Incorporating Fire A.

sia 2006 Conference "Best Practices in Life Safiety'

In association with the World Firefighters Games 18 • 1S Feb.ua.y 2006

In assowuoo\Mth:

FIRE

Fire Asia 2006,

P'rIi:$f'lllLa 0 ~y K'en Kn 19b j, 'CBE QFSM

CDllnn.issiomel' f Lor. dol'll fi'iill'·e 0_ dl lEmc-rgC,DnCY PlaiDllil ing A Ir~bCll;rBy

u:mdOim Bornblugs, 7 July 2005 - Wilen the Inevi;~a.b]e Ha'PlPe'tited

On 7 J uly 2005 London Fire Brigade (I~p10yEd over 200 flref ghl.elfS to explosions in central London. 52 innocent people died and over 700 were inj urcd at the hands o'f 4- suicide bombers ._ 1:11.e 't'iffl ~Sl attack by suicide bonl"bers whrun lli(: UHi led

K I tl g..d (1'1'11.

S:tt:Ny these tra.g~c events were always a matter rOf 'LL wben' and 00' "if" suchan event liBwpen~ll.l On flint (lay and in the day.s and months fliRt followed the response- of London Fire Brigade> the -other emergency S1>MCeS and the oth er agencies was inevitably p,li in (he spotlight.

London Fire Commlssioner, Ken Knight, eJI:.pia.;ns how Lcndou Fire Brigade staff planned, ~refJ{i:~d oimd responded to the events lha.: bmJilgllt this new type or terrorism to a,_e Unj~r::d Kingdom.

Ab~IIm:t

filltll11.f; 1.M IliiItLtTal :tnd man-made dlsasters ~rgiffiC.~ mar~a.e(jlill-ent :i1i ene of ti1e M.leL:a.l fa.,;:;qIl'5. w.h~~1il sheuld (wt o:..m!r m::.~ UiS saf~, bul. also make OiIJr daily lives b~t:tef. Mai~ r;:;ompQ3~ ~d fUfj~1i;;m5 nf hl'i.\Il~J~~ftt 1es.pcmre platte-lm are Qq~]inedi which -assembles n'tiIn)' eXi:Hil'lS and ooW ~.;::Gb.nQIQgJli:5. aoo is a pLT ..... ~rful t.ool· rl)t optimizf:ng ;:kdslL)n on reuul:' oJ)8TIi1~t)rt.

,A Case For ResidenUal fire SlPrhl k1rers

• NBw'$prlnitUY' ~ usC' mly OJ ~" (jf t:l~' 1Wim",~FeLJ by tRJditioRal f1rte flglrlmg rmrthwf5

• SfNIttit~ Sit II'&' IMts by' «JlfLmIiing fi~ wIhm~"Te sm.n

.. SmiJJIer 1I1'U mNn iI dGmJt:k: ~ in ~ .sm. pf'PdudiwJ JfNJspmad

A, Case For Res Id e ntia I 5 prln k lars

• ~ /MQ~ thd"c In ~ fires wM.f'1: Ii,.", spt'Inlt:Jen ~ ~ sprlnkten o:mln;r!k:d 99.7% td ~ ffres

What. can be done?

• A tiUjor frH;tgr la ~,gmw.th iMd ~ of ~ntJaj sprin-IdCF5 ffl 1M. lJrrftfJd frmgd~ lJ~ ~ afuI Va.rraw~r, Cmada lJiH' b.«n the 5lJPpDrt qfthe 'I'1M! ~rrrif;s;s i¥lJd ~t l!uikPng a,~

• HDin. CJb.ft;aiye. of' tht:~ bodIe!J ,Ms Ji!W:ilYS: b;?en Oie prgtet:tkm (if life. r:hJS> rJbj~ must I'i!I1liJin, ro.ns#nt

A Case For ReSldential Fire Sprinklers

'New Reallities,: fire

S kler-s

What ca n be done' ?

• OmsJdtNatkJn of' NatlMsJ/Cily FIre SpmtkJet pr;rIizy m l'eqUh ilutmmtk ~ sprinkler ~ in ail ~ ~d8nt1ai buitd/ng5

• Buikfing CtJ~ !JC' upd~et1 with ,re£pcd tIP ~1JtB, 16r.f"~ spdnl*r sp~ m res_~~ /nJIM1ttgs iNlrl i7I1JI!.iHi ~ CmJe in a ,tJtm:/y fas:bkm

11

Tre nods in No rth America

.. IIMIi ~ iHtf! New r.:t"* hJve uperien«d ~ /t1i;Jh"'ffse !ltQdm5 lit ~:piI:rt few y@rs

New Re,aiities: Filie Sprinklers .. ~ /tftdloDAI BliIMing ~ ill ~ 11;1 Ftrll)'1Ifg dCgr.eres In ffl6. PrtW~ and 'hrritrNle1 In Cimadd

• The ~Jl Bu/IdIffg Cf1I1e ~ sprMklcf5'm' higb~.~1 itWIdtngs

'II 'fhe .t"n":mrnre DI''the NBC Iun T§Uited ill th;6, ~ qfrequ~t5 ft1r

~U1i8"'¥ri~ "' ~ hlf/h-riH' detleltJpment in

.II pmv~ ~fK Orttlffo

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V ou r F.~re See nario

Trends In North America

N BW R,eal ill &5: Fire .s prinkJ,8TS

• Q~r 220 jUiisdk:ti.ons in NMh AnN!'.tg currentfy have fegJsIs!l'~" fn p/Ba: making ~WI tJ/'e' ~1S~

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ro

Sprink~ers - The American E.xPQrie l!'I}ce

ill 5Jnee 1!N16 5~/Q...JIrfzM.i I1as ha.f/ #JNifJkk:r ,Wdinafft:e In ~

ill I'n ;rS'yed1'5 there ~ POdeiJthsm 5~~fiam.gs

.93% dflffls NlE'J'e mnDincdby til'B DpeMtion ~ a smgk:' '5INfnkM'

• A wu~ fi~ I9H p:er sprI/1~ ~ IRS ,2"..166

iI A'AmJge rf1re Ita$ per f3TlSprlnld~ Ilt~t W:b$I45,DJ9

A C ass for ResidenUal S pri l!ilklers

Life S afiety Po licy

• The tJltf#df) Firo C~de) 2.5...1.:1 stBfIe:I. r;;karfy tn'Jt -;Fke M~ rrmfu5 :man be mMro~fmrd IiC il5 co he ImmedJately .f'eSdr fr1. #sc rrt iHI time:9 by /b;e d~mcnt nhkles"

iI Fke ,C~de. Z5.J.l~ (1,) ~inl3l1tfhg A~Fnm of~atlJte5), ""Fin! aCC"l?SS mi!i~ 11m! atxe55 paJJei$ er wln.daws tt:Z.ided to ~if:1titSt'i;

~'rIJe~~T::~

g~ f~ building mat"£riallt ~tH~ 5Ig1f5 Of SiilJi' ~ WmI ,f)( ob9tJ'Udkm .,.

Spdnlder.s - "h~ C'a nad~r ali'll 'Ex pe'r,ience

.. 5,in-re 1990 ~r,; lie la5! hdd 5p~Id~!, try-!a.w in pJaa

• In :10 ygaft!i w.~ ~,oo deal:hsdn 5prlnk~ fwJl1f!5

flo 9O%'''''flms l!1i'ei"reiXmtiNn.cdbythe ~timt "n.' ~glfl5pRnltftY

Ii A ~ fif;r)' log pM ~rf~~ inC.idcrd ~5' ,:1,,0,6.5

• A ~ t;~ 1f/;s5 pw uI!5prlttk~ ~t w,as $i1;.:9.J'7

Trend IS in !/II 0 rth Am e ric a

flo NFPA indk~ilie£ ,{#at riQfO.f.l'@ $ SO' in wfJlidwidd dt:f~ '1M htOst d;rsB".D~~ p.tr PfYludatki~ lind!lft. in the WWfd ffH' mcst~

.. TOl'rimtfJ ls ~''''fCb.k~ amJ New Yi:\IrlC In t~ first cate~

Negative Fa etors On Life Safety

.. 1m;r.ciMing traffk vWlInHM (HJ ~ UNMpmv.e.d M~d "' .. &M:lIif:k.

,. IiDFmwed stnnrts,. ,tr.Jfflc mimIng t, /nf:rUHd rk~n.r!$ fur m-.;ircrt pMk/1:tg

I lUI Iff ~ with rogJdiJrly Int:t9slitg ~ flN'~

.. roo wkhh ofan aeIia! vehlds with Irs. o!IerJaJ ~11t:r/g{Jels fb.t' ~~ 4'!i" rm" f;glttlrrg ~""~ rlcpffTycd is £5 mmns

Ii' '11lfi wifith qf ~ pumpIN' vehkfB ~ Ji~ .JepkJyedls 5- metKie$

The Euro PUrn po r Myth

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------- ... Req llJi rements for fnte nslflcatlon-

The Eu ro Pum per M;rtli'l

III AT&~tpoFiro5a~requ~t tor ~ st1'etN wirfthS is typit:;Jlly ·,,,,,Old'tn:/.i:KS #RJ' 5:imptr fil'tiI ~ ~ ~mJ 'wfMJdm tnN:k5 ;J'h,m ~lPP'r; where they'r-e .M JJ<tW;h PTmHer

.. o,tteI' tJJe pBgt .1S F~ iWt3 1PD.¥e fn~fudaln1~tJ.ve~ Rllti Impmmen-red ..eng~,;g JMpMve~ in rnr. (;'jj'flam t!~s~ ~

llatfmty for fi re 5e rv i CDS?

8

I ntens ififcatio n

• Pmpedy 'vi#iif:s..~.md ~ ~vai~ilr7ity rdM.W.~ sp.iti! fnp.dmea~~

• ,f/nJt' ~ f11lmlnAtlwl mo.r: ~.tbiKk fmm the street aIId Kt:Jw /()bbylng ~ ff1fIw;e th~ 5fze ot'tha publk right tJI w.IjV to pmrdtk IJKN'e ~ kx ~'k!fng in' B ~ tJ~H area

8 rownfreld Development - 1 UnU to 4B

Current Road Width Example

.. Infll1 ~UbdNi5km em tn'tJ rOn'mN ~~r,raJ ~rt ial'ld.4t :~ ami ~4lJI

,I Eunrp/« 0.1 ~ w.wIkw.t.rs used "" elM~m;;y velth;h aae$$In~(l of run stn!'etS

<II L6fM widYt 5.2.1.m ehet;kH In loUl" l«atkmsM ~laM'

, ~ntry pt:J$t wJt/t1J 3.08,"

Jntens~ficaU:on

• Com~JaJ 1i"k:5 are ~~ int~ l'f!SidfMti81' units

.. rnr!uwiIJu.n:/1!8 ~ tD' I'UN:IfNf&i ilTKi.w~ tmms'

, Tml ~ th~t the bUikfmg m~,.' tX'f;_IIa~ 1ffQv.ed ~ ~'4"D% ~ ~ mJar/y :tt)tJ%, in, ~ €iJ5e:fI

FEom 1 unit to 48., ...

Current Road Width Exampfe 3

7

Smoke All arm li m itat~ons,

I 5mcka, iJ~ ,",,"not dclk:d' fi~ if tJr.e !SIJ18lar ~ no t ream ti.f9ffl

.. J!1iq may fJUl: ~'n/"2S1 (ffl an'OtllilY" fkxK ,err (j~ (if tIN.: fjPm¢, at ~ r(Jmgk ama;. in chimneys. 01' wafl.s'r en rooIs'r "'" (),Ji:Ii ,fhl! f)fhu ~ilh t)/ ~ dt:N:)f$

8m a~e Al arm lim ~tatl en s

• .5m(jk~ .a1Bfffl~ may n« ~ trn1t: ~ aaivare befum fire ~t§use5i ~ma~ mj1iry.~,. dmh.

~ Due :m ,me' lrxJ1:km iN' na~ure. i!Jf't;h.r: ~ $Iffl»r~ mfiy md' rr:iKh ffl.a Imlt Immcrflawly

IPrQrnQ~ion of sprinklers Dr are $lifokli defectors ad'l!quate?

Sm e ke Alarm [Urn [tartl ens

!IJ Sp'f!daJ WffH,'SihmlJt1 be f~ for un: ,~ril19 impiJlred

Smoke AJaJi'lm Limitation 5·

I' Tm,fietf1t:tf:.tl's at: tBiHI: 4t.I~ li wuk to enmre in lJ"~ wrN"i.fltg (Qriiim"

I' Smoke a:lilrfm haW! a limitrffJ Ii", Replsce $muk~ ~1;ttm5- ireI)' 1,(J yedl'S'

FllI'"omot[~1']I 'Of sprl.n kJers or are smoke ~tectQfS a.dsquBte?

6

Fire Ser\l'lces Response to Inoidenrt

<Ii 1l~1-~',1!M! the ~F~PMJtectl(}1'l A~ti:ifm.~,fMga~mg ~e ItM<KIi if t.M~:J,'{j ~".iJs 'tD, a'nlSWCT tM ClJ'il (lIFPA 1.:J'21)

Ii 60 ~ t(i ,~h th.e.' calf (NFPA ;t2z1)

I Ii(}~mhit ~Sl~(NFPA :1710)

tkW'UfTooJ~~=rJ ~C.Mii'

... .- ..... ~ ~_.4'o'C' _.!:CI~

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Fire 5'etVi:ces, Res ponsa te Incident

• Z4Q~~'~'UBlIfdiW ~~ .(NFP~ 1?1())tf:t1' an iJ~lSff8 TE~ time in m;my'M'a~ (d 6..:3 Pti~

Ii!! "/'Ms. means tha't fJashiJ!v:cr wRi .,fmrMt ct.~nJy ~1' ~ mtJSt Jwme" Rn!!5' prlw,(z:J' tIN, imi~f (d I'iri: ~

, Dnlmrrtk:,~ in tho! fuel5lflwdlfiNJ over,1ss! $O/4{J ~

• 'fflf',$ hlJ:$ ~ ~ lIoftIiy;_~ Whkfi IiIV:S Snitc spro;art p"",,~. ~ "'~te4 /:reat' FeieaM ,M~ imd,rempe~mrre£ pro4~

.. F1a-5horFer,fn iMme tt~ !ciNitfJ< mii'ny ~fflS ~rJ injudES' In ~~Q;S

ill r:w:k,s~ wm s~ t:lrpklly to 1N'i~JRiM

3

A Mand~rt,e For :F ire Prot-e'Cti 011 and Life Safety

!iii Whuc 'ir~ FIre ~s #.{3S! beeIf dillgentln 1"1:6 ~ td life pmt~ 'r~fi;! ;:;.::mt~ tiiI sutmr,~tit~ death~ ~din:f~ ~ nre

.. ~ ~~ m~ uftfr.e ,doothS.,,mJ injUt/~ in Ttmm~ .rtf.e' ;tHe m nstden.ti& ~Sj rafflcr t/rai'lIrre$III CfiN7Pffl~J w ~~ pmpertics

" From 19M b.;:l 2OtJ4'ln t'oro,nfiJ< 2"23' ~tM81uJ,2{6!f2 mjiJ~ ha~' ~ ln~fJres

fJ ashover ReaJity and Results

• FIa5h~'If'CF ~.;!Ii ,~t!' lit tile tJerte!.rlpmrmt· ~~~, f:WJtk~ ff.~ Iii rwfti.Ch 8J1~ 5Wf~ ~ m;r~1$ wilhfn the mem - the fMnitur;e.. WilY ~ ~~ f'HdJ (gnitft:Nt ~~~',and tJilM

~fJ in ,tho IWm RgiJ1;s, h;l' !)~m r~

... jn 1.9180 the Tiadtm.il 1Ju.f1§1J' of 5t6mbFds ~~~,~IJ ~I'U~ ~ ~~led In leg' thJn 4 H!inutes with hmliJ' fliImcl ppWili!j ~~t t~ fidI Ilel§h.t O't~i!; tiowway

... .In 1.986 Flre ,PQ-.wer oo-cwne:nted the ffN1'5 fkm1~:tP ~~r tfo~t ~ (ffl/y 3 minutes .rmd 41 s:eciimlk

,A Mandate fo,ji" FJ'r,e P,rotectlon an d lite Safety

f.i1ashove r Re~llty' and' Results

• Alr,~sh~ 1Ie!'~' ~ lIU! i1mtied_i$~ V/l:fJ1ity ¢thC' lirv M likely ~ btl u~fi

>II 11l .200'1 t~'N.3t/tm8fBU~ (If 5tilndimJ5 dQ'GlnN!nhKi,;3' .~tJt1ttY' m :1 mJ"llt~ ami U s~ i" til'61iY/n!j' r:Hm

• NFPA shuws tJw a~Fa{Je ,r~f ~~~¥¢r f/m,e ~ 4,_j' ""irtgt~s (ilN dati/. fJa~ en' ~ti~ befen 200.2)

J

ls It Time To M,o'\le, To The Next level~ Of F i re

P rote cUo n l'

Williii1lrn A. ,Stewar1 CFO. Mil Fir.i:lI.E,! CMMI AdeC F~M Cl'lli!IItf Toronto Fire' Servic:'e'.5

F:ill'ic lDoaths

The Gcna'o\aJ M!!:O~i!&..1iOii1l .' C!~.6~r 20ClS

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Cost of' D ~rect F~ re' Losses Hil!l Ge:FIC~ A.:i;!ftll:;:i'liijiOn • Il;!i;~~r 21)0:5

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life ,S afe,ty Man dat@

P'lopulaUc tl Com partsons for Fi re Deat n s, (2ilJ OO,m 200.2)

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A M:!!Indate F'or F~i'~ Proteceti'on and UJe, Safmy

.. In t:he,"i]i~cjcf"QnrtJJ'i~from i~s tdo ~ t~~ ~T(J' ilR av.eI.il(/e dF ;UM fin: tata/ilies Pf!" ,yeal' f;:j' twnm5

I' A~fHhc$B'fires ~ 72% uf aI1 the ~.iI tir;c;;r the.y.clalm 9"6% W tiro f<r.tD:litks ami &0% ,~tlw fin: lnftlde~

• We oiFe" at 9I'.&3~ ,",it#( from .fire ~¢ ~ kel~seame'~ {n"ui"~

Abstract Fire ASia Conference 2006

WiLi.flm A_ Stewart, vlJFirE.CFO,C)..1M Fire thief

Toronto F ire Services

The focus of my presentati on will address the Deed to move forward to reduce the Joss. of] i fe through flre related fatal itics from the gJClhal perspective. The development of .5JJ1Qkc derecnon and carbon monoxide detection systems have provided the rub he ~, .. rth early detection de ... ic.es to pre v t:nt needless death from fire or carbon monoxide po isoning. While many ho.rnes h.:1iVC either a hard-wired system {IT battery-operstcd detec tors, (here remains significant fire; loss and

faral ities globally, In many in~~;an:::I;'S the battery r.:s disconnected, has lost charge or is removed from the detector Loss of life today can be mitigated through mandatory bllifding and fire code TCgl.1J atLOLS and pebli c cd ucanon, As fire service pro tessionals 'ove must champion the .r;;luse to C"Jl511I€ that ill detection systems an: cperational .ilild demand .. he adoption of auromsric residential sprinkler systems in [be interest of puh I ic safety and due diligence, Sprinkler sysierns arc not [lew to the fire engineering cormnunity as [h~Y have been i n 5¢TV~ce for over 100 years. The cost {I f installaiicn i!i- mmimal given the potential 1 i fcsavmg faC:foJ1; ~hcy wlll provide to the' public, Residential fin: sprinklers are a logical response Co fir-e: nsk. Globally we must move lon"",:1IT11Q prevent the loss of life due to fire in residean ii!~ occuparrci es.

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Figure 7- Load paths assumed fa t.---------r-

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r C'iJ ld and fi re resi slant design

Load path fer cold design Slabs =:::.- secondary beams

=- primary beams :::::) columns =- found" ali on

S tabs (two way) ::::::; edgl: beam s ~ columns

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IT 600 I
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.. -, Protected, 11:=2 W/(m.K}. w~h bOU'fldary laryoe-r resistance

1500 2000 1~Cf.J

Stiillndar-d h~liH!iI time ~!!I}

Flg1Jre· 5; Examples of temperatures ~r.J steel

500

1000

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E 25
t-
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~ 20
o
15-
10
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a
{I 80:0

zoo

1000

400

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Figure 6: II lustrati ve price 0 f intumescent coating fi re protection

1[01

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• II

v=:': ~

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• "

F iJS ure :;: Com pari son of E'-I 1991-1-2 parametric fire curves wi ttl test results (T ennon &. Moore 200~)

B- e

rD (j] d> ~
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2(28-l ... +D) 2(B+D)
A, .4, Figure -4: Two exam p les of sect ion factor

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-;:;:.:~ ---E.a1wTuo ,~-~ ~W:iH! .... 1

Figure J- Cornparison ofdifferent design tire curves

T e-mper<1[me/5trcngch

. N8Hm~1 floe temperature - time i:..:1,J;r.'C:

Standard fire temperature - time curve

.",

,~

-,. "

~..- - 1'\ l!Je ura l fire stren gth - time cu rve

1 -- ._oZ"l~ \

1IIio.,_... _

~

Minimum strength ! 'standard fire slrf::~gth - lime curve

under:' n31U raj flre

~-----------~-------~--------------~----------.

Time

Equ i va I ern [i me 10 ~tgrrJdard fire

Figure 2: lllustration of nrne equivalent approach

0-170 17]-]91)

] 9] -250

675 775 875

('iQij 700 800

52) 625 725

~50 55U 650

400 505 600

Ta b I c 4: Indicati ve intumescent ccatin g thickness

/\rl" _Q!y Iiii'll thlckness (p,m) .H a ~i.nili'ng u~'mpe.r3tl!Jire 'llJ!f

(m") 62.QoC 670cC 720~C vnrc 820':'C

Table 5: Safety factors for fir~ hild density ft'1)m EN ] 99'[-1-2 (CEN 2 003 a)

C crnpaltme,nt D.angM 0.1 D~nger of E;w;ampfC:i
Fire Actlvillioll FI"" Adi!lstlon of
floor area ,;LlI~ [mil 81:11 ,O1!], OC;~iJp.artC~l!i:!.
215 1,1'1) 0.18. a~, 1:n1Z1!III1'1.
$~1I11".111iQ01
1.QC (li'fon<!:.1 ~etu::I, ~ 91.
2Si) 1,56 PCil19r Ill'dll!lU!f
2000 1,91!J. 1,2:2 1~.Ji;~""Y rer 1!I)!I1:·illnl!'J',t
I & ~lIli;inil\!l,
15 (llll) 2,CHJ f,:44 cl1~ IDMRtofy.
p{iinilillg woIiU~
10000 2,' J 1.615 m.IInLJIIWf(J1)' ilt IhIlWDl1;~
r:if'~lllt.!< Table 6: Fire load density r:acU)T'.'; considenug fire precautions frum E::--l ] 991-] -2 (CEN 2003~)

01"11 Funct~on of Active PI re Flghtl ng Measures
J!lJjJ~Drmlli-t Firll' .SLllppr"l!5J;I{ll'1 tom~JiMlII!:' Fire Ct;;il ... enen Ma:1I50i Fir~ S.!~~:'!5i;3t1
A Ij 1:on'I;;o j c hr.dall.:md ... m I Al,.ltt>J'l1(Ui~ ~iri!' AI.I t.Iwn.iJ lie 'I'I.IDrk Oit :Si[~ S.af", FIJI!' SmJ)klil
\'IIa!ar Wi'lHlr De[fo.:tl~iI A:Qom' Flr~ Flr~ A.J!;J;",~ rlglWlfr'lg hh,-<i~t
EJl:tlnog'-J15t1i,.g S.LIIJ1!I'l.I~:(i IAI~IJ , rlll'1oSmiS'!3KHi 8riEl~ 6rlgada- RQ!lI~"''!i D;!or i 13111 ~)'9!l'!m
S)':!Itt!1I iJ!!, by ,~
ij I I I := Hell! s.1T1I;!o~1Jo Fin;, E11'~d~
,a5nl 6~,:2 011] bnA. It,iO 0116 01.1 ,8r0.9 &.s. (5'n 1. 0
0,6-; , ,0 10,I:I110,;r 0, Ell or (1',].3 (I.BI 0.61 or 0',78 il',9 or , "1.0 or 1,~ 1.0 Or ~.5
on.5 QCl.:liP .... :i'lt!' AlJel~!J~ 8:J% F 1 ,:jf;l:Jla
O .... -elhny zeo 948
H05VI{J] 1 room) 230 28[}
Hotel (HIDI'l j ::'10 377
UIJr.ni')' 1 sec 1824
Office 41(1 51'1
ctassroon « 0. "3>ChOOI 2'B~1 3i17
ShOPPII~iJ centre 000 '73(1
Th-!:itlt1e ((:.;{I€lmal 300 365
Tr{lns:';liXt {PUDliie: space) 100 122. It..:-::.,;-~~~q I~t:l ~t tl1~~~;:1 [_Jm.i~lfi.i" 1 t.~tnu ... , "'. ftl a '10"'.1 rl'l tl-t! of~
0.1 O. oS "'.5. 11 . ..:- I}~ a.a
·c j ·c 'C ·c ·c I .C'
:-'l~L:;.!.bE'!f. hn OOlJl:;:rr05f;~1)"[] 'N' ~ ::k~dJ:,m€;~::;, IfE'i!I notei
- 70 ~:.O )01;1) eso ij 1.1 6~~ 710
:- ,0 but ,.:. 1,"'1/ -:I,(:il) .310 o-'3j. 590 655 ~6:n
\J ~ml:!l"l"~ i 1"1 b"'J~!::Et"LE ':::1,.;,.bPOL"!~~f ci:JntL',,"[o: ~b:t.l. 1;I:r ~l;Im~:" i~ ... slabs:
I.!DpL'OtE'ctE'd tu~illlJE'l'.s. or pr-ot ... cted mf"Illb::t'~ rompJ~"]l"l~ w~tb
lwm .::;1 0,' 1Jo1 (If 2,J: }00 NO (i~G' Gft) ~.) - ':'80
,~-J
61)~~L' prn!-k;:[l:"d 1 nr:>~u bers 540 s.% ;3::::~ (;:5~ :-00 ;:-'VJ"
.;'..kmb~l·::; 'in t;..:nd i[l,~ n.;;-;· ~o.,;Ei'p~ •. , ~n.g concrete f-mb::.: !
unpl"Ol et:~ .. d l'L\·~·IJJb?l'":!';. 1M" pl"i:oto:":!t"'t~d l'r'!o!"~if1 b~,~ O:X>I:n,'Pln"~ ... vith
itvm 31 ClL' b 1 ('If ~.::l o:{I o5~=" :..so 620 660 "i15
~:;:~€'J.' P~[""c[;£'d mE"rLll::o.n"~ "\00 ol{l .::.4;) 7[10 1 05.35 69(1-
:'tfc'Lll'i:oe r.,. :i I] ! ,.ll.:.:tNL:
r all eases ... dO .:.1.0 14;:; 190 G.3;:. G£{I
~O!"J:: ( .. 1~~ ~~iiJ~<.::.~~ ... :.t. [be- t'ii:o!:tLH: h::'IIl!~' d.:. ... ~d .. d. ~ u,~ m.:,:j',;l d ~"TlI.nOJ]. ] 1. Cornmmee of European Standardisation (e£1"';l 2003(:~ PrEN}9!J3~1-1, Eurocode 3: d(:,5~~~N of steel structures, Part l, 2: structural fire dt:~lg1i. Stage 49 draft

12 Ccmmittee or European Standardisation {CEN), 2004~ PrEl'H99·4-J-l, Eurocode 4: J<f.sign of composite steel and concrete 5trUf:'II,J,.e~, Part 1 2: Gerreral rules - ssruaural [ir« desig». Fjnal draft,

~ 3, Lawson, R.M. and Newman, 0.1\·1., 1996, Structural flre design 10 EC3 & EC4. and comparison with BS 5950. Technical Report, SCI Publicasso« 159, The Steel Construction Institute

14, Lennon. T. & Moore, D,S., 2.003, The- natural fire safety concept - full-scale tests 8' Cardington, Fire Safety JOUJ'naJ., '/0 L 38, pp. 623·643

15. Newman GM, Robinson IT & Bailey CO, 2000. Fin safety des~glI: A new oppr&sch to mutlEstorey steel-framed bUj/diltg.'!i. SCI Publication P2B8

16, Society of Fi re Protection Engineers .. 2002, Handbook of fire: protection, )rrl edition, Natil]n.3i~ Fire Protection Asseciation, Quincy, Ml\.

17. Wang Y,C., 2002, Steel and composite structures - behtJvf{)urami design/or fire sa/ery, Spoon Press

13·. Wang, Y.c., 2005, Performenee of steel-concrete composite structures in fire. Progress in Structural Engineering And Materials, Vol, 7. pp. S6-W2

19. Wong, M,B. & Ghojel, 1.I.. 2:003, Sensitivity &nalysis of heal transfer formulations for i~~uli!ih:dslnlcruraJ components, fire S.i:Lf!;iyJourn~l, Vol. 38, pp. 187-201

Tab le 1: Fire load density from PD 7974 (BSI 20024)

~~ II 90 ' ..
:::'70 9:':''(.1
3~Q .4.:1.0
J 000 3,00
~OO ~G(I
~~O G.o;-o
000 1 lO{J
-l,O ':-.{IO
1 SOil $! 240
'"' ,)~,O ~ .~50
t- 8~O 411) &~~ ~

3.Lt [J· ... ,:;Ji(-;-'.:.T.n~ ~(I(I

:\futlufi!.t11,.111.D.g [lind EtO!';."<r,~ 1 180

J SI}IJ

r

Table 2: Fire load densi ty from EN 1991-1-2 (CE'J 2003~)

for hotel rooms, table 2 gives a charac eristic fLfe t021d density of 377 hU,' m2 nOOT area Therefore. d1€ design fire load density is OA*377=1:51 MJlm1 [loor area.

far ill ustration purpose •• he urne-equivelent eJppro41Ch in EN 1 991 -1 -2. i!1 used to convert thts fire toad into .i:!I standard fire resistance penod, Assuming an ope fling factor 0=1),] 326m"~ (Wall£. 1002) and tl:t~ T.;l.[io .of the ~Q~l compartment area (A1) to the floor area (Ad is J, then

~." qr:d "·kb *w("kc = q." ~ A f k)r = 151 '" 0.07 \< l '" ..!. fJ 13.7 $: 0, "]32 6 = 17_6 :n1.1T!l,.!les

~ , . via Ar C " .. /0- [326 3

T~ is IJrobl::lb 1 y very IJIlHkdy that the anthori I y would be will mg CO accept a change in ·FRP from 60 minutes lfl. 17 6 minutes, However, Lhii sort of anaiysis may be used to reach a compromise "bervn=eTl the different interested parties of the project

This paper has de~t;r:ihed some recent am ances in fire safety dt~igrJ methods for steel and composue structures, covering fire ~h:3IV oUJ, heal trsnsfer analysis and structural assessmem, Wh ils I here are still areas of I,lTlCI;r1 [!lint)" (e.g, coanecnons), developmen ts in thi S IHE:t:I are sufficiently mature 10 allow engineers to beneflr from applications of performance based design, rather [han simply prescribing fire protection '0. steel an composit-e StruCl1.J.T.e:5, A few examples have been given to show how to use some of the methods, OlJt more importantly, thes-e examples derncnstratc that in adduion to. being able to use these new methods, the engineer shou ld develop a :;soot- understanding of the objec~in:s of fire resistant design of strue ures SQ hat maxsrnum value is added to the dcstgn project by integrating different design processes,

·1_ Approved Document B (ADB), 2(H}O, Fin: Safoty, (London: H:'vtSO)

., Bailey, CO. and. Newman, G.N .• f9"98, The design of steel ftaJL~e(~ buildings without applitd fi II! protection, The Slmc/"uml £ngiHe.er. 716{S)~ 77-81

3. B;~U'r'I·NI, c."R , 2002 ~ I:3-FD curve: 21 new empuica 1 model for fire J:;ou'P,:I."r1 rncnt temperatures, Fire Safety Iourna • vol, 37. pp_ 437-463

4 BS J, 1 990, BS 59 jO Part 8_' i.'ode of pracnce for fire resistant r:1E.'SJE,'7r. Briti sh Standards Instituri on.

~. BSt 2"002(.a)~ PD 7974: Application or f]re safery -engineering principles to the design of bui ldings, Britrsh Standards Instituti . .Q1l

6_ BSI. 2002(b), DD E"N\l 1333] - Test methods for determining UJe contribution to the fire resistanc e of srructura 1 members, Pi!:1l1 4- applied protection I{I steel members, Bnf I sh Standards Inst irution

7 BUcnl!lnan, A.H.~ 2 OIl! , Structural Design for Fire Safety, (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Lrd)

8. Censeil International du Barirnent (eIE W14), 1986 Design guide - .struc~Lrrl!l fire safety, Fire Sa.fi;.ty Journal, 10, 79- i J 7

9_ Com 11;1[(;:1: of European Stand ... irdisation (CEN), 10033. Draft PrE.iV199.1-1-2, Eurocode J:

A cttons 09'1.1 srrncttrr.('s, Pa~·.P /,1' I1cl,'(Jns 0.1']· 5!I'UC1W"e~' e:qJQsed to fire. FilMJ d.T,jift 2003.

