Sill  sm b '
m=ln=l a
(3.30)
and the distribution of'Iateral Ioad be given by the similar series
. <XI co m
... . '" '" • 1rX. n1Ty
q = ~ ~ omnsmsmb'
m=ln=l a
(3.31)
Substituting for W; q and Kw in Eq. (3.29) leads to the following expression
for Allin, .
(3.32)
Now Am" and consequently w will become infinite when the denominator is ,*. . zero, and equating the denominator to zero gives the following equation
Clef = ~~ (J2 + tfoz + 2 + !?b4~2),
~.~ 
(3.33)
a where tfo = ij'
The term. inside the brackets is the buckling coefficient, K, and itsminimum value, obtained by minimising Eq. (3.33), is
Krn1n = 2 (I + J 1 + ::~)
(3.34)
occurring when
(3J5)
Note that whenK = 0, Kriiln= 4, the value for a long simpl~~~pported plate under end compression. The relationship between Krnin andthe foundation
b4 K..' '..
parameter '1I'4D IS shown m FIg. 3.8.
3.4:3 Simply supported plates, detached foundation
This problem has been examined in some detail by SEIDE {9} with the assumed repeating buckling pattern shown in Fig. 3.9. One part of the surface of the plate compresses the foundation, the remainder separates.as shown. SEIDE assumes that in any given halfwave of'length a, a length c.\ is in contact
ill
c
122
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
o a
40 4'" eo ok
~
110
Fig. 3.8 Km1n for plates on attached elastic foundation
with the foundation, and (1  c).\ has separated. Then the differential equations of equilibrium for the two sections are
a4Wl 2a4wl a'wl ,KWI a2Wl
aX14 + OX12aY12 + aY14 = n  ue,t axl2' (c.\ :( Xl :( c.\);
and
(3.36)
At the boundaries of the sections there is continuity of slope, moment and shear.
PL~~S  MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS Deflection functions are assumed as
1TY}
Wi = Fl (Xl) cos b'
TTy Wz = F2 (X2) cos b'
J23
(3.38)
By substituting for WI and Wz in Eq, (3.36) and (3.37), expressions are found for FI(Xl) and FZ(X2)' .The full expressions for WI and Wz so found are then substituted into the boundary conditions, and lead to two simultaneous
equations for K and C as functions of !:~ and ~; these are the stability criteria.
SEIDE computes values for Km1n for a range of values of ::~,and his results are shown in Fig. 3.10. The values of Km1n are much lower than those for an attached foundation, and as K ~ 00 become asymptotic to the value Km;ft = 5·33 (the minimum value of the buckling coefficient for a simply supported plate with clamped loaded edges which buckles into one halfwave), The conclusion drawn by SEIDE is that however stiff a detached foundation may be, the buckling coefficient is never more than 33 % above the value fora plate
with no foundation. '
.... . ......... "', , ....:r
mJlllllllJnTI
:;·z
!
I
"
". I I
I
/' i
.: +~
I
I I
L ')
i.
.. '.
,:<: ,
.;" " %0
so
60 b4f( n40
Fig. 3.1 Q 'Kmln for plates on detached elastic foundation .cSeide)
40
_'_'
+
I
~ !
i
~
j
100
3.5 Rec ~ular Plates Tapering in Thickness
3.5:1 Plates in end compresslea, tapered along their length
The initial buckling of a rectangular plate, tapered in one direction and uniformly compressed in that direction has been considered in detail by WITTRICK and ELLEN (10), and POPE (11). It was assumed that the compressive force is constant throughout the plate, so that the compressive stress changes in direct proportion to the thickness. The analysis of WITT RICK and ELLEN, employing Galerkin's methCfCi,is more rigorous than POPE'S, and
K
~
It"
~__~ __ l2
4
.   1·5
'c.t;._t, I·Z' I~ I·I~;
o
2
o./b= ¢
Fig. 3.11 Rectangular plates tapering in thickness (Wittrick and Ellen)
11
K
8
2:
a/bs ¢
Fig. 3.12 Rectangular plates tapering in thickness (exponential taper)
(Witti'ick and Ellen) .
o
was used to examine plates with exponential and linear thickness variation
. having the edge conditions (i) all edges simply supported, (ii) loaded edges clamped. sides simply supported. POPE, in addition to thesI:i,gives solutions for (iii) lo~ded edges simply supported. sides clamped, and (iv) ends and sides clamped.
2
2. a.fb.¢
Fig. 3.13 Linearly taperingsimply supported plates (Pope)
o
. I
126
Til E STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
(i) AI. .ges simply supported
Fig. 3.11 and 3.12 show the results of WHTR J C K and ELLEN'S analysis for linear and exponential tapering plates respectively. Note that the curves give values for the buckling coefficient (K), where
Kr?E . (to) 2
ITcr = 12(1 _ ])2) b '
(3.39)
and to is the thickness at the thin end of the plate. The results are given for various values of ~, where fbisthethickness at a distance from the thin end
~ . .
equal to the width (Fig. 3.11). A more attractive presentation ig"to IinkK and
!!., where 11 is the thickness at the thick end of the plate. POPE', presentation
to ._,
for this is shown in Fig. 3.13. As might be expected, the effect or the taper falls
off rapidly as E is increased.
(ii) Ends clamped, sides simply supported
Fig. 3.14 and 3.15 give the results of WITT R J CK and ELLEN'S analysis for linear and exponential tapering plates. Fig. 3.16 gives the results ClfpoPE'S analysis. The reader is reminded again that the forms of presentation are not the same, and if this is not borne in mind a certain amount of confusion can arise.
16
~\
\' ,
1\\
l\ r, I
\
~ <; I
\'\ <; ~
\ ~ I
~ '1IIIIIIDll
.'1fI
K
It
1 2
o.,/b .. ¢
Fig. 3.14 Linearly tapering plate with clamped ends (Witlri(
c
Ellen)
PL
OBLEMS
127
K
S MISCELLANEOUS PR
\
\ !
\l\ I\..
~\
l\ ...... ,.
\.. I
1
. ~
, i'\.
\ ,
" 1
'..... III11IIllIr
10
1
11
a./b.~·
Fig. 3.15 Exponentially tapering plates with clampedends .•..
(Wittrick and Ellen) ···....>!~,'_!!i
(iii) Ends simply supported, sides clamped . '. ..' ,>" .
Fig. 3.17 gives pOP E 's solution for linearly tapering plate.s on~y.'.:
•. ~ .. , _,,J:, ..
(iv) Ends and sides clamped . . .. .... . ':
Fig. 3.18 gives POPE'S solution for linearly tapering plate~only~: ':'.:;;
(v) Efficienttaper. . .. . ...., ... , ., .. The efficient tapering of simply supported plates in endcompressioit!has
been examined by PINES and GERARD (12). They concludedfhat.a.taperwith a slight curvature is more efficient than a linear taper, and~AAtacritetion for design is that the rigidity at each section be proportional.t9;the cornpresslve
loading at that section. .
3.5:2 'plat~insbear, tapered along their leagth
 . .
This loading condition, for simply supported plates,has been solvi;:dby KLEIN (i3), for linearly tapering thickness. His results. intlie roiiIl.orqur~e linking thickness ratio (see Fig. 3.13) with buckling coefficient,for.V~ri'dus.
values of plate aspect ratio, +. are shown inFig. 3.19. .
The critical.shear stress is given by the usual equation
'"
128
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
...
6
~
r1rl~~~~~~~~(t; 2 1'1f 1~'l~..3o..l;:+~_d f.'
J·t,
z
o
Fig. 3.16 Linearly tapering plate with clamped ends (Pope)
,
'"
t
o
1 '!i !l.(b • ¢
4
Fig. 3.17 Linearly tapering plates with clamped sides (Pope)
PLA ...... r··~· MISCELLA NEOUS PROBLEMS
2fr,j
... o
1 , a./b .. ;
Fig, 3.18 Linearly tapering builtin plates (Pope)
4
1~9
3.5:3 Plates iii end compression, tapered a~ their width
MANSFIELD (14) has analysed the initial buckling behaviour of a long plate. hinged along the ends, x = 0, x = a,and along one side, }' = 0, and free along the other side}' = b (see Fig. 3.20). the transverse thickness tapers from to aty = 0 to zero at y = b. The critical end compressive stress, (O'x)crt is given by
(3.40)
Note that a long plate of equal crosssectional area, but with constant transverse thickness~, would buckle at a value of 0'" given by
(to) l
(O',,),r = G 2b •
(3.41)
so that for long plates the effect of tapering is to increase the buckling stress by a factor of 4.
MANSFIELD has also analysed a hypothetical plate, simply supported along
all edges, but taperingto zero thickness at the longitudinal centre line,), = ~. He showed that this doubly tapered plate buckles at a stress about 1·7 times as great as that for a constant thickness plate having the same crosssectional area.
130
THL SIAI:lILlI'r UI ILAI PLAIL~
3.5:4
r>
.es in end compression with a step variation in tram e thickness
The elastic stability of simply supported and clamped plates with the tYI?e . of thickness variation shown in Fig. 3.21 has been analysed by CAPE\' (15) .
. His conclusions were that the buckling stress for simply supported plates has a maximum value of 1·42 times that of a strip of constant thickness and the same crosssectional area, if
(a) the central strip is about twice jLwide as each ofthe outer strips,
. (b) the thickness of the central strip is about 0·36 times the thickness of the outer snips.
For the same width and thickness ratios, the buckling stress ofa builtin panel is only 0·91 times that of a corresponding uniform thickness builtin panel. Fig. 3.22 shows CAPEY'S curves for three values of the parameter clb, where c is the halfwidth of the inner strip.
Step variation in transverse thickness has also been examined by BENTHEM (16).
t,,"'f= tt.
!L L_ L.._i
~[: $lt
=r» ; +:»
K
65
4;1l
3?f+
25
5
o
0'5
"0
_h
to
Fig. 3.19 Linearly tapering plates in shear (Klein)
20
PLATES  MISCELLANEOUS t'KOBLt.M~
e
o
c
F~EE
i a..!
'"'I
. i. !
k. b __ E>::..;'
Fig. 3.20 Rectangular plate tapering across its width
Fig. 3;21 ReCtangular plate withsteJ?'; variation in transverse thicknesS ?<i.
3.5:5 Optbniun thickness variation
PARSONS (17) has considered how the thickness of a plate should.~~fj across its width to give as large a buckling load as possibletoragivetu::ross~ sectional area .. He concluded that a uniform thickness plate is more resistant to buckling than a convex plate (i.e. greater thickness at the centre than at the edges). but less resistant than a concave plate. Further, in order to produJe an increase in buckling stress of practical significance there should bea large concentration of material near the edges. A concavity in the form of asine curve with a reduction of thickness to zero at the centre of the plate increases the critical stress to about four times that for a plate of uniform thickness.
3.6 Rectangular Plates under Locally Distributed Edge Forces 3.6:1 Equal and oppoSIte point loads
This problem has been discussed by SOMMERFELD (18), TIMOSHENKO (19).
LEGGETT (20), HOPKINS (21), and more recently by YAMAKI (22). TIMOSHENKO gives a ~unu>"lary of the analysis and a bibliography. The geometry
IJI
132
PLft7S  MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS '33
and notation is k~" ,1 Fig. 3.23, and for simply supported plate edge, .he deflection surface is assumed to take the form
By equating strain energy in bending and work done by the compressive forces the critical value of P( = Pal is found to be given by the expression
THE STABILITY 01· FLAT PLATES
II
2', It 1 ~~'
• 11y eo • m1tX
w = smb I A .. sin a'
ml";:llt3.~ •••
K1tD r; = "s>
1
112D P~r = 2b
'·0 fIHCf+____:~t:=..::...,_t4_~;;:j ttl' (J
By writing
os j,Hlt::~+'++t.l...+.. :";_:.'I
a: CIUTICAL STIlE,.S OF 'ONSTANT THICKNess PLATE OF SAME 'flOSS: ~EC.T'ONAL. AItEA
"
(3.42)
(3.43)
(3.44)
o
it can be shown that for long plates (tfo t co), K + 4. The variation afK with t/J for shorter plates is shown as the lower curve in Fig. 3.24; taken fromthe
paper by YAMAKI (22). .
