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A Beginner's Guide to Internet Safety

A Beginner's Guide to Internet Safety

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Published by Bob Cohen
Computers, networks, and the Internet are essential resources we use everyday. But these critical tools can expose us to possible identity theft, scams, virus attacks, damaged data files, and computer "hijacking."

Written in easy-to-understand language, this definitive guide explains practical preventive security measures you can put in place to protect yourself. You'll learn how-to be a "Cyber-Sleuth," able to recognize, identify, and eliminate threats when they occur.
Computers, networks, and the Internet are essential resources we use everyday. But these critical tools can expose us to possible identity theft, scams, virus attacks, damaged data files, and computer "hijacking."

Written in easy-to-understand language, this definitive guide explains practical preventive security measures you can put in place to protect yourself. You'll learn how-to be a "Cyber-Sleuth," able to recognize, identify, and eliminate threats when they occur.

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Sections

  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1 Internet Basics for Today
  • Connecting to the Internet
  • How Your Computer Finds Web Sites
  • Internet Hardware and Software
  • Email and Spam
  • Your Web Browser
  • Instant Messaging and Chat
  • Your Computer’s Operating System
  • Shared Files on Networks
  • Chapter 2 Give your PC a Security Checkup
  • Chapter 3 Email Spam and How to Manage It
  • Why Does Spam Exist?
  • Controlling Email Spam
  • Chapter 4 Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and Social Networking
  • Dating Sites
  • Internet 2.0 Social Networking Sites
  • Public Information
  • Privacy Controls
  • Facebook Privacy Settings
  • Types of Relationships on Facebook
  • Individual User Privacy
  • Privacy Options
  • Search Results
  • Twitter Privacy Settings
  • Other Social Networking Sites
  • Chapter 5 Malicious Software
  • Spyware
  • File Attachments
  • Chapter 6 Scams and Fraud
  • Phishing
  • Auction Sites, eBay and Craigslist Scams
  • How to Report Scams and Fraud
  • Chat Room Scams and Fraud
  • Blogs
  • Identity Theft
  • Chapter 7 Network Security
  • Typical Home and Small Office Networks
  • Router Setup
  • Router Security
  • Wireless Security Settings
  • File Sharing
  • Chapter 8 Laptops and Mobile Data
  • Theft
  • Infection
  • Inspection and Confiscation
  • Appendix B Software Tools
  • Security Software for Virus and Spyware Protection
  • Appendix C Quick Reference for Internet Fraud
  • Tips for different types of Fraud and Scams
  • Auction Fraud
  • Counterfeit Cashier's Check
  • Credit Card Fraud
  • Debt Elimination
  • DHL/UPS
  • Employment/Business Opportunities
  • Escrow Services Fraud
  • Internet Extortion
  • Investment Fraud
  • Lotteries
  • Nigerian Letter or "419"
  • Phishing/Spoofing
  • Ponzi/Pyramid
  • Reshipping
  • Spam
  • Third Party Receiver of Funds
  • Charitable Donation Fraud
  • Appendix D Chat Room Abbreviations
  • Index

A Beginners Guide to Internet Safety

by Bob Cohen

Cybersafe Press, Los Alamitos, CA

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without the prior written permission of publisher. tools and techniques in this book in no way guarantees or implies any guarantee of safety from any harm. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976. The information is provided as a means to educate and inform the reader of the options available for their own and their family use when using computers and the Internet.cybersafepress. CA 90720 www. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of the trademarked name. we use the names in an editorial fashion only. However because of the possibility of human or mechanical error. with the exception that the Sample Parent/Child Internet Safety Agreement may be copied by any Parent or Guardian for use by their family. Use of the methods. no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means. data. Printed in the United States of America. All rights reserved. with no intention of infringement of the trademark.Cybersafe Press 11872 Harrisburg Road Los Alamitos. This book is written with the understanding that Cybersafe Press is providing information that is from sources known to be reliable. or criminal acts that may occur to the reader‘s computer. and to the benefit of the trademark owner. II . frauds. scams. or stored in a database or retrieval system. Cybersafe Press does not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information and is not responsible for any errors or omissions. or person. Throughout this book trademarked names are used.com Computer Security Essentials By Bob Cohen Copyright 2010 by Cybersafe Press.

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.................................................................................. 17 Instant Messaging and Chat ................................................................................... 32 Why Does Spam Exist? ........... 20 Your Computer‘s Operating System ... 58 File Attachments .................................................................. 63 Chat Room Scams and Fraud ........................................................ 7 How Your Computer Finds Web Sites ................. 61 How to Report Scams and Fraud .......... 48 Privacy Options........................................................................................................................................ 47 Types of Relationships on Facebook ....... 63 Blogs ......................... 54 Twitter Privacy Settings .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Chapter 1 Internet Basics for Today ......................................................................................................................... 9 Internet Hardware and Software .......... 32 Controlling Email Spam .. 59 Chapter 6 Scams and Fraud .............. 48 Individual User Privacy ....................................................... 56 Chapter 5 Malicious Software ......................................................... 44 Public Information ........................... 28 Chapter 3 Email Spam and How to Manage It .................................................................................................... 22 Shared Files on Networks ............ MySpace.....................................................................................................................................Contents Introduction ............................................ 13 Your Web Browser ....................................................................................................................................0 Social Networking Sites............ 46 Facebook Privacy Settings .............................................................................................................. 25 Chapter 2 Give your PC a Security Checkup ............................................................... 43 Internet 2.................. 57 Spyware .............................................................................................................................. 60 Auction Sites.......................... 54 Other Social Networking Sites ............................... 60 Phishing .............. 6 Connecting to the Internet .......................................................................................... eBay and Craigslist Scams.................... Twitter and Social Networking Sites42 Dating Sites ..................................... 64 2 ................................................................ 11 Email and Spam ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 45 Privacy Controls .................................. 49 Search Results ............................. 35 Chapter 4 Facebook.........................................................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................ 71 File Sharing....................................................... 68 Typical Home and Small Office Networks ......... 85 Internet Extortion ........................................................................................ 92 Index.................................................................................. 87 Phishing/Spoofing............................................................................................................................................ 82 Auction Fraud ................................................... 86 Investment Fraud .................................... 88 Ponzi/Pyramid........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 82 Credit Card Fraud ............................................................. 70 Wireless Security Settings .......................................................................................................... 69 Router Security .................................................................................................................................................. 76 Theft...................... 76 Infection .... 66 Chapter 7 Network Security ................ ..... 82 Tips for different types of Fraud and Scams.................................... 90 Charitable Donation Fraud ................................... 79 Appendix B Software Tools.......................................................................................................................................................... 83 DHL/UPS............................................................................................................ 84 Escrow Services Fraud ....... 89 Spam ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 73 Chapter 8 Laptops and Mobile Data ................................................... 87 Nigerian Letter or "419" ..................................................................................................................................................................... 68 The Router and Hub ................. 84 Employment/Business Opportunities ....................... 104 3 .................................................................. 89 Third Party Receiver of Funds ................................. 81 Security Software for Virus and Spyware Protection ........... 85 Identity Theft ................................................ 82 Counterfeit Cashier's Check ................ 78 Appendix A Websites for Additional Information and Help .................................... 83 Debt Elimination ........ 77 Inspection and Confiscation ........................................................................Identity Theft .................. 90 Appendix D Chat Room Abbreviations ..................................... 86 Lotteries ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88 Reshipping ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 Router Setup ....... 81 Appendix C Quick Reference for Internet Fraud .................................................................

and falsifying information is easier. the Internet makes hiding the identity of someone easier because you can‘t ―see‖ who you‘re dealing with. The third reason is due to a lack of knowledge about the Internet. financial records. because many people are naïve in thinking that anything on the Internet can be trusted. there were those who started to look for ways to use it for criminal and unethical purposes. Computer data has become one of the most valuable assets that people and businesses own. Once people commonly started using the Internet. they fall victim to frauds. not only financial liability but state and federal regulations may require you to notify customers of the fact that your computer system was attacked and you lost personal financial data of your customer to theft. First. Second. That‘s what this book is about. like locking the front door and telling children not to talk to strangers. and maybe even private data of others including credit cards and social security numbers could be a great loss and a liability.Introduction Not long ago the Internet was something that only technical people and academicians used. private information. Today it‘s difficult to find someone who doesn‘t use it in his or her daily routine. Common sense ways people protect themselves. there is an element that looks to take advantage of others. In any large population of people. Businesses suffer credibility when they lose customer and private data due to computer theft or malicious efforts. pose a challenge on the Internet. if it was stolen. Is this any less 4 . Legal issues are at stake as well. scams and worse. Try to imagine the trouble you would have if you lost all your data on your computer‘s hard drive. or worse. All the personal data. personal email.

Armed with this knowledge. your data.damaging than if someone robbed you of your business inventory or valuables at home? The purpose of this book is to provide the information you need to learn what the risks are and what you can do to protect yourself. 5 . if you own or operate one. you can make informed decisions about what you see and do for your own computer and network. and your business.

Chapter 1 Internet Basics for Today
Before high-speed connections to the Internet, the most common way for malware (computer virus software and other harmful software) to get on your PC was by using a floppy disk that was infected with malware. Most computers don‘t have floppy disks any longer and the Internet has made it easier, faster, and more efficient for a virus or other malware to get onto a computer. The ―always-on‖ connection also means ―always be careful.‖ In order to understand Internet risks and utilize effective protections, it‘s extremely helpful to understand how your computer communicates with the Internet. That‘s what this chapter is about. If you already know most of this information, then please feel free to concentrate on other chapters. If any terms show up along the way that are unfamiliar to you, or which you feel a bit unsure about, you can find helpful explanations on Wikipedia at www.wikipedia.com. This book is meant to be used as a reference, as well as an educational course, so please use it in whatever way it helps you. Your Personal Computer, whether it‘s a Windows PC or a Macintosh, can work as a stand-alone computer. You can use it for applications such as word processing, spreadsheets, databases, photography, and games. The limit is endless as there are thousands of software applications that you can install and run without ANY connection to the Internet. But your Personal Computer can also network, or connect, with other computers. If your computer is in the same house or building as the other computers you‘re connected to, you are part of what‘s called a Local Area Network (LAN). If your computer‘s connected to computers that are farther away, your network is called a Wide Area Network (WAN).
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A network means that the computers are connected to each other and can communicate with each other. Some network connections are connected in order to share resources like, say, a printer, where numerous computers are networked together and each one can send printing commands to a shared printer. Other networks might be set up to share or transfer files among the connected computers. In order to create a network, there has to be a physical and a logical connection. The physical connection is usually an Ethernet cable that plugs in by way of a connector on your computer to a connector on another computer or device. The ends of an Ethernet cable looks similar to a phone plug, but is a little larger and has more wires. Wireless, or WiFi, is another way of making the ―physical‖ connection. The logical connection is made by software that‘s included with the operating systems that come with PCs and Macs The Internet is a Wide Area Network of many, many computers. When you connect to the Internet, you are creating a connection from your computer to every other computer on the Internet.

Connecting to the Internet
There are generally two ways for home computer users to connect to the Internet -- either with a dial-up service or with a broadband service. Dial-Up Service Millions of people use dial-up connections to link up with the Internet. Dial-up does what it sounds like, in that it uses a telephone dial-up connection with a phone cord to get your computer on the Internet. You get a dial-up connection through an Internet Service Provider, or ISP, that provides you with a phone number or numbers to dial and software for making the connection work. They usually provide you with an email account as well.
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Still used by many people who travel, dial-up is limited in speed due to the limits on how much data can be sent using ―analog‖ voice line technology. But it is inexpensive, with some services as low as $9.95 per month. If most of your Internet use is going to be for email, or if you travel, a dial-up account may suit your needs. However, more and more people are switching over to broadband because of its faster speed. Broadband Connections Broadband service is usually provided by a local cable company or telephone company. The cable or phone company provides a high-speed connection to your house by utilizing a special device called a ―modem‖ to enable your connection to work. Independent Internet Service Providers are also available for broadband connections and may offer services and options that you cannot get from the phone or cable company. If your phone or cable company provides the broadband service, then they are your ISP, and will provide you with an email account and any necessary software. Broadband connections are fast enough to allow you to connect multiple computers to the Internet using the same connection. To do this, you need to connect your computers to the modem provided by the ISP by using a hub or router. If you connect your computer directly to the Internet by using a dial-up connection, or connect it directly to a cable, DSL, or Broadband service, your ISP will assign an IP address. This usually happens automatically when you ―sign in‖ as a customer for the first time and your account is verified with the ISP. A router allows multiple computers to connect to the Internet using a single connection.

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com will know to get the email to the ―domain‖ or location of wherever cyberspacepress. it‘s called a ―hyperlink. If we use the ―domain name‖ part of the URL and instead of putting http://www in front of it we put the name of an email account and the ―@‖ sign in front of the domain. Hyperlinks When a URL is used with some text.How Your Computer Finds Web Sites URL’s and that http:// stuff The term URL stands for Uniform Resource Location. you‘re telling your computer to contact that Web site and bring the information back to your computer to display it on your Web browser. An email address like bob.cohen@cybersafepress. With the Internet it happens so quickly that you can contact a Web site or send an email and then get a reply right away. just like the Post Office delivers mail. state. The URL is the Internet‘s form of a street address and has to include certain things. and zip code that allows mail to reach a destination. The great part about the Internet and URL‘s is that you don‘t have to think about where everything is. city. computers on the Internet will know that the information being sent is an email. URL‘s are like the street address.com. When you put a domain name after the http://www as in http://www.com is located. and type it in your Web browser. URL also is used by email. A URL will begin with a the http://www and then have a ―domain name‖ after it and then maybe some other information. button. the software that knows how to read URL‘s and deliver messages will take care of delivering things for you.‖ You can recognize that text or a graphic image ona Web page is a hyperlink because 9 . or graphic image on the Internet.AOL. and not a Web page. just like the Post Office needs to deliver a letter.

such as www. addresses. or processors. ―Phishing‖ is a scam used to take people to Web sites and collect personal information. The numbers. or IP. These computers. your request goes through computers on the Internet known as Domain Name Servers.your mouse icon will change from an arrow to a hand. IP Addresses The individual computers in networks identify themselves to each other by using a numbering scheme called Internet Protocol.google.11. because they can be ―hidden‖ in the text of an email are used by scams and fraud to take you to a Web site you may believe it’s authentic.com or www. its URL) into its IP address. WARNING! URL’s and hyperlinks. Email can include hyperlinked text and images as well and you might get an advertisement email from a store that you use and the link can take you directly to a sale Web page. When you visit a Web site. 10 . which look like this: 186. Web pages allow Web designers to attach URL‘s to text or an image so it‘s easier for people to navigate and use their Web site. translate the domain name of your Internet destination (that is. most often used for identify theft. Be careful to never click on a URL link in an email unless is from someone you were expecting to receive it from.11 are part of an industry standard that is used to route traffic across the Internet.111. your computer will take you to a new Web page. When your mouse changes and you can click on the text or image. then connect the computers at each end so they may exchange data.com.yahoo.

