NURSING: AN ART AND SCIENCE

NURSING -a caring profession -comes from the Latin word, nutricius means to fosters, comfort and protects -the diagnosis or treatment of human response to actual or potential problem (ANA) 4 MAJOR CONCEPTS OF NURSING THEORIES Person (most important concept) Environment Health Nursing HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE IN NURSING I. Intuitive Nursing Period (Primitive Period; Ancient Civilization) - It is practiced since prehistoric times among primitive tribes ad lasted through the early Christian era - ability to see something without reason -spirit of nursing started -based on Love, Instinct and Desire -disease oriented Beliefs and Practices 1. People are nomads. His philosophy of life was "the best for the most" and he was ruled by the Law of Self-Preservation 2. Nursing was a function that belonged to women 3. Believed that illness is caused by evil spirits (voodoos) 4. Believed in medicine man (Shahman) who practices trephining (drilling a hole in the skull with a rock or stone without anesthesia) Contributions 1. Egypt  Art of embalming (Anatomy and Physiology)  Recognition of 250 diseases 2. China  Pharmacology (Muteria Medica) 3. Babylonia  Code of Hammurabi- practices of medicines and nursing 4. India  Sushurutu- qualifications of nurses (job descriptions) 5. Israel  Moses is recognized as the Father of Sanitation  Ritual of circumcision of the male child 6. Ancient Greek  Introduced caduceus, the insignia of medical profession today  Hippocrates was given the title Father of Scientific Medicine

II. Apprentice Nursing Period -began in 11th century and ended in 1836 -It is called the Period of "On-Job" Training -Curative aspect of nursing -Volunteer nurses received information from trained nurses  Establishment of Kaiserwerth Institute for the training of Deaconessess (a training school for nurses)- establish by Pastor Theodore Fliedner and Frederika Munster Fliedner in Germany Important Nursing Personages 1. St. Elizabeth of Hungary (Patroness of Nurses) 2. St. Catherine of Sienna (First Lady with a Lamp) 3. St. Clare (Founder of the Second Order of St. Francis of Assisi) III. Dark Period of Nursing -from the 17th century to the 19th century -rise of Protestantism and downfall of Roman Catholicism -anything related to Catholicism were destroyed (churches and hospitals) -no provisions for the sick, no one to care for the sick -Nursing became the work of least desirable of women as personified in a Charles Dickens' novel as Sairey Gamp and Betsy Preg a. women took bribe from patient b. stole food from patient c. used alcohol as a tranquilizer d. use psychiatric patients for entertainment Important Nursing Personages 1. Clara Barton (Founder of American Red Cross) 2. Dorothea Lynde Dix (Established the Nurse Corps of US Army) IV. Educative Nursing Practice Period -began on June 15, 1860 when the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing opened at St. Thomas Hospital in London, England (St. Thomas Hospital School of Nursing)- best contribution of Florence Nightingale in professional nursing -marked the birth of formal education  Florence Nightingale (Mother of Modern Nursing) (Lady with a Lamp) - born on May 12, 1820 in Florence, Italy - entered the Deaconnes School at Kaiserworth for 6months - published two books: Notes in Nursing and Notes on Hospital (What is it and What is it not?)  England (pioneer country for modern nursing) V. Contemporary Nursing Period -after World War II to the present

-knowledge based HISTORY OF NURSING IN THE PHILIPPINES A. Earliest Hospitals 1. Hospital Real de Manila (1577)- first hospital 2. San Lazaro Hospital (1578)- founded by Brother Juan Clemente and exclusively for leprosy patients B. Hospitals and School of Nursing 1. Iloilo Mission Hospital School of Nursing (Iloilo City, 1906)- first school 2. St. Paul's Hospital of Nursing (Manila, 1907) 3. Mary Johnston Hospital and School of Nursing (Manila, 1907) C. First Colleges of Nursing 1. University of Sto. Tomas College of Nursing (1946) 2. Manila Central University College of Nursing (1947) 3. University of the Philipines College of Nursing (1948) D. Important Nursing Personages 1. Anastacia Giron-Tupas (First Chief Nurse Superintendent and founder of Philippines Nurses Association) 2. Rosa Militar (Pioneer in School Health Education) 3. Loreto Tupaz (Dean of Philippine Nursing and Florence Nightingale of Iloilo) 4. Julita Sotejo (First Dean of UP College of Nursing) 5. Hilaria Aguinaldo (Founder of Filipino Red Cross) 6. Sor Taciana Triñanes (First Directress of UST College of Nursing)