When the edges x = 0, x = a are clamped, K again approaches 4 for long plates, but has an increased value at low ~ ratios. This case is considered by 1i;.
YAMAKI using the approximate form ..
o
0·+ .
"2
• 1ty CD {. 21n1r ( Q) }
W = sm b I Am (lr + 1 + COS a x  2. ..
ml,2,3... ,
tz
t;
Fig. 3.22 'plat~~with step variation in thickness (Capey)
His solution is shown as the upper curve in Fig. 3.24.
p
1·8
10 rr,,
~.p 15
b
p
0·6
. 0.45)
I
Ix..
Fig. 3.23 Rectangular plate LInder equal and opposite edge loads
j·O '.4
ct/b. ¢
Fig. 3.24 Values of Kin Eq. (3.44) for long edges simply supported (Yamaki)
134 THE STASI LITY OF FLAT PLATES
For er' y = 0, y =: b clamped, x =: 0, x = a simply sup0ed, TlMO
SHENKO uses the deflection surface
( 27TY) ~ . m7TX
w = 1  cos b £.. Am StU ,
",~1.3.S... a
(3.46)
and suggests that for long plates P" _ 8:D. Y A MA KI, using a more complicated expression for w, gives values of Pe, shown as the lower curve in Fig. 3.25. According to this solution, for long plates K + 9·35.
When all edges are clamped, Y AMAK I gives the upper curve (Fig. 3.25).
t·~ 11~'r;~~+~~
16
\ if
'\
"
m.z ~
\ \ ~~f
\ 1\
&¢;' ~ , ~r
<, rJ!:1 t'
 but as ! increases there can be a considerable increase in K. The variation of .
a
K with ~ for various values oftfo has been set down graphically by yiMA KI (22), as shown in Fig. 3.26, for a plate simply supported on. all edges. When 1. = 1'0, the problem reduces to that of a uniformly compressed simply a
J ...•
supported plate, and taking as an example Ii = 1·0, + = l'O,we know from
. k h 4~D . h tK: h fi . 'h . id 'd'
previous wor t at p =: Ge.t = b2' so t a an t e arm we ave canst ere '.
above is given by the equation
14
K
o
11
0·'" O~
c
a..
Fig. 3.26 Locally distributed loads on sirnply supported plates (Yamaki)
0·2.
0·6 1·0
10
0·6
10 1·4
A/b.¢
Fig. 3.25 Values of K in Eq, (3.44) for long edges builtin (Yarnaki)
3.6:2 Equal and opposite distributed loads
When the distribution is over a limited length of plate, rno~t authors feel that the results of the above section can still be applied by takingP = p . I, where. 1 = length of edge load and p = intensity of load. The maximum permissible length for using this notion is clearly a function of the length of the side a. For most loading cases there is little. error in this approach.if
(3.47)
yielding K = 12·56.
Fig. 3.27 to 3.29 show curves of K vs. !. for the three oth~r conditions of
a .
boundary support g~en in the previous section.
I
~ < 0,]
a '
K
o
0·2
0'4
0'8
0,6
J,O
t a"
Fig. 3,21 Plates with builtin short edges under local loads (Yamaki)
3.7 Plates with Holes
3.7:1 Square plates in compression
A square plate with a single unreinforced hole and with simply Supported or clamped edges, has been analysed by LEVY, WOOLLEY and KR,OLL (23). and by K U M A I (24). The latter gives figures for the buckling coefficient slightly lower than those given by LEVY et al .• and his method of analysis will therefore be summarised here.
The solution of the equilibrium equation which satisfies all theboundary conditions of a plate with a central circular hole is not known. so adeflection
pattern was chosen by KUMAI. and the energy method used. ,"
(i) Simply supported edges I
The deflection function is assumed to be (see Fig. 3.30)
W = Ao[cos 1TX cos Try + b exp (  c (xl + Y)J. (3.48)
where band c are constants determined by the conditions aroundtheperlphery of the hole. The second term expresses the local effect of theholc, and is negligible compared with the first term in the Vicinity of the outsid~edgeof the plate. Deflections in the vicinity of. the hole can also be approximately represented in polar coordinates, and the boundary conditions of'no.moments or shears at the hole edge applied. The strain energy in bending iseqilated to
bUL':lON ' ~ l}/J.
,
,_ 'jL)
...
0 u
"0
_,_ c:
:l
'"
o:Q ~
6 "0
U
bI),.,
,..,.
.!<:
..D 0",
E
<> j~
..... Io:i
3",
~ .0"0
a .c~
.~
~ ....
'"
",0
N uO
6 
<II
ii::
00
N
(> ..;
:2 ~ "!J:) bO,
le u: OS)
M 0IIIIill ~
O..a.
VI
.
[DIDIIl
'.c.I, ~ P
I
. "'~ ' .. _.:,
, ffiIlIIIloi
:.0.
,
'_'
:i'l'~'
138
the we, ~ done by the plane stress components produced oy the external forces. The strain energy expression (U) has been given many times before (see Chapter 1), and the work done by stress components is:
T = ;oJ[:: (~;r + 2::y (o:;y) + ~ (~) ]dA,
where A is the surface area of the plate (making allowance for the hole).
(3.49)
"'o,er"
Fig. 3.30 Square plate with single central hole
The distributions of stress components U:r;, fly and T;ry are assumed by K UMAI to be the same as those for an infinite plate with a circularhole under uniform compression. These are
fI:r; = ;0 e20. [cos 2{J + (2  3e2a) cos 4,8],·
Uy = ;0 [2 + e2a(3 cos 2f3  (2  3c2a) cos 4{J») s :
(3.50)
where a. is the radius, and f1 the angle measured from the xaxis, and Uo is the end compressive stress.
The integration of U and T is carried out numerically, and equating U and T gives a value for the critical stress Uer• The analysis of LEVY et al .• gives a higher value for fie. because a different deflection function is used. The buckling coefficient (K) for a square plate without a hole is 4, and the critical stress is given by
. i
;"; ,
r
! .
. fi~ES~ MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 139
Kumai's iesulr:. are presented in Fig. 3.31 in terms of a relationship between
K and the ratio t, where d is hole diameter, and b is the width of theplate~
Values of tin the range 0 < ~ < 0·5 were considered, and an attempt was made by KUMAI to check his theory by a simple experiment. The critical stresses of his test plates were measured by the Southwell/Donnell method (see § 3.2), and found to lie slightly below the theoretical curves .
rnIllmIIll
~J)
K
 r. s 0.5
._.
<, s
ITIIIlllIlIII .
I ...... r,
"",
. ; .~ o
Of
0·2
04
d b
Fig. 3.31 Effect of hole size on buckling of square plate (Kumai).
. .
;:'
The work of KUMAI and LEVY. et al., was concerned with plates unger uniform edge stress. The more practical case of plates.H~qer unif0l'lfl~qg~ displacement has been considered by SCHLACK (25). Het60k thef9116wil1g deflection function for a square plate
(. (2X) 2) ( (2Y) 1) [ (2X) 2 ... ' .... (2Y) ZJ
w = t 1  .. 1j . 1  Ii Aoo + A10 b +A02 b ... ' ,
(3,51)
and used this to derive an expression for the total potentialenergy of the system in terms of the arbitrary constants. By differentiating with respect to each constant in turn a set of simultaneous equations was obtained, and by setting the determinani " 1 to zero an expression for critical displacement found. In order to convenuus into a critical load, SCHLA CK found the average value
140
THE STA BJLITY· OF FLAT PT ATFS
of the end lL._J corresponding to this displacement. SCHLACK'S :~suJ(s for percentage reduction in critical end load, Pm as the value of t increases from
o to 0·3 are shown in Fig. 3.32. (ii) Clamped edges
For this loading condition K UMAI (24) uses the following expression for w,
(3.52)
for buckling in the first mode, withonly one halfwave formed in each direction. However, the second mode {se~g. 333) also has to be taken into
account, and for this <,
w = AO[COSl7TX sin 27TY cos 7Ty + by exp(  c(r + yl)].
(3.53)
Proceeding as before, the solution is obtained as a relationship between K/ r; and $. Whend = 0, K = Ko, the buckling coefficient for a clamped square
plate. Note that for 0 < t < 0'34, buckling is in the first mode, but for la~ger values of t it changes to the secOJ~d; ~nother interesting observation is that for t > !!'2 in the ~.rst. mode, the critical stress begins to increase, after dropping by about 13 %, and that at the changeoverin buckling modes, the criticalstress is equal to that for an unpierced plate. At higher values of
.~ (> 0'45) the critical stress is higher than for an unpi~rced plate. 
Co
<§ 151
I i
C> I
Z
w i
~ ro l
z ,.(II
a
t=1
oJ A"'f
:;) mIII1IIIlIJ
n
w 5:
cC. lB
I
z:
IU
oJ ; I
u: ;
au
<>"0 DTIlIlIl1IIl
C 0'1 0·2 0':;
d
b Fig. 3.32 Effect of hole size on buckling of square plate (Schlack)
i
I 101:5
"
'i
¥.
.~
d
'i
;1
.',
·I~
.,
: ~
L ~
085
0 PL~T~r )CELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
illIJJ]]]]J ~~~~~~·IQ;j· 8
IIIIillIIlIll
o·J
0·2
0,4
0,5
A.. b
Fig. 3.33 Effect ofhoJe size on buckling of square plate with clamped edges (Kumai)
3.7:2 Square plates with reinforced holes in compression s s. ~ D Co s, :, <.' M P ,·.0 ) In the course of their general analysis, LEVY et al. (23), considered three specific examples of holes reinforced by an increased thickness of plate (t,).
The hole size was fixed at t = ~, and the following three reinforcements
I
examined (t" = plate thickness):
d' . I CD \ d' I @ \ d' 3 crl
b = 2' t, = 1·5 t,,; b = 2' t, = 2'01,,; Ii = 8' I, = 3·4 t;
where d' is the diameter across the outer edges of the reinforcement. The second and third were chosen so that the same volume of material was used as reinforcement, but it was disposed differently around the hole. The three values of K, corresponding to the three reinforcement sizes, were 6'2, 8·9 and 8'8; the last two figures suggest that the buckling stress was insensitive to change in reinforcement shape. In all cases the buckling stress was considerably higher than that for an unpierced plate.
3.7:3 Square plates in shear (i) Unreirforced holes
Critical shear stresses for two simply supported square plates with hole
sizes given by ~ = ! and! were determined by KROLL (26). After an investib 8 4
142
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLAT:
gation of the convergence of a general deflection function, KROLL proposed the following expression for the lateral deflection, w (see Fig. 3.34),
."X."y . 2'1TX . 2."y
W = All cos  cos  + A22 SID  sm 
a a a a
3."x 3'1TY • 2."x . 4."y . 4nx . 2'1TY
+A33COScos + AZ4SlUSlU +A4ZsmslU. (3.54)
a a a a a a
Employing the energy method, and integrating numerically over the surface of the plate using the Gauss method, the critical shearing stress was computed.
LL L L
1 DfA.=a ~
1 ~~
1. ~
1 ~
r __" '7 =rr X
Fig. 3.34 Square plate with central hole in shear
The shear buckling stress of a simply supported unpierced square plate of constant thickness is given by
K.,,2E (t) Z
Ta = 12(1 _ )/2) a ' where K = 9·35.
Values of K found for the pierced plates are
d
b = 8' K = 9'33,
d 1
b = 4' K = 7·25.