10. Ccrnrniuee of European Standardizatiou (CEJ\')j 2.o03b, prEN 1992-1-1, Eurocode 2: Design (I f concrete structures, Part 1.2. general rules - structural fire desig l

..... 'here PI is the probability {if flre uccurring; p f"1f is the probability of fiTe reaching [lesho ... er and P~!f~!~ [he probsbiliry of structural failure given flashcver.

Suppose [he acceptahle level of structural failure in fire is PI' This ID!;!IY be used to calculate the acceptable prebability of failure given Ilashover fire.

Acceptabl ~ P -iF '= P, f~ I P 1U!f }

(9)

The probability of tire P f as well as the probability of fire reaching flashover P~fo can be reduced by bee ter fire management and fire precautions. Therefore, if the acceptable pfObab~lity M snuctural failure i:!; maintained, say a1 the same level as under wind load. the acceptable pmbabil2cy of structural failure given tll!lsh{iver fire may be increased, Since fire resistant design deals wi,th n3shQVCT fires, the above arg'llrtl<:"l;I~ may be translated inio a reduction in the required fire ressstance period, Th is is the basis of tfll:: method ~J'I EN 1991-1-2, Here ihe design 1]] e load density may be calculared as fL)110ws:

{lO)

\V:hert:: qr,'!! is the desigu fii"e load EO be used to quantify the naeural fire. e.g, to give a parametric fire curve arid q(,~ L8 the characteristic lire load based on fire loud survey. m [s the so-called burrung effici r::ncy cocffic lent (approximate! y rn==Q,8}. The r.a.::lors [)q I and ,sqi are used to account f(lr fire rtsk due to sixe of the compartment and. fin:. risk doe to type: of occupancy, The factor i1 is 10 L:;Ik~ into account di if erenr fire fighti rilg measures.

u

8 -Fl-

~ ru

( II)

where ~!.I takes into account each of [he ten individual fire fighting measures. The values of 841, Oq2 and .om mEN 1991-1-2 ere repeated in tables 5 and 6. Although the Eurocodc values may net be dtrt::c tly spphca b le to c ondinons ill other counrries, a Si rnple cxamp I e is given below to LI.I.Witr.a.L~ the usefulness ofa risk based approach to. reduce the req u:ircd fire resissence peri od

Example J

Consider I! hotel building with five storeys, Accoeding LI} the Approved Document B 1.0 the Building R~I,I]~ti{ITIS in the UK V\DB 1000), the required fire resistance ratmg for 3: hotel is 60 rrunutes. Each floor Is a fire compartment and 3t5 area is 200m~. Assume that ilie hotel hae the following average active fite protccuon measures: sprinkler tire e:\[lnguishing system: one independent water supply; automatic smoke detectors and alBITI1; automatic alarm transmission to fire bri gade: adequate ace ess routes and fi re fighting. de v j CC'S. Then:

S UJ'i'PD~e 1JH:: loads are U101: S:;lTTi-e: as in example 1 _ The dead 'load is; 4kN/m2 (12kN:'rn/3m) and the live load i~ 2.5 kNim~ (7,5k.:~lm!3m, on 11H;~ floor sleb, which gives the slab load at ambient ternperartsre 2.3_8/J=9.'Gk}.,r/m::!, The slsb load for fire design is 18/.3=6 k N/rrt The dead load is rnai n!y from the floor slab, which is assumed 100 be 150 rnm truck concrete, Assume tbe C()J]creit: d csi gn strength iii bmdi~~g IS 20~!r.iU"r.i~ and the design strength of reinforcement 15 400 N/rnm:!, For OJle-way ~'plLtln~fig slabs {J,F 3m span, the maximum slab bending moment 'per metre widih is ] 0.8 IN.mfm_ A&sW1:ling the reinforcement cover is 3Ormll~ th~ required reinfo rcern em. area per

~

me tre wrdlh j s TS@200mm (~51 mm" 1m). This reinforcemcrn area gives a slab bending moment

resisrance or I 1,.7 KN_:rWm.

where ::II 21f1d IJ are: the lengths of the slab (both. 9:rt1!) .:1t111 W is the appl ied lead O-n the slab

(=6kl\iM). E:qt:latjoJ1,7 gives M=2Cl.25 kN_mlm_

As,sur.mng the reinforcement co ..... er is sufficient so that the steel temperature LS less thlll, 40::t·C, she reinforcement may be considered to retain ful I S'~h, The new reinforcement requirement rs TI2@2.5{hnm (452 rrlill~/rn}, This gives a slab bending moment resistance per metre width of 20_9 kN mlm

Tho: nevi rejnfcrcement she uld be in beth direc tJODB of the slab Therefore, the additional rl::infon:;t':Tm:I1L it [9""(452-2.51)·9"'452]-5877 mrn2 The total edduronal reinforcement weight is ~ 87711 {loOO{l{IO~9'" 7850 '-4]:5 kg_ Assurn i ng the o v erall cost of reinforcement is £8.00.,'tOD, the cost of addieionol reinforcement ts £132_ Froi n the pr!:'~' i pu:;; ex arnpl C'. thl;; cost of fire: protcc ting the two secondary beams LS £~ &'0, Un hzing the auernsuve lead path gj ~'-:::s a .~';1V~ng of ,£14.8 for rho: floor system,

One may argue th!f!t the Door slab could be made to span m [VIO ways at ambient lr;:1'rtper~[un: 5.0 l1u'I1 the ~·'IJ lnLeJ1JiiI,1 steel beams would not be required. However, because the s 1 f:lb is thin. the deflection or the slab without ini:cm!::ll beam sUFl-1XIJ1S. is likely to be too high to be accepta ble

In this example, the objective has been changed from protecting steel W remain below a limiting ternpersrure to ~n:suring everall S ~bility (If the floor slab, which is [be ultimste [)bj~c[i v 'C:: of fire resistem design,

in uJ rimatc limit state design of structures, whic h has been adopted worldwide as the basi S of structural design, the d:es~gn obj ective i:s 1{1o con lrel the probability of structural fill lure [0 an acceptable .I e v e!.. If 111.i.8 ph i losophy is followed, fire resrstant design shou ld be b~~ydl on confruUing the prob.:l!b il iry of srructural fai lure in flre [C1 ;}[i acceptable 1 evel, II is then possible 10 reiluce ilh-t: fir:= l"t::jt$[anli:'~ periods if the- nsk of 'fire I S reduced by ht!! ..... ing better than the norm fire rnanagemenl. The prQbahiiity >of fire causing srmcnual f;}i]ure may be calculated ,~~ follows:

The typical cost of intumescent coatmg is. shown in fio!!:ure 6. For [;I coating thickness of 815 um ~hc -['O~L is £2:4/d. The total area to he (;Q<l1'l;:d is 12 J mS', gi vrng th c cost of in tumescent C'(J,:U il'lg as £290. A.$.5 rrni ng Ute fabricated cost of S'ter;:] is. :£8DQJLon, the cost of the steel beam is £J 74. Thecombined cost of steel and intumescent lire protection rs £664,

Use intumescent ccsting ;;IS fire protection Table 4 she ...... s .;L 1}']}J.caJ example of the requned coati ng i.h.i ckness. The section factor (A plV} for tim; beam is 201 m -I _ Table ~ :gj v es th-e: requued dry film thickness as 875L rn.

Suppose now a sligb.t1y bigger steel section 4S7'xl52x60UB is selected. The bending m,,().n~t resistance of this beam is 0:275+ 1290=355 kN.nL This gives a load eatio or J 8'2.31355=0.:514, which gives fI. limiting temperature of 646°(:. Tbe section factor of the new beam is 177m-L. According to table 4, the required dry 'f; I m thickness is 731) um, Aceording (d ti gure 6, the cost c f mrumescent coaring fire' proteetion i~ i17. 21m2 , The protected area is t2.2m2. giving the cost of inrumescent ooatrn;s I!t £2IQ, The cost o-f lilt: stee] beam is £.432. so the combined cost of f e protection . and steel wt:i ght is. £642:_

Cnmp2lr.ing lhe two solutions, usmg a slightly bigger section results in a cost ~aying of abo ut ,3I!-/(I_ Arguably this is not a V!;:T}' bigger amount, nevertheless, it [$ WQTth havmg if ail Lh::!!t is required is to apply some bas ic know I t:dg4:i of fire engineerins._

rr fire protection is used If] bmh alternatjve schemes, whether a. design woeld result tn any cost ~ilI""ing j:s highl y dependent em the rela Li vc costs of fillbn,; eted steel and fire protection, In the abo v e example, the cos; of fire prcteetion is abour 32%, of the cost of combined steel 3Ld fin; protection, The lergcst C IJU saving is ck.tt;dy to eltminate fire protection. The following example .... 'i 11 demonstrate onc method. of el iminatlng fire protection

A number of methods iUC available [0 design steel strw.:lmr::s without fire protecnon, Interested readers may warn 10 CQnSl!1t the publication by the Steel Co srruction Lr.Btr(UCe "B~i1ey and Nev.'tll3n 1998) or [he .BUI:hQT' s book (W ~tlg 2(1-G2) for further i r,I tormanon. One method is to consider whole structural behaviour by utibzin£, alternative load paths,

Consider a cnmpanmem size Q f 9mx9m as. shown in figure 7_ A [ ambient temperature, I he load path is: the fl cor 51 ab is one-way spannin g berw een the secondary beams which are supporred by the primary beams. If the same I.bad path IS [0 be preserved m fhe, (he t WoO internal secondary beams will need fire protection. Consider an alterearive load path, Here the floor slab is two-way sp~n.niDg and is supported by the rOUT edge: beams, The two snternal seco;}l'ldb.:ry beams do not need to participare En load bearing. CO·I\.S!;lI;J uently, they d(l nol need fire protecti on, In order 10 smprove the load carrying capacuy of the floor dab in two- ...... 'ay spanning, addi [ion s] rcinforeement " -]1 be necessary. The followmg calculations 'I;\,;,IJ demonstrate that the t~}S.1 of additional reinfcreemcnt Inay be much lower than Chat of applying fin: protection .0 the t\-vo internal beams,

Connection behaviour in fire has become an important issue and extensi ve research ;;Io;,:.[jvili·r:s ,.1[{: now being undertaken in various parts of we world to obi..il.~J1 bttte1' ~.JTlder:>~:;J n{ling and to develop rat. i onal design methods. EN 1993-1-2 coma i ns a rather rudimen tary method of calculari ng Lempt:['~ UTes in various components of end plate: connections as well gives tnformation N~ strcngtn reL!!:~li on of bolts and welds, "Ho"",·e-VI;"[". the i:fjlJthor does not think that "[he in [o:rr.n;;lli on is suffie ien L ro:r the designer [0 check connec lion [perf o rmsnc I;;: in fire. In the meantime, j [ is prudent 10 pro[~c[ connections to the highest level of the connected members.

I~TE GRA nON OF DFSTGN" l\'JETH ODS

The author eonsi ders that the imrC'tlan.:: t:: of performing fire engineering ealculauons is to- enebl e the designer to exploit alternative design solutions t at wot Id not he possible under the prescnp~I\'e rules. In 30Jll€ cases, such alternative designs may be the only possible way of making the project work In many Crises, expl.[)jting the altemetivc design methods can offer substantial coot reduction without compromising structural fire saf.c~y. ThE: best way to develop altcrnari v 1Z" design methods is 10 consider the destgn pro-ject as :;I whole (i.e. to integrate (he design processes), rather than carrying out design m each discipline in isolanon, The follo ...... ring are a few ex amplcs of intcgTf!ltl foIg s rrucnrral fire safety des i gn with oth er des i gIl aspects.

- Combined structural and fire resistance calculations

T rad i [jOT! i!!ll 'J, tructural desi gil at arnbicm temperature and fLI""e resistan L design arc separated, Far example, i (I steel structural des;~gn, lhe objecti .... e is. often to find "[b~ 1 [gh tet;t structural section "P'OSSJ hl e. The informad on is then passed on to fire engineers to spec try the required fire protecnon thickness. Each design aspect seeks to minimize the construction cost. However, depending on the method of fire protection, the toial cos of structural steel and fiTi=i protection fT\::Il}' not necessarily be optimal, Tlus is because the lightest steel section would often require the JTHJ:s1 fi re pnJll;:1;: ti on.

Example ]

CQ[J;S.lalZr a simply supported steel beam of 9m in 5.pan. The dead load is l2 kN/m and live load is 7.5 kNhn.. Assume that the steel beam is fully restrained agai nst I a[I:::T.iL1 tcrsiona buckling, The steel grade is S27.5 and the requi 'ed :HanditTd fire resistance radng is tiQ minutes.

According to the design method in BS .59'50 Part 1 ~ the applied load is w=J .4*12 - 1.6*7.5 = 2:~_S. k~/m. This gives the maximum bending moment in the beam equal c.(J

It·! = 1 i8 28.8· 9:;: ;g 292 k.!\'_m: "\'h~th giVI;;:S the required plastic modulus S:>;. = 292 (kN_mY275 (N/mm.~)= l060 em; _ Select 4S7x152x52t:B~ givingS, 1 Joo i;:m:!o and Mp = 0.275"] 100 = 34..)2.5 k]\J In.

For fire design, according to BS 59.50 Part 8, \v=1.0"'12 + {).S"7_5 = [S kN"/m, gi:v~!}g M=lSl.3 k\!.m The: load ratio is 182.3/3025 = 0_60, giving a limitmg temperature of 62ifC_

In Europe, de .... -eloprnen ls in thrs [icl d <l:rl: SU ffic i entl y rna ture 10 .ulJ{lW fin:: engin eering calculations 10 be made [or different types ()f steel and composite structural elements. The main &OUJ'Ces of mformation are EN 1993,-1-2 for steel structures, EN 1'994-1-2 for composite structures and BS 5950 Pan 8 for steel and con !p(Jsi te SUCUIi:'U)1"C.S. The: European standards (EN 1993-] -2iEN L994-·1-2) and the British Standard (BS 5950 Pan 8) employ different procedures. The Bri1.i sh Standard method IS operated '" the temperature domain and based on the cone epl of [jm; ring temperature. The ltmi ring temperature of a structUI3~ member is the max imum temperature that can be sustained by the structural member at, the crilic.jI.l element. It is. 91 function of the l(1lUi ratio of [he structural member, which is defined as. the ratio of the applied load to the load carrying capacity of the srrucrural member at ambient temperature. For example, table 3 gives (he lrmiting temperature - load ratio relatronships or different steel structural members. A structural member i~ considered to be sate if its ~jmiting temperature 15 DO. ex[;~ccl in fire. The Eurepean standards operate In the load domain, Far a structural member, hs temperatures in fil-e are obtsincd firsr. The residual foad cafryul1g capaci ties of Ihe structure a~: elevated temperatures are e ... aluated and cornpared [0 the applied load in fire. If the residua] s tr~ngti~ of the structura is greater, the structure is considered W be safe.

The existing methods in European .ilnd British Standards arc simple EO LIse, but they arc based on rraduional endcrstandmg of structural behaviour Which is relevant L{I small structura] dcfcrmatlons. A1 luge structural deformattons, [he mode of structursl beha' ... iour can change, For example, Lf .II. steel beat!") i s axiall y restrained :;11 the ends. its behaviour <1.1 small deflcctlcn i 5- predominantly in flexural bt::nding. At large def ecrions, catenary action rakes control and flexural bt=nd~ng plays a rni 110r part, Provided. large deflecrions age. all owed, the steel heam can survive much higher temperarurcs than those ealculated based on flexural bending, such as using the ImtiLing temperature method. Far slabs, at large deflections, it is possible for te~ilc membrane action to develop, wh;c h can sign! ficantly enhance the reSISLanCC of the slab over that based on bendmg. By exploiting these advanced modes of structural behaviour, L[ it possible to substauti all y improve the fire resistance 0 f structures. However, the structural calculation procedures are much mere involved. and require the user to ha v .::: SI very good understanding of advanced structural behaviour. Abo. making use of these methods involves l~Ige: structural dcformaricns Whilst Sl:IC h huge deflections may not be !il problem as far :!S structural st.renHth is concerned, !11~ user should be careful thai: such large: deflections do not ccropromise fire mle~'lity of the building. For' example, large deformations may c:;I.I,LSe opening EO develop around structural juncrions. wrge deformation on top of non-loerlbearing lire resistant partitions may esuse failure o f the partitsons which may [ead 1Q fil~ spread. The author recommends that thr: user of advanced methods demoosrratc that the fire integrity of the building is not compromised, In additton 10 demonstrate thBf structural stability is rnaintaiaed. Readers interested in advanced behaviour of steel and composite SITUCtuIe!i in fire mBy consult a recent paJper by the author (Wang 2t105l, which also pr.o ... ;dt:"S a much more comprehensive review ot>f recent developments in performance of ,,\-ec!·eoncrete composite S[TiJ...-; tures in fi rc.

(3) In {~e:nvlrl,_g equ etion 6, heat '[tan S ler between the f~!fe and tile surface of the fire protcc [Jon m.ll.l~ri 2I~ is ignored. This is 3~I;~pt:ahle when the thermal resistance (~~pl of the' fire' prm cction rnateri 211 is hi gh compared ~o tb~ therrna 1 resislance of the boundary] ayer between the flre and 1.1'1 e surface of the fire protec tion material (1/[lxc·I-D.r], cf equations :3 and 4). However, when, the themial resists nee of the pr(:lloctiO It marerial is coitrl~.at'i1Ibl e with the thermal resi stance of the boundar", ] flyer, 'CITOn~OV5 results could be (l-btaiJ]~dL As an example, figure 5 shows

. "

cakul ated steel ~'{:,mp~r.jl,t'Ure!j. under the :5f.<!.n([l!ird f~re ~xpo~a,ETe for the following three cases: (a)

unp rotected section; (b) protected ...... ; ~h gi4i.5-S reinforced cement (Cp= 1200J/kg,K~ f.ip-"" l600kg/m\ wnhout including the thermal resistance of the boundary layer in equation 6, «(;) P rotected '<1;1 th glass reinforced cement, including the thermal resistance of the boundary ]ayti in, equation ilS by replacing t p I k: I' by (lIla ~ + a,] + r ~ I k p)' The fire protection thickness

~5 l3:rnm .and its. thermal conductivity is 2 ,\Vl(mK)_ The seetion factor is 2futf' , It can be seen (hat ...... 'tU'lau( includmg the effect of [he boundary layer, the calculated protected steel !Ympcl".;)tu.re is n!gJleJ" than the unprotected ste-el temperature. In faa, i f the th.erm.al conductivity of the fire protection marerlal were artifictal Iy hi.gh at SO W I( m.K), the calculated protected steel temperature would be- 'Very close to the fire temperature. This ss !l101 surprising because in deriving equation 6. the- effect of the boundary layer is ignored so that the surface t<:mp-C[i;!lun:; of the protec rion mS'IlCTLa] is the same ,315 the fire !mupem~ure. Since the thermal e onducti vity of UIl!!:: fire protec tion material is artificially high. the steel temperature arprDnche~ that (~f the surface of the fin:: protection materiel However, this assumplion is ftu:!dart\~ntil!ny nO~ cerrect, 'In contrast, including Ih(:nTU;!l1 resistance of the boundary I syer gi ves much more ~!::nsibl e results, I L is recommend cd ~hat the thermal resi 5.t::m~~ (I f th~ bO'litlLtary layer' is included in e.q Ll.iHi{1'n 6, WQllg and Ghojel (2003) have gi \,:::1iIi a more detailed diseusslce of this aspect and interested reader rna) consult their paper,

- l\umel'ica l calculad on methods

For more compli-cated problems, numerical calculanon methods are necessary. General finite clement psckages such ~5 ABAQUS and ANSYS have been used by ,m::UIY to perform heat transfer c;;I1 culations for $h"l!'?~l)J".i:ii fire engineering design. Specialist fire engineering p~omm:;. include TASEF. Ttmp~.!I.I'1;: end SAf1R, These heat transfer calculation programs li1lrge[y pro due 1:' si milsr results. The cnlic:a] C~~I.C~' for the user is to have reliable thermal pm perties of [he mater; 1!I];!;i_

- Other methods

F o I!' limited ~rr::'l.i cations, it is possib 1 e to d.evt=lQ!p regression analysis equanons 'in tables [C give aut temperatures ill srructural elements. For example, "EN 19~4-l T:2 gl v es a calculanon method for temperarures in composite floor slabs with SLeet d.ecking, based on regression analysis of numerical si rnul :i'll'i o~ results. Also in EN 1992-1-2, graphic val LIles are gi'llen [ar ~pl:r2l~lJ~5 in di ff{:'[·ent 5..; zcs of concrete cross-seetions under the standard {ire e xpcsure. These methods gi vc quick so lutions, but their applicabil ity is J imired to '[he. speci fi I;;: cases covered by the methods.

51 R~_1ICT1JRA I. Assr.SSME NT

The radiative h c~~, tl ux ~S g: ven by,:

h-«. - (Pr!f£~{T; _ T/) = at (Tf - r,)

{4.)

whr::to::, a is the Stefen-Boltzmann constent; ¢I IS the conflguration factor', which de&erib-t:5 the propomon of a surface area being !sC~TI by the fire. If the fire and me structural surface ar~ in con [iiilC! with each 0~.:h€1" (e.g. [he structure is engulfed m fire), $-1. :;r ~$ often referred to as the reSUlU[H !!:mrr'li£~L"jty, which is dependent on the emmissivuy (absorptivity) of the- fire and that of the: structural surface, For the ease of fire being in ceataet with the struclur,illl surface:

ti .e,

&~ = . ~ .c j!;j (:5)-

c +z- - 1

! s

'i iii which E:f and &:. are respecri vcly [he- ermnissrvity of 111e fire and the. seucrarat surface ..

_. 'simple calcul ation equations for steel

ln gel1e.ra3, aurnencal hce t transfer models iU€ JleCess~ry tel calculate temperature ili~re:!ls~s in structures, HQwcyIT.. fOT steel ~lf\ilc~l,u):~s, provided the steel thickness rs nat excessi ve, it is acceptable to assume ili;;ll tbe steel 5~ructU~ will have uniform temperature, from rhis a.s8tttnptLO~, :dmple equations have been developed ~Q calculate temperatures in unprotected and protected steel structures .. These equations are given in FN 1991-J -2 and only tbc equation for protected steel is, ~C:::i:lledi here because of the. points ~QlJowim.8 1];<1.[ should be (':'I:!!fr;:fu lly considered when using this eq uation.

Cp A I\~T .... jtf-l r~ _c _~- .. 1 _p

,1 f C P P f

j ~

(6)

(J) Steel temperature nse 15 directly related to the section factor (A{V). which is the r.j!.li{l of the surface area (A~ ~ of the steel structure being exposed to fire to the vol ume (\0') of the steel structure th i)[ is being heated 'by the fLre. For .a un i.t I e~lgtl1 .0-( struerural member, the SIX lion f i!lctOi" can be calculated as the ratio (If the length Ij) f the perimeter (I f the cross-section that hi exposed to fire [0 the cross-sectional area. Figure 4 shows the section !UtO'r Ulr 1 W{I- examples The higher the section faetor, the highe-r the mCTe::l!S€ in the steel temperature,

(2} Properties of flC'e protection. materi als, Accurate calculations of the protected steel temperature require reliab le information of thermal properties of the lire pro tection Tillie erials, At presen~. such informs. ion LS b.'Cki:fJg. As 3:11 at~eL1l~~.i ve, '[he semperature depenrient ih ermsl properti es of a SjJ~ i fie fire protection n~~gri [:I! may be obtained based on analyses of the standard ftrc tests 8~ descriher] in £1\' 1338 i r4 (BS I .2 002 b). The method sn EN ].3 J &'l -4 solves cq uation 6 !JJ gi ve [J1e thermal conduc tivi ty kp. This method is acceptable fool' fire proteetion materials that are non-reactive: HC' ..... c v er ~ fOT reactive fire protection materials such as tntumesccnt coating, the thermal behaviour of the' material w[!l depend also on th e heat flux [eve L Therefore, CUI:: should be taken when app 111 ng thermal property resul es thai an: ~:-:; I rapolated from th-e standard fire test results to l!2tLtrillJ fire exposures,

h<o"T = h~u .... n"u .r

(2)

moods. especially CFD models, requires great expertise from 'the: en.gmeer as well as preparation Qf s I arge amount of tnpm data whic h may be di flil:'U II to obtain,

When using the zone model [0 simulate a pos[-flasho v CT fire, the tundsrnental input. qua;n,[j1.y is the rate of heat release (RHR) of the fire. Ho ..... e .... er, UiP to now, it has not been possible for a. reasonably simplistic, yet scientifically WU[ld model io be developed to predict this quantity, The model in !EN 199 [-l-2 gi\'es indieative v alues of RHR for different types of (}(;cl,lpl!If.le),. Again the: en~meer should be r.:~l,l1LOUS and should !e;sl the sensitivity of his/her design to variations in the assumed RHR values,

Foil' post-flashover fi:re.~, j Lis not reeommended that engineers use a CPD model to ohwm the fire ',emper.a.ture time ·c;ur\'>c f-or the following reasons: (I) running a ern model is extremely timeconsuming, especially when the real fire lime is iii hours: (2) performing eFD analysis requires [he L1!;i-eT to have some understaudmg of tbe complicated rnethodulogy as well as proper Lflterprf:taLjOl1 of the: output, and '1TI(1rt: im]Xlrt:m[] y, reliable information [or a long ]j st of input dam. (3) CFD models do non. necessarily give (Jut more accurate predictions of post-flashover fire behaviour than simple post-flashover fire- models sech as that in El\' J991-1·2. Where a C'FD model J'ljay he U-5~ in strucrural ti re engi [teen ng f1ppli cation is Ul give spatial vanaticn of fire behaviour. Fur example, m the design of large structures sud] as. airport buildings, s!.efiQru; and stadia. a fire would usually be localized and. not spTel!d [I.) engulf the en Lire enclosure. Therefore, it would t1.0[ be appropriate to we simple post-flashover fire models whr.::r::: the assumption is thar tbc temperature disrribution m the enclosure is umform, Instead; C'fD rn[)d~15 may have to be used to calculate the local high fir-e temperatures for assessing slilfery of the: structure under the l(1.;::~1 fire.

For calculating temperatures of a structure, the {itt': temperature - lime relationship is treated .:!I~ boundary condition to the structure. In heat transfer analysis, the boundary condition is expressed as:'

..... -herc h~ is the. net he!!l~ flux from the fire eo the structural surface, which censists of a ccnvcctt .. ,€! part h"., .. and a radiati v e pan h tot(.r •

The cc .... ivectivc part .~ n<.l,o< 1 s approximate) y given tty:

(3)

where T .. is the tire temperature and T 5 is the temperature of the structvral surface. ll.:! is the socalled c(')~""e, ti ""C heal transfer coefficient. The precise value of (4. depends on a number 0 r fat-Mrs such as dimensicns and roughness of the SCrt.'lt!HLTC surface, a~cJ temperature of 'he fire, H r» .... ever, for structural fire engineering eaJ.ClJbl~r:JJ1S. since [he tift' temperature is h~gh and radi atio n donunates hear transfer, precise cal culation of G.;: is not. 1'le(:I:"SSSlJ)'. FOr ex ample, Ul EN '1991-]-2, l:!I constant value of ~=25 'i .. Vim~.K is recommended.

{2 J Openi ng factor: this control s the .j)m~llrll of 8] r supply to the fire. If the fire is ventilation c orurolled a nigher opening factor 1'1l1::1lI1S TI'1Gre slJPply of (]x ygc[i~ which leads to a faster rate vF comhusti 0t'J. Thof:rr:fQr" th e rate (If increase in fl re temperature will be hIgher, h ul given the :j;Stnll;:: amount of combustible materials, the burning duration 1.li'IH be shorter,

(:~) Materiels Q f con 51 rueti on 'Of the fire enclosure: Lh_1: qusn tity to descri he tbis property is ca lied the Lh::TTf]8 I inertia, which is obtained by muhiplying the thermal oerm([ucti .. ity (k.) by the: thermal cspacjtanee (pC) of the materia I, where P 'is the densny and C the spec iflc r.~1 of the- material. A higher thermal conductivity me~iJS that the hear of combustion of the fi t: is oM more ,1,l5ckl y (hrougb the consrruction materials. A higher val ue of thermal C:;IP;;I.t;; itance mt""~'n~ thaL (I 1 arger amount of ener8Y is stored within i.he i:;o struction materials, ~nslA;::aJ of being avail able to inerease the: nrc temperature, Therefore, a higher thermal incrtie will slow down the flre, whk,h has the opposite effect of a. higher opening fa-ctor

The parametric fire c lJ.nrcs can rrac c their origins to, eariy sti.frlic'S by Swedi s11 researchers in tht: 1970s, More recent research ~~lL!die5 have: extended ,Jl€ fa:n_ge o r applicability {If this method snd indicate (h3l, the parametric eUi'\'~..!;i pro .... ide reasonably aCC"UI'.;].[e pJ"Oliiotions when compared [0 wmc natural fil-e tests. Figure J presents .II. comparison between predictions of the parametric curves wi t.h a number of natura) flre tests (Lennon & Moore 2003)_

The parametric fire curves are easy to implement in design calculanons. However, the designer should be careful when seleetmg appropriate input data for t.he calculations. Among me aforementioned three parameters that i ~fh..lellte the fire tern-perature ~ ttme c urve, the fire load density is the I1:Wst difficult 'i.{1 determine with confidence. Extstmg fire engineering design guides (e.g. EN E 991-1-2, jl D 13 S 7974, [aSl 2002]) gi ve some indicative values of fi re lead density for di fferent types of occ upancy (tables ] and 2)_ Both se[:s of data are based on a CIS W 14 eport (CIE 1986), which were b.!ll5<:d on fire load survey results around or before I 970s, Because of the uncertamtics involved as well as Ihe l;!I_gc' of the data, it is nnport.ant thar the designer conducts a scnsi tiv i l)' study to investigate tile robustness of the design solution t1:g.a.insl possible: variations in the fil1= load, OJn£idehJ\Jj the- irnportall¢l: of mc load to fire behaviour ST]d fire engineering design, t. i 5 obvious that a oeornprc::nensive fire load survey represerns H. ripe topic for further research.

- Computation al siIJl'IJ].au on

On some occasicns, it may be necessa.ry to refine We calculation of fire behaviour by conductmg c:{]mplltil!~ion.al simulations, Many fire simu laticn models have been developed. T 11 general, these models can be divided into three types: (]) Llne:-7.rmf:: models ][I which the enttTe fi~ compartment is assu med to have uniform properti es; (2) mu ltipk 1:011t: model s in which the, {j re roorn [5 divided mlu a srnal I J1WnbBT of large volumes each of which bas the same properties. (3) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models in which the fire room is divided into a very ]arg.~' number of small COJltr.Q~ volumes and the fundamental equations {If mass coaservaticn, momentum conversatiun, energy conversation and species conservation are nurnenca lly ~ol ... ed to provide ~etailed quantiues such as temperature, pn:SSUIe, species concemratien in I e fire room and b>e_Y(lnd. Fr,J1r structural flre sa.fe~y d e~c8J1 applicetions n whicb the ]XIsm- fI ashover phase of the flre is mos: relevant, the one-zone mode] is the most appropriate because using the: othe r two types of

sharply to .a natural fire curve, Altbougb inc standard fire C1,11Yc:5 are not tin engim:ering developments, they are 0 ften used as part 0 f a fire engineeri n~ solu tion to q uanti f)· the fire behav] our.

- Time: equivalency

Sometimes, engineers seek 10 justify the reductien in fRP because of 'he: hrnited amount of combusnble materials thar would be present in fl. specific building. Without perfeeming detailed calculation of the "rear' fiJ1C exposure condinon, one method of introducing some features of the specific build~t1g into design is ~o use the cqulvalent time approach, whi-ch attempts ['0 link the realisnc 11~e exposure: oorldilion (0 I.h:~ standard fire by givi:ng an equivalent f'RP for 'he specific design fire. 111.:;::(.; are ffii)ny equations to gi ..... e eq ui valent times but the most commonl 'j used one is ill EN 1991- 1 -2. which ts gi v en below.

