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APUSH Review Study Guide - The American Pageant - Thomas A. Bailey & David M. Kennedy

APUSH Review Study Guide - The American Pageant - Thomas A. Bailey & David M. Kennedy

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A summary of Chapters 2-44 of The American Pageant, 10e by Bailey and Kennedy. 400 years of everything CollegeBoard wants you to know for the AP United States History test, written by three students with As in the class and 5s on the test. We hook it up!
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A summary of Chapters 2-44 of The American Pageant, 10e by Bailey and Kennedy. 400 years of everything CollegeBoard wants you to know for the AP United States History test, written by three students with As in the class and 5s on the test. We hook it up!

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AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993

Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 1

SECTION I: FROM COLONIES TO COUNTRY

Ch2: Planting of English America
By 1600, C & S America transformed, N America unoccupied, primitive outposts
Jamestown 1607, Quebec 1608, Santa Fe 1610
Catholic-Protestant Rivalry, English plundered Spanish, 1588 Armada destroyed
England¶s prominence grew with Spanish peace, joint stock cos., growing population
Jamestown starts with King James¶s charter for gold, Indies passage, 100 settlers
Struggles, few resources, rough winters, saved by leader John Smith
Clash with natives²war, attacks, disease, disunity, economic instability
John Rolfe, Tobacco brings colonies to survival and profitability
Increased European demand, grew in VA soil, but required labor
Maryland developed as a Catholic haven, Lord Baltimore, Acts of Toleration 1649
West Indies were prized²Spanish, Dutch tussled, Britain gained, sugar was king
Colonization interrupted in 1640s with English Civil War at home, turmoil on throne
Formed from poor, discontent, banished, NC & RI became the most democratic colonies
GA buffer colony 1733, protected from French LA, Spanish FL, slow to prosper
Plantations, slavery ruled South, education and infrastructure poor, opposite of North

Ch3: Settling Northern Colonies
Pilgrims, Calvinists persecuted in England, came to New England on Mayflower
Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony for economic, spiritual reasons
Founded by puritans, well equipped, smart leaders, fishing, industrious
Basic democracy, propertied church members could participate in town hall
Purpose of government to enforce god¶s laws. Clergy powerful
Roger Williams founded R.I. on freedom of religion, opportunity for the individualistic
England in turmoil, 4 colonies band together form New England Confederation
Left on their own when Civil War convulsed England in 1640s
Dutch, Spanish competitiors inch closer to British holdings
Middle colonies are a mix of N and S, economically and culturally
Some trade and commerce, some farming
More diversity of faiths and residents

Ch4: American Life in 17
th
Century
Huge increase in tobacco production, prices dropped, whites planted more, indentured servants
Nathaniel Bacon, others angered by Berkeley¶s Indian-friendly policy
Led poor whites in rebellion, increased tension between poor/rich, import of black slaves
1680 rise in English wages, looked to west Africa for workers, started economic, turned rascist
Chesapeake slaves had it better than southern slaves, closer together, easier climate, crops
Slavery created class-divided south, rich not aristocratic, hardworking, common
New Englanders lived longer, emphasis on family, children, stability, northern women lesser
Life focused on puritan customs, carefully planned towns, church democracy, town gov¶t
Population grew, younger generations went farther from church, led to halfway covenant
everyone admitted to church, puritans replaced by commercialism
New Englanders sharp, frugal businessmen, hardy, honest, tough, epitome of US
Better than Europeans, Americans middle class, European poor or rich
AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 2

Ch5: Colonies on Eve of Revolution
American population was growing, shifted balance of power to US, very diverse, created
incredibly diverse country, unique culture, most diverse place in the world
Agriculture largest industry, fishing the second largest, doctors lawyers weren¶t esteemed
Society was far looser than in England, easier to change social levels
Triangle trade enabled Americans to get rich easily (America to Africa to West Indies)
English market not large enough for American goods, Americans illegally turned to West Indies
There were two large churches, Anglicans and Congregational Church± Puritans
Great Awakening revived religious fervor, effects included founding of schools, sense of unity
Education prospered in New England, didn¶t encourage creative thinking
News papers gained some freedom of press after Zenger decision
Colonial government consisted of governors and two houses, upper house and lower
Town meeting style local government present in North, although one had to be propertied to vote
it wasn¶t hard to acquire land, showing signs of democracy, United States was growing

Ch6: Struggle for North America
France late because of religious turmoil, edict of Nantes insured religious unity, established
Quebec
Joined with Huron against Iroquois bad move Iroquois later prevented them from Ohio Valley
Most important resource was the beaver, pursued it all over North America
Built Detroit and New Orleans to thwart Spanish and British expansion
Ohio river valley desired by French and British, French built up presence with forts, George
washing attacked defeated at Fort Dunsque
French and Indian war expanded into Seven Years War, British and Prussian beat over extended
French, didn¶t have enough troops to send to the New World
At the intercolonial congress in Albany Franklin proposed a plan for colonial home rule which
was shut down by British who were unwilling to compromise
Braddock decimated by French Indian guerilla tactics, left the left flank of America exposed,
Indians went on a warpath
1765 British tried a full scale invasion of Canada focus on frontier outposts instead of
Montreal/Quebec
Pitt took Louisbourg turned tide of war, James Wolfe to Quebec, scaled cliffs, defeated French
Ended war with treaty gave America complete control over the continent
Friction started to develop with British who had contempt for American militia, and colonial
businessmen who sold to French West Indies during war
Colonists gained unity from French Indian war, whole continent now open for settlement
however British blocked colonization, wanted to make deal with Indians, Americans
disobeyed started conflict

Ch7:Road to Revolution
Vast distances from England, less aristocratic atmosphere, hard living, gave Americans spirit of
individualism american independence in colonist¶s minds had started when they got to
the us
Colonists enjoyed leniency in government, believed their parliament to be equal to England
Britain didn¶t pay much attention to colonies, ³Board of Trade´ was in charge, basically had a
mercantilist attitude, colonies for amassing of metal and raw materials
AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 3