The conclusion here is that the critical stress in shear is reduced more rapidly by a pierced hole than the critical compressive stress. The percentage reduc
tion in buckling strength w hen ~ = i is 23 % ; in compression the corresponding reduction is only about 8 %.
i More recently ROCKEY et al. (27) carried out a theoretical. and experi
mental examination of the problem. The theory, using a finite element solution.gives values of K for simply supported plates lower than those due to
PLATEt, .... MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
143
KROLL. Using fiftysix elements in each quarter plate a Kvalue of 8·1 was obtained for a plate with no hole, which is about 13 % below the exact value of 9·35. Fig. 3.35, from ROCKEY'S paper, gives the relationship between K
and t for both simply supported and clamped plates. The experimental
Ie r..,,
K
s
6
4
1
o o
04 d 06 's
Fig. 3.35 Simply supported and clamped plates in shear (Rockey)
08 '0
results agreed well in the case of clamped plates, but there was some discrepancy when simply supported edges were used, due mainly to local yielding taking place prior to buckling.
(ii) Reinforced holes
KROLL (26) used the same deflection function as Eq. (3.46) 'to determine critical shear stresses for the following reinforced plates with simply supported edges:
H 1 . d 1 o e slze:'b = 4
. d'. I d' 1 d' 3
Reinforcement: 7)== 2' t, = 1'5tp; 7) = 2' t, = 2'Otp; b = 8,1, = 3·4tp•
144
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA1
These are the same range of reinforcements used in the previous section. The theoretical values of K are (in order) 11'2, 19'1, 31'4, and are stated to be within 7% of the true value. The most illuminating conclusion to be drawn from these figures is that, contrary to the end compression results, the shape , of the reinforcement has a large influence on bucklingstress. The last two " values of K quoted (19'1 and 31·4) are for equalsized holes having the same. volume of reinforcement, but disposed in a different manner. The higher buckling stress is associated with the narrower, thicker band of reinforcement.
r1.
.....=:~.b
1
30~~4~~L~~~,
~_+__,/_.+~'74_.,~ %0
5
Fig. 3.36 Plate with a reinforced hole in shear (Rockey)
ROCKEY et al. (27) also examined theproblem of hole reinforcement, using a finite element solution, for a hole sizei = ~ and reinforcing rings given by .
~ = 175' !;, 165' ~b' The theoretical solutions, showing relati~~ShiPS between K and t~ for plates with all edge~ damped, are given in"Big. 3.36, taken
~ , .~~
directly from this paper. Fig. 3.37 giv~s the relationships bet~~'en Kand :: for ...•
. dId' '23 .' 29
clamped and Simply supported edges when b = "3 and 7)= .~. andSI,
3.7:4 Unstiffened shear webs
A useful semiempirical formula for the designer faced wit~,~he problem. of a long unstiffened shear web with flanged or unflanged Hgb,t¢ning holes has been suggested by MICHAEL (28). She examined a constderableamount of
PLAi
.MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
145
K
o
2 . 'to,..:; 4
t~
Fig. 3.37 Plate with a reinforced hole in shear (Rockey)
data, notably bYKUHN (29), FLOOR (30), BOTMAN (31) aridANEVI(~2.}i~nJ".' with the notation suggested in Fig. 3.38, derived the followingfbrmufa.,;(ii ".; .. '
~ m .: (: = J~ :::: :.++5::: ;:::: ii:tf.}:}(:'5~ "
In the aboveformulae • ~ ~ ( ID~A!'.) ,. and C is a facto;d~;,.ooi~t~~ .. '
b A·' "
;~ + + + .. + + + T + + + + + .. +=f==» , , =:» =r» +» Fig. 3.38 Shear web with holes
46
HE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
ieterrnined by .inding the best fit curves lhrou~i)~xp~riment'~:o:)ints.
.' " I T cr (b) , A... . I f D I thi
:lg. 3.39 gives a p at of If t against 1i ior varIOUS va ues 0 A' n . ,1S
reatrnent the upper and lower flanges were assumed to give fixity to the edges
,fthe web, .
4.. 4 ~
~J~WA©~Jf!
.  ; ; ,. ......_
~l
0·06 _j.I
1crb I
E t~,;'S" . 0
A
004, \r~...:,.,._~_+_~~~I I
0·5
o
0'5
10
'·5
2·0
A . b
Fig, 3.39 Critical shear stress for webs'with holes (Michael)
'8 Dynamic Buckling of RectanguJar Plates
I
3.8:1 General considerations
By applying an end compressive stress to a rectangular plate for a sumiently short time, the critical stress computed for static conditions can be xceeded, because the plate does not have time to experience large deformaIOns. On the other hand, the sudden application ofa stress below the critical tress, although not causing instability, can produce deflections and stresses in xcess of those due to the same load applied statically.
The analysis for plates, see for example the work ofZIZICAS (33), uses the arne approach as that employed for the dynamic buckling of struts. The q nation of equilibrium is converted into an equation of motion by including
, A
l j
r! I
PLATEf ~. 'SCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 14.J ff,; 7 )
the inertial forces asau.;q alent external lateral load, If the specific weight ~
of the plate is y,
the mass per unit area = r!,
. g
and the inertia force (= mass X acceleration)
" yt a2w
= g ar2'
Then, for plates under unidirectional compression,
04W 2a4w a·w 1 [ i)Zw 1'102»:1 ax' +aroy + oy =  D ax! OX2 + g aT2J'
(3,57)'
(3.58)
lin order to examine plate displacements during dynamic loading, it is convenient to treat plates with a small initial deflection, WO° If small deflections are used, the theory only holds for displacements less than the thickness of the plate. In this chapter we are only discussing small deflection theories, and
the limitations should be borne in mind. '
3.8:2 Simply supported plate under suddenly applied end loading ZIZICAS (33) has investigated this problem by first assuming an initial' deviation from flatness, wo, given by
A ' TTX 0 TTy Wo = 0 sma smb.
An edge stress ax is then suddenly applied, and the equation
4 . axt i)2w. 1'1 i)2w
\l (w wo) + D BX2 + gD aTl = 0,
which can be solved by separating the variables.
The solution can be expressed conveniently in terms of the following:
(') Gx I h 7? D (1 + 1) 2 h ,. 1 eo .~.
1 Gc.' were ae, = 1 a2 b2 ,t e cntica stress ror asimplysup
ported plate bucklingin the first mode longitudinally and transversely;
(ii) £liT, where w is the fundamental natural frequency of transverse vibra
tion, given by w == ~ Ji! (~ + i2) , and
(iii) ~o' where 0 is the maximum central deflection caused by the dynamic load.
The differential equation then becomes
d2[O/A~ + (1 _ ax)~ 1 = 0,
d(wT) Clcr Ao
(3.61)
148
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATlrS
which is the same form as that derived for struts. Three solutions can be distinguished:
(a)f1x<l: i= 1 [lf1XCOS(laX)*.wTJ. (3.62)
f1cr Ao 1  a,,/ae• ae•· ac•
Now, the static displacement under a stress ax, (= 8Sf) has been found earlier in the chapter to begiven by
so that the plate undergoes an oscillatory motion, and the maximum displacement reached is
Thus, when a" < aCT> the increase in deflection is double that Jar the static case.
(b) ax =1: i_ = ~(wT)2 + I.
ae• Ao 2
This means that the displacement increases according to a parabolic law, but does not become infinite.
(c) a" > 1: ~ = 1. [ax cosh (ax  1) * wT ~l ... J· .•. · .. (3.66)
ac• Ao a,,!ae•  1 ae• ae•
This shows that the displacement increases according to a hyperbolic cosine law.
U
20
16
5
Ao 12
S
4
0
0 2 4 6 8 I fI+++++++I++¥~,.£..f"l.· •
~~D
•
iGf •
1I.)T
Fig. 3.40 Deflection of simply supported plates unc., loading (Zizicas)
:, ... :.
namic end
(3.63)
(3.64)
(3.65)
PLAT:lli5':'" MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
149
Fig. 3.40 is taken from the paper by ZIZICAS, and shows therelationship
8 a
between A and wT for various values of 2... The figure should only be used
o ac•
for Ao = 0'05 t or less, because the maximum values of ~ are limited by sma1l
o
deflection theory.ZlzICAS concludes that the time dependence of higher modes is identical with that of the fundamental mode, so that for a short rectangular plate, the procedure is as follows:
(1) Calculate the fundamental frequency from the formula at (ii) above. (2) For a given time (T) after application of the load, calculate.eZ;
(3) Calculate the critical elastic buckling load ac• from the formula at (i) above.
(4) For a given applied stress, ax, calculate a",.
acr
(5) Read the displacement ratio ~o from the curves in Fig. 3.40.
3.8:3 Infinitely wide plates in an incompressible fluid .
The particular problem of ship hulls consisting of flat platesextendin'g' continuously overanumber ofsupports has been examined bY'DIMAq9H?: (34). He assumes that the transverse supports are effectively hirigep.s~)ith~¥;" deflections between supports can take the form·::,!/
A . 7TX W = 1 SlUf'
:<.'
as shown in Fig. 3.41. . .•..... ..}:,.'.
DIMAGGIO shows that the effect of an incompressible fluid on.there~p()l:ls¢.·. of the plating can be accounted for by adding to the mass of thep!ateatein.I\ called the 'virtual mass' of a fluid. The actual mass of the plateisthert· re~ placed by an effective mass (m:e;), where
pI mE = m + 7T
,
(~.e. the virtual rila.ss of ~he fluid = ~) . This gives the following expression for displacement (see Eq, (3.66)) .
150
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA1£. ..
I . I
. I .
I i I
4 ! i i
.t I !INFINlTELY IWlre
t . ] .
t I . I
. I
J !
I ! I
~4 , ~ *1* , 4 * 4i
O'x,
Fig. 3.41 Infinitely wide plate in an incompressible fluid
3.9 Thermal Buckling of Rectangular Plates 3.9:1 General considerations
When the temperature distribution is linear throughout the volume of an unrestrained plate, no thermal stresses occur when deflection takes place. However, if the plate is restrained, and if the distribution is nonlinear, thermal stresses are induced. The particular condition of a 'tentlike' temperature distribution has been considered by GOSSARD, SEIDE and ROBERTS (35), who took a panel heated along the longitudinal centreline by a uniform line source, and cooled along the edges by uniform heat sinks. The temperature was considered as uniform through the plate thickness, and decreasing linearly towards the longitudinal edges. This type of distribution was assumed to be an approximation to the aerodynamic heating of panels in supersonic aircraft, and was chosen because it is easy to obtain experimentally.
3.9:2 Simply supported edges
It can be shown that the distribution of thermal stresses , : ... ~'" ",., ... "" .... ","A "htl';~
(
PLA1'~ AISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
"Xg = ErJ.To (~  D [Bl sinh Rl~ sin R2~
+ s, cosh R/!' cos R/. + IJ,
a a
lV1Kr/) .
0_EY
(3.68)
TX~O = E;To ( 1 ~) ~[D3 sinh Rl~ cos R2~
+ D4 cosh Rl~ sin R/.J,
a a
where IX = coefficient of thermal expansion,
To = difference between centre and edge temperatures in 'tentlike' distribution.
Bb B2• Db D2, D3 and D4 are constants defined in reference 35. .,
The equation of equilibrium of the buckled form of the plateis
!
~ C:;::r:::;lfr,
I
t Zb
/
I
I
I
~2"" I
I
01
..~..
I
UNIFORM .1
SOURCE I
IUNIFORM .......
]"NK
I I iX
Fig. 3.42 Rectangular plate with 'tentlike' temperature distribution
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA_.!S
64w 264w il4w t [(JZW azw ilzw J
OX4 + ox1oyZ + oy4 = 15 uXUOX2 + UVUoy2 + 2TXVOoxily' (3.69)
With the coordinate axes shown in Fig. 3.42, the deflection w is taken in the form
OJ eo m1rX n1ry
w = I I Amncos 2a cosTb'
m= 1,3,5 /A:;' 1,3, S
(3.70)
The total potential energy V (see Chapter I), is now,
D fb fa [(a2w 02W) 2 (02W a1W (8lW ) 2)J
V ="2 b tl ilx2 + Oyl  2(1  v) 8r 8y2  8x8y dx dy
t JO fa [ (OW) 2 (ow) 2 ow ow]
+ 2. s=:« f1"u Ex + UYU oy + 2 Txvo(JX oy dxdy,
(3.71)
and minimising this expression with respect to the coefficients Amn leads to a set of simultaneous equations of the following type,
KpqApq~ D + ~ ~ K A  0
E To b2 s: £., pqmn mn  •
IX Ocr t m=I,3,5 12=1,3.5
(3.72)
(:}=1,3,S ... ).