By having a router between your broadband connection and your home computer network. A Network Hub is a device that lets you connect multiple computers together (you may also hear about USB hubs which allow you to connect multiple USB devices together also). Your home router usually only knows about the computers you have at home and the one computer at your ISP where you are connected. Hubs and Switches A router ―routes‖ messages on the Internet by reading a small piece of information that is included in the message by your computer and then routing the message to the next place on the Internet it knows about. and Network Address Translation (NAT) (see the next section). A router is a network device that can perform functions useful for security. other routers may have hundreds or thousands of other connections they know about and are very busy constantly routing traffic. get a switch. A switch. Routers for home networks almost always have a built-in hub so you don‘t have to buy two devices. like a hub. If you have a choice to get a switch or a hub. 11 . allows you to connect multiple computers together but has some added functions that minimize or eliminate traffic jams on the local network. Some routers know only about one other connection. Most late-model routers that have multiple connection capability have a built in switch now. Routers are commonly supplied by the ISP when you get a broadband Internet service. such as a Firewall. you increase the security of your network.Internet Hardware and Software Routers.

As you can imagine. Your ISP ―assigns‖ an IP Address to you when you set up your account. It does that using its IP address and there is an agency.‖ or people who intentionally try to break the security measures on your computer in order to cause harm. then it‘s possible for other computers and computer users to find your specific computer. If your IP address can be seen by other people/computers on the Internet. you can protect your computer from ―hackers.S. Your computer then has what is the Internet equivalent of an unlisted phone number. and not for anything on your side of the router. authorized by the U. the router does the job of keeping many of these threats away from your computers at home. If it‘s public. Network Address Translation is used by a router to display the ―public‖ IP Address for the router only. corporations and Internet Services have highly paid professionals who set up very sophisticated security 12 . In order for your computer to connect to the Internet it has to be able to tell other computers on the Internet where it‘s located. and other dangers. called the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) that assigns all the Internet addresses in the world. hacking. then those people know exactly how to get to your computer. Government.NAT or Network Address Translation. Since routers are more secure from malicious software. That IP Address has to be a ―public‖ one in order for your computer to communicate with others on the Internet. The router then uses a set of IP Addresses that are specified by ICANN and can be used by anyone that does not need a public IP Address for their computer. With effective security measures. A useful function for a Router is to hide your IP Address from the public Internet and give you and your home computers an ―unlisted‖ IP Address number.

measures to protect their systems and the data their systems hold. Even so, ―hackers‖ continually make attempts to break into corporate computers, to get to credit card information at online retail stores, social security information, and other personal data that can be used for identity theft and other criminal activity. So let‘s discuss some ways you can protect yourself, and your personal information. Firewalls A firewall is a device or a software application that acts as a barrier against unwanted intruders. It does this by controlling what gets through it and what doesn‘t. A firewall sets up limits so that only ―trusted‖ communications are allowed through, and stops communications that are not wanted, recognized, or allowed. The most common types of firewalls include the software one that comes with your computer‘s operating system, add-on software firewalls that come with security applications, and a firewall in a router. For most uses, the default settings of firewalls are going to be adequate in keeping viruses and other applications from causing harm. Without a firewall, however, your computer is as vulnerable as, say, leaving your house unlocked at night and open for anyone to come in. Microsoft makes it easy by providing a firewall with Windows, and allows you to see if your firewall is turned on or off by checking the Security Center on your Control Panel.

Email and Spam
You get an email address from your Internet Service Provider when you sign up for service, and to many people it‘s more important than a phone number. But it seems that as soon as you get an email address the spam mail inevitably starts to find you. Spam, as anyone with an email address knows, is any email you receive that is unsolicited.
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Client Based Email Email that runs on your computer is called ―Client‖ based email because you have to start an application (your email software) on your Personal Computer. Your computer is the ―Client.‖ Examples of this are Microsoft‘s Outlook and Outlook Express, Mozilla‘s Thunderbird and the mail application included with Apple Mac OS X Tiger Operating System. When you use Client based email, your computer connects to an email system called a ―server‖ (usually located at your ISP‘s facility) that holds your email for you until you connect, at which time it is downloaded to your computer. When you create or send an email, the ―server‖ does the job of sending it out to the Internet. Web Based Email Unlike Client Based email which moves all your email to your computer hard drive, Web Based email allows you to use a Web service, such as hotmail, Yahoo!! or Google as your email service and keep all your email on their computers. This allows you to use any computer that can connect to the Internet, and by using a Web Browser you can read and write email from any computer with a Web browser. Your mail and any attachments are kept on the Web service for you to access from anywhere. When you do get back to your computer, you can download the attachments to your local hard drive. Some people like to use multiple email accounts so they can keep one email address very private, say for family and close friends, and use another email address for warranty registration, promotional offers and other situations where the email address could be used for advertising. Since many Webmail accounts are free, you can delete the email account and set up a new one to get off spam lists. For people who travel, this is a convenient way to have access to email when they may not be able to connect to the Internet at
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their home or office connections. It can also be a way to keep personal and business email separate. Having more than one email account is becoming more common all the time. Giving out your Email Address Most likely you are going to give your email address to friends, family and others with whom you want to communicate regularly. There are many ways your email address gets to spammers and, while some spam is probably inevitable, there are ways to control it somewhat. The first step is knowing how your email address gets spread on the Internet. Forwarding Email Attachments What you can‘t control is what others do with your email address. You may have already gotten at some time an email including attachments from a friend who forwarded it to you, and at its top it lists a long chain of other people‘s email addresses. The email address of each and every person in that list, people who sent or received the email before you, is accessible to anyone and everyone who receives that email. To avoid having your email address out there and available to anyone who might want to take unfair advantage of it, ask your friends to ―cut and paste‖ any of your emails if they plan to forward them so that your email address is not contained in any of the attachments. Web Site Service Requests for your Email Address Most Web sites that you interact with will probably ask you for your email address at some point. Sometimes, if you want to make use of their services, you have no choice but to provide your email address. In these situations, you will have to give it to them. Be aware that a reputable Web site will post information about their Privacy Policy and how they protect your email address and other personal information.
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This is for your protection. you may then be giving permission for your email address to be given to some other company or companies so they can send you various solicitations and offers. Warning! Delete the email and never click on the link. they can potentially pass on viruses or other unwelcome elements to your computer. By accepting. If it contains a Web link. If the Web site you‘re visiting is reputable. do not access any links. Remember that you usually have no way of checking the integrity of these other companies beforehand. Email graphics Emails may be sent not only with text but also with images contained within the email. for example. If you receive an unsolicited email from someone you don‘t know or from a service you didn‘t subscribe to. then why take the chance? Email Attachments and Web Links Spam mail sometimes has an ulterior motive. Be careful. delete the email. Because images are sent in the form of attachments. IF the email offers are something you want. to install a virus or to direct you to a Web site for malicious or fraudulent purposes. go ahead and accept them. 16 .During any enrollment for any services. you may be asked to accept or decline offers to have other emails be sent to your email address. Most email applications nowadays will not show the images unless you ―approve‖ or ―allow‖ the display of the image. You should only go to a Web site contained in an email from someone you don’t know by opening your browser and typing in the Web address. then chances are you‘ll be safe from unscrupulous predators if you accept. many Web sites will sign you up for email communications unless you specifically check a box to say you DON‘T want them. even one to a site you think may be reputable. If you can‘t be absolutely sure of the current Web site‘s trustworthiness.

Your Web Browser The Web Browser is your computer‘s application that allows you to access all the sites on the Internet. Internet Explorer and Safari come with their respective computer‘s operating systems while Mozilla Firefox is a free download at www. with current stock market pricing. download files.google.mozilla. Web advertisers have become very sophisticated in using functions in Web Browsers to sell their products and keep track of users‘ activities. Other navigation tools on the Web Browser allow you to go backwards and forwards while you are browsing.com.com and Google Chrome is available at www. Instead of having to type in IP Addresses or Hyperlinks or URL‘s. Using your Web Browser Web Browsers are what have made the Internet easy to use. A Web browser is another software application and the developers continue to add more functions and options to them all the time. You can also reload a Web page to update its data. services that were provided originally for the benefit of users can end up being used for malicious and illegal purposes. and to stop a Web page from loading. but also to type in information. But as with many other computer software applications.If the email is from someone you know. Web Browsers contain all that information and you only need to click on a link when your mouse changes from an arrow to a hand. it‘s probably safe to open the email. and watch videos. The most common browsers used are Microsoft‘s Internet Explorer. Web browsing connects your computer with another computer on the Internet and allows you to not only view the Web pages. or a service you subscribed to. and to enjoy what the Internet has to offer. for example. Safari for Mac OS X. Mozilla Firefox. and Google‘s Chrome. 17 .

What started out as a useful tool for programmers of Web pages to use became abused and annoying. just like any software it could include a virus. The window is controlled by the Web page programming and up until recently with the latest versions of Web Browsers you couldn‘t control them on your own. Pop-Up Windows A pop-up is an additional window that is displayed on your computer desktop by programming set up in the Web page you are visiting. content filters. history. Spyware is software that gets installed on your computer without your knowledge and is commonly used by Web advertisers to track the Web pages you visit and report that. Pop-ups are controlled by programming in a Web page that runs on your computer when you visit that Web page. The Web Browser downloaded information at the time you visited the Web page and if new information has been published by the Web page authors. You can ―allow‖ a single pop-up 18 . Many Web pages and Web applications use them to give you more readable information and to keep you from having to go back and forth between Web pages.. and if you want them to appear. and other important information. you won‘t see it unless you ―reload‖ the page. Pop-ups are useful for displaying data and information in a new window and still leave the original Web page on your desltop for you to see. you must specifically allow them. Pop-up ads became so annoying to users that Web Browsers now block them by default. and provide adequate security and protection. passwords.news and other information that might change. The default settings are generally the safest to use. Web browsers have functions in their settings that allow you to control and manage privacy. Spyware is covered more in the section on Malicious Software. Because it‘s a software program. spyware. or more commonly with pop-ups.

or allow all pop-ups for a particular Web site if you know and trust the site. so it can‘t change anything on your computer. Cookies Cookies are small pieces of data that are installed on your computer whenever you visit or communicate with a Web site that uses them. for example. Current versions of Internet Explorer and Mozilla will not install a Plug-in Application until you approve the installation. the user. 19 . or when you automate your login on a Web site so it will remember who you are each time you visit. A ―Cookie‖ is created to keep track of you. Some Web Browsers may require you to allow Cookies when using a Web site. It‘s merely a piece of data that helps to identify you whenever you visit a site. Many of these give you additional capability and some are required to in order to use a particular Web site. Web Application Add-ons (also called Plug-ins) A Web Browser‘s function can be expanded through the use of Application add-ons. when you click on a Web site‘s shopping cart. A Cookie is not an application.

never accept the option of allowing the computer or Web site to remember you. Users can communicate as a group when multiple people can collaborate in a conversation. Users can send and receive files with each other during an IM session and can also send IM messages to cell phones and other portable devices. Unlike email. It can be less intrusive than a phone call and many people like it because of that capability. Instant Messaging and Chat Instant Messaging Instant Messaging (IM) is a type of computer program that allows two or more users to communicate with each other on the Internet at the same time.‖ or available for a conversation. both seeing what each other is typing at the same time. By doing that you allow the next person who used the computer to visit a Web site and log in as you. both of which are free to download and install.Warning! When using a Web browser at a shared or public computer. Some IM applications allow you to see all of your IM contacts at the same time. IM allows users to see who is ―online. Common IM applications are AOL Instant Messaging (AIM) and Yahoo! Messenger. IM can tell when a specific user is at his or her computer and available for conversation. 20 . without needed to know your username and password. Two IM users can then open a window using their particular IM software and start typing. but with the advantage that the user can wait to respond.

Anyone can do so. a user needs to set up a profile with one of the IM services and provide some minimum information. Users can see which of their contacts are online and initiate a discussion at any time.‖ which is hosted on a computer on the Internet. messages can be left for later contact. Using Chat requires going to a specific location such as a ―chat room. those who have IM accounts). MySpace and Yahoo! that allow users to set up chat rooms for free. There are some options that a Chat room sponsor can use to limit or control 21 . The difference between the two is that. If a particular user is not online. at any time. Chat rooms can be sponsored by individuals. Chat rooms have options for the sponsoring person or organization to use for access and privacy. which no other user can see unless specifically allowed to do so. IM allows for private communication between two or more individual users in their network. a user can invite others to become part of his or her network of contacts. As they reply. Once in a chat room. although many services require additional personal information. all users in the chat room see the messages at the same time. Chat Chat is similar to Instant Messaging in that users can share and communicate simultaneously with each other. groups and organizations. any user can post a message and all the other users logged in at that time are able to see it and comment on the message. Chat rooms are places where people with common interests can get together and communicate with each other. whereas Instant Messaging is select communications between pre-determined contacts (that is. Once the account is set up. They are most commonly located on Web services such as MSN. which typically includes an email address and username and password. Chat is comprised of conversations between any individuals who want to participate in the public chat room at any given time.To get an IM account and use it.

messages are posted using only the screen name of the user. A moderated Chat room may not be moderated 24 hours a day however. Its membership is controlled by the sponsor and you would need to be authorized by the Chat room sponsor before you could post or read messages. A Private Chat Room means that Chat room location on the Internet is hidden and you cannot find it unless you have been invited or told about it‘s location by someone. and anyone can sign up and get a ―screen name‖ for posting messages by providing their email address and selecting a password. 22 . and manages all the software and applications while you use your computer. Moderated vs. A moderated chart room has one or more individuals who are responsible for monitoring the content and nature of the messages posted. Typically no person is involved in approving or denying access to a public Chat room.access to people and ways to control the content that is displayed. where anyone can see messages. Usually the moderator does this to keep the messages on-topic and to control abuse and undesirable content. Un-moderated Chat rooms Chat rooms may be moderated or un-moderated and usually specify so if they are moderated. At a basic level the Operating System is a resource manager and keeps track of what hardware you have. Your Computer’s Operating System Microsoft Windows Operating System Your Operating System runs your computer and contains many functions that manage your computer without your being aware of it. Public and Private Chat Rooms A Chat room can be public. After they get their account.