Mercantilism created many laws, ex. Navigation Laws said colonists could exclusively trade with
British, couldn¶t compete with Britain, British Tariffs
Problem existed because colonists bought more than they sold to Britain, had to pay a lot of cash,
however couldn¶t print their own money, London had authority to veto colonies laws
Mercantilism had some benefits including a free army, monopoly of English tobacco market,
bounties to ship builders, however many Americans didn¶t follow mercantilistic laws, Americans
felt used, cheated, weren¶t allowed to fully prosper
Following seven years war, territory and debt, put garrison of soldiers in US, wanted US to help
pay, Grenville not tactful passed sugar, stamp, quartering which caused colonial resentment
Colonists questioned why army was needed when Spanish and French were gone
Taxes at time worse in Britain, colonists didn¶t actually want representation, they were just bsing
Stamp congress unified, responded by not importing british goods, harassed tax collectors, stamp
agents
Britain relied on colonial market repeals stamp, passes Townshend lighter tax, colonists still
didn¶t comply
King George repeals Townshend, but tries to enforce Navigation
British east india, important for British tax revenue, floundering, british government bails them
out giving monopoly on American tea market, America on principle refuses to be taxed for tea
leads to boston tea party
Passes repressive acts, closes boston¶s ports, starts colonial congress in response purpose is rights
not independence,
Parliament ignores, leads to battles at Lexington and Concord
American appears weaker however had a few advantages, britain distracted by other problems,
sympathetic faction in Britain, British army over rated, America was huge and far away from
England, home soil, marksmen, moral ground weaknesses, no unity, congress no leadership, no
supplies

Ch8:Secedes from Empire
Initially Americans had no will to secede, they fought but insisted they weren¶t rebelling
Initially captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point which gave them gunpowder decimate British at
Bunker Hil
Bunker Hill killed all chance of remaining loyal
Thomas Paine publishes common sense which convinces Americans they need to fight for
independence then France can help t hem, leads to colonists giving up hope of reconciliation
Patriots were a minority, simply occupied land the British couldn¶t cover, colonists fighting each
other
Loyalists generally Anglican church, some fled from persecution, british made a mistake in not
arming them
British capture huge fleet off of New York, Washington retreats to Delaware River, Howe fails
to pursue, Washington comes back on Christmas Eve for a sneak attack
British attempt to capture Hudson river valley halted by Benedict Arnold stalls British at Lake
Champlain, Howe and Burygone blundered by settling down for an early winter later defeated
decisive battle of Saratoga
Saratoga convinced French to support US, gave arms and gunpowder a more legitimate chance,
Now Britain had to protect their home front from French, Spanish, Holland
AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 4

Following period from 1780-81 of no wins, finally trap Cornwallis at Yorktown, win war, john
Jay ben franklin and john adams sent to Paris, John Jay secretly makes deals with British to
appease the US

Ch9:Revolution
American revolution not that radical of a chance, aristocracy weakened, equality stressed,
State constitutions provided basis for federal constitution, they had superior law, weak
executive/judicial
It was difficult initially to set up a government, unifying war was gone the economy war poor
States were generally still sovereign with own money, armies, tariffs
Articles of confederation adopted, linked 13 colonies for common purposes, no executive, states
each 1 vote, no commercial regulation and taxation rights, provided basis for constitution
Passed important land laws: land ordinance of 1785, acreage of frontier sold to pay national debt,
northwest ordinance of 1787 area submissive to congress, then becomes a state
Britain and spain preyed on early United States, credit abroad evaporating, debt growing, states
refused to pay, people wanted
People gather in philly, 1787 smartest best in nation to address control of commerce
Representatives were wealthy and conservative, believed in republicanism, also curb
unrestrained democracy
Decide to scrap articles of confederation, great compromise settles (2 houses) large vs small
states, set up strong executive branch, constitution consists of a bunch of compromises, electoral
college, slave status etc.
Strong government with three branches for checks/ balances, judges appointed for life, senators
presidential chosen indirectly
Decided 9 of 13 states was sufficient to ratify, country split into federalists and antifederalists
Finally states realize that they can¶t prosper unless in the union, and decide to ratify
Victory for conservatives, minority of radicals overthrew britain, minority united colonies



















AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 5

SECTION II: THE DEVELOPING DEMOCRACY

Ch10:Ship of State
Washington¶s government made bill of rights, amendments passed by 2/3 vote of congress, 9 and
10 guaranteed state¶s rights
Hamilton makes government take states debt, people would be more tied to the government
Hamilton additionally made customs, tariff, whiskey tax, BUS, Jefferson was opposed, strict vs.
loose interpretation of constitution
Hamilton and Jefferson rivalry quickly turned into the two party system
Jeffersonians supported French Revolution wanted to honor the Franco-American alliance
Washington wanted to avoid war, issued Neutrality proclamation which enraged Jeffersonians
Britain straining relations, US sends John Jay to London (a federalist) to negotiate
Jay infuriates Jeffersonian Republicans by giving in to British demands, agrees to pay
revolutionary debts
Washington retires, his legacy is keeping US gov on its feet, avoiding war
John Adams wins next election his biggest legacy is keeping out of war, French mad Jay¶s treaty
think it violates Franco-American, Adams resists temptation of popularity, instead signs treaty
with Napoleon
Federalists pass Alien and Sedition Acts, very unconstitutional, Jefferson, Madison use compact
theory to try and stop them in Kentucky Virginia, but fail
Federalists: rich upper class, strong government, pro British, protect private enterprise
Jeffersonians: poorer people, free speech, weak government, no special privileges, education
before suffrage

Ch11: Jefferson
1800, Adams vs. Jefferson: Jefferson won because Federalists (Adams) wouldn¶t fight France
Jefferson received the same number of votes as Burr, however Congress voted and settled the
issue, showed country¶s health, faith in system (Jeffersonian Revolution), first party overturn in
American history
Federalists were now finished, it was a party of the elite, legacy of laying groundwork of
government,
Jefferson didn¶t dismiss Federalist officials, got rid of excise taxes, released alien an d and
sedition prisoners, took away those laws, passed neutralization laws, however left most
Federalist programs intact
Judiciary Act of 1801 which created sixteen new federal judges, Jefferson tried to get rid of
them in Marbury vs. Madison, chief justice John Marshall ruled he couldn¶t, established judicial
review
Jefferson preferred the navy to the army, Tripoli declared informal war on US, sent Navy over
Spain cedes Louisiana to Napoleon, withdraws privileges of US to come down to New Orleans
James Monroe goes to Paris to negotiate for purchase of New Orleans, if he couldn¶t he was
supposed to make a treaty with England, Napoleon sells them Louisiana territory for 15 mil,
hopes one day US will challenge british supremacy
Jefferson used loose constitutionality to pass treaty, Federalists opposed because new states
would weaken
Jefferson¶s policies didn¶t work with reality of situation, british ruled seas, france land, struck
indirect blows at each other through laws
AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 6

Jefferson tried to make an embargo, however Europeans ignored it, softened with non-
intercourse act, embargo helped American industry