The coefficients Kpq and Kpqmn are given by
Kpq = [{(~2 +q2tfo )J2, where ,p.= ~ = ~, }
't' (3.13)
Kpqmn =. p[mAnq{B1Dmp + BlEmp + FOilP) + nBnq(D3Gmp + D"Hmp)]
+ q[nCniD1Imp + DzJmp) + ",Bqn(D3Gpm + D4Hp",)J.
The coefficients in the expression for Kpqmn are defined in reference 35.
The critical temperature is given in the form
(To)cr = ~f~~. (3.74)
Note that, since E appears in the numerator (D = 12(f~ vZ)) and the denominator, the critical temperature is independent of Young's Modulus,
The solution of Eq. (3.72) is very laborious, and reference 35 only gives the value of KT for tfo = 1·57. For this aspect ratio KT = 5'39. Eq. (3'73) above has been presented here to show the form of the coefficients, and no attempt has been made to give a full summary of the analysis leading to Eq, (3.74).
REFERENCES
1. Thielemann, W., N.A.C.A., Tech. Memo. No. 1263, 1950.
2. Wittrick, W. H., Aeronautical Quarterly, Vol. 4, Nr '\ug. 1952, p. 83.
3. Das, Y. C., Appl. Sci. Res., Series A, Vol. 11, No. 1~_.)2, p. 97.
PLA.:.S  MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS _.>3
4. Timoshenko, S. P., and WoinowskyKrieger, S., Theory of Plates and Shells (McGrawHill, New York), 1959, p.367.
, 5. Seydel, E., Z,fur Flugtechnik u. Motorluftsch., Vol. 24, No.3, 1933, p. 78. 6: Southwell, R. V~, Proc. Roy. Soc., London, Series A., Vol. 135, p. 601, 1932.
7. Roorda, J., Proa. A.S.C.E., E.M.6, Dec. 1967, p. 37.
8. Norris, C. R., Polychrone, D. A, and Capozzoli, L. S., Welding Journal, Vol. 30, Nov. 1951tp. 546.
9. Seide, P., Journal Aero. SCi., Vol. 25, June 1958, p. 382.
10. Wittrick, W. R., and Ellen, C. H., Aeronautical Quarterly, Vol. 13, No.4,
Nov. 1962, p. 303.
11. Pope, G. G., A.R.C., R. and M., No. 3309, 1963.
12. Pines, S., and Gerard, G., Journal Aero. Sci., Vol. 14, Oct. 1947, p. 594.
13. Klein, B., Journal Franklin Inst., No. 263, June 1957, p. 537.
14. Mansfield, C. R., Aeronautical Quarterly, Vol. 10, May 1959, p. 145.
15. Capey, E. C., A.R.C., C.P., No. 235, 1956.
16. Benthem, J. P., Nationaal Luchtvaartlaboratorium (Amsterdam),
Report NLLTR. 5.527, July 1958.
17. Parsons, H. W .• A.R.C., Paper 17,231 (Strut. 1759), 1954.
18. Sommerfeld, Z.Jur Math. u. Phys., Vol. 54, p. 113, 1906.
19. Timoshenko, S. P., Z.fur Math. u. Phys., Vol. 58, p. 357, 1910.
20. Leggett, D. M. A., Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc., Vol. 33, p. 325, 1937. '21.' Hopkins, H. G., Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc., Vol. 45, p. 587, 1949.
22. Yamaki, N., Rep. Inst. High Speed Mech, (Japan), Vol. 3, March 1953, p.65.
23. ~vy, S., Woolley, R. M., and Kroll, W. D., Journal Res. Nat. Bur. Stand.,
Vol. 39, Dec. 1947, p. 571.'
24. Kumai, T., Proc. 1st Japan Nat. Congr. Appl. Mech., May 1952, p. 81.
25. Schlack, A.L., Experimental Mechanics, June 1964, p. 167.
26. Kroll, W. D., Journal Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., Vol. 43, Nov. 1949, p. 465.
27. Rockey.K, C., Anderson, R. G., and Cheung, Y. K., The Behaviour of Square Shear Webs Having a Circular Hole. Symposium on Thinwalled Steel Structures, University College of Swansea, 1967.
28. Michael, M. E.,JournaJ Roy. Aero. Soc., Vol. 64, May 1960, p. 298.
29. Kuhn, P., N.A.C.A., A.R.R., W.R., L323, Dec. 1942.
30. Floor, W. K. G., Nationaal Luchtvaartlaboratorium (Amsterdam), Report NLLTR, 8.413, July 1953.
31. Botman, M., Nationaal Luchtvaartlaboratorium (Amsterdam), Report
NLLTRt S.446, Nov. 1954.
32. Anevi, G., S.A.A.B. T.N. 29, Oct. 1954.
33. Zizicas, G. A., Trans. A.S.M.E., Vol. 74, No.7, Oct. 1952, p. 1257.
34. Dimaggio, F. L .. Journal Appl. Mech., Vol. 23, No.2, June 1956, p. 201.
35. Gossard, M. Tie, P., and Roberts, W. M., N.A.C.A., Tech. Note No. 2771, Aug." 52.
FURTHER READING
Beskin, L, Strengthening of circular holes ill plates under edge loads. Jaurnnl Appl. Mech., Vol. II, No. J, Sept. 1944. p.A. 140.
Bozbenov, A., Stability ofucct&llgular plate of variable tbicknr:sscompn:ss.ed in two directions, PItH M~/ch .• Vol. 10, No.6, 1964; p. 628.
Carlson, R. L. and Bailey, S. C., On the analysis Dr column and plate stability experiments, Georgill insrilJJie o/TerlrflolflgJl Report 686, Dec. 1968.
Durgaryan, C. M., On the stability of a loaded heated elastic plate with . iwtial bending, Do~l44i Akad. Narrk, Arm. SSE, Vol. 38, No. ~. 1964, p.271.
Gajewski, A., Application of tbe perturbation method in $tability problems of rectangular plates with varjable tlUdmeu, Mech. Teoret, i Sf OJ (Polontf), Vol. 5, No. L 1967.
l larnada, M., Inoue, Y., and Hashimoto, H., Buckling or simply supported hut : parli;IHy clamped rectangular plill.;~ Ulli;,1 ;1;1) C(.lh'I'I~.,~~J ill one direction, Bull. JOfJIJlltft Soc;ely Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 10, No. 37, J961, p. 35.
Horton, W. H .• Cundari, F. L, and Johnson, R. W., The analysis orexperi. mental datil obtained from nabjlit)' studies 00 elastic column and plate slrucrures, /sl(u/Jrltnno/ oj TuhfJOfOV', Vol. 5, Nos. 1/2, Feb. 1967.
Kuranishi, M., On lome: inlluer.ces of imperfectiuns or ban and plates on their buckling properties, PrO(. In Japan NOI. CDlIgr. Appl. M~ch,. 195'. p.75.
Schlack, A. L., Experimental Critical Loads [or Perforated Squire Plates, Esperimeutal M,chon;cJ. Feb. 1968, p. 69.
Wang, ChuKia, Theoretical Analysis of perforated shear webs, JOUlRo/ Appl.
Muh., Vol. 13, No.2, June 1946. p.A. n.
STIFFENED RECTANGULAR PLATES
4.1 Edge Rdnfon:emeDts on Ulliformly ComprBSM Platn 4.1:1 Gcneml considtntiollS
Edge stiffeners Of reinro~ements are Dormally added to a r('C(~n£~lar plate to proyjde support for what wou~d olhenvise ~. a.'n:e lon:;,~udlnal edge. In analysing the inftuem:e of tbe stiffener on stablilly 11 IS first n)sumc.d lIut it offers negligible torsional resistance, 80 tbal the edge of the. plale IS free to rotate durin, buckling. Dttlections of rbe plate nonnal ~o ns rl:)~c atthe edge lire, however, resisleil by the ftuural rigidilY of the sIJffcn~r. Tile a~umption or negligible lorsinr.:llresi51:JnCc.is reasonable ~r the S!lfTc':~;:: I~ [ormed by turning lhe free edge through a nght a,,);lc, or I~ :I IIJrr,j·, 1<.\,,[· angular strip .. Extnldtd or weldedplates, on the other h~nd, freque.otl~· have circular orsemicirc:ulu section stiffeners, wbic::b cOAtnbule (0 ~liIll1'::» \.Iy
their torsional RUS\ance. These will be considered later. .
Ed,e stiffeners can be regarded 01$ long 5lrut5, buCk~ins under the combined action of an end comprcss.ive stress and lateral reslralnt due 10 l.he pJal~ .. The equation of.equilibrium of the ddt«(ed form or an unrestrained SIiOcner WIder end load and a latcr.U load of inlensity q is
;~ ..
alII' _ illll' _
Elp + Au ;0 •  'I = ~
.\ ax:
where A is tbccrosss.cctional area and Ithe second moment ofarc.iI il~OUI the neutral axis. U 'be Lip deflecls into sinusoidal halfwavcs, the solution 1) taken
in the form
(4.1)
.'
where Q is lip or plate length, and As a coefficient Substituting for II' in Eq. (4.1) gives
As (n~!fr [El(":r  AaJ sin n:x  4 = e. (4.:!)
Referring to Fig. 4.1,the foUowin$ conditions mUll be satisfied aithejllllclion of plate: and stiffener:
(i) the outward·bending deflection.of the plate is equal 10 the bending deftc:ction of the stiffener in Ihe :·dircclion.
(ij) the intensity of shear loading transmitted from pJ3tc to s:ifr~ner
rcntributes 10 the stiffener equilibrium.
(iii) there is equilibrium or moments nbout rhe axis or the junl·4ion.
IS;
156
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLAT O"x.
o
When y = 0, condition (i) yields
[CAl + A3) sin m;xJp ~[(A5) sin m;xJR = 0, and when y = b,
[(AI coshp + Az sinhp + AjcOS q + A4 sin q) Sinm;XJp
 [(As) sin m;xJR = O. .
The suffixes P and R refer to plate and reinforcement respectively. Since the wavelengths of the buckled modes are: equal, mp = mR,thus the equations
become .
i ax' l!j_
kJ~
Fig. 4.1 Rectangular plate with edge stiffener
, X' ,
Ai + A3  As = 0 (y = 0), . }
and .
Ai coshp + A2 sinh p + A3 cos q + A4 sin q  As = 0 (y= b).
STIr NED RECTANGULAR PLATES When y = 0, condition (ii) yields
TT2b3 [EITT2  J
AZpS2  A4qr2  As Da2 7  Au R
and when y = b,
157
= 0,
(4.4) .
AI/Js2 sinh p + A2PS2 cosh P + A3qr2 sin q  A4qr2 cos q
TT2b3 [EITT2 ." J
 As Da2 ar  Au R = O.
(The first four terms of this expression represent the shear force at the free
. . . n2b3[E/Tr2'J
edge ofa plate, as shown earlier. See Eq.(2.27).) The termDa2 az~Au R.
is nondimensional, and will be designated (R)F. The reason for this is apparent if we consider the equation (R)F = 0, i.e,
EITT2
a ==,
Aa2
so that a is the Euler buckling stress for a hinged strut under end compression free from lateral restraint. The symbol Fcorresponds to 'free'vasin our earlier~ designation of the characteristic functions for isolated plates.Notet~af.in
TT2b3 ". c
~i::·:)~:h:r:e::g~:t:::f:::s::~:; ;:;:~ss, condition (iii) iSeqUiVa~~:t:,i~o •. '
zerobending moment in the plate at that edge. Then,' as sho\V~.#itlJ.r
:~~;;: ;::: :~:':::~ ~::; c:, q _ A,r M q ~J ·(~lt;f
Since there are five coefficients in Eq. (4.3) and (4.4) the general st~bility . equation for ali edge stiffened plate will be a fifthorder determinant. This is shown in the examples below.
