PROJECT EASE

Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 1 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

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Plant Production First Year Module 1 Starting a Garden in a Smarter Way

What this module is about
Good day! Are you ready to start your day in a more productive way? If yes, good! If not, think twice. I am sure you would like to contribute something good to your family. You may be thinking how? Well, you could grow vegetables in your backyard. This way, you can contribute to the food needs of your family in your own little way. Vegetable gardening is not an easy task. It needs proper care to produce good yield. Have you ever thought why some farmers produce good quality vegetables in their farm? Were you able to see healthy growing pechay, mustard, kangkong, upo, patola, and cucumber in your local market? What have you noticed in their physical appearance compared to your own harvest in school? You want to find out their secrets? Prepare yourself because this module will help you find out the secrets of producing good quality vegetables.

What to learn from this module
This module will teach you how to start producing your own vegetable garden. Specifically, this will enable you to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. explain the value of using good seeds; discuss the proper selection of seeds; describe how seeds are stored for future use; differentiate the methods of testing seeds; compute percentage of germination of seeds.

How to learn from this module
1. Read the title first. Do you have in mind what the title means to you? Are you excited to scan the pages of this module and start learning?

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2. After reading the introduction, go through the expected skills you are to learn from this module. Always refer to these objectives as you read and perform tasks in the different learning activities in this module. This way, you can check if you’re following the right tract to attain the objectives of this module. 3. Next, work on the Pretest. Do your best to accomplish what is asked of you. Do not worry about getting a low score. Just go on and do your best. 4. After working on the Pretest, accomplish all the activities in this module to check how well you fared. 5. Finally, answer the posttest to check if you really comprehend what you read. Check if your answers are correct in the answer key provided at the end of this module. Certainly, you are expected to score higher than the pretest. PRETEST Write the letter of the correct answer in your notebook. 1. Why is the use of immature fruits not advisable as seed material? a. Immature seeds are weak. b. Its embryo rots easily. c. Its embryo has not fully developed. d. Seeds are infected with diseases. 2. The following are good reasons in using good seeds when planting crops, except one. a. Higher yield b. Resistance to diseases c. High percentage germination d. Aromatic when ripe or about to be harvested 3. When seeds are sown in the seedbox and it germinates, it is described as a. Maturity b. True to type c. Damage-free d. Viability 4. The following are reliable suppliers of seeds, except a. Bureau of Plant Industry b. Department of Agriculture c. Ambulant vendors d. Commercial seed distributors 5. Which of the following materials is not a good desiccant for seed storing? a. Dry ash b. Dry charcoal c. Toasted white rice

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d. River sand 6. It is not advisable to allow the seeds to come in contact with the soil when drying because a. contamination will be high b. germination rate will be affected c. moisture content will rise d. embryo will die 7. A method of seed testing wherein a moist tissue paper and a plate is used. a. plate b. dish c. ragdoll d. seedbox 8. The ragdoll method is done through the use of a. a filter paper and a dish b. a cheesecloth and a stick c. soil and a seedbox d. a tin can and water 9. Alex sow 75 seeds of okra on a seedbox. After two days, 70 seeds have sprouted. What is the percentage germination of the seeds sown? a. 91% b. 92% c. 93% d. 94% 10. Which of the following seeds is advisable to store after testing? a. Seeds which were tested once and got an above 50 % seed germination. b. Seeds which were tested twice and resulted a seed germination rate of above average 50%. c. Seeds which were tested once and got a seed germination rate below 50%. d. Seeds which were tested twice and resulted a germination rate of below 50 %.

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Lesson 1 The Value of Using Good Seeds
You learned in your elementary agriculture that plants can reproduce through seeds. Seed is a baby plant or embryo inside a protective covering called testa or seed coat. The embryo is usually the product of the fertilization of the egg cell by one of the two male nuclei from a pollen tube. The seed coat originates from the mother plant. The young plant inside the seed is very delicate. If we are going to compare healthy plants to healthy babies, usually healthy babies become healthy children and adults and become productive. Likewise, healthy seeds grow healthy, produce quality yield and benefit growers. If you use seeds which are not of good quality, you will only be creating problems because these seeds are sometimes immature, contaminated, and worse, the embryo is dead. Activity 1 Analyze the situation below, then answer the questions that follow. Kenneth is a first year student. He has a project in vegetable production. He bought a pack of pechay seeds from an ambulant vendor who sells ornamental plants and fertilizers. When he sowed the pechay seeds in a seedbox, he was surprised that only few of the seeds germinated. Questions: 1. What do you think are the reasons why only few seeds germinated? 2. If you’re in that situation, are you going to buy seeds from anyone who approached you? Why? 3. Could you still plant the seeds that germinated. Justify your answer. You might be wondering why it is not advisable to buy seeds from an unreliable source. Seeds that are sold by ambulant vendors are not registered and certified. These seeds are prone to contamination and adverse environmental condition that can kill the embryo inside the seed. To assure you of good quality seed materials, you must look for a reliable source. Here are some tips when finding good seeds. 1. Buy seeds from a reliable source. There are government agencies specializing in seed certification and distribution. These are the Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, and Agricultural Colleges and Universities as well as commercial seed distributors importing hybrid seeds from other countries. 2. Look carefully on the physical appearance of the seeds. Find if there are blemishes or stains in the seed coat, molds and holes caused by insects or egg of insects. These seeds might introduce a new pest or disease and are, therefore, unfit for planting. Clean the seeds and remove diseased or infected one.

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3. Determine the vigor of the seeds. Observe its speed and uniformity of germination. You can soak the seeds in water. Those that float are weak. Weak seeds do not survive when used as planting materials. 4. Make sure that seeds are the right one. Read the label as stated. This can help you in determining the characteristics of the seed. 5. Select those without contaminants such as dirt, stones, and leaves. These foreign materials can lower seed quality. 6. Do not use seeds with foul odor, watery and shiny. These are dead, contaminated or low in percentage of germination Self-check: Check (✔), if the statement explains the value of using good seeds and (✘), if it is not. _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. _____5. Money spent in buying seed materials are wasted. Buy seeds anywhere. Seed materials used must be free from weed seeds. Less problem in maintenance since quality seeds start healthy. Determine the physical appearance of seeds.

Lesson 2 Proper Selection of Seeds
Now that you have already learned the value of using good seeds it is best to know how to properly select good seed materials for planting or storing purposes. This is a difficult task especially if your farm or project area is far from available supply of good seeds. Activity 2 Read the situations below and find out how proper selection of seeds is done. A. Eager Robert Robert is new in vegetable production. He is eager to start his new project since he has an area to use and he has available imported seeds given by his uncle. • Do you think he will succeed in his project? Why?

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B. Saver Rosa Rosa wants to start a vegetable garden. She wanted to save money in buying seed materials. She thought that the money saved from buying seeds will be used for fertilizers instead. To save more money every planting season, she planned of growing some vegetables on her farm for seed purposes. • Do you think it is a sound idea? Can you cite some of its advantages?

C. Wiser Alex Alex wants to start his farm project but instead of buying seed materials from those who sells quality one, he plans to buy seeds from the local market where seeds are intended for food preparation. He plans to buy one kilogram of bean seeds which costs less than those in the Bureau of Plant Industry. • • Is the source of his seed materials good or not? What will happen to the seeds that he bought if planted on his farm?

Note that in the three situations, you do not have to be in a hurry to start a project without considering the most important factor. That is finding good seed materials. To guide you in finding quality seeds, here are some factors to consider: 1. Viability - This is the capability of the seeds to germinate when sown in seedbed or seedbox. Seedlings should appear to be strong and healthy. 2. Maturity - Matured seeds taken from matured fruits will assure you that embryo in seeds are fully developed. Over matured seeds are not advisable because it might be infected with pests and diseases. On the other hand, seeds that are immature will not produce good seedlings and usually do not germinate. 3. Seed storage - There are seeds whose viability and rate of germination decrease after storing for a long time. This is due to some factors such as seed type, quality and storage conditions and length of time. 4. True to type - Seeds acquired or bought should be free from other type of seed plants. 5. Free from seed-borne diseases- Check if the seeds have blemishes or stains where insect eggs, fungus or bacteria thrives. 6. Damage free -Seeds that are cracked and deformed should not be used.

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7. Free from foreign materials or weed seeds - Seeds to be used must be clean or free any type of contaminants such as dirt, stones, leaves, weed seeds and others. These are low quality seeds. If you wish to grow vegetables for seed purposes, you may do so. This will help you save money at the same time choose the type of vegetable to plant. If you are not yet accustomed to identifying maturity in plants, here are some tips to determine if seeds are mature. a. The fruit of squash, watermelon, and melon has a hollow sound when knocked. b. The color of tomatoes and pepper changes from green to red; from violet to yellow in eggplant. b. Shattering of pods in legumes. c. Fruit is disconnected from the branch as in squash, watermelon and melon. d. Number of days of plant growth depending upon your familiarity of the type of plants grown. There are also seeds which you can buy from commercial seed distributors which are called hybrid. Hybrid seeds are product of cross and pollinating plants with outstanding characteristics. Characteristics such as resistant to pests and diseases, quality of fruits and others. These are more expensive considering its type and source, than the seeds distributed by different government agencies. Self-check: Match the factors to consider in finding quality seeds in Column A to their descriptions in Column B. Write the letter of the correct answer in your notebook. A 1. Maturity 2. Damage free 3. Seed storage 4. Viability 5. True type B a. The capacity of the seeds to germinate. b. Matured seeds taken from matures fruits lead to fully developed embryo. c. Seeds acquired or brought should be free from other type of seed plants. d. Seeds that are cracked should not be used. e. Seeds viability decrease after soaking for a long time.

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Lesson 3 Storing Seeds for Future Use
Cost of seed materials is one of the areas of expense in plant production. To save money intended for seed materials, you should learn to grow plants with outstanding characteristics and have the seeds as your planting materials for the next cropping season. In this manner, you will be able to increase your income due to your savings. Moreover, if the quality of the seeds taken from your garden is good and outstanding, you can store it for future use. Seed Extraction and Cleaning If you are interested in gathering matured seeds from your vegetable farm, it is important to know the condition of the fruit and seeds that will be harvested. This way, you will be able to collect seeds from the garden to be used as planting materials for your next cropping season or store it for future use. 1. Seeds coming from wet and fleshy fruit. The seeds are attached firmly to the flesh. You can use a knife or hand to extract them, then they are subject to fermentation or soaked in water for two days. Seeds that float are thrown and those that are sunken are washed and dried. Example: Melon and Papaya. 2. Dry seeds. These are obtained or extracted from dried fruit or pod. Put the seeds inside a sack or net bag and pound them. Pounding inside a sack or a net bag will prevent the seeds from shattering or scattering outside. Do not harvest these seeds if it is raining or early morning when there is still dew. Example: Pechay and Cabbage. 3. Dry seeds from fleshy fruit. You can dry the fruit first before extracting the seeds. Example: Hot pepper. Activity 3 Classify the seeds of the vegetable plants below using the given table. Do this activity in your notebook. eggplant cabbage tomato pigeon pea hot pepper peas cowpea onion okra cucumber squash ampalaya Dry seeds flesh fruits pole sitao mungo hyacinth bean

Wet seeds from Flesh fruit

Dried seeds from

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Here are pointers to remember when drying seeds: 1. Do not allow the seeds to come in contact with the soil when drying. Microorganisms present in the soil will lower the quality of the seeds. 2. Use sack, winnowing basket or mat when drying. These materials allow air to pass through, giving fast and even drying of seeds. 3. Do not dry seeds rapidly under the heat of the sun. Air dry the seeds first in a shady area for one to two days before sun-drying. Dry only the seeds under the sun before 11:00 am and after 2:00 pm when the heat of the sun is not so intense because this condition can kill the embryo inside the seed. 4. Spread the seeds thinly and turn them occasionally at least four to five times a day to make drying fast and even. 5. Cover the seeds when it rains or before the night sets in and take them indoors to prevent their moisture content from increasing. Storing Seeds After extracting and drying the seeds, you may plant some of your seeds or you may store them for future use. In storing seeds for the next cropping season, you may choose any of the following procedures. A. Storing Using Desiccants Here are the steps in storing seeds using desiccants: 1. Prepare a container (bottle, tin can) with a tight cover. 2. Place a desiccant (dry charcoal, dry ash toasted white rice or lime) at the bottom of the container. 3. Place a cardboard after the desiccant material. Remember to punch holes on it. 4. Place the seed on top of the cardboard or put them inside a paper envelop and label them. 5. Replace the desiccant each time you open it. B. Temperature Storing 1. Place seeds inside a bottle or a sealed jar. 2. Place the jar or bottle in a low or cold temperature (not freezing) of your refrigerator. If refrigerator or air-conditioning equipment is absent, you may choose a cold place (near the river, under trees, underground, inside a clay jar). 3. Be sure seeds will not get wet. Remember that life of seeds doubles when the moisture content is lowered by 1% or when the storage temperature is lowered by 5%. Example: If the storage life of a seed with 14% moisture content is two years, its storage life can be prolonged to four years if the moisture content of the seed is lowered to 13%.

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If the expected life of the seed is three years in a storage room with a temperature of 15ºC, its life can be prolonged to six years if the storage , temperature is lowered to 10ºC. If both the moisture content of the seed and storage temperature are lowered, the increase in the life of the seed is greater. Now, try to work on the activity below. Check if you fully understand what you just read. Activity 4 Choose the right materials to use in storing seeds. Place a check on the blank space before each material if you think it is needed. Use your notebook. _____ Bottle _____Kettle _____ Sand _____ Metal Cover _____ Charcoal Self-check: A. Place a ✔ if the statement is referring to the ways of storing seeds for future use and ✘, if it is not. _______ 1. Do not allow the seeds to come in contact with soil when drying. _______ 2. Use a kitchen fork to extract seeds that are attached firmly to the flesh. _______ 3. Dry seedbox before storing. _______ 4. Use sack or mat when drying. _______ 5. Cover the seeds when it rains or before the night sets in. B. Arrange the steps below in storing seeds. Write 1 in the box of the procedure that should go first, 2 for the second, and so on. 1. Replace desiccant each time the container is opened. 2. Place a cardboard with holes after the charcoal. 3. Label the seeds with its name, date of harvest, date stored, date of germination and the percentage of germination. 4. Get a bottle with tightly metal closed cover. 5. Place a dry charcoal at the bottom of the bottle. 6. Place the seeds inside a sachet and put it inside then seal it. Did you get all the answers correct? Very good! You may now move on to the next lesson. _____Dye _____Seeds _____Cardboard _____Paper _____Chalk _____Tissue _____Cotton _____Label

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Lesson 4 Methods of Testing Seeds
Now, that you already know how to store seeds, it is important that you should also learn to test the viability of the seeds before storing it. In this way, you will have the idea that seeds acquired are of good quality. Perform the activities below to know the different methods of testing seeds. Activity 5 Dish Method a. Prepare 50 bean seeds and a seedbox. b. Sow the seeds in a shallow furrow of the seedbox. Water them. c. Bring the seedbox to an area in the school nursery. d. Visit the seedbox the following day. Answer the following questions based on your observations: 1. What happened to the seeds in the seedbox? 2. How many seeds have sprouted? 3. How many did not ? Activity 6 Plate Method a. Collect 30 mungo seeds. b. Prepare a plate and a tissue paper. c. Moisten the tissue on the plate and arrange the seed on it. Cover it with another moist tissue. d. Observe what will happen to the seeds the next day. Answer these questions: 1. What happened to the seeds on the plate ? 2. Do you think the method used is applicable to seed testing? Why? Activity 7 Ragdoll Method a. Prepare a cheesecloth, stick and 100 seeds of radish. b. Arrange the seeds on a damp cheesecloth. c. Roll the cheesecloth on a stick and water it. d. Place it in the nursery where sunlight is not present. Water it everyday but do not flood it. e. Open it after two days.

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Questions: 1. What happened to the radish seeds? 2. How many seeds germinated? 3. How many did not? Self-check: Differentiate ragdoll method from plate method.

Lesson 5 Percentage of Germination
Now, that you have germinated seeds using the methods discussed from the previous lesson, you may now compute the percentage of germination. In obtaining percentage of germination, you will be able to determine whether the seeds acquired or bought are of good quality or not. Percentage of germination is computed using the given formula: number of normal seedlings % germination =_______________________________ total number of seeds sown/germinated To understand this better, perform the activity below. Activity 8 The class of Mr. Danilo Baino harvested matured eggplant fruits to be used as seed materials for the next cropping season. The seeds were tested first before storing. Using the ragdoll method, the class sow 150 seeds. After three days, 122 seeds germinated. 1. What is the percentage germination of the seeds sown? 2. Considering the number of seeds that germinated, are the seeds good for storing? 3. Why? The more seeds tested for percentage germination, the more accurate the percentage germination will be. If possible, replicate testing and use 50 or more seeds. Do not store or plant seeds if their percentage germination is lower than 50%. These seeds will usually produce weak seedlings and will deteriorate rapidly, if stored. × 100

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Self-check: Analyze the situation below then compute the percentage of germination of seeds used. Mang Elias germinated 190 seeds of radish using the ragdoll method. After three days, he saw 150 seeds germinated. What is the percentage germination of the seeds?

LET’S SUMMARIZE The value of using good seeds produce quality yield and benefit growers. Factors to consider in selecting good seeds are as follows: viability, maturity, seed storage, true type, free from seed-borne-disease, damage free, free from foreign materials or weed seeds. Seeds with high moisture content are more susceptible to physical damage during processing. Percentage of germination is computed using this formula: number of normal seedlings % germination =_______________________________ total number of seeds sown / germinated × 100

POSTTEST Choose the correct answer by encircling the letter. 1. Embryo or young plant inside the seed are not fully developed in a. evergreen fruits b. immature fruits c. mature fruits d. over matured fruits 2. It is highly recommended to use good seeds when planting crop in order to produce a. lower yield b. unsatisfactory yield c. satisfactory yield d. higher yield 3. Viability means the ability of the seeds to a. germinate b. make food c. absorb water d. respond to light

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4. It is best to buy seeds from government agencies because they are a. good promoter b. business oriented c. reliable source d. financed by big time suppliers 5. Dry ash and charcoal are good desiccant materials for seed storing because they can a. promote growth b. absorb moisture c. eliminate diseases d. repel insects 6. Contamination is high when seeds dried come in contact with a. cloth b. soil c. dew d. heat 7. Dish method of testing seed viability is done through the use of a. soil and a seedbox b. cheesecloth and a stick c. plate and a tissue paper d. soil and recycled materials 8. Using cheesecloth, stick and water is a method of seed testing called a. plate b. dish c. ragdoll d. seedbox 9. Danilo sowed 150 seeds of radish in a seedbed. After three days he saw 120 seeds germinated. What is the percentage germination of the radish seeds? a. 60% b. 70% c. 80% d. 90% 10. What is the percentage germination rate of seeds good for storing? a. Those that were tested twice with 40% germination rate. b. Those that were tested once with 60% germination rate. c. Those that were tested twice with 60% germination rate. d. Those that were tested once with 70% germination rate.

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ANSWER KEY Pretest 1. c 2. d 3. d 4. c 5. d 6. a 7. a 8. b 9. c 10. b Lesson 1: Activity 1 1. Seeds bought came from an unreliable source. 2. No, because money spent in buying seeds will be wasted. 3. No, plants will not grow healthy. Lesson 1: Self-check 1. ✘ 2. ✘ 3. ✔ 4. ✔ 5. ✔ Lesson 2: Activity 2 A. 1. No 2. Because the seeds might not fit with the climatic condition of the country. B. 1. Yes 2. She can save money intended for buying seeds. C. 1. No 2. There is a great possibility that seeds will not germinate because it was exposed to severe environmental condition. Lesson 2: Self-check 1. b 2. d 3. e 4. a 5. c

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Lesson 3: Activity 3 Wet seeds from fleshy fruit eggplant cucumber tomato ampalaya squash Dry seeds cabbage peas cow pea hyacinth bean pole sitao pigeon pea mungo onion Dried seeds from fleshy fruits hot pepper okra

Lesson 3: Activity 4 1. charcoal 2. seeds 3. cardboard 4. label 5. metal cover 6. bottle

Lesson 3: Self -check A. 1. ✔ 2. ✘ 3. ✘ 4. ✔ 5. ✔ B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 6 3 5 1 2 4

Lesson 4: Self check: In ragdoll method, seeds are placed on a moist rag rolled over a stick. It is submerged to a pail of water and allowed to sprout in a cool place. Plate method, on the other hand, a moist tissue is placed on a plate and seeds are allowed to sprout on it. Lesson 5: Activity 8 1. 81% 2. Yes

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3. Because the percentage of germination reached the above 50% requirement. Lesson 5: Self -check: 1. 78.94% or 79% Posttest 1. b 2. 3. 4. 5. d a c b 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. b a c c c

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PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 2 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Plant Production First Year Module 2 Happy, Joyful, Growing Soil
What this module is about
Hello, dear student! Did you enjoy reading module 1? Do you want to find out what is the next important step in crop production? Of course, you should know how soil is thoroughly prepared so plants will grow abundantly. Like the human body, soil needs proper nourishment so planted crops will grow fast, healthy, and productive. Now, look at your backyard. Do you have vacant spaces for planting vegetables? Is your soil healthy or unhealthy? Are there weeds or trees growing? Is it really an ideal place for plants to grow? Soil has minerals and nutrients for plants to absorb. Hence, it should be free from weeds to grow healthy. These soil nutrients are only available to plants if the soil is porous enough and plant roots could deeply reach it. Now, are you ready to prepare your soil for your favorite crops to grow? So, what are you waiting for? Continue reading this module.