In Microsoft‘s new version of Windows. including Web browsing. Apple computers can also run Windows operating systems and Windows applications. email. Since the Operating System is the ―brain‖ that controls almost everything on your computer. it makes the most appealing target for anyone who wants to do harm or gain access to your computer. everyone is an ―administrator‖ when they start using that computer. Understanding some basics about your operating system can help you understand what you can do to protect it and manage your computer. they minimize compatibility issues with third party hardware and software. Vista.com. Apple Mac OS X Operating System Apple Computers operating system serves the same functions and come with a complete suite of tools and applications. you didn‘t specify any user accounts and the computer was set up so that no one needs to ―login‖ Everyone using the computer has the same rights and access whenever they use it and can make changes to it that will affect every other user. This can be done either with Apple‘s boot camp or a 3rd party application from Parallels that sets up what is called a ―virtual machine‖ so that in effect you have both a Mac and a Windows PC. there are improvements in managing security.parallels. Without a user account with a separate username and password for each person. Chances are when you set up your computer. Since Apple has strict control over both the operating system and the hardware. but as with any new software. instant messaging and others. vulnerabilities will be discovered and exploited by people who want to do those things. You can read about it at www. 23 . User Accounts A User Account is what determines someone‘s ability to access and make changes to the computer that they use.Much has been written about the security of the Windows Operating System and the vulnerabilities that exist.

Mac OS X Tiger. 24 . An ―administrator‖ account also can control the settings for other users that are not set up as administrators. in families where a computer is shared by multiple family members. They can add or delete hardware or software. Depending on the operating system you have you will have different choices of account types. change any settings. All of the operating systems allow you to set up a person as either an ―Administrator‖ or a ―User‖ An administrator can change anything on the computer. and open the computer to other security risks. turn off virus protection. Macs. access all information and files on the computer. Each user is assigned a username and password for login. and have unlimited control over the computer or any software application running on the computer. then any person sitting down to use the computer is an ―administrator‖ and can install software. disable a firewall. delete files. the ―administrator‖ is the highest level of user and can change anything on the computer. User accounts are important. Windows XP. and Windows Vista all allow the ability to setup an administrator account and separate user accounts. and Vista offer ways to set up other user accounts and limit the control each user has over various aspects of the computer. Windows XP.In Windows and Mac OS X Tiger. Windows Vista and Mac OS X Tiger have the ability to set specific limits on user accounts for each individual user to limit and restrict the user from being able to access applications or perform certain actions such as installing software or burning a CD. Each user account is set up by the administrator who controls what ―rights‖ the individual user will have on that computer. If separate user accounts are not set up. for example.

The test and pictures are located on a file somewhere on the Internet. such as music. Downloading takes place all the time when we view Web pages with Web Browsers. Downloading Downloading refers to any action you take to move a file from somewhere on the Internet to a location on your computer.‖ and the data and information is downloaded to your computer and read by the Web Browser when you visit the Web page. for instance. you can manage your computer‘s firewall. if you have virus protection software installed and running on your computer.Windows Security Center In the Windows Security Center. however. usually on a Web site‘s ―server. and if you are signed up to receive and install critical security updates from Microsoft. that if one computer on the network is not secure and is compromised. You can see at a glance if your firewall is turned on or off. This does not control options for any other Web browser you have installed which must be done in the browser‘s settings. Shared Files on Networks You can set up and control sharing of files on your computer to allow others in your home or local area network to access files and folders. It‘s common to use a large disk drive for backing up computer data or storing files. virus protection. that are shared among multiple users. You‘re moving the file ―down‖ and ―loading‖ it onto your computer. 25 . then none of the other shared files are secure either. automatic update settings. and the options for privacy and security when using Internet Explorer. Be aware. Your network must be secure and all computers must have the same level of security measures. This is a situation where the old cliché. ―a chain is only as strong as its weakest link‖ truly applies.

forms. music. and applications. Sometimes a peer-to-peer network also requires that changes be made in the firewall settings of your computer or network router in order for its software to function which will disable a portion 26 . because they install new software on your computer and can contain potentially harmful elements inside them that you may not be aware of until too late. require that you install a peer-to-peer networking software application. Peer-to-peer networks are set up by installing a software application on every computer in the peer-to-peer network. The software allows a computer user on one computer to search and find shared files on any computer that is on the same peerto-peer network.There are also other types of files that can be downloaded from the Internet and installed? on your computer. There are legitimate uses for peer-to-peer networks such as business applications where companies can share files across their company network. commonly used to obtain copyrighted material for free. and as a result make files in your computer available for other members in the network to access and download. The software allows any one ―peer‖ to see all the other ―peers‖ on the network and the shared space is available to everyone. This software creates a space on your computer that can be accessed by every other computer on the peer-to-peer network that is using the software. Applications are the highest-risk type of file to download. pictures. These applications will make your computer one of the ―peers‖ in the peer-to-peer network. Not all peerto-peer networks are used for infringing on copyrighted material. These include documents. By default installing peer-to-peer software runs all the time on your computer and uses up resources on your computer and your Internet connection even if you‘re not at your computer using it yourself. Peer-to-peer networks Peer-to-peer networks.

WARNING! If you are using any peer-to-peer software or someone has installed it on your computer.of your network and computer security and open up a doorway for viruses to get into your computer. it’s critical that you have antivirus software running all the time 27 .

As such you need to make sure you take care of some basic operations and see that you are protecting yourself from threats. Web browser. Windows Firewall is ON 3. Automatic Updates is set to automatically check for Windows Updates 2. The first way to do this is to set up your computer to take care of certain things for you automatically. Software manufacturers find out about security gaps and create updates for your software. to help prevent a security breach.Chapter 2 Give your PC a Security Checkup You are a computer administrator when you own and use a personal computer. The most important thing you can do is keep your operating system. and any anti-virus or protection programs already installed in your computer up-to-date with the current versions. Virus Protection is ON Anti-Virus Software  You absolutely MUST have anti-virus software installed on your Windows PC! 28 . These are the things you should check: 1. The following is a checklist you can use to see if there are any gaps or questions in need of further attention or investigation on your computer: Windows Checkup By opening the Control Panel in Windows and selecting the Security Center (System and Security in Windows 7) you can see at a glance some critical information about your computer.

Internet Explorer will check for updates automatically if you have your Windows Operating System set to check for automatic updates. Always check email for viruses 3. You can always restore the default settings if you are unsure if any changes have ever been made by anyone. Make sure your anti-spyware software is always running and requires you to OK the installation of any software Web Browser The latest version Web browser software (both Internet Explorer and Mozilla) will have default settings in place that require you to allow pop-ups from Web sites or to install add-on applications. If more than one person uses your computer you should check to make sure your browser settings are set to their default settings and you are using the latest version of your browser software. install one the first chance you get and run a ―full check‖ of your PC to have the software check for any viruses that may be installed and operating on your computer without your knowledge. the anti-spyware software you have on your computer will determine how to manage these settings. If you don‘t. Automatic updates should be set up for daily updates Anti-Spyware Software Just like with anti-virus software. Always On to monitor anytime you download a file 2. 29 . But you should have your anti-virus software set up with at least two settings: 1. Automatically update the software at least once daily 2. But you should have your anti-virus software set up with at least three settings: 1. Depending on the anti-virus software you select. the procedures for managing these settings will be different.

and either install any critical updates that are necessary. If you are using a Microsoft email application such as Outlook Express or Outlook.Mozilla By selecting Help and check for updates. your Windows Update manager will keep track of current updates for you automatically. Email Software Depending on your email software application. You want to make sure your email application. Under Tools/Options/Advanced you check to see that Mozilla is set to automatically check for updates and install them. or will install them automatically for you. and virus detection. particularly on computers that are shared by multiple users. It‘s important to check these settings to make sure they haven‘t been altered or changed. and will either prompt you to download and install them. you can quickly see if there are updates available for the Mozilla Browser and set up automatic installation in Mozilla. if it is not a Microsoft product. it may have default settings that provide some level of warning and protection against spam. 30 . is set to check for updates automatically. spyware. or ask you to install them.

31 .

Once you reply. in order to resell it. and what options there are for controlling or blocking it from arriving in your email inbox. first of all. and you‘ll just increase the amount of spam you get from other sources. This chapter discusses why there is so much email spam. purchasing a product online. This is one reason why you should never reply to a spam email. or filling information out in a warranty or registration card with your email address. you‘ve acknowledged that your email address is valid. You may have given your permission to people to use and resell your email address without being aware of how they use your information. Why Does Spam Exist? There are several reasons email spam is used on the Internet:     to collect legitimate email addresses to sell as entries on lists to infect computers with a virus and malicious software to sell products to a mass market audience to entice people into phishing scams Email Addresses for Sale One reason why people send out email spam is to harvest your email address. 32 . Keep in mind that spam is different from email that you may have accidentally subscribed to as part of signing up for a Web service.Chapter 3 Email Spam and How to Manage It Email Spam (unsolicited email coming from someone you don‘t know) is estimated by Internet Service Providers to consist of almost 50% of all email sent over the Internet. Your email address actually has a value on the marketplace for list brokers and other people who wish to buy email addresses.

The fact is that no legitimate business will ever ask you to provide verification of any information through an email. your checking provider. then people wouldn‘t continue to send out spam so widely.Direct Marketing using email Another reason email spam is so widespread is because it works. Warning! Never open an attachment associated with an email sent by someone you don’t know. and ask you to 33 . someone else could have access to your computer and your data. If a problem arises. The email might look like it came from your bank. Once your computer is infected with a virus or if spyware gets installed on your computer. a credit card company. Never follow a link to a Web page or address from an email link that is associated with someone you don‘t know. it‘s just not done. Any attachment you receive that comes with an email from someone or somewhere you don‘t recognize should be regarded as suspicious. This is becoming more challenging as fraud schemes become more sophisticated. But they may not actually be who they say they are because email address can be forged. a store with which you may have a credit card or a current transaction. or dating arrangements or special deals on software or other types of promotions. or even an account like eBay where you have a user name and password. To Infect Your Computer with a Virus One more reason people send out spam is to infect your computer with a virus or other malicious software. If no one was buying solutions like sexual potency fixes or hair loss fixes. Email Phishing Phishing is a scheme designed to get users to go to a Website or follow a link or respond to an email that basically collects information. they typically will block your access to your user account on their Web site.

Typically there is an email address for reporting fraud and abuse that almost every organization uses called an ABUSE email address. call the business. you will contact the bank. when the appropriate user -.initiate a phone call. If you get an email and suspect you‘re being asked for information in this way.com. And if something goes wrong with your password or somebody has attempted to access your account in some way. The same is true for other businesses as well. Amazon. usually something like this: abuse@companyname. They know that. call your credit card provider. The graphics look exactly like the real Web site and the link to the company Web site looks legitimate as well. and and other well known names. and ask them if they have sent you an email. 34 . So never trust an unsolicited email you receive that looks like it might come from a bank. even if it‘s seemingly from a bank with which you do online banking. and they‘ll ask you to forward the email.meaning you – discovers something wrong and wants to reinstate access to the account. The point to remember here is that. it is always better to err on the side of caution than to risk doing something you will regret after the fact. I‘ve seen emails like the ones I‘ve just described that look like they come from places such as Bank of America. the bank will simply block your access to the account. They‘ll tell you that they haven‘t. call your bank. if you‘re not sure about the source of an email communication. Then they go through identity verification in order for you to reinstate your account. rather than telling you and asking you to verify information. But normally you won‘t have online banking with a bank unless you have signed up for it yourself.

The other source of email that‘s not spam is where you might have provided your email through a product warranty registration. we will continue to have them show up in our email inboxes. An example of this would be eBay. and as part of that offer they have some additional – and free – newsletters that you can receive. It‘s also common for certain Websites to require you to register with them in order to use their service. Sometimes the check boxes on the forms that you see on the Website might already be defaulted to send you these free newsletters. This is a typical way that a lot of people end up on email lists which they believe they never signed up for. let‘s examine emails more closely. you‘ve allowed them to use your email address to send you messages about product information and marketing. as part of the terms and conditions of registering that warranty. or other form you completed that asked for your email address. there are really two kinds of emails that you‘ll get. I need to tell you that Email Spam is not going to go away. To a degree you can control the amount you get but. Marketing Offers Which Get You On Email Lists What often happens is that additional offers will be provided through marketing partners of a Web site service you subscribe to online. That said. and you must manually turn down the ones you don‘t want to receive. or an online business perhaps. where you have to register and provide information in order to buy and sell products. because you‘ve voluntarily given your email address to a friend or associate. just like unsolicited telephone calls or unsolicited direct mail.Controlling Email Spam First off. in order to do business or to communicate with them. First are those that you want to get. An example is if you decide to subscribe to an online edition of a particular publication. Unbeknownst to you. 35 . Besides spam. rebate offer.