4.1:2 Plate hinged at y = 0, stiffened at y = b
The boundary conditions at y = 0 are [w = O]y '" o,[~~+ v~:~ = oJ ~o, These, together with equations from § 4.1: 1 give the determinantal equation
0 1 0 0 = 0,
rZ 0 S2 0 0
r2 coshp r2 sinhp S2 cos q _S2 sin q 0 (4~6)
coshp sinhp cos q sin q 1
pS2 sinhp pS2 cosh p qr2 sin q _qrZ cos q (R)F 158 THE STADJLITY OF FLAT PLATES
which, afu.. .eduction and icklltlfication of fourthorder matrices. miy t...
written
(S)F  {S)S. (R)F = O.
As we have already seen. (S)F = {£)S, $0 Eq. (4.7) could be written
{~)s + (R)F = O.
(4.7)
(4.8)
The characteristic functions (S)F and (S}S have been defined previouny at Eq. (2.36) and (1.22). Nole Ihaltince(R)Fcontains the leon ~~. which Wl
be written ~~, the solution rc Eq. (4.7) can only be obtained fora specific bIt ratio for tbe plate, This can he SCCD more clearly if we substitute for tI in Ule
. r (R)~ Si KrrD . • ibl .
expression or .' ince a ,.. ~. IllS pow e to wnre,
'lf4( El) Xrt4( If)
(R)F= ~4 bD 7 bi •
(4.9)
and inspection shows that the terms ill brackets are the: ~tios or (a) the flexural rigidifies, and (b) the areas, of the stiffen" and the pJate. In the particutar use when the sTiffener is a 'lip' or the same thickness as tbe plate, and • width bl> Eq. {4.9} becomes
(R)F = ~14 [ (b: ) I (J  v2)  Ki"J.
(4.10)
;0 (hat theproblemx can be analysed if bbL. and bL are known. or if !.b' and ~.
.. , ,
,re known. Eq. (4.7) is then solved by Choosing a specific value of ~L. aud !t
. {
nd finding linked valees of K and ~ which make the complete function,
S)F  (S)S. (K)F, equal 10 zero. •
Fig. 4.2 shows the solution to Eq. (4.7) rOla plate with t "" 20. rejnfor~d y a s,Y mmetriea I lip equal in (hick ness to the plate, The anaJysis so rar luis nly considered symmetri cal sfiffenel3 or Iips, that is to laY the neulral axis in ending of the ~inforcement lies in the plane of the plate. At present the xact analysis has DO! been exteeded to any other case, and Fig. 4.2 presents .ata for symmetrical lips only.
Three important features are apparent from the curves:
0) Long plates (i.e. {llarx.e) buckle inzo only a slngle halfwave (m _ I) respective oflip size. The minimum value of K occurs when + ~ QQ.
(ii) All K  4> cUn'CS approach the (S)S curve for m = I at low values of . and .al certain values the second mode (m :; 2) or{S)s gives a lower value
:ULAR PLATES
IS9
K
I.
o··L_ __ ~ ~ __ ~L __ ~ ~ __ ~
e Z 3 4 S 6
A./b. ;
fiS. 4.2 BudlJing ofsimpl)' supporLed plate witb edge 51i.tfencr (bl' = 20)
of K than the lip curve r .... e I). Thi~ means Ihat for larger lip sizes the pl31e is giveneffcctive simple support by the lip al low values of +. A$ Jong as we neglect loniow &tiJfness of the lip the maximum value J( C~1l r~ach for an)' lip siu is thaI for a plate simply supporled along both IODgJludinaJ edges.
(ili)As ~ increases the value or K for a lipped plale falls below that for a plate with a free edge; i.c. the addition or a lip 10 a lonl plate can reduce the critical buckJiog stress. At the pojnt where (he values of K are equa~ the criti~ stress of the lip as Nt isol.al~ strut equals that of the pJate WIth a
frcc edle. .
Plate stabjJjty can aha be enmine3approximately by the cnergy method.
We law earUer that a close approximation to the deflected surface' of a plate bin,ed at y  0, free al 1  b, is (taking In = J J
.. , .,
JI • 'fiX w A51O
, b a'
(4.J I)
(suffix P rerers to plate).
Suepcse tIlal, aJlhough the value of .4 m:lr change, the drOl'cll'I1 ,wr"cc •
.jQU
THE ,STABILITY OF FLAT PLA7ES .
of a lipped ltc takes the same fonn, Le. the transverse de8ec .... a . .till
linear. with no bending, The deflection CUlVe for the lip is
.  9fX
111" = A Sln, Q
(4.12)
(ndlix. L refers to lip).
Using Bq, (1,14), the strain CllCID in bending of the plate, U~, is given by
. DAY(~lJl .)
U, = 'lab &;r + (I  Y),
and the work done by the edge forces on the plate. T,., is ... _ 01 ,AEr'b "1'2'~'
, • L_ .I: ... I "'. th" U . Ell (dZ>,) 1 A_
The strain energy Ul ..... DUUlg 1'<". Cup, .. /..> 1S"2 G ·dii· ......
so that
AJl!Wh~ work done by the edge forees on the lip (TL). is
(lA(.(dr)~
2iD dx dx,
whichgives
TL = K'~~A!.
Equaling strain energy and work done by edge forces,
. :"lE (')~P 6(1 .. )1 3r.JEI ( 3A)
.. I2{1 V) b L~ + r;t J + albl 1m (I" J +bi .
(4.r3)
(<4.14)
(4.1 S)
(4.J6)
written
For a lip. width bu thickness equai to the plate (I). t.hU equation can be
(4.l7)
a,. + '»L(hdlJ) a.,  1 + 3(brlb) •
(4.18)
.... here "I' is tbe critical stress of the plate with a free edie, aod ar. is the ~Titical rtres:s of the isolated lip. When a., = ",. Eq. (3.18) gives "" ... at,This 5 in agreement with tbe last sentence of(W) above.
"utting· (I, = til.
I
o that
. ~E (!)J[I + 60 ... >1 .... ~E(bL)· , 12{1v') b ~ ;Jl. J J2,pb >
(>' ~ ~({1 _ Vl(bl.)J _ I).
6{1  "J I
(4.19)
STIFf ~ED N TANGULJ\R PLATCS
o L i_ ~ L ~
 I
:)
(J,fb .~
Fig. 4.3 Comparison of aCCIJ,ate and approximate !lleory
J:t
L
Ea..4.19\.. V
7
/
V
I CI
4
t>" tot.
Fi;. 4.4 LimiliDS values of ole
2
D
5
D
8
161
f
j
1
f
I
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES _F"
Eq. (4.J9) 'S the value of; (and therefore plate length) beyo ..• w.,
.specifled width of Lip of thickness I reduces the initial buckung stress of tbe hinged plate. The solution of Eq. (4.18) is presented in fjg. 4.3, and compared
10 the exact soluiion (Eq. 4.7) for a plate wilh ~ ... 20. For values of K Iess than
I
2'0, the difference between the aPPJo.umatc and true solutions is never more than 5 %, and at larger 4> vatues it is negligible. The limiting vaJues of ~ from
Eq. (4.19) are plotted in Fjg. 4.4, and are independent of I he plil[e ~ ratio.
t
4. I:.J rlafe built in iIII )' ;:: 0, stifJe.oed It y = b
The boundary eonditions at j = Oare(w;:: OJ,. ".[~;  0], ... , These, with equations from § 4.1: I give the d:lerminanlal equalion
I 0 I 0 0  0,
0 p 0 q 0
r' cosh p r1 sinh p r cos q r sin q 0 (4,20)
cosh p sinhp cos q sin II I
ps' sinh f7 ps! cosh p qr! sin II qrtoosq .~{R)F whi~h. after reduction and idenlificat ion of the fourthorder matrices. may be
wrillt=n
lD)F  (8)S  (R}F  O.
(4.21)
Eq. (4.21) Ius been SQI~ed Ior a similar range of values of ~ (for symmetrical rectangular lips equal in thickness to 111e plale) used in producing Fill 4.2 for hinged plates. The rr::suJ.ls.~re··pre.sellfcd in Fig. 4.S. for a plate ~ natio
r
of 20. The exact solutlon for a plate t raUo of SO is shown in Fig. 4.6.
Note that the CUlYCS take the famifiar garland rann, with K reaching a minimum (KIDtJ as ; increases. The condlW'ons drawn from tbe graphs are:
(i) Jl is possible (when 7 ,. 20) to reduce the value of KlIIlb beJow tbt for a plate buillin al y "" 0, free at J '" b, by the addition of a small lip.
(ii) N (he li p size is Increased considerably. it is possible for KfllJlI• for In _ I to faJl above Ihe value of X.I• [or a plate builtin along y "'" O. simply supported II j' ~ b. When this oa;urs the buckling mode changes to Kvcml Ullrwaves with 'he lip olTering simple &UPport~ K"I~ for this condition is the naxirnum value attainable (however large the lip ;s made) as long as we ,egleel lhe torsionaJ resist. nee of the lip.
(iii) The K value at each minimum point docs not diJlh greally from K '.1 the intercept of the K  ;. curve and the curve for y =0 0 buill;n, J' = II ree. This is indkated ill Fig. 4. Sand 4.6.
 f
S1'lP' 'lEO (,. NO ULAR HATES
b/~ .,%0 7
K
J tt
IIII!IIIIDf
~ ~)S.O
~~\ D
\ 
\' "\ \ '\ 
\ , , ,
J1 l\ \ 1\ "s"" ~ mmmn
t ~1 ~.) ~4 ") ~
\ \ " ~ ~
,
,\. 0' \ "' r, , "/ f'.......
~
0,' r'\. " 
, l' .", __. .....  "
_::.... I
(8)F.O ~,~ ..~ '_ ',_,..,.,.._ J... :J
I
I 1
o  0
1
6
,} +
u./b =~
Fie. 4.$ Bvcklill& or diUllped plate ",ilb edge slilJenc:r (bll "" 20,
As before. we can make an approJlimaie anaJysis of plate sfability using the energy method.. An approJlimation to the deflected lunace of a plale builliD al JI ... O. free at, "" b. is (lakin! m .., J).
WI'''' A(r  cos~)s:in ~,
and it is assumed that Ws sim applies when the plale tw; aD edge relnforcement, The deflection curve of the lip (1.$ in Eq. (4.12) is
(4.22)
(4.23)
UsingEq. (I.l4J. the strain energy in b~ndjng of the plate, UI', is sh·c:n by
DiT·A%f(317 .~ 8)b + a . (".  ..... )1 (4.24)
u,. 11& zl 4rrC1i. 6W t bob J'
J6j
7
t
.,
l
1 j ; ~
J
j
I I
I.
.~.
••. _ ~ •. '~'L'" VI' l·1.Al rLAlt:.!.
and the v ': done by the edge forces On the plate, T,., is

lC5
For the lip, as before
"'''ElA' Ul.=o~.
T, ruAAl .t .., a;;.
Equating wain energy and work. done by edge forces,
( 9,i) ~E (')1[1' ;, ~El
0<7 1 + 2b1 ~ J2(1 .1) b .. "Ji +.0' 14I'l + o.61J + ~rp;.
(4.25)
bIt,. 50
and the first term on the righthand &ide u recognised as a,. the critical stress'
(4.26)
7
. ~. iblt
i {&'S~O "f
IllJ1IIIIII
l\ \ D
_,' L
1:\ \ ., _ _
~ \ x \
~ \ \ ' ,",I lIlDIIIII1
l\ \ ~ ...........  0.1
7
l\ \ " ~.' , ~, ...:."
/ ....
\ \ _\ • 
/ .
V ~"I ~ r k.!".1
\ l\"'ot' .... """
(8)F.O .... ~ ~
In,'! M.~ m.+~
I ...
6
5
K
2
o
o
1
3 .+ o,,/b .. ¢
Fig. 4.6 BudUin: Df clamped plate with edge: Slifl'ellU (hIt  '0)
0.1
oos
1
i~ !
