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$FNQRZOHGJHPHQWV [LLL ,QWURGXFWLRQ  [Y What Is this Book About? ................................................................................... xvi Who Should Read this Book?............................................................................. xvi How to Use this Guide ........................................................................................ xvii Conventions......................................................................................................... xvii

:KDW·V 1HZ LQ 5HOHDVH   [[L Overview............................................................................................................... xxii User Role Templates........................................................................................... xxii Flexible User Menus............................................................................................ xxii Composite Activity Groups............................................................................... xxiv User Groups........................................................................................................ xxiv Central User Administration ............................................................................. xxiv &KDSWHU  5 6\VWHP 6HFXULW\ DQG WKH $XWKRUL]DWLRQ &RQFHSW ² Overview............................................................................................................... 1–2 The Authorization Concept ................................................................................ 1–4 Authorization Object .............................................................................................. 1–5 Authorization Object Fields ................................................................................... 1–6 Authorizations........................................................................................................ 1–6 Authorization Profiles ............................................................................................ 1–7
Naming Convention for Authorization Profiles........................................................ 1–7

User Master Records ............................................................................................ 1–7 Authorization Checks ............................................................................................ 1–8 Activating and Deactivating Authorization Checks in Transactions...................... 1–8 SAP* and DDIC Users ......................................................................................... 1–8 What Is the Profile Generator? .......................................................................... 1–9 Components of the Profile Generator ................................................................. 1–10
Activity Groups...................................................................................................... 1–10 Composite Activity Groups ................................................................................... 1–10 Derived Activity Groups ........................................................................................ 1–10 User Assignment .................................................................................................. 1–10

Generating the Profiles........................................................................................ 1–10 What Is an Activity Group? .............................................................................. 1–12 Activity Group Assignments ................................................................................ 1–12
R/3 login user IDs ............................................................................................... 1–12 Jobs ..................................................................................................................... 1–12 Positions.............................................................................................................. 1–13 Organizational units ........................................................................................... 1–13

What Is a User Role Template? .......................................................................... 1–13

Authorizations Made Easy

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Detailed Table of Contents

R/3 Tools for Security Implementation ........................................................... 1–14 Case Study: Security Strategy in a Three-System Environment ................. 1–15 Development System (DEV) ............................................................................... 1–15 Quality Assurance System (QAS) ....................................................................... 1–17
Training Client System (TRG)............................................................................... 1–17

Production System (PRD) ................................................................................... 1–18 Setting Up the Authorization Administrators ................................................. 1–19 How the Administrators Work Together .............................................................. 1–21 Policies and Procedures................................................................................... 1–21 User Administration ............................................................................................. 1–21
Policies .................................................................................................................. 1–21 Procedures ............................................................................................................1–22 Roles and Responsibilities ....................................................................................1–22

System Security................................................................................................... 1–23
Policies .................................................................................................................. 1–23 Procedures ............................................................................................................1–23 Roles and Responsibilities ....................................................................................1–24

Auditing Requirements ..................................................................................... 1–24 &KDSWHU  $XWKRUL]DWLRQV DQG $6$3 ² Overview ............................................................................................................... 2–2 ASAP Roadmap ................................................................................................... 2–2 Authorizations in the Roadmap Structure ............................................................. 2–4 Knowledge Corner............................................................................................... 2–5 Questions and Answers Database (Q&Adb) .................................................... 2–6 What Is the Q&Adb?.............................................................................................. 2–6 How to Work with the Q&Adb................................................................................ 2–6 How to Generate the Authorization List from the Q&Adb ..................................... 2–6 Authorization List ................................................................................................ 2–6 What Is the Authorization List?.............................................................................. 2–6 How to Work with the Authorization List................................................................ 2–7
Generate Authorization List from the Q&Adb.......................................................... 2–7 Define User Roles ...................................................................................................2–8 Generate User Roles Overview ..............................................................................2–9 Build User Roles .....................................................................................................2–9

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6HWWLQJ 8S WKH 3URILOH *HQHUDWRU ² Overview ............................................................................................................... 3–2 Confirming that the Profile Generator Is Active............................................... 3–2 Checking the Required Instance Profile Parameter.............................................. 3–2 Loading the USOBX_C and USOBT_C tables .................................................. 3–4 Initial Copying of SAP Defaults into the Customer Tables (SU25) ....................... 3–4 Transporting the Defaults ...................................................................................... 3–6 Getting Support from the SAPNet – R/3 Frontend Notes................................ 3–7 Accessing the Error Notes Database .................................................................... 3–7 Printing Important SAPNet – R/3 Frontend Notes ................................................ 3–8 Applying Advance Corrections to Your R/3 System.............................................. 3–8 8VHU $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ ² Overview ............................................................................................................... 4–2 System Users ....................................................................................................... 4–2