Free usually means supported by advertising Often when you sign up for a free service on the Web. they‘re getting tired of receiving all the additional emails cluttering up their in-box. but you should understand what you‘re getting into before you give them your email address. They don‘t go to the bother of taking their names off the lists. they simply delete the emails themselves. . Technically this is not spam and is considered an ―opt-in‖ email where you have given your permission to be sent emails. But after a few months.a very tempting offer. Many people will sign up for Web services and they accept the free email offers. are usually genuine. while they might still like the service they signed up for. The coupon offers are legitimate. 36 . they‘re not frauds or scams. Sometimes all the check boxes will already be checked. you will land on their marketing lists and start receiving emails. you should be aware that the Web site is the free service in exchange for your agreeing to go through an ongoing process of accepting or declining offers from a lengthy list of advertisers.These check boxes can often be in smaller type and/or placed in a relatively inconspicuous place. You might have purchased a service. And so the emails continue. but they make their money by getting you to accept emails regarding promotions from other marketing lists or groups. You might not notice them asking you to decide if you do or don‘t want these additional publications. as I say. and you must manually unselect the checked boxes to eliminate receiving any email notifications from the organization. This is very common with coupon offers from companies that promote third parties. A common approach might be to offer you a hundred dollars in free coupons a month. But if you don‘t turn them down. but were unaware or went through the Web site so quickly that you start to receive emails that you don‘t want. The offers.

but you can save yourself many headaches down the road as long as you know what you‘re agreeing to. On the other hand. The list of offers can go on for pages and pages. they will know your email address is good. 37 . You‘ll usually find it in small print at the bottom of the email. because getting a response from you is exactly what spam mailers want. and legitimate sites should stop sending to you.A Website that is offering you coupons or promotions is essentially a marketing company that is asking you to accept or decline offers from various companies. Legitimate sites generally do have links at the bottom of their emails where. These offers. You‘ll start to get even more spam email from that point on. Use Caution before Deciding to Accept Free Email Information The above examples are some ways that people get on email lists that can quickly clutter up their inboxes. free trial software from a software provider. You have to be careful about signing up for an email newsletter or service that you could well have difficulty getting off of at some point in the future. or accept an email newsletter from a company. you may just be frustrated with it and not know how to get off the list anymore. Technically it‘s not spam if you accepted the offer to receive email in the first place. as I‘ve said. are usually genuine. or accept coupons from other services. if you subscribe to a newsletter you no longer want to receive. through Websites where they might ask you if you want to accept an offer for. say. But you may have forgotten how you first got it. you are best off just deleting it. Signing up to get email is sometimes a little too easy and I recommend that before you agree to sign up for an email list. and once you respond to their emails. Follow their instructions to stop receiving it. it may be several years old. if it‘s really spam mail and you don‘t know who the sender is. you can scroll down to the bottom of the email and unsubscribe. Their goal is to harvest legitimate email addresses.

because your email software can help you control your inbox and help control spam email. and words you consider junk or spam and it will start to identify that as spam email. Mozilla‘s Thunderbird or another email application. The filters and controls vary based on the specific email applications being utilized. it‘s just that the email system on your computer will automatically dump them into a junk email box and out of your sight. Mozilla‘s Thunderbird has a junk email tool which learns from you every time you mark an incoming email as ―junk. Email Software Controls for Spam Take heart. The email will still be delivered to you.‖ As you mark junk email the application uses rules to try and determine certain words and keywords and phrases.take a minute and think if this is really something you‘ll want showing up in your inbox. Generally they have what are called junk mail filters. Internet Service Spam Filters Your Internet Service Provider may be another way to filter spam. Teaching Your Email Application to Work for You Another way to control email is turn on junk filter controls and let your software start to learn from you what you think is junk email. Over time it will start to understand what types of email senders. Apple‘s email application. but they all typically allow you to block mail from a sender by putting that sender on a blocked list where you will no longer see their email. To do this your email application needs to have junk email learning turned on. each one has tools you can use to manage your inbox. It‘s usually found in the options settings of the application. It may not catch everything but it will make a noticeable difference. Outlook Express. Some Internet Service Providers install controls on their own hardware to cut down on the amount of spam that hits their 38 . all is not lost. Whether you use Microsoft Outlook. phrases.

you do have the option in most cases of asking your ISP to turn off the junk mail filters to allow some through. and other similar purposes. Again. As a result it‘s becoming more and more difficult for spam filters to recognize and weed out spam messages. Utilizing this method. However people typically want to receive emails from a personal email address. So instead of using generic email addresses and generic subjects. to get past the filters spammers are starting to use more personal looking email addresses and email subjects in common language that people use in their dayto-day communications. sign up for a subscription service. but it is designed to catch a lot of the common terminology used in spam. Hotmail and Google Mail have pretty good email filters as well. Lots of times people will have multiple email addresses. you maintain two separate email addresses. and another that you use to register information on warranties. But as people put up more and more personal Websites. This cuts down tremendously on the amount of clutter you receive in your email software. In my experience some of the Web-based mail services like Yahoo!. If you want to see all the email that‘s sent to you. so your email address is probably going 39 . Harvesting Email Addresses – How Spammers Find You Spammers get email addresses from another source as well. This strategy can often work well to control how you get spam. it‘s not 100 percent perfect. The latter email address is the one you are willing to give out more publicly. They use software programs that go out and ―harvest‖ email addresses that are located on Websites. This is commonly used to collect corporation and business email address.systems in the first place. Keep one that you use just for your friends and family or business acquaintances. they‘re often posting their email address as well. where wading through the junk mail accumulation becomes less of a chore. one that‘s probably harder for you to combat.

and then. An excellent way to avoid having your email address harvested is as follows: when you include your email address on a Website. On the other hand.to get out there in some way. And the more information you put up about yourself on the Web. for example. This means that when anyone sends you an email you‘ll have to authenticate the sender and authorize (that is. rather than writing it out like bob@email. insert an icon or a link to your email address. allow) the software and allow him or her to send email to you. whether you like it or not. Meanwhile. Avoid having your email address on the actual. by having your email address hidden behind the code in the browser. The software usually notifies the sender that they have been approved by you. visible Webpage itself. Authorizing and Verifying the Sender in Controlling Spam Another approach to dealing with spam email is to use authorization software. Usually auto responder tools require that the person sending the email click on a link to verify that they are in fact the person who sent the email to the recipient. few spammers are going to go to that much trouble to add one more address to their list. Instead. It‘s not worth their time to clean it up or try to resend it manually. you make it considerably more difficult for that email address to be harvested. the more likely that your email address will get out there. the sender will usually get a message back indicating that his email has been sent but that you are using authentication software to verify that the email was sent legitimately. An authorization solution requires that you allow a sender to be on your approved email addresses and will only allow delivery of email to you from your approved list. anytime it gets rejected they simply dump it into a trash bin and don‘t even bother with it. The reason this is useful here is that spammers do not bother to verify email addresses manually. Since the automated harvesting tools typically look for visible email addresses. Whenever an email is accepted through a recipient‘s system spammers will think that the email got through.com. in the Web software. 40 .

If you‘re just getting way too much spam. Subscription lists won‘t have a person on the other end to verify that they are the sender and you will need to manually add any subscription email address to your allowed senders list.once they‘re on the authorized list. I‘ve had resort to this a number of times myself.Change Your Email Address An ultimate way to control email spam is to change your email address. Over time I‘ve learned that including a dot. a dash. I find that an email address that has no dots or dashes in it sometimes receives more spam than one with them. Desperation Time. an underscore. 41 . it‘s too difficult to deal with. and you have to be sure to allow subscriptions that you want to receive to get through.text characters tend to confuse some of the harvesting software mentioned earlier. your emails will be allowed through to that recipient. This will help because non. Another recommendation is to add numbers in addition to letters to your email address. When All Else Fails . and you really want to control who you deal with. Sender verification allows the most control over whose email you receive. this is a good way to do it. The downside is that it takes more time to manage your email. or some other punctuation character in my email address seems to make it more difficult for spammers to find it.

MySpace. It‘s a huge site for collectible items. Social Networking has leveraged this opportunity. If you have a collectible item. Anyone with a hobby. And as eBay has become more commercial and widely visited. can find other people on the Internet with those interests. They‘re places where people with common interests can find each other. Windows Live Spaces and hundreds more. Twitter. These Web sites are known by names such as Facebook. regardless of where they‘re located geographically. and get together to share those interests and experiences. and in many ways has changed the way collectibles are bought and sold. simply by seeing what recent prices the item has sold for. and all kinds of sites and organizations have figured out how to profit by providing Internet resources that make it easier for people around the world who share those common interests to find each other. you can go on eBay and find out immediately what its market value is. and has made it possible for many kinds of storefronts to be set up. eBay is a way for buyers and sellers of products and services to get together online. MySpace. someone who loves to travel. maybe a fascination with a particular place or activity.Chapter 4 Facebook. Twitter and Social Networking Social Networking has really blossomed on the Internet recently. Although not generally associated with the idea of Social Networking Web sites. really anyone who enjoys an interest in just about anything. 42 . A common example of Social Networking is probably eBay. it has become a way for merchants who specialize in these products to easily find their clientele.

eHarmony. Think of it as a blind date and treat it as such. People can also post false information about themselves and mislead others. eBay gives you the opportunity -. Yahoo! Personals and others. and you might want your first meeting to be in a public place.regardless of where you are in the world -. people have encountered others on dating sites who put up photos. claiming to be of themselves. Of course. and often formed long term relationships. though.com. As with any blind date. Although it‘s not common. Dating Sites Dating sites. such postings are often removed by the Website. but that weren‘t really them. where adults can meet and form relationships with other adults. Sites like Match. It‘s probably a good policy to not give out your address initially until you‘ve met the person face-to-face at least once. Internet dating has now become so commonly accepted that today most people of all ages know someone personally who has met one or more individuals. or gain access to additional services. When instances of this are reported. make a community out of doing this. and being deceived during their visits works against that. Please remember. although it certainly is possible. not children! But if you‘re an adult and looking for someone interested in dating. read another person‘s complete profile. through a dating Web site. risks exist with this form of meeting others. by contrast. whatever 43 .Granted it‘s a commercial form of social networking. are a specific kind of social networking. but as long as you have access to the Internet. Dating sites want people who use their services to have pleasant experiences and to be successful in forming relationships. that these sites are for adults. Dating sites used to be completely free but now often charge a premium for you to be able to communicate with other members. this is a good way to do it. you want to follow general rules.to find a community of people who are interested in buying or selling whatever you might have or want. So posting completely false information might not be as common as some believe. Once considered a means of last resort.

Twitter. But they all also should be utilized with a degree of caution. Internet 2. These Web sites generate a lot of visitors and traffic. which is very popular among college students. along with information about themselves on the Internet. Because there‘s simply no way to verify anything that anyone puts on a Web site. They are great for people who want to meet other people. is personal communities. By making it easy for people to create a personal Website and publish their own content. And you may have noticed recent instances in which YouTube has been involved in copyright lawsuits and other related issues. and they all allow other people to access the Website to find them and communicate with them. Other video sites are showing up as well. but there are hundreds more. with new ones appearing almost daily. these sites have allowed the Internet to become a user‘s medium.0 Social Networking Sites This next type of social networking . and what‘s generated the most controversy. MySpace and Facebook are probably the best known. Also. All these Websites have a couple of things in common. YouTube is a site that specializes in video Websites where people can post personal videos. for adults as well as children. You‘ve probably seen YouTube videos on popular TV shows and news broadcasts. They‘re all designed for people to put up personal information about themselves. which means Web advertising dollars for the Web companies that manage them.and the one that‘s really got everybody in the Internet community so excited. you shouldn‘t automatically believe it‘s true just because it‘s on the Internet.your personal preferences are for your comfort level. search engine sites like Yahoo! and MSN are now offering video services for users through Yahoo!360 and Windows Live Spaces. New social networking sites are starting up all the time and are at the center of the ―buzz‖ around user-generated content. and you increase your chances for a positive experience. 44 . like Friendster.

They‘re not just used by private individuals. So you can see that if someone wants to reach a large and specific community very quickly. set up his or her own Web log. There are estimated to be as many as 38 million users of MySpace at the time of this writing. Let‘s talk about the good things relating to a social networking site and why they‘re so popular. then you have to go into the security section of the site and manually make that control change. get specialized email. You do have certain controls over it. but you have to implement and manage those controls yourself. the settings typically make whatever you put on your site visible to every other user. that any and all information posted on these sites is going to be made public the instant that ―enter‖ key is pushed. You get a lot of functionality a user can put up a personal biography. get an Instant Message address. who are registered and actively use it. probably because these communities are so popular and have so many people visiting them. others have the ability to see information about you as well. This means that while you have the freedom to set up a profile. the purpose of these Websites is for people to network with other people. 45 . They‘ve become kind of the next phase after Web logs.When you set up an account on a social networking site. and the ability to share her or his Web site with friends and the world. however. and others. Once again. this is an excellent place to go. politicians. There are privacy settings but they typically have to be changed in order to add more privacy to your personal information and content. Public Information It‘s important to understand. they‘re also used by celebrities. So if you want your MySpace Website to be seen only by specific people whom you invite. A networking site provides the user with the ability to have essentially everything he would want in order to communicate about himself in many ways. personalities.

The sites make it easy to find others. The sites also ask a user to enter information about themselves that can help others locate them based on interests. with video. work. and why do they allow information about themselves to be posted publicly? Well. Social networking sites combine almost all the communication tools of the Internet into one place for a person to express himself and interact with others. Nobody at MySpace or the other social networking sites can control what age a person says he is. they are a great way to find people with common interests. Because the sites facilitate networking by making this database searchable to any user. Keep in mind that most sites usually set you up with no privacy control at all when you open 46 . a Web log. either using a name or an email address. they make it easier for people to find others. It‘s up to the user to beware! Privacy Controls Almost all social networking sites have privacy controls where you can limit access to your personal space in a number of ways. and other topics. there are phishing schemes that go on. And just because something‘s posted in MySpace does not necessarily mean it is legitimate or true. location. There are frauds and there are scams. and also make it easier for others to find you. Just like with email. social networking sites get spam. seeing. and the ability to network just explodes. There are degrees of privacy that you can control and change in your personal settings. Combine those communications with data that the Web service collects on you to make your personal profile searchable. an email and instant message account make it a communication hub for an individual. or whether he puts up a real photo of himself or of someone else. and chatting with is actually the person he or she claims to be. A combination of a personal Web site. age.Why do people use social networking sites. You can‘t be 100 percent sure that the person you‘re viewing.