What to learn from this module
After studying this lesson, you should be able to: 1. explain the importance of soil preparation; 2. discuss the proper methods of preparing the soil for planting; 3. relate each method of soil preparation appropriate for a particular crop and season; and 4. prepare soil for planting using appropriate farm tools and equipment. PRETEST Choose only the letter of the correct answer. 1. One of the advantages of land preparation is to a. test the soil b. promote good harvest c. have a fruitful planting d. promote good soil condition

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2. If the growth of disease causing organisms is not controlled this will a. provide aeration of the soil b. help the plants to grow healthy c. serves as a fertilizer to the plants d. create a problem to crops most of the time 3. When the water moves downward to the soil, this promotes development of a. fruits b. new shoots c. plants to grow d. roots in plant deeper 4. When the land is harrowed thoroughly, it could also destroy a. weeds b. soil nutrients c. microorganisms d. insect pests 5. After putting is a. b. c. d. fertilizer in the soil and levelling it, the next method of preparing the soil harrowing watering putting markers measuring seedbed

6. Primary tillage or plowing is done by a. digging the soil manually b. using a shovel to dig the soil c. using a power tiller hitched to cow or carabao d. using a spading fork to till the soil 7. A tool used for clearing or removing weeds is a. ax b. fork c. knife d. hoe 8. A tool which is used for tilling thick soil is a. grab hoe b. trowel c. shovel d. rake 9. A tractor is an example of equipment required in a. chemical technology b. mechanical power technology

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c. animal-draft technology d. manual technology 10. To plant vegetable fruit for a particular season like sweet pepper, one should follow these steps, except one. a. Select a well-drained clay wet soil. b. Plow and harrow the land area. c. Know the medicinal value of the plant. d. Water the seedbed thoroughly.

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Lesson 1 Importance of Soil Preparation
Were you able to experience planting root crops such as sweet potato, cassava, ube, carrots, or radish wherein its storage roots were not fully developed as expected? Have you seen leafy vegetables such as pechay and mustard whose leaf petioles turn violet and became stunted? What about the eggplants and pepper whose fruits were too small compared to those you have seen in your local market? Do you know the causes why it happened? Surely, it is because of poor soil preparation. Remember that soil is an important medium in crop production because mineral elements are deposited into the soil and absorbed by plant roots. These elements are called soil nutrients. These nutrients are absorbed by the roots and transported to the different parts of the plant to develop flowers, fresh leaves, new shoots and fruits. It is therefore advisable to prepare the soil thoroughly, so that plants could maximize its use.

A Activity 1 B Answer these questions: 1. Which of the following plants reached the depth of 3 m beneath the soil surface? 2. Which of the illustrated plants has the ability to penetrate only a shallow part of the soil? 3. Which plant needs more thorough and deep land preparation? Why? Why is it important to prepare the land thoroughly before planting? 1. To promote good soil condition. Soil must be tilled to a depth of about 10 to 12 inches if planting vegetable and ornamental plants. Before working the soil, spread organic materials such as compost or manure one to four inches thick. This will improve the condition of the soil that is beneficial to plants. Remember to work on the soil when it is not too wet nor too dry. How do you do this? Pick up a clump of soil and roll it into a ball. If the ball is sticky, it is too wet to work. Wait a few days until it dries out a bit more. If the soil is too fine or dry to roll into a ball, water the area evenly and wait a day or two. If your garden area has never been worked before, remove all humps, rocks, and weeds either mechanically or manually.

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2. To control the growth of weeds. When soil is being tilled, weeds growing in the area are disturbed. Their roots are exposed to sunlight and may die. If deep tillage is done, there will be a significant reduction in the growth of weeds. 3. To control the growth of disease causing organisms present in the soil. Nematodes and other microorganisms present in the soil are exposed to adverse climatic condition when soil is plowed. These microorganisms create a problem to crops most of the time if not controlled. By working thoroughly the soil, it will prevent the attack of disease causing organisms to plants in a natural way 4. To improve the water holding capacity. A well-prepared soil prior to planting has its great advantage. Aside from the fact that it is easy to work on soil, surface may be well-drained yet able to retain moisture as it is needed. This becomes very productive. 5. To promote soil aeration. Plant roots need oxygen underneath. When soil is wellprepared, this promotes soil aeration. This is very evident when plants are cultivated in the garden. After the practice, plants respond by forming new shoots, a result of oxygen passing through the particles of the soil where the roots of the plants are benefited. 6. To take advantage of the soil nutrients present in the soil. Soil nutrients under subsurface should be absorbed by the plant roots. This is especially true to those plants which are deeply rooted, like tomatoes, pepper, okra, trees, shrubs and others. When soil is not properly tilled, only a particular portion of the soil surface is useful to plants thereby nutrients present underneath become useless. 7. To allow water to move downward. If soil is loose because of thorough preparation water could easily pass through it. This promotes the development of roots in plant deeper, taking advantage of the soil nutrients present. Self check: Choose the letter of the correct answer. l. Soil must be tilled thoroughly before planting in order to a. block the entrance of oxygen to the soil b. increase the growth of weeds c. allow soil to become clayey d. improve soil condition 2. Nematodes and microorganisms present in the soil are killed when a. applied with fungicides b. water is plenty in the garden c. garden is planted with munggo d. exposed to adverse soil condition when soil is plowed 3. A well-prepared soil prior to planting has the capacity to a. retain moisture b. save more nutrients

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c. allow soil to become compact d. help insect pests harbor the area 4. A garden site that is well-prepared will promote soil aeration, meaning a. cultivation becomes easy b. potassium becomes abundant c. oxygen passes through the soil d. nitrogen evaporates from the soil 5. A well-tilled soil will allow water to easily pass through underneath, this is advantageous to a. vegetable plants b. deeply rooted plants c. flowering plants d. climbing plants

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Lesson 2 Proper Method of Preparing the Soil for Planting
Suppose you are given an area to prepare for crop production, what are the things you should do to gain a successful project later on. Are you aware of it? Here are some questions which will guide you in starting the project. 1. What kind of soil do you have? Is it wet or dry? 2. What type of crops do you want to plant? 3. Is it appropriate to the soil condition that you have? This lesson will help you answer the questions above. Lowland or low soil needs to be well-prepared. This means that the soil surface is weed-free, porous, and levelled to make planting easier. Proper soil preparation serves to level the field for uniform distribution of irrigation water, fertilizer, and pesticides. It also prevents or minimizes water to overflow from the land area. Land or soil preparation may be divided into two stages: 1. Primary tillage or plowing - this is the process of breaking up the soil. It can be accomplished by using a power tiller or moldboard plow hitched to a carabao or in some areas, they use cow as substitute. 2. Harrowing - the easiest way to harrow a field is leaving just enough water in the field to expose the high and low spots. But in some areas, it uses a native spike-toothed wooden harrow commonly drawn by an animal like plowing. This farm implement is good for bringing clods of soil to the surface and is effective in breaking soil into smaller bits. It could also destroy weeds at the same time. However, if you are planning to start a garden in your school or backyard, here are simple ways to follow on how to prepare the soil before planting. 1. Remove all the unimportant things that can stop the growth of your crops or plants. This might be tree branches that can hinder sunlight, humps, and rocks.

2. Measure and place 4 markers to have a bed soil for planting. 3. Tie the 4 markers together to encircle the bed or area for planting. 4. Using a grab hoe or a fork tip hoe, dig or till the soil properly. Pulverized it by using a fork.

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5. Place fertilizer on top of the soil. If it is compost, incorporate it well through harrowing or pulverizing. 6. Use a rake in levelling the soil. Water the prepared bed soil.

7. Repeat the same procedure if the area is big enough for other crops to be planted. Remember that the number of your prepared bed soil depends on the wideness of the space you have for planting. A one foot distance between beds is enough for you to move freely and comfortably while working in your area. See to it that there is right water canal around each bed soil for it helps the plants grow fast and healthy. Self-check: Arrange the steps below in preparing the soil for planting in proper order. Use numbers 1-5. _______ 1. Put 4 markers to form a bed soil. _______ 2. Level the soil and water it. _______ 3. Place organic fertilizers on the soil. _______ 4. Remove unimportant materials in the planting area. _______ 5. Dig or till the soil properly.

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Lesson 3 Tools and Equipment Used in Preparing the Soil
Some garden tools were already mentioned in lesson 2. In this lesson other tools and equipment used in preparing the land will be fully discussed. This will guide you on what tools are appropriate to use in soil preparation. Remember that it would be best and convenient to plant if you use the right tool. Sometimes, farm tools are easily worn out because they have been used inappropriately by users. If the needed tools are not available, you can use substitutes if you are resourceful by converting recycled materials for the purpose. For example, an old spoon or ladle can substitute the hand trowel. Just flatten it with a hammer and presto! It will serve the purpose. If you are blessed enough with complete tools and equipment in farming, be sure to protect it so that it will last long. In developing countries like ours, traditionally, planting is done by using animal-drawn system wherein a plow or harrow is attached to a carabao in working the area. This is only ideal to small farmers where labor is cheap. However, as time passes, system of land technology is improved too. There are modern machines that can be used to produce good quality products. With the modern farm machines, planting becomes easy however, this does not replace the manual technique of planting. Here are some of the common tools and equipment used in preparing the soil. A. Hand tools - These are different tools used for clearing and tilling the soil. 1. Knives - These are available in different designs, weights and sizes. Heavy knives are used for clearing, removing or cutting succulent weeds. Curved knives are used for cutting grasses. 2. Grab hoe - This is used for tilling thick soil. 3. Fork tip hoe - This is used for rocky and hard soil. 4. Spading fork - This is used for a desired deep tilling of the soil. 5. Trowel - This is used for transferring seedlings, loosening the soil and planting trees. 6. Ax - This is used for cutting big branches of trees. 7. Shovel - This is used for digging canal along bed soil and clearing grasses too. B. Animal - Draft Technology Here, vegetable planting or farming is done with the use of animals like carabaos, buffalos, cattle, and horses. Before plowing the soil, see to it that the farm is free from weeds and debris. You can do this by using a spike tooth harrow which is entirely made of hardwood but there are those made of metals. The harrow is pulled by the animal and passed over the field several times until the weeds are removed from the roots.

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Moreover, in tilling the soil, moldboard plow is used. Here the soil clods are broken. However, this method is time consuming. C. Mechanical Power Technology The tractor is one of the most important equipment required in mechanical power technology. It is available in different sizes and capabilities. The smallest tractors are usually two-wheel in design and are commonly used for tilling the soil. If it is steady, the tractor’s power take off device can be connected to a water pump or a power generator. When attached to a trailer, the tractor can save the transport needs in the farm. Which do you think is the best way in putting up your garden?

Self-check: Identify the farm tool described in each statement. _______ 1. These tools have different designs, weights, and sizes which are used for clearing weeds. _______ 2. It is pulled by the animal and passed over the field several times until the weeds are removed. _______ 3. It is used for tilling thick soil. _______ 4. It is used for making canal along bed soil. _______ 5. It is used for cutting branches of trees.

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Lesson 4 Method of Soil Preparation Appropriate for a Particular Crop and Season
You have already learned how to start a garden, to prepare the soil and its importance and proper tools in planting. I am sure you are now ready to plant your desired crops or vegetables. This lesson will provide you the important ways of soil preparation appropriate in a particular crop and season. Let us take for example the sweet pepper. This crop is important to our body because it contains vitamins A and C. It can be a money-maker for it is in demand at home and in pizza restaurants where sweet pepper is used as condiments. Do you want to try planting this in your available planting area? Here are the proper steps to produce good quality sweet pepper. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select a well-drained sandy dry to clay wet soil. Plow and harrow the land area 2 to 3 times until the soil is well-pulverized. Set furrows at 0.75 cm to 1 metre apart. Start planting the seeds or seedlings. Water the seedbed thoroughly.

Can you now grow sweet pepper and be a top producer of this in famous pizza restaurants? Do you want another example of vegetable that you can produce in your area? Aside from sweet pepper, what other vegetable is profitable and is used in several food establishments. This is most seen as seasoning in soup, lomi, mami, congee or goto. This spice crop is used in salads and vegetable dishes. It has medicinal value to correct physiological disorders such as cough, obesity, insomnia, hemorrhoids, constipation, and menstrual discomfort. Do you have an idea what is this vegetable? Yes, it is the bunching onion. Here is how to plant it. 1. Prepare the land by plowing and harrowing. It requires 1 to 2 times depending on the condition of the soil. You may apply animal manure prior to bed preparation. 2. Raise beds up to 50 - 100 cm apart but if the soil is well-drained, these are not necessary. 3. Trim top portion of the leaves prior to transplanting to reduce transpiration and increase plant survival. 4. Transplant in seedbeds at a distance of 10 cm × 15 cm. Use markers to provide proper spacing and to facilitate transplanting. Dibbles may be used to make holes. Plant deep enough. Care must be taken so as not to damage the basal portion of the plant. 5. Press the soil lightly around the basal portion. Make sure that the roots are in full contact with the soil. 6. Irrigate the field before and after transplanting.

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Another popular vegetable among root crops is radish. It can be grown on silt loam or sandy loam type of soil that is friable, well-drained and rich in organic matter. Here is how it is planted. 1. 2. 3. 4. Plow the soil 2-3 times at 30-40 cm deep and harrow to obtain a fine tilth. Construct a seedbed 1 metre wide and 10-15 cm high. Make thin shallow on the bed at about 25 cm apart and 2 cm deep. Plant the seeds either broadcast or drill. When drill method is preferred: a. Drill the seeds thinly 12.14 cm deep in furrows of 20-25 cm apart. b. Cover the seeds thinly with fine soil. c. Thin the seedlings at 10 cm apart as soon as they developed true leaves. If broadcasting method is used: a. Broadcast the seed directly into the soil. b. Cover with thin layer of soil afterwards. c. As soon as the plants developed true leaves, thin out and transplant them at 1.5 cm deep and 20 × 25 cm planting distances.

Now that you are through with bunching onion, radish and sweet pepper, is it not exciting to plant other vegetable crops with economic value? There are more to learn while you are going through other modules. Self-check: Check (✔) if the statement is a method of soil preparation and cross (✘), if it is not included. _______ 1. _______ 2. _______ 3. _______ 4. _______ 5. _______ 6. _______ 7. _______ 8. _______ 9. ______ 10. In planting sweet pepper, plow and harrow the land 2-3 times. Start planting the seeds or seedlings. Put fertilizer, 10-15 grams. Check the vitamin content of the crop. Know the medicinal value of the crop. Construct a seedbed. Cover the roots with thin layer of soil. Irrigate the planting area. Trim top portion of the leaves. Press the soil lightly around the base of the plant.

LET’S SUMMARIZE Soil preparation promotes good soil condition; prevents the growth of disease causing organisms; improves the water holding capacity of the soil; and promotes soil aeration. Following are the proper methods of preparing the soil: a. Plowing and harrowing b. Removing less important objects in the planting area. c. Measuring and marking the soil.

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d. Digging the hole for planting. e. Applying fertilizer to the soil. f. Levelling and watering the soil. Hand tools are tools used for clearing and tilling the soil such as knife, hoe, fork, trowel, ax, and shovel. Animal-draft technology uses animals such as cows and carabaos in farming. POSTTEST Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. In order to promote good soil condition, the soil must be a. watered thoroughly b. tilled thoroughly c. weed out thoroughly d. sterilized thoroughly 2. Which of the prepared? a. b. c. d. following creates a problem most of the time when soil is not thoroughly caterpillars flood maggots microorganisms

3. When the water moves downward to the soil, this promotes a. the development of fruits b. the development of new shoots c. the development of plants to grow d. the development of roots in plant deeper 4. When the land is harrowed thoroughly, it could also destroy a. weeds b. soil nutrients c. microorganisms d. insect pests 5. After putting fertilizers in the soil and levelling it, the next method of preparing the soil is a. harrowing b. watering c. putting markers d. measuring the seedbed 6. Primary tillage or plowing is done by a. digging the soil manually

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b. using a shovel to dig the soil c. using a power tiller hitched to cow or carabao d. using a fork to pulverize the soil 7. A tool used for clearing or removing weeds is a. ax b. fork c. knife d. hoe 8. A grab hoe is used for a. digging canal b. tilling thick soil c. watering the land area d. drilling holes for planting 9. Which of the following tools and equipment is an example of a mechanical power technology? a. ax b. hoe c. shovel d. tractor 10. To plant vegetable fruit for a particular season like sweet pepper, one should follow these steps, except one. a. Select a well-drained clay wet soil. b. Plow and harrow the land area. c. Know the medicinal value of the plant. d. Water the seedbed thoroughly.

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ANSWER KEY Pretest 1. d 2. d 3. d 4. a 5. c 7. c 8. c 9. a 10. b 11. c Lesson 1: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. d d a c b Lesson 3: Self-check 1. knives 2. harrow 3. grab hoe 4. shovel 5. ax

Lesson 1: Self-check 1. d 2. d 3. a 4. c 5. b Lesson 2: Self-check 1. 2 2. 5 3. 4 4. 1 5. 3

Lesson 4: Self-check 1. ✔ 2. ✔ 3. ✔ 4. ✘ 5. ✘ 6. ✔ 7. ✔ 8. ✔ 9. ✘ 10. ✔ Posttest 1. b 2. d 3. d 4. a 5. b 6. c 7. c 8. b 9. d 10. c

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PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 3 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Plant Crop Production First Year Module 3 Grow a Glorious Plant!
What this module is about
Congratulations! You are now working on Module 3. Are you still eager to learn more about plant crop production? Very good! It means you are keeping up with the objectives of this learning task. After finding good seeds to sow and learning how to prepare the land for planting, it is good to know that plant crops grow well on properly prepared land. More so, if the land is rich in soil nutrients. To be sure that the seeds will grow, apply organic fertilizer before planting. However, there are other things that you should know in order to grow plants successfully. Give life to your plants by starting the task right. How? You will know more if you read this material thoroughly. In this module, you will know how to prepare and grow seedlings or young plants before planting.

What to learn from this module
This module helps you perform these tasks well: 1. compare direct and indirect planting; 2. cite samples of seeds directly or indirectly planted; 3. discuss the advantages of observing proper distance, depth and rate of planting seeds and seedlings; 4. raise seedlings; and 5. plant vegetables adapted to your locality. PRETEST Before working on this module, answer the questions below to find out how much you already know about the topic. Write the letter of the correct answer on the blank before each number.

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_______ 1. Direct method of planting is growing plants in a. b. c. d. a permanent place a seedbox or seedbed a nursery house its natural environment

_______ 2. Growing plants in seedbeds or seedboxes is known as a. b. c. d. direct planting indirect planting transplanting sowing

_______ 3. Which of the following seeds is indirectly planted? a. b. c. d. cabbage carrot corn cucumber

_______ 4. The following seeds are directly planted, except one. a. b. c. d. squash; upo okra; katuray eggplant; pechay beans; sayote

_______ 5. It is the process of transplanting seedlings from one seedbox to another. a. b. c. d. hardening pricking sterilizing withering

_______ 6. Why should the soil in the seedbox be fertilized? a. b. c. d. to kill microorganisms to give moisture to the seeds to protect the seeds from wilting to enhance the growth of the seeds

_______ 7. What will happen to small seeds when buried deeper than the required depth of sowing? a. b. c. d. They will become dormant. They will sprout slowly. They will dry up. They will germinate underground.

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_______ 8. Which of the following distances of planting is recommended for cabbage? a. b. c. d. 8-20 cm 30-50 cm 40-50 cm 60-90 cm

_______ 9. Which of the following tools is used to separate seedlings from the seedbox? a. b. c. d. dibble trowel crowbar hoe

______ 10. The following fruit vegetables are commonly grown in our country, except one. a. b. c. d. tomatoes pechay okra eggplant

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Lesson 1 Direct and Indirect Planting
Plants are grown in two different ways. Through direct and indirect planting. The following situation will tell you how direct and indirect planting is done. Good morning Romeo and Danica. I am very glad to help you. Good morning, Mr. Sahorda. Can you help us differentiate the methods of planting vegetable crops.

Mr. Sahorda: Romeo: Mr. Sahorda:

Danica: Mr. Sahorda:

Romeo: Danica:

There are two methods of planting seeds, direct and indirect. What is direct planting, Sir? In direct planting, the seeds are planted right into the soil in the field where they will grow, up to the time of harvesting. Like the corn plants and beans, they are planted directly in the field. Direct planting is usually done when plants have large seeds. What about indirect planting, Sir? In the indirect method of planting seeds, seeds are planted first in a seedbox or seedbed. As soon as the seedlings have grown three or more leaves, they are ready for transplanting. This is usually done to plants with tiny seeds such as pechay, mustard and other vegetables. We are very grateful to you, Sir. We shall share with our classmates what we have learned from you. Now, I know the difference between the two methods of planting seeds.

Danica and Romeo left their teacher very much satisfied. They were certain about the answers to their questions and eager to apply their new knowledge as well as share this with others. Let us now see what you have learned from the discussions. Work on the given activities.