(1)

where 4.d ts [be equrvalent time in minutes; Gr,of is the design fire load. density in MJ/m2 floor area: kh is a factor related [0 [h~ thermal properties of the construction materials; eonservetlv ely,

kt.=O.7 (min.m~"'MJ). Wr is related [I;) the opening condition and Wj := O-IJJ Ar I.A .. , in which 0 is

the (I penmi!!: factor, defined ;;IS 0;;:; .4., Jh: i A. ; Ay (in m2) and h •. (i n m) are the area and heigh. of the opening respecnvely: Af If tbe floor area and A the- total m.rfac-e: area of th~ fire enclosure, fndudmg rf.1i: openings, 'k.: is a correction factor for different types of ';;:OIlSO-UCli-on, For protected steel structures. ~=l. F¢T unprotected strucrures, kc=D.7.0,

F(lT structural fire safety design, the equt ..... alent time should be established by comparing the load bearing resistanee of a structure under the standard fire end under the realistic fLre, as shown in figure ~. so that the method i~ generally applicable whether inc temperature distribution In [he: structure is utufonn or not. However, the existing time equivalency equation has been based 0[[ comparing temperatures in protected and unprotected steel sections, Therefore, for steel structures which are often assumed to have uniform temperarure, the rime equivalency approarb may be applicable. F Dr cornposiie structures where ~he temperatures m the S!]"I) C run: ere nonuniform, the designer should be cautious \\ hen us.inS [he tune equivalency upproach.

- Parametric fires

Predicting [h~ behaviour of realistic fires is still Cine of the most chal'lt::ngjng aspects of tin: science, Keven hcless, i1 is possible to deseribe, '.'Iti th reascnsblc c=egrOl: 0 f ;K:c urecy, the temperature - time rcl ati onship of realistic post-flashover fires. A numb er (J f models exist (.e. g. Barn t:t1 2002, CEN 200.3a. SFPE 2Q02). but bi' i [5 nature, the parametric fire model in EN 1 99'1- 1 -2 is the most commonly used. The parametric fire curves give ehe temperature - time relationship of post- flashover fires in terms of the following three parameters:

(l) Flre load; this is; [he amount (!of comhustible materials that will be burnt during the fire, Clearly, the higher this value. the longer rs the burning duration,

co ncerned, t],e f re engineering desi gn methods seek ~o esta bl Ish the rr::41 listie. fire behaviour (instead of tht= standard fire behavi .... ur) and realistic and who-Ie: structural behaviour (instced of lh~[ of idealized and individual strectural elements), Jn fire engineertng design of structures, the three geni'::T81 51~S are: {l) quantifying the fire behaviour, For structural fire safety design, il is [he post-Ilashover phase of the fire behavlo!..u· Lhsl is most relevant because n is at this stage that fi re is the mrJI:i.f destructi .... 'e and. fire resistance cons true-non a~ necessary _ (2) obuining temperature rises of the srrucuire under the '(jg-e. (3) assessing structural behaviaur under the realistic loading condition :;II the elevated temperatures,

Th~:t paper sets out to ad ieve the following three obj ecti ves:

(') Ccmpanng the trad i tiona [ method wi tb the fire engineering approach, th e former 1'!; well established, widely at:c.t:ptcd and easy to spply, BtI[ the latter may be used 1.0 improve fire saf~[y design by reducing construction cost and/or improving building fire safety, Since fin: engineering design methods are relatively l'Je\II, ~hey may be pcrcetved 10 be rather difficult to apply. However, as will be demonstrated in this paper, many of the structural (jre engineerin g design methods and roots are easy to understand and not too complicated to use. Th e first objecnve 0 r [his paper is 10 help the user to develop CO]] fidencc in, using these n:-liIti'':J::ly new methods.

(2) It should hi: re-cognized (hal the new design methods .arc used because they can gi\'i; added value LI) the: design project The author believes 1h::.a added Vf;J]u€: is. be-st found by integrating fi re engineering desi gn of the strucrure who 'OtDCI aspec ts of structural and/or fire safety design of ~hc building, The second objective of this p.apt::r is to describe some methods of mtegrating different design processes,

(3) Finally, me third objective of this paper is. to PI)[1iIt OUI, wherever [J'Q!S5ib]e~. assumptions and limitations of the new design method . .'; as well as additional consideratlcns when using the new design methods.

Much of the inf{.-nTI.o1I tion in rhis paper is based on current codes of prac ucc for li re safety dt:$ign of steel and COffi]X15i te structures in Bndsh $:t.ftnd:ud BS 5950 Part 8 (BSI 199(1), ih c tire parts (P2Iri: 1 .2) of EUfOCOOJ:::5: ]. 3 and 4 (CEl\' 2003 111,0. 2004), Interested readers rney also find It useful [0 consuh design gulde books such as those publi:sbcd by the Steel Ccnstruction Institute in the UK (Lawson and NeWTn?lD 1996, Newman et al 2000) and [~;i't [books such as those of the author {WaIlg 2002) and Buchanan (200 r).

FIRE ENGINEER1NG UE8IGl' J\;lETHODS

This sccnon \." ill describe different aspects ef'the structural fire engineering design methods.

- Standard (ncnunal) fires

S1.a!ldtJ,rd (nominal) tires typically 'Use one unique equation 1Q express [he tire temperature ~ time rclati onshlp. Ex amples include the standard "ell ulosic fire cu rve, the' hydrocarbon fire r-UI'\I( and the external fire curve. F • gill e ] shows a comparison of these standsrd fire c urves.wh ich contrast

Y C Wang

&hOD~ of Mechsni ca], A~TIJ5p~C e and Civi ~ Eng; neerl(ilg, Unl versiry of Manchester. UK

ABSTRAcr

rhis p.apcr describes re:<:.eill developments in ri re engineeri ng design a f steel and composite struerures and IJiS~S e ... aJllp]e.~ 'L(Io illw;tnlj!.t:: .appl jc2I.·i 0'11 q f ::;.Qmc Qf1.:h:e ·de.!j.i gn Cillet1Jlation methods. Desjgn of steel and composi ~ sttucl~1Je.s at arnbien L temperature bas tT!!Id['~ona[] y' been separated. from fire resistant design, Th~l;'efore, ah.hough each jiidivitlu!!ll d~sign may produce '[i.e m 0::; [ optimal solui ion for ttle ~per.:: ific design coodilio(yi'i.: comb in Lng. the indi v i dual solutions does not necessarily gi"!ll: the optimal overall selutien. TId:; paper will explain and demonstrate a number of approach I;:S whereby structural and f re en_gitleenng designs ma.y be: integrated to obts in the optimal overul] ~61 utien. In contrast W t~'Je commonl y used prescriptive design method where detai I r::d construetlon rules for indi vidual components of a btl] [ding are presented without relating lhern (I) she specific eondrtlons of the building, fire englneermg deslgn methods for structures ar,€: .j:I. '~~:;JIL vt;= 1)' re(:en~ addition to the structural engineer's capabil i c.y and the engineers are required to understand the object, v es of structural fire safety desig» <lad then reek methods to satisfying the req ui rements. In addition, th-e engineer should be a ...... "aJ'e of the] lmrtatlons and assumptions of the new desi:gll methods. \\il1er~·€.r possible, this pa~er ~Yi 1.1 discuss the design obj ectt ves and pomt cui the ~i mitadons and appli cab ility of the design methods.

Fire resistance is an irnpUTL2rnt !Jan of a b~ljldiJ]g'5 defense against fiT!: spread, A fire resistent c(ln:stl1lcti~:.n ~h L1<Hk} satisfy the ronowing ihre~ requirements: (1) there should be no struci ural c'<lH;;Jp~!!: l.stabil it y requi r.emem); (2) there sn(l uld be no ignition C:;IlJ5ro by excessi ... "t' temperature increase [)11, [he u:tlt}rposed! side of the construction [insulation requirement); (3) there should be r.o fIre spreud lltt'OLl:gh the construerien (int~g.TiLy requirernent). In the tr.j:Lditional approach to satisfy the above [Lfe reslstant requirements, [he [ire is standardized .;Lnd 1ht:i peri ocl of th~ 5t:;J.n-d..I!Jrd flre d:uttng which the tire resistant consrructioo bas to be: n'l..i!li:nti!!liiJett is speei ~i r::d by me [smilisr flre resi stance period (fRP ).. The assessment of whether S COill~~rLL~ tion has sufficient fire res istance is then based on ssanderd fi re te8ting. of Lt1e.;J.lj;t.e(~, individual spec irnens in standard fire resi stence [~I furnaces. This method of achie» ~Jlg fin: resistant constru ction has in recently ~"'H5 been crittc ized for em. bel ng able to refl eel rea I istic bULkhng beh.ILv~OUT in fire,

Following the traditional approach of ~i3!d.s:ry)l1g the: requi rernenrs of fire resi stant c 01]sm.J"CtiOTI often makes it ncecssuy to apply fire proteetice [0 steel i1n.il composite 5'J rue rures, which adds a substaed fj] aJlllot!i.nl of P:;Q:5t I.C' steel construction, Y et because Lnti: standard fire resistance 1~t5 on indi vidual elements. under IDe standard flre conditio n do not represem realistic scenarios, the tradidonal approach docs not neeessari ly achieve the int t:rrdl:d structural S:;IJ r:ty in fire. These shortcomi figS. ha ve 1 ed to developmems of d1.em:':Jli Vi; design methods 1M! reflect 'better the rt:.:L!i:l:;(·ic fir!:: beha ...... ~(:]1JT as well as realistic SIJTJ(.[Ural behaviour. These alternative approaches are gCTICTIlI i)' referred to as fire engineering methods. A:; f;;lf as :S[n.!(:'[~JT~ 1 firt:: safety design is

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safety in the u:l'I:der_g(o'UT!id station without tile ~priil1kkr system (If it i:s failed 10 activate was also srudi ed. It ;siJows loot in the. umdergtQliRdi siat]Qll which Is ,Soru(1je.d in Uris paper, whilf: a 'fi~e OCiCU:l;'o!: st (h.e plaUo:r:m, the operarion 0,( thit specific srno'ke exlia'U5t system for the atrium \\~th the discharge rate of 36M/s (130,OQOrn3Jh) can tITeeh¥,dy control and confine the smoke rnovcmcnt ln a ~j tl'J~ted region, Though the tenable en:vimnmenL for llii.s case is not ~ good as that while the sprinkler system is operated in association with the smoke extraction system, the station also can ma,j nfaijn :1m aeceptabre \ene.bj~ environmem for 'the pessengers to evael;l!~ safs]y~

4. Coodmll1ms

In 'lht: modem underground stat" 011.:, il:he appli~~tioll of atri:mn can provide paSSeJ1geTS .a \l'isl,!~n}' ;!l.OO s-pa.iiany indoors en'i,firnflmej]t~ I'D the event 0.1:3 fin; (hI;:: lack of physical sep~ratiOI!lS: in ~he 'U1l'I!~-rgrotmd station w~tn an a-Criwn may cause an il;1'".lemive smoke ~pml.d [g [fie entire osp:acc, In :tms case, an, effecu1fc smoke and heal exila-usl ventilation. syslefIl stlotdd be r;;arcfuDJy designed, "this .paper p-:rr:-srnt;s, how to adopt, GFD mode!i.n.g to study !lhe fire and :smoke· movemear t~ the underground stari on with alriwIl. Tbe simI,11!U1(m t~S1,J:l:~ snow.;

,!Ii The aetiva:ti4:Jnof the: sprinkler system in .tl!S-sociatioT:L wmth the slJl!j)ke extraction s;ysrtem in the. at:ri\llm can effecrively oolt[r(il and confine the s:mdKe 'm:;J¥t:mmt i,n a limited! region ~!11 thl; s~tkm.

~ Th!8 integrated fire wroi.ot1tiion. system. can provide an acce_ptnb1e tenable envirorunent an terms of temperatere, eaeben .mO'lJoxide eoncentratlen, vLS'~bilit.yj. §lid hear flm. f(iT. all the oneat'i,;J. of egress,

• 111 the underground station, ~n toe ;u,bsent of S(JriDkler s:-ystem 'or in fue siilllation wne:!] fuc: sprinkler system fails, an a_pprcrpriatdy designed :SJf.l(1;&:le: e~ traction s.y.srem CW1l also ~ff«ti""(:ly' comrol !311.d confine Ule smoke movement j n a timittd region and maintain an seceptable tenable environment for fuel passengers to evacuate safely.

TI

The aulhoJ.S wl)l,]~d. m~e to fu:mk k Steven. Lsi, Mr. Dickea Wu and 1:1' CW .. W~ng fo:r t'll1ejt kin-d help' and !'iu-pp.ort,

R~I~rf::<jj,ii;4;.1l

[]] 'lJie SFPE HlUllib'r,.J-ak of Fin Prorectto» Engin.e-e."F.mg, 2nd Edition. 12] Prlncfple& oj Sinalr.e MO},lagemem. AS:H:R.AE_, 2002.

(3) CiBSE G/..Mrle E:' Fir~ Engi},ri!eri"g~ 2<003,

[4] Code for De.stgn o/Mei1·0, GB5'D157·.2003,.

[5] Fire Dynamics. Sfmulatr:w U;re,r's Grlider NaJti!)ll1a.l b~itlil-e of Standards ,~OO 'Tec.Imology.1004.

[6] NFPA 130: fixed. Ou3deway Trsnsit alld :Pas~etlge~ Rail Syswms~ .2003 Bitti-cm.,

[7] K.H. Lai, C. W. Wong. J .H. W<mg, B. Y1l! and LJ. H'lJ:ilJJjJg. Fire am! Lif€ Saltlr)! in C"n (.lndetgt<ormd Srarton wuh Ull A t 1-· fwn , Hubd·Hong Kong joint S .. ymposinrn. on Building Sel'\'ices Design, System Centrol and Vatue Evaluation. 1-2 J!.Iily 200'5~ Wlman~ China.

FroIUi the figures 6-9.~ the tenab le ~n:,rirot'i&Pleni. ~n (he station whl lc a 'fi re 00(;1<Irs in the atrium c:an, 'IX: summarized as follows:

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nfl.a~/~ SJIttIl1Dljf'Pr Raulg ]'.~mllJ.ilizy Re-ffl{.!r/g
EJ3w:r,jynm~lft .ile'lnin!pulft'?
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G~ '&O'='C G;BS le.mpC::Fatllr~ In ilLi me Yes SeeFi~6
r~mJM,.tNllf'1 ,S!iililre.,'3~r?5 fur the otY,e.~u~tkm is
fa. Iess :\han: 6fJtoc
cO' ,800ppm CO, e.l)nCentraI~!:m in all the Yes See Fig\J~"
CQllan~f'.fll}tm st ai r,c:.as es for ~hc ~ \'<1 C UIllj 0 n is
fill" less than 300p.~n'I
Vi£:!: j ~·ml!'.f ~Jilm Th~ 'visiibLlity ~IW all ibt Yes See :ri:gu:r!:: S
sui rcase fur the C:1filJ.(.u?idoo is
[~5S than 1 lim
:RadiQJloo 2.5 kWhTl' The. radiation nest nu;r;: tn the Yes .st¥! figure! 9
HedFillx staircase for dle e;"acUliltion is.
less 1i1a1l 2.5 tWf.m1 Apart IJ"(]m. the aforlZment i.(!il!l~ .f~r;~ seenarlcs thet the:: smoke extraction :system is operated .o.s;tth~r with the sprinklers system, In our recent paper [7], the flre ~nd llfe

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Aec.ol!'ding '[(I [he COO{1' foil' n)e.::iigl:1l ofMelro [4J and NPPJ'!,. 13Q [6). it requires that an the passengers a~ the pla:tform should be in the Si.f'e't)' ar"i!'a within 6 tnlnutes, CQ:Ji~i<l'er~ng the' ad.dt['iQ:nal response time needed for me "3.:5senger~ the f'O~Jowi[tg tenable tnvlf.oli\me:nt JS suggested to be IUSOO in the flee s~iety. ,allaJrs~:s~

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eigure ti: S1l8lp~hQl of Tern perature COn19ur in the Stai;on tS eCyQn V'i'1:w)

'Jh~s means the activation of the sprinkle];' £'y~stem wm J't(JiI: ~fFec:t fue' functioo of the smoke 'FKtfllctiQ[I 1ft the arnun:'l

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;firriClJ.t:e in the limited ICg}On, it is; also 'iIlOC~S~Jy to 'mffirntain a 't€Dable' 'ffi],m,oru:nent in the means o,j~ 'e~t in. mibt: a.tri1ill!'r.i, dtw:':ltl,g '~ time tlf:(luired ('OJ; the 'ey;jle~tiQ!1. For Q'!JT ,~-tudy! the concept or ~If',:na.bl~ ~'!o'iJ'Qntr.Leiill ,proposed 'by NFP~-\ [6] w~ aOOp~ '[0 iiUS~~S the ,en'liimmJ],'!ID~ in the $~ati!;)n- n inclUorl.es:

(1) Crlterion 1. ~ COJ1v«:le-d heat [etnper.,atl1;:.e

Ii Less fulfn 110!l( for·4_2 Imnlltes time dlIlmt~on:

t U:~ ~h.;}n, IOOoC for 7.9 nimrtes time. dmatkm;

I Less than, gOQC for 16.9 m:i!mrte'S time dW"lilt~on;

I Less than 60ijC for 45 minutes timl;l: du.ra,uol'.l.

(2) Criterion 2:~ carbon monClNidc (OO} con~mmlti0fil

~ Less than 2000ppm for Ute- firtt S-:;::'IIwaI 51:CaOOS of-the' CXpmSUIE:;

• Less them 1 :50Oppm f~r lh~ fin;m, 6. mlrL'U~·~ of the ex:PZY5uwi

• Less thall 8QOpprn tor tbe firs~ 15 minutes of lbe' ~-XpG'!jiLlle:;

• Less. ~m 50ppm "(~r mere than J.:5 mm!ij'[~ of Ute (~;:~;II;)SUM.,

0) Cri~m![ln 3: JarlliiHlofi h~ll~ :fl1!lX

iii LOS!!l ~an 1 .. :} kW/nr .£'111' }O :mirfm~:es tlsne duratien;

I Less 'fljaru 4 'kWhn1: for 0.61 mi!l1utes (3.6s) time duration;

I Less than 6 kW/m'2 for .0.3:5 :mi!FJU~.e;s {2h} time duration;

• Le5~ lwrn 8 :k'W/mt for n a, z4 :minUl:es (I 4s, time dura:tLon;

Ii Less thatl 10 'kWh-u'2 fm 0.17 :m:im:IE.e.s (HIs) time duration.

(4) Criterion 4:, visibility

Ii 1. Om f.ol do(ln: snd wal ts 1£1 be di~eer.nib'Ie.~

Design cf Me~lIQ in Mainland 'China. (4). the following. mhigations were adopted in the fi're protection design cff this stat Lon:

• nne smoke barr.ier whn the ~e Ight ,of ij.5m separates t.he concourse imQ two smoke compartments (Smoke Compartment 'm and Smoke. Com.pa(tment 2 In Figure:2). In -a'CIdlhb:m, the sm ok·,;: barriers besides Ill¢ tWl.I'(I ;staircases split platform into two smoke compartments (Smoke Compartrnent 3 and Smoke tompartmenl4).

Smoke Compartment J

Smoke Compartm ent 2:

S.nK!kE:

Barri~

Smoke Ccmpartrnent .3

Smoke Dompaft.mem. 4·

.~ Each SJli1ILlke compartment has its tCiWH smoke exhaust system, One speclfle &m(lk~ exhaust. system is Lost~~led in tte .aU"illt'ii'll ~ shown in fmgufe 3. To coord lsate will'll the d)3Sign of me station, the discharge rate jj)f tbe specific smok;e exn::mst system is 16m1ls {13 O;OO~Jm loth) tl'ased on the. prel iml nary assessmeat.

I

L_ PLd"~r:m Sr::r<t~ ~~

figure 1: SehemtUi1;: Diagram Qf!bs.Armngemen.l.Q£JtJe Sm.n.ke' Exhl!!.ust SVS[f!!l

~n tile Statkm .

In order to. speed IIiP tfie' devaEo~metLt. of uibalfl economy, mass transit sysiem is Vjg0TOWly Clevel oped in almost an tbC' big dtres In China such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guml~DlI and so on. m the mass transit system, :S!l.i!.rt~on is Ofi.€ of the key co:mpommts,. Jt Carl be built IIp at grade, above ·grol,l.Ild Of undergroand, Far the tmdergrowd :s~tion. me .rue protection i5 t:xtr~mely Ii.nnportant because tliL'C'lre are a. large number of occupants .and the crowd dlen6ity IS m~. In the modem d.esjgn (IIf an underground Btt!lhem~ atrium ltl' eommenly a01)ptL.oo in order to ()fferth~' p~srengC!is an open, SP:RCi-011S and "brigm ·waiIim.S en, ... ~n;metlL, FigUM 1 shows We txamJ.),~e Qf' an lm.de.l1VOl!lll.d stat3ml 'Willi the. atrium ,destg:n ill ra.~W.ML.

:In terms of fire protection • .f.\!O![lf;S, cei ~if.Jgs and :pani~Ol:i.S are Ir.aditi.();i]atiy' used to ;provOCfe: cmnpattmmratio.l1! 10 ~lm t tho spread of fire' :md smoke; within a building. However; atrium beildings violate this fundardentru appro.aeb in te.rni$ of horizontal cornpa.rilrn;;nbtioD_ In the even.t of ,3l .fire. tnte' lack: of physi(:a1 separations may CMlSe all e"uens~ v e :sm'IJ.b spread thrr;Hllghcn:r[ Ihe en.tir¢: space tn area";) remote :from ~"i< fire SODre\C [1-31- If there is no.~ a proF~r, effeetive smoke oCootooJ. sy05tem... the Sf;!ii'ead of .me and smoke can calJS~ significanJt dlamege to the pnJ;J1l:Ityand lives. 'Ei'O'F" atrillim It!it!!ildings, (me kinci of the smOkl: control' ~s:tem ~ smoke and h-Sr:it exhaust ¥'entilatiofl! o!J·YS~Gm can pr--o,v.tde smoke ~d heat exhaust fuom. (h~ upper regions ef a building so 1::1:11li[ .iii clear .Iayer beneath ;LIJ buo}($,D.t S~Ti3[med small: ~ay.e:ll" 'can be createdl. ~ provfding a safe envi ronment for escape, In the smoke and :lieru. exhaust "i.1\eJ:l!~~;i!Jtioo systf:f.l1;., s.mo~e from liIe fire :nse£ SIS 3 plume vmii;h S'uooeq1lJ:eJltiy entrains air, The mMltl,efiJt 5.ignific.~.nt1y increases the '!I"QhrJDC of smoky ga5'CS preduced, The bot gases rise' and [Qfm a buo..yalH layer with.ill the enclosure. Thus, smo'[((: and hei11 aT(: exhausted from the 'l,.!en.tilawm In the 'roof of ~e enclosure either by .n:atm':mJ or mec:htmjcg~ means, A1i. part of lhe d¢1ign smt-egy of this apFroac:h, it is. often n-ec~sa.ry ro include a spriekler s;y.stem te cGnri:Fo!Jl Ihe SlZ": of tl:Le fire, According to the Cooe for Desigt'il of Metro in Mainlsnd C~~na. [4]~ ,:,:udomatic sprinkler ,s.yst~m must he .i.1i..s1i.il1l~ mIl, me unt1!t:rgrol.lIld staitiOili. ¥V'hl]e the fire is det~tl;d, 1I:h~ sprinkler sys~m will be ,00 ti va tOO .. By this wa;y, [he heat release ft6m thr: fire rJ..tIIJ1 be: controlled. However. due to the illl.eracliO:Ill betwitml fue W'a'fe>r -droplet .il!nil: the smoke, thos ITIJDveIJle.nl of the ~'lJJOke must be aff.e.cne¢, whieh final:.ly :may m:gativety affcct tne ,r;::ff~~jven:ess of me. smoke- extraction system Fl'<l)tn tAr;; view poittit of fue safety, it is very amportant to understaod how rue e:ffe:eti\~en;e.s:s Qf the smoke lIf:i11OV~ is affected and .j f tht:, automatic spI'inider $.y~tem. csn eij""ctivJj,!ly oontll(tll IDS- fiI1E! and ~k.e- !propagation iIi, the Yndl;fgJrmuJd s.1im~o'n whiJe ib.6 smoke exhsust system md the sprinkler ~y;srem are operated simuiJtancollsly. 'Untte:r such C0J.1$W.eratioI13! in this: pap~~ Co-mpl!!'tatio·nal Fluid D)"natnk:s (CYD) ~pproac'h was Ilililized. iI!O explore the: 5IDQl\;:e IDQiVemc:nt in abe uf'l.d-ergwlLn't!i s:lilleioJi and InYle~ti~aw ~he effec.i'~ness: of the oo.ok€ remova],

The station studied in this pap or is all ~.l\dNground Sl!Uiml wuth ,an is]md platferm as shown :in Figure .2. The to tal floor .area is ] 6,;OOClm?, in which (he approximate Iloor area of the atrium is 120m1 formed 'by 90m length and 8m width. Accmdi!l1,g to the Code f,Df

Dr. Jingh01Jg W:mg QniJ U-' Kcnn~m S . .K. U

Parsons Bri,llk,erilofT' (Asia) Ltd. Hong, Kong

ABSTRACI'

No'.,radays" more 3nd moIl; passengers are using mass transit sys t em- To enhance i.E1e station envim:nment, airium ~i) been aodo;Pled in the design such [hat there will be a: veid connection between concourse and P atro,:r:m_ III SODW regions, Slll@ as M§inlalld CMna, sprinklee s.yster:tl sha]1 be prevrdcd fo~ an UJJOeTground station, Therefore, mere IS ;tl! concern on the activation ;of the sprinkler ,s.ysteln in assoeietion witl'l thesmoke extraction system, lhe inter.rcltOi!:} between sprillkil'3f water and smoke may affcct: the ~:_enahie enviromnent (i.e, tempeJiJ,fur¢,. heat flux, "1.risibiljty .;mel ere.) roll' p.a~e:Jlger evacuation,

Computationsl Fluid DynannC-B (CPD) program 'was Clnployed in lh~~ S'llJdy to ,investigate • rheabove-men ioned scenario. This paper presentS fire ad lire safety for .l!1il. undetground 51a~joo witt an atrium. It is iUl:rurn~ that platform :ScrcsJ] d.OQTS (PSD) and sprinkler .system are installed in the station. This is inl~fje wjtb the late.st trend in Shsnghai, GUfln¢ou wIld Shenzhee. ,Fire ~oen:j!.Iios OCCUl'.L'ed JlJ~ 'the, 5tation platform are ~nv'~5t~g~red with thc' 'U5t: of eFD approach, finally, a recommendetion 00 ~he fire and life .safay cl~ign for the underground ,stru:iOIll 'wm '1:J.e pmv~d«l btJ.sed: QrJ. the srudy_

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rU [Kam inulI:hl TQ:""'rl Flre Dl;;p!!I'lllil~", "fire vrnicln OOCI.!I:t!:J:I m st«aili~' area O~ pr~-=d scrup Q1::; " , ~l}fIo.o, !:11-!2{lW8)J ill bp8J)C:::~}

[t4JM~l::illf(K'ro. y_ and S3!i~i1, K, <·llt':h.!'i.iri~1 WM!!: Dnc iC1 KfrtB-](r"!Js!1Ll aLy~'. K3is3ii, 19(1 );js..~Q( I W9~ (illl J3:pim~)

[1 S}So:u!'tl~, l\t-e3. FIil"JE! :o.:,partm-=n"o. t';A iiree of solid i'I'I&!t?rilJJ:!i 1I!IlI;i;lI'TtrOJ]~ 'Ilftli'!ll!T fire: Sl:M!X La:w'''. H<tnoo, 6; ~ I, - tl( 1999).( lit hpatti!se)

~] t5]Thi:yo Fin: Dl:pBJilmeIJl!., "'.An ,e:o:pl~tJn ol a ~Bm~ IlYty irl.mJlin,g on .hl,ghw;!I,y". Kililiai-Shoho, ~2:41·S 1 {iB«l),{ in Jl;tpi'!J]~~)

[~7]f~re: ~f,I.;I ms.as~ Mlill;it_g;;m.::m1 AIti~IlCY, "An (!:(pl(l.Sioo oh 'IBn};: lOOy l:myill.{i: byl1l~ I'CTmid~:50lu~l,jn"'. Ssfu:iy &: Tam Cfl' ow. 6~3<11·36(1000).( iJlI Ji:llldJla.:e)

[:18TMd:;ui. H.; et B.I .• '"All. J:;);p]o:s..iall (!of a ~illit l<:fly rur:ming DR higll'W;iY·. Alm:m-Kagalru., 41,: 1 l.l'Iri I 1f,f2U(l2)_ (in, ,li:1f:1~ll!;;!i~}

[19:]T(;kyo F'ErB ~!!i;U1l1~t:rl .. ~rlR- ~ Fjrc cmJsi!4b )! t:i.lilillurn ~", R!i~3!. 52(6);59-61{2002). (~no Jilp;m~)

[W)Tol .... y.;:. ~~ Ol::flartl:Jll;'.!1t, ·7ootillum. p01,\'I1IeJ -, P:fflp2r1'i-e.s il1Id fire ,P~]KfIlI+, JbhlJ)rbg~j. 170: Hl'-21 (2001). (m .J1ij}:!11.1':S-e )

f:21 nGI'1I.kyLJ~~l!I (:lfY riN: Dq1':Jllmmt. ""Fire- of SQf~ i\1~im!.lJ[l".H QIJOO" 11: L I,· 11{20(l)){ 'in J,apan."£s.e) [22]firc 2f1d Disas[~r. MlIlt8-8I!W1er1L A~n.'t)', '!ll1,vesf~gstialll R:.rl on tIlr: SB.f~l' Ma.~ag'6Ii'i~\ 00. Rm~ iDcr.Wed f"1J!:ll", lapan,.'2 001_ (io J3Ipan~£l

['-J]GI,I~a.~ .K. ndl ~l:iro~ E. M~ R,i:"fus!!: [)~rl .... ~.d 'F~d:::; T):d1[lolog)" fi~~lng, Q~I illy- e.n:~ Goi)f,'fi ~io;n E::':IiJ!lif'i~~,· ~~Ded~ ~w:J {RDFJ- QJa'lj~ ~ll:I1~1 ·Ik. iiIJId PIOC~SI!Oi!ll8, fA cr· Vol. 1 3. ASME I 991,1' p.

9-59 ..