THEORIES AND FRAMEWORK OF NURSING
Theorist Florence Nightingale (1860) Environmental Theory Hidegard Peplau (1952) Psychodynamic Nursing Theory Virginia Henderson (1955) Definition of Nursing Nursing Theory/Framework Nursing is the act of manipulating the patient’s environment (noise, nutrition, hygiene, light, comfort, socialization & hope) to assist him in his recovery Nursing is an interpersonal process of therapeutic interactions between nurse and client developing a relationship where they mutually define the problem and potential solutions in which the nurse serves as a resource person, counselor and surrogate 4 overlapping phases: orientation, identification, exploitation, resolution Nursing is assisting an individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health, recovery or peaceful death that the individual would perform unaided if they had the necessary strength, will or knowledge. Henderson’s 14 Basic Needs: breath, eat & drink, eliminate, posture, sleep, dress, temperature, hygiene, communicate, worship, work, place,

Theorist Faye Abdellah (1960) Problem Solving Approach Typology of 21 Nursing Problem Ida Jean Orlando (1961) Three elements compose the nursing situation Lydia Hall (1962) Nursing Circle Myra Levine (1966) Conservation Theory Dorothea E. Johnson (1968) Behavioral System Model Martha E. Rogers (1970) Unitary Human Beings as an Energy Field Dorothea E. Orem (1971) Self Care and Self Care Deficit Theory Imogene King (1971) Goal Attainment Theory

Nursing Theory/Framework learn, avoid danger Nursing is a caring, intelligent, competent & technically well-prepared service to the whole person, family & society. She identified 21 specific client needs or nursing problem Defined nursing as having a problem solving approach with key nursing problems related to health needs of people Nursing is interacting with clients to meet immediate needs by identifying client behavior, nurses reaction & nursing action to be taken She observed that the nurse provide direct assistance to meet an immediate need for help in order to avoid or to alleviate distress or helplessness Nursing centers on 3 components: CORE (therapeutic use of self), CURE (disease & treatment) and CARE (body). Lydia Hall, also known for coining the term Nursing Process Nursing is interaction aimed at conserving energy to optimize use of client resources. 4 Conservation Principles: conserve client energy, structural, personal and social integrity Goal of nursing is to reduce stress so that the client can move more easily through recovery. Behavioral System Model: consists of 7 basic needs or behavioral subsystems, namely, security, nurturance, nourishment, elimination, achievement, self-protection, sex Science of Unitary Human Beings: The individual or unitary human being is an energy field coexisting within the universe and is more than just the sum of its part

Goal of nursing is to help client attain self care, i.e. learned, goaloriented activity directed toward the self in the interest of maintaining life, health and well being. 3 Nursing Systems: wholly compensatory (all nursing care must be perform, i.e. comatose patients), partially compensatory (both the nurse and patient), supportive educative (knowledge deficit) 3 dynamic interacting systems: personal, interpersonal and social form the basis for nurse client-relationship. Goal of nursing is to use communication to assist the client in reestablishing or maintaining positive adaptation to the environment Nursing process is defined as dynamic interpersonal process between

Nursing Theory/Framework client, nurse and health system Betty Neuman Goal of nursing is to assist client in stress (intra-, inter-, and extra(1972) personal) reduction via primary, secondary or tertiary levels of Health Care Systems prevention Model Madeleine Leininger She advocated that nursing is a humanistic and scientific mode of helping (1978) client through specific cultural caring processes (values, beliefs and Transcultural Care practices) which is central and unifying domain used to improve or Theory maintain health Sister Callista Roy (1979) Adaptation Model Views the client as an adaptive system. Goal of nursing is to help client adapt to changes in physiologic needs, self-concept, role functions and interdependent relations She viewed each person as a unified bio-psychosocial system in constant interaction with a changing environment Jean Watson Human Caring Model: Goal of nursing is to promote health and prevent (1979) illness through caring that is transpersonal and humanistic. Philosophy and She emphasized that nursing is the application of the art and human Science of Caring science through transpersonal caring transactions to help persons Care and 10 Curative achieve mind-body-soul harmony, which generates self-knowledge, selfElements control, self-care and self-healing Clients are open, mutual and in constant interaction with the environment. Rosemarie Rizzo Health is a continuous, open process rather than a state of well being. Parse She emphasized free choice of personal meaning in relating to value (1981) priorities, co-creating of rhythmical patterns, in exchange with the Theory of Human environment and contranscending in many dimensions as possibilities Becoming unfold.

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