ABBREVIATIONS

a before AAA abdominal aortic aneurysm AAS acute abdominal series Ab abortions abd. abdominal/ abdomen ABG arterial blood gas ABO three basic blood groups ABO-Rh ABO and Rh blood factors ac before meals ACE angiotensin converting enzyme ACL anterior cruciate ligament ACLS advanced cardiac life support ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone ad lib as desired AD right ear ADD attention deficit disorder ADH antidiuretic hormone ADL activities of daily living Adm admission AF atrial fibrillation AFB acid-fast bacillus AFE amniotic fluid embolism afebrile AFP alpha-fetoprotein AGA appropriate for gestational age AICD automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AK above the knee AKA above the knee amputation ALP alkaline phosphatase ALS advanced life support, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALT alanine aminostransferase alt.h alternate hours AM morning AMA against medical advice amb ambulatory AMI acute myocardial infarcation AML acute myelogenous leukemia amp ampule amt amount AOB alcohol on breath AODM adult onset diabetes mellitus AP apical pulse A-P, AP, A/P anterior-posterior approx approximately APSGN acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis aq water ARF acute renal failure AROM artificial rupture of membranes AS left ear ASAP as soon as possible ASCVD arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASD atrial septal defect ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease AST aspartate aminotransferase ATN acute tubular necrosis AU each ear A-V, AV, A/V arteriovenous, antrioventricular AVB atrio-ventricular block A-VO2 arteriovenous oxygen Ax axillary Ba barium BBB blood-brain barrier; bundle-branch block BBS bilateral breath sounds BCAA branched chain amino acids BCLS basic cardiac life support BE barium enema BEE basal energy expenditure bid, BID twice per day bilat bilateral BK below the knee BKA below the knee amputation BM bowel movement BMI body mass index BMR basal metabolic rate BOWI bag of waters intact BP blood pressure, buccopulpal bpm beats per minute BR bed rest BRP bathroom privileges BS bowel sounds BSA body surface area BSE breast self-examination BT bowel tones BTL bilateral tubal ligation BUN blood urea nitrogen Bx biopsy C Celsius (centigrade) c with C&S culture and sensitivity

c/o complains of Ca calcium ca cancer CABG coronary artery bypass graft CAD coronary artery disease CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis caps capsule CAT computerized (axial) tomography CBC, cbc complete blood cell CBD common bile duct CC chief complaint cc* cubic centimeter CCK cholecystokinin CCU coronary care unit, critical care unit CF cystic fibrosis CFT complement-fixation test CHD congenital heart disease, coronary heart disease CHF congestive heart failure CHO carbohydrate CI cardiac index CIN cervical intraepithelial neoplasm CK creatinine kinase CL cleft lip cm centimeter CMS circulation movement sensation CMV cytomegalovirus CNS central nervous system CO carbon monoxide; cardiac output; castor oil CO2 carbon dioxide COLD chronic obstructive lung disease COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease CP cerebral palsy, cleft palate CPK creatine phosphokinase CPP cerebral perfusion pressure CPPD chest percussion and post drainage CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation CRF chronic renal failure CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy CRT capillary refill time CSF cerebrospinal fluid; colonystimulating factor CST contraction stress test CT computed tomography; chest tube CVA cerebrovascular accident, costovertebral angle CVP central venous pressure

Cx cervix CXR chest x-ray d day D&C dilatation and curettage D5W dextrose 5% in water DAT diet as tolerated dc, DC,D/C discontinue or discharge DDx differential diagnosis DEX (DXT) blood sugar DI diabetes insipidus DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation diff differential blood count dil dilute, dissolve DIP distal interphalangeal joint disch; DC discharge DKA diabetic ketoacidosis dl, dL deciliter DM diabetes mellitus DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DNR do not resuscitate DOA dead on arrival DOB date of birth DOE dyspneic on exertion DPL diagnostic peritoneal lavage DPT diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus dr dram DRG diagnosis-related group drsg dressing DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DT delirium tremens DTR deep tendon reflex DVT deep vein thrombosis Dx diagnosis EBL estimated blood loss EBV Epstein-Barr virus ECF extended care facility, extracellular fluid ECG electrocardiogram, electrocardiograph ECHO echocardiography ECT electroconvulsive therapy ED emergency department EDB estimated date of birth EDC expected date of confinement EDD estimated date of delivery EEG electroencephalogram EENT eye, ear, nose, throat eff effacement EFM electronic fetal monitoring

ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay elix elixir EMG electromyogram EMS emergency medical service EMT emergency medical service epid epidural epis episiotomy ER emergency room ERV expiratory reserve volume ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESRD end-stage renal disease ET endotracheal tube ETOH ethanol ext extract F Fahrenheit FA fatty acids FBS fasting blood sugar FD fatal dose; focal distance Fe iron FEV forced expiratory volume FFP fresh frozen plasma FH, Fhx family history FHR fetal heart tone Fld,Fl fluid FOU fever of unknown origin FTT failure to thrive FUO fever of unknown origin FVD fluid volume deficit fx fracture g, GM, gm gram G, Gr, Grav gravida gal gallon GB gallbladder GC gonococcus or gonorrheal GDM gestational diabetes mellitus GERD gastroesophageal efflux disease gest gestation GETT general by endotracheal tube GFR glomerular filtration rate GGT gamma-glutamyl transferase GI gastrointestinal gl gastrointestinal gm gram gr grain GSW gunshot wound gtt drops GU genitourinary GVHD graft-versus-host-disease GXT graded exercise tolerance (stress test)

Gyn gynecology H hypodermic H&P history and physical h, hr hour H/H Henderson-hasselbach equation; hemoglobin/hematocrit h/o history of H2O water H2O2 hydrogen peroxide HA headache HAA hepatitis B surface antigen HAV hepatitis A virus HBP high blood pressure HCG human chrorionic gonadotropin HCO3 bicarbonate HCT hematocrit HDL high-density lipoprotein HEENT head, eye, ear, nose, and throat HELLP Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Lowered Platelets Hg mercury Hgb hemoglobin HIV human immunodeficiency (AIDS) virus HLA histocompatibility locus antigen HO history of HOB head of bed HPF high power field HPI history of present illness HR heart rate HRT hormone replacement therapy hs* bedtime HSV herpes simplex virus HT, HTN hypertension hx, Hx history hypo hypodermic I&O intake and output IBC iron binding capacity IBD inflammatory bowel disease IBS irritable bowel syndrome IBW ideal body weight ICCE intracapsular cataract extraction ICF intermediate care facility ICP intracranial pressure ICS intercostals space ICT inflammation of connective tissue ICU intensive care unit ID intradermal IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IDM infant of a diabetic mother

IFM internal fetal Ig immunoglobulin IH infectious hepatitis IHD ischemic heart disease IHSS idiopathic hypertropic subaortic stenosis IM intramuscular IMV intermittent mandatory ventilation in inch IN intranasal INR international normalization ratio IPD intermittent peritoneal dialysis IPPB intermittent positive pressure breathing IRDM insulin resistant diabetes mellitus IRV inpiratory reserve volume ITP idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura iu*, IU*international unit IUD intrauterine device IUPC intrauterine pressure catherer IV intravenous IVC intravenous cholangiogram; inferior vena cava IVF in vitro fertilization IVP intravenous pyelogram, intravenous push IVPB intravenous piggyback JODM juvenile onset diabetes mellitus JVD jugular vein distention JVP jugular vein pressure K* potassium KCI potassium chloride kg kilogram KOR keep open rate KUB….kidney/ureter/bladder KVO keep vein open L left, liter, length, lumbar, lethal L&A light and accomodation L&D labor and delivery L&W living and well lab laboratory LAD left axis deviation; left anterior descending LAE left atrial enlargement LAHB left anterior hemiblock LAP left atrial pressure or leukocyte alkaline phosphatase lat lateral LB large bowel lb pound LBBB left bundle branch block