[2<1i.l_lIS TR Z. com t, De:r.,a:lieil Rd ... se Deri .... red Fwel,.2 002 .. ( 111 !I~;::;s~)

(25J!Kit.K:fus.I1.l1l Cit)' Fire COOpafl!rn.eru, "'fin: ~lNid b.y dl:.!S1 ~jasjalTl"'. 5I1aDo-Ka,g,all:iu 111 Johe, 8:(1.: 1 ec- I es (200 5 ,. (in l'iIp:1lIlcst::}

[2J5jT-su:shim3! City Fire- Dl:partmei'Jt, ~fire ohtt.lnoOlled ran.iIt!u ~il:~".H 0000\, Hit:: I, 1-.'1 ~r-i))4}.( Iii j'~¥!.It~~}

SI.r,j!I~~gy ~mp.-ktyd: Command ~~ di!'f:i~~ (;ooimll,g b.y 'JM3!1!1f ~li'H:Itioo ,BJ"Id !lfTh(:(h~rllla br :si'!Jld Ui!iin;g ilti!!\')· D:pIjpl'itf:;;liJ'i. W~1;l ;jppl~~ilJliI <mod sm4Nlh l:~"'.a: wef't: OIIfJdlLldro 'blue r. ... e $p1e.i!ilIl <[I'IfU tbe !;;:iIHfm II ~~De ...... ,~r surface of the landt]J1 Sl1:e ~ l1um~d iIm d ilil1De brean.e V!.~k, burial I:Xtil'.lgui:!lhei! I.J1:C fire.

fi'ot:JeJmi C!n.¢Ct!lI1!er~d during fin: (JpJ3t':aLl~r.I;T b~ ~ litJ;[e 'i,I,'il~r :;IAPP')'. Wa1l:~ 'Wa~ 11i,~!fISJi'{lr~~1.I i«n ~ ""tll;:_~ WBS ].<1, kiii """,.~ f"1Jrn iii.:; IllfJdiliml !.iu Fin:~gh~ill~, acti'llitr !,8,'aS door: ill] :!.1.rong wind. Wl1~.n fI r~ghtlCl'~ ~-'(:~ called 00 S F~'. 1!!1~~ bind Jm: spread te for«;t ,!-UmIIJrldin,!!: m~ 1~.,~f1 EI sfl~ Fiu1. Ihi!:}' c;oJurQIJJ:d ta'~, ['jr~. 'Wi11r:r .iijlptica1ian §o f~1f or jJr~tililg me sJlN!ad 'WM 'CO:lltilllll~_

CIIIher i~bmil1iDn:: Smoke and 'IA'Jber "'4ip-oor Mff! 'f4ulld ~j~~~dI fmm the ~l!i"filo:: ;;racli:s 8i1t~1" e~,'dilpi.tllm;:n,1 8Jld: n::r~glner:: p1.!~rol[d UiJ!:: ~[t\'l; fur t111~e mcmhs; :E1II'lfr~nmJ:l1~aJ m!:;'lb:itarI118 'i,I);'M' 'l;o:r~tID!:Iro r{!;1 mOI1i!lJ:!; tlc:r ~t i II gJll sI1 men t,

CONc:n.USWNoS

RepJrii:B .of firts r~ '[!.tl:'d wi~b ;proce.!lsi:nS ll!!d f1Cl:ycl illg ,1)1 W1t,s,~ ..... ere lXinl~1!d ~cl.m.;;ly5Cd ~a get iillf(lrm~ril)Jt m fire J;fuar.<X:t-c_ris.ti~ and tlU!fI_gbtlilg ,BcIi""ir:y. CI~~:!iIZal{li:'!i o'f p~ir.lg and IJ"ccycflllS f)r,q~ Blillal'\f!Ill ~y be dl~el]l WOOl tb(J5~. in (!{.Iw O;:lI • .iOtriJ::5. "DW~iW:J, 11 Is IiID~!I ~h3..ii ~he ih.t(;;rm.:1tiOIJ sflCf'MI In !I1i~ ~p is. 1ll~1iJ1 ~i) fi Ii'tI Ii' re 'iICJrI! 1:00 an d 'F! r,~ prcrl set i 0 r.J iii Q'Ib c.r 1;;0 lIfl tr i S!l-

nn.f.tENCES

[11V;'8k:akum, M, "An i1Ililll}'sis. of ~!1t ~id.mj!:l rn wutc: proct~~in8 Pt.ur1l13 fur rn1J!l~tirml 'W<Is.1.t:5. ... An2l!'l1.};:1Jp!kiu.4 I ; 11:1-.3..:j 0 (1(IJi}2). ( ill J'31pa:nC§:(;)

[2JH iilktJ, M .• ''D~:!i~ ~pIoo.jOD aJloi1! lt$ PJ'!:YC:fl.tjOl1l i';j ~r,;~1 ~ ~ .. , Al1m:n.-Ko.jJB.ru, ~ I :2.5 '1-4!57(2000.). (1;11 .r.a~ru'I;:;se)

[J.lOsllllma. ~. !i'llild Furukawa, H_. '·ldyo Fire DepilrtmC:l'!lt'5 policy III rl.ghti[l~ fil!"l1~ in w;a:!!!~ d':i:!ipDS2I1 ,plaJitC KRS3i, :Sot{ ~): 1 (t..17(;lOO4).{ ~1iI J'21,pBfIl!:3J!)

f.4.)C'gmmmee fDJ tll'll.e~I~~Ii!g Safety M~cU~ far Fire ~~Ii~kl[] !mill F.'i~:n.il1t1irl.g in ~~ froo~ ltl~, PIBlll5, ''F.::pm 00 S3~~ M~urt:5 fO{ FiJi:i fi'r,e..-en,ao.n ~d f.lre--figiltmg iI1l ~:e ]l'lO(;~sing P13l'l~! , fire .and D~~~ M ::n ~ge J1I':flt, A i1: Il:n cy, ];!I pI! tI. 200J . (ill hi,p;!!I:n~)

[::I]09ii'l""'ii, Y., "Liil.'Cl"BlI1ril: ~1!a!L:b rt;glli~, 'W1~~ ffir~::l of !lI;!IIid 'Wi!i::l!J:; and thXl[r iH::itI'mrol 'f2:cili'i~". R'!:1l'«'I of N!l1~oJ1,ati ~r~hJ QJ1~Li IJ;J~J:: of F ill:" lin.! Vi5!l.'!it'~r. %::! 09-11 J{2D!i]).( i!'j Ja:fG!IJ];:;S:C}

[6]:S.oo BlJiJea, Fire O~~;lI'I;nml. "'A nrt (iof r;.;IilJI' 21umir~LJm loodw on 8 ,dumil' ItlJck 'Mljcfj [~, ~ ..... !:~...e 1IIoo,~ to !:X'tifi8):Jt$l!·~. :Kill1dllli-Shobo.2 :3 I; J 69-J i3( l ~n( irrlapall!!Sl?)

r1JNi.!lIj(jL1mr~1:i. Are:zt Fin: DepanmCfflE, ''fin; whiih ~!:I'J::d by ~flQfi elreuit of a truck", 9iobo-.Ka~1ru '[l(iJ .10111), 22:l4-~5{ 19901- (m hpali.l!"Si!)

[G]KlIJre (;i~y' fir~ DcparlmC1'Jt, '~~Iine of Fj~ inl LmdiilJ Biro!;! f« IIJdumlaJ ~~ ~Dbi:>-Ka.a.a~ L:{! Jeho, Z4,;JCI-34(] 991}. (in ,hf>all;:!s~)

[9]NabuIJ-Sflim0g1Z Alri!il! ran; DcpBtd~l;gfl~, "SCf8~ lin:: fire wltic.' ot:il1 inusd ~OO day~". K:irndai-.~obQ.. 2;64:69-71 (1991).( illi Jap211~)

[10]S&ppcre City F.~re D~f!BI1menl, "An o:pk'llioo in. r:N112i~ner or:a dust care GckkilJ1-5J1abil, J~;81.-:t7~ 1,995). (in Jap.attese:}

[Lll!KQ~kl. H. ell al., "DlIISiI, P!:q1·looioo i'm ;8 ""'~J: pJocei':Sh,g plant", AA~ii·~1Iku. :SiS:.11 $.12 [( 19~)_ (Iii %pilll1~)

E~~t and iIhlratiO:IIJ of fij\f!~ I~ 1ooJ.;, arle day. ~(I C;)i~img,t:lish fin: .

.9l!Ul~gy l'SlI~I!)}"edc BlJfI'IJi!lJ pO'JI.'lf..:r wa'i .53rll)1hemii by dry :iilJl,!lP .irefi,gblers ,:r d !"l0!l ilppL'y·'fIii&[f!r.

eM(! Nlllrt:'l~r: Ii J (2 i J

WBhm..ai::!i~ dilS"~h;;:! .. K iL<1-K)'1!iJ1u. c1~JJ ~lIt:l!loh pref~lur~. "S~p 2002

Si~!JBt.ili1r-. Wwe dr.-I;: fire.; Sa;raJI a:llJ!'!lhtlt!m dk::cl:l:!!"gi!tl frnm r'!l~f1mfLi proeess Vr.'lU ~(o.red! m.rt.501dr; in DP::r-. 3f~ lit ~ p.u;};;:;;I' in LOO Mgi-E: a-ch bag OO{'JI:;Bineti SOl) kg.

n:.;~en[ and dll!riltiall: (i"rfj~{i: liI.!iOIJk. I] iloor.5: tij, e>lJlIDg:um!lil.

Stratt:~· ~fJlpr9~~; AmooFli elf' $oI:J"V[jli !ilhiminmn oNtiI: 00 Ius,e io smatlle:r by sand. A mmJJ po11iNi. ~ ~B.'jli aiWllir-.LIITI ow&.:> I\£il'lo~d oj" .large; otBI'Ill·digging mad11[];::>. h 'MI~ mi~l:d Wi~b S:i!II'IIl SIlG tiioi:!i'.i ~tinglliaJM by. ~F1j:)tyiTlg I'algc amouat ofwi1.'!er. Tt-..i:s: D:pGr'8tion was C"lIlIE:n"cd.

Probl':ni !~Jll;1J!.mtt:rro dwirt,g; flif~ Q.P~t.ioo: BY!l1mg 1iil8rerial was ,Bh~nmR!J.m. which is r~r;tiiYc to w3~er, NOm1sl o.lx::ruil):'! , ... r sm(llJb~ing by sand W>3S 1101 poss..ible .tince amoltfl~ Q.flulrnir-.g ImItl:fial' W3!$ tOO luge to :sm~h~,

C~e: 'N !Imber 14 [2.21

51f.Zu'ka t~ty, Mie- f;R~~l.iIrc.ro lilly ~J

SiituaLian befM':: [h.e II~~ M'UIlicipaJ soHd W'ilStc!i. Q!ltil~lled in Mil] ~re:fct:tllJ~ "W<£I'(! 'pr(!I;es:s.ed in[9 IIDf (R(1fu,e;;li ~ri~ ft!el). fIDF was pelli!!!i;tcrll t)'pc 'Ai dch (;!Xlespi)fi.:l~ ~o RDF-~ ~ 0C1 cl-8~i fi¢ilHon l1y A lITM [23). OI!Jtl'im:: of RDf ls $h,~n 'in ns (.I8p3i"!r::s~ Ind)Jrojaj $t;mltJrdl [24.]. RDF &OOu!ld h;1'o'e beCIl ~.en:t W jm~m£falio-n plmlt in .K.u\WJla d~' I jj, Mil:! prc:~trure bY. il was§; .or-;dl EcmpC!flir;ily in ~ wan:!1Ot.m: ill Suzuh dty i n Ml~ pi ~1,Jn: for serne rItIUQr-..

:6J.;Xr:ot.and d~ra1Lon or:li~~ RDF !pHI!! ~s ~iLcl;ed to .. i.O 5 rn Iligl~, 0tiJ 19 July it 'lMas foond: '1ih2lt fttlF Wab lrIs3.ll~d if_md !1f1lIl ~md\:e was iF;c1f!iti.~i.I, RDF 'iIo--a:s. IYi1 r:d!by W$I! ~Y1h-dj'UiI'lS machines li}' ~o.ri;N~. Th.e11ito1J~t !Ile]:

Jteafhrg ..... ~~ ;il;il1:lcd_ CaU$(! >l)f h~tiJ]g W.3!;l !lI~ ~=mirllxL On 2(1- July it ~_~ fou:n.d Illa~ 'D,f' was· .h.ft~ ,[Ind thet smt.tke "Wa~ cmittbd_ \.:vorik1:l5 il:Jl'P.Ii.cd ~w~r mill_g\l i~er ~tf ai~£d, .riN:fightcrc; '!,W!n;! IriIUcd ..

~~!~,g)' employed: f jrdl&"'i~$ !i!ippliied W8t~ tD ilsed. at!;lJ, RDf WlIS mi:';1;(j by .Iarse ~l!llil-dil1:gr!i~ iil;;wll ines rQr".c~I"s-

C!!!Jf! N~rnb;r ] 5 P51

"h'akam3.ll!l13 dl:$;iri';;1$ i~iL-Kyu!:ll'Ju ;til)" FiUbKllro f~~le.. hin11iU}' 200"4

S~!!L ioo ber.m;:! Iil-e fir~~ A ..... ~sl{l-recycliii;g; compllI"iy was; fJ[(Idu.ciD8.Pat'l~~i,= ~.rd:3 form WiI,sbt:: '!l!.'!!lOO in it; pWi. ... ~~1I~ wol)iJ! WI:!~ CTIlIs!Jedl imo .~1111 Chip ilJfP O.....dCf, tIl'8I""lS"Ji<lr~r:d i.a1 duti:!S.,. :iim:l made infO pnrtiele ~rd!>. MetB~ panicht SIIDI ~ [1~n:; J::Dnt3i!1crl 'n 'IIoIiW.:: wood 'lili;r;: tr:m..s;;ortetJ iii docns ;uld W8.jj. hi~: will'! funis !D ,ma}:l: spal1:. Th:e sparl-.. ~ll.il.ii!lJf!d cluSl r::iJ;p.I:OOiQJ1J QfwOO:! powd!!i',

'Ex~m~ and d1J]'3jjon of , lip;; Foor wciker.s .~~ injl!reli

Case NIl11!1ocr 16 [26]

1'$u:sbirrtil isli:lnd, Na.ga!'.:!kE prefil:i.=tuTe. j Feb :2.(104-

SilYiltioo b-t:forc 1f1c fil"l!l: A f~ill'=' \'i"1!l.!;lJ. se:d {til" r.md:l111t sil~ blbllJfl!l~li'..,i selid waQ.J!e n"Om, 19:5S, Jd!:a:rlilt IMdiil~ slre 1A'3'~ ;1b.wl.IkIt1;ed 3:;!i, th~ t"w mUllild~i11 snlid .",~~ (MSW), otCIf!O.Sllr!Jcliiolli cllm;pQ.Dic5' El!.ilNl i~ (w lamifillir.:! ~i'1S'!ll.il,":tioJn \'iill::!ilt_

E~~.mt end dl.lf:i'l~rOil of fir.::: H rlXlok. three myst l[lo Crtir.l8D~h, JI took oS;2 ~r flfi~ghtr:r;!;t im tota'l) and W4 'I,IDlul'itc£F fue:ilsl~~rs (ill cotal} ali!lrl~, iI.mI 1Nil::!l 7.i(I{I rn l of 1;!;!I-<ifi!ls ire and 600 ~ off(!t'·i:!St.

\l4.~::rni''''SU f1i:'i tier.K ii;i'-K~'ldiu 'C'()I, fu_ku..:::«~ prej'ecellLu'=<, is 31,;11y I~:g

SHl11Il ion bdcril IiiIS fir.e! There 'lN3~ a N'O-strobBdij. UlIIC!liJ,~ ~;ir'!i~ floor ~ used both fur Ei:JtiOO), 2!ltdi for 't'.lflrdl 00 St. SOOOlld. fioa" was IlIs::d "for office. Nilll!'l hilmdr~ irlir1l !ie"~Ilt:r-oot:: drum:; 'w:.~ stored ir11tJ(; warehausa, H.az.?4"~s miU'=fiiJ.l~ ($Iydee f'.1i i1~1Il" hl~ "'Iil:stc liquiif,l w~re SOOfE:d iD m~ dli"llfr"!::l_

fS.:t.leItI! ~fl£l du.i:'a[I(Ift ll-f f1 rs: h ~C(Jll: >6 tJ~lrS ~!J ~tm§.lJ.i:slll, CkI~ fm:fi~bkr g.:x mlTL(W ii'ljl!:f~'.

StrB~!:gy !!mplo~red: '1,I,o'3tc::r IlEld fo.am 'i!I!:Ii"f: 3.3lP!I.ed!. al!l1k$ w.c:n:: milQ;:; t-o 17~1 oonmJllir~aied fll!1·oK wnt-tr, Tho: fU!l-C.rr ..... :mr and l!Ii~ ..... ~rII:! 8n~~,

ProolmII £IlIOO1lIilM:rro oIiIu:ring firs Ctperaiio.,,: W aler t!;\!ppJ)' lVilS IIIot :;;trffic:i!:!flL H;;!Il2!rdo!,!l~ ~~ wm: f.ormc::L si"rlCXl haesrdous muerials burned, The waf"(;'h.mISI! was m~ willi d:("f;Irrui' and ~ !(Jo iSr.-e Yi.;:!$, lim~~d. EJrplos.laru. of clr[giJI~ bll1d=-r:d !i1aivi'Y in the W.ilf"C_blJlI!lC· .. Hclicqptefi I)f~!(!'M1IP!:!pICi 'llt" TV' oCo:mpaliii~ nii2W ~ low Ih,H '~;; winli ~!!d~ by she hl;tl~t~ ,h m.dend ~~ivi~y.

Other il:lfCiJ'm~iDn~ Afi<:r d'l! Eir-e'. '"'~ '~~5:!irn,g rompamie!3 lu lit!!! ~'L W\!!r,,= ~!:d, Pre-pian fo:r rFr~~I1L;[Jg ~l;ti¥i~W+I:!i.m!iKk,

C"a£c: Numb§ 10 [1.5]

SQItr(I!!- d~il;~, F"~ldJTmll [pJ'~fl:d!J~r::. ] 8 Fro 1,999

Situa1ioo b.l:fou: ~c; ffr~~ Scr~ ~1ii Or rure earth metals d1sclt&.f8ed Crom ~ mEmJ:fu~min,g p[8I!It :i3 '.'; ~tl were stored in drums, ~'de:r5 {CB!.. 'LOO ke:} dlsch~rg~d :6-00II A~ril 1997 till Fel:tr~:u-y 1999 'I.'!'eJ1:: stored ill WI drumSi. D[YI~g ~ta"eai! dr1llfllS lA\S:j1! filled wJUJ mB.cliir!!irIg ,oil, 1'li' dgtl"'=i .5Iiml1l pa~VU,5 to m!:}'(:1 !flg OU1!JiIp,!UJ)', oil was rem~w;d and !lD1;\'IIlns .... 'i!ff; (:f1L1'.eC"~e:cl il'l ili dJriurn, A ID&:J:ri(j ~j!!:C[ed &0Jii tb= drum with big ~QUft!l, Th ~ '!,:;J.Q5t w:~~ o;s~ilJ1:'.iI~d to ~ :iJ!"l1nt[]1]coos ~gruitia~ 111 a&_

Strategy I!:-m:pl~ed: VIorkcl'S'l.l I>il:d ~Or1;ibl,= ~;or;l1iliigLii!:llO'.Yi Ind '11[1~. Th~ 4rum was III oved 00 opi:iII ,iipf:!!, l!m:1 ~it1otl>'eJi;d by,~ for I:1!;til1gu:i!:!Jrn~11:.

OtfJ,t.r iErfarmEliioo: fi:are i!!iIi1IirI'l t:Ulls 'I!P'(:J!:' uociID.1fo:lll~ IllI'l1.:r fire: SI!3"o'.i~ Law eJ.:cep~ fur :lin e powders, H{:M~JJ f.iOWU's of'rare e<IJ1h met:!lls 2:i'~ IC(lin~~ljbL'!!:,

tasel\'"urnool' 11 [!&I$]

,MiJ,:j!Ir(1o ~:5!:iri~rc, Tot)'!), J9 Oct DWS!

S:i~l.lB.[ioo btfore: ~.be: fl:r~: A ll!Jjk 19ff)l wa~ urlfyi!1g ~e: luydrti:g(:1Ii perm:iih sQ~!JtI{:f1 wnjt.h "'IIilS ciSi2l'dr-d 1l'00'I B. plaRt u n.iMfr' demo litiooL W"lH!f t ~Io':' tim k LUIf 'l,Ito'9.S f1l.itlj Ii'! ~ g n hi gbw.ay, its. t.arn k !i'llp riD" I!d :1!Jd pp I ad ed ar L II :lS_ KyJI'O&~ per-oo;idl: iii1illlilJJ1 w.B di9P'fr~~, Thl: ~~te of ~JQ~h~!1 ~~ ~wrOO[jded hy oDilfi,c~ bll ildint~ ,md -BpBroThlmt b.uikHfi~.

E_:O; •. o:f1l ilmd d!J.rUiOll of 'fire: :Fir~ d[tl] "ot ~!JT', T~'elIrr1i:1m ~I~' werl:: In.j'-lrea due ro Ol;mlf!t:~ wi~ .ltydrogcr:i ~ox1dl!' i:lt 'fr'ii2r'Jlr;.'i}~ ef brQkr:o g'I~. :S~j~ .::;tr3 I'!CITJ:; tlfuma.g!MI_ Taak ~1;1JiI' j D m .il"U,!iL];'_

00= infOO'mati(m~ ne [11~1:.1 I~¥ h:!i!Il iJem used fCIl Im)~partil'lg iniJuzmlAl wll$~r Ch;;mj~1 [('action jlfOOfe6::d bi:~ ..... !:)m !!cml:' materiats re,Jn2!inil]o]; irtl ~ank ilnd b)'dJOgi:t'1 ~ldorl'e, Due to in(t'~~ ilt 'preSSLElI:'.1 ank n.Jp[lll\~d.

Ca:9:: L'ooIumlx:l 12 [19.20]

K~~IJI! diElrio;1;, Tokyo. JIJ!1i!i 2002

5ill~ljl!m, ~rurl:! Ibe ,cr!:': 'Thnjallm'i ~61::~ W-ilSi ~ar~ if! ti w~ldiog !J:S.C:od OOlh ~ ""~~h-cmE~ and as {w.Q~ or i:I tClnpfll'lY l"CI;)'1;liog J1lJ"C: m~i'!!I;5.. TI:r~ \'!i(Irk!:~ wcr~ FqJairin.i !Ii ~iflll ~ilii~ eJoo1 Ie ~~I~ ['.Jld grin~_ CCB1.izii:'l~ ~o:riP,g SOD kg oft: antalurs powde:r !"\'fn; phw~d ]:EO Q'O i;S'W,\!f from the Hilt. T:ll'i~:ili.!m ~c:r 1,~'2S ~gI'i,j[t1iJ E!~ spark moo.~ fly ..... ~Idi:i' fir' g.r,r ••

to :II .... 'ast~ prOO~l:Ig, plaIT! for iJ:l-.:m.:rlt1ion. l[mjl}r:-rB.I:i:{!oI~ prOO(!!>:!i. \\~ ~~' ill bui Idmg.. Those ~~ 'Wtn! illroon jn.~!J a IlOPPl:olit 1;l,j]~It~. ilJId ~O'-..d Ib-~' li-:::lt I;:~yar. Bdt OOIt1'\!fJ(H" \Io1IS ~rcd with metal duct, During ill {iIi,I ~rrtl=cfI t d u ~ wBS d isper ~ ~ and -.: om 'bIi15 t i ibI c m i xture iii f dus ta noll. 9.~r 'Wa~ feu me e.r he m i m,rrc V!<1U i grJ i btdl an iii !fu~r: .Np!~II)r.. OCeiJif'Jerl.

E;ol15"1Hfitd dlJration of tire: In1elicr c.ftl!'!: bI.J·ldill8 WfI~ d41!11 :e<I' .Jut::.O ~IG!iroo. Fire OCCUl'~ Ii'! {! li!o~. 'StnilBSY. cl'J1.p-lo,Yl:!d: Local i!ir~fillll:ir~ were .:;allo!U i ~ 1 $ mlii w:es br I;riXlttol mu:l1I1.oor~ foilt' I!!rtl"'i~i~m~.mt,

Cas;:: Nlmmb!;r '7 [J:2] T"~o,:2) April ]991

S imai:OOn b:cfDJ(: ~b~ lire:; Wastc pla5~a;:s d~~(j!j as municipal ,piolll ~e ~rJ: 'lrn:risputcd ~a ,a l1i1ot r.urcljni: plant !:Ail that oOiJw ~5 ~rOO~r:d ii'(lrn ~t'I,= pt.j'lsti~ The !lalllJol: wc)'di!"!!S pJmt S~.Jced ihi !f.I1la:r.ati,OO ill ~c: 'OOjgjnmin,1l: of April 1997. 1h~e pLULie:s. w,g,e S~~d, IMI~. p;::l~ired. and ~d rn, ~ ~Jlo, Pl4'itlla:: p~LIt:I:a w::re hl:'lltoo if) 'il mixing; eb..ifJ:'lbe,r (ch2.fl:)~r. [mlpeF~re: j(I!J'IC) omd dcWJl!l~intQ ga!ii i" derotnjXi::.;ing ehamber (d!l2!1'ilbe"r [~Riwe::: 3®.O"C). G~ ~s ,t!ccl:Jli:c'il1.a~ REId tr.:IiIIS~~ inAO oi~~ Oil '!JfII:S. d~:illl!d in1@ 83$olin.e, tao~ll;.. if.nd di~l(I II.

EJ.:'1et'i1 end dlil.raticn off ire: mi. produced fry thrnilll'if &:~QmpQ:>i~kiJI of plastics spilled UOID 'Ilht! al!i;!COllilposifliC chambes.T tWiP:fill1l41f1: ef spi 11c;;i oi Iw M about ;!.:fWc. Autagr~itiQi1. fempe.r~ of fh!:: oliw as ~imuoo. to be ln ~h~1l' 1ltIi~ Ib!r'INeen$ 00 ~d: I'j,O~. Me., oi I :5IpJlla::a;i fi'om t.h;~ droooJpasfn.8 dil;ftn'! her 1 iii to <111'. :spCJ.ruBJIO!:iW mgni~ 'D¢Cuned. Oil!:: 1'1'1] or oii~ :spi]j.:dood 1b1J.m~. The ,pj~p laral ~ burned, No CiLSualty.

Stra~ ;;mployr:d· ~t~;mqCl .ooiirn w~n: DJ1J~][d, OIl1';J In rQrn'I~ 1'iPii'I: A a=$l'IlJlfi I~ee ..... M III

Cn:s;: N~mbcr 8· [llJ

Kamimachi II&~Yll. Toymm~ prc:(cdYJN::. 29 August 1m-

:S:i~I;!;):(1'!)I'I ~forl!! ~.ba:l' f1!~ A.boIiIt 'two£!1tlY"'n'!rr!! !~o~d :~«I ssrap ear'S wen :5iI;QreJ at:! fill, illrCU of 3:fL5 m in w[.dil'i and l0.1, I'll iri ~iJiIh., The].' 'WEre:: :s.tCti:kpi ISoli te 1('.1 m. Cill:S1:: of fiI'C 'Wii.5 oestirnlUe!li te ~ !lfO~~~:5 l,grimom of ~crmblls4itih: mBtt;rJaJ:s (lIi[ibrl!1; 'D'&: a:a..1. ;si)e<rlil of (2bf~" ~1}1l:1kt' e!j,LIlpmamts. O:l.t,)r c.m;i)IDed En pIGS.!>til ~~.ap

hl~jjl 31td ill uratiolJj of fin:;: ~t tool 1.,2! 2 fi.Fllif1sI'JlJers {if! ~1J1I11), Th~ fire l'!:qlJiri!rl 29' IH),1JF<': M .;:uti!JJ1d-Ut!:'-·cl.xk DJI« Bj fOO;5"

Str.i!~r;::g)I ;::mploi}~'ed: "PI':!i.~ '\\Iljli, ppll~ IlWil p!lmp mmks. engif'iCll witl~ ] iA'l, ,1~tdl;1ei. w-.d ill b;:lioop(cr. !BW H£ cem~ 'Wai51 im[tcdI satce wa-M did I1il!11l. p4!~etralll!' in~o Un: i[l~ct'jar of Ihc: burming 51aci:~iri!:!, ;'\ p~ of oornil'Jg 11l2J!e:'i2ll!:i 'Were mI)'I"eclf rom tha:: Gtax.kp.i~e ~]' h~ {:~u~!;IlfIeij"~ ;'i1'1~~ ;r!;~~jiilL-;~ by awJyiog v.~, lili~ opa:r:ut i 00 """'~ '1; I1Il ~ i!1 ~ c!l,

Pr(lblern ~jj~{MJi'I[(!fi;i! during flre ~3!~oo: C~!1bY8ti~l(: IMteri.:l[~ remained jf} (!~ ~r2:p ears mlookf.::red. BI;!{:k !lln$c- and hi:! smeJlw·!!:r>C emiR:a.

O[It~ ~r.afanTIatioo: Prr&;!:i:1 :5I;1'Up ;0;.1[';5. 1{I:a::!i'C' oat cooiJoll£d ul~r il"i~ 3er'l/~t:e liliw'. Afl:~r ttI~ flr;B., ~I rurc dl:!pBr1ntcrrl, mw !l plJ1'1;10 11 'oo~dalJJ" :5~o:rilg~ of 'was&e ears: I ~I!I ~r~ !fI(ll.Itil be diYili:d and plac,ed m slor.;kpi I~ 2~dL gi{toCkpLIE! $n(1Il14 ~I~' 2(1!1) ni :mid ~~s.t of SO ears, l)a !IT~bl]!,!~Lilt'j (If 3 m d~(.C anou;l:rl be rJli1!Q:a.1.~I .. ~ be'i~ piles,

(';&Si!! NLlmbcr j L:flj

IKl.!lrc ~itt, HirGSbim~ 1Pn;~(:Iil,!rl;\ I j $!!p 1900

Sit~lkm boefo(l~ iIl~ fi~~ Industria] w~tes ....... ere d'1Jmj)Cll! 011 a landfill ~~t~ fur i years. The ~iOO lil,,;U sil"ua!to!l ill a r~yjr',l~,

~:rter1i and dumioo raf fir>!:; ~rudlJ~!rrial ''!.''~r:;3 (1 07,S;U mi') W(:J"~ dumped 01'1 3! r.B:~'i[le to :for..m a! srnaJl mountain (70 m )I; 11Q m ... 30 m.). 1~ ~ ifl. ~ay~ to ro!~L'iStJ~s.fi llr~ t~ l'olXIk 343 eI18i~~ (iii ~:)J) :mdl 676 iliJ'~g.lU~, ,(in t~ru~

Sl'ral!egy !ffitp.IQ:ttd~ Si~o:: '~~. of Ii re WilS 2.(1< 'bi) ],0 m deep b.cl~ the ~k~~, ;&pplh:.ij. ofVo'a~er 1lEid {"(;crn ~$ i1ie~~~i,~ L"l":id:liti W<!I~ '!;!_x~~~e:cll by 1Je.;:i,1II')' ~U;j:iIIlr:mte5, !m,oG!lb~ bJ' sand, and ttan~pmt~!I by dnrnp tru.cj::::. To J'r~r:nt 'Are ~r,d<e;ill i:Q iiifa~by fa~ reund-she-clcck ~a!~'0!1 'W;;!s d{lor;.

~rool~I1i'I i£ITLi:C'Jl'Jie«:m dwm,g fire ~UtiiJD: A I'lood M;(i en Sr"w:!y from 11ri~ !;"lLk ~ ~~. fur tl:ikhi'lS; drti'lklrr:g waE~_ Heoses WJd frnrrnlllnd ~Jili! fj;e.~ ~hr:!! Sileo II, ~s ~Oif1D~rt out tOOt !mi ... ironment 'Could ill~ :!il.j:01ed IIJ.y n.m-air lIirty .,;,~~, ~~ ~fi,d ~1f~1 L

Case Nr.::m!J.:r 4· [9]

511imtrte dt~r~r;-t,O r~a '~~~1~ j ~ I ~,~

Si'tU2iioo bcf'OFe ifie fire: ;S~.a:P tires 'WN~ ool.lcmed] iJ.l.. a f'oI!C"y.cLlIl:& ~l'f!Ipa7iY wnjeh I::, :dl~i~~~ in nvi Illlgl: in tt~,=, mOY!!!~i!lins. TIre::: v.oerli shredded ;!Thd tranQPOJ't~~ !.Q ~~ctr~ii u fr.n:L MJ"Ii,P 1ir~ ::111(1 shredded uros 'w£r~ :3t:flI:loc~ I~ ~Ci'il"lS ~OO, of M£ roil:~ycli1tg 001t1(j!'SJ'iy.

EX[~llIt and d1Jl'arlm Df Eir~P ile of SGl3.JII tires aad .shJ~.ciIsd 'iirl!::; ~I!i SH!r::bt;II ~o 15 m 8J igb 'i!!'i~b no :s:e:Jl'31.aU:Q1L jll 1M!: .ar~ ~r ~~K1 'm::; .. i ~e st:f3'P ~ii~ ai"ld! ~l!iredrlled ~rl'~ !;(I~~d~ 100.1(100 !iJ'~. [u, ClOG: 100 rkp ID t:"Xt1!:'!if~l:::'lt 'i'iir·8. [t '000.1:: ,41,2 >l::llIgiJJ{[s {in total), ~ 002 CBNr~r '~(oE:!lgiit,eh1 Om '!w!),.11 I'l!ii 679 'o'O.IIJ£lb~~r fmiig,btm (iI'l1!it::iJ). 3!:~' ~mJJ.k'ycdi: .Appli~oo of fuilJrl 'WBS. sried aut .i~ 'A'a': i II.ttri:!(:li~. ~ e~;"'i M :tiiU'~::: by heat-resistant ltiuJ Ido2J!f::l-~, .cDIt~iderodllll1t i~'1A'3S moo rioo_ T;]r~ we:r-~ ~:t¢~"'.1I~r:d ~ ~r"s:n DYCL~ B1I..::il 'w,Bll::C' 'o'MI.~ ~Fflli£.l!1- 1Pr'D'N~m aJoolm!cre.rl dlMill,g nr~ ~r~tiiJR~ Watm' :w~ply ~ ";(:Ii Sl,Jffi~~~, R'!ll~Off" ~~r oollta,ililiFJg~ ~I ~~Il"fI~rxf try ih~!Iii;)!1 ~(I'1iiI'%itloo o:f ~r~ ""';!5!;DI]~~ by oil f~:OI: ~a. ~r)3;'i,ll!fti: COlli;iJn~tioo (;otri~r,

~ NIllIiI~r j ri OJ

5~wor~ ;;.j~r, HoJi;;k;J;jdo pr~t~~we. 31~ly ] 992

S[IJiJ.a1ioH l;clQr~ ~I1Cl [1C"e Throe WDr~E;.rS, r.~n.il;:l,iJj::h:!l$ dr"h-.:r) ""'«'I:' ocallectillg gEbBg~' and II)!iI.di1iS it 'iIJ~1j ooolam.e.r Df 3! rear ~oadilil~ pMil«:r tnJcl:...