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Activity 1 Study the illustration below and identify the method of planting used.

Activity 2 Differentiate indirect from direct planting using the comparison alley between them.
M E T H O D S O F P L A N T I N G

Self-check:

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In direct planting, seeds are _____________in a designated place where they grow until ________. Corn and beans are planted directly on the field. Plants with l_______ seeds are grown by direct planting. In direct planting, seeds are first sown in a _______or _________. As soon as the seedlings have grown three or more true leaves, they are ready for _________. This is usually done to plants with _____________like ________and ___________.

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Lesson 2 Seeds Directly or Indirectly Planted
How well did you understand the previous lesson? Good! After learning the two methods of planting, the next task is to identify seeds that are directly and indirectly planted. This is a very important task, because seeds might not germinate if not planted properly. Usually, seeds that are too small like the pechay and mustard are planted indirectly. Since you cannot place exactly the right number of seeds in the garden area, they might be buried underground when it rains hard. Big seeds such as upo, patola, ampalaya, and beans, can be directly planted on the furrow. You can count exactly the number of seeds planted per hill or hole. To know more about how vegetable seeds are planted, examine the table below. Farm Crops Classified as to Methods of Planting Direct Planting corn; watermelon cucumber; melon sayote; bataw carrot; upo squash; katuray okra; carrots patola; winged beans all peas and beans Indirect Planting onion; cabbage cauliflower; celery spinach; tomato lettuce; mustard eggplant; pechay sweet pepper

Since you have already identified which plants are planted indirectly or directly, let us see if you can work on the exercise below. Self-check: Check ( ✔ ) the vegetable plants that are directly planted and cross ( ✖ ) those that are indirectly planted. _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. _____5. pechay corn squash onion cabbage _____6. sweet pepper _____7. tomato _____8. carrot _____9. okra _____10.upo

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Lesson 3 Indirectly Planted Seeds
In Lesson 2, you identified seeds that are directly planted. This lesson focuses on how indirectly planted seeds are prepared and grown in the seedbox or seedbed before transplanting.

Observe and find out how seeds are planted indirectly in the following situation: Rhea and Tina want to raise pechay seedlings for their vegetable project in school. Let us read their conversation. Tina, what shall we do with the pechay seeds we bought? We are going to allow the pechay seeds to germinate or sprout.

What does germinate mean, Tina?

When a seed germinates, the embryo or the small plant inside the seed develops.

How do we know when seeds have already germinated?

The small embryo inside the seed grows bigger and a small plant or seedling starts to grow.

How do we raise pechay seedlings?

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We shall follow the procedure which our teacher taught us.

Below are the steps in raising seedlings: 1. The seedbox must be prepared for the purpose. The seedbox contain a soil medium. The soil medium should be free of weeds, fungus, spores, and garden pests. It should be porous enough to allow delicate rootlets to penetrate and let in air and moisture. A mixture of equal parts of sand, soil, and compost is recommended. 2. Sterilize the mixture by pouring boiling water. 3. Sow the seeds when the soil is already cold. Prepare drills along the seedbox. 4. Cover the seeds by sifting the soil medium through a fine sieve held above the seedbed. Fine seeds are not covered. They are merely pressed gently into the soil with a flat, level piece of wood. Water gently by misting. 5. The seedlings should be protected from temperature fluctuations. It is best to bring the seedbox in the open. However, it should be placed in an area where partial sunlight is available. 6. The seedlings should continue getting protection until the first true leaves grow. When one or two sets of true leaves have grown, the seedlings are ready for transplanting. 7. Pricking or thinning is the process of transplanting seedlings from their seedbox to another seedbox. During this step, the seedlings start developing roots and leaves. The seedlings should have grown into plants and should be pricked as soon as they have grown two sets of leaves.

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Activity 3 Report to your teacher what you have done for practical application of what you have learned. Prepare the checklist below for checking if you have missed any steps. Procedure 1. Prepared a seedbox/ seedbed. 2. Mixed sand, compost, and soil. 3. Sterilized the soil medium. 4. Sowed seeds. 5. Watered the seedbed/ seedbox. 6. Placed in the plant nursery. Visit your project the next day to find out if the seeds have already germinated and to what extent. Exciting isn’t it? Performed Missed

Self-check: Arrange the following steps in growing seedlings. Write 1, for the first step, 2 for the second step, and so on to the last. Write your answers on the blanks provided. _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. _____5. _____6. _____7. Prick to the other seedbox. Water gently by misting. Sterilize the soil. Prepare a seedbox. Add the soil medium. Sow the seeds. Press the soil gently.

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Lesson 4 Distance, Depth, and Rate of Planting Seeds and Seedlings
Have you ever sown seeds on a seedbox? Very Good! Seeds can also be sown in seedbeds, particularly if it is a large crop production. When plants are closely planted without considering distance, depth, and rate of planting, the growth of plants is also affected. Hence, distance, depth, and rate or planting must be considered to ensure the growth of plants. Below is the continuation of Danica and Romeo’s conversation with Mr. Sajorda.

Romeo: Danica: Mr. Sahorda:

Sir, we have already sown the seeds in the seedbox. What about the seeds which are directly planted into the field? Do we also consider the distance, depth, and rate of planting seeds when growing seeds in the field? Certainly! Distance, depth and rate of planting should be considered when planting seeds and seedlings.

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Below is the table on how to plant seeds and seedlings considering distance, depth and rate of planting. Seeding Rate, Depth and Distance of Planting Farm Crops Crops Rate of Seeding (gm per hectare) 150 8,500 75 85 90 26,250 750 2,870 200 700 200 3,250 8,000 2,000 40,000 Depth of Sowing (cm) ½ ½ 1 ½ ¼ 1½ ½ 2.5 2.5-3 ¼ 1 ¼ 2.5-3 ¼ 2.5 Distance of Planting between hills (cm) 30-50 60-90 40-50 8-20 25-30 25-30 12-20 30-50 60-120 12-20 20-30 15-25 30-50 8-15 15-25

Cabbage Sweet Corn Eggplant Green Onion Lettuce Mongo Mustard Okra Squash Pechay Pepper Radish Pole Sitao Onion Bulb Bush Sitao

Below are the advantages of observing rate, depth and distance in planting. 1. Rate of planting - refers to the thickness of sown seeds in a row or the number of seeds planted per hill. This depends on whether or not the plants are to be thinned. If there are more seeds germinated in a hill, some can be transferred to another hill when germination has failed. In commercial farm crop production, this is not advisable because of added labor and wastage of seeds. 2. Depth of planting -Three factors determine the appropriate depth of planting seeds, as follows: a. Size and structure of seeds - Seedlings of vegetable crops with large seeds have greater power to push their way to the surface of the soil compared to the small seeds. Bigger seeds are usually planted deeper than small seeds. b. Soil - the condition of the soil influences the depth of planting seeds. Plant the seeds deeper on sandy than in clay soil. This is so because of soil moisture. c. Season of planting - the seeds may be planted at different depths in different seasons of the year. If the soil is almost too wet for the germination of seeds, shallow planting is advisable. On the other hand, during the dry season when evaporation is rapid and the heat of the son is intense, the conditions of both moisture and temperature are likely to be more favorable for germination at a

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considerable depth below the surface. Under these conditions, the seeds should be planted as deeply as the power of the seedlings will permit. 3. Distance of Planting -The distance at which seeds should be planted is determined by two factors: a. Amount of space needed by the plant for normal development during the time it is expected to occupy the given location and the amount of space needed to properly care for the plants. b. Size of the plants at maturity if they are not to be transplanted or the size at the time of the first shift if they are to be transplanted. Did you learn something from this lesson. Well, let us see. Work on the activity below. Activity 4 Alberto is a plant grower who is planning to plant 4 types of vegetables on his 4 hectares farm. Help him find the right vegetables to plant considering the rate and depth of planting. A. Type of vegetables: Rate of planting: Depth of planting: B. Type of vegetables: Rate of planting: Depth of planting: Self-check: Complete the chart below. Provide the proper distance, depth and rate of planting seeds and seedlings. Crops Sweet corn Eggplant Lettuce Green onion Okra Rate of Seedling 8, 500 75 90 85 2, 870 Sowing Depth ½ 1 __________ __________ 2.5 Planting Between Hills __________ __________ 25-30 __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ C. Type of vegetables: Rate of planting: Depth of planting: D. Type of vegetables: Rate of planting: Depth of planting: __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________

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Lesson 5 Vegetable Plant Adapted to the Locality
Now that you have learned the advantages of rate, depth and distance of planting, it will be easy for you to apply these when planting vegetables. Have you checked the seeds you sowed in the seedbox in your previous activity? It is time for you to transplant these to a permanent growing area. What kind of vegetable seed did you sow? The most common leafy vegetables grown in our country are pechay, mustard, green onion, spinach and celery. Fruit vegetables popularly grown are eggplant, pepper and tomatoes. Have you experienced planting any of the vegetables mentioned? If you had, good! Find out if you followed the steps correctly in your previous lesson. Steps in Transplanting Seedlings 1. Water the seedbox or seedbed before transplanting. 2. Hold the seedling carefully or use a dibble or stick to lift the small plant out from the germinating area. Do not shake the soil off the roots to prevent exposure to air which will dry them out. 3. Plant the seedlings one at a time, depending upon the required distance. 4. Press the soil around the roots gently. 5. Water the seedlings on the soil surface with a gentle stream of water to settle the soil around the roots. 6. Water the plants four times a day to prevent drying up during the first tree days. Reduce watering if the young plants can withstand their new environment or the roots have grown and absorbed water from the soil. Transplanting is done late in the afternoon or early in the morning but watering technique as suggested above must be followed if plants are exposed directly to sunlight, particularly in large-scale production. In small-scale production, a shade per plant can be provided. Did you follow the same steps? Very good! Happy planting!

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Activity 5 Analyze each picture and write the task being performed. 1. 2.

3.

4.

Self-check: Fill in the chart below with the steps in transplanting vegetables. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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You have now reached the end of this module. Congratulations! Did you enjoy studying this module? Very Good! LET’S SUMMARIZE In direct planting, seeds are planted directly in the field. Indirect planting is sowing the seeds first in seedbeds or seedboxes before transplanting to the field. Seeds directly planted in the field are usually big such as upo, patola, amaplaya, and squash. Small seeds are planted indirectly like the mustard, pechay, onion and spinach. Raising seedlings is usually done by preparing a seedbed or seedbox. Soil medium is composed of sand, compost and soil is prepared. When sterilized, seeds are sown. Mist watering is advisable particularly on small seeds. It is best to observe proper distance, depth and rate of planting seeds and seedlings, for plants to grow well and attain maximum growth. Pechay and mustard are the most common leafy vegetables growing in the country, while tomatoes and eggplants are the most popular fruit vegetables. These plants are first sown on seedbeds or in seedboxes before transplanted to their designated place. POSTTEST Choose the correct answer to each item below. Write the letter of the item of your choice on the blank before the number. _____1. Growing plants in a permanent place is a. direct planting b. indirect planting c. pricking d. thinning _____2. Indirect planting is planting seeds in a. a seedbox or seedbed b. its permanent cite c. the nursery farm d. the forest _____3. The following groups of seeds are indirectly planted, except one a. cabbage and pechay b. onion and cauliflower c. cucumber and corn d. pepper and celery _____4. Which of the following seeds is directly planted? a. tomatoes b. okra

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c. pepper d. eggplant _____5. Pricking is the process of transplanting seedlings from a. one seedbox to another b. seedbox to its permanent place c. nursery to open field d. open field to nursery _____6. Microorganisms are best destroyed through a. fumigation b. fertilization c. sterilization d. cultivation _____7. Refers to the thickness of the sown seeds in a row. a. depth of planting b. rate of planting c. season of planting d. distance of planting _____8. A distance of 30-50 cm between plants is best for a. okra b. squash c. eggplant d. pechay _____9. A dibble is a tool used in a. sowing seeds b. transplanting seedlings c. detecting dormancy d. germinating seeds _____10. Which of the following is indirectly planted? a. celery b. cucumber c. katuray d. melon

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ANSWER KEY Pretest 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. b 6. d 7. c 8. b 9. a 10. b Lesson 1: Self-check In direct planting, seeds are planted directly in a designated place where they grow until harvested. Corn and beans are planted directly on the field. Plants with large seeds are grown by direct planting. In direct planting, seeds are first sown in a seedbox or seedbed. As soon as the seedlings have grown three or more true leaves, they are ready for transplanting. This is usually done to plants with tiny seeds like pechay and mustard. Lesson 2: Self-check ✖ 1. pechay ✔ 2. corn ✔ 3. squash ✖ 4. onion ✖ 5. cabbage Lesson 3: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 7 6 3 1 2 4 5 ✖ 6. ✖ 7. ✔ 8. ✔ 9. 10. upo sweet pepper tomato carrot okra

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Lesson 4: Self-check Crops Sweet corn Eggplant Lettuce Green onion Okra Lesson 5: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Water the seedbox. Hold the seedling to lift the small plant out from the germinating area. Plant the seedlings one at a time. Press the soil around the roots gently. Water the seedlings on the soil surface. Water the plants four times a day to prevent drying up during the first three days. Rate of Seedling 8,500 75 90 85 2, 870 Depth of Seedling ½ 1 ¼ ½ 2.5 Distance of Planting between Hills 60-90 40-50 25-30 8-20 30-50

Posttest 1. a 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. a 6. c 7. b 8. a 9. b 10. a

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PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 4 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Plant Crop Production First Year Module 4 Pure Water Pure Delight

What this module is about
Are you enjoying your lessons? Do you enjoy working on the different activities in each module? You are truly fortunate to have these challenging learning experiences. After learning how to grow plants, this time you will be exposed to experiences relating to healthy plants glowing with life in the morning sunlight. Plants grow healthy when properly watered. Yes, one of the most vital elements in crop production, is water. Most plants can adapt to environmental conditions which are not that ideal but without water, they wither and die.

What to learn from this module
This module dwells on water without which both man and plants will die. After studying this module, see how well you can do these: 1. explain the role of water to plant growth; and 2. discuss the different ways of watering plants. PRETEST Write only the letter of the correct answer on your paper. 1. Which of the following activities of plants relates to the availability of water? a. growth of flowers b. seed development c. growth of plant leaves d. all of the above 2. Following are instances when plants need water, except one. a. after sowing the seed b. after planting the seed c. when they bear flowers

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d. after transplanting 3. Shallow rooted vegetables such as pechay and cabbage need much water because a. their bodies are composed of water b. they are deeply rooted compared to other vegetables c. their leaf respiration is very high d. they bear fruits more than other plants 4. The supply of water done through small channels or furrows. a. surface irrigation b. watering in hose c. sprinkler irrigation d. drip irrigation 5. Drip or trickle irrigation refers to the supply of water through small openings a. emitters b. nozzle c. water cans d. hose

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Lesson 1 The Role of Water in Plant Growth
You may recall from the module, “Grow a Glorious Plant”, that in order to survive the heat of the sun, seedlings need water four times a day particularly when newly transplanted. Do you know why? It is due to much water loss which might wilt the seedlings. The roots of plants must be capable of absorbing enough water to keep the plants alive. Imagine yourself as a plant. What do your flowers, fruits and leaves need in order to survive? What do you need to keep healthy? Can your roots absorb nutrients from the soil without water? One of the most important factors in successful gardening is water. If watering systems are poor, plant growth is stunted and plants may wilt or die. Hence, plants must be watered regularly and thoroughly. Now you might ask, when is the right time to water plants? Study the pictures on the next page to know when to water plants. Watering is needed... a. after sowing the seeds.

b. after planting the seeds.

c. after transferring seedlings from one seedbox to another by pricking.

d. after transplanting.

e. everytime the soil dries up. 4

How will you know that the soil is dry? Look at the following illustrations.

Can you analyze what the three pictures are trying to say? 1. Which of the illustrations show that soil needs watering? 2. Why? Infrequently watered plants like tomatoes and eggplant need thorough watering, because they are deeply rooted. Shallow rooted plants are frequently watered. Pechay, mustard, and celery must be watered twice a day, because their roots are near the surface of the earth. Hence, water evaporates fast. Their bodies are also succulent. Time should also be considered when watering plants. It is best to water plants in the morning. Never water plants late in the afternoon when the sun is no longer shining. The moist environment at night invites plant diseases. Now, let us check if you really understood what you read. below. Activity 1 Observe the pictures below then answer the questions that follow. Work on the activities

A 1. Which of the plants needs more water?

B

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2. Why? Activity 2 Below are vegetable plants growing in your garden. Identify which vegetables need frequent watering and which ones do not. Write your answers in the box below. pechay eggplant pepper cabbage Frequently Watered 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. mustard okra onion celery tomatoes kangkong malunggay katuray Infrequently Watered 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Self-Check: Write the missing words on the blank to complete the sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. One of the most important factors in growing plants is _____. Watering of vegetables depends on the _____of the plant. The best time to water plants in the _____. It is not advisable to water plants _____in the afternoon. Eggplant is an example of vegetable that is _____watered.

Did you get all the answers right? If you did, excellent! If not, you can go over the lesson again.

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zLesson 2 Different Ways of Watering Plants
Now that you already know the role of water in plant growth, let us move on to how plants can be supplied with water. In this lesson, you will learn the different ways of watering plants from backyard and school to large-scale plant crop production. What am I going to do with my vegetable plants?

Imagine that you have a vegetable garden and it relies mainly on rain. However, for a long period of time, still, there’s no rain. What do you think will happen to your vegetable crops? Surely, your crops will wilt and eventually die if still not watered. Hence, you will find ways of bringing water to your plants. How can this be done? It can be done through water irrigation. Irrigation refers to the supply of water to a farm when rainfall is not sufficient enough. Water is conducted for long distances through open ditches or irrigation canals until it reaches the land to be irrigated. Water supply may come from rivers, mountain streams, natural and artificial lakes and reservoirs of stored water. Water irrigation is used on vegetable through the following ways or methods: 1. Surface or furrow irrigation

Photo by David Frazier Encarta 2000

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This is done by running water through small channels or furrows. Water moves down or across the slope of the field. It sips into the bottom and sides of the furrows to provide the desired wetting. This is applicable only for row crops in fields with uniform slopes. 2. Sprinkler irrigation

Photo by Bill Grange Encarta 2000

Artificial rain is generated through special devices such as perforated sprinkler lines, rotating sprinklers, or micro sprinklers. The water source is usually a river, a shallow well or tap water. This method is labor intensive and the water source must be near the farm. However, in non-mechanized farming, this is done by using watering cans. The cans are attached to a perforated nozzle capable of delivering water fast enough without causing damage to the plants. Nozzles are easily attached from the can to remove debris, particularly when water sources are rivers and canals. In some mechanized farms, a rotating sprinkler is used. It is popular in orchards and large nurseries. It consists of a head with one or more nozzle which is rotated by the action of the water passing through, and which waters the circular portion of the field around the sprinkler. This method is capable of furnishing water at relatively slow rate, while using relatively large nozzles. 3. Drip-irrigation This is also known as trickle irrigation. The technique refers to the thorough application of water to the soil through small openings or emitters, which are designed to discharge water at the rate of 1-8 liters per hour. The emitters are close to the plant, wetting only these areas and leaving the rest of the field dry. Unlike sprinkle irrigation and flooding which wet the entire field. 4. Sub-irrigation

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This is the least common method of irrigation because of its high initial cost and the limited land suitable for its use. This is usually done on peat soil. Water is supplied by an underground system and reaches the plant by capillary movement. The drip irrigation system can be installed underground to serve as sub-irrigation system. After the discussion on the different methods of watering plants, were you able to identify those applied in your own school or home garden? Now let us find out how much you have learned from this lesson. Answer the selfcheck exercise below. Self-check: Identify the following: _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. _____5. It refers to the supply of water to a farm where there is no sufficient rainfall. Water is allowed to flow along plant beds. Water is supplied to plants using watering cans. Also known as trickle irrigation. It is a material attached at the end of a watering can to remove debris. Isn’t it

Congratulations! You have already finished this challenging module. exciting? I hope this helped you gain a lot of knowledge. LET’S SUMMARIZE

Plants need watering after sowing the seeds; after planting the seeds; after transferring the seedlings from the seedbox to another by pricking; and after transplanting. It is advisable to water plants in the morning. Irrigation is the supply of water to a farm when rainfall is not sufficient. Surface irrigation is done by running water through small channels or furrows. Drip-irrigation is the thorough application of water to the soil through small openings or emitters.