STlfFENLD HECTANGULAR PLATLS
oftbe plat.cwith a I •• .: edge. Tlre second term is i::.al.> where 0L is the cruical stres5 or the isolated lip.
Then we may write
A
Of + 4·5 1ii • 01.
"It"" A '
1.1. 4'5
, hi
an equation ror which 0"= a,. '" Uf, jJ a solution. For a rectangular lip,
width b", thickoess equal 10 Ibe~'ale (I), f, = ~ and Eq. (4.27) is then similar in form to Sq. (4.18).
The expression for"I' in Eq. ~.26);5 that derived from the energy anal)'ii! (see Eq. (2.34». A closer approximation to the true value, from Table 2, I ,
is a,. """ J2(~: .,.a)(ir[~ +6139+2 + Q • .so.sJ Using this expression in Eq. (4.26). anc! minimising to findK""fI leads to
(4.2i)
K [0·56(1 + (I  ~·S(bJ')!(bJb»]~ + O·S (4.28)
"',. "" 1 + 4'5(b')6) .
Values ot X"," computed from the above eqa.ation are compand with those fouod by solving the exact equation, Eq. (4.21) in the roltowingtable.
TIJ61t!4.1
bdb 0'1 0·2 (H 0·4 0·5
Kia,. (Exact) 118 1'70 2'JO 2,87 3'39
X.1 .. (Eq. 4.28) i.rs 1.74 2.35 2.93 3.46 This shows lhat the assumptions leading 10 Eq. (4.27) give close agreement to tile exact solution. but itmu,1 be emplwised thai this conclusion only . appUes to reCtangular llps equal in thickness to the plate.
In view or tbe observation at (iii), aboft, suppose we assume Ihat KII>'~ for thin n:cIangoJar Up! oeeurs wben tier = PI' = 0L' The value of p at which . this occurs is then found from n,e equation
12ft.: "') (i) a [;1 t O139~l + 0'50SJ = ~tz (~) l, (4.29)
where
(4.30)
which gives
J66
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
The folloWITtb table for X.i• can then be formulated:
TobIe 4.2
bJb 0·1 (}2 0'3 (}4 0·5
K .... (Eq. 4.28) 113 1·74 2·35 293 346
K",,;. (Eq. 4.30) 1'26 '·77 2·4S HS HS When ~ ,., (}S Ihe difference is about II %. However. a lip of width equol to half lh:n of 'he plate is unusually large, and would nonnaJly be classed as a
b. b
second component plate (sec: Chapter 7). When bL = 0'4, the CCTor for  = 20
. ,
is 7·5 %. The variation with ~ ratio is shown in (he rollowing table.
r
Table 4.3
bIt 20 30 40 .50
Percent a ge error H H 0·44 1l44 Ira designer requiring a quick approximate solution can accept CITor$ of this order, the assumption that (or thin Tect.aagular lips equal in tbidUJes3 10 the plate, K",'n occurs when ",. = (Ft._ is a powerful eoof We C3n write
X.,.'E (/)1 ~Epl 12(1 .,z) b = ""bW"'
where l' is the radius of syrarion or the thick rectangular lip about a neutral axis parallel (0 the plane of the plale.
Then
Since K can be expressed in (he form K = ;z + Cl.pz + C~ for aJilongjtudinaJ edge conditions, it is possible to solve for the critical value or ~ and substitutc inthe eApres~j,on rOJ ~. Denoting (l  ~ (~t.) J by L, tb~ fiDal equation is
K 2C~ (4.32)
.. ~ ... (e)l  4Ct(l  L)}+  Cl';
laking C. '" 0'139. CJ = 0'505, for a plate builtin at)' = O. Eq. (4.32) gives the same solution as Eq. (4.28). Eq. (4.32) should only be used for rectangular Iips equal in thickness to the plate,
 ...
..
..'
STI Ff ~ ED r ,. NG utA n J>LATES
4.1:4 GtDt.ralllOlutioD
J67
The sD/utions to the exact Eq. (4.7) and (4.2J) were presented in graphical form for rectangulu lip' C;qual in thickness 10 the plate, tor given ~ ratios, A mere gene .... 1 approach is posSible if (R)F is len in (he form gh'cn by Eq. (4.9):
(4.J1)
and values assisned Co tbe parameters :~ and:'. Thi$ aUow.5 501ulions (0 be plfllCnled indcJl'Cadently of ~ ratio. Solutions hI Eq. (4.21) on this basis are presented in Fig. 4,7 to 4.10, andthe values of Kml~ &l.ImrDalised in Fig. 4.11.
4.1:5 ToniioWlyliilroD&: RlIIfOl'MDGl£S
lJa OUf general considcnstioasU 4J :J) the boundary conditions were defined roll' edge rciDl'on:cmenli of m:g1igible torsional stifful:1i$. If torsional
(4.3))
.,
6
!J
K
4
.. :5
1 D ~"Et
l&J.hO IIIIIllIID
..... EJ
I \. ...
I ,
I .... _,  _ 
_j i\ , E
\ \ . IIlllIIIllI
I \ r'\
: \ \ r\'\. ~
I ' \ S ~.J ~v ~
 .~
l \ i\.. 111.1." . .J/:. /' lK·i" .._
~~/~ ..
\ \ I"
\ Dl5J' ;'
k.
(IJ)FwO' ." .....  11
 ;. ... "'1.'
.... __  .,~ o
1
6
1
5
FiS. 4.7 BLlCtlini of c1ampedpla.c wjlh ed~! stiffener (AIbl = O'Oj)
! bO
I
7
I~
1J1i... SIAl:IlLtTy OF FLAT PLATeS
STlFF. o
PLATES o o o
169
iD Rt._l.'ANGULAR
1 0
o q
(Dr ees q Cur sin q
+ II siD q)  9 cos q)
cos q sin q
tJrsin g. r cos q
I
(R)F
(4.37)
= o.
o (Ot1c:oshp +p sinh p) cosbp psi sinh,
p (nr'sinhp +pcomp) aiDhp
p.zI coshp _
6
I 0 fl
(B)S~O 0llIIIIIl}
1\ l'\ D
... \.,  r
\' i\ \ :\ !
\ ~ ~ \ \ nnmnn b
, \ \ 1\ \. .,,.....,
\ \ , .......... ~ K r"
_J
" \ ~ ,~ ~  _
" ~
~ \ <; ~ .. r....
", ......
(8),..0' , ./ (.......
'_. ....
. 4
5
x
_l_ D
I
'I
S
"
fX ~
I
7
4
T l).H:fl
l&JS.O mmnm
I!\._ tJ
~ ~~ _ .. 
, .\ \
I \\ i\ llIIIIIIIIJ
1 \ \ , \
,1 \ 1\ '\ ~
\ f\ \ <, .......... ; s "'
L
\ \ <; ,7 _ V' ~
(5)1 .. 0\ , ./
", 
.... _ , J
1
, 4
0.1";
Fig. U BudJinl 01 clamped pJate with t.dJle sti6CDU (AjlI' = 0'10)
o
2
5
6
7
1
tilfness is taken into account i'modification must be mad~ to Eq. (4.Sl. as OUOM, when JI = b.
I o
1 s, 4
a,/b .~
Fil ... ~ BuddiDI or damped plate witb &dp 511ft'cJtC.r (Albt ... 0 U)
(a'w iJlw) iP",
D P + p 8r  C" ~  0,
uy . • ~
(4.34)
here C, is the torsional rigidity of the reinforcement Introducing tbe ararneter
AfI.cI reduction ud identi.fic.1tioDof the fourthorder xutricc:s Uili gives
(4.3~)
Q{(B)F  (8)S . (R)11 + ((8)T  (8)B • (R)F) ... o. (4.38)
ads to [he equation
I
; (Ot J cosh p + p sinh p) + Artnrt sinh p + p cosh p)
AJ(UT C03 q + q sill q) : A.(nr sjnq q cos q) "" O. (4.36)
o j'
fJ
q cosq
qr' COiq
whcre{B)T
I 0
o p
p liah p p cosh p pst siDh P F cosh p
(4.39)
ole that when CL ""' D. n '" 00, and Sq. (4.36) reduces 10 the second equation Eq, (4.5) .:tfl.er dividing through by n. The determicantal solution rot a 1fe builtin af,. == 0, slilfened ar y  h. then becomes
This ckten:ninant represenls the equilibrium ora plate builtin a.t y = 0, free but with zero slope at y .. b.
"
!
J
i
;
~
I ~.
t
!
·
t
t
I
,
t
•
I
I
•
·
~
{
~
~
1
I 170
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
STIFF ED RI.. (\NGULAR PLATES
Expansion of Eq. (4.39) gives
(B)T = pq(r + r)(p sinh p cos q + q cosh P sin q).
(4.40)
171
A/hi" .. 020
s
. A
1 ·vHa
(0)5.0 IllIIIlllD
.\ ~\. D
~ \' ...  
'\ \\
. \ [\ \ ' IlDI1IIID
,y \\ 1,\
T\ 1\ " \. 1
I
\ ~ \ ," _....; 1.."
~, I'.... ~
\ \ '" <, t... 7' = ..__
.
(.B.)F.O' " "  ,..  ~
...
, .... _~b' 
bIt" 20 lb...i
7 ~k\
t t
mnmm \.
6 D
~.
K
4 b,./b
I
tH Ir thereinforccmenf is a symmetric lip equal in thickness to the plate. we can assllltlB (taking m ... I, ". = 003),
K
 I (h) (+')
n = 1.4 hL w'.
• C to .a.~ • guJ • bd) £
SJoce L,or a QuD iCCtaD ar section .c. T . 2(1 + .. f
Eq. (4.38) has been solved forlhis condirion. when ~ .. 20. The solutions,
I
wmpated with solutions neglectiog torsional stillness, are sbown in Fig. 4.12. The effect or nealect1DI torsional stiffness is seen to be ~Iarively small Ior thia rcctao£uJat lips.
TOrn3onal stitrnw does become important for heavier lips jn fhe fonn of lhick netniles. square and circular sections. UnfortunateJ)'. however, becaWiIC me effect ora heavy sectioned lip is 10 ilJ':re&se the wavcJenJlh or the buckle. Ihe basic ".1uct of K .... , before torslon is taken into account, are less
(4.41)
4
2
7 5 :5
o
6
J. 4
o../b • ;
Fig.. 4.10 Budlins o( clvnped pl.ale wilh edge 5UITeDl:r (Albl = 020,
2
I .~ ~ __ ~ __ ~~ J ~ __ _J
"
z
6
3 a,fbrr;~
FIg. 4.12Efl'ect orinc1udinlil Up (OniONI sfifTnl!ss in the anaJy!>is
4 fI/bP
Frg.4.11 Yalues of K~. ror damped plates wjlhedge Sliffeners
o
8
2
6
~/·.
j
"
I'
I
,
I •
I
,

o
172
THE STABiLITY OF FLAT PLATES
.'.
STIFPF"ED RT,& NCiULAH. PLATES
than in the se of thin rectangular Lips. This is clearly illustra1cd ~ FIe. ~ 4.14, 4.15,4.16 and 4.11, which give values of K".I. for various lip shapc:$. For further infonnatiou, see BULSON (1).
. . E ·675b •
Note that for square reinforcement (bs.. "'" fu, CI.. = 2(1 + ~) . ~.
so tha1
For circular reinforcement,
E ~ CL = 2(1 + II) . 32 '
where d ... diameter of reinfercernent,
then,
lM,;J (~)2
0=  •
31l{1  ,,)d' "II'"
bit .10 4
(4.42)
J
.. ./
. ..... V·
/'
V ~
L ..,..'" 
. .,.,. _ .
.... ./ V »:"
~,:  ..,..
.... _ .. (4.43)
The effect of torsional sti.ffo.ess when the lip is rectangular and equal in uu.ct~ ness 10 the plate, ean be examiMd apPI'OWnalely by usio& the encraY method. The stain ClleTiY ill torsion oftbe lip, (Ur)" is given by'
...