~x~eal and !lL!.F~mrn til' fire:; .An ~iwan 0{l~1'r(jlj! iIJ tM !XIilINlljj~_ "he ~Q[1 t:::Iin{!l" '."'<I~, dBma.g.ed_ fur) w~~~S gets klii "1ij'1I~ due t(io oEJum~ gas,

Slrnllcgy mlp]CI)i\'!iI; 'Wh en fll"~gR1~e;rs W~ eolrrid, ,~b::r,~~ "'i!!~ ~~JiTilp;cl til] rQad' and no flarn.i:i ""'';!IS f.ilour'ld, Thy I~.M krr h~J oo:tJt¢~ letr!, Ijj t:I~e ,jl1i'bo!r.,g~

Oi:lu:r btihlmll1.fkll'l: SP.T~ CB[j~ w:er~ fool'ld II"! g:;:.r~!!€I;:, Prop;:iJ~LlIJll !:'ft iIJ 5pray cans 'ii,'':;Ti!i ItJooI:.ed in iii;; oonEaiI1r::f .. 1ll1grt1rilimtro (.I)]"tI~1 i:mi wel,~ !:I'Jja;:ru:iI 53%,. di£t!1yl i!:!j~et 2!i1 0/[;,. pmpiUl.e 2G'}:i, annil ~fuercS ,S~ (\'!i1~,,~i'bI~ midlMl:'~ ~~ ill ill;:: otMJ~iIIill~r and ig'llli~ed by :Ii icti en sp.oatl!: 'f~I1iTir:J du:ring ·oompa.ct:iol'l.

elM! NtlmW 6 [l r]

... '\oS+lkJI o!;~r" $~it~ntiI J!ft:ter::Ji!,m:,7 Mroctl 1995

SiLwtiolli befere the fire: &:rap papcet dLt5i. was pa~k~d if1~o 'lI1il1y ~rdf:ioEiC'd b{»:e;;; 'I S kj ·1i:.;"L1:h~ i:!E!Id rransparted

2JEm:rning ti:r'5 ,Dr plB£ilt.cs art iI1D1l2' :u:l!y e~hl,ll,ld!>lIed1 ifih~' ;(I,re; .sJ~~~ in. largE" ;(I,t'J'L.'(1!ltJ;. :n~ smell 2:1Id ;3 1..,1 of bl~[:k. slJtolli;~ are cmjtmli, 4)run-cif VI.'2Itf!r oonlimJmatl:d by lo:tit:: ehernicals ]:dlutt.S. ~l ... dronment, 5)fir.!:, .rkFi.utmt:ll~ hil'lfr:; !L I~rnil~ 'i\liL~CJ ~LIJ!IP;I)' fur ~!m~immmt, 6)b~'E'Y ~'I!~pm{3ll~ H; [J1SiI!!k~ [(ji e);~mc and mow; lIfl~ ned 'WJISOO fut' ftJfe\'su illS riP!:: :!ip~.A Iso Ogawa. ileti ~ I,t:&SOO5 J~nt fn':§n ~h~ ~ studl!:!:::] )t0l:~ emount o f 'fmst.:: stored ln plants should tJe lirnitc:lit l,WRS'ki sbflLIIld R di,,·:iI1lcd.a ,[bill pla(etl in es!:!XlJpil es, :;')dmi!l"l~ :ih:l)uld 1:0::: maintamoec befv,roo:n, !I[~f-iles.

PTRE JNClDENr CASE 'SwDlES

111 is report ~am,ir~l2'!>c ~ :!'l~LJilIl~ f v.w;~l:-lc;ilt<~dI tiK:S"N Ihii:b ~ bcm ~c:ai O'f' '!bQSi:' irr J3ii~. Thl; case :!iCOOII:'S ViiUO:: sdmro because 11i£iY ~l,!lr-ed il!1 \'iU'lOIJ:5. cir~Wla~brw~ aad loosJi(;l$. HOYo\:'iJ!:rt 1fi1cy re'Veil !!l cornmnn partt-=rl] of cna1J!:f.liitt:l inl !1~,;,£lltlo:)t'! ,M(;I ~i'tlli:n,gu:i5Imlo::n~ fur ..... wLe>rc:Jatcdl fires. fl~ .... hil;b occurred in ~l;!1lSpM:tlil;lJll (~;U;I: numbers l, 5, IIl1d I.I}. tll~(!i 111 lar:u:ffiU sites (~~t!I ~!!.I"TIbt::~ j II1Id liS), ih.~ m wa.s.tc j'i1~im~;a'[I(]1II ,pl3111::5; (ease nlllllbe~ m), ~iI'.X'i~ ~J] 'Waste l'tiCyClAri& p!~t$ ('!;.i]:!it: 1li1JJl.10C:r 7). t1t~ in ~OU~ ,S<lfIfrtat 1A'Zis:l"C: ~~iI.:sc number 9' ;and '1.::1), these fl1 faC~tori~$ (~;C: IItirnberS:2, 1.(J., 'L1, ·md 15); 2lIIId ifloOO£ ;~ Ol!U~ ~'o:r&~1! Si[o(! (case' !I'I~m~r~ 4, 8. ;.!.J1d iJ) ~I'!C ~Icctd.

Ca&f N orn'b« ,I [6]

50u:m di~tri~.S .jlglllmil f.~(~~!J]"e. J A!I.& 19''8 j

S[1.\J;v.ioo botfo.N !.be fir!!:! SefilP al!!minllill dl!;C~arg~d 'fii'ClII!I refirrillig ~ 'Il/,ajJ I~d 00 Ii dump 1Jrt:!,k; wi~1t building debna, F'ke OOCLlUro dIlrilfl,[!:, ~p;tII1. Ca:u~~ of [gnitioo 'f.'i'a$ rui(rjj etermined,

Et.!ef1i! ;!In;;! d!.!J!!'1kt . t!f i1J~; [t took ~wcl¥e nolfi'!) [Q e;o!;ti[]g!Ji.str.

SIrs.ugy cmp!-IDyed: Dri~r us .. ~d pO~t e;(I'i[1g!Jislt~ but f1alb'i~ '~lJ1..'I:rn OTC'll igal"OO.s, ~i~"Jb~~ ;8'ppJle.d ."..~b!:r ~I jn;iJi:d. TIl~ til!;)' ,Elppli,,[J fuam but '~.10iI. tt """.il5 flJlmd Eh3I b~Dg m.'t~jB.I wa!iI metal lDld :poS"5~bly flILDi'!;"UIn, Sm~~':'-Ir'\S l1f ,~d Wil,s imp:rusil!ol!:' wli~~t l o ~.d~n,g,.~!:f ~8 3.ppli.::d to 'OOm :5CJ8p alummum, Slirmoc-wti covered 'i¥i1fl :tim sui! :Hibn8 !:,teci).ml: :ilElnll . .scrap alurMi~!!in ' .... '<'IS IUJ]loamoo ;!i'o~ i~e"ln",k mroa,hole on Inc gr'tl!!ndi. A part of :!i"o;rBp al~.lJ1.im.HTII 'Na..:: te"Jij~ from 1fle Dolt ;if'!d m.i};.c::di wj~h pom.s5:lb.I!'f1I il,:hLOIiijj~ 111 ig, op!:~[ion willi ct;oRrilJu~.

F.'roWr:m tr.ICGtImS'Kjj dunll!! :fite(lo ~m;jclJlI; ti'susJ op~mOll !.!Si11.~ ~[cr., fDam ;i~l1iL. m- 'JlIIl"L'i"di!r :!g~1 'JiII.iI.S. inC'f[:~ive. Fi.reEigilmers w~ro:: fuF«~ lij'h~I~~ror ~tics.,

OIl:rl:1i nfliMllli!lIDn; AI!JmimJrn powder '!h'3i5, ~~rolrl;:d IIU'ld!:r Fue S~r\'tee L.11,'L.'r. iJ3.'u1' Scrap. aIUillll'Ji:lm rus[:'Ila.r_§l:d ih:an rrnrllm~ ~DCe'l5 ...... '35 not IXIIlI[fot!d

~ Numl::m 2. m

12 June J 99o!},N i:lg.ab ciq" YSmEI!SEili9. 'pi'.k1Jg'<~

SiL'U.mon l)e'rorc the: flll"~; Scmp alumimnn 'i/HiS S'~ ~Il It fac[cr,Y of a w;:SS~~rctJICI illg ICQm~y • .L\ 'INQIj.k.c;r was ICI~:d il'l,t"i 8(:r~j!' ilIhQn~l L1~ 0Iii iii Cl"1Itk:, BRtt~ry Df ~~I!" 11i.Iei; Vii'ilS igni~~ dUI? ~.(J. sl1ort·dl"ClJiL ~re :5Ill"IES!!!d ~() lI1o:am,~ scrs!l alemleum,

IExmrt and duration rn:lli'l'c: ,[}uriFlg. fl~~~ l.mg iK1l1'ili'Y ,c«pl'oome.;'lS ;[i¢;'tjR·~. !F'art: sPl'~ ~o ~b:u~hble 'm~i;fll~ (Sl:riip aluminum, scrap [l!'8J!'Gr, ~ap ~j~ li~p i:8f15., Etc.) SW-etj in I01n=- hui,ldings; of ~h~ w~me·r(\.,"}elil\l8 wmlW1lY Mill [JUIi1J;].' r~diffi![ial bClIhm, r! ~ook. IDur aad ~If ~O!ll$, One: fi~llfiglroor ~ ~!:l rnjlJr).!. T~:ycnty-;j~ [p(:OI}Je incllJding (\'oil) fi~"slr~.s ~iJl. mmOF injwy.

SI',j]t~ ,cmpliJf'~d: FU'i:: in the fu:cr~y sp;r~ 1m pre:ssed scrap .rif!r~ s~~tI outside tile f~t.Q1lJ, fin!: ctri~f mt'i'l[~fll!i ~h c ~IU: and 1;.(l1iI:;~cd i; as oormcalb ui Idill.!j. til1li!, Firdigh.~"5 appii cd Wl!leF.

:2

TM:.e::;,hi :s UZUK I tIlr'ld YO!:ihi 0 OGAWA

NMiOf.liil Reseaf.\Ch Im~M iU!l~~ o{f'~r~ end] Di!laR[et

J~ ]4-1 'Nil[rnhi:!im~chi}. MjUlka·stii;T okyo '1 81-8633, Jap:ail

Lijing·GAO

F,llClI1t.y '!;if Ri$k. :md Cris~s. Mat1.tlI~:ernc]JI, Chib,a. Jmtitme of Se.~ J Shlomi-chc, Ch~;"_5hi. Cmoo 282~OOS, Japan

ABSRACl"

fin:: ~t~ sl!Imm3rizl!: and! plJbI~jj lI'epoi'tS ohh.o::ir ~ tl~ in JI)l!lnolli rctatro willl fi~ ;'i!Mtlritl~ NlJmb:J Qhf:~ 1J{f1~ r~I!Jj~' wiilb Vr'asil.O ~;I1!:: 3J;u. t=;n ir:u::maslns. a:J!I.e1 1990. Those r4l]Xira :ij',e eolJ~:ed and an illys:.tI. ChBJ'acl:Gim~g ef :fii'~:l i',el~br;d ",illh ...,.;ask; pr~sL~ iJ1]_d 11:S5CiJ!5 learnt are ~~'ib

KEYWORDS;",,' ili5iIc;. £irtl:·fi~bCiin.g, r£i::"YCf.e, eli.lmp

[l\'lT:RODUCTJON

Summ3J'iegl) "m:aJor i''ir1;;5. ;in:: re'ported, !loy lf1j'l~IiI!:s.c ~hefil!l~s if:! jOlJi11~S. related widl full! flu !IlCllitii:::!i. Afti!.f [990 numbH 00 ""pOrm-l': of r.~s ;l"clil1ed ~illh p'~i It; md rc:::ycllng of ...... iI~te has i[lcn:;ascd. Th~ !fq:IIJJt!!' are ¢.()U«td iUld :m.aJ)'Scd to &~,t if:l!b!'matioo on fire' ';::~F!\¢LI::~~C5 2Illdl iltrMJI!i'lrifig ~ti: ... jEy. Cmr.::um~l~ 'Of ~~$hli lY:i'ili ra:J;yr;lm~ of W,B.stc ~1l1!rmri mllY be ,djf:K:nIH uom tli.asa::: in o1ih~J c.oUl'.itrie:o: .. J·ka~. [t is I~ojrod ~atlil~~ Illis.Jysis ina~' be ~~. ~o fiJI:! pr~¥i::r.sti~ In tIlCl.::r eountries,

M~ ~pL'l!li[I[i1li!i, B.Cciul1Its" arid [:nJl;irie':!i {oJ' d~91h!5.} (if labooi ~~ been iirw£'stiga1!!4 ~ vnrieus HS~:DIClj~S ~-d oOfg;!:i"llwil)1~_ W1.l,k.1!k~.jJ analysed r~t1Ei::g, I)~;fj 'ljll~tial).BiI.irC' .5:.EJI1l (l \\!.;l;5Cr:, pl'oocs~jn,g pl3J1ts &;, m!illi[Ci~a:l wa~C:i <lslil1g f[G' .informatiolll of aOi;:~~~I'IU m 'It~ir pla!l~ ~L~1l 1996-19"00 [I]. lEW ~~ l!h,.own ~ba:~ !IIumb~r' 'of ~h;:lmcli 'i!(a::l Jr.II::T~ns: wi1n yt'!ilr and tbat :ra~:s 'CIf ~idc:n.~ m W3.:3[e pr~:!iiJIIg i1Ld~lJ)' 'Wa5: miuc:!i hligJJ~r Il:ham tbll1 h~ m<mllf.acrurlcg il'.lI;h.lsll'l~. Nifgku ~rt'fd on ~f ~1lFJo~i(m in .rlM:yeli!'l8 j:lr~s Dfclci:".ri~1 i!lJ),~Qm;~ [2]. ~n. leO] oil liI:w !:Iloourll@n~ to lI'~:rde clr:ttri.;.uta .P.plifm.t~ clise.arded! farm h.cta!':B!to.f:4 and offioe wag .et'lael~ s.cm~ of d~!O(3I'd~rl di::e'ft'l.r:aI !11Jl'!li!D~a::5 are iZflJ::li:aI!d. i!I!f!d gf'{Il.uulJ fDcr r~el~rt8. Dl.!I'ing these pr(.'Cf:~ i;i;iJDtru:;.Iili3c dll::lli: mL~I,;If~ may be f{)rm~ SQf.I;!:! ~!)mom;tiblc ,gafl CO!t,~inC!d. in ~ooliCflI ~ppliilELe<=~ mllly ~ eHII.~ed or combustible dl,lS'! mul" bc forme,d. Stlll:i.:SJiLCz3, 011 d~:i1 ~pt;OOioo, 1t'1;l1I.1~i1!loo and tcrtj~8 {I rd ~1 c:.;p!osioo oCltI~etel~s, WId preveerion ff!£tl~~. re shown. Oshim& SlllfiUlllWcI!l stJ.s.£%V ~ILiI !i!;;!11;i(i fur 1ii~'E'fi8h~,!l.~ in 'liiti1:e pl!'~sirlg pl:ln~:i afThk:yc fi.rB ~rtmCl]' [l]. ('~ :$IlIdr es iJf:Eir~c5 1I'i::lated mill 'W<lEtc: p.ri:lCe.s.gil'ls, eireumstaaees k!n w3$l~ pi'!X!C&s[ng plant, oolll'lbl1mor;J a;;nllIllcLeri!rtiC5: ot":W-il:;t~ llliffbcllltle:s v.!llclt ~r:: m~Lm['~r.er:l in fIr~ rc11iWl. wkl1 was [£! I"f~ing, I liIr.:tics.. illcidB!.r 0!J:in rniDI'll' :zyst:{iJt'j, ~ ~;YJ1Jl']~ 1:If!l ro.-p.1 all.S; fa;. r ~.~ :pr~tiJI'!s. J!'1;m1~ '~r~ snm'iri. DHrr~l~ics r:JKiru111.:rm ill ~"e~ I)f "'!""d~I-c pTooss~lns plrult:s andl eornibuS1I(1n <':h:i!r.K~~is[ics; i:of .... ~a:: are 511 J::II.Ifr.I ill Tablt.$ ~ ;.'!in!! 2. r~pcmEi:vcl)' • .F'iff! ~g: Di:i~cr M'f!ril~g:r;mawrt A;gc:n.cy s~mm;l,;I'irla:d maoo.~ for fi~ re'JBlifrl !,i;'ldil "'i'lSte IiJr~'Silll!: [4J,. ~lt of ~pJotiCJ.l1 ~ Jirc: in indoor and ~~dooti waste ~~n§ phU1[S" ffi1ll;! JlIi:: \o'enu 00, sa tE1 y rn.~~ y rr;ri [I firefi;gn t ii'i';' ~isci G& in f1rero r WlIs1e prooess:lli\fj, p ~ ts, la~ and e ,g1lil8t1 IlIi 9. Ii'!:!Lat~ wi.'1fi 'IlIo"3.S1It p.l'I;):Cl!:lsi I~. mlill ooSDin,~ I'~?...ard':l DH fin! .Afetr 'lJ!:f 'WasM P.1OC~~iI'lg ]l'hu:rt~.fi. rl!i s~. lit O~\\I:1I'5 review paper [~], ease ~yai~ (If firu reh l~ wi1t1 waste :rr~~jllg,. risk c;&1.J~.ed by ~ie sro:r~, omJ<Ii rl:St or fiI'C and ~plQ5,iDf! dunn!!; 'Waste: ~ing 'ilf't: sholrnin. ~WLl mO'W!:m drff1~LI[lit!:Sj 11 iIi,gh1mg of flIes r·I!!:att!d vrilil ~!iIl:: p:r~sssiili8: I')fudiig.~tirls. ~di!(lty B~o£$ n11jj'a:J dmTIB1ldi~ if I/Iiij'!~b!:; are .stadr~ l1igh,

1.

I 14] Thompson PAl Mn'rch,aJd 'E·W. Coml)u.tbr and, fluid modelling of evacuaeien, Safety Science, :18: 21j.~2&9, (1995~

115] Paulsen, T e~ ,a./, Evaluation ,of sirm,ulat~QJl models of evacuation from complex ~aoes- SINTEF R_,rpcm S1""£15 .A.95020. (1995) (ISBN' 8.2.595~8:S83"':9).

[16] .Jol:imOtlJ NR. Fcillberg WE. The in~p:a"Cit of ¢l: it ~fI.leliij)n~ and, number of e!odt :tll'J. fire emergerncy: ,8, computer .si[J1lJi~atiom iW'lfestigarboIl;. Journal of :Envjronmefifa] P5'J'lFBf}fogj",. l7(2):, 123~ 133.. (1991)

(1'7]. Jtelb']n,g D. A Fluid :Dymamic :mooel fm the' movement of pedestrians, arx.iv:cond,-ma@g052l3. (] 998)

[18:] Batty M, Jiang :B.! Therstain-Gecdwin M;, Local 'mOV\ement: agent-based models Q,f pedestrian flow" WQI]l::Jng' Paper 4,. Centre ioc Adv8il~oo SP'4tia1 !wal~s:.. limrv.ors:ity Collegc' LondO:I1I. U:998)~

[] 9J Sdl1 Ole Crowd dynamics. Fib]) 1liesl,t, MJartlheIDatics De]:)~oot; W~,(k Um'l'etsety. (2000)

[20] Le s..M, and Fomg Z, A Spatial-grid Evam:lail:io~. Model fbr BnitdElTigS, JouriJl.lil Lif Fire SC&e;)1)ce 1 S (5)~ 376-394" (2000)

[:21] Helbin~i(Di 'F~ I~ Mid Vi~Jfk, T. Simulating; o)'FImnf~,.,l fm~s of ,t=3.r~~' PMUC" Natu:u:" 40j':' 4:B1=49n. (2000).

[22] tow DI; Statistical physks: Fij)'U~,ng the ~d. N~ru.re. 4'0"7': 465466 (2000}. [23] Roibb<ins CR_,. Mec'kee S.~ Siinu1ating the' evaeuation of conancrcial 3iKrJ.]D.~. 'The Aewnaut~ Joumal, 6: 32j.~328~ (2001)

[2:4] Gal~a. ER Simulation Bva'CU3h(lo1iiand dre1i!aJt!o~ ir:L ~'I~M~ trai[is, 'blgi Idgng W shi,p' using t:be EXODUS sOiftwa:r~ Pedestrian gel EV&'lJati,OO] D~cs~ (2001) [2.5.] Lei SM, FMtg z, Chen D!-[ Tlle Use of M,odiJi,e:o Network: Model ,fill ,Analyzin,g Eva-ou.a!1mi P~~ems in High=-Rls~ ~h .. lihi~. ASCE J eumal of .A.rcititec:runl :EnginCl!:rID:g, 7(2}:. ,~tl m29'~, (lDCH)_

~16] Fan,g' Z~ to S~ Lu lfA. On the ,r,elarionshhl of ,crowd density and molJi\,~ Ye'~ocity. Fme! Saf~ly Journal, 3$~ 271-283 (200"3).

[.271 Neloon, ~.E. and, Macl~~ MA., (1995). Eme:rgency movement, T,ne SFPE IiandbooOk ,of Fire Fto~c.:tiQD. Engineering 2nd Bd., NFP ~ Qu~ncy; M~., 3-2.86- - 3-29S.

15

found wt rtbe flow rate, in high density shu~timm, woul-d reduce by ;;rp,proximatel,), 0.7

REFERENCES

r l] Oldu 8J.. Pedestri~s~ Department (If Scientific. and Industria] Res~eh Labm.aro.ry, LN' 2. 1 SfS JO., COO"Mh'Ome EugJ_~d (19M}

[2] Predi.e.f:brnsJrii VM', MiJi.fJ$ld AI. P'larming .fQ.[ foot traffic flow it] bW]dillg~ S.troii2:dat PubJishen;, MoS(ow. (1.969)

[3] Ihmderoon.L..,. The. Slatistlcs of Crowd Flujds, Nature. 2:29', 381 (191]).

[4J Fm~rJ Ji. PQch::.str1an planning md design, MdrapoUtM Assodwofl. of Urban Desigaers and Eilviro.nmen:tal PJanners~ New Yark. (~97l)

[5] Kenrlik E. ~~:elmtt'llarti(jn ;of the evacuation time .pe:rtmenl to the projected area factor ill the event. of total evac'Uation of bigh-riS't:, office buildings via ,st·~s~. Fire Safety Journa], 5(3/4): '112-212, (1983)

[6} Iiantin BD, Wright RA. PMStmgef (tow in slIlJ)ways. Oper,a[ion a], R.esearth Qumter.ly_ 9(2): 8]-.8'8, (198.5)

[7J Pauls J_ C.ailcll!laeioon evacuation, time for tall bm.fdings. fire Safety IC)umal 12.~ 2l3-236~ (1937)

(8] A.ndo K., Ota H and Oki r .. fOTec:aiting Ute fiQW of peopfe {in Japanese), Ftailway Research Review .. 45(8): 8-~4~ (19gS)

[9] EbiihMa, M-~ OhlSuJci~ A..; Iwaki, H. A. mode] for shl1u~~tin.g human beM¥ior during eme~i:y evaclUa'!ion 'based! on c:bssrncatory reamning and certainty 1;'alm:' nandlling.. Mmcrooomputer Civil E:ilg::ineering. 't: 63.71:i (1 ~2)

(10) Still OK,New eomputee s.ys;tem can p:r,edit::t haman bebfl,violH response to t~~iMing, rues." ,fire. 84: 40-41 (1.993)

[1 I] ElIio~t, :0, Smith, D. FootbaU stadia disasters ill! rite United Kingdom: learning from. tragedy? lDdustriud and Environmental Crisis QI!I.arterly "1'(3): 2;05-219, (1993)

[12} Galea ER, GaJp«F'3Dro' J!MP, 'g;{ODUS - An Evaeuarion Model for Mass 'Iraasport Vebklesc. Fire Safdy Journal. 22: 341-366. (1994)

[1.3] Smhb AA,. Density, Velocity and flo:w t'eI~tiQII5Jlips for eiosely packed crowds.

SMt:ty Science. 18: 321-327, (1995)

14

(9)

J _.

e ~ I •

r-~--~ •. ~ .•• &.' ~ __ ~'+~. ~~.~~ __ -.~~~~.r.~-.~

~, Wi- .- .. -..

;;.. iIl4i·

~t2 O~----~~-----;-------+~----~----~ (I

1

f±!8.. V.eJoouLy RBill.1CJ ('jf.:;:T"O ...... ~. flow QD a Cli~-d ~ .ag~inS't t!Jil( on a leirel surface

1.3

~
E
.......
c,.
-5
.B
0-
e-
1'; e.a
0
~
'13
~ :1
0
-G"
r:-=:
:i
~ f
I[) 2.

-4

~rl8Ji"i f1131~~ ilL ~me~ ~1I!i1l,!:!iI

Fig 7. Stressed C~ flow veft)i(:&fii~s (Com~red v.'iiJJ he.dtecheiiiS~ aad Mi~jl'ls1d~s)

1:'&I\it::WilIlOngdolrnmt!lim;1!IJId51ln 1:i!TI~!ilru~ioo ~ ._ ._ .. _ lhaAdlHtr.;; W!!I~li:lu 3 ~FtI.:~,pD:t! • ..ny un;4rtf Itl~D :r&:M: WiIlki:nB.. UII il ""I wrf~ cr4r nilmllll ~IiIIllCin __ --+ - - ~ ihc .~1IJba:Js.: W kiliJl ~~ 'und'D iilP.;. Nm

12

(1)

{] ~ 3 .:I 5:

~'dI~ttr IinJl9IOO~~

fir5. crowd fiO'w' veloclties on stressed slttuvtions (~ed 'Wirifu. ,A:mlo ~t aV:s)

- ='~ ~ ~ - -, Andt; c:!i.:l: WlIfi;llle: ~

-----. AI!d'oc:!i<l1; [il!:'ITIlB'l ~uMJ~n.

Ando, et al.: '1,!e~Cal,y under 1It'l::i rm a I s L11l!<1 ti 0J!j

P.red,~eot 11 C'tJ1d Miflrusk;i~

¥Q'loGity llll.dc:~

II!mmtd :o;.i'b:l;arioo

O~------~~~~~~--------r-------~--------~

(!o

1 ;:!: 3 -4

(lr:tJwd! ,nil'l!j,l,i ~i;t:y i'll p~rnH:lS pilr."lfctdtt ~~~

F:ng5. Crowd How Ve~o.dties On 8 level surface

5

On th~ other band, wneIrl. crowd dei:lSity is low (Jess, than 1.5 ]JeT.ID.nJ nr).

polynomial oqlJlaition of p on the field da(~ !he results are shown in Figures 6 and '1

(3)

(4)

where. Pi? = 1 .. 49 ~ OJ 6D'

iL.... ,f'j Oi!¥tfll 1i -.0 0008 ,~ I'"i "1"'F4 ~ .fIJ 1 J::'.'11""i i i1t '64'7'~ '1 .... ·1~.t: ... i! = ""'"'tJ!.' vvu P + '1,)1 •.. - P - !I,kv ~. P +- 'V. .:J"'fI.¥'p _, '!..!'. up + c'f jlJ

result is qUIite similar to {be result of: .boo· e~ :ail [S]. Pwthe.nnoT¢",. whim crowd l1l1.ensrt.y 'is, high ~'eaEer 'mhan 4 p'e~~sI'nrj~ ~il 'resuJ!l;z; are :ttd;ghly similar _ It illustrates the. f~

'.

m,.·--------4---------r--------4---------r------~

Cro'Wd a~ty in perseus :pi:!' fIl'Ll!t,1!1 Sct~ Fig 4.COlltpari$O'D of Dow coeffidetl't

(1)

v = 112D~ -3~OD3 +4l4D~ ·_·217 D +57

(2)

of Ioeal space area Assuming the mean area (I,f bPri:w mJ projectioo of an adult in mild-se-ason dress is O. 113m2, then the crowd flow velocity On horizontal path UJidcr

1 3 Ji S s t :fl 'i:!' ]'1) I'~ 12 ~ 1 i.4 i~ tEi

'J'imi; I ~~( in 'mil! u,::c:;:l} tki!J:j11 :!j~, illi Il: 1'00

Fig3,Crowd flow in and ~Ut: of the e:;.dt of'the ORE Bmiding in Nmfueastem Uniiven:dlty

'Fj~4.

Andro e~ at [8]' M.dl S:m1t1n. [1..3] found thait: cr-owd &w rate at ~e deE!!sity Qf 4 IPflS!msfrrl wasabotn 1.65p/m·s. Our results come. c]~ to their findings as. snOW'J;l ill

J.2 Fie~d1 Study 2 - in a bul~diDg

Figure 2 sllo\VJl the first fJ(jo[lli layout plan of the ORE Ib uil dins It i s ~ lrUJild.rn_g of about 4,445m2 floor areas and. is, a 4-:n.orlcy' high f:ntilding for academic purpcse in th€: Northe.a.stern Uniy.~i"ty .. It is an IAlh..apcd 'buiMiag with corridors of 1 r.~mOmm. wide. Th.ert: are 72 classrooms of di.ff'enrnt sizes in total and it can accommodate appm,xim:atc:ly 3,(01) students ,2I;t the same time. Nonnall'y, all the 72 classrooms are .fully occupisd from 0&:00 to 12:00. All thE' classes will slso finish arti. more or less 'the is&m.c time, ie. 12': 00 mOOD! for lunch, Thus, it provides a very ,!Soad spot for rtudyim~' crowd flow pat1te:t':ns under tem.p.ru'aJ and spatial :s.lressCi!l.

1""\0 video reco rders were arrenged at the ~ts marked at Figure 2. No.1 R,eoo.rder w~ 'used '[0 record the tlow rnov:iDg from the cI~oms to the exit, while No.2 recorder was used to record th'6 out flow from &~ build.ill1g~ s ex it,

l.3, Crowd Flol'+" Rate a:1 Bum d~ng Egras DJlillder Time StlFess

The daUi. were eolleeted in one week in tftBe middle ,of thr; s;pring ;S€mes~'er., :P.L~ 3 ~fiows IDe aveng<:' crowd flow r.ate at the CJ(,it of'the ORE A,e:ademic 'Ehrildh~g at 1.1:00 when. students rushed out for hmch,

-[--'-------------1

i :: } _~;"tl I

Staffl ~'tud~1J1l: ,Apmm!2~:

Dia ilrild:

L _ _j

Offil!1:' .ElIihHng. {;:iI!l!U,~ wldcliJ em hold I illIOO :staff in ,~OIJ rnJ 'tlO!W

:ilE'C:9!

r'-'G~Jt~i~"-"""'''-~

~ i

I .. ,.u ••••• ~ •••••• _ ••••••• _, .••.. j

Ai::'iitl'eni~ ,iBui[dlng D.i~1;1'., ..... :)Jiei!. can hoDSdJ !(I,oo:i p~~~ in iIW~I)' 2-0,000 m.l of fll!4i'i1I;i!!!!