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POSTTEST Choose the correct answer by encircling its letter. 1. Growth development in plants is closely related to a. air b. water c. compost d. farmer 2. In which plant stage is water much needed? a. fruit development b. flowering c. harvesting d. transplanting 3. Which of the following groups of vegetables need more water daily? a. pechay and cabbage b. tomato and eggplant c. pepper and ube d. okra and beans 4. Surface irrigation is done through a. small channels or furrows b. the use of water cans c. a hose d. sprinkler 5. Use of watering cans with nozzles to water plants. a. drip irrigation b. surface irrigation c. sprinkler irrigation d. furrow irrigation

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ANSWER KEY Pretest 1. d 2. c 3. a 4. a 5. a Activity 2 Frequently Watered 1. pechay 2. cabbage 3. mustard 4. celery 5. kangkong 6. onion Lesson 1: Self-check 1. water 2. root 3. morning 4. late 5. infrequently Lesson 2: Self-check 1. irrigation 2. furrow or surface irrigation 3. sprinkler irrigation 4. drip irrigation 5. nozzle Posttest 1. b 2. d 3. a 4. b 5. c Infrequently Watered 1. eggplant 2. pepper 3. okra 4. tomatoes 5. malungay 6. katuray

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PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 5 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Plant Crop Production First Year Module 5 Help! My World is Getting Smaller

What this module is about
Let no stones be left unturned for an eager learner like you whose behavior is sound and interesting. Welcome to your next module, dear student. Imagine yourself a plant growing in the garden with the luxuries of morning sunlight, fresh morning breeze, water and an abundance of soil nutrients. What else can you ask for? However, one morning, you were surprised. Almost all the luxuries you were enjoying are gone because of the weeds the have grown beside you. Weeds prevent plant growth and development. Weeds grow fast and the easiest way to remove it is through proper weeding and cultivation. This module focuses on weeds and how these affect plant growth. It describes cultivation and its advantages to plant crop production.

What to learn from this module
Working on this module requires you to be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. identify types of weeds; explain the advantages of weeding and cultivation; describe the proper ways of weeding and cultivating plants; explain the value of weeding and cultivation to the growth of plants; and identify different garden tools used in weeding and cultivation.

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PRETEST Directions: Encircle the letter of the correct answer. 1. Weeds that reproduce only through seeds and complete their life span in one season. a. b. c. d. annual biennial perennial terrestrial

2. Which of the following weeds is biennial? a. b. c. d. cogon makahiya olasiman mutha

3. Perennial weeds are those that live for a. b. c. d. one season two seasons 6 months two years or more

4. Following are the advantages of weeding the garden, except one a. b. c. d. photosynthesis is enhanced breeding places for pests and diseases are destroyed water and soil nutrients are utilized by crops microorganisms in the soil are utilized

5. The following are farm practices that are easy to perform when weeding is done regularly, except a: b. c. d. watering fertilizing cultivating harvesting

6. The process of loosening the soil at the base of the plant is known as a. b. c. d. cultivating fertilizing aerating transplanting

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7. This tool is used to cut and uproot weeds. a. b. c. d. bolo cultivator spading fork trowel

8. This is a method of controlling weeds in common in backyard gardening. a. b. c. d. manual mechanical chemical mulching

9. The mechanical method of controlling weeds is most common in a. b. c. d. home backyard gardening school gardening big plant crop production small-scale farming

10. Which of the following materials is best for mulching? a. b. c. d. clear plastic black polyethylene plastic ipil-ipil leaves dry grass or weeds

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Lesson 1 Types of Weeds
There are unfamiliar plants in the garden which grow anywhere even when not planted intentionally. They are called weeds. Weeds are unwanted plants that grow out of place and economically of no use. To enhance your knowledge of weeds, visit your garden, then locate and identify them. Weeds are also plants which outgrow the plants in the garden. They are classified according to life span. Types of Weeds 1. Annuals - these are weeds that reproduce only through seeds and complete their life span in one season. Examples are wild mustard, wild spinach, olasiman, pigweed and crab grass.

Wild mustard 2. Biennials - these weeds live for two seasons to complete their life span. They produce seeds during the second season of their growth and die. Examples are wild eggplant, goatsbeard, mutha and wild carrots.

Wild spinach

Crab grass

Wild carrot goatsbeard 3. Perennial- these are weeds that live longer than two years. It takes them two or more seasons to reproduce seeds, grow roots and underground stems. As the plant produces seeds, its underground root system spreads, too. Examples are talahib, cogon, touch me not, quack grass and morning glory.

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Talahib Were you able to identify the weeds that grow in the garden through the illustrations and descriptions given in this module? Find out to what extent. Activity 1 Classify the weeds in Table 1 as annual, biennial or perennial. Write your answers in Table II. Table I talahib mutha cogon touch me not crab grass olasiman wild carrots goatsbeard wild mustard pigweed

Table II Annual a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. Biennial a. b. c. d. Perennial

How well did you make it? Good! Review the items you missed, if any.

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Self-check: Write True if the statement is true, and False, if the statement is not true. _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. _____5. Weeds are plants that grow where they are not needed. Weeds are plants classified as to life span. Annual weeds are those that live for two seasons. Cogon and talahib are examples of perennial weeds. Mutha and wild carrots are the most common biennial weeds.

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Lesson 2 Advantages of Weeding and Cultivation
After knowing the types of weeds that are common in gardens and farms, your next lesson focuses on methods of controlling weeds and why they should be destroyed. What is weeding? Weeding is removing or eradicating unnecessary plants in the garden. Following are the advantages of weeding in crop production. 1. Photosynthesis in plants will not be disturbed. If the weeds grow taller or bigger than your plant crop, the process of making food in the latter is affected. Growth of the plants is hampered. 2. Water and nutrients in the soil are used only by the plant crops. 3. Weeding plants regularly destroys the breeding places of insects and pests. 4. It saves time, money and effort. 5. It facilitates garden practices such as fertilizing, cultivating, and harvesting, among others. 6. It improves the quality of crops, particularly, rice. Another important task in the care of plants is cultivation. Cultivation is loosening the soil around the base of the plant. This practice is beneficial to crops because it promotes soil aeration and stimulates plant growth. It also helps eradicate weeds because of root disturbance. To see how much you have learned from the preceding topic, work on the next activity. Activity 2 Analyze the pictures below then answer questions that follow.

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A Questions:

B

1. Which of the picture shows that plants grow bigger and healthier? Why? 2. Which picture shows greater possibility of insect infestation? Why? 3. Which picture shows that water and soil nutrients are being utilized by the plant crops? Why? Self-check: Encircle the letter of the correct answer. 1. Which of the following processes is directly affected when weeds are taller and leaves are wider than those of vegetable plants? a. absorption b. photosynthesis c. plasmolysis d. transpiration

2. What is in the soil that weeds compete with plants? a. composts b. fertilizers c. microorganisms d. nutrients

3. How do the insect pests use the weeds around the plants? a. as a resting area b. as a feeding area c. as a metamorphosis area d. as a breeding area

4. Which of the following is saved when the garden is weeded regularly? a. money b. materials c. effort d. a and c

5. Below are the advantages of the cultivating plants, except a. soil aeration b. weed eradication c. soil fertilization d. root development

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Lesson 3 Methods of Weeding and Cultivating Plants
After learning the advantages of weeding and cultivation, your next task is to learn the various ways of weeding and cultivating plants. Here are some efficient methods of controlling weeds in the garden: 1. Manual Method. Quite common in small farms, weeds are picked or uprooted using bare hands. Although very effective, it is time consuming. 2. Mechanical Method. Faster than hand pulling, weeds are removed through machines or tools. This method is used in large-scale planting. 3. Chemical Method. Chemicals known as herbicides are used to destroy weeds, but do not harm vegetables or farm crops. The method is applicable when labor is expensive and not readily available. 4. Solarization Method. This is a technique used in controlling weeds when starting a garden and when weeding is a serious problem. Hence, a newly prepared plot is covered with clear plastic and is then exposed to the sun for 10-15 days. 5. Mulching. This method uses loose organic materials such as rice straw, banana leaves, coconut leaves, or black polyethylene plastic to cover the soil around the plant or between rows to protect or improve the area. This method prevents the growth of weeds because they do not get direct sunlight needed for photosynthesis. As previously discussed in the last lesson, cultivation is a practice in crop production that helps promote the growth and development of roots. There are two ways of cultivating plants, as follows: 1. Off-barring - cultivates the soil away from the rows of plants. 2. Hilling-up - draws the soil towards the base of the plants. If these practices are done at the proper time, weeds growing within the rows can be controlled. To be effective however, this must be done when the soil is not too wet. Now that you have learned the methods of controlling weeds and cultivation, are you ready to try these in your own garden? Let us check on the knowledge you gained from the discussion through the activity below. Activity 3

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Mang Anding and Mang Rufing are two plant growers. They have certain problems with the plants they grow. Read their conversation below: Good morning, Anding. Your crops seem to be growing healthy, but I saw some weeds growing with your plants. Good day to you, Rufing. I noticed that too. That’s my problem now. The area is quite big and there are no laborers for hire in our place. Everyone is busy on their own farm.

I also have a problem, Anding. My radish farm has weeds growing around the area. I’m afraid it will affect the growth of the plants.

I thought everything is fine on your farm. Let us think of ways to solve our problems.

Answer these questions: 1. What method of weed control is suited for Mang Anding’s farm? 2. Why? 3. What do you advise to Mang Anding? 4. Justify your suggestions.

Self-check:

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Identify what the following statements are about. _______ 1. A method of eradicating weeds, using tools or machine. _______ 2. A method of controlling weeds common in small farms. _______ 3. Use of herbicides to destroy weeds. _______ 4. Use of loose organic materials or black polyethylene plastic to control weeds. _______ 5. A technique of cultivation in which soil is drawn towards the base of the plant. You must have gained much knowledge in this module. Keep in mind that weeds grow between plants and compete with crops which adversely affect both the quality and quantity of the harvest. Many farmers experience losses due to the problem of weeds, because it does not only interfere with plant growth, but also clog irrigation and drainage canals.

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Lesson 4 Garden Tools Used in Weeding and Cultivating
You are now familiar with the methods of weeding and cultivation. Now, let us take time to learn tools used in gardening. As a guide, use the proper tools for purposes of the practicum. The following are examples of weeding and cultivating tools:

Trowel

Pick-mattock

Spading fork

Rake Hoe Spade

1. Bolo – this is used to cut and uproot weeds. 2. Warren hoe – this is an ideal tool for weeding and shallow cultivation. 3. Cultivator - designed for breaking up soil crusts and cultivating and uprooting rootstock. 4. Spading fork - a tool used to weed and cultivate the soil around the base of bigger plants. 5. Spade – this is used to weed and cultivate plants and to dig trenches. It is easy to pulverize soil using a spade. 6. Hand fork - a cultivating and weeding tool for backyard and school gardening. 7. Trowel – this is like a hand fork and is used to cultivate and weed small garden plants.

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There are other tools and materials used in cultivating and weeding plant crops. Your creativity will help if the garden tools are not available. However, ease in gardening depends much on the use of the right tools for garden work. The right tools make work more productive. Let us now find out if you learned from this lesson well. Activity 4 Identify the tools in the picture.

Were you able to make it? Very good, if you did. If not, review the items you missed and do them all over again. Self-check: Match Column B with Column A. Write only the letter of the correct answer on your paper. Column A 1. Tools used for cutting and uprooting weeds. 2. Used to break soil crusts, to cultivate and to uproot weeds. 3. Used to weed and cultivate plants and dig trenches. 4. A tool for weeding and cultivating small gardens. 5. A cultivating tool used at the base of plants. LET’S SUMMARIZE Annuals, biennials and perennials are the types of weeds. Weeds are unwanted plants that outgrow plants in the garden. Weeding is removing or eradicating unnecessary plants in the garden. Cultivation is loosening the soil around the base of the plant. Mulching is a method of weeding that uses loose organic materials such rice straw, banana leaves and coconut leaves. Column B a. trowel b. pick-mattock c. bolo d. spading fork e. cultivator f. spade

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POSTTEST Directions: Write only the letter of the best answer in your notebook. 1. Annual weeds are those, the life span of which lasts for a. b. c. d. one season two seasons 8 months 3 years

2. Type of weeds that complete their life span in two seasons. a. b. c. d. annual biennial perennial terrestrial

3. Following are examples of annual weeds, except a. b. c. d. wild mustard olasiman cogon crab grass

4. Which of the following statements is an advantage of weeding? a. b. c. d. Seeds sown germinate fast. The breeding places of insect pests and diseases are destroyed. Growth of the embryo in seeds is hastened. The flowering of vegetables is faster.

5. Regular weeding facilitates farm practices a. b. c. d. easily comfortably in an attainable way in a difficult situation

6. Plant cultivation is a method of loosening the soil which promotes a. flower development b. root growth 7. A bolo is a tool used to a. cut and uproot weeds b. till the soil c. fertilize plants c. fruit development. d. chlorophyll in leaves

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d. remove humps in the garden 8. The manual method of controlling weeds is usually done in that place. a. b. c. d. backyard garden large-scale farm big plant crop production rice production

9. Mechanical method of eliminating weeds uses farm tools such as a. b. c. d. bolo and trowel hoe and tractor rake and spade spading fork and pick-mattock

10. Black polyethylene plastic is a material commonly used in a. b. c. d. transplanting fertilizing mulching sowing.

ANSWER KEY Pretest 1. a 2. d 3. d 4. d 5. a 6. a 7. a 8. a 9. c 10. b Activity 1 Annual a. b. c. d. olasiman wild mustard pigweed crab grass Biennial a. mutha b. wild carrots c. goatsbeard Perennial a. talahib b. cogon c. touch me not

Lesson 1: Self-check

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

True True False True True

Lesson 2: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. b d d d c

Lesson 3: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mechanical Manual Chemical Mulching Hilling-up

Lesson 4: Self-Check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. c e f a d

Posttest 1. a 2. b 3. c 4. b 5. a 6. b 7. a 8. a 9. b 10. c

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PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 6 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Plant Crop Production First Year Module 6 A Little Bit is Good, Enough is Better

What this module is about
Are you enjoying your lessons in plant production? Fine! Your positive attitude will likely bring you a lot of good in life. Do you know that all plants get a great number of mineral nutrients from the soil? This is why the soil should be enriched with nutrients. Do you know what makes the soil deficient in mineral elements? This is due to the continuing use of the land which uses up and depletes the nutrients in the soil. To restore the fertility of the soil, some things have to be done. Have you heard the saying, “a little bit is good, enough is better?” This is very true when it comes to applying fertilizers. Fertilizers enrich the soil to help in the growth and development of plants. Hence, to maintain the nutrients in the soil, fertilizing is needed.

What to learn from this module
In this module, you will learn much about fertilizers. After going through the module, you should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. explain the value of fertilizers; differentiate organic from inorganic fertilizers; give examples of organic and inorganic fertilizers; identify elements found in the fertilizers; and discuss the functions of the three major fertilizer elements.

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PRETEST I. Match Column A with Column B. Write only the letter of your answer in your notebook for checking. 1. Any material mixed with the soil to promote plant growth. 2. Fertilizers from animal and plant waste residues. 3. Chemically manufactured fertilizers. 4. Animal excreta used as fertilizers. 5. Use of plants as source of organic matter. 6. A product of decomposed plant parts, kitchen and garden refuse. 7. Composting process that rots the underground materials. 8. Inorganic fertilizers which contain three major elements. 9. A popular type of fertilizer which gets results fast. 10. Very common and widely used commercial fertilizer. a. Inorganic fertilizers b. Compost c. Compost pit d. Complete e. Organic fertilizers f. Liquid g. Fertilizers h. Manure i. Green manure j. Granular form k. Basket composting II. Give the three major elements which plants need.

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Lesson 1 Types, Examples, and Value of Fertilizers
In the last module, you learned that weeds are consumers of soil nutrients. Hence, if a garden or farm has plenty of weeds, fertilizers should be applied to the soil before planting. When plants are already growing, fertilizers may be applied as supplement. What are fertilizers Fertilizers are substances applied to the soil to enhance the growth of plants. A plant grower like you, who wants to grow plants of good quality as well as high yield should know the value of plant nutrition. If your site used to be a forested area, and it has been turned into a vegetable farm, fertilizers are not necessary. Soil nutrients are still in place. However, if the area has been frequently used for several planting seasons, fertilizer application is necessary. What is the value of fertilizer to plants? The following statements will tell you: 1. It increases the yield of crops; 2. It improves soil condition. Clayey soil turns porous when mixed with organic fertilizers; 3. It balances the acidity extent of the soil. Bone meal, pulverized eggshell, clamshells, oyster shells or any form of agricultural lime can help neutralize the soil; 4. It helps plants produce flowers, fruits and shoots. 5. It helps develop storage roots in root crops. You can add more benefits which fertilizers give to plants when you visit your garden. You will be eager to apply your knowledge of fertilizer use. There are two types of fertilizers. These are organic and inorganic fertilizers. a. Organic fertilizers which are derived from decaying plant and animal products such as blood meal, bone meal, manure, plant parts and leftovers. b. Inorganic fertilizers which are chemically manufactured, using raw materials such as natural gas and phosphate rock, which are more concentrated compared to organic fertilizers. Now, let us see if you can tell the difference between inorganic and organic fertilizers. Activity 1 Differentiate inorganic fertilizer from organic fertilizer through the raw materials they contain. ORGANIC a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. INORGANIC

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How well did you get it? Good! If not, go over the missed item and try again. After knowing the two types of fertilizers, you will now identify examples of each type. A. Organic Fertilizers 1. Animal Manure - These refer to the waste matter of animals such as chicken dung, horse manure, cow manure, carabao manure, hog manure, and bat manure or guano. These manures are dried or decomposed before they are used as fertilizers. This type of fertilizers contains less nutrients and is slow in reaction but it improves the texture of the soil. 2. Green manure - Plants are sources of organic matter. When plants are in the flowering stage, they are plowed under to mix them with the soil for purpose of decomposition before used in planting crops. Examples of plants used as green manure are monggo, peanut , and soybean. 3. Compost - This is a product made up of decomposed plant parts and kitchen and garden refuse piled or buried in a pit and left to decay for a period of time. Following are the methods of composting: a. Compost pit - composting by digging a pit for keeping compost materials underground. b. Compost heap - a compost pile. c. Basket composting - composting home garbage and garden and farm wastes in baskets half buried in garden plots. B. Inorganic Fertilizers This type of fertilizers consists of the following: 1. Complete fertilizers - commercial fertilizers which contain the major elements needed by plants. These elements are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. 2. Incomplete fertilizers - inorganic fertilizers which lack one or two major elements. Some inorganic fertilizers release nutrients fast, others slowly over a period of time. Hence, these two types of fertilizers are known as slow-release and fast-release fertilizers. Inorganic fertilizers are available in different forms. a. Liquid - This type of fertilizer is popular because of ease application and fast response. b. Soluble powder - These are fertilizers in powder form which can be dissolved easily in water and applied as liquid fertilizers. c. Granular form - It is the most common and widely used fertilizer. The nutrients are compressed into beads. Slow release fertilizers are in this form.

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After knowing the types of fertilizers, let us now find out how much you have learned. Activity 2 Write examples of organic and inorganic fertilizers. A. Organic fertilizers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B. Inorganic fertilizers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Self-check: Identify what each of the following statements is describing. __________1. Materials which when added to the soil, promote plant growth. __________2. Fertilizers derived from animal manure. __________3. Chemically manufactured fertilizers. __________4. A product of decomposition from the garden, plants and kitchen refuse. __________5. Composting method that is done by digging a pit and allowing materials to rot in it. __________6. The method of decomposition by forming a pile of compost materials and allowing them to rot for a certain period of time. __________7. Composting home garbage in baskets half-buried in the garden plots. __________8. Commercial fertilizers containing the three major elements. __________9. Inorganic fertilizers that contain one or two major elements. __________10.An inorganic fertilizer, that is popular because of ease of application and quick response or result.

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Lesson 2 Elements of Fertilizers and their Functions
After knowing the different types of fertilizers and their examples, your next lesson focuses on elements found in these fertilizers. Since plant nutrients are mineral elements mostly found in soil, it is important to know what these elements are and how they relate to plant growth. Plants need sixteen (16) nutrient elements. Thirteen of which come direct from the soil as mineral elements. These elements are not all needed by all plants, but are found to be essential. These essential elements may be required in small quantities or amounts. Mineral elements needed by plants in large amounts are called macroelements. These are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) sulfur, calcium and magnesium. Microelements are boron, copper, chlorine, manganese, molybdenum, zinc and iron. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are obtained from carbon dioxide and water. They are not mineral nutrients. . Macroelements and their effects on Plants 1. Nitrogen - plants grow vigorously. They are deep green, particularly the shoots and leaves. However, excessive use prolongs the growth period and delays crop maturity. 2. Phosphorus - this element enhances flowering, fruiting, root development and disease resistance. 3. Potassium - it is needed in starch formation, the movement of sugar in the plant, the formation of chlorophyll, the growth of flower and fruit coloring. You may wonder why commercial fertilizers are labeled with three groups of numbers separated by hyphens. These standard numbers refer to the percentage of a particular nutrient in the fertilizer. Example is 15-10-20. The first number always refers to the percentage of nitrogen (N); the second, to the percentage of phosphorus (P) in chemical form called phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5); and the third number refers to the percentage of potassium (K) in chemical form called potash (K2O). This fertilizer sample label shows the representation of macro-elements in fertilizers. Now, work on the activity below to check your comprehension of the lesson presented. Activity 3 Collect a sample label of fertilizer from magazines and newspapers. Then, identify the macroelements found on the labels of fertilizers. Self-check:

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Enumerate the following: 1. The first three macro or major elements 2. At least 7 microelements

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Lesson 3 Methods of Fertilizer Application
After learning the mineral elements in fertilizers, I am pretty sure you gained a lot of knowledge on mineral elements as nutrients needed for plant growth and development. Your next lesson focuses on how fertilizers are to be applied in plants. Remember, as human beings, you need to see a physician to know what medicine your body needs before taking it. Taking medicine without any prescription is not advisable. The same is true with plants. You need to know what mineral elements are needed, considering their physical appearance before applying fertilizers. The pechay plant for example, is stunted in growth and its leaf petiole is violet in color. This shows that it needs nitrogenous fertilizer. Have you ever experienced applying fertilizer? Read further and find out how it is done. Fertilizer Application There are many ways of applying inorganic fertilizer on your plants, as follows:

Side dressing

Foliar Spray Broadcast Application 1. Top dressing - The fertilizer is applied on growing crops. It should reach the roots through rainfall or irrigation.