&KDSWHU 

vi

Authorizations Made Easy

Detailed Table of Contents

External R/3 Users ................................................................................................ 4–3 Internal R/3 Users ................................................................................................. 4–3
Dialog...................................................................................................................... 4–3 Batch Data Communication.................................................................................... 4–3 Background............................................................................................................. 4–3 CPIC ....................................................................................................................... 4–4

Special R/3 Users.................................................................................................. 4–4
SAP* ....................................................................................................................... 4–4 DDIC ....................................................................................................................... 4–4 EarlyWatch ............................................................................................................. 4–4

Creating Users ...................................................................................................... 4–5 User Groups......................................................................................................... 4–5 Authorizations and Authorization Profiles ....................................................... 4–6 Mass Operations ................................................................................................. 4–6 Creating a New User (Client-Specific)............................................................... 4–7 Changing a User’s Password........................................................................... 4–10 Password Requirements ..................................................................................... 4–11 User Information System.................................................................................. 4–12 &KDSWHU  8VHU 5ROH 7HPSODWHV ² Overview............................................................................................................... 5–2 What Are User Role Templates? ....................................................................... 5–2 User Menu ............................................................................................................ 5–2 How to Work with User Role Templates ........................................................... 5–3 Starting Activity Group Maintenance (PFCG) ....................................................... 5–4 Using the SAP-Provided User Role Templates .................................................... 5–4 Copying and Modifying SAP-Provided User Role Templates............................. 5–10 Create your own User Role Templates............................................................... 5–22 Creating Composite Activity Groups ................................................................... 5–32 Tips for an Administrator ................................................................................. 5–35 Available User Role Templates........................................................................ 5–40 Release 4.6A ....................................................................................................... 5–40 Release 4.6B ....................................................................................................... 5–44 $GYDQFHG 3URILOH *HQHUDWRU )XQFWLRQDOLW\² Overview............................................................................................................... 6–2 Selecting Views/Types in Activity Group Maintenance .................................. 6–2 Exploring Advanced Profile Generator Functionality ..................................... 6–3 Creating and Changing the Hierarchy................................................................... 6–4
Inserting Transactions ............................................................................................ 6–5

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Inserting Internet and Document Links ............................................................... 6–10 Inserting Reports ................................................................................................. 6–12 Displaying the Online Documentation for Activity Group Objects ...................... 6–15 Copying and Deriving Activity Groups ........................................................... 6–16 Basics on Duplicating Activity Groups ................................................................ 6–16 Copying Activity Groups ...................................................................................... 6–17 Deriving Activity Groups ...................................................................................... 6–17 Selecting Workflow Tasks................................................................................ 6–21 What You Should Know About Workflow............................................................ 6–21 Deleting Activity Groups .................................................................................. 6–24

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Detailed Table of Contents

Postmaintaining User Role Templates............................................................ 6–25 Different Settings for the Maintenance View ....................................................... 6–25 Maintaining and Generating the Authorization Profiles................................ 6–26 Displaying an Overview of Generated Profiles .............................................. 6–30 Regenerating Authorization Profiles After Making Changes ....................... 6–32 Using Utilities to Change Generated Authorizations .................................... 6–36 Merging Authorizations........................................................................................ 6–36 Reorganizing Technical Names of Authorizations .............................................. 6–37 Customizing Authorizations............................................................................. 6–38 Assigning IMG Projects or Project Views to Activity Groups .............................. 6–38 &KDSWHU  3UHSDULQJ WKH 5 (QYLURQPHQW IRU *R/LYH ² Overview ............................................................................................................... 7–2 Transports Between Clients............................................................................... 7–2 Transports Between R/3 Systems ..................................................................... 7–3 Transporting Activity Groups ............................................................................ 7–3 Transporting Single Activity Groups Using the Activity Group Maintenance Transaction........................................................................................................ 7–4 Mass Transport of Activity Groups ........................................................................ 7–6 Transporting Check Indicators and Field Values ............................................ 7–8 Transporting Authorization Templates ............................................................. 7–8 Transporting User Master Records ................................................................... 7–8 &KDSWHU  ,QVHUWLQJ 0LVVLQJ $XWKRUL]DWLRQV ² Manually Postmaintaining Authorizations........................................................ 8–2 When to Insert Missing Authorizations?................................................................ 8–2
Case #1: Authorization Is Missing for Related Transactions .................................. 8–2 Case #2: The Generated Profile Does Not Assign Any General Rights to the User ....................................................................................................................8–2 Case #3: Cannot Select Transaction SU53 from the Menu in PFCG .....................8–2