F~g W. :PedesWj:Ul flO'w' ~:Ilrtt~!f,l] Qb.sen'i!Ol m front Il}'€ th'li:' ,N(jif.'\lh'f:a~~~m UililwerslJty Ln:rr~ry ,~~: 11:,195

3.. Field surveys

The field SUTYCj'5 were conducted in Sbenyang. a Marjor city with 6 million populations in ·rhe: north-eastern put of ChJ:rlain 2000- The S-l!Irvey,s were (;On(f~olcd in the academic bll'ilLdin,gs of' n~e' Nol'1h~tem Umvel1iitjr~ ShettJa&ig. Tbc data were mainly a~u~Kd "by video rncmdln~ manual timh".g, etc- Crowd. flow p~ and rates under d:iff.~ conditions \w~r'e' observed Md <iILtl~~d_

,3.1 FiJeld StQdy 1 ._ open field

In :fietd. SlWiy ] ~ six ob~3bo'J1 SPQt&~ iLmmh~ed. :mrom (1-1) to (6-6) as shewn ialt Figure 1, wae S€lectoo to' recordthe crowd. flow patlenls .at diffurent: tim-e periods by video reoording. Video im!'i.ges; !frum which the dynarulc crowd density and flow l.:i:IEe between observation spots were reeorded~ TIle: w~king speed 'was thail detennaied with respect to ·the dynanllt: crowd den~ty, ~llteJ:-per$Q:d distance, P8lth, iOOOlcli'tloos, etc, Figure 1 also il1ust:rates me divCJrg:i:Dg flow pattern. M':oUfld 12: 05 noon, The spot is 'the ~sagewa~ ~'1Jnm,g' the library; which is one crt the m:ain passagea for students md leaching staffs to and. ITOfll the :academic buildings, The passageways fGml a cross vtidl S,:SOOmm Ind. l 0 500mm wide corridors. T\YO time periods, vi.! 11.:55-·]2:]0 m:.d 13:45~14:00 are studied] as students were mshiDg o<ut fmm the ~adf:mic 'l}uildin,gs to the canteen aiiid !ncD rushing bade to the elsssroorc, respec.riveDy_

Crowd flows", in ~cllllar unif:![" eme:rgr::ney situ.aitioO~s, ha:~ ::~ti;n~ct.;d, considerable .at1.'erltion, for many Y'e~n ('! --261- 'Wifu the: ad'vancement M c~mpl,!tl:f tl:chnologyj ltIittil)' computer models, which can simu.l3ite ~ ma.-ve:ri1CQt ofp!Wi)le. in, Large C.(!mph:x bl,,!.]ldi~s~ have been develcped, Many Qf them c-an s.Lmul:a1le the mO'¥t:m!:m: 'of each muivi.duilia ~nd CaD prolifDd:e vallJ.il!le: 'itJiro:rmat1.on rOt the O<Ll:L!din:S ,de:sigI'l,eTS to desjgm the I;;j~l:a.tioo paths and I:xit5: g£' ,iii b.liJding" Thjl:' How of the people is :lltWdt'l~d by now- "doclty fun:ct.t0fi8 w9itb ~ ICStB.bJiBhed! Il)n the baE:L.s. Clf ~~TJ,abk; field ooomratioflf!l da.:1~L

Pr.eviou.$ b1Vestilgati~ en crowd flow pmtE:ms are maril]]y OCH]rluc~dI by drH~~ u]lder normal starus or. pede:mi~ flow" It is unlikely that one Cit_~ observe cloadY'ille flow of evacuees in real fire cases. Cro"tXtd fll1Ji';.\' study is pmticu.tady "mpor ;ant ,in ChmiJ, in the ugtt of llic' d~t;; population hi 'IHi!Il..V cities of China, However, [his to.pic has, rarely been (leah with ill tbe Mainland, 'T.rus, article aims at :pressrd:i.E~ an investigation tD e.staMisb the flow velocilY 'pa.ttern fur crowd movement at: leve~ surfsee wru<:b. can be .adapted fo.r escape pred:icholJ.

2., PreyIDous wnrks

A n:nmibe:r 0:( f!ese.a.rclD¢I:$1Javc 'C.a:IDOO studies il):tJi crowd flow and ~ilIIIJined the influence of population density and the dimemiall5 of the enclosure up-(m. the :rr:atlt of mQ"'!Irn:lcn~ {~f-.CV.a.¢!Ji;it5, Much ofth.e technical details; w1iICcming fue contributions, of f".r.edtecnert8k:ii and Mllins-lri~ [2], Fnan [4), Amio ,fIt iii rSJJ .wid Pauls [7J are incorporated into the work of Nelson snd Macl.ennaa [2:r1" In a~o.tdw:mc< wi~h field. surveys, i:tt 'bas. long been e.staO}]$be<) tmJt highElr crowd density, wruch leads to interaction between individtsals, will reduce Individual walking ~eeds • .Empirical equatia]l$ have been established an{] they have widely been used to model lli{: flow r.atrre 0" undiv1dual:;: in various ev~(atation models" A. study of crowd Row in China may prm·ide valuable inform a,tion for judginS lim viab:iility of the eV:201,1atiQn modd5,

A study on 'the crowd movement fo. - escape predlctten

I

r -

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REFERENCES

I BI'\.J!li!~;!1oi, A. ['I %:$]. F I~ Com mand, :Naliol",fnal ~irl! ~L'(IU:~tioi}'Jl, ~elaiiC!l'1, Q~ili.il::Y, M_A_ ~ Eyre:, P. [i~,n The; BI,j:'ln~~ ofa Fkerrll1D, UD'lIHlX, ,E.T.s&tn~, London.

'~TII!!; ,PH'ill1C"iple:s ofGlJod iITIL!J]D.g(:]'11(:.nt. Blillsll S~Dn.d!lll'd :!GaO~ 195'6, A Qliid~ ~D 1f.J~' ,llJbcgrllhoo G:f Oxlij)(ll:io:1al H~11h and S!W;:~:r Marl~l;rJ! wWlli~ an ~;~rl l\.1imil.g¢m~~ S:P's1~. B:ri'1iUl St.M1d~~ J1UiL;M~', Mil~1j[j K;~.:rr~:!i,

~ 'Wl'!'lb. Pi, [[¥.ii]. tlJ..; S;;!~ r~r:;~i1 Cl)n~~~, i>-...l!f [-hr~f()ffi~T t.l;i~!:~ N\lmb~ DWL 1/199?';. Pi:r.c ~r>'K:e [rn;~I(lnll~ I1-rl1m~. omOl;!.

~ E:l!:rOp~&Ii'I 'UthlC!1lL !5iWOO.Q. DlriXii::J ... e, S;!:~ E fl4D.p~i;I iiJ 19S1 and ,SB\!~ U ;~t;.p'Iecl m ~~ DirMiiv.t it;~:aw.l; by tJle El1rDp~ iJ:R:iall to OOJ1iIrol EII."!Ij.oo ~ar.d!' IIl'Jd irn.]lol'CIIM: snd IIlS~ pl~iil1~m~ lIll-"l C"J<Cfl:i5'il'1~. Nllme fiJ~IGWS .sc ... cso in. 'jNor=lH:m 1tail:r- '!.I!b~Fe an ~i&Elta[ d~o:d11l1'(;1~t:lc: if! 1'.g<j6 I~ 10 ""'id~R~d ~1l..,.irulIltl~t::!Il e9ri£l~mina~i'(ml.

60 treaflh! &fit:! :Sall!~ E¥£Clltl:li(:. L~ 911] SoE:¥~ Th.$ Esca.~:II~: M TfI;':~ SI,Jb.Sta.ll¢.e~ .~~ ~he. !CMESA ESlahm::ibmwt DJIi ~() 11i1:;- ] 976 mild '1iI:e C0ns~i;j~m: fffiol:l iXilfrl D:ang.!;'[' to ,Hc';!]rJii arid !hi:; ,Envtror.ill:l£i':it ,;j1Kl ~o Jru:llJsllritll .Ac1.j"'i1'y, E:ng!i:>1i ~~m:bliilm Js 'Ib~ H;::olt~ rutd S3ifil:ty E~I:c~~i¥~ Df~h~ Dfjkial, retJDrt grli~ P!!Ii i~~r"~;.- 'COi'r1Ift'J~flj"I 9f [[1'Iil[!~i~, bf p~rmii!;~iorl tlfln~ PMUr.mI~]l,'t IJfthe li!L~p!Jb]tt of 1~ly, 1$ (), I- 0 i!tOOl1 ..

I F'~I)I, H_ [I '!M9], GfftlEl'lJl t1J1if JnBM!lll'Jal Mai':l~~r.tii!v.l~ Pi~.!liI;!jj, LOIll~i1f,1,

'tT:.iylar. F,W.ll91 ~]. Th~',fJl""iro;-ipt.i;j QjSeJ2'f1'tft.~ M.:1t1~II'M'.m, H:upr:r and RaW,lfli:ii!11).11 ~ Ul .... ;j~ l. 'I ~::!:Ij;l, 11!1:! tlem~~ of jfp.m~JIN;lrmwn. P1tm~liI; London,

I~ Atillir. J, n 9'11 '~, Tr3:!fj;ili"lsf(tr l>«i.rif)~>s, M@eDOIi1!Jd\. L,(lIlIDDrl.

II !;.d&ii'", 1 [_i 9;!)], ,E;ff~[I1<'e Uad'i'nhlp,Pai!l, L:mc!OI1,

l:l iP'ri(lr, P. [19:;~], l,~Np h n.fJi a B-D'<Ykr Hen. !)i:i. ... Ll:I' Clwrl~, 'N'ei'l'[(ii.fi Abb(lt, I) Hlinb;rc. f. Mj:!~(!~, ][!i, Arid S}'rn\3~rmllll, B. ~ 1960~, 'JIie Moottl--1:JM.fIn II) W.:.wk, JOhril W,~,y, Cll.i~e:m:l'",

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It M~rrtzb~re:; H, [~5'73), ITre NelMfe o;.H'ill1agftr-/.:ll W.;.1.rk., H~i'8r..d! ~iN, LWld.I!y;jII' S~wi'!J'll, i!l- (1 SIlO]. MfI:~gil:~~ 'QM 7ki~' J'OO'5. Macm.DIJ2I1, LmJdQI':!

'~Th{lm ~.,. ,iU, •.. [I '~l] SEra,~].!;:: '''4(.1''''~iWt'1I1 A'lFanlM£f and C'ltIMge. CllapmiK1 aOOl Hall. ,r_Q[j~, 1- ,RI.ulJe~. F_E.. [i%i], A ThNY} a!4u(t,;tf!l};ip ~rwm~:;s" MGGr.ifw-HiJI~ 'Lorudon

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~. DI"'!.!;;:].:Y:I', F. F. ['! 9-87], i~ {',.-OI1II(rf"$. if MlfMag,em~l'i1. Willi am Hd~nliI11Ii1, l.i~.i}~_

~ M l!.iOO A~iami'l; Ai!:MiW101'i :Qu..:u'Itv S4rllJcrdtiA 3lep-by,S'l£p A.[f{J1~ire1f G~hJe' 100 .liS' ii 7.5Ofl1SQ 90011" {loOOiJ.oJ1, Pltmlll1. The [1l:ru~!!Iki Illif ~.I!rr.er.!'" I. ml &. D, Hutchias, ,Act8I::V~ To~J Quaht)' g:~~'7i H~m_(!J~" D~~~rn Book. filZ!JoiiI1~m .Pl!Jbli~I~ll'1g [,td., 1992~:

t3i1~~ $!;)l'Idllrtl~ .Ii11!':[I[lItl(l[1.ll9'9] J, QM.:rfrJy MCJUrgEltff!tft and Ql-ialrzy .4,i:u.:r,~f.I~ .stc:!(t;krr,~ ,~oilf~ 2.

BS~;~o., G'eJte,l'k GJ:lliM~~;j jar App/lc.t:JH(m ;ff {$,O 9rJ~J, lSO 9IJfJ2 .:rmf ISO ~D01. 'U'SO. Lood.an.

~ 8riti41 S:tal'l!1i:ird:; Jn~titL!Mi)n" [l991J, QtlafJ.y Syit~J:!u FiJd 8. C~frk 1,0;; ~{l!iJy M{:m~nn'1nl.(]nd ~ii)~ji'y Sft.(~rr;l t~ffl.~.llt3JO""&n;'ic~li, :88.515'11. EN ~2! m 9:;;.3. rso 9004~2: ~ 991, TW, iLoolkli1.

• Ba::le, Ill., arid A,'iJ(liIG, 8. [i 994!]~ Jmpr(Jl}j~ O!'gwiM/lIDMI. ~fj'w!m'~!1 ihi-t"JU$:h fh;im-

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,n "Tw nr41 ",Pd ~~.j(f! Sgr11~b!li Act }OO4 ,~OO T.l\i! Rt$ukn()o'""fr' RlJ.fon~ O'r"okr 2005. TSO" London,

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rebohcs, \vhkh ~u:ire COIi:iS (jereMy '~urItJe~ ~IQPme:F!:t ~f lllie-y are to bIB 2vailab!e at reasonable cost and LtSefu!le$S.~ Ukev.;~ tile v()lome of data and jJ'1'te'raOliO'n bet.v~®n id(ln1ifii2d databases ls atso. manaQe'~iblll!l. in a user-friendly fmrnat, using fh'Mistf:ng] IT operaling sYSOOff!s, al1d Mlftweife. Pi. oollSid.e r:lihie number of e'leE:!ronle; dal:a'tJ.ases eoot:ll as 00 dala man.agi!ment s,ystems.

'Ttle. FR 8 U"SE;I or da!a is, ooli'lJKlunded by th{!; re<;;:II1 ~me need 'WI' respeilf\iiive action to rna1eh tf:te dYfl:a'fflie naU.lre of alfi inooent. Al1d;as ,il:n anoidenrl progr~$, so Ilia:ny nBYI factors !!nay bee.ame r,i!!;le~i'i!t, St!d"i as tile. ree,as.e cf ma.terials fnio. an a[rb;ofne pllllr.rJe1 n.rpru re of :tI oo.:nulil1lmtent 'va see I cr~alillQ an ellYironmental hamrd" CDlla~ of btlild~ng5 9J'iin~ rise to neN OlJmplax ,8 ~d l,.mi~Gble :s~mc:ture$ and heat effecting one ,~'cal change of p. ·odud.s GT rnsterials.

Features stlcl1 as, geWll~ty and resilef!i!S are impnrtant, as fcS tne' al)ilJty of the data to ,expand aoo eldeild yet remain man.cageabte. and sear,cnabrB. eommefcrs~ and propriety dale seurcee :a15o ccntnuelc grow tn 'flexibJy and scale maki'n~ It'lterf~ce to trei~ operating :SY5'tems, some wtlidl 'include 9ri1phlcal interlaces, pcssibla.

Since the FRS response must retain mClbitity 5.0 must any data storage and retneval 5!JPP.Ort s,Y$lem. Inre.rllJ:pfi[Jre and low ,speed c~mmuni~tion h9sr-el"$ :require resofutioli'i, perhaps usin!;g Ib;J''Oadband te:chnd~9feE;, to ;!illcflleve hrgJt .. ~peOO seOlJlle data tra nsfef' betwe~1'li o8:mrai da~abar'ik.5 and mobile un its_ lite (:l;.!rFeflt gpJHD8iro ,of vellicle' rneunted data systems, [V~ADSJ. provi:d'ing :re5iliend il'll-cab dlrectty aeeessible O!~I!t!I. rOOI.lOE!S It'le* 'transfer il'is'ks b!.JI: iintrodIJ4lSIS ~mlhil~(lns 'in wide area data use.

VOMS can aim supp.ort· I[mtt.ed plume· modelfni!J ,a!l1d geOQTapfli.w informalinn system [GIS] mr.spired data [1li:l!JdiFi'i9 m:applil'g ,9irlJJ autom01Iic. 'IJ!'3I'1il:::le location systems, tAVLS] helpful ijn re:spo se managel'T'Mfilt '!i.,ehlde rou1ing and ris idenlfficaUQn, Overa II these tecfmologies reduce personal ami public Fisk by irnaea5ing' fear time kll'ow.leli:lge oper afioflal,erl'lrironmaff!:f}.

'The preceneepfon of ithe UK FRS geJl'leralired as a traditional hier:iilrmical otgat!isalf(tl'! Is lli"lcreas ingly. misplaced. ~ . is beCXIming Eilf'l emergerJq seIVi"oo iile~ng a broad specnum of o~atJol"lal demancs within a pr~~lve ami fleooibk: Ope-fl learning and enabling culture rltJal ~f! rnake I;!etter opei"atiilmaI {:iI!XliEii(ltl$ using cOl1femp:or.a'ry ma"2~ i.el te!;:tmi~l:Ies, roots afld p actloes,

~n €:tfeding Olfs transmr of :e1d1l$11'Ie FRS ,Incident Comrmllnde:r COfItim,les, to gmwas. a oophi!irticafed rnanaqer able to mow bel\veel'1 mantl,gemenl s.tyles h) find' tf1e 'best fil" decision mec:hanisrn gIven Iile· ciroJmstaFice<$ and srruation, Operaiiof'1;;1:'1/ ho~r !he pressure. renliiilns to ensure any action Oc(:!Jr5 within the shortest limiS SitaleSD"

I ntnrmafion or darn, the ,Ilorriinant deo.sioil-lIll:akilIT,g] 'f1!lctm, rfI<1uir~ use IJ' all U,e rnanipulattion 'toots :av,ail:abte either by .a:daplation CJ tllli'lllJlgh developmefl:f', FiUng '!:lie A;imaining gaPG wid"! USieJ-f"rien.d.ly, refiab3B. reSilient ~Il!j secure da~a and ~mpro.vlng! vi'SlJaljsa ti·DJII , slmliJt<atiiot'll ervJ systems, is tha oogol119 Clnal.letlge.

lJ.enn~s [Davis. CSE OE!.s~J ClF:5M ,CEng FIFiml:{Lii[B] . !'hIm C(:IMI Independelilt F1i lie A.dvRsclr

Chester. UnHedi iK'i'ngaJaJII

© Oenlfiil.;s, 1D.\a,'I,I-U:5

Mooi I.e + ':;4, [0) 781Qo4 81 ()56

17 rflhrua!'lj 2006 Pi rg:tifirecall @a0l.com

s Tel and Fl:U!: + ,44 [OJ I. 244 323] 17

iRE SER"v'lCE I\1.Al ' AGEl\1 ENT AND CO'-MA ' U OF l\tAJOR mCrUENTS

and takes aooon deemed ap~JQpfla1e based on 1het e')ijJ€'.(enc.e., whilst abo foclJsing upon two ather im;p<JJlant inA €,fi ce:s. The' Rr.;."t relates to the c:ulural way an or.~nisa1ion U5e5. d';st8l;' Ille s€OEI001 rai$leS tt"ie Importa'l1l::E! of enhancement of sitlJa~iOfl!al awarenessthro!Jgh better visu:alisatiol'lI ilJSlng ~echj'l<)I'09Y.

C..on:sequerdly 1tJis ne'ioll paifadk.Jrt ,envisages, a wiider inlEigra 'ed relalionsnfp. The Ii nks b~ the C2 :pmt:I1'I$G: d'!e u ~ of a repeoore of IPl"ilaloo! Ui$k orren'tated respooses: ltte. ava itabilty {lIf asse1:$ and ogistic-.al !Support; arm U'te (I e-alional ,a i'1 ii!l1y,sis. and ,ev,a,luation precess. all FOO'I;;!Iinc HQ'We~ greater €:mpha,si!; is. pJa,o;;d all havJlfIg h gl1er-le-vei rna a;g~nt for data and a fl'!ew oomponen.t iItlat of dynamiC simulatirl11'1. is, inlC'lliliIueed.

''"C'Oi1Slequen!lY ~l:t:lsnew

l'ar:a cJigm 'I9r.JW$.;I~8 wider integrated rel~!'looship"

Annc:ipall{tft O'F ~ developing sHtua. on comtrrled wiih actual ob:seN,articfl iltJe.reby becomes, an integra I :process and the rt8'IN lpa.radlgm iiJu5bate h01N !&))C9S$ p:(Jc(lriy p1'e$e'Fited dam [[overload] altdl ir'l!!!P'propri8:e se:flior iIlEhavbur !by remote comma nders. [plOXY ba5ed ded:rions de i'i>e.d rorn relaysd Images ilillposed on ground oommall1d;~I'S) can distort Hle' (j€dsiCli.l process and rep~esent a danger to aeh la\liliJ!9 a succeSSful op€:rational OlUh::onE'~

This pargadigm, whioh na6.. be-en tested under ope~tion:3i1 eo.ndifiof'l$. ~eCOQnjses ithal equl briurn em s oo~n data ilrteli~flce and pIlysieal f'8S;[)U'l'OeS within an Inh::!gr,a1ed oommlJl'!lfcartiof1l netv,t.o.it. It :5U'g_gEsts U'le liette.r use of res:(J\ilee~, wiJI ooeur from greater 1!.f'S8 ot d'ma:and' premclive .ana~isjs, 1'lle vafU!e and UiSs'furll..e'SS of l11e' paradl gm rEI qvlre!Zl praetieal irtcorpo.ratklfl of teCILn GI~ ftJ r reel ti me data cat"WJe and lise. CaptiI,Jrsd d~ta mig.ht 1ttrli:iirl9n C"'!3e :stlLldy synltlesis !by sector eom~a en!, e.-e-rts offer useful logic '~ree!il' for use ~n campl.lterfSed decislo'li :SUPPOtl!. 'sys:teflllS rurl:oor lfad Ij,tirig errors and Ifflpr(lvmg decisions. Exter1Sion to eemeutsr~$$.i:s!ed s.iimuJatiol"ll ma;,' .also produee safe leamin:.g €lflv.irol"lments for po:tgntial comMand! offloers !tIndl assist fn 'IIle (,ete:ntion Q~ otIfPQr§f~ FRS knowledge 0.1' catastropttle, less fii'E!qC,lelltl'y aUended or redtmin;g tyPI!!lS- of ope.ratiol1a" situ<Uf.olls.

T~l:::hJilolg.-9Y

F'ossmilitles 1;):'1& fur data m::fnagenent i1l'1pJl)1Jement Lll:i~isjng rr eS5(loiafed1 eq;uiprre.nf7 and! erthough tnis mllst be underl:akGI'lI in 51 measured way '~O ii:fyoid jeopaniisiflg eurrsnt pe-l1orm8JI'1ICtfI or Cl'peffiliormJ e:ff.edlvenesEl the FRS SJ'iOiJld meve m th is dlreetion sooner ratiiJer than later.

VisLldiIl sa:tAon. a ke)f eompenent lin operational command. could be improved qUldl)" wifih estiai:Jlisned ,equipmenl. from of her siidOls. T)')is is, h(i~J, not 'feasibl~ fltll

@< Oennis; Diii!vi51

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~7 February 20013 Flr5tfire~all @aol.,OOfn

1 Tid .mil hx + 44 [OJ 12 '1 3~~ 177

FIRE SERVICE MANAGEMENT AND COI\.(J',;'I]ANU OF J\fAJ'OR INCID EJfJS

discrete Qilern~(I11al ar'e:as and zones ,8 ndillJnd€rtaking oornp.l€!x lil1teJ't'lctiorls wlti1lt1e decisioi;ln 5tJP;p.QriI: system. Cotite:xh.H:lIIf&Bd Wlililfn ermer'!l~Jic'IJ' n~spof'l;def OlJ6I'altJons :at majo, evel1l!5.- it is essenilia~ !hal me. S'1rateg), or all ttlllSe! re~pOndeF$ hiV(ll'i'OO 1'1 a'$ a shar€rl <:l@r;eamEmf on t,ey o-utoornes of 'the <evcOJvingl ta-Clt<:a3 :plan and the da[;;Ii components f1ee:dle-d 'tOt make ·tin€ plan wOl!k_ Thl~ ~we~"fnef1t proesss e.!'!l5!bles a ioc.al com~r to act rndepend€lrrfy, miiilkillg ,d:e"~i$io.ns 'i'iritnlil'J .a:greed guldelines OJ rra~ff,a if 1l'itis 'is d'e-sirable Or follm~-f\!J a i:XimrnLJ_fIJI~ij!JIf1 sysiem ft":!ilure.

tn dE>vero~l'ig modeS .' Of dedsr.ol!l~ma1Gl~!il arglLllmel1ts; delol'elop thai there is tiRonomy of decis.ion-me'ldf'{l ~narvsi5" wIlien has iii! ieast two attfi~es, Ths flr,sa is an ati-e.ffIPt te l"rll;;!a5lure ilmder.slandin.Qi of' ~mw the decisioIl-making menIal processes are used! and Ihis ~ffeO!~veJy f{)I~iJ'!h''S !he model <of primed ded5ion-m~kll"lg·ll. ThIB se*i'KI aiI:Uibute ind'ud-.es COti5ideration o.f Uie. lment to Wilich tl'Ie dedsirnl-maker opera'lss. wlti1ir'l ,a eontext s.i'mfJar ~Q tth.at used nOfl'Tlii2r1y. .arldl mal{es reaJ life decis.ions. ooing a preeess oorreepomfing te ~;ry!iay .actjvay. Res~all'(:l'10~ OCIentifie.s 'tha~ rigfd lIxI· ealUcra1ic command af!")d oontrof ap~ro.t:u::hles, to 't;lrnergency l'1fI!aJ'!agellll8.n1t ·l}al'b'e~.SJI~y fetvls til ineffedive emel'tgency resIOOIl15e. p.ert! aps. b€leal.l$e oomml being pro~!J miry based is :r@la~~ly fnnexib!e.

Although Ute FRS lise. of Ules8 modIe:IS, is rio.~: fleW» tlle.· vml!Jt;! o~ !"eCC1gnitloi! primed ~1' and lIletundised !!l2 d9(li$i0J1S has bsan 'further @):-pl-o.ted in UK FRS sihJatlon~ eei.nfirmb'igl par.e.lf:els to. military fifld~n~!!4_ Uns:tl,pris.in:gly ~~ m~ny inc~en~.j decisWFlrmaldng by the '~oide!1 : Comm3;nde~ appear dilVEtilil by a daslred spef:dy response. and l:iick of available data,

Encapsula~inrg both defen'Sw-.& at'1d resp.cmslve a(i~Q.I'iIs.! il:ih@l Inckl'ellt Commander m:ay integrate elemeflt$· o.f re5.~ in ;a mOOular w-ary, The whole process creates eqlJilibrium between p.Fe$(;['lptive m8pQflS:es and dyrtamf{; fiexil:»lity a'looing simple ~jffion and imita1ioll'1 and permittingl c'o!"'ll'ronta1it:m of -'iill)'ing complex Situations., add1~(lial tens.i005· and d€ma!':loia. 'Thus tne FRS is Dper.artirlg b.ath a s-ta b.ifity paradigm and one ftiat sits oulsJde 'tilis anrangerr.e'tlt and is .herefore ccflversety exiJemely unsla!hl!EI ~.

I:ncidg.llt command and] oOFltrol pfot~dlJres. [C21 tllat et1capslJla.re ·tiJ!rJrs e-mp'lical learnilg are eeptured 1.1"11 ~W(l1 pal1ild~wns, The first lnoorporat.es tie issues Cir simula~f;Or! [sitl;.!!i;Uiornal awarensss and antidpgt1of'tll al'iiit1 ~li1:oire, (staru:1ard oper,ffiing prnoeduF€s]'. In iItIe nrst p.8~di!lm the ntlrriber of practk:;al optia~;s. is dictated b-y the ~epertoire of skills and equipme.tll oorttlg,undfons .afilalr,able·. Mhotlgh iIiIe FRS !fote: 'Ctln~rrues ~Q expand. this Fe<,ptartoire will re:main ,gt-ennable< ii"lI}Yt and hBfI.c:e prelfici:abte, 'W'tIa •. c;;!lnfilo~ be elefrned or fully predid'"ea ts ttlei operational E:'.nWnDfimB'nt if'j physical ;[}f @fflolloflaJ ~ell1'l$. The env oruOOfli may tr...ererore b~ salely and e-ffectively mapped to :aJ pll'i:!vlou:-s e·:xperiefl::i::e and tie r~eoo,gtlJsabe or it may be novel, Ukewire prior or assumed kFlElli!iled'ge may as.slst Or mislead reconfirming 'rlte imporfan'oo of d)'ft2mio Fist\( t1I5~5melll

In the second par.ad!igm It is iiJ'D'Stulated that g reatsr Improver,oom In dedsiO'n-mal<iiig 'o'lril~ {l"(l!JUF irQm iflv€:~eflt ;1'1 assembly ,and :anaJys.is ot da.ta from v.alfow;; datab:a.s~ and tne syn-titesis and simulatlon (11 ~f1§t dale inlo v.iabre opersfional opli1)t\S, IT can seltL.Jie' Ih~U!Jh a 5lJit.l]lble. operating sys~E1Im Illh.at platform, a platfcirm capabre of extenslon ~h"l)lJgh the use of ~JiI1jfki.aJ lnmJl1genre and CC1'lflpyte ised :sim'l,datjQI1 10 provide rf!tetacli~ ~eamin9' for poterrti~1 oornmander.s thus redlbloirlg their Iperoonal

!jj'Ulner;a'hllity 10 poor der:isions aJ'Ldl if'niJmving ~rElll public :safety. -

This parrad'igm :aecaplS. the ceniIJal ee -oepts behind the. 8);i:s-tlng NOM nlCod'.els, particularly theat a COl'lful"Ian!lier rna ps the pre-ser::d' ir:II::i'd.e-nt wIItI t',ec'lliCIJ9 e.:<p€1ifnJce

If' Oen nis navis

Mohj;r~ + 44 (0] 7879'481056

17 February 2.006 lFit$'tIlirec:.:iI'I'II,~o'.Clom

6 Te-l amJ Fix"", ';'4 rO] 1 141t1, 12J 111

!FIRE SERVICE ~1ANAG[MEN'f AND CO,' l\l1AJOR INCIDENTS

'h:lIrger events field obS€tNa!i 011 a.nd pG:l5t,..incKl'eFht nil'lliS1N$ IOft~Ji; reeemrnend more i5ystenm~tia data .and knowledge managerne1l the databases reqJLdred I'Or H1;[lOO deciSiorl3 may. be eiiltJer $illflf)ly assembled and' !SIs.similacad or conversely disperged and comr;.1 cat-eel to undersland, The dyn.amk:s or major @\i'{!fits ~heJ1efoFe eqlJire '~e);tlbiljtJi a nd wbuS'tll~ss thro~gfl the €l~!11ia1 ccrnpenent !Jf ne~i[i€llf1tJ 00 ~I~ access.ible and reliable oomml,lflicatl0til5.

-I;-~\ l"'~ ........ L '\

'''The FRS' rmcisfttij' p~e$,s 18 i1esrn:b~d as ffllJlti-f.;Joo/oo and engaQ'9s many agel'ilae'5"

QJ:Jt ~~.:~~~~~

"\ 0 DMI!l8 Di:lvi!i 2fJ!ll!

Effe~tlvety Integrating I nformalLQI1i T~hnlJlo,gy ~T] Is eS$en1ia,'l to tlllDlH U'$e at maJor illcidents, o'f'ttlE! referre'll to IbLJSln~ ~eC:hn~1Ie.5 and ma~nt cultures .. Theref~ tne accepted r,glaIiDl:Is~p betwem data jitanagement ;gjnd IT. n,O\i'o' well esreblim.ed and! used for' e.apt!Jred data ln lie I ati'Qna I databases .. needs ;to be e:t.1f11nded 'fu,Hlher 50 that dedsiof'l-maJdi'l9 $ypport systf$li1s" lJ:si1l:Ql simulanon and data manlputation, can iI>e r:.!lilised fOT proactive FRS itIrervention management .. ,

An OptuaUQnal DeciSion ~ rnagemem TO'D1

I nformaliotil overload is i8'Mr.a,ys a P05!Slbilly f{Jlllne h'1cijeflt Commander who, is -:aced with gatn€ring ,and an E! lysing d~1a whjle' plannrJ1g ope ~onar :strategtes, Time ~re6$JL[red decision-malo::lilg he~hterls strsss, wh idil ea fII ;jegr~d'-e ,~na¥ical skills and! tie'f1(a d.eci:sion quality, -r1'1(!1 lrnportant fu~otion of '~fle, mod'&r?! f'!1i1~li!Ify commend cen'ir,j) lf1 suppor1im'!g force revel -cieta fusicm to ~t wlit~ngene'i QperaUQns"J. is wei as is the ID1I'iaFli'JE!l importa nee for a!f\y ,COFTIDHalld o@fIl:ire to pl.Il'"5ue a layeroo ,approac.h 0' JrrformalDon presenlatlo . Thrs ensures eEi~ijal illtf.ormatiQn" re,g!arding iii cadre,!l progr,g..ss. In SI mflifary. oonte:K1, i$ is-\,rpprioo with 1i1e' 1r!!J11mUm Meessary detail.

Wor~ done by 1tJ(!1 US Jo,roorce4ll, ide.nr~~e5 the impor:ta.ru:::e of eFlSllring tha~ e.enior deo:isiolr"makers 'WOrking in om tim~ :&9rrsitive inrforma~ion envirol1lmenm· onty OG - suR d!!~I$d imojrnaJtion. when H' is. required '(or a concerreot de:clsion and tfi'lat in some' areas, tecrt!1olo.gies are undaf-e..:pioited tMK:aLJ$e 5)l5tem iiesi'gFiGfS are, unawars of the p'l:!t~tial to assist oommiiilnd_

The need fm .an)!' decis-orl SUll'port sysoom re f1BVe users S-p$o1fy d'efinf~~ req ulrements in terms (Of lheir tasks ,and thhe o.rganl:sartiol'1la! coriimxt [ ... ,vhbtl 'ihe decl~of'i:s. are to be mad~ Is recognised by mililE~ F€lse~;II·che~.s as is ccnifirma~I'Qn uf too rnqtJiremenl mo :avoid overJoad. 'statin.g 'the 'l'r:fJJOOanee or awid:ing a °bli4~rd of o.ptions 'lNith complex sel~ctlofi ~reesn and fol)C!Js ins ead IOn n"e :sim,pli'city reql!J ad ,art

~e' pejnt 'ii.'11e-ie d'iltaJ is l1S~d~liI. '

UMe.rstanding i e user iPJOfi[~ of ~e Incident Comrnandfl:l" is lhel'erOFle critical sfl'lce cogl1litilj!e skills are used beli'v..'eei'fl ,fj team {If' E't'Jlei.rgency r~sponders IlJPelafjf'~g in

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FlRE SERV1CIE 'MAN.A,G:W!::MENT AND COj\1'M~A'ND OF MAJOR INCIDENTS

snucture wi~h .FRS ma,nag~r,s in the f1riai~ fec.ognislng thM u~ng all s.taff! koowledgeP w.as neGe8$~ry l!1r Olg3f1;l$~ffIJ~a! Pf~etlvi~, Lihkilllg 'Un~e ltil1eDrie~ was Tolal Qual 'i Management [raMP Itlr·o:ugh ralevarlt Brl~$h S1A;lOOG!l~~ .~, '80 irrlroau~!il the !FRS 110 efif~i~ alJJd~: syst~ms .since iFRS €FltpQll.varrFl;!n.t dern:anded lertE-fal cr(\l~ fun.ctiona~ wo It] Il!;t!; replaoereent (if top-doWIll StruC:tull~S with proilPS~jl~ ,and' 1Jhe

cr~.a1i{!in of Hlemning Qroani!5e~I(l-f't5''''', .