LDH lactate dehydrogenase LDL low-density lipoprotein LE lower extremity, lupus erythematosus LFTs liver function tests LGA large for gestational age LIH left inguinal hernia LIJ left internal jugular liq liquid LLE left lower extremity LLL left lower lobe LLQ left lower quadrant LMP last menstrual period LNMP last normal menstrual period LOC level/loss of consciousness LP lumbar pucture LPN licensed practical nurse LR lactated Ringer’s LSC left subclavian LUE left upper extremity LUL left upper lobe LUQ left upper quadrant LV left ventricle LVEDP left ventricular end diastolic pressure LVH left ventricular hypertrophy m mater; minim MAE moves all extremities MAO monoamine oxidase MAP mean arterial pressure MAR medication administration record MAST medical antishock trousers MBT maternal blood type mcg microgram MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MCL modified chest lead MCV mean corpuscular volume, molluscum MD muscular dystrophy MDI multiple daily vitamin meds medications mEq milliequivalent MFM Maternal-Fetal Medicine Mg magnesium sulfate mg milligram MI myocardial infection ml, mL.milliliter MLE median episiotomy mm millimeter

MM mucus membrane mmHg millimeters of mercury MMR maternal mortality rate; measlesmumps-rubella mod moderate monitoring MRI magnetic resonance imaging MS multiple sclerosis MSF meconium-stained fluid Multip multipara MVA motor vehicle accident MVU Montevideo unit N&V, N/V nausea and vomiting N/A not applicable Na+ sodium NaCl sodium chloride NAD no apparent distress NANDA North American Nursing Diagnosis neg negative NG nasogastric NIBP noninvasive blood pressure NICU neonatal intensive care unit NIDDM non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus NIL not in labor NKA no known allergies NKDA no known drug allergies NKMA no known medication allergies NMR nuclear magnetic resonance no number noc night npo, NPO nothing by mouth NS normal saline NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSD normal spontaneous delivery NSR normal sinus rhythm NST nonstress test NT nasotracheal NTD neural tube defect NV nausea and vomiting NYD not yet diagnosed O2 oxygen OB obstetrics OBS organic brain syndrome OCG oral cholecystogram OD optical density, overdose, right eye OGTT oral glucose tolerance test OM otitis media OOB out of bed

OPV oral polio vaccine OR operating room ORIF open reduction internal fixation OS left eye os mouth OT occupational therapy OTC over-the-counter OU each eye oz ounce p after P para or pulse P&PD percussion and postural drainage P-A, PA, P/A posterior-anterior PABA para-aminobenzoic acid PAC premature atrial contraction PALS pediatric advance life support PAO2 alveolar oxygen PaO2 peripheral arterial oxygen content PAP pulmonary artery pressure Para I, II, etc unipara, bipara, tripara, etc PAT paroxysmal atrial tachycardia pc after meal PCA patient-controlled analgesia PCN penicillin; primary care nurse PCV packed cell voulme PCWP pulmonary capillary wedge pressure PD peritoneal dialysis PDA patent ductus arteriosus PDD pervasive development disorder PDR physicians desk reference PE physical examination; pulmonary embolus; pleural effusion PEEP positive end expiratory pressure PEFR peak expiratory flow rate PEG percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy per through or by Peri care perineal care PERRLA pupils equal, regular react to light, accommodation PI pulmonic insufficiency disease; present illness PICC peripherally inserted central venous catheter PID pelvic inflammatory disease PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension Pit Pitocin PKU phenylketonuria PM evening PMH past medical history PMI point of maximal impulse