Ch12: Embargo and War
Madison passed Macon¶s Bill Number 2 in an effort to entice France to join with the United
States,
Napoleon agrees to it, wants to hurt Britain with a partial blockade
12th Congress controlled by young leaders from the West and South, want a war for their
generation, they advocate free trade, sailors rights, anti-Indian
Decide to fight Britain in war of 1812, mostly because they wanted Canada, also, republicans
liked france
New England hated the war, lent money to British and wouldn¶t send troops, lots of disunity
War Hawks were a minority, nation not behind them, the army was not effective
British crushed us, United States wasn¶t on the offensive, we were barely able to defend what we
had
Andrew Jackson triumphs in New Orleans, dominating British
Czar Alexander I wanted mediation, didn¶t want his British allies to be involved in war, 5
Americans led by John Quincy Adams go to Ghent
Nothing big comes out of Treaty of Ghent, basically it is a ceasefire, none of the problems are
worked out
New England Federalists meanwhile call Hartford Convention, spells their end, it ends up being
seen as treasonous
Legacy of the war is it revived resentment towards England

Ch13: Legacy of War
Tariff of 1816 response to British attacks on fledgling American manufacturing industry
South led by Calhoun initially supported, Daniel Webster and North against it thought it would
interfere with shipping, henry clay wanted the American system: protective tariff that would fund
infrastructure
Madison combined two generations, presided over Era of Good Feelings which in fact had
problems such as the tarff, banks, internal improvements, sale of public lands , sectionalism
Panic of 1819 tightened laws regarding land sale
Missouri wanted to become a state, Tallmadge amendment said slavery couldn¶t exist there,
Southerners opposed worried about sectional balance, settled through Missouri Compromise,
Maine, Missouri, Mason ± Dixon Line
John Marshall expanded Judicial Branch into most powerful of government, able to lead
Federalized Republicans, curbed states rights through numerous cases
Florida and Oregon acquired, Florida through Jacksons aggressive action, Oregon Monroe and
Adams negotiated with the Treaty of 1818 with Britain to share Oregon
European Monarchy trying to stop democracy in Latin America, Britain and US opposed to this
Britain suggests Canning proposal, US deny it (John Quincy Adams), and make Monroe
Doctrine




AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 7

Ch14: Changing of the Guard
Democracy was growing in popularity, Crockett, Andrew Jackson were products of this,
politicians had to appeal to the common citizen, universal male suffrage instated starting in
Vermont
Panic of 1820, Missouri compromise brought mistrust in government, people wanted to become
more involved in politics because there was more at stake
1824 election Jackson won popular but not electoral, vote goes to House of Reps, Clay sways
House to elect Adams who Clay shared values with, Jacksonians were angry
Adams didn¶t follow national trend of sectionalism, states rights, pissed off south by building
infrastructure
Jacksonians developed Tarriff of 1828 as a ploy against Adams, wanted trading based New
England to turn against Adams, instead North saw its future in manufacturing and passed it,
South used tariff as a scapegoat
South hurt economically by Tarriff
1828, Adams verses Jackson, Jackson wins from common man, wanted to keep union united
defied congress
Jackson wants to get rid of corrupt aristocratic Washington bureaucracy, and Adams-Clay
supporters, created political machine
Webster and Hayne had a debate whether the North could shut down sale of public lands
Hayne wanted nullification, Webster defended north and the union effectively
Webster aroused desire of the North to keep the Union intact, played a large role in winning the
civil war

Ch15: Jackson
South Carolina hated Tariff of Abominations, threatened to secede, Clay proposed a
compromise, Tariff of 1833 which reduced tariff
As a face saving measure congress passes Force bill
Jackson hated BUS, Clay tried passing it prematurely in 1832 posed a dilemma to Jackson who
would lose supporters in either the West or East depending on what he did, Jackson vetoed
increasing presidential power, bank became a big issue in the Clay-Jackson presidential election
of 1832
BUS was dirty, corrupt, favored East, run by Nicholas Biddle, financially sound and dependable
1832: Clay National Republican verses Jackson Democrat, also Anti-Masonic (Anti-Jackson)
party
First time national conventions were called to nominate, Clay¶s big money vs Jackson and the
masses, Jackson won
Jackson tried to force removal of Bank by taking funds out of BUS, bled it dry in 4 years
Species Circular said land should be purchased with metallic money, prevented speculation
Population growth forced government to deal with Indians
Cherokee in Georgia tried to assimilate, Georgia wanted to kick them out, supreme court sided
with Indians, Jackson over ruled them
Jackson enacted Indian removal act, 100000 Indians sent to Oklahoma
Americans immigrated to Texas, ignored Mexican demands of Roman Catholic and no slaves,
friction grew, Texans finally banded together and own their independence
1836 Democrats, vs Whigs (united over hatred of Jackson), Van Buren Jackson¶s yes man won
AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 8

Van Buren had a rough time, many problems including rebellion in Canada, Texas¶s annexation ,
inherited recession of 1837 from Jackson, caused by over speculation, failure of wheat crops,
economic distress in England
Van Buren responds with Divorce bill, to divorce government from banking which was a terrible
idea
Tippecanoe verses Harrison, Whigs bs¶d Harrison into office made him appear down home
Emergence of real two party system
Whigs: natural harmony of society, value of community, self interest groups = bad, favored
renewed bank, internal improvements, public school, prosperous folk
Democrats: didn¶t like privilege in government, states rights, federal restraint, humble folk

Ch16: National Economy
Westward expansion changed demographic center of the US, population growth increased by
struggles in Europe ex. Irish potato famine, additionally many Germans escaping autocracy in
Germany
Irish settled in Boston and New York were initially poor, gradually became rich politically
involved, seen as a major area of vote power
Germans better educated, champions against slavery, supported education vote more spread out
It took a long time for mechanization to reach the US because numerous factors: land cheaper,
people would rather work the land, labor scarce, no capital, no market, British superior, finally
1850 industry surpasses agriculture
Samuel slater comes to US makes cotton mill, Eli Whitney makes cotton gin starts industrial
revolution
Factory system receives boost from embargo, non intercourse, war of 1812, large influx of
inventions including interchangeable parts, sewing machine, limited liability-helped people raise
capital, telegraph
Factory system decreased personal shops, workers had terrible lives
Commonwealth v hunt ruled labor unions were legal, Jacksonian democracy encouraged working
man to become politically involved
Most women entered cult of domesticity, more control over their bodies, raised children
differently
Illinois, Indiana, ohio produced corn for south steel plow and mechanical reaper made corn
industry commercial, needed a better transportation system
Turnpike craze, fulton steamboats, road building, population clustered around rivers
Railroads hugely aided the economy previously goods had gone south from northwest to new
Orleans now with railroads most things went through NYC
Continental economy was developed, southern cotton, western grain and livestock, east
machines/textiles
West would now side with the union in civil war as it wasn¶t dependent on the Mississippi
Advances in manufacturing brought economic stratification, little social mobility however more
than Europe
Standards of living increased as a whole




AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 9

Ch17: Cultural Developments
Second great awakening roared across nation, Methodism and baptism flourished
Revivals led to break up of religion faiths, more learned East was Unitarian, south west
Methodist
Rich wanted schools so mobocracy wouldn¶t rule, decrease ignorance
Paid taxes however schools were still few and crappy, Horace mann worked to improve that
Reformers encouraged by second great awakening, wanted to get back to Puritan values
People drank a lot, customs and hard life led to excessive drinking
Market economy increasing difference in gender roles, women were becoming more domestic
Some feminists emerged such as Stanton, Susan B.
Utopian spirit of the age led to the founding of many weird communities
Americans weren¶t that strong scientifically, more interested in more practical matters, medicine
was awful
Painting lacked enough capitol, best painters went to Europe, theater art not appreciated by
puritans
Literature wasn¶t very strong most of it stolen from England, increased after War of 1812
Transcendentalism started up focused on individual thoughts, embodied by Emerson, Thoreau,
Walden
Longfellow, Whittier, Lowell, Simms, Poe, Melville all famous American writers of the period



























AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 10

SECTION III: THE AMERICAN CONFLICT AND ITS AFTERMATH

Ch18: Slavery
S up to 1793: low prices, unmarketable products, unprofitable slave system ĺ cotton gin: up
prices, efficiency. N¶s prosperity rested on slaves also (shipping; cotton= ½ US exports by
1840). S knew that if there was CW, Brits would break N¶s blockade & S would win.
S: oligarchy>democracy; big gap b/w rich & poor, bad public edu, fewer imms, resented N¶s
profits from them. Plantations spoiled earth, pop ĺ W & NW. Financially unstable, over
speculation, slaves used as capital=risky, depended on 1 crop.
Nonslaveholding whites considered above slaves; defined slavery as Amer Dream. Free blacks
mostly post Rev, some owned property, resented by slave system. Separated families more
common in areas with fewer slaves. Concentrated in ³black belt´ of Deep S (harder life in W)
1800: end of legal slave importation ĺ smuggling (little punishment).
Abolitionism: began with Quakers during Rev (established Liberia to take slaves back to Africa),
abolition increased in 1830s & 2nd Great Awakening. 1831: Garrison: The Liberator to end
slavery, ĺ 1833: American Antislavery Society (i.e. Douglass, Walker, Truth, Delaney). More
antislavery societies south of Mason-Dixon line than north of it (abolitionists were unpopular in
N: didn¶t want changes to the Constitution). Politicians avoided the topic. Most people opposed
expansion but didn¶t support abolition.
S began to fight back; tightened slave laws, prohibited emancipation, hated Garrison, said Bible
& Aristotle supported slavery & that it was good for Africans.
MANIFEST DESTINY TAKES HOLD: Chapter 19
1941: Whig Harrison dies ĺ Tyler (Dem ĺ Whig), wanted lower taxes
Hated Brits b/c wars; Amer: debtors, Brits: creditors, brink of war b/c Canadian uprising &
disputed Maine boundary
Mex didn¶t recognize TX independence from 1836, so TX made treaties with France, Holland, &
Belgium. US worried about Monroe Doctrine & competition with Cotton Kingdom ĺ 1844:
Polk (Dem) brought in TX.
OR: claimed by Brits (discovery & populated) & US (Spanish treaty) ĺ 1840s: ³Oregon fever:´
massive pop.
Polk: wanted decreased tariff, 1846: returned independent treasury
US wanted CA for $25 mil, Mex said no; $3.5 mil claims against Mex; TX boundary dispute.
Polk wanted war ĺ 1846: Mexican-American War. Polk wanted war over ASAP; Santa Anna
double crossed negotiations ĺ Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: gave US TX & CA for $15 mil &
forgave debts. Increased territory by 1/3, increased slavery issue; foreshadowed CW & prepared
military. Mex retained anger. Wilmot Proviso: no slavery in areas from Mex cession (failed in
Senate).

Ch20: Sectionalism
Popular sovereignty: people of the area chose whether or not to legalize slavery.
1848: Whig Taylor won. (Free Soil party: antislavery)
1848: gold discovered in CA, not actually profitable, v. lawless ĺ CA applied for free statehood
1849
1850: S: pres, cabinet, SC, =in Senate until CA, & D.C. wanted to abolish. Underground
Railroad increased tensions, wanted increased runaway slave laws, ĺ debate: Clay (concessions
from both, increased fugitive slave laws) v. Calhoun (states rights, leave slavery as it is, restore
AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 11

political balance) v. Webster (new land can¶t hold slaves anyway; ignore the issue) ĺ
compromise. Taylor suddenly diedĺ Fillmore, signed Compromise of 1850, N liked it more
than S. N: CA, D.C., got disputed TX territory for NM & OK. S: popular sovereignty in Mex
Cession land, $10 mil for TX, Fugitive Slave Act of 1850: no jury/testifying on behalf of a slave,
fed commish got $5 if freed and $10 if not, and people ordered to help catch slaves. Increased
antislavery sentiment among moderates.
1852: Dem Pierce, aggressively S cabinet, wanted new slave territory. Wanted Asian trade route,
Perry signed trade agreement with Japan 1854. 1854: secretive showdown with Spain over Cuba
for S; N was outraged; wanted Canada.
Transportation issues b/c W, should railroad start in N or S? Best route: thru Mex territory ĺ
Gadsden Purchase.
Douglas: Kansas-Nebraska Act: both be popular sovereignty, but N railroad route. Repealed
Missouri Compromise. Direct cause of CW, because N hated slavocracy in Kansas, S hated the
freesoilers trying to control Kansas. Shattered Dem party, created Repubs, created sectional
party system.