Friends of a Friend. It is social networking after all and the idea is for people to network with each other. Facebook changed the Network requirement to enhance privacy. send you email. Once you manually change your privacy settings though. This gives you a very high degree of control over your privacy. and has changed its privacy policy to give you control based on what Friends can see. what Friends of Friends can see. which made your Profile public to everyone in that Network. what Everyone can see. This control is one of the reasons it has become so popular among Social Networking sites. and there are usually options for each aspect of the site to change or modify these settings. Facebook no longer requires that you belong to any Network.your personal space. and most recently. Until 2009. a Friend. You can make your space private. Just remember – by default your information will typically be public and viewable by anyone else with an account on that site. 47 . Facebook required that you belong to at least one Network. Facebook Privacy Settings Facebook gives you a high degree of control over your privacy. your site will stay at those settings unless you change them. In addition you can now create Lists of Friends and manage privacy settings for the List. Now Facebook considers your relationships to fall into one of the following categories. chat and post to your Web log. and only allow people by name to be able to access the space. Each site has slightly different ways for controlling these settings but their popularity is based on allowing users control over how much or little privacy they want. Friends and Networks. what specific Facebook users can or cannot see about you. or Everyone (including non-Facebook users). Each service works in a slightly different way but most offer the same control for access and communications with you.

your boss may be a Friend. For example. Facebook uses three types of relationships which you use to determine your visibility and privacy:     Friends Friends of Friends Networks Everyone By managing settings within Facebook for Friends. Certain information is made public to all other Facebook users in order for Facebook users find friends. but you may not want him or her getting updates on your vacation. This ―public‖ information includes        Your Name Your Profile Picture Your Current City Your Gender Any Networks you joined Your Friends list Any Pages you follow Individual User Privacy New options are being added on a regular basis by Facebook to allow more detailed control of privacy. and Everyone. Friends of Friends. 48 . You can exclude your boss (or any other individual) by name from being able to see or receive updates from you on Facebook.Types of Relationships on Facebook The key to using Facebook wisely is to know who to accept as a friend and what your friends will see about you on Facebook. A recent addition was the ability to exclude a specific individual from seeing certain items. you can control what people can learn and see about you. Friends and Networks. but allow him/her to get other information.

only yourself and you can also 49 . and Customize. With Customize you can make the information visible to Friends of Friends. and also after you make any privacy changes. Yahoo. The page that appears gives you links to the following options:      Your Profile Settings – control who can see your profile and who can post on your Wall Your Contact Information – who can contact you and what contact information and email information is visible Applications and Websites .) Block List – add or remove people to your Block list which controls their interaction with you on Facebook Profile Settings Privacy By default when you set up your account. I recommend you click on this link and preview your Profile after you set up your account. With the exception to allow or not allow friends to post you your Wall the setting options are similar. you can preview how your Profile will look. You can manage section by section who can see each section of your Facebook Profile. Most of your Privacy Settings have similar options which you can control your privacy. only specific people.Privacy Options Select Account from the upper right of the Home page and select Privacy Settings to access your options.information you make available to applications and other Websites Search – who can see you in Search results on Facebook and Search Websites (like Google. and to specific Friends by clicking on the Preview My Profile button link on the page. to see what effect the changes have made in regard to what people will see about you. Bing. only confirmed Friends and users within any Networks you have joined can see your full Profile. etc. Only Friends. to most people. only Friends. Your choices are: Everyone. only Friends of Friends. In addition. Friend Lists.

except for certain ones.hide the information in that Profile section from specific Friends. Privacy Settings. Click on any of the Settings buttons to the right of the Profile section description and you‘ll be given the options to change your Settings for each section of your Profile. For example. Profile Section About Me Likes and Interests Birthday Religious and Political Views Family and Relationships Education and Work Photos and Videos of Me Photo Albums Posts by Me Allow friends to post on your Wall Posts by Friends Comment on Posts  Default Setting Everyone Everyone Friends of Friends Friends of Friends Everyone Everyone Friends of Friends Everyone Everyone Everyone Friends of Friends Only Friends Table 1 Profile Privacy Setting 50 . Profile Information. To manage your Profile Privacy Settings click on Account. you may want all your friends to see it. The table below shows the Profile Sections and the default privacy settings for your account.

Facebook has a privacy policy on the use of your Profile information that third-parties must follow.Contact Information Privacy From the Privacy Settings page select Contact Information to control who can view your Contact information. select the Privacy Settings page. The default settings for new accounts and the contact options you can change are: Contact Information IM Screen Name Mobile Phone Other Phone Current Address Website Hometown Add me as a Friend Send me a Message Your email address  Default Settings Only Friends Only Friends Only Friends Only Friends Everyone Friends of Friends Everyone Everyone Only Friends Table 2 Contact Privacy Default Settings Applications and Websites Privacy When you add a third-party Application or connect your Facebook account to a Web site outside of Facebook. then select Applications and Websites to control what you share. You‘ll get the following options: 51 . but each third-party Application or Web site has their own policy and settings for their Application or Web site. You can manage the available (remember each one is different) Privacy Settings using the Applications and Websites option using the Privacy Settings in your account. Facebook uses the term ―enhanced applications‖ to describe any third-party Application or Web site that utilizes Facebook‘s user Profile information. go to Account. From your Home Page. you are giving that external Application or Web site access to your Profile information.

 Learn about what you share when using applications and websites which you have added to your Facebook account. when you accept an Invitation or invited him to be your Friend you gave him access to your Profile. The options to control which parts of your Profile you allow a third-party access include the following:  52 . as well as your publicly available information in Facebook. Control what your friends can share about you when they use Applications and Websites. networks. This includes your name. and if you remember. When your Friend uses a third-party Application or Web site. and Pages. gender. Current City. Gender. that Application or Web site can access your Profile information. current city. and Facebook always allows the third-party access to your Name. Networks. profile picture. Friends. and Pages. This option allows you to prevent third-party Applications and Web sites from accessing and using your Profile information. The Application will Request your permission to access any additional information it needs to function. Friend List. When a Friend uses a third-party Application or Web site. Your Profile is shared by Facebook with your Friend. even though you aren’t using that third-party Application or Web site. Profile Picture. Facebook-enhanced Applications may access any Profile information you have made visible to Everyone. Part of your Profile is considered by Facebook to be your Public Profile information. this means that Profile information is now shared with a third-party.

Activity on Applications and Games Dashboard – change who can view your activity by Everyone. Ignore Application Invites – you can Block application invites from any Friends who have Applications that send out invitations to Friends of Friends.   53 . Links. Only Friends of Friends. and Notes Photos and Videos of you The About me section Your birthday Your hometown Your religious or political views (by default this is not shared) Blocked Applications – where you can Block any Application from accessing your Profile information.              Personal Information – your activities and interests section of your profile Status Updates Online presence Web sites you have in your Profile Family and relationship status Relationship details (by default this is not shared) Education and Work Your Videos. only Friends. and Customize. By default this is set to Only Friends.

Friends of Friends. You can also manage your Public Search Results to allow search sites (like Google. It also helps to clear up confusion about someone mistaking you for someone else. Block People You can block people from interacting with you on Facebook by entering their name or email addresses here and then selecting Block. then click Block List. This allows someone using a search site to search for you by name from the search site. and Only Friends. and you can leave most of it empty if you like. You can hide your listing from search sites by unchecking the selection box in this setting. you can manage the settings here. Click on Account.) to search and index your Facebook site. etc. Twitter Privacy Settings Twitter doesn‘t ask for as much information for your profile as Facebook. Facebook. Click on Account. allows search sites to search for anyone over 18 in Facebook. If someone searches for you by name. Friends and Networks. then click Search Results and you will have the option you can manage who can see your Search Result on Facebook to Everyone. then click Privacy Settings. I encourage people to add a photo and a short biography to their Profiles so people will know something about them and can decide whether to follow them or not. Twitter doesn‘t require much additional personal information for an account but does need you to create a password and provide your email address. 54 .Search Results Facebook allows any Facebook user to search for people by using the default setting of Everyone. you can be located and your Public Profile information will be visible to any Facebook user. Bing. then click Privacy Settings. by default. If you don‘t want people to find you when they do a search for your name in Facebook. MySpace and some other Social Networking sites.

Next you can add your location if you choose to. In addition. So name a place people will understand. Your email address is kept private and never appears to anyone else on Twitter. Remember that Twitter is used all over the globe and people far away may not be familiar with your area. 55 . Keep in mind the rules we discussed earlier from Facebook about only using pictures you want to have seen publicly. this is optional but is worthwhile and using a city or location name helps your followers or anyone reading your tweet know where in the world you are located. The last Profile field is for you to describe yourself and provide a short biography in 160 characters. providing a Web site in your Profile is helpful for people to learn more about you. Other users see just your username and Twitter handles all email communication between users. To add more information to your Profile. go to the Settings link at the top of your Twitter home page and click on Settings. Your picture will be a Twitter Icon. Pictures add a personal aspect to your tweets and your followers will feel they know you better if they can see you. and Twitter and I both recommend you upload a picture of yourself.‖ where you have some additional options. someone who knows your email address can find your Twitter Page. If you uncheck this box people who know your email won‘t be able to find you on Twitter by entering your email address. By default.After you create your Twitter account you‘ll see a page ―Join the Conversation. The next field is for your Web site. Since many businesses and organizations use Twitter. Then click on Profile and you will see a Your real name is already filled in from when you set up your account. it offers you a way to express yourself in something more than in the 140-character limit of Twitter messages.

Determine what will happen with any personal information you provide while using Web sites and and review any privacy settings you have the option to manage. Web site. As you increase your activity on the Internet and start using more Web sites. read the privacy policies. and biography are on your Profile and visible for others to see when they visit your Twitter. location. Other Social Networking Sites Unfortunately I can‘t possibly cover all the Social Networking sites you could possible use. You can see what your page looks like to others by clicking on the Profile link on the top navigation bar. 56 .Your photo.

57 . Worms A Worm is another piece of software that causes damage by copying itself over and over again to disrupt and eventually disable your computer. which are also considered to be a specific type of virus. Your anti-virus software typically checks for worms. most often when files are downloaded and as attachments to email. thereby sealing that file and preventing the virus from entering and contaminating your computer. make sure you have anti-virus software installed and set to always be running. Running a current up-to-date anti-virus program will help prevent a virus from being installed by detecting any that appear in a file and sealing off the file to ―quarantine‖ it. no matter what type. Seldom do hackers have a constructive motive. is to keep your computer from picking up any malicious software (any software application that can cause harm to your computer or data) that may get installed once you start using it and connect it to the Internet. Viruses are created on a regular basis by computer hackers who sometimes use them as a challenge to see if they can get them to work or as a way to take control of a computer for some other purpose. so that it can do its job and protect you and your computer. With high-speed Internet connections. Virus A virus is piece of software that installs itself on your computer and causes harm to your computer and data. and the purpose of tools for protection.Chapter 5 Malicious Software The need for security. computers ―catch‖ infections. Before downloading any files.

Spyware Spyware is a piece of software that gets installed with a downloaded file on your computer without your consent . you can reinstall it properly. you should do a full system check once to see what spyware is installed on your computer so you can decide if you want to remove it. Some Web sites and applications install spyware on your computer as part of their installation in order to manage updates and registration. Anti-spyware software. In this case a malicious program is contained within a seemingly legitimate program. People who create malicious spyware use it to collect information about you and your Internet use in order to use it 58 . will alert you to the potential existence of spyware software installed on your computer.Trojan Horse A ―Trojan horse‖ is named after the Greek legend. random error messages. and sluggish performance when opening programs or saving files. Most anti-spyware software also has a ―roll-back‖ function so if you accidentally remove some spyware that was needed by a Web site or application you use. But if you have not had anti-spyware software running already. keys that don't work. for the purpose of monitoring or controlling your computer use. which is separate from anti-virus software. Not all spyware is malicious and a good antispyware software will help you determine which ones are. Your current and always running anti-virus software will check applications to see if they contain any viruses inside them. unexpected toolbars or icons on your computer screen. a browser that takes you to sites you don't want. and should be removed. Clues that spyware is on a computer include a barrage of pop-up ads.

Warning: Always remember this fact. or for the collection of valuable usage data that can be sold for marketing purposes. As soon as this is done. the operating system now has a function that requires the user to approve the installation of any application before the application can install itself. The purpose is obvious. You must have your anti-virus software running ALL THE TIME! Windows Vista In the latest version of Windows. The most common way for uninvited files to get downloaded onto your computer without your knowledge or approval is through an email attachment. or time consuming for PC users. the spammers are getting exactly what they want.. since they need to approve every application installation. File Attachments Anytime you download a file from an Internet location. even if the source isn‘t familiar. but it may be overkill since many users will get confused about the need to approve the installation of many pieces of legitimate software that were automatically installed before Vista. identity theft. 59 . The debate is still ongoing whether this makes it unnecessarily complicated. Windows Vista.for fraud. you run the risk of downloading a malicious application. Opening an attachment to an email can launch an application and install it. One big reason there is so much spam is that spammers know some people will open any attachment or respond to a Web link.

often a financial institution like a bank or credit card company. And unfortunately. because no one has really figured out yet how to police the world-wide Web. 60 . and organizations are not always who they appear to be at first glance. The email looks like it came from a company you do business with. It‘s important to remember that the Internet is largely unregulated and the fact that it is easy to access and utilize by millions of users every day also means that a certain small percentage of these users will be scam artists. you are asked to validate or confirm certain information and a link is provided to a Web site for your convenience. Phishing Phishing. Unfortunately. In the email. Typically phishing is done via email (back to all that spam again!). But this isn‘t necessarily as easy at it sounds. is a method of fooling the user into thinking that he or she is following the instructions of a legitimate company. and others with fraudulent schemes and malicious intentions. people.Chapter 6 Scams and Fraud The ability to reach out anywhere anytime to almost anyone on the Internet is precisely the reason Internet users need to be careful. con artists. when in fact he or she is providing information to a fraudulent service. it‘s pretty much up to the individual user to beware of the risks when he or she connects to the Internet. as we discussed earlier in Hyperlinks and email. Web sites.

scam artists have learned how to take advantage of their trust. but you need to be alert yourself as well. Phishing is becoming more common on Web sites that the public has come to trust. even otherwise sophisticated computer users. and Wikipedia. Examples of places where phishing has taken place include MySpace. Usually the Web site operators act quickly once they become aware of a fraud or scam. eBay . As ―user generated‖ content such as auction postings or Web logs have become more ―trusted‖ by Internet users. If you are unsure if the request is a legitimate offer. eBay and Craigslist Scams eBay is the popular auction site that has grown tremendously in popularity in recent years. It has also become a place for a wide 61 .Warning! Phishing is one of the most common methods used for identity theft because so many people. call the company verify. Even experienced Internet and computersavvy people have been fooled by elaborate phishing sites. NEVER provide this kind of private information and especially do not provide your full social security number. Warning! Remember – if you get an unsolicited request to provide any personal or financial information: DON’T provide it and DONT click on any links in the message. Auction Sites. NEVER. can be tricked into providing sensitive information on what appears to be a legitimate Web form.