PMN polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (polys) PMS premenstrual syndrome PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea PO, poorally POD post-op day Postop postoperatively PP postpartum PPD purified protein derivative (TB test) PR by rectum PRBC packed red blood cells Preop preoperatively prep preaparation pres presentation primip primipara PRN, prn as required/when necessary pro time prothrombin time PSA prostate-specific antigen Pt patient pt pint PT prothrombin time, physical therapy PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty PTH parathyroid hormone PTL preterm labor PTT partial thromboplastin time PUD peptic ulver disease PUFT Pelvic Uterine Full Term PVC premature ventricular contraction PVD peripheral vascular disease Px pneumothorax q every q2h every 2 hrs q3h every 3 hrs q4h every 4 hrs qd* every day qh every hr qid, QID 4x a day QNS quantity not sufficient qod* every other day qs as sufficient qt quart Qt total cardiac output R respiration, right, Rickettsia, roentgen R/ take R/O rule out R/T related to RA rheumatoid arthritis RAD right atrial axis deviation RAE right atrial enlargement

RAI radioactive iodine RAIU radioactive iodine uptake RAP right atrial pressure RBBB right bundle branch block RBC, rbc red blood cell RDA recommended daily/dietary allowance RDS respiratory distress Rh symbol of rhesus factor, symbol for rhodium RLE right lower extremity RLL right lower lobe RLQ right lower quadrant RML right middle lobe of lung RNA ribonucleic acid ROM range of motion, rupture of membrane ROS review of systems RR recovery room, respiratory rate RT radiation therapy; reading test; respiratory therapy RUE right upper extremity RUL right upper lobe RUQ right upper quadrant Rx take, prescription s without s/p status post s/s signs and symptoms S-A, SA, S/A sinoatrial sc*, SC*, SQ*, Sub-Q subcutaneous SCN special care nursery Sed rate sedimentation rate SGA small for gestational age SGOT serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase SGPT serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase SI Systeme International SIDS sudden infant death syndrome SL sublingual SLE systematic lupus erythematosus SNF skilled nursing facility SOB shortness of breath sol solution sp.gr. specific gravity spec specimen SROM spontaneous rupture of membrane ss one half SSE soapsuds enema sta station Staph staphylococcus

stat immediately STD sexually transmitted disease; skin test dose Strep streptococcus supp suppository susp suspension SVE sterile vaginal examination Sx symptoms syr syrup T&A tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy T, Tbsp tablespoon tab tablet Tab therapeutic abortion TB tuberculin, tuberculosis, tubercle bacillus TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TIA transient ischemic attack TIBC total iron binding capacity tid, TID .three times a day TKO to keep open TL tubal ligation TM tympanic membrane TMJ temporomandibular joint TNTC too numerous to count TO telephone order TPN total parenteral nutrition TPR temperature, pulse and respiration tr, tinct tincture TSE testicular self-examination TSH thyroid stimulating hormone tsp teaspoon TURP transurethral resection of prostate TWE tap water enema Tx treatment U* unit, umbilicus UA urinalysis UAO upper airway obstruction UBT urea breath test UBW usual body weight ud as directed UE upper extremity UGI upper gastrointestinal ung ointment UPJ ureteropelvic junction URI urinary tract infection US ultrasound

UUN urinary urea nitrogen UVJ ureterovesical junction V/Q ventilation-perfusion VA visual acuity VAD vincristine adriblastine dexamethasone VAMP vincristine adriblastine methylprednisone VBAC vaginal birth after cesarean VC vital capacity VCUG voiding cysourethrogram VD vaginal delivery VDRL venereal diseases research laboratory VE vaginal examination VEB ventricular ectopic beat VF/Vfib ventricular fibrillation VIP vasoactive intestinal peptide vit vitamin VLDL very low density lipoprotein VMA vanillylmandelic acid VO verbal order VOD volume of distribution vol volume VPA valproic acid VQ verbal or voice order VRE vancomycin Resistant Enterococci VS, vs vital signs VSD ventricular septal defect VSS vital signs stable VT ventricular tachycardia VW vessel wall W/C wheelchair WAT white adipose tissue WB whole blood WBC, wbc white blood cells WD well developed WF white female WM white male WN well nourished WNL within normal limits WPW wolf-parkinson-white wt weight XRT x-ray therapy yo years old ZE zollinger-ellison