Ch21: Disunity
Stowe: Uncle Tom¶s Cabin against Fugitive Slave Law, hugely popular.
N began to pour into Kansas, still came in a slave state, freesoilers set up illegal gov. 1856:
violence began ĺ fanatical John Brown (Later John Brown raided Harper¶s Ferry, executed for
murder ĺ martyr). 1857: Lecompton Constitution for statehood, could vote for/against slavery,
but it was still protected ĺ freesoilers boycotted ĺ approved with slavery. Pres Buchanan
supported Lecompton, fully divided Dem party. In Congress: Brooks beat Sumner over slavery.
1857: Dred Scott case: slaves are not citizens, are private property, slavery cannot be outlawed
(& Missouri Compromise had been unconstitutional).
1857: Panic: CA gold ĺ inflation, over stimulated grain, over speculation, worse in N.
1858: Lincoln-Douglas debates for Senator ĺ Douglas¶s Freeport Doctrine: popular sovereignty
ranks above SC. 1860: Repubs choose Lincoln: appealed to all but S w/ nonexpansion of
slavery, protective tariff, no abridgement of rights, fed internal improvements, free homesteads.
Very sectional win ĺ S Car seceded ĺ AL, MS, FL, GA, LA, TX ĺ Confederate States of
America.

Ch22: Girding for War
1861:Confed attack on Fort Sumter supplies began CW. Border states: MO, KY, MD, DE, WV.
Officially: war to preserve Union. Indians sided with S.
S: fought on own land, Lee & Jackson. Few factories in S, N had ¾ of wealth & railroads, much
larger pop. S counted on foreign intervention, but Brit had surplus of cotton and needed the N¶s
wheat & corn more. Brits bought warships they had been building for S to keep relations with N.
Napoleon III violated Monroe Doctrine during CW, but later abandoned it.
Confed gov: ineffective. Lincoln: issued blockade, increased army, increased $ for military,
suspended habeas corpus. 1863: draft law, more taxes, 1861: Morrill protective tariff. 1863:
National Banking System: stimulate gov bonds, issue standard $. Confed $: huge inflation.
N: new machinery: mechanical reaper, petroleum. S economy: limited, transportation collapsed.



AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 12

Chapter 23: Furnace of Civil War
N military plan: blockade S coasts, liberate slaves & undermine economy, seize Mississippi R,
send troops through GA & Carolinas, capture Richmond capital, grind into submission.
Beginning of war: Confed victories at: Bull Run (1 & 2). Union, McClellan, halted Confeds, Lee,
at Antietam (ĺ Emancipation Proclamation, 1862 strengthened moral cause. Blacks were now
allowed to enlist in Union army). Gettysburg: Meade beat Lee. Shiloh: Grant was defeated, but
was victorious at Vicksburg & Chattanooga. 1864: Sherman burned through GA. 1865: Lee
surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse after capturing Richmond.
Dems split between War & Peace factions, War & Repubs formed Union party under Lincoln in
1864, Lincoln assassinated in 1865.

Ch24: Reconstruction
Emancipation slowly took effect. 1865: Freedmen¶s Bureau created to aid unskilled, illiterate
blacks, mostly taught them to read.
1863: Lincoln had presented 10% plan for readmission to the Union, but Repubs passed Wade-
Davis Bill in 1864, requiring 50% allegiance & stronger safeguards. Repubs split: moderates v.
radicals (wanted S to suffer). 1865: Johnson issued plan: repeal secession, repudiate debts, ratify
13th Amend to free slaves.
1865: Black Codes began, keep stable & subservient labor, began sharecropping & harsh
penalties.
Reps were angry at S representation in Congress, pop increase from 3/5 to 1. Johnson tried to
end Freedmen¶s Bureau ĺ 1866: 14th Amend: citizenship, reduced a state¶s power if it denied
blacks vote, disqualified former Confeds, assumed Confed debt. Moderate Repubs still majority,
didn¶t want direct involvement of fed gov.
1867: Reconstruction Act: 5 military districts, all had to ratify 14th & let black males vote. 15th
Amend: guaranteed men right to vote (feminists angered). 1877: ended military reconstruction.
Blacks began to gain political power. Scalawags: southerners who used political influence to
make $; carpetbaggers: northerners who came S for $. 1866: KKK formed, Force Acts of 1870
and 1871: attempted to control KKK.
1867: Tenure of Office Act: pres needed Senate consent before he could remove cabinent
members, violated by Johnson 1868 when he dismisses sec of war Stanton ĺ move to impeach,
barely voted not guilty.
1867: sec of State Seward bought Alaska for $7.2 mil to not offend Russia.













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SECTION IV: THE RISE OF AMERICAN ECONOMY AND SOCIETY

Ch25: Gilded Age
Postwar disillusionment, corruption, Fisk & Gould, Tweed Ring. 1868: Grant elected by ³bloody
shirt.´ Crédit Mobilier: way overpaid for Union Pacific Railway, busted 1872, 1875: Whiskey
Ring robbed Treasury of excise tax revenues, corrupt cabinent. 1872: Grant reelected, both
candidate unqualified.
1873: Panic: too industrialized, market too small, bank failures, people began to advocate for
³hard $,´ debtors wanted silver because Treasury would trade it for more than its market value.
Treasury accumulated gold stocks for deflation (³contraction´). 1879: Redemption Day:
exchanged greenbacks for gold. Bland-Allison Act of 1878: Treasury coined $2-4 mil in silver
Greenback Party.
Politicians were delicate to maintain balance. Voter turnouts increased. Parties were religiously,
sectionally, & culturally different but had similar ideas.
Rep. Hayes tied with Dem Tilden Compromise of 1877: Hayes took office, last federal troops
withdrawn from S. Now S blacks suppressed to barely above slavery. SC validated segregation
with ³separate but equal´ in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896.
Rep. Garfield calls for tariff, civil service reform, avoided controversy, refought CW, didn¶t
address debtors or laborers. Assassinated 1881 Arthur: Civil Service Commission to examine
applicants.
Dem. Cleveland, liked laissez faire, narrowed N/S divide, increased military pensions ( graft)
because of surplus, Cleveland wanted to lower tariffs. Also, Dawes Act to control Indians and
Interstate Commerce Act to curb railroad monopolies. Harrison high tariffs, purchased votes.
-Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Harrison: forgettable presidents