How to Insert Missing Authorizations .................................................................... 8–3 Manually Inserting Authorizations..................................................................... 8–3 Using Selection Criteria ......................................................................................... 8–4 Inserting Manually.................................................................................................. 8–6 Inserting Authorizations from Templates ......................................................... 8–7 Creating a New Template...................................................................................... 8–7 Inserting Authorizations from a Template ........................................................... 8–10 Inserting Authorizations from a Profile........................................................... 8–12 Inserting Full Authorizations: Profile “<YourCompany>” ............................ 8–15 &KDSWHU  $VVLJQLQJ $FWLYLW\ *URXSV² Overview ............................................................................................................... 9–2 Assigning Users to Activity Groups.................................................................. 9–3 Assigning Activity Groups to Users.................................................................. 9–6 Assigning PD Objects to Activity Groups ........................................................ 9–7 Assigning Activity Groups to PD Objects ...................................................... 9–10 Transferring Users from an IMG Project to an Activity Group ..................... 9–13 Updating Profiles in the User Master Records............................................... 9–15

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Comparing User Master Data from Within Transaction PFCG........................... 9–15 Profile Comparisons Using Mass Compare (PFUD)........................................... 9–18 Report PFCG_TIME_DEPENDENCY to Schedule Time Dependency.............. 9–19 Creating a Sample Organizational Plan .......................................................... 9–21 Using the Classic R/3 Transaction ...................................................................... 9–22 Using the Enjoy Transaction ............................................................................... 9–27 Structural Authorizations ................................................................................. 9–28 &KDSWHU  6HWWLQJ 8S WKH $/( (QYLURQPHQW IRU &HQWUDO 8VHU $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ² Overview............................................................................................................. 10–2 Setting Up an ALE User.................................................................................... 10–3 Naming Logical Systems.................................................................................. 10–5 Assigning Logical Systems to Clients............................................................ 10–8 Defining Target System for RFC Calls .......................................................... 10–10 Distribution Model........................................................................................... 10–13 Generating Partner Profiles in the Central System ..................................... 10–16 Distributing Model View ................................................................................. 10–17 Generating Partner Profiles in the Client System........................................ 10–18 6HWWLQJ 8S &HQWUDO 8VHU $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ ² Overview............................................................................................................. 11–2 Assigning the Central User Administration Distribution Model .................. 11–2 Testing Central User Administration .............................................................. 11–3 Migrating Existing Users to the Central System............................................ 11–7 Defining Field Attributes for User Maintenance ............................................ 11–9 Global User Manager ...................................................................................... 11–10 Structure of the Global User Manager .............................................................. 11–12 Using the Global User Manager........................................................................ 11–12
System Landscape with Existing Users ............................................................. 11–12 System Landscape Without Existing Users........................................................ 11–13 User Creation...................................................................................................... 11–14

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Defining System Types and User Groups......................................................... 11–14 Modeling with the Global User Manager........................................................... 11–16 Authorization for the Global User Manager....................................................... 11–17 Distributing Data in the Global User Manager .................................................. 11–18
Immediate Distribution........................................................................................ 11–19 Scheduling Background Distribution................................................................... 11–19

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7LSV DQG 7URXEOHVKRRWLQJ ² Overview............................................................................................................. 12–2 Tracing Authorizations with Transaction SU53 ............................................. 12–2 System Trace Using Transaction ST01........................................................... 12–4 Analyzing a Written Trace File ......................................................................... 12–9 Reducing the Scope of Authorization Checks............................................. 12–12 Overview............................................................................................................ 12–12 Enabling the Profile Generator.......................................................................... 12–12 Enabling/Disabling Other System-wide Checks ............................................... 12–12

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Detailed Table of Contents

Enabling auth/tcodes_not_checked .................................................................... 12–12 Enabling auth/rfc_authority_check......................................................................12–13 Globally Deactivating or Activating Authorization Checks ..................................12–13 Parameter Transactions......................................................................................12–18