PREFIXES
ab away from ad to or toward aer air ambi both amphi about, on both sides, both ampho both an, a absent ana up, back, again, excessive angio blood vessel ante before, forward anti against, opposed to, reversed apo from, away from arteri artery aud ear bi two brady slow cardi heart cata down, according to, complete cephal head cerebro brain chole gallbladder chondr cartilage circum around, about cirrho yellow co, con with, together colo colon com with, together con with, together contra against, opposite cran head crani skull cyano blue cysto liquid filled urinary bladder dactyl fingers/toes de down, from dent (o) teeth derma skin dia through, apart, across dis reversal, apart from, separation dys bad, difficult, disordered e without ec out from ecto on outer side, situated on em, en in encephala brain endo within enter intestines epi upon, on erythro red ex, extra outside of exo outside, on outer side, outer layer gastr stomach glyco sugar hapat liver he mi half hem blood hemato blood hemi one half hyper over, above, excessive hypo under, below, deficient ileo ileum ili ilium im, in in, into im, in not infra below inter between intra within intro into, within leuko white lingu tongue lip fat litho stone macro large mal bad mega large melano black mesi, meso middle meta beyond, after, change micro small mono one multi many my muscle myel bone marrow myelo spinal cord neo new, recent nephr kidney neuro nervous system opistho behind, back opthalm eye osteo bone ot ear para beside, beyond, near to per through excessive peri around phag eat phlegm vein pneum lung polio gray

poly many post after, behind pre before, in front of pro before, in front of proct rectal psycho the mind re back again ren kidney retro backward, locate behind rhin nose rhino nose semi half spleen spleen

spondyl spinal cord sub under super above, upper, excessive supra above, upper, excessive sym together, with syndrome tachy fast tetra four trans across, through, beyond tri three ultra beyond, in excess uni one vascular blood vessel venous vein

SUFFIXES
ac, al pertaining to algia pain apheresis removal ase enzyme ate, ize use, subject atresiaabsence of a normal body opening, occlusion, closure capnia carbon dioxide cele protrusion centesis puncture to remove fluid cidal killing clasia, clasis, clast break cle, cule small clysis irrigating, washing crine separate, secrete cyte cell desis aurgical fixation, fusion drome run, running dynia pain ectomy removal ectopia displacement emesis vomit emia blood ent, er, ist person esis, tion condition genic origin gram/graphy written records ia, ism, ity condition iasis presence of iatry physician, treatment ible, ile capable ictal seizure, attack itis inflammation logy study of lysis loosening, dissolution, separating lytic destroy, reduce malacia softening mania madness, insane desire megaly enlargement metry measurement odia smell odyniapain ola, ole small old resembling oma tumor oma tumor, swelling opia vision osis, sis abnormal ostomy opening ous, tic pertaining to oxia oxygen pathy disease penia deficiency of pepsia digestion pexy, pexis fixation phagia, phagy eating philia love phobia fear phonia sound or voice phoria feeling physis growth plasia formation, development, a growth plasm growth, substance, formation plasty surgical shaping

plegia paralysis pnea breathing poiesis formation porosis passage prandial meal praxia in front of, before ptosis prolapse, down ptysis spitting rrhage, rrhagia excessive flow rrhea flow rrhexis rupture rrphaphy suturing in place sarcoma malignant tumor sclerosis hardening scope examination instrument scopy examination sis state of

spasm sudden involuntary muscle contraction stalsis contraction stasis control, stop stenosis constriction, narrowing stomy surgical opening tic relating to tion condition tocia birth, labor tome instrument tomy incision tripsy surgical crushing trophy nourishment ule small ulum small ulus small uria urine

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