Ch26: Industry
Huge increase in railroads, gov subsidized land. 1862: transcontinental line began to CA, mostly
Irish workers, had to ward off Indian attacks, Central Pacific and Union Pacific met in Utah. By
1900: 4 other W railroads, also expanded in E, esp NY Central. Steel rail bore heavier loads,
better safety. United nation, increased markets, better land use in W, set up time zones.
Corruption: stock watering, bribery, cooperated with each other, pooled profits.
Americans: slow to respond to economic oppression. Depression of 1870s: farmer protests, tried
to regulate, Interstate Commerce Act of 1877 prohibited rebates, pools, had to publish rates.
America: #1 manufacturing: much capital, plentiful resources tycoons found ways around
competition: Carnegie (steel, vertical integration: combined all phases of manufacturing),
Rockefeller (oil, horizontal integration/trusts: consolidated competition), Morgan (banking,
interlocking directorates: consolidated rivals under board of directors).
Steel: Bessemer process huge production, Morgan bought US Steel Corp: 1st billion dollar co.
1890: Sherman Anti-Trust Act: forbade monopolies (toothless)
S: less affected b/c minimal industry, increased agriculture b/c man made cigarettes (1890: Duke:
American Tobacco Co in NC). Remained rural.
US wealth, cities, & standard of living increased, Jeffersonian ideals & agriculture decreased.
Industry changed way of life: increased class division, extravagance, radicals, decreased
creativity & soul. New machines meant people lost jobs. Individuals were powerless over
corporations.
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Labor unions boosted by CW, 1869: Knights of Labor (Powderly): economic & social reform,
wanted 8 hr work day. Became wrongfully associated with bombers at a strike, also hurt by
skilled & unskilled laborers skilled workers: American Federation of Labor (Gompers): wanted
increased wages & better hours. Used walkouts & strikes, public opinion began to change in
favor of laborers.

Ch29: Rise of the Debtor
The surplus vanished as Civil War pensions increased
Tariffs, monetary and economic controls grew, costing Republicans in 1890
Populists demand free silver coinage, gov't-operated railroads and communications
McKinley Tariff raised rates, hurting farms and lowering Harrison's approval
Cleveland triumphs, Silver Puchase Act heals recession of 1893, alienates party
JP Morgan bails out Treasury in 1895, stemming the loss of gold
Cleveland breaks strike at Pullman plant in Chicago, seen as gov't-biz collaboration
Backed by Hanna (steel titan) against Bryan and divided Dems, McKinley elected 1896
Conservatism, big business, cities triumphed
Corporations given free reign and a protective 46.5% tariff
Prosperity in 1897 with the return of gold standard and natural inflation, Populists decline

Ch30: Path to Empire
After a century of isolation, US looked to new markets and a release of domestic pressure
Driven by social Darwinism, manifest destiny, and foreign colonial powers
Venezuela conflict ended with US presence reinforced, Britain settled for arbitration
Hawaii annexed 1898 after long US presence
Spanish-American War begins with Cuban uprisings
USS Maine explodes and sinks, Spanish blamed, inflames war sentiment at home
Outnumbered in troops and with a smaller but superior Navy, US fought well
Commodore Dewey takes Manila in a day, rest of Philippines shortly after
TR, Rough Riders dominate Spanish in Cuba, Puerto Rico
Ends with $20m purchase of Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines
Aided Cuba and Puerto Rico with healthcare, education, infrastructure, economic aid
US a world power, earning European respect. Americans confident and united

Ch31: America on the World Stage
Philippines given infrastructure, healtcare, economic aid, but wanted freedom± revolted
Open Door policy attempted to establish US presence in competitive colonial Far East
McKinley re-elected 1900, Americans' choose prosperity over concern for imperialism
Assassinated 1901, TR takes over± unconventional, reformer, strong leader
US supports Panama rebellion, crushes Colombia, secures canal rights from France
Set up puppet government in Panama to ensure stability
Canal completed in 1914 at cost of $400m, enabling greater naval mobility
TR and Monroe Doctrine± used Big Stick to remove foreign threats, protect US interests
Russo-Japanese War allowed TR int'l diplomacy, followed by Portsmouth '05, Spain '06
1906 large Japanese population in CA, school segregation, Gentlemen's Agreement


AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
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Ch32: Progressivism / TR
US population approached 80 million, 15% foreign-born, reform stirred
TR¶s 3-Cs
Corporate control- trusts seen as corrupt, graft and bribery common, ICC
Consumer protection- FDA established standards
Conservation- Forest Reserve Act, NPS, protection of west
Labor grew in influence and membership, workers¶ protections, government involvement
Muck-rakers invented or distorted social, economic, political issues for publication
Panic of 1907 financial collapse led to Fed in 1913
Big Stick in Caribbean, gaining influence and establishing Canal through military
Taft succeeded TR with similar aims-trust-busting, conservation, executive power
Peaceful, indecisive, weak, dollar diplomacy
Dissolved Standard Oil, threatened US Steel, angered TR
Split Reps. by keeping tariff, conservation battles, loss of congressional seats
TR challenged Taft in 1912 Election, holding Progressive banner and splitting party

Ch33: Wilsonian Progressivism
Elected minority president, Reps. split, pro-biz/competition, anti-trust, ignored social
Strong, intellectual, stubborn idealist, but lacked touch
Lowered tariff, introduced graduated income tax, Fed aided currency issues
Clayton Anti-trust Act, FTC aided labor and regulated corporations
Seamen¶s Act 1915, Farm Loans 1916, Disability Act gave Progressive identity
Used dollar diplomacy rather than imperialism
Jones Act gave Philippines greater self-gov¶t, diffused Japanese tensions in CA
Marines to Haiti, Dominican Republic to preserve influence, purchases Virgin Is.
Smashed into Mexico when revolution threatened Americans
With the start of WWI, US remained neutral while leaning increasingly towards Allies
US-UK shipping remained strong, U-boats attacked, Lusitania sunk
Tentative agreement struck, then violated
Wilson narrowly defeats Charles Hughes-weak orator, cold, moderate- in 1916 election
















AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 16

SECTION V: DEPRESSION AND WORLD WARS

Ch34: World War I
German U-boat restrictions end, Zimmermann Note² US declares war April 6, 1917 Wilson
played democracy¶s aid to gain public support of untraditional policy
Fourteen Points outlines Postwar goals
Abolish secret treaties, arms reduction, freedom of trade & seas
Self-determination, colonial adjustment, League of Nations
US controlled public opinionof war through propaganda, media limitations, persecutions
Poorly prepared for war at first, the economy expanded greatly under government watch
Farm production, exports, wages increased, strikes declined, labor benefited
Conscription increased army from 200k to 4m+ including some women and minorities
US supplies and armaments, plus troops in a few engagements, turned the tide to victory
Wilson¶s influence at treaty talks hindered by congressional losses
Treaty fueled German resentment because it was harsher than promised
Senator Lodge derailed US approval, Wilson shot down amended version, never ratified
Without US, League of Nations was all bark, no bite
Germany, France rearmed, US returned to a dangerous isolationism
Harding wins easily in domestically-focused 1920 election