C JO(iJ8)2
(Ur)L =.....!  <U
2 0 ax: '
where 8 is the angle or rotation,
bit .20 4
3
I
./
UP TOASIONAL STIFFNESS /'
INCLUDED /'
:7 ."...,/
'
7 v."
'" ~ .
..... , Nf<i1.E'TfD
I o o
01 ba../b
Fig. 4.11 "Ollu~ of K_,. when t.. = 21 (bIt  20)
0·'
IIDIIlJID
E]
o
(}1
'D../b
Fig. 4.14 VaJUC! of XtoJ,. when II. ... 3r (bjl = 2CJ
0.1
b/'CI.ZO
I
J
.:»:
L /'
 . /'
"
" / _.,. "..
_."",.. ","'" ~ .....
~
.... ~ ....
,
_.r." . . .  
[]
o e
001
03
0·4
oz
br../b
Fig. 4.IS Valu.es or X.to ",heD I~ = 41 (6/1 = 20)
J7l
t i
i'
! ,
!
r
f


174
bit. • 20
THE. STABILITY OF FLAT PLATES
01 lH
tt/b
Fig. 4.16 VaJUClI of K..J. ror squan ~rommenu (ilL'" ,,, blr = 20)
3

v
:
~ V _ ~
...  .... o
D
()I
Then
Cl.l·[( (3'w ) JI
(UT)l. = T aa tU.
o ~ ~ ~ ...
1f We assume that the deflection surface can still be taken as
WI" = A(I  cos~)sjn :7.\
2b Q'
rOT In = 1 (see Eq, (4.21»
then
bit. 20 3
__..... ".
/""' ",
...... ~ _  o
o
04
oz d/b
Fig. 4.17 VilIue:$ of K_ ... tor cin::u1B.l reinrorcements (b/I = 20)
0.1
/. 1;
STIFF 'eD RV ''GULAR PLATES
Equating strain enersy .. nd work eor __ ; edge forces,
X(l +4'51) = K +4'5A(bl.)lOvZ)+21(f I'}(!_) (4.46)
bl ,. bl' rll 4 bll'
where J is the torsion eonstant for the lip.
Then
X(I + 4.!b&.) .. K,.+ 4'S(J~;V"')(~l.)(~Lr +225(1r')(~'J (4.47)
Comparing this with Eq. (4.26) we sec Ihal the: effect of torsional stjtrn~s is to increase tbe value of K by the addition of the term 2':S~ 4:S~~~~h), at all
values Dr f. SInd for any ~ ratio. For rectangular lips equal in thickness 10 the plate we can then compute the following fable ( ... ".. 0'3):
Tab/t 4.4
(4.44)
b,Jb 0·05 O'JO 0·15 ()'20 0'30 0·40 O·~O
Increase in K due 10
Torsional StilTnes$ 0'06 0·11 014 0·165 0·20 (I·n:; : fl· :!.f
I _. (4.45)
h b 20 h' '. . K .' ( 0 A'I ! 'I,
W en; "" . ,t l§ represenrs un lIH"'~:1SC In min rangllll! rorn 1 ... \\".'<:11 "tj ""
0·10 to 1 % when ~1. "'" O·SO. Wl1cn ~ == SO. chis represents an increase ill K .. 1n ranging from 45% when ~ == 0·05 to 4·3 % when ~L "" 0·30.
4.2 Intermediafe Remforc('mcm·5 00 Uniformly Compressed Plates 4.2:1 SiGgIe stiifuer OD the cealn fine of. slmply supported plate
The analy.!is is similar to tha( for an edge stiffener. Ne::;ligibJe torsional reslstanee is assumed; and the neUlral axis of the stiffener is taken 10 lie in the middle: plane of the plate. For con~nien('e Ihe coordinate axes arc shown in Fig. 4.18,
Eq. (4. f) and (4.2) apply, and the couditions at the junction of the plate and the stiffener are:
0) outwardbending deHcclions ofslitrener and plate arc equal.
(ii) the intensity of shear loading. transmitted (rom plale 10 stiffener contributes to sliilt!ner equilibrium,
(iii) (here is zero slope of the plate 01 the uis of the junction.'

r..:i
116 THE STABILJTY OF fLAT PLATES'~
Wben )' '" . condition (i) gives
[(Al + A.) sin '7],.  [As sin "';X 1 c: O.
Condition (ii) can be written
[ i1'w.  if'w Q'W]
£/ a~ + aA iJ,r ~ 2D iJ,. ,.Ib
and this gives
(since ml' = milo ain ~ has been omitted), a
I
AI 4.18 R~anralar plafe wilh siagfe ceorraJ stiffener
Condition (iii) gives
(4.48)
STIFF' S::D Ji TANGULAR PLATES l17
P aiab~ cos ~ . q = O.
cosb SID  0
2 2 2 .2
p ,1 linh!. • p •. P
,% cosh  s cos 2 .rsm i 0 (4,52)
,2 2
0 p 0 q 0
l 0 1 0 1
0 2p' 0 2r +(R)F
(note that (R)Fii politive with tbe coordinate IUtCS in the position taken here).
This RdUDeS 10 (4.49)
(4.50)
(R)F{ qcos ! sinh ~  p sin ~ cosh l}  2pq(P" + q'Jcos l cosh i = O. (4.5J)
Qi,..,_. ~.~ Arvrls'1"'" ""o:2'f"lO"tC k'. '> I fiS . (C) lOW TORSIONAL
. STIf7NfS$
FiB. 4.19 . B~ing modes for IiD.lle central stiffener
The sOJutiOD can be presented in the form of curves linking K and.p for various values or CR)P. However, it is customary here to present the solution (or
ranges of values of ;; and 1" as shown in Fig!. 4,20 (0 4.22 (sec also S E 10 E and STEIN (2)). As! important cQnsider.llioD lDustool be overlooked in preparing such curves. It is that the ana]ysisleadiog to Eq. (4.S3) considered ooly the syaunetric:al mode or bucklinG. Fig.4.19{a) sbows a transverse seclion wheD the effect ofthe stiffener is: slight; Fig. 4.1 Sl(b) shows a set: lion when the reinforcement is wry stiff lJe.xuraJly; however, before (6) C'aR be realised, buckling in an antigymmctric mode (e) can occur, as we JHI\le neglected (he torsional stiffness of the stiffener. The ma.UmlllD buckling stress wi1lthercrore be associated with tbe aDtisymmelrj~ mode, which eorrespcnds (0 a simply
supported Pllltcofwidth;. The critical budding stress as ~ _ co will then be
given by 0D == 12t;'! .,l)(¥) t, 5tllhal K", .• is J6 in (he usual r'lfmul:l.
pAl + qA.. =< O. (4.SO
TOe solution can then beexpressed in the usual delenninantal form

178
THE STi\IlILJTY OF FLAT PLATES
A/bti .. 005
20r~r.~~.
eI/bD
15~T~~T~ +~~~
K
o
5.
D b
~
nmnnn
rn
$
IlIII!llID
4
If'is useful to find the rigidity of stiffener required so that IIntisYl1lmC:lric buckling occurs, as Ihis is the optirnurn size for. initial buckJing. A stiffer reinforcement will not increase the initial buckling stress, aUhough it will
clearly affect the ultimate load. FiG. 4.23 jndicaJes the minimum values 01 ~ for long plates (sec TI"OSHENKO and a ERE (3).
The energy method can aha be employed, as it was earlier fOf the edge
K
1 a./b  ;
Fig. 4 1/ Budding or silJlph' suppoTled plates \\ilh central sliffcn~f (Afbl= (}IO,
o
·4
r :
STlFFF
D RO
'GULAR PLATES
,
 )
..
i
~
Ilitrener probJcm.Howc"'~r. it is·Rot·_,.,..osible 10 assume a simple deflection function, or tbat the fonn of the transverse deflection is unchanged by the pn::sence of tbe reiofon:emeot; The defteetion must be presented as a double lriJOnometrit' series:
A/btr • ~t
20r~~.1
.~ 15
'. K
~~
...
. ~: ',
.~
II) 1
, .
•
\
'.
"=""'"
,
.
Fil: 4.22 BUckJjn, or iimplysuppontd plates with unlral slilfencr (Alb, = 0'20)
Taking
.. ... ... • nI"X • 11ft J'
II'  I I. A ... SIR  S1n h '
..  ... I. a
:z.
a.fo a rj
Fi£. 420 B~ldin£ or ~jfllply supported ph.1J:$ ""jib ccnlr.ll 5lilf'OCf (Jlbr = 005)
the rtr.lin energy in ~lldinG of lll~ plate, U" js
Dab.r4 ....... (n,i "') 2
Up  8··1; .r A' ... ,,2 + ':"i •
"' .... 1 .f w lr
and the strain enc'I,Y in bending of tile stiffener, Yo is ."tEI'"
vt. = .... ~ I. (A.1  Am + A..., ... y.
'Wl .....
The work done by the edge ron:es ~ti Ibeplate, T" is
(tla'" ..... . ., mJ~ t
T, = 8 1:. I =x.A_.
,..l·" ..... _, ,,~
and the work done by the edge fotl;4:5. on the stiffener, T .... ;5
r"A 'D, .: ..L. J
T" "" =sz: I (A.,  Aa,l , Aad,··)·
'""" ... ·"1
The aboveexpresslons t"onsidcronly Ihe symmclric buckling mode ", By equating strain energy (U, + UJandwork done er, + T J. an expression
(4.54)
(4.55)
(4.56)
(4.57)
179
I
II
I
i !
180
TH[ STt\nJLlTY OF FLAT PLATES
16 ~NTf5y~enUG MODE """"'" ,~~~
f+, ............. +...I,:it/:: 7{ .," ,,'
1).10', ! ,1[.
11 K~
~
~ ==tl==
m
, 10 I~ 20
er/bJ) OL ~ ~ J_ ~
o
"
{\
~··~:i/~~\
/11"'. .;, /~',.JJ  ..
Fig. 4.13 Km,. for sUnply rupported plates with central 51iffcncr
.an be obtained for a," and by differentiating this clI.pre$$ion with ruped
to each coefficieat in turn, and settins the derivativesequal to zero, a 'ystcm )fJincaf equations can be formed. This is a similar procedure to thaI described ., Q § 2.4: l. The: second appro:timaiton [including coefficients .4 .. , and .4_, only) , us been round 10 give accurate resuhs (see reference J).
4.2:2 SiD~e stilTtn~r OD the centre ·Ji.ue of a plate with builtIn longitudInal
edges • ,
By similar conslderatlons Co Oie previous paragraph, a delenninantll quation like Eq. (4.52) may be deduced. The onJy difference wiD be in tbe econd row, which refers to leta slope at the longitudinaledges, bUl Dot zero noment.
Then.
cosh '!. I sinh '! cos ~ sin! 0 "" 0,
2 2 2 2
. bP P . q q ali ~ 0
pSIO  JI 1;05n '2 q SU12 (4.S8)
. 2 2
0 p 0 q 0
I 0 t 0 I
0 2P' 0 1Jf +(R)F
........... ,
I
.. 1
f .: ~
l
,
I ....
·"A'"
J !
i 1 i ;
i .'
.. 1,,,·, ,/
.: , <>
J f
•
1 i
I
J
i
,
t
I
I
j .
STIFF~ .D R TANGULAR PLAT,ES
lS~~t~~~~~~~~ K
o
%·0
14 (l.jb," ~
Fia. 4.M BullIiA platc.swiLb CCQIJ'aI WiITCD« (Barbri)
wJUeb has been solved by BA1l81lt (4). In lh.i.s case the aatisymmcuic mode is a plate, width b/2, bin&cd along one edge, builljn aloog the alb". so that
. .
.. S4rE (21)&
fret .. 12(1  Y) b •
and Krm1a ... " X S'4 "" 2H;' Fig. 4..24 shOWSBARBJl.t'uoiution plotted for #, ..., 0 IlDdO·l. Note that a smaller flexural stilrness is required to reach the limit of .otisymmetric buc1cful.g than WILl so for simply supported edge:\:, e~D though the critic'" strl:$S is coDSiderably rugher.ll is useful in design. to
know the optimum value of :~'Iba.t'just prodoccs a nodal line IlIloD~ the stiJrcner;lhe.se values 11:, . .: been indkafcd b)' OLEICH (S) for both simply supported and builtin pla,Ie5, and are plo~lcd api.nst ~ in Fig. 4.25.