Craigslist relies on their users to notify them of any fraud and the Craigslist staff will remove any listing that it learns are scams. International sellers are a common way for fraud schemes to hide behind international boundaries and the law. Verify your seller‘s contact information. The vast majority of users on eBay.     62 . With new technology like Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP). people advertise household items. Use extra caution for high-priced items. as well as employment offers. Some tips for avoiding fraud on auction and classified sites such as eBay. erotic services and more. are honest people who rely on good customer ratings to encourage further business transactions. it also allows scam artists to fool you into thinking they have offices located in a city when they really aren‘t. Craigslist grew from an initially local San Francisco classified ad Web site to a worldwide global Internet classified site. Scams will try and get you to use a fraudulent escrow service that is working with the scam. Craigslist and others:  Always read the description of the item very carefully. Don‘t assume anything. especially with international sellers.variety of commercial ventures to sell their merchandise. both new and used. a business doesn‘t need to have an office in a city to have a local phone number for that city. While convenient for legitimate users. surplus merchandise. Craigslist is the world‘s largest classified ads listing. With a small staff. On this Web site. Area codes can be deceptive. both sellers and buyers. to Internet users. Ask the seller questions – most legitimate sellers will gladly answer questions about the merchandise and shipping. Sometimes the wording in an item‘s description can be deceptive because they‘re designed to fool you into thinking you are getting something else. On eBay use only their approved escrow services.

If the credit card company receives a report of a fraudulent transaction. Government Agency team that investigates fraud and scams on the Internet. is your own education and awareness.ic3.gov where you can see what they look like and how deceptive they can be. also has some buyer protections to protect you from fraudulent transactions.gov. A moderated chat room is less likely to have issues with malicious chat users because someone is monitoring the 63 . which are impossible to reverse or stop. they can shut down the seller‘s ability to accept credit cards. PayPal. On eBay .    Use a credit card or pay pal account for purchasing on any Web site – your credit card company has some degree of buyer protection built into the standard terms and conditions. This is a common way for people who do not plan on shipping merchandise to scam users. Common fraud schemes involve fake escrow services and other means to get you to send the money and not have any recourse to stop payment.ftc.S. Chat Room Scams and Fraud Chat rooms are another place where malicious users attempt to gain the confidence of others for their own ulterior motives. How to Report Scams and Fraud You can report fraud on www. Child-predators operate primarily in Chat rooms on the Internet but adults need to be wary of chat room scams and fraud. a joint U. Read the reference section in the back of this book for the Top 10 Internet Scams and visit the Federal Trade Commission‘s Web site at www. which is owned by eBay. as the Internet is making it easier and faster all the time to separate you from your money.avoid cash or other instant money sales such as wire transfers. Your best protection. however.

but Web logs have become more sophisticated and now allow users to post pictures. readers can see the original article as well as ongoing comments by other readers and the author. In contrast. It is helpful to know many of these elements so you understand the meanings and references used in chat sessions.content. and other materials. I‘ve provided a list of chat abbreviations in the reference section at the back of this book. just because it‘s moderated doesn‘t mean you can automatically trust everything posted on the chat session. A blog is like an interactive version of a newspaper and letters to the editor. files for download. is a type of Internet Web site by which a person can publish a journal-like text on his or her personal Internet Web site. or Blog. text can be posted by the Blog owner and read like a personal journal. only you don‘t have to wait until the next day to read the letters. videos. However. On a Blog. Web logs started growing rapidly in number when Google made them available for free and allowed Blog authors to place 64 . Originally they were just a way of posting text. with the ultimate goal of gaining the confidence of an unsuspecting chat room participant for fraudulent purposes. Blogs A Web log. or a directory with links. creating the potential for a very content-rich Web site. Chat rooms often use a kind of ―shorthand‖ among participants. a regular Web site is meant to be read only and is a layout of text and pictures. Sometimes certain chat users will also invite individuals to join them for a private chat session. Deals too good to be true or links to locations asking you for private information are common schemes. and allows others to read and comment on the content. The difference between a Web log or Blog and a regular Web site is that on a Blog. Readers can publish comments on the Blog entries and express their opinions or add information. along with any new articles.

and can never be retracted once it is seen. A Blogger can set up one for personal use and restrict access to it only by people he or she invites. But since it was on the Web log once. politicians. and people who have common interests have started to use the Internet for networking with others. Once something has been posted. Some Web logs do not allow posting by others and are meant only to be read. and many other users started posting content to be read and publicized. but only after prior review or approval by the Web log author. unless it is a private Web log. people sometimes forget that everything they post can be seen on the Internet. The race was on to create commercially viable Web logs capable of attracting many visitors in order to generate advertising revenue. it‘s a permanent part of the Internet. 65 . A Web log can be public or private. even if the author tries to alter it. and the post can be removed at that time. A Web log can be set up for free on sites such as Google. Some of these and other sites such as Web hosting services like GoDaddy provide Web log services for a fee along with more user control of the options and functions. any Internet user could have a version of the old Web log and it could have been seen by thousands of people who will have a record of it on their computers. Yahoo!. Watch what You Post on a Blog Since it‘s so easy to post a comment or information on a Web log.Google advertising on them and receive compensation. Others may allow posting by readers (kind of like letters to the editor). specific groups. radio personalities. Journalists. Individual Web logs may or may not be subject to review depending on the author‘s rules for posting comments. A user can ask the Web log owner to remove something. MSN and MySpace. This is one way families.

so think before you post a comment that you may later regret.com.Employees of companies have been fired for revealing confidential information on a Web log. Inappropriate comments or compromising photos can ruin reputations and cause damage at Internet speed.equifax.O. Warning! Remember – what you post on the Internet can last forever. How to watch for identity theft If you suspect that your personal information is being used for fraud. GA 30374-0241 . www. This applies to anything you post on Social Networking sites also! Identity Theft ID theft occurs when someone uses your name. Students have been suspended for violating school policies of conduct. call the credit card company or bank immediately and also contact the big three credit reporting agencies listed here:  66 Equifax: 1-800-525-6285. to commit fraud or other crimes. That‘s why it‘s vital to protect your personal information. P. credit card number or other personal information without your permission. Box 740241. Atlanta. And always be careful how you post contact information. the more you leave yourself open to exploitation. Remember that the more you reveal about yourself. or any of your credit or bank accounts have been used without your authorization. Social Security number. There are infinite possibilities for a moment‘s carelessness to cause lasting harm.

Fullerton. P. CA 92834-6790 Actively monitor and check your credit record.transunion.annualcreditreport. TX 75013 TransUnion: 1-800-680-7289. www. To get yours.com. go the Web site www.O. even if you don‘t have or use a credit card. Another sign that you may be a victim of identity theft is that you may start receiving collection notices for unpaid bills.com. Allen. Box 6790. P. Box 2002. Always follow-up immediately if you suspect you are a victim of identity theft.experian.com 67 . Free Credit Report Federal law entitles anyone to a free credit report once a year.O. One of the first places identity theft can affect you. and often the first time you may discover it. is when there is a charge you don‘t recognize on a credit card bill or when you receive a credit card bill for a card you don‘t have. www.  Experian: 1-888-EXPERIAN (397-3742). Fraud Victim Assistance Division.

which allows multiple Ethernet devices such as PC‘s. Ethernet was established as industry standard in the 1980‘s by Intel. Web pages are hosted by an outsourced provider (usually the Internet Service or dedicated hosting service).Chapter 7 Network Security Typical Home and Small Office Networks Most home and small office networks have similar setup and configurations. networked printers. In the typical home and small office email is usually provided by the Internet Service or a web service and users get their email addresses. on the other is the familiar Ethernet cable connector used to connect Ethernet network devices. A diagram of a typical network. a high-speed Internet connection. 68 . usually provided by the ISP to enable the connection between the home or office network to the ISP‘s cable or phone system. Connecting the single Internet connection to multiple PC‘s requires a Hub or Switch. On one end of the modem is a phone or cable connector. I‘ll be discussing issues related to the most common configurations. An Internet connection to the Internet Service Provider (ISP) with a broadband modem. shown below. wireless enabled laptops. shows the main components of the network. and other hubs and routers to connect to the network. and networked disk drives. and some other shared devices like a network printer or storage device. and Digital Equipment Corporation (since bought by Hewlett-Packard) and is a cabling and communications standard that manufacturers use for making their equipment and software compatible. Xerox. or other WiFi devices. which usually consist of from 1 to 5 computers. game consoles.

and the router and collects 69 . Home and small office networks usually use a router which has a built-in hub or switch. you are asked during setup to enter your username and password supplied by the ISP. Connecting a router to the Internet today is a fairly easy process. mentioned in the first chapter. In this case the router communicates with your ISP. and to each other. If you received your router/hub from your ISP. The newest routers automatically detect this kind of connection. If your ISP uses a setup procedure using a protocol called ―PPPoE‖. with configuration instructions provided by the Internet Service Provider so we won‘t go into the detail of the steps here.A combined router/hub is the most common way used to connect all the devices together into a single network. the router will get assigned an Internet Protocol (IP) address by the ISP. is most likely included wireless networking capability. that literally routes network traffic to the correct location. The router is the one network device which connects all your other devices to the Internet. which gives it more than one single Ethernet port and usually a wireless connection as well. The Router and Hub/Switch Router Setup The router is a device.

Most routers come with software installation and setup CD‘s which guide you step-by-step in the basic configuration. Assigning IP Addresses to your network The default. You can usually connect as many as 254 network devices to your network and your router automatically keeps track of what is connected and routing all the network traffic to and from each device and form each device to the Internet and back again. or ―fixed‖ IP address. the newest routers will detect this type of connection and prompt you to enter information supplied by your ISP to get you connected. or 70 . and the router automatically assigns an IP address to the device using Dynamic Host Communication Protocol or DHCP for short. is set so that it automatically detects when a new Ethernet device is connected to one of the ports. but don‘t require that you change any security settings to secure your router or wireless network (if your router came with a wireless capability).‘ and IP addresses for your DNS servers. Router Security Out of the box. This information includes the router‘s IP address. an IP address for what‘ called a ―gateway. There is rarely a conflict with the built-in firewall in Microsoft‘s operating systems so it‘s OK to lave both on all the time. Defaults Your router‘s settings can be changed once you connect your router to another PC. These default.it‘s IP address and ll other necessary settings for connecting you to the Internet. or standard settings for almost every home and small office router. routers usually have a built-in firewall function which you don‘t need to change and is automatically setup for you when you plug in the router. and then your router can connect to the Internet. If your ISP assigned you a specific.

‖ You should change your router identifier to something unique from the factory default setting. Administrator and Password Settings The administrator and password settings are usually set to ―admin‖ and ―admin‖ at the factory. If your router is a relatively recent model and has WiFi Protected Access (WPA). Neighbors can accidentally access each other‘s wireless networks by accident. since they might assume that the strongest signal they see is their own router. if you haven‘t changed your username and password. I recommend using that security method over the weaker. There are malicious software programs that scan IP addresses and try using the factory defaults for the username and password to see if they can access the router itself. Since it‘s broadcasting. the factory settings are set so that your router ―broadcasts‖ it‘s presence and it will appear to anyone looking for a WiFi connection. someone could easily access your network by trying the factory defaults. when it could just as likely be the one next door. less secure Wireless Equivalent Privacy (WEP).out of the box settings should be changed as soon as you connect your router to your network in order to secure your network from outside access. In addition to using 71 . Router Identifier The router identifier is the name assigned to the router in the factory and each manufacturer typically uses it‘s own company name for ALL of their routers shipped out of the factory. That means that every Linksys router is named ―linksys‖ and every Netgear router is named ―netgear. Wireless Security Settings If you have a router that is both wired and wireless. You need to change these settings to your own username and password.

choose one with a combination of letters and numbers to make it more secure. and better security is now available such as DES. To turn on WEP you log into your router control and typically the settings are located under the wireless settings options. you use the passphrase to authenticate the PC on the wireless network. Of the three security measures described below. and WPA. WEP was an early attempt to secure wireless networks. WEP is not difficult to crack. Selecting WEP is usually an option with a checkbox or selection button and you are required to enter a number (usually 10 digits long) for each computer you want to access your wireless network and the router returns a key that you use when configuring the wireless network settings on your PC. 64-bit (weak security). Wireless Equivalent Privacy Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol for wireless networks that encrypts transmitted data. WiFi Protected Access If available. you enter a ―passphrase‖ which is used as a password on each PC you use to connect to your wireless router. you select WPA with a checkbox or radio button selection. then WEP. you can add a MAC address control (explained later) to further enhance your security. Usually visible on the same wireless settings option screen as WEP. if available. any of your neighbors can immediately log on to your network and use your Internet connection. Like any password. When you configure your PC‘s wireless network settings. VPN. However. WiFi Protected Access (WPA) is the better and stronger security setting for wireless security. If you run a network with only the default security. without WEP or WPA turned on. 128-bit (a bit better security). After selecting WPA. and using it reduces performance slightly. you should use WPA first. WEP has three settings: Off (no security).either WPA or WEP. and then MAC Address Access Control. 72 .

MAC Address Access Control In addition to either WEP or WPA. you can control which specific PC‘s and network devices are allowed to connect to your wireless network. This will not completely prevent a determined hacker from accessing your network but will make it more difficult for anyone to connect to your router and add an additional measure of security.When viewing your wireless network from your PC network settings. Each Ethernet device manufactured is given a semi-unique address. To use it. you can turn on address control with either a checkbox or radio button setting. called the Media Address Code which is required by the Ethernet protocol and to work on any network. have all your PC‘s and network devices (printers. in the same location as the WEP and WPA settings. storage devicves. you will see. Network Storage Devices are easy to install and 73 . known as a Network Storage Device. using wither WEP or WPA. You would then select each one you want to enable to connect to your network and apply or save the settings. is common in both home and business networks. where multiple users and PC‘s can access a common set of files and data. File sharing can be a specific PC with the file sharing options turned on or a special dedicated disk drive. File Sharing File sharing. which can be used for shared storage. Usually available on the wireless settings of your router‘s configuration controls. etc) connected to the network so they can appeat in the Access Control List. It is technically possible for a determined hacker to bypass this control but does add an additional deterrent for security. that your network is now a ―secure‖ network and unavailable for anyone to access.

74 . When setting up file sharing.use. This is useful for controlling who can read and change specific folders on a shared disk and allows a network to fine-tune specific file access. File sharing doesn‘t allow network users access to all files and folders unless you specific that the entire disk drive is a ―shared‖ disk drive. File sharing has advantages for small networks because multiple users can get to the same files and folders. you should require a password for each PC on the network nad for any shared drives or network storage devices. and appear as an extra drive letter on each PC‘s menu of available drives. everyone on your network that can see the disk drive will have both read and write access to the data. you can control which users on your network can read a disk drive or even specific folders and files. Any PC with file sharing turned on has an increased risk for security. keeping a music or photo library on a shared drive gives all users on the network access to the media. You should make sure that your router is secure before you share any files. In addition to router security. Using access control permissions in Windows. For a home network.