Bdema~ ~Cj\'ut1fi"111 of lh~, l!rIaJJ1.'lfa~ d~wIQPt:naflt Iha$, at Ifrne;s been harsh In 199:5 an Important study by 'line Audit GorrvniSS[i}1li1i1 r~irrrof'l::@ed tll@ iFtBad f.ou .m~n:ageffi tel be fJe):ill~77 The, Commission :zi.uggested lfIat wil3st, "nohio'ty W'i2I1 Imanage~D: U~e FRS ~:s also t3'II rn;{ll ,yell soort of redudng Itle ii"l'ljla{;"~ of fire bV IfIGt dIBliwJi1'i9 "Ipteven'!i01l rai!li€:r titian cuieh, Ina 2~' rS\II!ewei";5 ,COFild!!.fdle,dI, W~ dld Eliot reaiise ..... Lust hf:,\ij' much poteJltial kit' rer'Qrm e);1s~$ in Il'Ie· iCL!l1er:r~ fire service". They argueD that tl"le fIR-B., had 'ralt,en bett Il"Jd :oost t;!r;a~Iee< fnl itl~ prJ~3'te .and] p~iDlk. sector and were _ -ri¢, 'ail.... ootieal ,of wiloat th€~~ termed "an old-:fa:s:hio.ne-dl wtJite m:ale-dom',- -I dI esof""'<"~ ,1' . .... _ J . . - . . . . .... ,. , .. _ Ina f!_ !

ma~l;,!al OOC!lJpatklfl". B:ampJes. ·aired illch:JIaoo uns:iiltisfactmy industria~ relaitiOf:1JS-, \'!.fesk managernenl sys!ems and! lack ,!)f !J<wn:ernhip·.

Ali""1le1i the .2.00:2: IfSV~'!.I and! a !'HrtiiU'fj-aJ sulk:e '!JCf'i'-ar:r! rnei'il! and fire ,au=t:l!l:nitie:i fila-lie - . " ...... i:..,h~ a mtJ!ti...,~reted "l'Jilj}(j\emiSUkI'lI ag€f.ldaL~, ThI'S aesnda is ~ . .,_;I""'fI""ive - -_-;.II

e::h.QfJ,..;;.. 'I;flJ1 _ • ~i:I ' :!::I • ,. _ ..,.,.....,.,.:;; ...... all",

dimctlv imp.inges LOlli hOlN' Itle FRS ma~:;I!~e9 meier irmidents. since it inJJlljJd~s; all elements of the FRS i I'll a C;{Irnpr'illlh!3ns.ive rnciefiniiUon of mission and .rdJe, P€lSOnn e--l el!:.ill~' and !Conditiol'll:f1i! ffimlctUFe and pro~~&"!. m~iSlaliorr~ and sei\!k:e daliv8~', ~sse~sa:; and d i9P'!J'SilkfIl~ are ell iru:luded together with crikieall IFl.a1.iOf'l-.a1 infra structure rejate:jllo COr'tllff'HJnication inter operabilil'/:J ~nd rna-tiona! resfli)eJjm~.

AtfhoU£!; 'the pl0~ of assE:rnbUrn~, all'lalys:lrbg ,a:i'l\dI pre~tii'i!g data 'is rentra~ ·~o the entire: o,!)eira'iiOll a] appmam IlH1e ,guid;an~ on wh~t 'f:onsiitut.eG .good pJ;;!lotioe exi5t9: lfaUner i! fl!lmains the resjl!lJ:n!sib:!ity of ttJe il!1dii!idlJ~1 FRS. te detenifl~I'l~. Sifii'!lt~Ily the FRS uses qualitative, I!",athe,' then q!Janti!artive analys'is, bemuse dynamic: risk assessmelill: ia·the prJ.mary basl~ 'for aea5!Onra.J@, The :s~ra'tegy; tadioQ5 amfope~.mIlS'" usually adtilPt'E!d on ~18' firnground 'a:ne 'l.tie-refDiPe an e:o:teflsi(lfll or E..xisting prilctij~s, i'!'le~hlod!:i Oil" pFoDe-d!Jre5~l Ttdner ltlan a maJl!i!Igea:ial~ deve&op€:d and :system sLI.p~rt{;d declSionrii!, TIMe oornple:xlty of maJl:\'r lncldents qlJe~tlons Itlis stratagem,

TIl~ FIRe dE:c]sii}FIi process is li1escrib€d as mulli-fi3:!:i!!led and e:nga~s ma~ agencies. Wh.ir.st some 'ifecision:5 may be pa-,e-e-'!.I'!allJa-f€d, llSi:.ng da~:a Fi8searthed .and! pr~reDorded ag:ain61 ,acc~ptab4e :pfemiDed prOCe~IJF€5 and practices, a number of s.~flnmcana' deoisio.:Fl,s can 01'111)1 M 1ffI-:ade afi~r a~L The decf5ton P[OQeS3 must '~herefoFe h~'!.III· an e-ffectiw support system.

Pr-aetiical~l all incit1efiltS are mai1taged lhi'\l)~!i ;'3J oommu:n1caUon be,uer to ;arid '[r\fiim the controlled! pl1~5iea! location using ~nsk!era.bJe klgistics,. Wlnilst the qualif.ativ€: nature of operanl)~n~ I fileeisi"GM sU8~e£'~S a contLn IJi.!m O'f Sictivi1;y from smeller ro

~ An ~~;!ii1is;!'!I.D~ dim, cOI'I~1ilr1'l~ ~~~ !o improve b:r i~1e;rfiD.llI:=nrni.Tl,g.;BOO k:ttDwl~ rn~ag~J"ili~i'It.

.... Th-e" Ailldii, Commission is ~ ~L<:ILlJ1iJ~ 'i[l~'p!:{l!jcm bOO').! [espo:mii:b]~ ilJ E--flgbr:.d &. Wal~!!i, (fh.(. ';;:l)mpilJati:J1It oodr ~111 SooltiJllIc j~ ~ru!:' A.ooDllis ~mmis~ia!ll) far :[jlNlj~llI~ tJt,:; financial e:ffoo1i'i.'oo~-!'l!': (if lo~,,"1 fO'" ... ~rt"if!ii!}J1~' .

.. A~ ~ hi.!:r~ StJDre:gy is pi_~lt:ruim~ and !iirect.il1~ t-o meet orgaJl~icn.allCbJl2:Cfi'X!B, T:B.Ci.iC'~ 9~ ~'liF!!!t !!hll'lhzymC"ll1: plaas ~D ~bi~\'~ 1fI~ ~lra,jegjc aim and O,~iltioo~ '9l'(: !I}[: 1'11i11!!:, p.i'OC!Mu.\~ ~hd l!l~k.~ 1I11d~f[:[j~Em 10 :m1:a ~h~ 1adiCil.t ilion,

@ El!e-nlli I~ :D3\1'~s.

MODil£: + 4~ 1.0] 787MS 1056

~ 7 F'ebf'uary 2006 iFlrstnreca I r ~Q~,;Q,om

~, Ti:J and fa.::oi; + ~;lj. [0) 1 ;l<1~, n~ 1 17

FIRE. SERV1CE .MANAGE,MENT AND Co.NINl~\ND O'F MAJOR INCTU[NTS

Corrtmnl:6l:l by IQOlilllrfiued Ii"!~a~:s irn r~~1 comrols a rent!.!!!)!' (If FIRS d;evsl{lJ1Tf1ent in pan based (In an irJsmtl.Hiorlal~d COmFl'laM sy.srem for d-ecisaon-1"I"!.:a k[~ that ha s a ·fc.ufldalloD'Il of· :as~i1.,JD'!'Ied a~ptanoo of coneetness. does not ne:~$SariE'ff sit 'lHe'JI .. R..a1tler &Ie ~ i,J ir.et'f!:~m Is fo,(' d€:asion :s:ygtems. capable [of w~er' Ul'lders.~ndJng and ['Qb~~t 10 !!)1iI:EI'mal S'Cru1iniY.

Re~n~ing Uhe:se ~Ji"C1..fmSIEln'OOS 'il is limper.atiiife not :to :SlJbjedl: the J'!Jd~E!ffiant of inCilmYi3,ls "n'd~r cO[:"lsid!8fable till'ile. ?;Irld ladle: or iinroF"l'llidtiofl pre9&Jre5 lii:l' tt1:e same $aanda~tls and tests as; those (I;peraiing U('TIOOf nor.ma! e-orJstraiiits or deci$iQrHm_aij~. Eq,L.taII~ uneecepts ble and inexci.icSa ~Ie i$ the W.g!g~~~l)i'!I that true FRS b€ 'rulr, S€~· regl]Jl~ing I!YJ" restrIct ,[tcQessiby II~ sta-r.r to Inrormaoofl ~:at may Ib€l i nrtem~lIy :§vgflable. En4ernic >orgailisat[lll1al eultu ~ and '~nag~~. slo::ills gF,eatly :Biffect h!lJW ~II ,91i"\)1 inbr,mai~ol'1l \\!Ill b;e used tD de.-esc8l18lbe rIsk and Il1nr.e.stri!Jted irlfonna.tio.:f'II aCC9$iS ailf&1

...... , t- ~ ... _ I ,- ,!i:-.,--' --, -,- .... -1(- -- ""u............ ............ ...-: ... ' m .... ~d1'l.?l'l"Ir6f:BSS

4';11 _!I$GlIIliO o!1J ~s III'lere,o('\e P:!:h'L !D_ .any ~-II~~bl'og: '''!'';;;:~!i1I ! ~ _ o;! ,- ;;;I I"' - _ - _ -

Malnage;rne i1't S~te,ms D!EI'I.!'SlIO'pmi:tlilt.

Conament with IFRS deveiopme-nt LF'!e $~ief7tinc: ~ppro;ad'l to man~gemenl has 81100 ~Ived_ 11'11 th~ 1 900:1 iIIl€l 'ii'v€ llIl_anagernent funetlens: plann ing~ Cir:a.all:i5i!olg, commanding; o~ordin:ating, and t'0nlJQmFlg ,e riiJ '14 other princl'p~s. Il"IcltJdiflg ltil€: sOiiklr cli'~in d irectiy finkill<gl :Sl!lpellVlsr:on 'rr-OiiTI l.he se1'l~or to j'uflinr '€mpl~ were inlroduced 1-(l!i~ther wltl'tJ the (ionoa~~ ifIJ J©h p-.rod!,H~irvi~y' analysisB and' the prare5'S ![If f'!'Iai!;a:g[ng pmdumorll. whi'dl has :SlJbs€:qu!Zn[~ .survived! as file Gantt charF.

It is impo-$$ible to k!\~ What d'~lopme1'l't i~muet'ilCie' ltiis h;ai)j U~gf'l 'ltJ~ ,~~u~ IFRB but man.agef'rll;~n~ prif1loipli9i~ we:r-iji ;ahoorb~d ~ shown {!lurin~ thB; 1 '~i70s. when FRS manag€:rrl!~nt trEiliningl indJuded authers SL1cCh as Ad.airm< in Effective Loead6l'sncp 11 and p rtCli' 2. Cc!lIlseq!.rerrtly,; FRS [l)el"SUlla1el became acqualnt-ed wi!h conoepts Ilk.e ta:stbased '!-wo~kir;.'9J le~~er.$hip, ~nal~5 ~OO ~Qpffle~t A ~eSl$Of'iabE-e oon~l,Jgl5F1i is 'tf'hal, tI"II;J' FRS has ObS9l'\!'~d '~he &~nal iBTiv.lroD"lil1fiarlt, r~eogfiisiflg social and aultllral' changes 'Wfl~I~ ~'eacliflg to iPQlitlcal ;:!IOO econemle fado~~ [e'J«i!rteQ b~ tl'ie ~~$1, m.1,.lt'!icip~1 ~t IQeaJ gO\.l'{lmm:ef'lt organls.aUoi'll,

Fl[Jrth-enT!~re the FRS has, uliJlsed industri~1 ideas il\ela~ed to rr;ortlvalf(l-I"! ,~ . Mal'!agewent by objecljves was adop'~ ,a;$ \I'.lelre o!lhe~ theor!l9sN, whioh led t~, r!tI;e:

FP::S e:tperiimaniling with b~k mliR 21ti1at)'sls .. Job deW!ltloff'i$ and ttLo.e USilEI' of J~a ming cultures. And the- s.yste;m:Joc precess Q~ manaQ@:fI:'H}llt~5 id€llltilli'f:d by McGr'€gor18 and MiJ;]~beni~ had an impa:c:t t!1fl-di ,sli',6rtegic ,planning for tne lar1~r tJ.rigades ~ha~' ernerget1 in 1974 'h'as, at'! lrrtegra~ :p;an.oftne FRS, appmach.

for over 20 year!;l. dis.uusslon om progression arid persenal devel'lJl~eflt eeurses for UK FRS personnel at thll~' fire Servire Ci)I~~e [p5q has, considered o:r-gani5etlonai ~rind pies;, ~e i::Onoo:pl$ of deleg;\!!tion, alJ.ilfllority ~rtd r'e¥pol'iI.sa:.11Ity. es.ta blrcShlng in Slyt'€s of ~nage'ment1S moved away from :ItIe'9~I{liitativg aLJtihoritaiJve to'Ndlrd;s a beneVOlent :authoritative type, together 'wilt! :§I d~irllil:e· FOOiV,e 'from direC'li-¥e maf1jag~FfU;!'FIII: ti:IWar'ds that of a s,taff' 'consu~_:awe 1TIE!illlager~GI. AIUi{lii,)l!t(h 'tile FRS remains s~mnijl~ ta~k, strJuctuf!!:tf'B (Irlr!dple:s, related! tt\' lier,.~rn:hlca~ idenitlftcstion 'Cif needs are equalty well undel"~~_

By. 1 990 FRS. m:anSflE'J'Tiemt euitL!f@ if'lJd UdQd cl):f'leepts G'f E;!mpowerme'nJr;,o and utili5$Iii1Jr'i (If stafF :abjiiOO5, partially g~i'ried thwLJgJ1 f€:~alXatio!'l or title h[efal"C'hical

.... Effl pbW~~l'It ~ 3! g.eEl~t'81 [.ti;'11'i '.l~ed 1Q ';;:1):11.1',*' ~h~ }Wirn:ij)h:: ofim:3ivt.;Jl"Illk ~in~ gi'!.'r;:mJ l'ho: ;:n!l~iiill'ily .mbii resources to 'Cr1aii]~ LMi'I"I to< e-..:er.eis:e j ~~~Il!1~r.1 .amI: ~(;~iOOi ilt th ~ Ib""'~t p~[bll:: IiTUIm!].eri~l:f !oI:!::~ble' [':;~EL

© Denn'i:5 'lJii!!vis

Mobill1: + 413 rOll'a'No'J 8 ~ 05~

17 F ebrU~f!f ,2000. firstfi~·i3,1 ~ @.a,QI.~Qm

3. Tel and fa:..: oj. 44 [0] 1..244.1:23 l7i

What is alSfl e\l[d~l1~ is.lhat pfOo:gressively more localised practices; that aile ocC!..mrifig and wtI e.ontlll'liJe', will e:~!'l cOl1Sideif~ble illlilu en 0;. on hO'l!i the .FRS manages decisions... 1I"'Jiis I':II$torjC!ll' and legal oolo'~IQpm€lJ'l. sholl~ tile FRS o~eJ.!iil'fing a ~r~I;I~lon81 public SI!r'iilce .gthoo]n a ·o.oll(.emp.oli:seo legis.la~iYe envirorllt1erlt.

The '!::CII'i'lCUfreflit and cornplemen ary compref1€lnslve syst€lm O'r le.ga~ C'Onill!:lll:rl 1I"1a. ex:i!St3 also demands W€:tl-'folJi'iId:ed and ;auclitabl@ deti~iol1~ _ IfI'1i some FRS Clfili'cal .$SlJety areas decisions are unlikeJp; to benefit 'from 'UfI'Iie QorUi~1'e(fI judgamefil~ Yfli. requjpe a II decision pertlnent [rrffr.rmertion to ~ ,ecuro€ld.

c..ons.eql!J€lfl!l'.ally there €rl'llsl:s; b¢lh a I€gal regim€ til' EiilabJe the gathe.ring Info.rnmrtiQn .~ nd a duty to be· d~igMt in ;apPlication alf'lol aS8e~n~ oj risk befor~ anv [mid&tt ~¢(:!.Ir5i11. fit IS ho'rNevet unlik@ly tita't pre~planned methods or systa'1't"iS wfl~ p!Qv1efe an Incfdent COI1inl'lalld~r wdhl ,all too nece-se.ary. regal' s,:e1eguard>s. This m becaus!3 p;art of too ~upply !CIt.l'te for F@'a(lil y aGC:essible ~e'J dl1lcision del~il$ \!l~1I oe s~f'I'11-;oerJtraUsedi and USl8' (;o!"Nef!)e.d s8:andlard o.peraUllg prooofllJres ,ope:,-a~ tf'ilr'Ough: lRegiof'lal Co. n1rors. 1~\i'Ofc!lrfiQ! pracncaJ defic.iEflci.efl nis ron*il0 m.ay in1lrodure therefoFt'1l requfres oOl1lsidMab.le effort and ,i(f'l'll'eslmenl

A f.unher prae1jcal diffiE:IiJI':tiJ 'rOf tl"t€. FRS ar4S~ rron1 hazardous m-atellal OOJT!r,ol le:gi.slatiorT rr.at. is: oorwemio:nally appfcable t(l sfii1i'c sites, P,lannJrlg for h!;uardous matE1"ia'l ever:rf,s. and ~. e-rensi'tin some f'Oll'f'l'kS or 'femJlrism can cften be tess !!!Iff~Cilwe for oeeu~j:1J~ off-sih!l' ;a1thoug1l the, oof'!seqLI€:lilIces milY bi9 mqre· sw~'te than al a eon1Iol!ea rnanuf,actiJriFllg or s~or~e facmty. This risk esca'lali'CIfl f'i1P'Y be derl:vmiorll of f.fi.t-.FIJ fatwrs·, sLIch aSfne· popl!Jtardor.r or oI!",I'lvij'(lnrnrm't factors present or' the ~l1rer· adi.;;Jr.. ofhsirrnrull"n8tenlet:s, which at SI conlmJled faci~itv woyld: be Hg~aredl if !fkely to Ib€ hiUar out.

TILe il"eQerr~: pest also. ,!jrama~1 'i nlusj"rr,a'tmi fitat natLm'1!J' and huml<!l~ inUi,ated ca~astrophe of pre\liousl)' iJnOt!n~red djmen<sio'n~ la, probable-, iihese; ElyeTIffi C~1J1 ewe-OO national resource. 'capab~me$ Jt&qulrl!F!g ~merft~60nal intf!ll"Vetltion and PiS pafllicl1Pi!1icm in .s~abEII:sa.tlon and r~e;over'f .acti'!.l'Wes.

ORen 2iI basic Jegel structure as one of pril1clple legrsla60n pfacing fequjre~FI'5 up-em .!iill employers. indudi.n:g u,€ F~S. IQ pro!l$Id empJOy.H-S and ltiose at risK. Importanl, helle is ·t~e, growiT1g importance (]f·~ltans-.natiQf"Ialll3{lal dirr'ec1ion.

I n fhis wider oonte.rl· sode~~ is. ~rn~ rr.l1:l1'ij' IlimigiolJls and those fmp!el1iJMtnng cmical emlllrg~flO'f action thl'(l\lgh 8fll1 management pro!:ess are in je'(!pa.rdy at bolh ItJe inlji1i'd!Jaf. tl'lll'(itlgll lack of p-e/~ol'1laf d.illsenre,. :a"~ lD.fQanisal1oll'el, arjslng frnm cOfl>Otate mrllJr~ei 1~15. Ulfldsr these. circtJiIlsmr:ces C1ec:i8ian-maklng must be sis!:emaUc. tlJ.!dita bI@, rob!J5.I:; informed and espa ~e of dern,jjn8trating pm' 'essionel j~ment ;agal;n$t a9ceptabJe recogrnised a 'andard~

I T~ 2002 f1t1rOOl1(;tiolll trm:grmed. 1lI;~ MEW£ig£men~ .Plmmj~ .11i(1'11m1:ed by The Otnr;e (if Ilil: D:pl1L)' fir irne M jDis(~r an d Sr:OI~ 1E~~oo_~~" I1t\s furmiff!l.1l!1I~ll, Gbang~.d t~ princip'Je ohmC"rgtflC).' l\I!S]JOO~ rr·Crrn the Il]fpliCiiLiol'] ~f ~~i!,;lillllllj' dffi v e·d ~d mMi l(lmi ~looIdards ~g J!jIJ'lC wfJen: each fIre B..llll1lOtity des:errnjn~ <:1.00 EMsII)' lmplemears a..c-olJo:l"dinKUd fire: pn:rte..~QI!I ~O~I::' iJl'l,'olvirrlg. p;n:~erili(ln .,nil!' tn~.el""mLilJ.i1.

~ ThJ; 1003 Eurgp:;ai\ FlrlO;;!:!i !mill .2004 ron:st fif£~. !l1r:: roI}ij AS.1&ii TalElomi af'ifl ,*5 HUl'Tlc21!1;

K~lnn~ m !"aldsl2!~i ~rthqlli1kc are::all ~llr'@S..

III Th~ ~OiJ I ~ew 'c'cik., 2(10~ MOOIid ~D!I Be:s3£in ;!j'li;I '2005 Louden ~'tn,.;k5! Uf: 811m o!;)tiirnpl(;,5,_

e lX!n Inliis OavJ:s

MobHe 44 [017~794S]~56

17 Fg:b:rtJetry 2I!J06 Firsffilrec:all @:!Iol_CIi:lIiIl

2 T~l and Fax T 44 [OJ 12..,4. J2j 177

FJ;IU~ SERVICE ~lANAGlEMLNT AND COro.'1l\1JAJ~ Of' ~1AJOR INClnENTS

Oper.a rkJn.fJ1 deoi-sJc~xlng ~~ m~jQ.r 1ntJ't,1e~ts dlff~tS' {(OffJ ro~.rl~.tt.e d«isJom-. ,~~jM ~~fi;;'O" fi.i1lic.at ~\'.SY:Its j.!'}vcWlJe c-ompf.fJ:x technoI{Jgi€i~ .a00 oommunicaoo{J,3, mas'S d's~

~mel.i'f:'iS'fi'al mter::E'~e,l'lqr infom16':t.ror.l 8cltvJ'ly. Decisions [and jUdgen:~{lr5 muj'/, [d'eJiiU'/J',s1:rn115l 8pptiad robumess uITd&r ,!jon~f6.ble exlem6!i' .:scnl.liny tram cJ'ffl, rn~~flc;e or leg.;ll fll~dlg;;Jlhm[.s. Decl"Slcn $y~tems ,~ffl' oO(jrexWil~!:red b:y eliislfn9' O.Ml/.)r&J, klgfslariv6. mB.r.raGiSlF.l'Bif and o~iI"llsatfort.a-1 p~r.ame1!aTS .ztnd ~~' evenW" IfJ(J~ ;;i'fl;I' ad'cmd fundfcneJ rofalftmships 'Df .:I' lim1;l Pl~$$Uf9d .;Ifld fr100mpiefa in(oiWatroo 'f.' 1I'IflfOfl I'i'i'eli' t

A ,~ew pararJigm ~vel'Of)ad ss a feam.ir"tg Otl'~ from fe!Vl'eW of BcrrJ'si eve-nlB is' suooestfJej,teo improlt9 op~ro.ff.f!l.rr~l da~~~ldng, The, Ir;uuadigm emph$Jstse~' Jlrdf1n!/J data deJiv;e11 from Ille 1iM.ide,~' mngtt of SCU,tipfl31 to rtt& (:I$.$EJ"nlial pre-~q'.u~le~' of oomm.and oo:m:pe~f:l!ir and !$jluaoonel BlW&le\f:l€!S'S., AJ'oo sugge:S"fud ,S'm furtl'lfSf i1?~e!1talkm ,altd e:xpklJr:aJJr.m ()f l.echfi'Ol09r. eferilronic date rommunicaoons;. ,senstJlI1 ~v.l"'es. robotics and 'ltjma/i~ticm to imoproV& ~'~' $nGf reslII[.!\E;l ,Be!it.l'Oe ro.spGlfilSQ.

Introd tlcUon

De.gi~ioi1-lit'lai:iif!g a~' critiCijII lncldents reaulres that 'Ili'rn and raseue ~N~e [FRS) mana ~efS e~roisi& sound! JnJdgernent U!F.1aer abe85.flJl Q!JHditioru til} an!::ily;oo; \,i',I]IIUIlt€'S. of dah in !Ij time.-5ensi'tive envrrc!f1fMnl 'The de~i$ior'i& made efferA: the safety I[If the public and t'lreflghlerS and are ~ubj~ct W rev e:w ~n :subsequent pO~-ev€nt eOC.a-rJijr'il9~o.ns since major events Ifll.8:V IJ.e olliStly ~11 bar1ti hU!lfiaif! a,M eCOi!(I mf:.c 'terms.

It is self evideflt nlla~: all ;[J:ecisiors ai'9 tJ~ hi quali~'. Observauon of ftctual {:Il"isis oon;ditioliJ FRS ,de~eiioJi'-rna'king. when fa,f;u>S!'3d IiJPOI'I complex Ef'IlCid:eiil OOri'iHii>ati{!1 and ootlrtr6!i, mMI(eJ~:s room for improljfel'T"lent

Sig:n ificall'lily in most jlJdgemiBlllIl pF,'O~$$ 'thelDe are pel"$pedNes 'lJ,f ·hjst01i:ea~ and ~sla1ive' ~n~I!"l!~fi(e litJked w tile indMdlJafs ifiWii":I ~ai'! ageria! deve'~pl'Jl::!ilT~" , UJ'1idlers1andi'n:g' importa I1t 1h.i$!!~,i1:cal pflecedel1~ and legi8~aW€ inf1u;~n~ is! ne!:9ss;ary at Hie intematilC'nai lev-el because ,examples O!f perf\l:lrt'JilB-riOO are lransPQrted gloool]y fDr ,analysi$ ii!lrtdl f~t::IUj~ v~t~!1Y '~iiflin title 1(I{;tll1~ operartl!1'lgl eni,lironmetd before :adlJpting i:1Iny outcomes from the lnLe rpre~ed ,approarn. -

it ~ 1Jon5ideroo FRS critical inOOe<nt dedsiofrmaking can be impnlJill€d bfliYorvd ~ curr,e[1~ $%~eiiT!ati.c process Iflmllgh tll'B !'!sa or deci&ion 5IJppOrt s.y-slems, 'U"!f!lj itl!coi'OO'ra~e batter ~niform~iQIli man;ag€m~r ... t ;a fjd Itlcident simulaljon.

riimri@81 reWiWl of 1Jl;e; UK, r::fi;S de.m-tllls'l1ates, tttat in ~1rI@, .e-ai"ly 19005 rea~ers like 8ra~oo', 8Mw and T02!er, roi' [o1~levSir~'t C!rtl'8riisa~iCil'llal reasons, institutioil'iall:s.e~ a I,ie ard1ir.aldecisiorl process, in Piri~lr\l'JXlit~ri ereas like' Ed~nb!Urgh, London 'alOO 6irmi[;1lgha~. The dFa.Jila~ic iniIOOIllt;1ili)F'i ot .S! ~ntrrali5ed oonJ[ce. Ble N,ational flf,e Be rviCE!, be~~en 1940 and 1'9\1\1,{ runner conr;:J_otid~d these ~roC@l8Se'$ ;addJng e-~Ft$i\l'e< Ila!!onall~d standard <Dp~rann.gl p~Oioed!J res. 'iIila1 !Until 'J.iI@lry recently r~main@d 103 rsery IU Ilcf!~lnedl.

<@ ClIerr nis Da'V!is

Mobill! - ~4 [(l17$794S I DY6

1 7' Fet:mJal)' 2000 FI r.sitfl re~aU @liJal,CDm

'1 Tel and Fax -+ 4A [GJ 1244, 323 il1

Cr2N'TRAL CONTROL ,FAC~UiY

• Annu ru::1,Hi CII ~

• lOJArtian Ii A.{;(;e56

• Room lfl,~tI'n 9

EM ERG EN CY POWER

III Gener.aro I' Supply • Tr,allsfer Tlme

II FlJl!1!l stor::'.!IQe

f liRE g,A.FE:n :f()R CASI NIOS AND lARGE ASSEMBLY OC C'lI PAN C !:ES

F~ I11!g Li iillili!:ll ~1r1ti'1il R'E!i~, licjfJ J e:n:!3li!ili ii, .As.5!fiel'i!ltetii ... H',I;.

Fi I!'e A:ila 210 0'6 'Hang Kong

"Best P'r>i3aif:;es' III! Ufe Sa,t>ety""

~ :Fi re Safety 0 bj&ti v i=3 i Fire MiWe!llllg

• nm~ Eg ref'S Allafys,is

• Actwation

• .::~ ntrol fM!.;ilrix

OT1fFoIER ISSUE,S

I!!I Speeial lrI.sp!::rtOT't; II Ac(:E!'~ nCe Te!;<ting

II E!T1€!'1j encv ~esDIJ~ Plan

III M a lnre [li:! nee !P! an I] P'e'l'loQ!c Tesjjn~

3

OWNER'S PROJECT OBJEC'1'iVES

.. ~ ""\

11 PF"Qj~t CD:;;~ ,......f.;.4.~

.' Proje'Gt 11 rn Iflg

.. Ph.i!is€d Openrng

I' M;;nn~E!IiI.mc@· IS~!J 12'~ i S-ecuriiv

COM~ON~~JSOf THE fl~C REPORT

.. Are 1}8tec:tiCin and A!~rm :5'!i::;i~1T\:5 III Auwrrlatirt S porll1kle SY!bt@'rrls

I Elllergen I;'y CDrTlmLlni!:atfons Systems ., Central ConitrQI ~acmty

I!l Sl"l'l(l~ Ma·nagement

I E.me_rg~nG' P(;rWifr

I Other Issue~,

AUTOiMATIC SfRI N KLE,R SYSTE.MS

• :5~['illkl ar Ty!pE! S

• SJJ~1Fl· .. eler :5vs~em Zoni Ill;! -

!!! wa~l!r :Suj:lIplles

PROJECT STA'KEHOLDERS

il Owner

.' L(! cal Ju ri~,i.:tiol1 ! tDe:si-g Il Team

I Cons~ructio n Tea m ~ Mat@i1al SLJppli ~~ I ItlS:L!rano;e OOJnpa IlY

FIRE DE:TE'CTIONI &. ALARM SYSTEM

ill ['=unct:ion Matrix • Wiring ~ (l I Iioll rl\l n I; i i;l'ij 0 r!

I Inp IJt SIg!nals - ,

• SL!pefi,'~soFY &. Trouble S'ig!1!:'! 15

, "..,

I

EME,RG,EN,CY COMMUNI'CATIONS

., Voh:e AI a rm System ~ I ~.. ~ III Zonr,!:!:

II ViSI,,!!ii1! I Si9 nels

., .FI re Service

C®rn m U mea tion S}'~lem

2

fllRE .sAFETY Fo.R CASIN'o.S AN'IJ LARGE ASSEMBil Y OCCUPANCJES

~1l Qg lI.i ,iii n iii Miilirlthll llitt'liss

Fh~lf .JenSl!!:ilII .& i\S!illi1ciate:;i., E~1i:. ~1R.JA)

Fiit"TE ,As ita loti G lEi HID]J'!!9 II(Oltl!i!