Ch35: America in the Roaring 20s
After war and failed treaties, America withdrew into a decade of prosperity and turmoil
KKK increased in influence, Red Scare persecuted communists, labor un-American
Quota acts limited European immigration to earlier levels, outlawed Asian entrance
1919 Prohibition enacted, controlling personal lives like never before
Decreased workplace truancy, supported traditional values
Illegal sources common, dangerous, increased class divides
Crime syndicates brought bribery, corruption, drugs, gambling, prostitution, violence
Inconclusive Scopes trial pitted evolution, science, education against the old order
Consumer culture epitomized the 20s
Production up, advertising, purchasing on credit
Ford, assembly line brought cars to the masses. Rubber, concrete, glass developed
Represented American spirit: independent, adventurous, dangerous
Radio, film sent homogenous entertainment through airwaves
Urban movement increased, Harlem Renaissance, women found new liberation
³Lost gen´ writers: Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Dreisner, Faulkner, Frost, Cummings, Pound
Jazz culture developed²Louis Armstrong, Bessie Smith stars
Lindbergh across Atlantic by air, airlines grew, railroads declined
Bull market throughut decade, gains overshadowed fears, overspeculation/gambling, debt

Ch36: Politics of Boom and Bust
Harding weak, well-liked, laissez-faire, reforms halted, anti-trust ignored postwar
Washington Naval Treaty set 5-5-3 force ratio, but gave Japan the right to fortify islands
Tariff hiked, impeding world trade and commerce. Corruption and scandal tainted gov¶t
Coolidge to office 1923²honesty, industry, morality, hands-off²perfect for the times
Farmers hurt by overproduction, couldn¶t export due to tariffs, loss of wartime market
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Isolationism continued except for Latin American intervention
Debt reparation crippled much of Europe, starting economic decline
Hoover elected in 1928 over catholic Al Smith
American story of perseverance, intelligence; popular but weak, shy
Pro-business, progressive, anti-socialist
October 29, 1929 stock market crashed due to overproduction/speculation, bad credit
American ideals crushed, individualism and opportunity appeared lost
Hoover indecisive, feared handouts would weaken nation, increasingly despised
FDR sweeps in on aid campaign, creating public works projects to employ Americans
Japan invaded China, League powerless. Good Neighbor Policy decreased US presence

Ch37: Depression and New Deal
FDR, though crippled, was a strong leader. First Lady Eleanor fought for the oppressed
3-Rs
Relief: handouts and other aid hoped to stem the bleeding short-term
Recovery: FERA state aid, NRA, numerous agencies employed millions
Reform: Fair labor practices, financial regulations, FDIC, SEC
Farmers struggled. Second AAA helped with price controls, subsidies, loans followed
Wagner Act, Wages/Hours Bill ushered in new era for labor. AFL and CIO grew
FDR tried to prevent the conservative Supreme Ct. from interfering with New Deal
New Deal results were mixed, but represented a fundamental change in US history
Provided relief, employment to millions, prevented the worst of the depression
Hurt economy, socialist, big government, wasn¶t very effective, expensive

Ch38: FDR and the Shadow of War
US left London economic conference because it sought to limit control of currency
Isolationism increased during worldwide depression, period of unrest abroad
Tydings-McDuffie Act set timeline for Philippine independence at 12 years
Good Neighbor replaced Big Stick, corporate interests hurt but public applauded
As Hitler and Mussolini gained power in Europe, Americans looked the other way
Secretary of State Hull introduced reciprocal trade agreements to lower tariffs
Neutrality Acts of 1935-7 allowed ongoing trade relations, gave aggressors a green light
In Spanish Civil War, US arms aided both sides, democratic and dictatorial alike
Instead of using economic might to preserve peace, US neutrality fueled conflict
Arms shipped to China upon Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1937
Appeasement failed as Hitler claimed Rhineland, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Sudetenland
Ausust 1939 Germany-USSR nonaggression pact postpones real conflict, Poland invaded
After the invasion of Poland, ³phony war´ period of silence continued into 1940
Belgium, France, Netherlands, Scandinavia fall quickly, Britain holds out, US shocked
Conscription began in 1940 as the US prepared to defend democracy once more
Destroyer deal trades used vessels for bases, violating neutrality but necessary
FDR shattered the two-term tradition in 1940 when voters wanted an experienced leader
Lend-Lease Act ³sold´ arms to UK, USSR, stimulated economic, production increase
June 1941 Hitler violates nonaggression and strikes for Moscow
Churchill and FDR meet at sea and draft the Atlantic Charter, outlining postwar aims
Neutrality ends late 1941 as US convoyed Lend-lease to UK, USSR for U-boat threat
AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
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Since signing the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis in 1940, Japan was preparing her own assault
December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor. Pacific fleet smashed, but precious carriers safe
Congress declares war on December 11, American isolationism ends

Ch39: America in WWII
Immigrants contributed, even a small number of Japanese released from camps to military
New Deal reform effectively ended
War effort produced enormous amounts of exports, farmers produced record harvests
1942 inflation brought lower prices, wages, unions protested
Bracero program with brought Mexicans to work in industry, replacing drafted workers
Fair Employment Practices Commission worked for workplace equality
Indians left reservations to work for war, Blacks moved to cities, women became workers
War bonds financed the war and bolstered public support
Production increase and growth ended Depression
Japanese advanced quickly through the Pacific until Midway, Coral Sea. Carriers turned tide
US island-hopped to Tokyo
Barbarossa stalls in Russian winter, Stalingrad meat grinder of German Sixth Army halts Hitler
Allies push across Africa, win key battle at El Alamein, push to Rome from Sicily
FDR, Stalin, Churchill met to plan Western Front, resulting in D-Day 1944
Paris liberated Aug. 1944 , FDR wins fourth term
Soviets capture Berlin in 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally, Hitler commits suicide
Truman takes office after FDR¶s death 1945
Japan submits after atomic attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki²war ends on USS Missouri























AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
Bailey, Thomas A. & David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant, 10
th
ed. ©1993 19