Deactivating Authorization Checks Using SU24 ............................................... 12–18 Reducing the Scope of Authorization Checks................................................... 12–19
Maintaining Check Indicators for Transaction Codes ......................................... 12–20 Mass Change of Check Indicators ......................................................................12–28 Maintaining Authorizations in the Activity Groups...............................................12–32

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6$3 6HFXULW\ $XGLW DQG /RJJLQJ  ² Overview ............................................................................................................. 13–2 Audit Tools (SM20, SM19, SECR) .................................................................... 13–2 Security Audit Log (SM20)................................................................................... 13–2
Running the Audit Log........................................................................................... 13–4

Setting Security Audit Log Parameters (SM19) .................................................. 13–5
Defining Filter Group 1 .......................................................................................... 13–7 Defining Filter Group 2 ..........................................................................................13–7

Audit Information System (SECR)..................................................................... 13–11
Complete Audit.................................................................................................... 13–12 User-Defined Audit..............................................................................................13–16

User Security Audit Jobs ................................................................................... 13–18 Audit Tasks (SM21, STAT, ST03) ................................................................... 13–20 Reviewing Validity of Named Users .................................................................. 13–20 Reviewing Profiles for Accuracy and Permission Creep................................... 13–21 System Log (SM21)........................................................................................... 13–22 Statistic Records in CCMS (STAT) ................................................................... 13–24 ST03 – User Profile ........................................................................................... 13–26 Logging of Specific Activities............................................................................. 13–28
Logging Changes to Table Data ......................................................................... 13–28

Logging Changes to User Master Records, Profiles, and Authorizations 13–30 &KDSWHU  8SJUDGH  ² Before Doing Any Upgrade .............................................................................. 14–2 Validation Steps After Upgrading Is Completed ............................................ 14–3 Converting Previously Created SU02 Profiles to Activity Groups............... 14–4 Creating an Activity Group from Manually Maintained Profiles........................... 14–4 Removing User Assignments from the Original SU02 Profile............................. 14–9 Upgrading from a Release Prior to 3.1x to 4.6 A/B ...................................... 14–11 Converting Existing Authorization Profiles for the Profile Generator ................ 14–11 Re-creating the Authorization Profiles from Scratch Using the Profile Generator ...................................................................................................... 14–11 Upgrading from Release 3.0F to 4.6 A/B....................................................... 14–12 Upgrade from Releases 3.1G, 3.1H, 3.1I to 4.6 A/B...................................... 14–14 Upgrade from Releases 4.0x or 4.5x to 4.6 A/B............................................ 14–22 6$31HW ² 5 )URQWHQG 1RWHV  $² Overview ...............................................................................................................A–2 SAPNet – R/3 Frontend Notes ............................................................................A–3

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Authorizations Made Easy

Detailed Table of Contents

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)UHTXHQWO\ $VNHG 4XHVWLRQV %² Overview...............................................................................................................B–2 R/3 Initial Screen (SAP Easy Access Menu) and Favorites ............................B–2 Profile Generator Setup ......................................................................................B–3 Working with the PG and Profiles .....................................................................B–3 Authorization Checks (SU24).............................................................................B–5 Upgrade Procedure (SU25) ................................................................................B–7 Including Transactions or Reports ...................................................................B–7 Missing Authorizations.......................................................................................B–7 User Administration ............................................................................................B–8 Transporting ........................................................................................................B–8 Tables ...................................................................................................................B–8

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,PSRUWDQW 6\VWHP 3URILOH 3DUDPHWHUV &² Incorrect Logons, Default Clients, and Default Start Menu............................C–2 Setting Password Length and Expiration.........................................................C–2 Specifying Impermissible Passwords...............................................................C–3 Securing SAP* Against Misuse..........................................................................C–3 Tracing Authorizations .......................................................................................C–3 Profile Generator and Transaction SU24..........................................................C–4 User Buffer ...........................................................................................................C–4 No Check on Object S_TCODE ..........................................................................C–4 No Check on Certain ABAP Objects .................................................................C–4 RFC Authority Check ..........................................................................................C–5  *² ,²

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Release 4.6A/B

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Detailed Table of Contents

xii

Authorizations Made Easy

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Acknowledgments

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Introduction What Is this Book About?

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Chapter 1: R/3 System Security and the Authorization Concept What Is the Profile Generator? 

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Authorizations Made Easy

Chapter 1: R/3 System Security and the Authorization Concept What Is the Profile Generator?