60
.  ... ~
__.,..
~ ~ ·0'
~.

\
aD· rtJ~
A e!
IIIIIIIIIIJ
HJ
10
I) I)
''''0
Alb"
Fi,.4~:!S Values of EllbD to produce DOJa] line al stiffener
005
181

\J\
182
THE STABILITY OF 'FLAT PLATE
4,2:3 Single eccentric stiffener; plate with simply supported edges
The solution to this problem by solving the differential equation of equilibrium has been presented by BARBRE (4). The analysis is involved, and will not be given here. BARBRE considered the possible modes of instability ii.ven "
.' .....
.~~ .
; .
"f,., ... . ,I
, ~~===i::I
~ ~
~
SUCKLING MODES
Fig, 4.26 Rectangular plate with single eccentric stiffener ,
ill Fig, 4,26 and his solutions are shown in Fig. 4.27 and 4.28 for b, =b/3 and bA, where b, is the distance of the stiffener from one edge.
4.2:4 Two stiffeners, equidistantly spaced; plate with simply supported edges This C,I'C was also solved by OAR RR t: (4) using the differential equation of equilibrium. He considered the possible modes of buckling shown in Fig.
r:
S"'~ ED RECTANGULAR PLATES _183
"
A/bt b/!
10 ..~
,
. ITIIIIIIJ]
/" " 8
K .[J
,
s
4 illIIIIIlIJ
0, ,·0 '2;0 ~o 4'0
a./b. ¢ 1"
J :,~
.. \. ',".
.. ,l
t I
Fig. 4.27 Eccentric stiffener at onethird of the plate width (Barbre)
~l D == £t7.
1 EI" ,11. (1:.:.1)
4.29 and his solution for bt = 0 and 0'1, bD = 5 and 10, is reproduced in ~
Fig. 4.30. The figure shows that for these values, the antisymrnetric format,:' buckling is only important for very short plates, and the minimum v~lueQ{4:.' for long plates is associated with t~e symmetric form of buckling into.io*:; transverse halfwave. TlMOSHENKO (3) who examined this' probletl"t,;;~Y:'I " means of the energy method, treated it as a special case of a ,generaianaly~';t . for any number of stiffeners. Taking w in the usual form of a double infi:r¥ffe.r: series, he showed that the total strain energy of bending of the plateA.ri~: stiffeners is ' ", "" '
K
, :
s
~
~'~~~s[J
s
6
'ITmmn ' uuiuuu
o
2 3
(LIb .. ¢
4
Fig. 4.28 Eccentric stiffener at onequarter of the plate width (Barbre:
18 ....
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA .. _S
where Eli is the flexural rigidity of a stiffener at a distance b, from y = O. (Jx,
.(f",
~
1 .
~ ~
~
4
~
&UCKl.INu MODES
Fig, 4,29 Rectangular plate with two equidistantly spaced stifr~riers
The work done by the compressive forces is
T = axtab I i m2.ffl A2
8 111=1 n=1 a2 In"
+ 17,.71'2" ~  2 ( ; 71'b. . 271''''
4a 4 £., A 1m A"'1 S1.llb + Am2 sin _,
I m=t 1 :
,.
where A~ is the crosssectional area of the ith stiffener.'
(4.59)
(4.60)
STl.:fENED RECTANGULAR PLATES
.d5
Equating U and T, solving for (1x, and equating the derivatives of this expression with respect to coefficients Amn to zero, leads to a system of homogeneous linear equa tions of this type:
~ D [A ( 2 +: 2../.2)2 2 "Ell . n1Tb1 4 ~ A 'PiTb1J' b2t mn m n 'f' + f bD sm b . In p~l mp Sin b'
../.2 [2A .+ 2 "AI . n1Tb1 2 ~ A . P1Tb1]
=» ucr m 11m. f bl SIn b' m p~l mp sin b = O.
.~~
The determinant of this system is set equal to zero to find acr'
(4.61)
45 IF'
:;5
K
2,
f;
5
0 05 2·0
ro ,.,
a.,fb ::: cp
of simply supported plates with stilf~neisiat
third points (Barbre) . '. .. . 'i\. .
TlMOSHENKouses this method to treat the case of a single stiffe~e:r6*the centre line of asimply supported plate, as well as the problem under di~¢usslon here. His results cdinpare closely with those of BAR B R E and:11e has ComPuted
..... A . EI 10 20 ..........•. ..... ':<,:
the values of Kfol>bt = 0,05, bD = 3' 5, '3 and 10 to suppl~r:nent BA~~RE'S
curves. Theseare shown in Fig. 4.31; note that the possibility ofantisym'' metric buckling, is not. considered. TIMOSHENKO'S results call. be presented to a first approximation in the form of a simple equation. This is: .
K = [<I + ~2)2 + ~iI>J. ~2 (1 + 3 :r)
Fig. 4.30 Buckling
When I and A are  ~ = ~2 + ~2 + 2 (which is seen tobe thesoluti~l1 f~r an unstiffenedsi . ~;upported plate). This equation alsoshowsthaltlle
, ,.::
180 THE ST ABI LTTY OF FLAT PLA!.
larger values of K are associated with large values of EI and small values of A, a conclusion already drawn with reference to edge stiffeners.
An alternative presentation by SEIDE and STEIN (2) is also recommended;
in their report buckling curves are given with reference to EI !!. where c is cD' c'
the distance between stiffeners.
40 ''~~r
I
I '~~4~+~~~~ i
b/~ 101
_~t A
UIIIIIIIIl
s
~,t~~~§~!!:rnJs
_ 0·'
! jO'1 005 S
OO~ A/btl UIIIlIIJl]
I,. 2
o..!b "" ¢
Fig. 4.31 Buckling of simply supported plates with stiffeners, at the third points (Timoshenko)
10
o
4.2:5 Larger numbers of stiffeners
If the stiffeners are flexible enough to ensure buckling with a single trans. verse ~alfwave, Eq. (4.61) can be used to give a first approximation for (lcr by taking only the first equation in the system (i.e. m = n = p = 1).
Then
(1 + "2)2 '+ 2 ~ Ell . 2 nb,
a = TT2 D 'I' 7 bD sm b
cr b21 ,_ •
</>2 (1 +2 f ~: sin2 'Tr:I)
For two equidistant stiffeners this leads to Eq. (4.62).
Plates with a large number of stiffeners can be considered as plates with different rigidities in the longitudinal and transverse direction (i.e. orthotropic plates). The analysis has been discussed in ~3. L whereit shown that
(4.63)
C
srrr,
and
NED RECTANGULAR PLATES I
2'Tr2 
Ucr == hZt (V D"Dy + H{,
I
D" = flexural stiffness for bending about the jaxis,
D, = flexural stiffness for bending about th¢ xaxis,
H = l(v"Dv t vyD,,) + 27t, i.e. the average torsional rigidity.
(4.64)
, 187
For longitudinal stiffeners, flexural rigidity EI, distance c apart,
EI Etl Et3 , Et3
D" = c + 12(1 _ y2); Dy = 12(1 _ v2); H = Dy = 12(1  v~)'
Then, using Eq. (4.64),
4rrlE (t) 2{ ( ~ I ,)t}
Ucr = 12(1 _ yZ) b 1 + 1 + 12(1  v ) etJ' ~
(4.65)
The term in the large brackets is the factor by which the critical stress of a <, simply supported plate is increased when longitudinal stiffeners are,added.
Buckling curves for multilongitudinal stiffeners have also been presented
, ( ) . f EJ '" a hei 1
by SEIDE and STEIN 2, In terms 0 the parameters cD ami ¢' T err resu ts
cover a large number of stiffener rigidities. ,
In all the analyses discussed in this section, the neutral axis of plate and stiffener coincide and stiffener torsional rigidity is neglected.
4.2:6 Local buckling
In the analysis for multistiffeners described in the preceding section only overall instability was considered, and it was assumed that when buckling: occurs the plate and stiffeners deflect together out of the plane of the plate. It should not beforgotten, however, that a local instability. cart take place in which the junction of a stiffener and the plate remains a straight line; numbers of waves occur along the length of the plate between stiffeners, and along the stiffeners themselves. This is particularly applicable tostiffenersconsist . ing of thin plain or bulbed flanges, and the analysis is set down in§ 7.4: 1, which deals with the local buckling of an integral panel.
4:2:7 Stiffeners located on one side of a plate
The solutions presented in §§ 4.1 and 4.2 are strictly valid only for stiffened plates in which the centroid of each stiffener crosssection lies in the middle surface of the plate. When stiffeners are attached to one side of the plate the resistance to buckling increases, and the most attractive way.ofrepresenting this is to replace the moment of inertia of the stiffener about its centre of gravity EI by !4t effective moment of inertia (EI)f> and to use the existing
solutions With;~ replaced by (!21.
188
THE STABILITY OF FLAT PLA'n:;S
A summary of the work in this field has been given by SEIDE (6), as an introduction to his own analysis of the problem. He considers first the bending of a plate with stiffeners attached so that sliding between the stiffener and the plate is permitted; relative longitudinal displacements would then occur along the contact line. If these are prevented by the connections a system of shear forces must be induced which produce additional deformations. to cancel the relative displacements. The strain energy due to these deformations must be added to the strain energy in bending of the plate and stiffeners in calculating the total potential energy of the system.
For a single central stiffener, seIDE finds
(4.66)
where d = b12,
z = distance of centroid from middle plane of the plate,
Z = modal coefficient; the value of this coefficient depends on the number of stiffeners, whether the buckling mode is symmetric or antisymmetric about the plate centre line, and the buckle
aspect ratio ( = rx~)'
In = number of halfwaves formed longitudinally at buckling.
When ~ is very large, Z is small, and Eq. (4.66), in the limit, becomes rxm
(El)f _ EI + EAz2 (4.67)
dD  dD dD'
This means that the effective momentof inertia of the stiffener is the moment of inertia about the middle plane of the plate. this was the effective value
originally proposed by TIMOSHENKO (3). When'!!"" is very small, Z is large,
rxm .
and Eq. (4.66), in the limit, becomes
(EI), EI
dD = dD'
(4.68)
Thus the effective moment of inertia equals the moment of inertia about the neutral axis of the stiffener. Practical values of (~2f wil1lie between those given by Eq. (4.67) and (4.68).
For graphs and tables showing the relationship between Z, buckling mode, number of stiffeners and aspect ratio, see reference 6. Two, three and multistiffeners are treated in the same reference.
cox and RIDDELL (7) have also investigated the eft£o·' of stiffeners on one side of the plate, giving their results in the form o(ective width of nbte to he added in calculating the inertia of the stiffeners, An approximate
STn'PENED RECTANGULAR PLATES
method of dealing with lipped plates having an unsymmetric stiffener has been given elsewhere by the writer (BULSON (8», and probably the most important contribution so far made to the problem is due to caw ALtA and NOVAK (9), who discussed the stability of a plate in shear with a single central stiffener attached to one side.
N SAYS
O'x
Fig. 4.32 Rectangular plate with transverse stiffeners
4.3 Transverse Reinforcements on Uniformly Compressed Plates 4.3:1 Simply supported plates
The most general solution to this problem, which takes account of the torsional rigidity of the stiffenersv is dueto BunlANSKY and SEIDE (10). It is assumed that the stiffeners are equally spaced. A Fourier series is chosen to represent the deflection surface of the buckled plate, and using this an expression is found for the potential energy of the system. This is minimised with respect to each Fourier coefficient in turn, and the resulting simultaneous equations are solved to find the critical stress by setting the determinant equal to zero. The simultaneous equations are separated into independent sets before solving, corr=oonding to different buckling modes.
Referring to Fe .32, the deflection surface may be represented by the
series
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