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2. Side dressing - This is surface fertilizer application used on rows of plants such as corn or vegetable crops. The fertilizer is applied along one side or on both sides of the row over the root area of the plants. The fertilizer should be at a distance from the base of the plant because it can cause burning by contact. Application should be done before cultivation in order to cover the fertilizer with soil. 3. Broadcasting - the fertilizer is scattered uniformly and mixed with the soil before planting. This is done manually or through mechanical spreaders. 4. Foliar spray - the fertilizer is diluted in water and sprayed over the foilage/leaves of the growing plants. Plants absorb nutrients in small quantities through the leaves and stem. 5. Drill method- another effective technique of applying fertilizers which is done by drilling holes in the root zone of a tree. The holes are then filled with the granular fertilizer, following the recommended rate, and then covered with soil. You have just learned how to apply fertilizers in various ways. Let us now see how much you have learned in this lesson. Self-check: Match Column B with Column A. Write only the letter of the correct answer on your notebook. Column A 1. A method of fertilizer application which applies fertilizers over growing plants. 2. Surface application of fertilizers on rows of plants. 3. Applying fertilizer by diluting it with water and spraying over growing plants. 4. A hole is formed and then filled with granular fertilizer based on the recommended rate. 5. Throwing the fertilizer uniformly or incorporating this with soil before planting. LET’S SUMMARIZE Importance of fertilizers Column B a. Side dressing b. Broadcasting c. Drill method d. Perforated hose e. Top dressing f. Foliar

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

It helps increase the yield of farm crops. It improves soil condition. It balances the acidity value of the soil. It helps plants produce flowers, fruits and shoots. It helps develop storage roots in root crops.

There are two types of fertilizers. These are the organic and inorganic fertilizers. Organic fertilizer are derived from decaying plant and animal products such as bone meal, blood meal, manure, plant parts leftovers. Inorganic fertilizer are chemically manufactured using raw materials such as natural gas, phosphate rock, which are more concentrated compared to organic fertilizers. Macroelements found in fertilizers are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, calcium, and magnesium. Microelements found in fertilizers are boron, copper, chlorine, manganese, molybdenum, zinc and iron. Methods of applying fertilizers are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Top dressing Side dressing Broadcasting Foliar spray Drill hole

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POSTTEST I. Encircle the letter of the correct answer. 1. A material that is added to the soil to promote plant growth. a. chemical b. composting c. fertilizer d. inorganic 2. Fertilizers derived from animals and plants. a. liquid b. organic c. manure d. compost 3. Chemically produced fertilizers. a. inorganic b. organic c. natural d. compost 4. Animal excreta used as fertilizers. a. liquid b. green manure c. manure d. granules 5. The practice of fertilizing in which legumes are used. a. foliar b. drill hole c. green manure d. basket composting 6. A material not needed in composting. a. manure b. weeds c. kitchen refuse d. Styrofoam 7. The process of composting underground where materials rot. a. pit b. heap c. basket d. biological

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8. It is not a macroelement. a. Nitrogen b. Phosphorus c. Potassium d. Manganese 9. Which of these fertilizers is popular due to ease of its application and quick response? a. granules b. liquid c. powder d. slow release 10. The most common and popularly used commercial fertilizer? a. fast release b. compost c. organic d. granules II. Enumerate the three major elements in fertilizers needed by plants. 1. 2. 3.

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ANSWER KEY Pretest I. 1. g 2. e 3. a 4. h 5. i 6. b 7. c 8. d 9. f 10. j II. 1. nitrogen 2. phosphorus 3. potassium Activity 1 Organic Inorganic a. b. c. d. e. Activity 2 A. Organic 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Manure Compost Green Manure Basket Compost Guano B. Inorganic 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Complete Incomplete Liquid Granular Powder Manure bone meal plant parts blood meal kitchen waste a. b. c. d. Inorganic chemicals concentrated natural gas phosphate rock

Lesson 1: Self-check 1. Fertilizer 2. Manure 3. Inorganic

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4. Compost 5. Compost pit 6. Compost heap 7. Basket composting 8. Complete 9. Incomplete 10. Liquid Lesson 2: Self-check I. 1. Nitrogen 2. Phosphorous 3. Potassium II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Boron Zinc Manganese Molybdenum Copper Chlorine Iron

Lesson 3: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. e a f c b

Posttest I. 1. c 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. c 6. d 7. a 8. d 9. b 10. d

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II. 1. Nitrogen 2. Phosphorus 3. Potassium

16

PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 7 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Plant Crop Production First Year Module 7 Watch Out for Little Creatures!

What this module is about
Congratulations, dear student! This is your last module in plant production. Did you enjoy learning your modules in this unit? Were you able to learn a lot? I’m counting on you to do your best always! This module focuses on the little creatures that infest plants. Loss in crop production is not only due to the problem of weeds but to the presence of insect pests, too. Growth of plants can be affected if attacked by insect pests. Wide infestation is a problem to most plant grower. This is why this module dwells on crop protection. Insect pests are carriers of plant diseases. If they are not controlled, crop yield will diminish. Hence, observe insect pests in your garden and control them before it’s too late.

What to learn from this module
In this module, you will know the different insect pests and the diseases common in plant production and how these are controlled. This module enables you to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. identify common plant pests and diseases; explain how pests and diseases are classified; discuss pest infestation; identify and describe signs and symptoms of common plant diseases; and explain how common plant pests and diseases are controlled.

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PRETEST Directions: Encircle the letter of the correct answer. 1. It is an insect pest that metamorphoses from nymph to a winged adult. a. aphid b. caterpillar c. scale insect d. borer 2. Which of the following insect pests is a larva of moths or butterflies? a. bugs b. hoppers c. cutworms d. beetles 3. It is a disease sometimes called seed rot. a. spot b. mildew c. mosaic d. damping-off 4. This is a disease caused by molds or tiny plants that do not control chlorophyll. a. bacteria b. fungus c. nematodes d. virus 5. This disease usually attacks pepper and turns its leaves dark brown with lesions. a. anthracnose b. bacterial spot c. mosaic d. scab 6. It is a disease that curls the leaves of the plants and turns it in yellowish color. a. mosaic b. scab c. spot d. wilt 7. These are chewing insects, except one. a. borer b. cutworm c. flies d. potato weevil

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8. Which of the following insects is not a sucking pest? a. aphid b. hopper c. squash bug d. scale insect 9. Bacteria are single-celled organisms not capable of manufacturing their own a. food b. carbohydrates c. chlorophyll d. elements 10. The use of living organisms such as spiders and praying mantis in controlling insect pests is known as a. mechanical method b. biological method c. chemical method d. cultural method

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Lesson 1 Common Plant Pests and Diseases
Hello, dear student! In the previous module, you learned that weeds are breeding places of insect pests, which are carriers of plant diseases. Let us now find out how insect pests relate to diseases. Common Plant Pest Aphids can change its body color to match the plant parts and turn from nymph to adult. It develops wings and fly to another plant host in the same plant family. Aphids mature in 12 days.

Cutworm is a larva of moths and butterflies. It hatches in the underside of leaves of plants. It is also called caterpillar. Borers eat, grow, and hatch inside plant parts as caterpillar. When plant tops wilt suddenly, this shows that borers are around. Borer is a cousin of the cutworm. Bugs lay in white cottony masses. When young, bugs crawl like a scale insect. They excrete large amounts of honeydew that is why they are being followed by ants and mold fungus.

Fly Beetle

Beetle eats all the leaves of its host plants.

Fly lives on the underside of leaves. It is the cousin of the white fly.

Potato weevil

Squash bug

Hopper

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• • • •

Hopper is also called Katydid. It is always in the garden particularly in the dry season. It defoliates plants and also strips the bark of young trees and shrubs. Scale insect can move from one host to another. When adult, scale insects do not move and stay with the host plant. Potato weevil is the most destructive insect pest that attacks sweet potato crops. It is ¼ inch (.635 cm) long. It has long-legged and slim body that looks like a large ant. Squash bug is brownish black in color and 1.69 cm long. The nymphs are white, blacklegged creature. it has two small oval spots on the undersurface that emits a foul odor.

Slugs and snails Mexican bean beetle • • Slugs live in slimy trails. In the daytime, you can find it under rocks and leaves. Slugs are busy looking for food at night. Mexican bean beetle has 16 black spots and has yellow and brown covers. Its larvae are spindly yellow grubs. It feeds on the leaves of bean plants. Now, here are the common plant diseases.

Tomato mosaic Antracnose

Bacterial spot

Fungal disease Damping-off 6 Scab

• • • • • •

Damping-off is sometimes called seed-rot which rots seeds easily when attacked. Anthracnose usually attack tomatoes. Fruits developed a water-soaked, sunken circular spots, usually with concentric rings. As a fruit rot, anthracnose attack ripe fruits. Bacterial spot usually attack pepper. Pepper leaves turn dark brown with lesions that turn yellow and fall. It is rough, blister-like spots that develop on the fruit. Scab develops distinct, round or elongated lesions with raised edges, giving a scabby appearance to petioles and stems. Tomato Mosaic causes the yellowing and curling of the leaves of tomato plants. Fungal disease usually looks like molds on the leaves of plants. Squash plant is often attacked by fungus.

Activity 1 Label each illustration correctly. 1. 4. 2. 5. 3.

Self-check: Write on the blank the answer to each statement. _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. _____5. An insect pest that changes body color to match plant parts. An insect that eats the leaves of plants of its plant host. It has 16 black spots and yellow to brown cover. A disease that rots seeds or seedlings. A disease of the pepper plant that turns its leaves dark brown with raised lesions.

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Lesson 2 Classifying Insect Pests and Diseases
After identifying the plant pests and diseases, let us now classify them. Below is the classification of plant pests and diseases. Grouping of Insects and Pests Insect Groups 1. Chewing Insects Insect Pests Cutworm, borer, beetles, hoppers, slugs, potato weevil, Mexican bean beetle Aphids, bugs, flies, scale insects, squash bugs Infestation Have developed mouth parts. Eat up the foliage and other plant parts.

2. Sucking Insects

Has a tube-like sucking mouth which is inserted into the leaves and stems of plants to suck their juice.

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Remember, in plant crop production, diseases are as harmful as insect pests. Plants show signs of abnormalities due to the presence of destructive activities of microorganisms or pathogens. Plant diseases are caused by various microscopic organisms as indicated in the following table: Organisms Virus Descriptions These are sub-microscopic organisms transmitted through the mouth parts of contaminated insects. These are single-celled organisms not capable of manufacturing their own food. Plant Diseases Tomato mosaic, cassava mosaic, potato yellow dwarf, rice stripe

Bacteria

Black rot, soft rot, bacterial spot

Fungus

These are also known as molds. These are like plants but do not control chlorophyll and are not capable of manufacturing carbohydrates, their food.

Damping-off, seed rot, downy mildew, fungal diseases in squash

How well did you understand the lesson? Good! Now let us go on.

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Activity 2 Classify the following insect pests according to their way of infestations. cutworm aphids hoppers bugs squash bug scale insects flies potato weevil slugs Sucking Insects 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Chewing Insects 1. 2. 3. 4.

Activity 3 Classify the following diseases according to the organisms that cause them. black rot cassava mosaic potato yellow dwarf Viral Diseases 1. 2. 3. 4. Self-check: Write C if the statement is correct, and W, if the statement is wrong. _______ 1. Fungus and bacteria are organisms that cause plant diseases. _______ 2. Sucking insects have developed mouth parts. _______ 3. Chewing insects bite off and eat up foliage and other plant parts. _______ 4. Aphids, bugs, and flies are sucking insects. _______ 5. Bacteria are single-celled organisms not capable of manufacturing their own food. bacterial spot rice stripe seed rot damping-off soft rot tomato mosaic Fungal Diseases 1. 2.

Bacterial Diseases 1. 2. 3.

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Lesson 3 Control of Plant Pests
After knowing the different plant pests and diseases, you must likewise know the different ways of controlling them. This lesson helps you identify the ways of controlling plant pests and diseases. Ways of Pest Control 1. Cultural Method a. Good soil preparation - Healthy soil grows healthy plants that are more resistant to pests. Soil rich in humus contains a wide variety of beneficial microorganisms that trap nematodes and destroy or keep disease organisms dormant thereby encouraging beneficial insects. b. Use of indigenous varieties - Traditional varieties of plants are harder and relatively more resistant to pests. c. Pruning - Removal of diseased plant parts before these spreads to uninfected areas is preventive. d. Intercropping with aromatic herbs - Plants that are odorous are incorporated in the area to repel insects. e. Multiple cropping - Planting several varieties of plants on the farm can reduce host plants where pests attached themselves. f. Crop rotation - Adopt the practice of planting a pest resistant crop after a susceptible one. 2. Biological pest control - This refers to the use of pest populations by living organisms such as predators and parasites. Examples are the dragonfly, praying mantis, birds, spiders, toads, snakes, and among others.

3. Chemical pest control - This control method uses insecticides such as malathion, sevin and others.

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Type of Chemical Insecticides a. Stomach poison works against insects that eat the plant parts. Caterpillars, grasshoppers and beetles are destroyed by this type of insecticides. b. Contact poison kills insects when hit or comes in contact with the poison. Any kind of insect can be controlled through contact poison, including insects that suck plants such as aphids and leafhoppers. Malathion is an example of this type of insecticides. c. Systemic poisons are chemicals that enter the plant sap and move throughout the entire plant. They are effective in chewing and sucking insects which are poisoned when they suck juice from plants treated with chemicals. d. Fumigants are actually contact poisons in gaseous form. The gases or fumes kill the insects that destroy plants. 4. Mechanical Method – It is the method of picking and crushing insects with the hand or catching them using nets and traps. 5. Botanical pest control -Plant parts are pounded, extracted and used to control insect pests. The santan flower is pounded and spread around stored grain to control corn weevil. Seeds of the neem tree are used to control rice pests and diamondback moth. You can now select and apply any of the methods you have learned. Just always consider the environmental effects of the method you’ve chosen. Activity 4 Mang Eusebio is a plant grower. During two seasons of growing pechay, he experienced insect pests. This bothered him so he plans to stop growing plants. 1. What can you advise Mang to Eusebio? 2. Justify your advice. Self-check: Identify what the following statements are describing. _______ 1. The control of insect pests, using good soil preparation, the use of indigenous varieties and pruning. _______ 2. The control of pest population by living organisms. _______ 3. Use of malathion and sevin in controlling insect pests. _______ 4. The method of picking and crushing insects by hand or through the use of nets and traps. _______ 5. A method using plant extracts in the control of insects.

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Lesson 4 Common Plant Diseases and Their Control
You learned how to control insect pests in the previous lesson. Now, let us find out how diseases are controlled in plant crop production. You need this information when you are managing your own farm or home backyard garden. Damage caused by microorganisms which is visible in the physiological appearance of plant parts is known as symptom.

Damage is visible on the leaves, vascular tissues, roots and flowers of plants. When the disease organism is identified, a suitable fungicide is applied to the plant to control the disease. Here are some ways of controlling plant diseases. • • • • • • • • Canker can be controlled by cutting the infected tissue of the tree. Keep the tree healthy and well fertilized. Gall or abnormal swelling in plants can be destroyed by cutting the infected tissue of the plant or by spraying with fungicide. Leaf blight is a plant disease characterized by general browning, death of foliage and falling of leaves. This can be controlled by destroying all the falling leaves and spraying with fungicides every two weeks. For mildew, you can destroy all infected parts or you can use sulfur fungicide. Rot can be controlled through crop rotation. Fruit rot can be checked through sanitation and spraying fungicides. Rust can be destroyed by removing its intermediate host. Select a rust resistant variety and spray with fungicide. Wilt is a plant disease characterized by loss of turgidity especially in leaf tissues. This can be prevented by spraying with fungicides. Use resistant varieties and practice crop rotation. Viral diseases can be prevented through rigorous sanitation program. If infestation is severe, destroy the plant completely.

Note that most of the plant diseases presented are eliminated through the cultural and chemical methods. Botanical method can also be employed in controlling plant diseases. Plant part extracts are used such as cloves of garlic, leaves of Acapulco, onion bulbs and others. Another practice in the control of plant diseases is sanitation. This is done by destroying weeds, cleaning the garden, and the surroundings as well as the tools used.

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Activity 5 Analyze the given situation then answer the questions that follow. Mang Pedring is a plant grower who specializes in tomato production. One day, he noticed that the leaves of some tomato plants were drying up even if watering was thoroughly done. Help Mang Pedring solve his problem before its too late. Questions: 1. What plant disease has infected Mang Pedring’s tomato plants? 2. Suggest three ways of controlling it. a. b. c.

Self-check: Identify what each of the following statements is about. __________1. It is a disease that distorts, deform and curl the plants if infestation takes place. __________2. It is a popular chemical that destroys fungal diseases in plants. __________3. It is a method of controlling disease using plant extracts. __________4. It is a practice of controlling disease by cleaning the garden area. __________5. Damage caused by microorganisms is visible in the appearance of plant parts. LET’S SUMMARIZE Common insects pests in plants are as aphids, cutworms, borers, bugs, beetles, flies, hoppers, scale insects, slugs, sweet potato weevils, among others. Damping-off, anthracnose, bacterial spot, scab, tomato mosaic, and fungus are some of the common diseases in plants. Insect pests in plants are classified into two groups. These are the chewing insects and the sucking insects. Plant diseases are classified as to virus, bacteria and fungus. Control of plant pests can be done through cultural method, biological method, chemical method, botanical pest control and mechanical method. Common Plant Diseases and their Control a. Canker b. Gall c. Leaf blight -cultural -fungicide -fungicide

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d. Mildew e. Rot f. Rust g. Wilt h. Viral

-fungicide -cultural; fungicide -fungicide -crop rotation; fungicide -sanitation

POSTTEST Directions: Encircle the letter of the correct answer. 1. It is an insect pest that metamorphoses from nymph to winged adult. a. aphid b. caterpillar c. scale insect d. borer 2. Which of the following insect pests is a larva of moths and butterflies? a. bugs b. hoppers c. cutworms d. beetle 3. It is a disease sometimes known as seed rot. a. spot b. mildew c. mosaic d. damping-off 4. Which is a disease caused by molds that does not control chlorophyll? a. bacteria b. fungus c. nematodes d. virus 5. This disease is usually found in pepper, the leaves of which turn dark brown with raised lesions. a. anthracnose b. bacterial spot c. mosaic d. scab 6. It is a disease of tomato plants whose leaves turn yellowish and curl. a. mosaic b. scab c. spot d. wilt

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7. These are chewing insects, except one. a. borer b. cutworm c. flies d. potato weevil 8. Which of the following insects is not a sucking pest? a. aphid b. hopper c. squash bug d. scale insect 9. Bacteria are single-celled organisms not capable of manufacturing their own a. food b. carbohydrates c. chlorophyll d. elements 10. The use of living organisms such as spiders and praying mantis in controlling insect pests is known as a. mechanical method b. biological method c. chemical method d. cultural method

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ANSWER KEY Pretest / Posttest 1. a 2. c 3. d 4. b 5. b 6. a 7. c 8. b 9. a 10. b Lesson 1: Activity 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. borer aphid tomato mosaic hopper bacterial spot

Lesson 1: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. aphid beetle Mexican bean beetle damping-off bacterial spot

Lesson 2: Activity 2 Chewing Insects cutworm hoppers potato weevil slugs Sucking Insects aphids bugs squash bug scale insects

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flies Lesson 2: Activity 3 Viral 1. 2. 3. 4. Cassava mosaic Potato yellow dwarf Rice stripe Tomato mosaic Bacterial 1. Black rot 2. Bacterial spot 3. Soft rot Fungal 1. Seed rot 2. Damping-off

Lesson 2: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C W C C C

Lesson 3: Activity 4 1. He can apply crop rotation. 2. This will eliminate diseases present in plants due to other crops planted. Lesson 3: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cultural method Biological method Chemical pest control Mechanical method Botanical pest control

Lesson 4: Activity 5 1. Wilt 2. a. Fungicide b. Planting resistant varieties c. Crop rotation Lesson 4: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Viral disease Fungicide Botanical Sanitation Symptom

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PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 8 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Animal Production First Year Module 8 Possibilities of Raising Animals

What this module is about
Protein is equally important as that of vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates. It helps rebuild worn-out tissues and helps develop our bones and muscles. Meat from animals is a good source of protein. Thus, most families particularly in the rural areas, raise animals for food. It is because animal production does not only supply the family with food rich in protein that the body needs but it adds greatly to the income of the family. Are you one of those who want to put up a backyard animal project? If undecided yet, this module will help you make the right decision.

What to learn from this module
This module wants to achieve the following objectives: 1. determine the possibilities of poultry and livestock raising; and 2. describe an ideal site for poultry and livestock raising.