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Chapter 1: R/3 System Security and the Authorization Concept Auditing Requirements

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Chapter 2: Authorizations and ASAP Overview

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Authorizations Made Easy

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Chapter 6: Advanced Profile Generator Functionality Maintaining and Generating the Authorization Profiles

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Chapter 6: Advanced Profile Generator Functionality Maintaining and Generating the Authorization Profiles

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Chapter 6: Advanced Profile Generator Functionality Displaying an Overview of Generated Profiles

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Chapter 6: Advanced Profile Generator Functionality Displaying an Overview of Generated Profiles 

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Chapter 6: Advanced Profile Generator Functionality Regenerating Authorization Profiles After Making Changes

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Chapter 6: Advanced Profile Generator Functionality Regenerating Authorization Profiles After Making Changes

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Chapter 6: Advanced Profile Generator Functionality Regenerating Authorization Profiles After Making Changes

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Chapter 6: Advanced Profile Generator Functionality Using Utilities to Change Generated Authorizations

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Chapter 10: Setting Up the ALE Environment for Central User Administration Assigning Logical Systems to Clients

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Chapter 10: Setting Up the ALE Environment for Central User Administration Generating Partner Profiles in the Client System 

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Chapter 10: Setting Up the ALE Environment for Central User Administration Generating Partner Profiles in the Client System

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Chapter 11: Setting Up Central User Administration Migrating Existing Users to the Central System

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Authorizations Made Easy

Chapter 11: Setting Up Central User Administration Defining Field Attributes for User Maintenance

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Chapter 11: Setting Up Central User Administration Global User Manager

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Chapter 11: Setting Up Central User Administration Global User Manager

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Release 4.6A/B

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Chapter 11: Setting Up Central User Administration Global User Manager

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Chapter 11: Setting Up Central User Administration Global User Manager 

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Chapter 11: Setting Up Central User Administration Global User Manager

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Authorizations Made Easy

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Chapter 11: Setting Up Central User Administration Global User Manager 

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Chapter 12: Tips and Troubleshooting Overview

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Authorizations Made Easy

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Chapter 12: Tips and Troubleshooting System Trace Using Transaction ST01

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Chapter 12: Tips and Troubleshooting Reducing the Scope of Authorization Checks 

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Authorizations Made Easy

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Chapter 12: Tips and Troubleshooting Reducing the Scope of Authorization Checks

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Authorizations Made Easy

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Chapter 12: Tips and Troubleshooting Reducing the Scope of Authorization Checks 

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Authorizations Made Easy

Chapter 12: Tips and Troubleshooting Reducing the Scope of Authorization Checks 

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Chapter 12: Tips and Troubleshooting Reducing the Scope of Authorization Checks 

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Authorizations Made Easy

Chapter 12: Tips and Troubleshooting Reducing the Scope of Authorization Checks

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Chapter 12: Tips and Troubleshooting Reducing the Scope of Authorization Checks

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Chapter 12: Tips and Troubleshooting Reducing the Scope of Authorization Checks 

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Overview ................................................................................................................. B–2 R/3 Initial Screen (SAP Easy Access Menu) and Favorites ............................... B–2 Profile Generator Setup......................................................................................... B–3 Working with the PG and Profiles ........................................................................ B–3 Authorization Checks (SU24)................................................................................ B–5 Upgrade Procedure (SU25) ................................................................................... B–7 Including Transactions or Reports ...................................................................... B–7 Missing Authorizations ......................................................................................... B–7 User Administration............................................................................................... B–8 Transporting ........................................................................................................... B–8 Tables...................................................................................................................... B–8

B–1

Appendix B: Frequently Asked Questions Overview

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B–2

Authorizations Made Easy

Appendix B: Frequently Asked Questions Profile Generator Setup

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Release 4.6A/B

B–3

Appendix B: Frequently Asked Questions Working with the PG and Profiles

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B–4

Authorizations Made Easy

Appendix B: Frequently Asked Questions Authorization Checks (SU24)

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Release 4.6A/B

B–5

Appendix B: Frequently Asked Questions Authorization Checks (SU24)

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B–6

Authorizations Made Easy

Appendix B: Frequently Asked Questions Upgrade Procedure (SU25)

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Release 4.6A/B

B–7

Appendix B: Frequently Asked Questions User Administration

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C–1

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Appendix C: Important System Profile Parameters Specifying Impermissible Passwords

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Appendix C: Important System Profile Parameters Profile Generator and Transaction SU24

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Appendix C: Important System Profile Parameters RFC Authority Check

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Appendix C: Important System Profile Parameters RFC Authority Check

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