75 .

Often left open and visible. Flash Drives. Floppy Disks. The convenience of carrying around data in a flash drive or other portable media offers an opportunity for theft. a planned theft of equipment and data. In addition to the data on a laptop computer. There are typically two kinds of theft situations that occur. and any other device that has memory or a disk drive. Portable Digital Assistants (PDA‘s). SD Digital cards used for digital cameras.Chapter 8 Laptops and Mobile Data Laptops and mobile data have some additional security challenges. Any data that is portable and can be removed from an office or home can be considered mobile. This includes Smart Phones. Beyond laptops. however any mobile data device is a target for theft. mobile data can be any storage media that can be carried. a laptop in an unlocked car provides an easy opportunity for theft. other mobile devices like smart phones and flash USB disk drives are targets as well since 76 . Rental cars are a common target for laptop thefts because most business travelers take a laptop along with them. and a theft of opportunity. where a home or an office is a target for a robbery to steal equipment and other equipment that can be sold. Theft When most people think of computer theft they usually associate it with a laptop. portable hard drives. where carelessness on the part of the property owner provides an opportunity for someone to steal equipment or devices without a high degree of risk. Any portable device that can be carried by you out of your office of home poses additional security risks in addition to a home or office PC and network. CD ROM disks.

usernames and passwords to corporate networks are often the target of a smart phone or mobile device theft. an unlocked car with a laptop or laptop carrying case exposed is a more inviting target for parking lot theft. but to install a virus or malware that will be loaded onto a laptop or other computer when the user attaches the media to their computer at the next use. which may cause a thief to dispose of a flash drive or digital media card rather than copy the data. either in your car or in a hotel. place your laptop in a drawer rather than leave it on the desk when you‘re out of the room.they may contain confidential or other data and have become powerful devices. Flash drives and other portable storage may have files with valuable or confidential information. Laptops. While we are so used to 77 . Place your briefcase and laptop in the trunk when you leave your car and in a hotel room. Storage devices have ways to protect the data with password protection as well. the usernames and passwords of an unlocked and non-password protected mobile device may open the door to a home or business network. Concealment is also a measure that should be taken. As a result. While the data on the mobile device itself may have little value. Infection Portable media poses the risk of covert infection. precautions are necessary to protect any mobile and portable data. The intent here is not to damage the data on a flash drive or other readable data storage. and mobile devices need password protection to deter easy access to the data. Portable media devices such as MP3 players and iPODS have features that are often used to store more than music and they devices have calendar and note features. Emails. such as a presentation that includes future product information or a private family photo album. Take any portable data devices and don‘t leave them out in the open and for others to see. smart phones.

78 . This protects your computer from any virus or malware that may be hiding on the network. If your laptop of media has been inspected out of your sight for any reason. PC users often forget that before high speed Internet connections. Sharing portable media such as flash drive between users. you run the risk of the media or computer being inspected and even potentially confiscated by the authorities. is similar to sharing a napkin or a glass of water and you are just as likely to get any infection transmitted to your computer just like you would if you drank out of someone else‘s glass. Inspection and Confiscation Whenever traveling outside of your home country with a laptop or other portable data. For media such as a flash drive. Having an anti-virus software tool running all the time on your PC and updated is important when connecting to any other network besides your own. corporate and government espionage is a common practice in certain countries. which is often how they are used.moving data across the Internet. using floppy drives that were infected with a virus was the most common way to get a virus. While we often assume that no one will take a laptop or other device. I recommend you run a complete anti-virus scan before using your computer. run a complete anti-virus check on the device when you connect it to your PC.

Appendix A Websites for Additional Information and Help Federal Trade Commission — www. and other fraudrelated complaints into Consumer Sentinel. identity theft. The GetNetWise coalition wants Internet users to be just "one click away" from the resources they need to make informed decisions about their and their family's use of the Internet. visit ftc. The FTC manages OnGuardOnline. deceptive. and protect your personal information.gov The FTC works for the consumer to prevent fraudulent. a secure.gov or call toll-free. which provides practical tips from the federal government and the technology industry to help you be on guard against Internet fraud. The FTC enters Internet. telemarketing. and educational or entertaining online experiences.S. and abroad. and unfair business practices in the marketplace and to provide information to help consumers spot. and avoid them.OnGuardOnline. constructive. TTY: 1-866-653-4261. GetNetWise — www.gov. 79 . To file a complaint or to get free information on consumer issues. stop. online database available to hundreds of civil and criminal law enforcement agencies in the U. 1-877-FTCHELP (1-877-382-4357).getnetwise.org GetNetWise is a public service sponsored by Internet industry corporations and public interest organizations to help ensure that Internet users have safe. secure your computer.

colleges.org NCSA is a non-profit organization that provides tools and resources to empower home users." National Cyber Security Alliance — www.ncpc. and schools.org The National Crime Prevention Council (NCPC) is a private.National Crime Prevention Council — www. NCSA members include the Department of Homeland Security. nonprofit organization whose primary mission is to enable people to create safer and more caring communities by addressing the causes of crime and violence and reducing the opportunities for crime to occur. A publicprivate partnership.mcgruff. 80 . the Federal Trade Commission. www. and universities to stay safe online. and many private-sector corporations and organizations.mcgruff.staysafeonline. small businesses.org and public service advertising under the National Citizens' Crime Prevention Campaign — symbolized by McGruff the Crime Dog® and his "Take A Bite Out Of Crime®. NCPC addresses Internet Safety with kids and parents through www. Among many crime prevention issues.org.

com 81 .com Bitdefender www.com Norton http://www.avg.com AVG www.com/security_essentials Malwarebytes www.malwarebytes.mcafee.bitdefender.symantec.trandmicro.com McAfee http://www.microsoft.com TrendMicro www.Appendix B Software Tools Security Software for Virus and Spyware Protection Microsoft Security Essentials www.

deletions. Inspect the check for additions. and warranty policies. If an escrow service is used. Be cautious when dealing with individuals outside of your own country. Official checks are generally perforated on at least one side. Check to see that the account number is not shiny in appearance. Be cautious of unsolicited offers. Determine the shipping charges before you buy. Be wary if the seller only accepts wire transfers or cash. Ensure you understand refund. Counterfeit Cashier's Check       82 Inspect the cashier's check. Ensure the amount of the check matches in figures and words.Appendix C Quick Reference for Internet Fraud Tips for different types of Fraud and Scams. ensure it is legitimate. Consider insuring your item. Auction Fraud          Before you bid. Be watchful that the drawer's signature is not traced. or other alterations. . contact the seller with any questions you have. Review the seller's feedback. return.

If purchasing merchandise. Contact the Better Business Bureau to determine the legitimacy of the company. Promptly reconcile credit card statements to avoid unauthorized charges. Beware of providing credit card information when requested through unsolicited emails. Be wary of businesses that operate from P. and telephone number of the individual or company.   Contact the financial institution on which the check was drawn to ensure legitimacy. Obtain the bank's telephone number from a reliable source. Be cautious when dealing with individuals outside of your own country. 83 . Don't trust a site just because it claims to be secure. boxes or maildrops. Research the individual or company to ensure they are authentic. address. Debt Elimination        Know who you are doing business with — do your research.O. Credit Card Fraud       Ensure a site is secure and reputable before providing your credit card number online. Obtain the name. Be cautious when dealing with individuals outside of your own country. Do your research to ensure legitimacy of the individual or company. ensure it is from a reputable source. Ensure you understand all terms and conditions of any agreement. not from the check itself.

Be wary when replying to unsolicited emails for work-at-home employment. Be cautious when dealing with individuals outside of your own country. DHL/UPS         Beware of individuals using the DHL or UPS logo in any email communication. Do not give your social security number when first interacting with your prospective employer. Be leery when the job posting claims "no experience necessary". Contact DHL or UPS to confirm the authenticity Employment/Business Opportunities         84 Be wary of inflated claims of product effectiveness. Beware when money is required up front for instructions or products. If it sounds too good to be true.  Ask for names of other customers of the individual or company and contact them. Be cautious of exaggerated claims of possible earnings or profits. . Fees associated with DHL or UPS transactions are only for shipping costs and never for other costs associated with online transactions. it probably is. Remember that DHL and UPS do not generally get involved in directly collecting payment from customers. Be suspicious when payment is requested by money transfer before the goods will be delivered.

Never throw away credit card or bank statements in usable form. Escrow Services Fraud       Always type in the website address yourself rather than clicking on a link provided. Be leery of escrow sites that only accept wire transfers or e-currency. A legitimate website will be unique and will not duplicate the work of other companies. grammar problems. 85 . rather than a P. Be aware of missed bills which could indicate your account has been taken over. Do your homework to ensure the business or website is legitimate. Be cautious when a site requests payment to an "agent". Never give your credit card number over the phone unless you make the call. Identity Theft         Ensure websites are secure prior to submitting your credit card number. Contact the Better Business Bureau to determine the legitimacy of the company. instead of a corporate entity.O. Beware of sites that have escrow fees that are unreasonably low. Attempt to obtain a physical address. Monitor your credit statements monthly for any fraudulent activity. box or maildrop. or inconsistent information. Be cautious of scams requiring you to provide your personal information. Be watchful of spelling errors.  Research the company to ensure they are authentic.

Ensure you are utilizing the most up-to-date patches for your software. Investment Fraud        If the "opportunity" appears too good to be true. Review a copy of your credit report at least once a year. Don't assume a company is legitimate based on "appearance" of the website. 86 . Be leery when responding to invesment offers received through unsolicited email. Be wary of investments that offer high returns at little or no risk. Identify whether your servers are utilizing any ports that have been known to represent insecurities. Beware of promises to make fast profits. Identify all machines connected to the Internet and assess the defense that's engaged.   Report unauthorized transactions to your bank or credit card company as soon as possible. Do not invest in anything unless you understand the deal. Internet Extortion        Security needs to be multi-layered so that numerous obstacles will be in the way of the intruder. it probably is. Independently verify the terms of any investment that you intend to make. Ensure security is installed at every possible entry point.

Do not reply to emails asking for personal banking information. It is a violation of federal law to play a foreign lottery via mail or phone. Be cautious when dealing with individuals outside of your own country.   Research the parties involved and the nature of the investment. Be wary of individuals representing themselves as foreign government officials. Be cautious when dealing with individuals outside of your own country. Nigerian Letter or "419"       If the "opportunity" appears too good to be true. Be cautious when dealing with individuals outside of your own country. Be cautious if you receive a telephone call stating you are the winner in a lottery. Be leery if you do not remember entering a lottery or contest. Lotteries        If the lottery winnings appear too good to be true. they probably are. Beware when asked to assist in placing large sums of money in overseas bank accounts. it probably is. 87 . Be wary of demands to send additional money to be eligible for future winnings. Contact the Better Business Bureau to determine the legitimacy of the company. Do not believe the promise of large sums of money for your cooperation. Beware of lotteries that charge a fee prior to delivery of your prize.

Independently verify the legitimacy of any investment. Be wary when you are required to bring in subsequent investors.  Guard your account information carefully. Be vigilant in researching with whom you choose to invest. Beware of references given by the promoter. it probably is. Always compare the link in the email to the link that you are actually directed to. Avoid filling out forms in email messages that ask for personal information. Log on to the official website. Be cautious when additional fees are requested to further the transaction. Phishing/Spoofing        Be suspicious of any unsolicited email requesting personal information. Make sure you fully understand the investment prior to investing. 88 . Exercise diligence in selecting investments. Ponzi/Pyramid         If the "opportunity" appears too good to be true. Beware of promises to make fast profits. Contact the actual business that supposedly sent the email to verify if the email is genuine. instead of "linking" to it from an unsolicited email.

Be leery if the individual states that his country will not allow direct business shipments from the United States.Reshipping          Be cautious if you are asked to ship packages to an "overseas home office. Never purchase anything advertised through an unsolicited email. Never respond to spam as this will confirm to the sender that it is a "live" email address." Be cautious when dealing with individuals outside of your own country. Avoid giving out your email address unless you know how it will be used. Delete it unread. Have a primary and secondary email address one for people you know and one for all other purposes. 89 . If you receive packages that you didn't order. Never provide your personal information to strangers in a chatroom. Don't accept packages that you didn't order. Be wary if the "ship to" address is yours but the name on the package is not. either refuse them upon delivery or contact the company where the package is Spam        Don't open spam.

Be leery if the individual states that his country makes receiving these type of funds difficult. Rather than following a purported link to a website. make contributions directly to known organizations rather than     90 . including clicking links contained within those messages. Only open attachments from known senders. Be cautious of e-mails that claim to show pictures of the disaster areas in attached files. Beware of organizations with copy-cat names similar to but not exactly the same as those of reputable charities. because the files may contain viruses. Be cautious when dealing with individuals outside of your own country. Charitable Donation Fraud   Do not respond to any unsolicited (spam) incoming e-mails. Be cautious when the job posting claims "no experience necessary". verify the legitimacy of non-profit organizations by utilizing various Internet-based resources that may assist in confirming the group’s existence and its non-profit status. To ensure contributions are received and used for intended purposes. Be skeptical of individuals representing themselves as surviving victims or officials asking for donations via e-mail or social networking sites.Third Party Receiver of Funds      Do not agree to accept and wire payments for auctions that you did not post.

Avoid cash donations if possible. Do not make checks payable to individuals 91 . Providing such information may compromise your identity and make you vulnerable to identity theft. Do not give your personal or financial information to anyone who solicits contributions. Pay by debit or credit card. or write a check directly to the charity. Do not be pressured into making contributions.   relying on others to make the donation on your behalf. as reputable charities do not use such tactics.

location A/S/L/M/H? age. location. sex. hobbies AYSOS are you stupid or something AYTMTB and you are telling me this because B4 before B4N bye for now BAG busting a gut BAK back at the keyboard BBBG bye bye be good BBIAB be back in a bit 92 . music.Appendix D Chat Room Abbreviations 14AA41 one for all and all for one 1-D-R I wonder 121 one to one 143 I love you 411 information 4ever forever 86 over AAF as a friend AAK alive and kicking AAMOF as a matter of fact AAR at any rate AAS alive and smiling AATK always at the keyboard ABT2 about to AFAIK as far as I know AFK away from keyboard AFN that‘s all for now AKA also known as ARE acronym-rich environment ALOL actually laughing out loud AND any day now AOTA all of the above ASAP as soon as possible A/S/L? age. sex.