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PRETEST Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. Term for four-legged animals. a. crops b. livestock c. poultry d. fish 2. An animal noted for its meat and skin. a. rabbit b. cattle c. weanling d. broiler 3. Location of the project should be wide enough to allow _____. a. water drainage b. marketing c. transportation d. future expansion 4. These are sold for hog fattening and “lechon” purposes. a. cattle b. goats c. broilers d. weanlings 5. The term for all feathered animals. a. livestock b. fish c. poultry d. rabbit 6. Reduces marketing and transportation costs. a. accessibility to school b. nearness to roads c. availability of supplies d. water drainage 7. Project should be agreeable and favorable to the _____. a. market b. animals c. community d. location

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8. Good sources of protein. a. root crops b. cereals c. meat from animals d. vegetables 9. Can be raised and sold within 45 days. a. layers b. hogs c. broilers d. rabbits 10. Maintains cleanliness and sanitation. a. transportation b. water drainage c. marketing d. location

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Lesson 1 Poultry and Livestock Raising
“If you think it can be done and you can feel it, it can be done”. Animal production consists of the raising of poultry (all feathered animals) as well as livestock (any four-legged animals) such as swine, cattle, goat, sheep and rabbit for family consumption or commercial purposes. Here are the possibilities and benefits of animal production which can help you decide whether to put up an animal project or not.

Why raise animals?

1. Poultry production provides meat and egg, which are good sources of protein. Broilers can be sold within 45 days for they grow fast. It is a good source of income and a good business.

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2. Hog fattening enterprise returns investment fast, because hogs can be disposed within 5- 6 months. Weanlings are sold for “lechon” purposes or for hog fattening.

3. Cattle raising provides milk and meat. Cattle are also used in farming. They are easy to handle and need only a fence, pasture land, water and mineral supply such as salt and control measures against pests and diseases.

4. Goat raising is a good business for it provides milk and meat. A female goat can give birth to a number of young goats (kids) during its productive years. 5. Rabbit raising is usually done as a hobby. Only a small space is needed and improvised equipment may be used. Rabbits are very productive and resistant to diseases. They are popular for their meat and skin.

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What else Animal raising is a truly worthwhile and enjoyable activity. Animal raisers are compensated not only with the benefits. It fosters love for animals, too. Are you now convinced with the value of animal production? Do you plan to raise animals in the future? Activity 1 Make a survey of the common poultry and livestock animals raised in your community. Interview the animal raisers and ask the following questions: 1. What animals are you raising? 2. Why did you choose these animals for purposes of raising? 3. What benefits do you get from raising these animals? Write the result of the activity on a sheet of paper to be submitted to your teacher. Self-check: Write T if the statement is true, and F, if the statement is false. _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. _____5. There is a fast turnover of capital in swine raising. Cattle raising is also used in farming. The rabbit is an animal noted for its meat and skin. Goats provide good meat only. Livestock animals grow and mature fast.

Lesson 2 Ideal Site for Poultry and Livestock Project

I have decided to put up an animal project. How should I go about it?

After you have decided to put up an animal project, you now need to choose an ideal site for the project.

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Selection of the farm site is an important decision to make because relocation of the farm once established or constructed is very expensive.

What factors should I consider in the choice of an ideal site for my project?

Following are factors you need to consider in the choice of an ideal site: 1. Accessibility to market - Choose a place where there are prospective buyers of your product or where there is a high demand for poultry and livestock and meat and eggs. 2. Nearness to roads and markets- This reduces marketing and transportation costs. 3. Availability of materials and other supplies - Select a place where there is supply of good breed, feed and food supplements as well as drugs and medicine. 4. Water drainage - There should be good water and good sources of water drainage in the area to ensure cleanliness and sanitation. 5. Population in the community – The project should be agreeable and favorable to the community. 6. There should be provision for future expansion. Activity 2 Study and analyze the picture below. What catches your attention? Is it an ideal site for a poultry and piggery farm? Why do you think so?

Were you able to describe an ideal site for an animal project? Good, you can now start looking for a good site for your project.

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Self-check: Write C if the statement is correct, and W, if the statement is wrong. _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nearness to roads reduces the cost of transporting the products. Water drainage is needed to keep the area clean. For economic purposes, space should be limited. Animal projects should be agreeable to neighborhood. There should be a market demand for the animal to be raised.

Were you able to answer the self-check correctly? Very good! You’re doing very well. You may take now the posttest to further assess what you’ve learned in this module. Good luck! POSTTEST Choose and write the letter of the correct answer. 1. Good sources of protein. a. root crops b. cereals c. meat products from animals d. vegetables 2. Term for all feathered animals. a. vegetables b. poultry c. crops d. livestock 3. Term for four-legged animals. a. poultry b. crops c. livestock d. vegetables 4. An animal noted for its meat and skin. a. goat b. rabbit c. cattle d. swine 5. Can be raised and sold within 45 days.

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a. b. c. d.

broilers layers weanlings rabbits

6. They are sold for hog fattening and “lechon” purposes. a. broilers b. layers c. weanlings d. rabbits 7. Reduces marketing and transporting costs. a. nearness to roads b. availability of supplies c. accessibility to school d. water drainage 8. Important to maintain cleanliness and sanitation of the farm animal. a. roads b. market c. water drainage d. materials 9. The project should be agreeable and favorable to the _____. a. location b. transportation c. community d. market 10. The site should be wide enough for a. future expansion b. transportation c. marketing d. water drainage How’s your posttest? Were you able to answer all the questions correctly? Very Good! You have finished this module successfully. Congratulations!

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ANSWER KEY Pretest 1. b 2. a 3. d 4. d 5. c 6. b 7. c 8. c 9. c 10. b Lesson 1: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. T T T F F

Lesson 2: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C C W C C

Posttest 1. c 2. b 3. c . 4. b 5. a 6. c 7. a 8. c 9. c l0. a

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PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 9 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Animal Production First Year Module 9 Easy to Know, Easy to Grow (Selecting Animal Breeds)
What this module is about
Module 8 showed you the possibilities of poultry and livestock raising and gave you an idea on how to choose an ideal site for poultry and livestock projects. However to enable you to put up an animal project, you need to know the kind and quality of the animals to raise. Work on this module to help you learn more on the kinds of animals to raise. It will then be easy for you in the future to take care of your own poultry or livestock to raise.

What to learn from this module
This module aims to help you achieve the following objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. identify factors in selecting animals for raising purposes; discuss the common types and breeds of poultry and livestock; identify the characteristics and quality of good breeds; and be able to select animal breeds.

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PRETEST Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. Type of poultry intended for egg and meat purposes. a. meat type b. egg type c. general purpose d. fancy type 2. Which of the following is not a factor in considering the kind of animal to raise? a. market demand b. personal preference c. carcass quality d. technical know-how 3. Which is not an egg type breed of poultry? a. Wyandotte b. Leghorn c. Minorca d. Mikawa 4. Breed of swine that is black with a white band. a. Duroc Jersey b. Hampshire c. Poland China d. Yorkshire 5. Breed of swine that has large ears that cover much of its face. a. Hampshire b. Berk Jala c. Landrace d. Yorkshire 6. A cow that is easily identified due to its hump on the shoulder. a. Santa Gertrudes b. Nellore c. American Brahman d. Philippine Cattle 7. Which is not a characteristic of an ideal broiler chick? a. rapid growth b. good fleshing c. sexual character d. uniformity

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8. The result of mating two different breeds. a. Berkjala b. Brahman c. Santa Gertrudes d. Crossbreeds 9. Which of the following is a fancy type of poultry? a. Minorca b. Hubbarol c. Frizzles d. Wyandotte 10. Breed of swine that is black, with six white spots on the feet, face and tail tip. a. Duroc Jersey b. Hampshire c. Poland China d. Chester White

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Lesson 1 Factors in Selecting Animals to Raise
“Collect and select the best among the rest.” This saying also applies in selecting animals to raise. For you to select animals you want to raise, you have to consider the following factors: 1. Personal preference Identify the animals which you are interested in or prefer to raise given the opportunity. 2. Market demand You should have prospective buyers or consumers of the product, or this should be high on demand at the market to ensure profit.

Is there a reliable source where I can buy my stocks?

Is the demand for this kind of animal high?

Is there an agricultural supply near the area where all the needed materials can be bought?

Do I have the knowhow to raise this kind of animal?

3. Availability of stocks Animals to be raised should be bought from reliable sources near the area of the animal project.

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4. Availability of materials, feeds, vitamins and medicines There should be available sources or supply near the area. 5. Technical know-how You should have the technical knowledge of animal care and management. After identifying the factors, work on the activity below. Activity 1 Tell whether the reasons of the following individuals are justified in raising the particular animal. Beth: Nora: I shall raise broilers because Neri is also raising them. I will be fattening hogs to be able to dispose them during the town fiesta. Which reason is more justifiable? Why? Let us check on what you have learned from this lesson. Self-check: Identify the factors to which the following statements /questions relate. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Where can I buy livestock to raise? I am a pilot. Can I raise piglets in our backyard? There are still two months before Christmas so, I am going to raise broilers. Where can I buy these medicines for my cattle? I am fascinated with chickens. Did you get all the answers right? Good! Now, you can move on to the next lesson.

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Lesson 2 Types and Breeds of Poultry and Livestock to Raise
What kinds of poultry and livestock do you know? To which poultry or livestock breeds do they belong? How do you distinguish breeds? Poultry are classified according to utility and place of origin. Let’s find out how.

1. Leghorn Egg-type in utility and is raised for its eggs. 2. Peterson Meat-type in utility and is broiler as to type. Leghorn 3. Plymouth Rock This belongs to the dual-purpose domestic fowls. It gives both meat and egg. 4. Bantam A fancy-type of ornamental fowl. unusual appearance. Raised for its beautiful plumage and form an

Let’s now meet the different swine breeds.

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Lard or Ham Type Hi, I’m Duroc Jersey. I am dark red with shades of golden yellow. I am a good producer of milk which makes me a good mother.

My name is Hampshire. I am black with a white bond. I have short legs. My tail is usually black and my ears are erect. I’m from Kentucky.

I am Poland China. My color is black with six white spots on my feet, face and tail tip. My flesh is thick and free from wrinkles and flabbiness. I’m from Ohio.

I’m Chester White from Pennsylvania. My hair and skin are white and I weigh 900 pounds or more when matured.

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Good day! I’m Hereford. I have a white head and white ears, feet, and tail. The rest of my body is light or dark red. I’m from Missouri.

Here are some of the bacon type.

Landrace Berkjala 1. Yorkshire A native of Northern England. This is mostly raised in Canada, England, Scotland and Ireland. Its color is white, with small black spots with large ears. 2. Landrace This is from Denmark. Its hair and skin are white. sometimes low with large ears that cover much of its face. Its back is usually fat but

3. Berkjala A crossbreed from the native Jalajala stock of Rizal and the Berkshire stock. Below are some breeds of cattle.

American Brahman

Charolais

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Santa Gertrudes 1. Batangas breed. This is raised for its meat. This breed is resistant to diseases. It has different colors such as black, yellow or red. Its head is long and of medium width between eyes. 2. American Brahman – it has a hump on its shoulder. It is grayish-white in color with a loose pendulous skin along its dewlap and under its throat and down to its forelegs. Its horns curve backward and upward. This breed is tolerant to heat and is a good milk producer. 3. Hereford – This breed is a native of England. Hereford is easily distinguished by its redcolored body and white face. It is often referred to white-faced cattle. It is well-known for its vigor and foraging ability. 4. Santa Gertrudes – This breed originated in Texas. It is a large beef animal which is cherry-red in color. This breed is specially adapted to subtropical climates. 5. Charolais – This breed originated in France. It varies from white to cream to light wheat. It is a good producer of meat because of its muscular body. Let’s find out how much you have learned by doing the activity below. Activity 2 From the list of breeds of poultry and livestock animals below, choose a particular breed which you can suggest to Mang Nerio, Aling Baby and Mang Peping. Justify why you are recommending the particular breed. You may go back to the past lesson so you can give enough information on the breed. Leghorn Broiler Yorkshire Philippine Cattle Landrace Duroc Jersey Brahman New Hampshire

Hereford

1. Mang Nerio wants to raise poultry for their meat. 2. Aling Baby wants to start a piggery farm by purchasing a pig for breeding purposes. 3. Mang Peping lives in a remote barangay in Oriental Mindoro. He wants to raise cattle to help him on his farm.

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Self-check: Match Column A with Column B. Write only the letter of the answer that describes the animal in Column A. A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. American Brahman Poland China Yorkshire Peterson Leghorn a. b. c. d. e. f. B egg type meat type general purpose lard type bacon type hump on the shoulder

How satisfied are you with the result of the test? Quite good. Now, proceed to the next lesson to know more.

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Lesson 3 Characteristics of Animal Breeds Good to Raise
In lesson 1, you learned the factors to consider in choosing the kind of animals to raise. In Lesson 2, you learned the different types and breeds of poultry and livestock animals. In this lesson, you will learn the characteristics of good animal breeds as well as the factors to consider in selecting animal breeds to raise. The breed of animals to raise depends much on the purpose of animal raising. It is also important to know their characteristics which relate to this purpose. Let us find out in the following conversation.

Mark: Mr. Cruz: Mark: Mr. Cruz: Mark: Mr. Cruz: Mark: Mr. Cruz:

Good morning, Sir. May I disturb you for a while? Good morning, too Mark. What can I do for you? Sir, can I ask you questions on my assignment with Mr. Mendoza in Technology and Livelihood Education? Of course you may. What are they? Why do we need to know the characteristics of the breed of animals to raise? To prevent choice of undesirable breeds for raising or breeding purposes. If I want to raise poultry for egg production, what factors should I consider? You should consider the following factors: 1. Breed and various characteristics – these are strong breed characteristics. 2. Age – best breeding age for hens is during the second and third years of egg-laying. 3. Vitality – the ability of hens to produce eggs that will hatch into strong and vigorous chicks.

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4. Sexual character – hens must look feminine, and roosters, masculine so they can protect the hens when needed. 5. Conformation – hens should have broad backs and a relatively long, wide and flat body. 6. Handling quality – chickens should have loose, pliable skins 7. Feathering – layers should have a well feathered body and a smooth skin. 8. Activity – layers should be active. Early risers tend to roost late at night. Mark: Mr. Cruz: I see. If I want to raise poultry for meat product, what kind of broilers shall I choose? The characteristics of an ideal broiler chicks are as follows: 1. Rapid growth – feed efficiency which ensures gain per unit of feed used. 2. Rapid feathering – quality that can stand cold weather and its relationship to rapid growth. 3. Good fleshing – should be well-pronounced in the breast and thigh. 4. Uniformity – uniform size to a certain age. 5. Health and vigor – should be lively 6. Good pigmentation of the skin and shanks – bright yellow shanks and skin. Mark: Mr. Cruz: It’s good to know all those factors. If I want to raise hogs, will I consider the same factors? If you want to raise hogs, the following factors may be considered. 1. 2. 3. 4. Mark: Mr. Cruz: Growth ability – should grow in size fast Temperament – active, good disposition and easy to handle Carcass quality – more lean cuts and less lard and fat cuts Feed efficiency – capacity to convert feeds to pork

How about in cattle raising, Sir? For cattle raising, consider the following factors: 1. Comparable production records which can be obtained from the animal raiser. 2. Physical characteristics - conformation such as health and freedom from hereditary defects. 3. Weight and size of the stocks 4. Weaning weight

Mark: Mr. Cruz:

By the way sir, is there any best breed? There is no best breed to raise. Each breed has its own strengths and weakness. Hence, when selecting the breed to raise, managerial skills are needed. The characteristics and factors I cited may be used as guidelines in choosing an ideal breed. However, if these breeds are given nutritious feeds and managed well, maximum productivity is possible. Really? Thank you very much, Sir, for all the information .

Mark:

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Mr. Cruz:

You’re welcome, Mark! Good! Now, let’s find out

What have you learned from the conversation above? how much you learned by answering the self-check exercise. Self-check:

Identify and write whether the given factor or characteristic refers to poultry, swine or cattle. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. carcass quality age rapid growth comparable production records uniformity LET’S SUMMARIZE Personal preference, market demand, availability of stocks, availability of materials and technical know-how are factors to consider in selecting the kind of animals to raise. Poultry breeds are classified according to utility and place of origin. Swine is classified as lard, bacon and intermediate type. There is no best breed. Animal raiser only need to choose a good breed and have managerial skill to succeed in any animal project. Did this module help you very much? To evaluate how much you’ve learned from this module, answer the posttest.

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POSTTEST Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. Type of poultry for meat purposes. a. Leghorn b. Peterson c. Bantams d. New Hampshire 2. Which of the following factors should be considered in the choice of animals to raise? a. carcass quality b. age c. personal preference d. feathering 3. Which of the following breeds is an egg type of poultry? a. Mikawa b. Plymouth Rock c. Brahmas d. Hubbard 4. A swine breed which has large ears that cover much of the face. a. Berkjala b. Landrace c. Hampshire d. Yorkshire 5. A cow which is easily recognized because of its shoulder hump. a. Nellore b. American Brahman c. Philippine Cattle d. Santa Gertrudes 6. Which of the following is a characteristic of an ideal broiler chick? a. age b. vitality c. rapid growth d. sexual character 7. It is a crossbreed of Jalajala and Berkshire. a. Berkjala b. Yorkshire c. Crossbreed d. Landrace

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8. Which of the following is not a fancy type of poultry? a. Frizzles b. Bantams c. Wyandotte d. Silkies 9. It is a swine breed, which has dark shades of golden yellow. a. Duroc Jersey b. Chester White c. Yorkshire d. Berkjala 10. Which is not a dual-purpose type of poultry? a. Minorca b. Plymouth Rock c. Wyandotte d. New Hampshire How was your perfomance? Do you need to go over the items you missed. It will help you much to fully understand the content of this module. It you rated high, very good. I hope that you can now choose a good animal breed to raise.

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ANSWER KEY Pretest 1. c 2. c 3. a 4. b 5. c 6. c 7. c 8. d 9. c 10. c Lesson 1: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. availability of stocks technical know-how market demand availability of supplies and materials personal preference 5. poultry Posttest 1. b 2. c 3. a 4. b 5. b 6. c 7. a 8. c 9. a 10. a

Lesson 2: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. f d e b a

Lesson 3: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. swine poultry poultry cattle

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PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 10 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Animal Production First Year Module 10 Live Freely and Comfortably(Animal Housing)
What this module is about
Good day! You are to start another module after having learned how to select the best breed to raise. How do you describe the place where you live? Are you satisfied and comfortable living in it? Animals, like human beings also need a well-built shelter to live in. They should be provided with a house which will enable them to move around freely and comfortably. This module is about the housing of animals.

What to learn from this module
This module aims to: 1. describe the various poultry and livestock houses, fixtures, and equipment; and 2. maintain the cleanliness and sanitation of housing facilities, fixtures, and equipment. PRETEST Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. Accessibility of good roads is important to a. invite educational field trips b. reach places easily c. deliver feeds and market animals promptly d. attract buyers and consumers 2. The most practical and cheapest way of preventing diseases and parasites. a. vaccination b. injection c. immunization d. sanitation

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3. Equipment used to prevent the crushing of piglets when furrowing. a. feeding crate b. castration rack c. breeding stall d. furrowing crate 4. Fixture for collecting bird manure. a. nests b. dropping board c. perches d. feeding and watering trough 5. Horizontal poles where birds sit and rest. a. perches b. feeding and watering trough c. nests d. dropping board 6. In constructing a house for animals, these materials are used except a. nipa b. cogon c. galvanized iron d. wood 7. Which is not part of the four-unit system of a hog house? a. furrowing unit b. slaughter unit c. nursery unit d. finishing unit 8. A material used to cover the floor and absorb the moisture from poultry manure. a. kerosene b. feed bin c. sawdust d. charcoal 9. In the choice of foundation stock to raise, select breeds that are a. good and heavy b. young and disease free c. mature d. lively 10. The place where feeds are stored. a. feeding crate b. feeding through c. feed bin d. drinking trough

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Lesson 1 Poultry and Livestock Houses, Fixtures and Equipment
Do you have animals at home? Where do they live? How about the animals raised in your community? What kind of housing do they have? What fixtures and equipment are available in the animal house? Join me in visiting animal farms with different housing fixtures and equipment. Mang Jun has a poultry farm. He raises native chickens, broilers, and layers. He provides the following housing facilities for his poultry. Range Type Native chickens are placed in a wide land area where they are free to roam around. Floor or Litter Floor This is a whole house unit or a house divided into pens where the floor is the ground or concrete, covered with litter material such as rice hulls and sawdust to absorb the moisture from the manure. All-slats This is an entire house or unit divided, elevated, and slatted into pens. It is made of bamboo splits, lumber, rattan or wire mess. Cage System Some chickens are housed in an individual cage, particularly those intended for ornamental purposes. Others stay in colony cage system. For breeding purposes, Mang Jun used any of these houses, using electricity, kerosene, charcoal or rice hulls as sources of heat. The following fixtures and equipment are used on his farm. 1. Dropping board - used for collecting manure which is rich in nitrogen and used as fertilizer. 2. Perches - horizontal poles where birds sit and rest. 3. Nests - place where hens lay their eggs. 4. Feeding trough – improvised material made of bamboo, ready-made in plastic. 5. Drinking trough – made up of bamboo joints or any earthen metal and galvanized open vessels. 6. Feeding crate – used for transporting feeds. 7. Feeding bin – a container for feed storage.