SECTION VI: A NEW WORLD ORDER

Ch40: Cold War Begins
After war: sexual depression, wartime jobs lost, Taft Hartley Act
Economic boom: 1948 product rise by 1950 economy stable
Women¶s employment increase. Productivity, work force out of agriculture to giant
agribusinesses
Family breaking up with inc. moving. Lots to ³sunbelt´.
Whites to suburbs, blacks in cities. Fed. Housing Admin.
1945: United Nations created
Cold War: tension from U.S. not recognizing Soviet¶s Bolshevik rev. till later and other
suspicions.
1944: International Moretary Fund: encouraged world trade; inter. Dank for Reconstruction
Development (Soviets didn¶t take part in)
Nuremburg trials: 1945-46, Nazi leaders tried
U.S. wanted to support Germany economy to help recover all of Europe, Soviets disagreed;
Germany separated into four military zones (E. Germany- Soviet control, W. Germany
independent), iron curtain separated the two
Containment doctrine: USSF expanding, cautious and containment used to spread power---US
aid to Greece and Turkey against Russia Comm. Threats
China fell to communism under Mao Zedong
Arms race: 1949- US developed H-bomb, Soviets exploded their H-bomb
Fear of communism (domino theory): 1938, committee of un-American Activates
Truman won election of 1948(farmers, blacks and workers were his votes). Give money to
underprivileged so wont become communist.
Fair Deal: 1949: housing, employment, min wage and price all improved, Housing Act and
Social Security Act of 1950
Korea: in 1945-N. Soviets, S. US), N. invaded S. ²US air and naval units to S. Korea

Ch41 Eisenhower Era
Eisenhower elected president 1952, armistice signed in Korea ending war
McCarthy accused communists, went too far with condemning US army.
NAACP, Rosa Parks, MLK (SCLC) grew in prominence
Civil Rights Act: investigate rights and voting, escort black students to school
Republicanism: power to states, Interstate Highway Act created jobs, infrastructure
Soviet slaughter Hungarians, US allowed 30,000 immigrants
Eisenhower doctrine aided nations attempting to resist communism
Soviets launch Sputnik, US humiliated
Nat¶l Aeronautic and Space Administration, Nat¶l Defense and Education Act for science
Kennedy won election of 1961, gaining votes from workers, Catholics and blacks
Middle class lifestyle included consumerism, automobile, fast food, purchase on credit
U2 spy plane capture ends temporary friendship in the wake of Khrushchev¶s tour.
Kennedy was young and popular, said more than he did in reality
Averted Cuban Missile Crisis. USSR supplied Cubans weapons, Kennedy talks tough to Soviets
Several wars convulsed Vietnam
War for independence from French colonial rule
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North-South Civil War
Southern Rebellion against government

Ch42 Stormy Sixties
Sixties defined by cultural movements
Sexual and feminists revolutions, Civil Rights movement
Youth culture movement and rebellion fueled by anti-war sentiment
Khrushchev builds Berlin Wall 1961, strengthening Iron Curtain and tension
Diem¶s assassination is encouraged as Kennedy speaks neutrality to USSR
Didn¶t do many civil rights: Freedom Riders, Voter Education Project, ³March on Washington´
JFK shot 1963; Lyndon Johnson become president. Civil rights act passed banning racial
discrimination, Equal Emp.
1964 Lyndon won
War on poverty: office of economic opportunity funding inc., housing and urban development,
and national endowment for imm.
24th amendment ended poll tax in elections
Murders of civil rights works found, MLK²led voter reg. campaigning Alabama²
Voting Rights Act in 1965; violent black protests like Malcolm X, more blacks in office
Operation Rolling Thunder, full scale bombing against N. Vietnam b/c Viet. Attacked US air
base.
Israel attacks Egypt, superior air force, six-day war, gained territories
Nixon won 1968 election, mostly black vote, decided to not escalate fighting

Ch43: Stalemated Seventies
Economic growth of the 50s and 60s hindered by LBJ¶s Great Society, Vietnam War
US Treasury depleted, Japan and Germany began to compete in markets
Nixon called for troop withdrawals, ongoing US assistance for anti-communist nations
Protests at home grew when Nixon expanded bombing efforts
Later, discovered that Nixon attacked Cambodia without approval or public notice
Détente with China, USSR; sought to play these rivals against each other for US gain
Grain trade, nuclear arms limitation agreements between Soviets and Americans
EPA formed to oversee environmental use and policy, Clean Air and Water Acts
Earl Warren appointed to Supreme Ct., making several controversial rulings
Criminals entitled to legal counsel, Right to remain silent, secular leanings
Nixon re-elected by landslide in 1972, promising to end Vietnam, steps up bombings
People associated with RNC break into Dem headquarters in Watergate hotel, install bugs
Many resign in ensuing scandal; Nixon claims innocence, national security threat
VP Agnew resigned for tax evasion, Nixon refuses to reveal tapes, resigns
Gerald Ford, healer of the country, became first non-elected President
OPEC oil embargo drove up energy costs, created shortages, increased conservation
Diplomatic Carter, intelligent Georgia farmer and Washington newcomer, elected 1976
Brokered peace treaty between Israel, Egypt at Camp David
Pledged to return Panama Canal by 2000, reestablish diplomatic ties with China
Soviets invaded Afghanistan in their ³Vietnam´, little progress after years of warfare
Iran overthrew the American-placed Shah, took hostages, rescue attempt failed miserably
Hostages release upon Reagan¶s inauguration, embarrassing end to Carter¶s term
AP United States History Summary, 1600-1993
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Ch44: Return of Conservatism
Carter was blamed for rampant inflation, sluggish economy. The Right grew in power
Reagan elected in 1980 for hands-off government, individualism, decrease in welfare
Tax cuts, defense spending, supply-side economics helped stimulate economy
Cut welfare, while military spending increased deficit $200b annually
Cold War flares up with a new missile defense system, USSR shooting a Korean airliner
Iranian hostages freed, but US forced to pull out of Lebanon after suicide bomb kills 200
Funds secretly diverted from Iran to Nicaraguan rebels, tainting Reagan¶s foreign legacy
Gorbachev takes power in USSR, new civil and economic measures end Cold War
Conservative Supreme Court limited earlier Roe, Webster, Planned Parenthood rulings
Dems take Congress 1988, attacking budget deficit, but Bush wins with little competition
Post-Soviet issues include ethnic violence and economic collapse in the Eastern Bloc
US arms Iraq in its decade-long war against Iran, then attacks when Iraq invades Kuwait
Gulf war, Desert Storm end quickly in victory, boosting Bush¶s domestic approval
Americans with Disabilities Act, limited civil rights acts pass, 27
th
amendment limits pay
Aged, depleted Bush outdone by boomer Clinton and Gore on first all-Southern ticket
New stance for Dems²defense, growth, healthcare reform, tough on crime
Clinton, the first boomer president, oversaw a younger, more diverse government

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