BBIAF be back in a few BBIAS be back in a sec BBL be back later BBML be back much later BBN bye bye now BBS be back soon BBSL be back sooner or later BCNU I‘ll be seeing you BD big deal BEG big evil grin BF boyfriend BFF best friends forever BFN bye for now BG big grin BIOYN blow it out your nose BKA better known as BL belly laughing BR best regards BRB be right back BRH Be Right Here BRT be right there BTA but then again BTHOOM beats the heck out of me Btw between you and me BTW by the way BWL bursting with laughter BWO black/white/other BWTHDIK but what the heck do I know BYKT but you knew that CB chat brat C&G chuckle & grin CID crying in disgrace CMF count my fingers CNP continued (in my) next post CP chat post CRBT crying real big tears CRTLA can‘t remember the three letter acronym CSG chuckle. snicker. grin CSL can‘t stop laughing CU see you 93 .

CUL or CUL8ER see you later CUNS see you in school CUOL see you online CUZ because CWYL chat with you later CYA see ya CY calm yourself CYL see you later CYO see you online CYT see you tomorrow DBEYR don‘t believe everything you read DEGT don‘t even go there DETI don‘t even think about it DF dear friend DGA don‘t go anywhere DGT don‘t go there DH dear Hubby DHYB don‘t Hold Your Breath DIKU do I know you? DIY do it yourself DKDC don‘t know don‘t care DL dead link DLTBBB don‘t let the bed bugs bite DLTM don‘t lie to me DMI don‘t mention it DNC does not compute DQMOT don‘t quote me on this DUST did you see that DYFM dude you fascinate me DYJHIW don‘t you just hate it when E123 easy as 123 EAK eating at Keyboard EG evil grin EL evil Laugh EM? excuse me? EMA what is your Email address EMFBI excuse me for butting in EOM end of message EOT end of thread EZ easy 94 .

uncertainty. ducking. running. & running GF girlfriend GFN gone for now GGOH got to get out of here GIWIST gee. and doubt FWIW for what it‘s worth FYI for your information GA go ahead GAL get a life GD&R grinning. I wish I‘d said that GL good luck GMBO giggling my butt off GMTA great minds think alike GOL giggling out loud GR&D grinning. still here FITB fill in the blanks FMTYEWTK far more than you ever wanted to know FOAF friend of a friend FOCL falling off chair laughing FOFL falling on floor laughing FOMCL falling off my chair laughing FTBOMH from the bottom of my heart FUBAR fouled up beyond all repairs FUD fear. and ducking GR got to run GRRRR growling GTR got to run GTRM going to read mail GTSY glad to see you H&K hug and kiss HA hello again HAGD have a good day HAGD have a great day HAGN have a good night HB hurry back HHIS hanging head in shame 95 .F2F face to face FAQ frequently asked question(s) FAWC for anyone who cares FC fingers crossed FISH first in.

HTH hope this helps HHO1/2K ha ha only half kidding HHOK ha ha only joking HHOS ha ha only being serious IAC in any case IAE in any event IANAC I am not a crook IANAL I am not a lawyer (but) IB I‘m back IBTD I beg to differ IC I see ICBW I could be wrong ID10T idiot IDGI I don‘t get it IDK I don‘t know IDKY I don‘t know you IDTS I don‘t think so IFAB I found a bug IGTP I get the point IHA I hate acronyms IHAIM I have another instant message IHNO I have no opinion IIRC if I remember correctly IIWM if it were me ILU I love you IM instant message IMHO in my humble opinion IMing chatting with someone online IMNSHO in my not so humble opinion IMO in my opinion IMS I am sorry INMP it‘s not my problem IOH i‘m outta here IOW in other words IPN I‘m posting naked IRL in real life ISS I said so IWALU I will always love you IYKWIMAITYD if you know what I mean and I think you do IYKWIM if you know what I mean 96 .

sex. dude LDR long distance relationship LHM lord help me LHU lord help us LLTA lots and lots of thunderous applause LMIRL let‘s meet in real life LMSO laughing my socks off LOL laughing out loud LSV language. no see LTR long term relationship LTS laughing to self LULAB love you like a brother LULAS love you like a sister 97 . violence LSHMBB laughing so hard my belly is bouncing LSHMBH laughing so hard my belly hurts LTM laugh to myself LTNS long time.IYO in your opinion IYSS if you say so IYSWIM if you see what I mean J/C just checking JAS just a sec JBOD just a bunch of disks JIC just in case JK just kidding JM2C just my two cents JMO just my opinion JT just teasing JTLYK just to let you know JW just wondering K okay KEWL cool KFY kiss for you KIR keep it real KIT keep in touch KOC kiss on cheek KOL kiss on lips KWIM know what I mean? L2M listening to music L8R later LD later.

zip N-E-1 ER anyone here? NE1 anyone N-E-1 anyone NG new game NIMBY not in my back yard NM never mind NOYB not of your business NP nosy parents N/P no problem NRN no reply necessary NTK nice to know NT no thanks NUFF enough said NW no way! OBTW oh by the way OF old fart OIC oh I see OL old lady OLL online love OM old man 98 .LUWAMH love you with all my heart LY love you LYL love you lots M/F male or female M8 mate or mates MA mature audience MHBFY my heart bleeds for you MIHAP may I have your attention please MKOP my kind of place MOOS member of the opposite sex MOSS member of same sex MOTOS member of the opposite sex MSG message MTF more to follow MTFBWY may the force be with you MUSM miss you so much N1 nice one N2M not to mention NADT not a darn thing NAZ name. address.

not again OT off topic OTF off the floor OTH off the hook OTOH on the other hand OTP On the phone OTTOMH off the top of my head OTW on the way P2P peer to peer P911 my parents are coming! PA parent alert PAL parents are listening PANB parents are nearby PANS pretty awesome new stuff PAW parents are watching PDA public display of affection PDS please don‘t shoot Peeps people PIR parent in room PLZ please PM private message PMJI pardon me for jumping in PMFJIB pardon me for jumping in but…. PMP peed my pants PO piss off POAHF put on a happy face POS parent over shoulder POTS plain old telephone service POV point of view PPL people PU that stinks P-ZA pizza QL quit laughing QSL reply QSO conversation QT cutie R&R rest and relaxation R/t real time 99 .OMDB over my dead body OMG oh my god ONNA oh no.

must go SPST same place same time 100 .RBAY right back at ya RBTL read between the lines RL real life RLF real life friend RMLB read my lips baby RMMM read my mail man ROL raffing out loud ROFL rolling on floor laughing ROTFL rolling on the floor laughing RPG role playing games RSN real soon now RTBS reason to be single RTFM read the flipping manual RU are you? RUMORF are you male or female? RUUP4IT are you up for it? RX regards S4L spam for life SCNR sorry. could not resist SED said enough darling SEP somebody‘s else‘s problem SETE smiling ear to ear SF surfer friendly SFETE smiling from ear to ear SFX sound effects SH same here SHCOON shoot hot coffee out of nose SHID slaps head in disgust SITD still in the dark SLIRK smart little rich kid SMAIM send me an instant message SMEM send me an Email SN screen name SNERT snot nosed egotistical rude teenager SO significant other SOHF sense of humor failure SOMY sick of me yet? SOT short of time SOTMG short of time.

STR8 straight STW search the Web STYS speak to you soon SU shut up SUP or WU what‘s up SUYF shut up you fool SWAK sealed with a kiss SWALK sealed with a loving kiss SWDY so what do you think? SWL screaming with laughter SYL see you later SYS see you soon TA thanks again TAFN that‘s all for now TAS taking a shower TAW teachers are watching TCOB taking care of business TCOY take care of yourself TFH thread from hell TFX traffic TGIF thank God it‘s Friday THX thanks TIA thanks in advance TIAIL I think I am in love TIC tongue in cheek TILII tell it like it is TLK2UL8R talk to you later TM trust me TMI too much information TNT ‗till next time TOM tomorrow TOPCA ‗til our paths cross again TOT tons of time TOY thinking of you TPS that‘s pretty stupid TPTB the powers that be TRDMF tears running down my face TTFN ta ta for now TTG time to go TTT thought that too 101 .

TTTT these things take time TTYL talk to you later TU thank you TWHAB this won‘t hurt a bit TWIWI that was interesting wasn‘t it? TYVM thank you very much U-L? you will? UV unpleasant visual UW you‘re welcome VBG very big grin VBS very big smile VEG very evil grin VSF very sad face WAD without a doubt WAI what an idiot WB welcome back or write back WC welcome WC who cares? WDALYIC who died and left you in charge? WDYS what did you say? WDYT what do you think? W/E whatever WEG wicked evil grin WEU what‘s eating you? WFM works for me WIBNI wouldn‘t it be nice if WT? what the or who the WTG way to go WTGP want to go private? WTH what/who the heck WUF where are you from? WWJD what would Jesus do? WWY where were you? WYCM will you call me? WYRN what‘s your real name? WYSIWYG what you see is what you get WYSLPG what you see looks pretty good X-1-10 exciting XME excuse me XOXO hugs and kisses 102 .

sure. sure you do YS you stinker YTTT you telling the truth? YVW you‘re very welcome YWIA you‘re welcome in advance YW you‘re Welcome YYSSW yeah.YAA yet another acronym YBS you‘ll be sorry YDKM you don‘t know me YG young gentleman YGBK you gotta be kiddin‘ YHM you have mail YKW? you know what? YNK you never know YL young lady YM young man YOYO you‘re on your own YR yeah right YSYD yeah. whatever ZZ Sleeping. Tired 103 . Bored. sure. yeah.

............. 28... 20 Internet 2..................... 90 Chat 21 Chat Rooms Abbreviations .......... 92 public and private.......... 14 Email Address changing........................................................................... 65 Blogs definition ....................... 58 anti-virus software ........ 66 104 Employment/Business Opportunities ............................ 8 Charitable Donation Fraud .... 82 Blogger .... 36 Friendster .......................................Index Add-ons.......... 7 Direct Marketing .......................................... 76 Cookies ..................... 76 fraud auction sites ............................. 73 ............................... 49 public information ............. 10 iPOD ................................ 84 Escrow Services Fraud ................................ 67 social networking sites ................................................................ 61 eHarmony ................................................................... 73 Firewall ................................................ 44.. 9 Identity Theft definition ... 62 Fraud ....... 84 Dial-Up Service . 51 Contact Information Privacy ........ 82 Craigslist ........................ 86 IP Addresses .. 38 Auction Fraud ................ 66 monitoring ..................... 47 Profile Settings Privacy ..................................................... 54 Faceook Friend ........................................................ 70 DHL/UPS .............. 7 Facebook .... 15 harvesting...... 59 File sharing ....................... 51 Privacy Settings .................................... 43 Debt Elimination................... 62 Credit Card Fraud .......................... 19 Counterfeit Cashier's Check ... Web ................................ 73 File Sharing .............. 48 Search Results ............. 11 windows settings .................................................. 44 Harvesting ...................................................................... 43 Email Web based ........................................................ 83 Dating Sites............................................................ 33 Downloading ..................... 87 MAC Address Access Control ..................... 15 Email Attachments ... 6 Lotteries ................ 47 Applications and Websites Privacy ................... 30 Employees .................. 35 Email Software ........... 83 DHCP ................. 32 Web Site Requests ......................................... 29........................... 64 Broadband Connections .......................................................................... 14 computer theft ..................... 46 Free Credit Report................. 14..................................................................... 22 Client Based Email ............ 15..... 6 Local Area Network ................ 67 free service ................................................ 67 Instant Messaging ........... 68 Investment Fraud ......... 24 anti-spyware software .................................................................... 25 DSL 8 eBay ........ 79 File Attachments ..............0 ......... 86 Internet Service Provider ...................... 77 LAN ........ 85 Ethernet ........ 41 Giving out .................................... 28 Flash Drives ................... 59 Apple .................................................................................................... 16 Email Lists ...................... 44 Internet Extortion ....... 48 Federal Trade Commission ........................................................ 23.......... 19 administrator account..................................................................... 39 Hyperlinks...............................................

.. 45 web browser ................. 72 Windows Live Spaces ....................... 28........................... 71.... 63 reporting............. 7 WiFi ................................................ 9 User Accounts ...... 38 free email offers ............ 73 Networks.................... 43 MySpace . 81 Shared Files ................................ 25 Smart Phones ............................. 42.......................................... 60..... 30 Windows XP ............. 69 privacy .......Malicious Software ..................... 44 Social networking .......... 88 Spyware ................ 90 traveling ............................... 11....................... 6 Web Browser definition ................... 44 Windows Update .............. 68 Operating System Apple Mac OS X Tiger ............................... 64 Webmail ... 8.. 58 Twitter Privacy Settings ...................... 23 Wireless Equivalent Privacy ......................................................... 89 controlling .......................... 18 Portable Digital Assistants .. 24......... 7 Network Address Translation ....... 88 Plug-ins ..................................................... 14 Wide Area Network .......... 44 105 ......................... 88 Pop-Up ........ 32........................ 43 Yahoo!360 ........ 80 network ...................................... 36 ISP filters ................... 38 Spoofing ............................. 18 Windows Security Center ................................com .............. 46 Spam ....... 76 Reshipping .......... 78 Trojan Horse ... 62 Scams and Fraud ......................... 76 Security Software ..... 26 Phishing ................................... 7 WiFi Protected Access ................................. 17 updates ..................... 33.. 42 social networking sites privacy controls ............................. 21 social networking sites .................... 70 scams Craigslist ....................... 89 router......... 57...... 44 YouTube ............................................... 23.................................. 22 PDA ...................... 58 Third Party Receiver of Funds ... 40 controls......................................... 25 Pyramid.................................. 57 Yahoo! Personals .......... 81 Vista ........... 29 using ... 46 scams ................. 12 National Crime Prevention Council80 National Cyber Security Alliance ................................... 6.......................... 23 Virus ................................................ 59 WAN .............................................................................................. 76 Peer-to-peer networks .............................................................. 21..................... 23 Windows .................................................................................................. 13................................................................................. 72 Worms............................................. 19 Ponzi .......... 35........................... 69 Router Security ...... 76 PPPoE ........................................ 45 NAT ............................................. 28.. 63 SD Digital cards .............................. 33........................................... 12 Network Storage Device .............. 76 social networking ................................... 54 URL .................................... 62 eBay ..................................................................... 17 Web Log definition ............ 61 public information......... 57 Match....... 13. 88 Rental cars ........................ 60 Chat rooms ............................................................................... 26 Router ..........................

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