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Let’s now move on to Nard’s piggery farm. Animals are housed on his farm in these various unit systems: 1. One-unit system – only one room is used for furrowing, rearing, growing, and finishing or marketing. The sow is removed from the pen after weaning. 2. Two-unit system – after weaning, piglets are transferred to a growing-finishing house until marketing. 3. Three-unit system – after weaning, piglets are transferred to a nursery house, then to a growing-finishing house, and finally to the slaughterhouse. 4. Four-unit system – this includes the furrowing house, nursery house, growing house and finishing house prior to marketing. Fixtures and equipment used on Mang Nard’s farm consists of the following: 1. Feeding and watering troughs – improvised made of concrete or automatic 2. Feeding crate – used to transport feeds. 3. Furrowing crate or stall – for furrowing purposes made of galvanized pipes used to prevent crushing the piglets when furrowing. Let us see the backyard cattle farm of Mang Jaime. The type of housing he used is a small-scale backyard level where native materials are used such as wood and bamboo for frames and enclosures and nipa and cogon, for rooting. Available equipment and facilities are fences, corral, and feeding and drinking troughs. Did you enjoy our farm visit? Note that every farmer sees to it that a well-constructed and comfortable housing is provided for animals. The well being and health of the animals are apparently given much concern. We are now ready for an activity you will surely enjoy. Activity 1 Collect pictures and clipping of livestock and poultry houses as well as various fixtures and equipment used on a particular animal farm. Compile these in an album or folder, properly labeled for submission. Self-check: Identify what the following statements are about: _____1. Horizontal poles where birds sit and rest. _____2. An elevated poultry house made of bamboo splits, lumber, rattan or wire mess. _____3. A house for swine where piglets are transferred to the growing-finishing house until marketing. _____4. Equipment used to transport or deliver feeds. _____5. Material used to cover the floor in order to absorb moisture from the manure. Did you get all five correct? Very well. You may now proceed to the next lesson.

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Lesson 2 Sanitation and Cleanliness on the Farm
For one to live freely, happily and comfortably, a well-constructed and wellventilated house is not enough. Sanitation and cleanliness should be evidently observed. Because germs thrive well in dirty, wet, and dark areas which cause the diseases of animals. This can lead to illnesses even death of animals, which could be a great loss to the animal raiser.

Why?

What is best to do? 1. Select stocks that are young and disease free. 2. Clean an old poultry house very well particularly the walls, ceilings and all fixtures and equipment before housing a new set of animals. 3. Disinfect the whole area including house tools and equipment to destroy parasites and disease-causing organisms. 4. Confine the animals. 5. Have the animals vaccinated to prevent illness. 6. Provide good water drainage to facilitate the cleaning of the area.

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Keeping the animal house clean and sanitary minimizes loss due to the death of the animals. Clean and healthful surroundings should be provided to maintain the good health of the animals. Following is an activity to enrich what you have learned from this lesson. Activity 2 Below are illustrations of hog houses, Hog house A and Hog house B. Compare the two hog houses, then, answer the questions that follow.

A

B

Which of the illustrations shows a fitting and safe place for a newly acquired stocks of piglets? Justify your answer. Were you able to choose the right answer? If yes, this shows that you have learned considerably from this lesson. You may apply these when you have your own animal farm. Self-check: Place a ✔ before the statement if true, and an ✖, if false. _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. _____5. Select stocks from unreliable sources. Disinfecting hog houses is done to kill parasites and disease-causing organisms. Sanitation provides dirty and unfavorable surroundings. Cleanliness and sanitation reduce loss due to animal death. Germs and bacteria thrive well in dirty, wet, and dark areas.

How did you find the self-check exercise? Fine! Now, let us summarize what you have learned.

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LET’S SUMMARIZE Houses of animals should be built according to the needs, safety, health and well-being of the animals. Fixtures and equipment should be well provided for the convenience of the raiser as well as the animals. Cleanliness and sanitation should always be observed and maintained to minimize loss due to animal diseases. POSTTEST Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. Accessibility to good roads is important to a. educational field trips b. reach the place easily c. deliver feeds and market animals promptly d. attract buyers and consumers 2. The most practical and cheapest way of preventing diseases and parasites is a. vaccination b. injection c. immunization d. sanitation 3. Equipment used to prevent the crushing of piglets during furrowing. a. feeding crate b. castration rack c. breeding stall d. furrowing crate 4. Fixture used in collecting bird manure. a. nests b. dropping board c. perches d. feeding and watering trough 5. Horizontal poles where birds sit and rest. a. perches b. feeding and watering trough c. nests d. dropping board

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6. In a small backyard animal raising, the following materials are used to construct the house except a. nipa b. cogon c. galvanized iron d. wood 7. Which is not part of the four-unit system of a hog house? a. furrowing unit b. slaughter unit c. nursery unit d. finishing unit 8. The material used to cover the floor and absorb moisture from poultry manure. a. kerosene b. feed bin c. sawdust d. charcoal 9. In selecting foundation stock to raise, choose breeds that are a. good and heavy b. young and disease free c. mature d. lively 10. The place where feeds are stored. a. feeding crate b. feeding trough c. feed bin d. drinking trough If your rating is below 6, go over and do the test again. If your rating is above 7, very good, you’ve learned a lot. Take a rest before proceeding to the next module.

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ANSWER KEY Pretest / Posttest 1. c 2. d 3. d 4. b 5. a 6. c 7. b 8. c 9. b 10. c Lesson 1: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. perches all-slats two-unit system feeding crate litter materials

Lesson 2: Self-check 1. ✖ 2. ✔ 3. ✖ 4. ✔ 5. ✔

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PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 11 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Animal Production First Year Module 11 Feed Rightly, Grow Healthy
What this module is about
Have you ever experienced not eating three successive meals in one day? Have you tried also eating too much in one meal? How did you feel? Did it give you any good? Animals, like human beings need food in order to live. Feeds make up the most expenses in animal production. Feed rightly and grow healthy applies to feeds and feeding of animals. You need to know the kinds of feeds for animals and the right amount of nutrients for them to grow healthy. In module 10, you learned the kinds of poultry and livestock houses, fixtures, and equipment. After the housing of animals, the next thing to find out is what and how to feed them.

What to learn from this module
This module aims to: 1. identify the various ingredients of animal feeds; 2. know the appropriate animal rations for different age levels; and 3. explain the proper feeding of animals.

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PRETEST Choose the letter of the best answer. 1. Requires the highest percentage of expenses in animal production. a. shelter b. equipment c. feeds d. medicines 2. Feed given to day-old to 6 weeks chicks. a. pre-starter mash b. layer mash c. chick grower mash d. pullet developer mash 3. Feed given to broilers 22-28 days old. a. booster b. pre-starter c. finisher d. starter 4. Nutrients utilized to repair broken tissues and maintain proper growth and development. a. carbohydrates b. ash c. vitamins d. proteins 5. Nutrients which help regulate body processes. a. carbohydrates b. ash c. vitamins d. proteins 6. Feeds given to laying hens. a. pre-starter mash b. layer mash c. chick-grower mash d. pullet-developer mash 7. Feed given to farrowing and lactating sows. a. ipil-ipil b. concentrate c. pre-starter d. finisher

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8. Daily feed intake in kilograms of pigs 27 weeks old. a. 2.8-2.9 b. 2.4-2.5 c. 2.3-2.4 d. 2.7-2.8 9. Feeding system in semi-intensive cattle raising. a. ranching b. tethering c. cut-and-carry d. grazing 10. Feed given to broilers 8-14 days old. a. booster b. starter c. finisher d. layer mash

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Lesson 1 Feeds of Farm Animals
Following is a conversation of Joey and Leah. Let’s find out what it is all about.

Joey Leah Joey Leah Joey Leah Joey

: : : : : : :

Hello, Leah! Do you know that feeds are very important to animals? What does feed mean? Feeds refer to the food that animals eat to live. Feeds require the most expenses in animal production. Where do feeds come from? Feeds come from various mixed ingredients or the commercially available feeds. These feeds are considered balanced. What do you mean by balanced feeds? Balanced feeds contain various nutrients that promote animal growth. These nutrients include carbohydrates, ash, proteins, vitamins, water and fats and oils. • Carbohydrates which give animals heat and energy and helps in fattening. • Ash is an organic material which supplies materials for developing the growth of bones of animals. It also helps manufacture the shells in poultry. • Proteins repair the broken tissues of animals and maintain their growth and development. • Fats and oils which supply the animals with heat and energy. • Vitamins which help in the body processes of animals and support normal growth and reproduction in animals.

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Water which is essential in all the body processes of poultry. It helps in digestion and absorption of feeds and acts as food carrier and tissue lubricant.

Leah Joey Leah Joey

: : : :

What are the sources of these feeds? Sources of feeds can be from plants, animals and mineral sources. What will happen if the feeds that animals take are not balanced? If that is the case, animals will not be able to get the essential nutrients for their growth and development which will make them weak and sickly.

What did you learn from Joey and Leah? Activity 1 Collect samples of feed rations available in the community. Place the samples in small glass jars. Label including the ingredients / nutrients used in formulating the feeds. Submit this to your teacher. Self-check: Enumerate five essential nutrients found in animal feeds and cite their functions in the growth and development of animals.

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Lesson 2 Feeding Farm Animals
The feeding of animals contributes much to the success or failure of any poultry and livestock industry. This is why animal raiser should pay much attention to the right feeding of animals. On the next page is a sample feed consumption guide for broilers. Age in days 1-7 8-14 15-21 22-28 29-35 35-42 43-49 50-56 Ration Pre-starter or booster Pre-starter or booster Starter Starter Starter Finisher Finisher Finisher Grams per Bird 85 125 225 345 429 637 723 890

Here’s another feeding guide for layers: Age of the Flock Day old to 6 weeks 7 to 14 weeks 15-20 weeks When pullets start laying eggs Kind of Feed Chick starter mash with 20-21% protein (starter mash) Grower ration with 16% protein (chick grower mash) Pullet developer with 14% protein (pullet developer mash) Laying mash with 16 to 18% protein (layer mash)

How about the different kinds of swine or hogs? Following will be your guide in feeding hogs of different kinds to ensure good nutrition. Read and analyze the table below. Kinds of Animals 1. Pre-gestating and gestating sows Feeding Management Flushing high energy rations, low fiber content Purpose To activate the production of a large number of egg cells for the next breeding season. To trim the sow during the gestation period and reduce embryonic mortality.

2. Sows and gilts

Limited energy feeding

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Kinds of Animals 3. Farrowing and lactating sows

Feeding Management Concentrate ration

Purpose To store added energy and protein for use during the lactation period. Plenty of succulent leafy feeds which should be replaced by 1/3 of the weight of the daily feed allowance of the sow. Laxative effect which prevents constipation during farrowing. Improves milk secretion and prevents constipation To bolster the growth of baby pigs. To bolster the growth and maintenance of baby pigs. To avoid too much fat deposits on the back.

Provide plenty of drinking water 4. Early weaned pigs Pre-starter feed should be given immediately. After 30 days, starter rations should be given. Growing-finishing ration formulations should be given. Quantity should be limited to 1.5 kg per pig for every feeding.

5. Growing-finishing pigs

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Here is another table showing the daily feed consumption of growing-finishing pigs. Age of pigs (weeks) 10-12 12-13 13-15 16 17 18 Live weight (kg) 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50 Daily feed intake (kg) up to 1.2 1.2-1.4 1.4-1.6 1.6-1.8 1.8-1.9 1.9-2.0

19 50-55 20 55-60 21 60-65 22 65-70 23 70-75 24 75-80 25 80-85 26 85-90 27 90-95 28 95-100 You may probably ask how cattle are being feed?

2.0-2.1 2.1-2.2 2.2-2.3 2.3-2.4 2.4-2.5 2.5-2.6 2.6-2.7 2.7-2.8 2.8-2.9 2.9-3.0

When using the small-scale backyard level of cattle raising, the animals are tethered during the day and kept inside during night. When ranching is applied, animals graze in the pasture area and are free to roam around, with provisions of shelter in case of heavy rain. On the other hand, in a semi-intensive and intensive cattle raising, shelter is provided for the animals in the pasture ranch. There, the animals are fed applying the cut-and-carry method in which feeds are given to the animals in the corral. Here is an activity for you to check on how much you have learned.

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Activity 2 Study the animals in each box. What kind of feeds are you going to give to each animal? How much feed will you give each? Explain your answer on the space provided. 1. 2.

3.

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Self-check: Match Column A with Column B. Write only the letter of the correct answer on the blanks provided. A _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. _____5. Broilers 35 to 42 days of age Layers 7 to 14 weeks of age Early weaned pigs Semi-intensive type of cattle raising Hog fattening – 20 weeks of age a. b. c. d. e. b. B pre-starter feed cut-and-carry 2.1 to 2.2 kg of feed finisher 2.3 to 2.4 kg of feed grower ration with 16% protein

LET’S SUMMARIZE Feeds represent the highest percentage of expenses in animal production. Right feeding contributes to the success of animal raising enterprise. Feeding the right kind of feeds in the right amounts and in the proper way, ensures healthy and vigorous animals. To find how well you understood what you’ve learned from this module, answer the posttest.

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POSTTEST Choose the letter of the best answer. 1. Represents the highest percentage of expenses in animal production. a. shelter b. equipment c. feeds d. medicines 2. Feed given to day-old to 6 weeks old chicks. a. pre-starter mash b. layer mash c. chick grower mash d. pullet developer mash 3. Feed given to broilers 22-28 days of age. a. booster b. pre-starter c. finisher d. starter 4. Nutrients utilized to repair broken tissues and maintain proper growth and development. a. carbohydrates b. ash c. vitamins d. proteins 5. Nutrients that regulate body processes. a. carbohydrates b. ash c. vitamins d. proteins 6. Feeds given to laying hens. a. pre-starter mash b. layer mash c. chick grower mash d. pullet developer mash 7. Feed given to farrowing and lactating sows. a. ipil-ipil b. concentrate c. pre-starter d. finisher

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8. Daily feed intake of pigs 27 weeks of age in kilograms. a. 2.8 - 2.9 b. 2.4 - 2.5 c. 2.3 - 2.4 d. 2.7 - 2.8 9. Feeding system in semi-intensive cattle raising. a. ranching b. tethering c. cut-and-carry d. grazing 10. Feed given to broilers 8 to 14 days of age. a. booster b. starter c. finisher d. layer Were you able to give all the answers correctly? If yes, very good. You’ve done a good job. Certainly, you will be gaining from what you have learned if you will have the chance to apply them. See you again in the next module. CONTRATULATIONS!

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ANSWER KEY Pretest/Posttest 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. d 5. c 6. b 7. b 8. a 9. c 10. a Lesson 1: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. carbohydrates – supplies heat and energy proteins – repair broken tissues vitamins – regulates body processes ash – used in manufacturing shells in poultry water – aids in digestion and absorption of feeds

Lesson 2: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. d f a b c

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PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 12 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Fish Production First Year Module 12 Come and Get Me!

What this module is about
This module shares knowledge of how to catch fish. Knowledge of fishing is of great help to families specially those living near bodies of water where fish live. Fishing is one of the oldest means of living of the Filipinos. It provides us not only food to eat but employment as well. Reading this module equips you on how to capture fish using different fishing gears.

What to learn from this module
After working on this module, you are expected to: 1. 2. 3. 4. explain the fundamental concepts, principles and importance of fish capture; classify different fishing gears according to structure and function; explain how each fishing gear is operated; and construct a fishing gear.

Before you start working on this module, it will be good to evaluate yourself how much you already know about the topic by answering the following pretest.

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PRETEST Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. Which of the following fishing gears is not a hand instrument? a. harpoon b. cover pot c. simple hand line d. spear 2. It is an instrument used to catch fish. a. fish culture b. fish cultivation c. fish capture d. fishing gear 3. It is a fishing gear operated using artificial light like the floodlight. a. cover pot b. bag net c. simple hand line d. spear 4. It is the most commonly used fishing gear in the Philippines. a. cover pot b. simple hand line c. harpoon d. spear 5. These are fishing gears with small opening used to cover the fish to be captured. a. falling gears b. scooping nets c. line-fishing d. wounding gears 6. It is the scientific way of catching fish. a. fish culture b. fish cultivation c. fish capture d. fishing gear 7. It is a fishing gear similar to an inverted mosquito net. a. spear b. hand line c. bag net d. cover pot

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8. This is a fishing gear with single vertical line with a hook at the end of the net. a. spear b. multiple hand line c. simple hand line d. bag net 9. This is a fishing gear operated in shallow, about knee-deep water. a. cover pot b. bag net c. multiple hand line d. simple hand line 10. It is a fishing gear used to catch fish by wounding them. a. cover pot b. hand line c. bag net d. spear

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Lesson 1 Principles and Concepts of Fish Capture
Do you know how to catch fish? Have you tried fishing with your father or brother? This lesson will tell you what fish capture is all about. Fishing is one of the oldest occupations of the Filipinos. It supplies fish, the cheapest source of protein for people particularly in the rural areas. It is a source of employment and income to those who live near the water areas of the country, and even to those whose work relates to fish and fishing. The technique and science of catching fish through the use of fishing gears is known as fish capture. Do you know the history of the development of fish capture in the Philippines? If not, continue reading. During the early years, catching freshwater fish is done using bare hands, stones and the bow and arrow. Later, the Malays of Malaysia brought some effective fishing devices such as fish corrals and fish pens. Then, the Japanese and Chinese introduced improved means of fishing like the gill net, long line and trawl. Today, fishing methods and fishing gears introduced in the country are modified by our fishermen to respond to local conditions in different fishing grounds. Have you learned something from the foregoing discussion? If your answer is yes, answer the exercise below.

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Self-check: Answer the crossword puzzle below. 1 1 2 3 4 Across 1. Fish ________is a technique in catching fish. 2. Brought fishing devices like fish corals and fish pens in the Philippines. 3. Fish is a good source of _____. 4. One of the earliest means of catching fish is through the use of ________. Down 1. Introduced the gill net and long line. 2. _____provides food and employment. 3. An act of refusal to use dynamite in fishing. Did you get all the answers to the puzzle right? If so, very good. You can now proceed to the next lesson. 2 3

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Lesson 2 Classification of Fishing Gear by Structure and Function
Are you ready for further learning about fish capture? Remember, at the end, a big fish is waiting for you. You better start learning the different fishing gears. Fishing gears are instruments used to catch fish. They are classified according to structure and function. Below are examples of fishing gears.

Harpoon

Simple Hand line

Spear Cover pot Classification According to Structure A. Hand Instrument 1. Spear (Pana) – a fishing instrument with pointed barbed or barbless blades on the straight tip, which is not detachable from the handle and is thrown by hand through a bow-like device. 2. Harpoon (panibat) - a pointed instrument with barbed blades detachable from the handle and either thrown by hand or discharged from a gun. 3. Cover pot (salakab) – an entrapping device used to catch fish through the stiff opening on its lowermost part to cover the fish.

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B. Line Instrument 1. Simple handline - a single vertical line with a hook at the end where the bait is attached. 2. Multiple handline - a single vertical line with a series of barbed hooks attached by spreaders at regular intervals. C. Nets 1. Bag net - a conical or cubical bag nets that looks like an inverted mosquito net.

Classifying Fishing Gears According to Function 1. Wounding gears - used to catch visible fish by wounding them from a distance. 2. Line-fishing gear – used to catch fish by means of an artificial bait. 3. Falling gears- gears with a stiff opening used to capture fish by covering them. 4. Scooping nets - gears which catch fish by submerging or hanging and swiftly lifting the gear to capture or enclose fish. Self-check: Classify the fishing gears below according to their use. Write the name of the gear inside the circle.

1

2

3 How was the exercise? Did you enjoy it? Good. For your assignment, conduct an interview on various devices used by fishermen to catch fish. Write on a sheet of paper the procedure in constructing these. Submit to your teacher.

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Lesson 3 Operating Fishing Gears
In the previous lesson, you classified fishing gears according to structure and function. Now, you will learn how each fishing gear is used. Do you want to hear what fishing gears do fishermen use and how they operate these? Find out in the conversation below. Jimmy: Every time I go fishing at the lake, I use a simple hand line because the operation is simple. I only attach bait like an earthworm or a squid to the hook, drop the line into the water. Then, raise and lower the line to prevent small and less desirable fish from robbing the bait. Pull the line whenever a tug or slight tug is felt. Faddy: If I were you, I would use a multiple hand line to catch more fish. You only need to put several baited hooks on your simple hand line in uniform distances and tow this behind a motorboat. The lure looks alive as the boat moves, and bigger and more fish are attracted to catch the lure, thus, getting hooked. Isn’t that great? Ric: You’re right, but if you catch fish in shallow waters about knee-deep, you better use a cover pot. Just watch the appearance of bubbles on the surface of the water to locate the possible victim, approach the fish and cover it. You already have fish for lunch. That is small time! Only a few fish will be caught. You know what I have in mind? Come and join me? Let’s use the bag net to catch more. We only hang the bag net during the dark phase of the moon, with the help of a boat and floodlight. We shall use the floodlight to observe if there are already enough fish in the bag net, which tells us to raise the net to gather the fish. That ‘s simple! Sorry, I can’t go with you. My brother and I will go fishing using a spear and harpoon. He said that spear and harpoon are simple and easy to use. It is used by just throwing the spear or harpoon by hand or shooting from a gun or a bow-like device to wound the fish. I think this is more exciting, so, thanks, anyway.

Orly:

Lito: Lito:

Jimmy, Faddy, and Ric: Why not?

Now that you learned how to operate some of the fishing gears, solve the problem situation in Activity 1. Activity 1 Michael and Fernando went on fishing in the nearby river for fun and leisure. They brought with them their father’s hand line and cover pots to catch fish. However, they do not know how to use them. Help Michael and Fernando to operate the hand line and the cover pot. Write the instructions below.

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Hand line

-

Cover pot

-

Do you think Michael and Fernando will be able to use the fishing gear to catch fish? If you confidently say YES, then you are also ready to have your own catch now.

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Lesson 4 Preparing a Simple Hand line
The most common fishing gear used in the Philippines is the simple hand line. So, in this lesson, you will be constructing your own hand line to catch fish. Let us now start making a simple hand line. Here are the materials needed followed by the step-by-step procedure. Materials needed: 1. Bamboo pole - 3 to 5 meters long, 2 inches in diameter and tapered at one end 2. Synthetic line - no. 8, 3 ½ meters long 3. Terminal tackle - a term applied to things like hooks and baits that are attached to the end of the fishing line Tools needed: bolo spokeshave hammer After preparing the needed materials and hooks, follow the procedure below: 1. Thread one end of the line through the hole of the hook and tie into two knots to secure the hook. 2. Tie the other end of the line twice around the tapered end of the pole, just beside the internode to keep this from slipping. 3. Tie with a square knot. 4. Place the bait on the hook. Did you enjoy making your own hand line? Great! You may start using it.

LET’S SUMMARIZE Fishing is one of the oldest occupations of Filipinos. Fish capture is the technique and science of catching fish using various fishing gears. Fishing gears are instruments used to catch fish. Fishing gears are classified according to structure which include hand instruments, line instruments and nets. Classification is also according to function such as wounding gears, line-fishing, falling gears and scooping nets.

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You are now in the final phase of this module. Let’s find out how much you understood and learned by answering the posttest. POSTTEST Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer. 1. Which of the following fishing gears is not a hand instrument? a. harpoon b. cover pot c. simple hand line d. spear 2. It is an instrument used to catch fish. a. fish culture b. fish cultivation c. fish capture d. fishing gear 3. It is a fishing gear operated with the help of artificial light like the floodlight. a. cover pot b. bag net c. simple hand line d. multiple hand line 4. It is the most commonly used fishing gear in the Philippines. a. cover pot b. simple hand line c. harpoon d. spear 5. These are fishing gears with a small opening used to capture fish by covering them. a. scooping nets b. line-fishing gears c. wounding gears d. falling gears 6. It is a technique and science of catching fish. a. fish culture b. fish cultivation c. fish capture d. fishing gear 7. A fishing gear which is very similar to an inverted mosquito net. a. spear

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b. hand line c. bag net d. cover pot 8. This fishing gear has a single vertical line with a hook at the end for the bait. a. spear b. multiple hand line c. simple hand line d. bag net 9. A fishing gear operated in shallow about knee-deep water. a. cover pot b. bag net c. multiple hand line d. simple hand line 10. It is a fishing gear used by man to catch fish by wounding them. a. cover pot b. hand line c. bag net d. spear

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ANSWER KEY Pretest / Posttest 1. c 2. d 3. b 4. b 5. a 6. c 7. c 8. c 9. a 10. d Lesson 1: Self-check Across 1. capture 2. Malays 3. Protein 4. Stones Down 1. Japanese 2. It 3. No Lesson 2: Self-check 1. line instrument 2. hand instrument 3. hand instrument Lesson 3: Self-check Hand line - Attach the bait to the hook, then drop or throw the baited hook into the water. Raise and lower the line frequently and pull the fishing line promptly when a tug or slight tug is felt. - Look for bubbles on the surface of the water to locate fish to be caught. Approach the fish slowly and cover it, using the cover pot.

Cover pot

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Congratulations for a job well done! Working on this module honestly and dedicatedly is truly a rewarding experience. Take a rest so you can join us for the next module. I’m counting on you.

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PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 13 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Fish Production Fist Year Module 13 Fish on Parade

What this module is all about
Welcome! It’s nice to see you again. Do you still remember what you have done in the previous module? You learned fish capture and the classification and use of fishing gears. You were also able to make a fishing gear, the simple hand line. It is a wonderful accomplishment ,isn’t it? This time, your learning experiences will familiarize you with fish culture and the place where fish are being cultured. Are you ready for another learning experience? Join the fish on parade to the water and learn more on fish culture.

What to learn from this module
After working on this module, you are expected to do the following: 1. explain the fundamental principles and concepts and the importance of fish culture; 2. explain the phases of fish culture; and 3. differentiate the characteristics of the bodies of water near the place where fish is cultured.

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PRETEST Directions: Place the letter of the correct answer on the blank before the number. _____1. Which of the following is not a phase of fish culture? a. fish propagation b. fish capture c. fish cultivation d. fish conservation _____2. Which is an artificial source of freshwater? a. swamps b. rivers c. deep-well d. lakes _____3. This term applies to the release of fry or fingerlings in growing and rearing areas. a. draining b. harvesting c. stocking d. fertilization _____4. These are bodies of water along or near the mouth of rivers. a. marine water b. freshwater c. brackish water d. sea water _____5. Which of the following is an advantage of fish culture? a. prevents soil erosion b. beautifies the surroundings c. provides employment d. aggravates poverty _____6. Which of the following is an activity in fish cultivation? a. fertilization b. cleaning the pond c. breeding d. harvesting _____7. The following are activities in fish propagation except one. a. nursing the larvae b. spawning breeders c. stocking d. hatching

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_____8. It is the phase of fish culture that includes the draining of the pond. a. fish capture b. fish cultivation c. fish propagation d. fish conservation _____9. It is one of the natural resources of freshwater. a. dam b. aquarium c. lake d. deep-well _____10. It is the right time to start a fish project. a. year around b. early months of the year c. any month of the year d. end of the year

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Lesson 1 Principles and Concepts and Importance of Fish Culture
“Knowing the right thing is doing the right thing.” Knowing more information about fish culture leads you to depth of understanding. Do you know what fish culture is? How important is it? Read the following and find out. Fish culture is the rearing of fish and other aquatic products from their early stage of growth to their marketable or consumable stage. Fish culture is done at the proper time or early enough for harvest during the month of the year when the prices of fish at the market are good. This is particularly true with bangus and tilapia. Why is fish culture important? Of what value is it to our people? It is done produce food our people. to for Exportation of fish products contributes considerably to the dollar revenues of the government. It provides employment, too.

Below is the story of Mang Edring. Let’s read it and answer the questions that follow. Mang Edring has a fish farm. He cultures tilapia and bangus. He also raises ornamental fish for aquarium purposes. These tasks give him enough income to support his family needs such as food and education of his children, among others. It also provides employment for some of his children and neighbors.

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As to the activities on his fish farm, Mang Edring usually starts operations during the early months of the year. He does this to harvest the fish during the time when its price is high. Today, Mang Edring is starting to export some ornamental fish he bred to Thailand and other nearby countries. This helps the government earn dollars, too. Now, answer the following questions: 1. Why is the job important to Mang Edring? 2. Why does Mang Edring start operating his fish farm during the early months of the year? Does this make you more interested in the subject of fish culture? Good. You can now move on to the next lesson.

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Lesson 2 Phases of Fish Culture
You have just learned basic information on fish culture in the previous lesson. Fish culture has three major phases, namely: fish propagation, fish cultivation, and fish conservation. 1. Fish Propagation Fish propagation is the natural or artificial method of promoting or enhancing the reproduction and survival of fish and other aquatic products. Fish propagation can be done in bodies of water such as rivers, lakes, seas or oceans or in artificial or man-made areas like fishponds. It involves the keeping, maintenance, and spawning of breeders in tanks or ponds; hatching the eggs in hatchery facilities; and nursing the delicate larvae up to a size suitable for stocking (process of releasing fry or fingerlings) purposes in rearing areas like fishponds or lakes.

2. Fish Cultivation This is the rearing of fish from a very young stage like fry and fingerlings up to a marketable size. Cultivation may be done in fresh, brackish and marine waters in any of the rearing structures such as fishponds, fish pens or aquariums. The use of fishponds in fish cultivation includes the selection of a suitable site, construction of fishpond, cleaning the pond, filling the pond with water up to 15-20 centimetres deep, fertilization to replenish the nutrients at the bottom of the pond, stocking, controlling the weeds, eradicating the enemies of fish and diseases, and feeding and harvesting through draining. 3. Fish Conservation This is the public control and maintenance of the various fisheries or areas where fish and other fishery products are conserved. This is designed to ensure maximum sustainable yield of fish. An example is the implementation of Presidential Decree No. 1058, which is an amendment of Presidential Decree No. 704, which increases the penalties for illegal fishing, sale of illegally caught fish or fishery/aquatic products for other purposes. How well did you understand the lesson? Let us now work on the following activity to find out. Activity 1 Collect sample pictures of the three phases of fish culture. Label each picture and provide a written explanation for each. Present your work to your teacher.

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Self-check: Write T on the blank before each number if the given statement is true, and F, if false. _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. As a student, you can help conserve fish areas in your locality. Fish propagation can also be done in salty water. Fertilization is done to replenish the nutrients at the bottom of the pond. The process of releasing fry and fingerlings in the fishpond or any rearing areas is known as draining. _____5. Draining the fishpond to gather the fish is harvesting. Have you got all the answers correct? Congratulations! If yes, you’re truly a fast learner.

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Lesson 3 Bodies of Water where Fish is Cultured
Hello again! After knowing the three phases of fish culture, you’ll now describe the characteristics of existing bodies of water in the locality where fish is being cultured. Can you identify what bodies of water are shown in the following pictures? Have you gone to any of these or seen similar to these? If so, you can easily identify them, can’t you? Look at the pictures below.

Which of the pictures above shows freshwater? brackish water? marine water?

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To differentiate the characteristics of each body of water, refer to the table below. Freshwater • Clean fresh water from natural sources such as lakes, ponds, rivers, and swamps. Artificial sources such as dams or reservoirs, irrigation and manmade ponds. • Brackish Water Pond-converted mangrove areas along or near river mouths. Salinity of water ranges from slightly greater than fresh water to lower than seawater. Marine Water • • Seawater Water along coastal areas

The Philippines is endowed with these bodies of water where different kinds of fish are cultured, applying the appropriate method of fish propagation and cultivation. Can you now differentiate freshwater from brackish water and marine water? Let me see. Self-check: Write whether the given bodies of water are considered as sources of freshwater, brackish water or marine water. _____1. _____2. _____3. _____4. _____5. Rice paddies Ocean Along the river mouths Lakes Fishponds

Was your score perfect? If perfect, congratulations! This means that you understood what you read. LET’S SUMMARIZE Fish culture is the rearing of fish from an early stage of growth to a marketable or consumable stage. Fish culture consists of the three phases namely; fish propagation, fish cultivation, and fish conservation. • Fish propagation refers to the method of enhancing the reproduction and survival of fish. • Fish cultivation is the rearing of fish from fry to fingerlings up to the marketing size.

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Fish conservation is the public control and maintenance of fish sources.

Bodies of water where fish is cultured are freshwater, brackish water, or marine water. How do you feel now that you’re through with this module? If you think there are aspects you need to go over, do so. But, if you think you’ve learned enough that remains to be seen. Answer the posttest to find out. POSTTEST Directions: Choose the correct answer. 1. It is the term applied to the rearing of fry and fingerlings until they reach marketable size. a. fish capture b. fish conservation c. fish propagation d. fish culture 2. Which is an artificial source of freshwater? a. dam b. river c. lake d. swamp 3. Phase of fish culture which refers to public control and maintenance of fisheries. a. fish culture b. fish conservation c. fish propagation d. fish cultivation 4. Body of water where salinity ranges from slightly greater than freshwater to lower than sea water. a. marine water b. natural freshwater c. brackish water d. artificial water 5. Which of the following is not an advantage of fish culture? a. it provides food b. it helps the government through its revenues c. it provides employment d. it makes people busy 6. Which of the following activities is not involved in fish propagation? a. draining b. spawning

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c. stocking d. hatching eggs 7. The following are activities in fish cultivation except a. selection of site b. nursing larvae c. harvesting d. fertilization 8. When is fish culture started? a. any month of the year b. end of the year c. year round d. early months of the year 9. Phase of fish culture, which involves the release of fry and fingerlings in the rearing areas. a. fish capture b. fish cultivation c. fish propagation d. fish conservation 10. Which of the following is a source of marine water? a. lakes b. rivers c. sea d. dam What is your score? If it is 10, excellent! You’re pace of learning is amazing! Congratulations! See you again in the next module. Relax and take it easy for the meanwhile.

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ANSWER KEY Pretest 1. b 2. c 3. c 4. c 5. c 6. c 7. c 8. b 9. c 10. b Lesson 2: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. T T T F T

Lesson 3: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. freshwater marine water brackish water freshwater freshwater

Posttest 1. d 2. a 3. b 4. c 5. d 6. a 7. b 8. d 9. b 10. c

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14

PROJECT EASE
Effective and Affordable Secondary Education

TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION
Agriculture and Fishery Arts

MODULE 14 BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Department of Education DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue Pasig City

1

Fish Production First Year Module 14 Long and Lasting Life
What this module is about
“Fish be with you.” Since you have gained considerable knowledge of fish capture and fish culture in the previous modules, you are now ready to embark on fish preservation. Preservation of fish is done to prevent spoilage. Since fish is very perishable, it is therefore, necessary to preserve fish if not consumed or disposed immediately. Do you know some ways of preserving fish? Well, be ready, for this module will help you how to give a long and lasting life to the fish you caught or bought in the market. Enjoy reading.

What to learn from this module
This module is about fish preservation and it aims to: 1. explain the fundamental concepts/principles and importance of fish preservation; 2. explain the preparatory procedure needed in fish preservation; and 3. discuss the procedure of the different methods of fish preservation.

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PRETEST Write only the letter of the best answer. 1. An extremely perishable food. a. fish culture b. fish c. bagoong d. dried fish 2. The part of the fish which is being removed when drying split fish. a. kidney b. gut c. head d. scales 3. Fish preparation which removes most bones. a. gutted b. boned c. boneless d. split 4. Storage period of bagoong before it is used. a. 4 months b. 9 months c. 6 months d. 5 months 5. A method of preventing spoilage. a. fish culture b. fish capture c. fish preservation d. fish spoilage 6. Fish preparation which removes all bones including pin bones. a. gutted b. split c. boneless d. boned 7. Percentage of brine solution used in drying split fish. a. 30% b. 25% c. 20 % d. 15 %

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8. Fish preparation when fish is thoroughly washed. a. gutted b. dressed c. fillet d. split 9. Ratio of salt and fish in bagoong making. a. 1 part salt: 3 parts fish b. 2 parts salt: 4 parts fish c. 3 parts salt: 1 part fish d. 4 parts salt: 2 parts fish 10. Fish preparation wherein the internal organs are removed. a. gutted b. split c. fillet d. dressed

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Lesson 1 Principles/Concepts and Importance of Fish Preservation
Have you experienced buying fish and forgetting to cook it on that day? Or have you bought more fish than what you need and got delayed in going home? What happened to the fish? You’re right, the fish get spoiled. Do you want to know the reasons why? Let me tell you these. Spoilage is the result of a series of changes brought about in the dead fish mainly due to enzyme and bacterial action. It starts in the fish as soon as the fish dies when caught. In areas where temperature is high, fish spoil within 15-20 hours depending on the specie and the method of capture.

Fish is extremely perishable. It spoils easily.

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Can you tell us how to prevent spoilage?

Since bacterial spoilage takes place in certain conditions, changing these conditions can prevent and reduce spoilage. Heat ,concentration and pH (acids) can be used for these purposes.

What else? Thank you! What an interesting idea.

Fish preservation prevents spoilage. It also makes the transportation of preserved fish easier besides the fact that preserved fish is a good source of protein.

You’re welcome.

Did you learn something from the conversation above? Let us find out by working on Activity 1. Activity 1 I caught so much today. Let me think about it.

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Help the fisherman solve his problem by answering the questions below: 1. What is the problem of the fisherman? 2. What can you suggest to solve his problem? Were you able to help the fisherman solve his problem? If you did, I hope that you can also answer the exercise below. Self-check: Write T, if the statement is true and F, if it is not true. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fish preservation is a good source of protein. Fish spoilage starts at the time they are caught. Fish spoils within 15-20 hours in places where the temperature is low. Fish preservation prevents spoilage. Fish is perishable or gets easily spoiled.

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Lesson 2 Preparatory Procedure in Fish Preservation
Do you know that there are initial preparations before the preservation or processing of fish? Let’s find out how fish are prepared for the particular purpose. 1. Fillet The body of the fish is cut into strips of flesh parallel to the line of its backbone. 2. Gutted The internal organs are removed by cutting along the ventral surface from the vent to its gill using a knife. Sometimes its head is also removed. 3. Split The internal organs of the fish are removed and sometimes even the head but not the bones. 4. Boned Most of the bones are removed. 5. Boneless All the bones including the small bones are removed. 6. Dressed Fish are thoroughly washed and prepared for any purpose. After any of these preparatory procedures, the fish is now ready for a particular method of fish preservation. How do you find the lesson? Is it interesting? Here is the exercise which will give you the opportunity to test what you’ve learned. Self-check: Draw a line to connect Column A with Column B. A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gutted Boned Dressed Fillet Split a. b. c. d. e. f. B Guts are removed along the ventral surface Washed and cleaned before cooking Cut into strips of flesh Most of the bones are removed Most of the bones are removed Internal organs and head are removed

What is your score? Is it 5? Excellent! Now, we can move on to the next lesson.

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Lesson 3 Methods of Fish Preservation
What have you learned in the previous lesson? I learned different fish preparations before fish preservation.

Now you will learn some ways of preserving fish. Are you ready? There are different methods of fish preservation, among them are drying and salting. Study the following procedure for each method: A. Drying Split Fish (daing) 1. 2. 3. 4. The scales are removed, and the fish is split on the dorsal side. The internal organs, gills, false kidney and black membrane are removed. The fish is washed thoroughly and drained. The fish is soaked in 25% brine solution (salt and water) from 30 minutes to an hour depending on the size of the fish. Smaller fish are soaked for a shorter time compared to the bigger ones. 5. After salting, the fish are washed to remove the dirt and excess salt on the surface. 6. Spread out the fish on drying trays and place under the sun until very dry. Turned them over every 3 hours.

B.

Bagoong Making Following is the procedure in bagoong making: 1. Wash and drain the fresh fish. 2. Mix with salt. One part salt to three parts fish. 3. Pack tightly in jars and store for six months.

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4. Drain the liquid formed (patis) after storing for six months. a. Patis is then filtered and bottled for household or commercial use. 5. Set aside the ground and solids. 6. Add saturated brine to the other solid part. 7. After two weeks, you will have second class patis and bagoong as solid ground. How do you feel after knowing the procedures on how to preserve fish? Can you now preserve your own fish? Activity 2 Make your own bagoong using 1 kilo of fish. Bring all your materials in the school next time you report to school to perform the activity. Before ending this lesson, let me see how well you understood what you read and learned. Do the self-check exercise below. Self-check: Write C, if the statement is correct and W, if the statement is wrong. Fish is soaked in 25% brine solution for 30 to 60 minutes. The proportion of part salt to fish in making bagoong is 1 is to 3. Liquid drained in bagoong making after 6 months is known as patis. Split fish for drying is washed after salting. Internal organs are not removed in drying split fish. Did you get five correct answers? Wonderful! You really learned very much from this lesson. Now, let us see if you learned a lot from the entire module. Answer the given posttest. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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POSTTEST Write only the letter of the best answer. 1. An extremely perishable food. a. b. c. d. fish culture fish bagoong dried fish

2. The part of the fish which is first removed when drying split fish. a. b. c. d. kidney gut head scales

3. Fish preparation in which most bones are removed. a. b. c. d. gutted boned boneless split

4. Storage period of bagoong before use. a. b. c. d. 4 months 9 months 6 months 5 months

5. A method used to prevent spoilage. a. b. c. d. fish culture fish capture fish preservation fish spoilage

6. Fish preparation in which all bones including pin bones are removed. a. b. c. d. gutted split boneless Boned

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7. Percentage of brine solution used in drying split fish. a. b. c. d. 30 % 25 % 20 % 15 %

8. Fish preparation in which fish is thoroughly washed. a. b. c. d. gutted dressed fillet split

9. Ratio of the part of salt to fish in bagoong making. a. b. c. d. 1:3 2:4 3:1 4:2

10. Fish preparation wherein internal organs are removed. a. b. c. d. gutted split fillet dressed

How is the result of your posttest? What’s your score? If your score is below 6, go over and work on the module again. If you got 10, very good. You have done well! Congratulations for a job well done! You can now proceed to the next module.

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ANSWER KEY Pretest 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. b d b c c c b b a a 3. b 4. c 5. f Lesson 3: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C C C C W

Posttest Lesson 1: Self-check 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. F T F T T 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. b d b c c c b b a a

Lesson 2: Self-check 1. a 2. d

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