"SMf ,PF.a~rices Jjj life ,Sa't:i;ty:n'

F!RE ,&. IUFE SAFETY CONCEPT REP'ORT

III ~rE!JJ.;Ir~ a t start of the project

II Coordina. (!cd with all of ~ h E! de'sl-gn disci plirlc5

!! Paformam:~7 ~.5e:ti ap p.rooch

!! en mpl ex fire pfotectlaM a $P~!;'-!,,$

1

II

TYP~C,AL EXAMPLE

60·Stcry Migh Rise II 4r501) r'15om n9 er

I 20 stories of of"le~ leaSe spare ~ :3 1~\iel!S of remil

!!! GrQ flal lev~1 casmo, theater, restaurant

I M echa n i-tal Feveis II Pi3Irklnll

LOCAL JURIS,DICTION

!! Codes a I1d Stan d!a rds II Coal@ Interure~atl ens

• Er;Ui v ale nt:1 es a'fid' "lI':'rr~ nces !!!!l Th ird !Party Review

• Hllal S".r':st~m Testing l~mrJ A.oc.e p ta nee'

WHERE DO Y.OU START?

.Ardliteauraf Conctlpl .. e lit

• O'wne:rJs iProjoct Obj'ectives I,..; ~ 1£

• projei;t; St8lkeholl;ller:s _ ......

AFU:,H ITE,CTU RAt c 0 N:C EPTSi

• Larg,g opsn Spa ces III Unprotected S.t~~l

Ii Mlx(!di O"1.!pI:IJcy Uses

II! '\Ie rtlcal VI'Sua I Connreebon af Sp~e@:~ iii E~(m:: Inten4Jr Fi n ishes

III Li!rge Occup.am;;y U:s,g Spal;es Abov.f!

Gre-iJle teve~

311. Bini .• o, T., fue SCOL Te;;;fuIDL. Prec, Fifi:] r , 4.:ada-Oce:srua 'Symp. 40 fW02)

11. Gi1IJ .. L. Doha~lti. .R..~ and Hir;(mo, T .. fire :S:"ff.e~y S.d. - f.~. Fiflb :[at. ~ymp. 317( 1519])

n. Delk~mS~j;. M. A •• A~trnkii.::h, R. A. .. Bl!ancly. M. f., B]'!Ia~~l!!;.;bilI'8jce, S, T<IlQ!!:. L. and SBc:ks~~r. K.,

Prec. Comb lnst:2 ~~1835 (~OOO)

~~. ~eLl. w. E .• O~r., S. L ••• md K;tlhi\'I,'flgi. T., Proc, Comb. i!lt1t. 2l;U4J {.2:000}

111. O~ami:~df1da. S., S1li.1lk~, M., D(@~b.I .. R.: 2lild Hirano, T., 'Fm:: Sitfet)' 1., 3 6z~ J3 (10D1) 35. Orlgf, L. • ..rc R~5. J.., 3M Msrkstein, G.li .• Pr>OL Ccmlh • .lDt. j5~ 1.83 0975}

36 Fa:m~n_d~L~Pe.! 10, A. C. and Wil]jiilT~. f:'. A., P'~. C'or;rlb. &i1n 1 j :2:1 t (19':i'~)

1'1. Hirano. T. and S21to, K" PtOC. Comb. llUl. 15:13 ~ {I 91S)

3~:' 'fH~ilwZl, K. 3Jld HmuJo" T., Bul, J:(Ip;mt-'G.:' As~. Pin:: S~f. Ell g.; 27~ 9 (lQ17) (m J:1P~!'lc")

oliO. Singnaao, W. A. nd GJS!l5mar I, Comb, Sel. T;:;::hiIOL 1':;07 (WIll) ~]. Akfu, K. amd Fujj~1 0 .. C~ F](!mc l1~:J.f1S (971)

42. TIi"iTI<u:l!:;c. K. E. ifIild' Maha.j.an, R. L., Froc. C~. lnsi'. l.5~281 {19751 ~). Ta-ITBJ:EICe, K. E. and MIl1':r9jl1.D, Po.. L, CG:rnh~ St:L. ToC!m01. HI'::! 25 (19iS)

~'!. Htrana, T., Sumki, T.~ MasbrJ.ro, 1., aad Tnnabe, N", Comb. ss; T~hm.al, 22!~3 U~.80) 45. Hlruno, T ~ SIiZIJ:ld. T., and Ma!!b~kQ. 1.. Proc, CI.1IIJb". last, ~ 8 ;391 {! 98!)

46. S.mU;i, T., Ma.s;hik,.,,~ L~ Tanal!:l~ N , illI.dl Hirano, T., tn "Combusticm In R~i1':;:[&"'1!' S~\sOCm.t, BlIl'(t:lJ. Ji.

R. .• :\t~Drl. N., Owx:nhoeim, A. K., m.d 'so.lt.:Jt1k.bin. R. I. ed' AlA.A., N~w 'tori, 19S!. ~ 646 .

.ti' Suz;uk~ T-, and Hiramo, T. fl'Clt:. Comb. ins~ .. r9~.&n {1982}

48. KElwa2o~ K ... Ftire Safe:I}' Sd, - Prf!Jl:. S~t:p:crl. JrI~. S)'DlP. 1. ,( C 989) . .::l'i. n.o~·" P. H_, Fur: Saf~ty Set - Proc; Thi~u:m. Symj;i. ~ (J9~1)

SO. Qwntie:~, 1. 0 .•. fir>:: Sc:i. T~C"bop:~.- Pwc. first AKiBfi Co:nf .• J (~992, .:i I. J-iotil!!:~:HI. C., . ·ire Res;e;!!r.:.b Abs, Rev., 1·4]. (1959)

:51. Mu[lwttiJ[Jd, G. W" Lig~~tt. W., a!id Knseki, a, PII"i:JC. C!l)mb .t rut. 2:6;1445 (1 ~rS)

Sl, Japan .soeie~y for SaJct}' Er.p.m:eriJ\!., Report Qf'P~;rulc:um Comb. Ei'rp., 1.98 ~ (in Jilp:lCei!!!:] .5'4, Ko!>:::ki, H • F'i:rc:.S~f'C[')' &:1. - Proe. Si:\th lilt .. Sym:p. :1] S (2000)

55. \··!:.Ilkil~~5'b, S., ho, A... Saito, K , <lin&. Wi.cbut"!JI.:rI L S., PM. Coml). Im1:. 26: J A.J"! (j~) ;51S. Gooou::-:m.. 1\. F '. Lakk~, J .... arsd Sott:1':iou. M.,. FIO~. Cemb, lnst. 26: ,I 531 (1996)

57: MeJI, W. E. M.4:Gfa~t.nl., K. B .• and Baum, H • .K., Proc, Comb. I~I 26:].5.23 (199·5)

58 Hir3DO, T., "'Combllst.i(l;1 in 1cdllsttiel Fucs- a-..4 Exp.DSl.;a.m;." pm$ented at the: Australian Syno.p. 011 CaJT.al:Ws'l'l Adt·I~L1e,. Nov; ] 519"5.

.2.. HiT2JniJ, T., Fire StJlhy Sc. , ~r:..j,d Sym,.VJ.,,27 (~'Q~l)

3.. HirtuJlj, i., Fin! Sci. r~M.Ql .• Proe. tu A.tUJII Cr:mt. j] P992.1

4. HifBOO, T., Prae: CrU1i{J:r51. Ih.!.~., 29; 161(2002)

5. Fristt~'yrn. R. M. rnd WI:.'!:;t-:nb~rg"A A., F18m~ ShuctlllD::, Mt:{3r1i'W.Hill. NCow y~rk,. ·1~65.

o. KallWY; A.M., hi.ttodllCti'Oll to CI!),ri'ib1lstiuoD .~(]ffiJ!:j'.If!, Gwrloo illJd BTe:.acil, Umdac, 97:5.

7, Guydon, A. G. -ilOO Wo.l.I:hsrd. 1:L G~ f1;l~; 1'h-:ir S'!r1iOtl.n'El. R.=!cllilitiOll! IIDjj T ~~ntl~, 4[1j ed" (b"p:ra;m itDd H3Ill, Landen, 1979.

~. Toong, T· Y •• Cqf'f'll~I,l.s~l(1 D)'Ularn.ies; abe :Oyn3ft'i~1 of Cbffilfc2l11)' lte .. ~"'1.g 'Illes, Mrum·,!f·Hil ~ ).k:w y o(I~. 19-~3

]0 . .Fni:ldmaJl~ R_,. ASTM STP 6]4, ·Ob!!rn)fiI. A. F. R. ed., ASTh1, 1977, p .. 91.

m L MillO I. N. HUano. T .• ;f!iIld. Ak.ilit K..{l919}, Pnkl:. Cumb .. btst. 17=IlSJ (979). J 2. Roo5. Hi. n, En~gf Cmnb. Sci .• 211: 17 (1994·)

1::!l. WIl" N., KoJb, 6., !lild To.! !I"O, J. L. P:rur;;. Qmib. 'JQll. ;2"1 ;27&3 (1998)

14. BfI~o'il. YI . K. a.nd KU~:inikoVi y_ P _ . .Arc.hi.v.m C!)[]]bll5'l 18~75 (199:8) U. FlJjitll, 0., Tablila.m. I., .aru:il Ito, K-. Pree, C@rnir. 1n:ol .. 213::276 L (:!:(i!!)I))

l.6. GUm. W., Helwig, M_, and W013~, P.~ AIcruvum Ct;ru''b!iS~. 20;33 (2000) 51. Fedomv, A. V -. GO:."T£BV, Vu. A., J.loss.P:rev. Proet:;8S lIiid. lili~ 5] S (200 1)

! s, Kirlb~t1!i. 1"., FiJI: Re:t. Abs, Rev • .3: 1 (1% L.l

19. Friedmen, It, A. Fin R.e~. Abs-. f{e".. 10; i (I ~E1

20. M1Ig~!!'. R. S. BilUI M'cAl-evy m, R. F., 1, 'Fif~ FblJllIlll.bL 2::271 09"11) :2'~. AJdt!. K .• Proe. Comb.. 1!l!3D. 14: L 075 om)

n. WLTljart'rls, r, A.. 1'[0':::. COj'flb. llillilo 16; 1:2.81 ~ 1976.l

23. GJII!SSC1lIll.. I~ r. 'fire FtBmm3!bL 9:&8 (l9.7~)

24. -G13SSTl1:3n, T. 31~ D~~ r. L. fite'S fr:1:y 1., 3:123 (1'900)

:;!:S. Femllmde~Pdki. A.. C . .;:md Hirano, T., Comb. :SC'I~ T·I%I:II:iO~ .• J~:l (1983p '26 DL Dk_~ C ,PUY,b 'Eo.l:Iii)" Comb~ Sci., HJ:i] {!993)

n. Kin::o, T.fll'id ~1:;:1. T .• F1~ $fIf~J.2.:i{l7{lWl)

2:B. Homo. T. ,Jon S;3rtc. iK.., Prog, iEno:rgy CClnlb.. Sci, 20~ -4 6l ~ 19:94)

29. 1lo~s:]1, D. 2rllld M ill~r'. F J-, Fife S"fl:.'!t',( S.d. - p.t'o;)1;. :!h:..th lnt, Symp. 77 {1hOO)

Wi! ~aw ofil~j'j assumed ~ jrLt(5~r€:[l!:lSQt1 2.'bC,lI"lt il ji!1TEe-:SCB]~ pRlcn(j-'liI~nQn would be ~sjbk Ol'!l the basls of (mt knowled~ ;ftocnr:nuJi:iT.;::d by stlldyicg ~lIIa.IJ-SC21r!l:! ph-eOOtl1.mii.. Ob::;C'J"i.'ine: [I'tl:: h.lmit10 I!I:S Z.CJ~e$ q;.pa;.uing ~[ the 'lJ1J'SJd~ of dH: P]I.I~i a researcher .... '(!ol)fd :!::;SlJffie that me)' Sf!: tli'l"'e-s: ~a~ thos~ ~~Li!I(I}' observed in small-scale 'l:X~_ iHow~r, Ibe:n: 19 00 '~'vtdmcfZ 1'(1. i~fe.r lba= a;b~!;tm~tt{i::; M 1M: lumioou!3 ;roDi!S_ A]siJo, it LS diffi'c!iI]l to I'Ide[~~cd tb~ IJ')Cc.liIBn:is:m:s. of :'l~nok-.: ~~Ji.j] ron ;iI~ a pmm very close !o [h~ rim. in ]ibor::'[CIry.-~~~]e diffLilSrnn El..ames, ~r:J;II)l::~ C::t.J11lGt be observed an tl:I!:; .o:-;:[,fi,...er side of I:lK flf:!((Ie~. At poi ~ ~'er) c:ll)sl; to ilia:: rim of a, l2lrse pool full-;. ~O"!'-~i:T. :5~~ c~m be ~rved <CIrI flu. (»; idizer side, "",here the !J"il~TJig~ gas flc.w ~tJ(JllJfI be mW&dl.y r:iul!:C1!:d, ,!Jj in l~b~to:ry-;iGa.k diffits,i~ il~~~ [51. 5iJ ~ir:SIJ!liIIblt' exphriBiloru of 1h~ p-M:E1Qmena wi]] ~C(miC po:!inbl:c. iJaly after te1(~~ ~ t1:'I:d5~~~Df ~ft.is 'sobj.::c.t b}' r~a:rcl:ioos M:alitlg t!~uJliIgh tn.o-\lf]m.8~ of <lI~rot3}"DBJ1I.iC'!;.

Sum!:' cxarnptes of i)ri!a::ti~al a8f'~t'tt of flow fi-c~d9 in f res are p~SCD'C'd in !hi" ~rtida: Tbe

ErnpOr1:ar-.c~ C}f ~{Iwl~dge: 0[1 flo ...... fi~ltls for fll'l: &&fa:ty e'l~jlWcnnI: wDuld be ~al~. JiliDlJgiil 1!mR: 'a::x.3mp~~i are i!ited rli1amly fut.m re.mh~ Qf'bil:;ia; studies,

TILE! t~~ phenomenon of garc OCClJ!JTI!'OO~ ~ l8nill{;Jn. In a pra.ciic::':!l ease, lgtntion 2.1 th£ :5ll;!--rc:C'~ of iiII sol id fla .. rnmable .mEi~t"nal aqx:mls !iilr.Qrlg.ly on Ih:: dlRlG=oorl Qftl}ii! urlace, 'I'M cause o-f il\e cliITC1'~,;;::e of lip! igillDOO r!fe]B:1' time at iI vertical s,:mfttee: fl"'{l- ilio..l II.~ a horizcnral ~urfE"1l: is indicated tc lbt: "'tnbuiab~~ ro tbe O[t"k re!1C_~ Q f:tTow fi c J ds _

Be:h1!1f:itlT. ~ fla.'tJJt: spread d:epe-n& m-ofls]y on t.I:u:: en ... trom'l"lf:IlrnI conditions, M~t p-~najm::m cha~cl~~g IhI: !iprc~ding f1S!m: :tmdf:r a spex::wa; coodruoo '::3.", bl':a:xpSirined by cCil"i..l:i~:g ilia:: f]IJ!W f.ia:-ldll1l~r tb~ ]es.di::n1: flame i:4g~"

'Iow fiei.d!l tn ~Dmp3.J~I1l'U ilM 'pooJ JlliCS' and t'h~ Ilff~1.:; (lftho!;~ fir:! f~ phc:i1omeJli.3 axe also ttl::;:'::I,.1Ji~a::d. Lt i:s pDl:J:rtcd out wt be'h:3vioOt' of i:L ooccpBIlJ'l'tl!il'l~ ~D:: fir a la~' tank il~ ~ id..."'IiI dag]Y:['I!12t-cd to _nl; gas now til L KJty facts, .~ Imo ..... r:dgc about wr~c:b wauld be 'l.l!SriUl ftli e,stilb]iSbi:cg. a DOV!';t ~tboii for fire l'I~~Il!iOI:li (lot i(7Ll)lt:a;:::tiC[]r are indicarcd,

TI1l"1l).i.i.ihoIJI tim BII'i~J: le iii. is s!!Ol'rlll th:n lIjD'tlOSt alJ ~b~ pbi:1J.Qirl!;~m= of Ii flre do::pe:a]d Q[] ~!L:5 lJi0V'C!t:I~FJt.

Wi t(!oy i knowj;::d~t (!IJlI the fnfilll!'llC'E! (ltf tbe flo ..... fid:d: on ~adl. phennmenon iI'J a f~, fl1'r;. bebavior CSlIl1iH)[ 'be [[[]d~tllod t~ aMY I'I!~Mble mcLi-lIIJd 10 IDitj~f.e' llte adverse o::ffet;:ij!l q~l~d by a fi!!'~ would net be able ~a ~st.ihli:5;h,

The authce ~''t$h~ 10 ~ ... press his ~hanks to P'TQfes:!t1f',s S_ M. T_Q iii" !l K_ K... Y n fuJ their ;::fflOT~5 [D ~cQm..1b'OO:I'Id me M: il. 3pc:a..I:te.r [100 1", ~ QrgaIl~[]g ~[k"f: {or ~bw h~]p ;0 21rteOid chJ~ conference,

Kn!J"Nh:dgt 1):1" whe[:'>l:; h,'i&lt-!f:'my..l!f.3twN! 'Iaym miY)' ~CllIllU~ .is. l1Ii:'(:dBj:li I'm' fi~ deteetien 'and suppressien, [It!~~'(!q~ should bE!, :re~ ai' loeatiees v.'h~~ :twt gil.!; r:s liE>:etj to ;!,Fri'i,i~ if !iprinll;:::rs are to be' ;to;:;t~"'iic:ed by hot-gas deteetors,

F (Ii' I!'rnetivi:! fire sUf'PTl~'5Si~1!j by &a.s ~1I:ti~suiwr.s, ~L4) ..... I~dg~ of ~erod.YJ1DrntC ~p£cr::. o.f itte 3~i behavior ls ll]!:ll~p~Ii~~b1e. To- S~f'p[), !!:al fZYI -e.x[i n.gbli:.biog; tm=:s, [h~ ~ f11l)W mo~(:e'd b}' ~'ifify If'IllM be, t:1J(;]:s;jiiku"~d. I f IIJ~ Eilh ..&:r:Jsi~ 'is it ft"'" pe:r¢e.~'L' liIJ"geJ thlll1! air Di!mll:)', ~~I'l the: IId;,,:-u.u:t Qf the cgm i:lI1d air mO'Y~ to the flDor, The v.::1Dd'ty of each Imnp ef :tiIte lIIiKtJ..!te de:p~[Icl:!i DO .i~5 size and g~ C~6:nt~ttOl"L ,L,.a~f1o are IIIH;i~:!k)y ~t.1ish~ in wtJjeb lb~ gas !;o:ru:;!::TJtr3tiQ.n iIf£cmass:;; with di:,1at"!I}e: froln 1Ih~ floor. Fii~ (J~iJ1'finl!: fiear me floor em he lIi.JpjiIJ~!:I by llsi:n8,'tl'ii.s'~ ofps e:xtillg!li£lie~, wbik fires ocG\EITin~ 1iI!:!lII' c~.mDg {''2IruJo4'_

]1' is well ~'!)\llJ! ina[ rl1G behawier 1)f;fl pool fireC!epeltid~ 01] its '~i2l" {51-53 1- The ~Iwnt"i !b£:h:r .... ~r oI:l'1afS1:!el!i~ ille poO:l fire.. Fns 03 peel tim: :iTIll.a~lu thiJ l Jill, the main parli {if: the flame is wr.d~ ye'IJQ1III.1 iij eoler, end St'!'JO~ ~1I bE: {ib.s~d ~ve tllEl!' f1~J'i'l!!'. :Stro~ rndi&.tion carne:s: :F.i"!J.m th.~ ~ntir~ flafi'~ 00 ~~ mher hnnd, [Dr {j [pMI [rre l!'tr,Q.er rlim:1 a fe ..... m~l(!:rs, 'U~1: plume ~ of J].i!;!3.¥Y smeke ~I)nsistilt!: 9f robt, ~r:~ for small pmtb:.11li!i oeru' te base arid ilo[ :J, dis~c-c' gem lt1t1 'b~ (Fjs~~~':B.) [53]. The tmo.ko::: ap~3J'!l cD[Jl~IJ!;]!J':J:5.1} at 21 ]~ !ltl~t§s ~ ~!:' ~"amd 1'lm1;IlClLJ8 zones :a~iLT IIiJ1o:nl1itk:rli~y &.1 ;tho:: ';::;'ltt.=:1' of the phfm~ sCldi 1I"C1~ uPWa1d.. At a reg,J fire, [I:i~ I iqt!iioii :W.Jfi:..l;e ~ ~krl!{ Ibe rim and toe a::lp·e(l[s ofi!tle !pI urne am; semewhet djffNc:1rt from :(jJ0SII: ,o'b.si:r!l~ at ~~p.erir.r;::O!ii~ ~l flres,

10 studies ot ptll;ll 6~~~ ~e tm'Ye:ill!;r~ i"..jLill ~blL.".r.or of the plume has oo~ e~[eTj::fi~l:f ~:ptor'ed [.51-,S=:] M!::iI!51lT'e~l::JL1::5 have beea mi1~ of she WIiloi:e and hmigtrt'-(ljul1J~ bthmol!i', &f .:radia~iuo Ii-mo tJ-.e plume, _iiind 0:£ 'I:aoper.a~[mc: ::lodi ~~i!=.; ¢lim~lTd.llIJEI PllJfi~§ inside iIiIll: pool ind p'll;tm~ D~5p~ Li'~~ :itliIfL~s, lIowev.::r. th~ scm n:mlIin a o~mbo:rr of i:l1il.b<iguiJii;::;s ~bt!W: ptmn~ of peol fi_~S.

Com pa~ IIUIClJI: 3111 iii fQol ]F'IIIfII!;5,

The prifldJ:4! I in'~r~'L of {[R: f!!!ea.rr.t:>::r!i deslin,!!: wid:. room fl.~ has been 't:M (',file of ("'i:ir.surnp-jor] of fumrnlilhle r~a[e.tial iii each fin: room. Kltow3~g.e" of cbi:!i rate is innpornm for." e, .. a luati;n~ tbe r:larnage i(jla1 .j)~~Ll!'S In i:I. room flJ'e and is indi~pe-~Ie F-or bu:ikl3[Jg_ di:SLgrr, The moSt d~ingui!;het:I rcSU][S $Hiaimed in Pre'!'50U! :!iwdic'$ ofth ts KJ.!~Jecq all: she R'l2ItimTl5tlip~ C'€IJ:r~mtllg the effects of op~;rd1i&S C1iJ cEl!!: 6Q1]Sij i1ptiun rate (48-50J. The: depeJldIfJl~~ of lh~ c!J:ll:mmp'i;icm Ii'.al~ 0-1 .m o~llmg shape is 8rn'"itu [Co.le to Iht:: effect .;)!f air flow into 1!Jif! CQl11pi!Jtm~1 induced by blloy;Jl1e,y as 5!10'loYll il'1 Figtl e "1. rr one ...... sshes ~a. pre-aict ~hi!" OO"Il!$llmptkm r.a.,= mort: aCCLl'f3udy, I~e. SJiI)"U[d fl,a,'!,'I: lUi.owledge oa 'IP.~ [I~' field in lhl! C ornpartm Ul

The drivirr;g fQ!'CB of ,he :(Iir :illf ..... mto fue companme:iU Md the bot gas flow tflm1. it is the iffNl:J1~1!' of the denslties roO Ih gat; in ~be rDiJm and alfll1:ii-:i![Jl aD-. in!:lK:.at a (:<'I.8e, the [,i!5 ve'loch}' 'I,\"OI,JJd ~ ;rppro:xirnaBet"y proporl.OOlliliL 10 a sqaare root (i-f 1lie opc.r.Lng hiSht. The a.mo!.mI Dt gB5 .BLf(lSS '11lE! Qpe.lar.g per W1 ir:: lill e v,,'-ouJclt:.: ~he product of ~h~ ~~O~il:Y and area, Thus, !~e (1~mJ[lg factor ~j:I~nts ,Ir,; rate Df .air wnuw. The relatlcn between 1I E operliJ1g [il.t:tor and ilie C01 ~um~ction ra e imdicrne: '!t,e do::pmWenc;e D(1t!1? ecnsumption ril'l.c D[J the 2llnOIil1lt of ::!ii~ supplied to ~h~ cOlll'lbld:i!i.ioJ1 ZGm:_

urtner, tru:: rJa,nlf> if! (he Ctlmp;miillJe:rJt "Woo Id! rill under the infhience of til'=- air stu-am frCi"ll1 (1.1 tsid:.e <:"lm:i .apprnaclics to ltJe wall by the CoafIds clf&f, Tho: preasure d ifference bct"Lvc!:1l A' and 1;5' is ~rmrl~C:T than that A aDd B. I ,lon~ the UIil.U over wt.ic-l ~ nows.. prassure red -:::tJlJrI o;;r;~I'!l. The Coacda effect c,.:m:ailily ii'lC1e;H~s .he amountof heat rral'lsf~.fl'"I;)d [[I '!he wall,

The !1!!:JUdYllafl]ic a:sp;!Cis, of l:trr_gJ:.-s-taJl~ phI!JI~I1\~rJ.i] are quite djffwterlC frQll] these Dr $JI;"i;!II~$(:tlll; DMS, A t~fB:Wm diffe-TE:lE.e of ~iJ ~C i 1liIt.1!~r bish In il plume mdnees a, gil!; vdoci(y OLl .t!t£ ordei' of 1 1'1*. ~~S of diff~rem temperature tI-~rcfure: m~j ff.ow at d~ffM'.mt: wJo.;,Lic:s, witl:i rnii:<illS be::tVlo~',;[I lih~m eccurring (lftly b-y rno .. h:;I.;.ulzrr dil'fus.ioo. Su~b motions cal'! le: tn the C"SItab![. It)ert'l of ~ fllgb·ir:mpc:rB.1mt- ~3:~"bel :.,tr~b the I;~J~Dg in 0001'1 rues,

Wh~lb the Tni.tia~ Jjqu.idi L~:m,p~f,3iJJr:~ is bl:low dto!: flil.sJJ p:D~F.I[, ~il.tiitg of liIe tioOuit;;iJ ahead af th~ l~il1.g ilaID!! edge it needed (ar l1B.ffie propag.a.tiOOl_ For m.iti~ u'qIJt!:J bfmpe:to!J.UJ!!;S, !R'N(;b 10?1.'~r t!mn rm flash PDjtJ~~ 1.l<te b~t tt.ilMfe-r ~o- rna} ~L1J11i:d 8tJ~~ D{ !f.i~. ~e"'d[JJ,g rta~ o::d:gcdtpl:nds stm~sl~ (l1J hqut_d-phas~ {;oo'f!!iC.;ljan, and 1he mOO!:' of U:I!Ime spread i:5: (:lo.scl}' re~~~ to 'lilt: ri~uidl mJJnoYl D~ dtf Icadrng flarr~ [!dg~ [4'1)-4:1]. As 1m: i[ijj( ill [iq~i'd I~mperaturn a~c:k!'l th"t [lilsh ~t:I~. the' ll!!I111h of liq~dd flo,. .. , ahead of the ICildmg f1sme edge de:efe1i:ses, aM fw mlltJ31 Jjqu~{l1empNB;1lIJctjS jmi~. bl::eaw the flash point, r]i.e liqllLd motion vail~i.:.;bti~. In: llti~ J;iJSr.::, the- t:tI'i:!!)UIJ~ of 'h~l tr.3[Jsf~~e:d throUgtl 1ti~ ~s Jib3.!>C ~iret; I]y to 1m: iiquid aito!!;1d of tbe tcadi:Jli fla'rnl:: -hlg{: .IJiIi:I}' 'bI;: ~:i.pJ:fica.lJJ: ~rl 1,:IJJl!iI'8rilElDll, 'tIIJLh rut 1l.J!.!!.it!~d through me: ~~I;jjd~h ase [44]_

for i!lltial li~!.IId temperatures ~Oi;)'~ the flB.~' p~t., I'!! f];!m:J'JRbl~ miXrnre Iilyer 'with a (om:;rnrriltiOil gradient is estabh ili~d over ibe li'ijutd surfaee, end III plfe-rnh:~ fi'iJmt' ~gp.L~S throop i~_ ~.!Il diJi5: case, the CJ~til\ pI\;)~gllilt!()g fl2rn~, llt;]ydlIl2 [be- p~_fII foUow:i:tS 1}j~ l'::Ba."1m.g t'bfiR: -::dl[~, C~D be .a.ss~ 100 be B. prBf,l~j:l{!'!d ;tl.iime., aru:l! SlIS GIJI'W ts 'mdueed ~e;ad! (If Ill;: j;::a.d:ing 11iUm: ~d.!~. Beba"jQ:f (!if flame pm~ga~ilJili depends fit! Ihi:5 gil~ flo-V!" .45, 46],

Wilen a flarm spreads Ov.M iii ijaf.lmliLbk Ijqui~ .n ,iI. me. I:1!t! · .. t:]oc:.ity of wi;OOow "I'r!Gurd b~ lib.!}' al)lY,'C: 'ib[ irutu~d bj' '!he flSImc Im:)p~ga.tiOlL Fi~ 6 sb,a.v;,'S tetults of I!'1o;p«lm::OLS 8boo~ the e:t"fl?-CU of lm1biel!11 ~s flo ..... , O'lli :tb~ flame prop.Bsa:tiOt"t [17. 4-7]-. Te i1. S~13 tb!L1 llil::! epposed ~ir flow mfl.t.:::~ Ih'l: ilJam~ VC!lodty_ :H~WW~l, the oppos-ffl au flow l:ib:qv.e WbH;h (Il~ 1'13me {'3[1]1Q,t sprea.rl is, muelj hl'gMr rbo bait 'Ill 1iI~ C'.;!Is"~ ofnn :Jml:iil!'l» air :l]l;n'rl'_ Als(lo, ~he fhm.o spread rats til ;;( C-D[J~i'I[ .br i5'1rCollJll rkPCr:id5 do:::et~ 00 the ambient ail' ~l1'I::am 'PIt'Jo<:ic~ lilt&: B.lpeet orflsm~ spread in a ~l1l'l'en' 8![ streatn would oot or; valid l3~ 2: lal'~ &a..i.c ~t!id 1lire because 5i111 jnteDael'-LM}ytJ.Jrt air ~m would. be ir:llmlXd l!iJ!!&r l1l;!:: leadiELg flame ~d~~,

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Fi:s\lJ"t! fI VmariQn of flame: prop.:!!s.a.itID 1'e1ociry ,",ub me sn earn ~loc~l}' fer .. ·.il.~ ,'al;.!;;s of initial ~,ll:!.i_i:lOJ LCll!:Jl'fflltw'~ [27, 4- i]

I L is LTifem.:d dl.3t the {iamr;.-:SpC";tad phe300TJ!2"M .In tfif.f£.re[]~ ,[jiI"'Cctioo;S. resemble I;!j}(,;c nshcr jf ib{': i:J(~em31 -air me.am vp;l}!.Ib:l Cilliil:~J 'l:1J..e ai [k~::MI:' Qf the b1..lLQyj_nC"y mects calJ!ro b~ tile d~lts.iiy .differr:nc~ b::twl!:el1d1e,gas f1~r ili~ fr.m'u: from arotd srn bitrJt ~Ir B3],.d S imiJiIJ" fl'ClW fields 'P.1'QlIld be i:nd\tce.cl tI-:::w- ·Ill e Je2ri1ift.i!: fl.;lIrlS ed~!'_ Th~ fCi6h1.C1t"JJIl dllfmllcc:: i()f ~z.l~mll!l air :IDei1ms for me cases, Wl~i;!ij sJmila.F $~b~~ fl2.m~s spread "'I!'"r~icall}' upward and do"'l[t~, was .rl'So1 irnaL'Cd to be sbout (1.2 k,gsl(i1I?~) [34}, 3.8].

II'! tOLMr cases, also, iJa.w-·fteJd measurernenrs have Si ven tl:5 oI:xtr€melr ~omp~heli,Si ale and r~awmlbt~ jnf{lrJJl2l!ion en lht: meehaaisrns of lJr.iE,tAble a:zlm~ !iPff!;o,;d [39].

TIle: InlJd~ of flftme, p.ropag:ariO[] {spr&ad) ;i;leT1JS5 a fh~ltJ]rn~b!1!: liq~llcl *pC:Dds OLI en 'ili:ranrn"!I1~tll ':';ollflitit{111S and ii-qLlid propenl!!:s as :5iOOWEI ln F'ig~ 5.

E\·en 1tP'wiUd ±1<1i1l'=' spr'~J:d can he :!i.L!lr-'fi'l'*:5!icd if & hlgb-vclOl;.it)· dewnwa d 110 ...... is ::op.plioo l!:$ ~bljWil in, Figure 4- t31]~ 3,sJ- Ba9ro t.1l the observatien, alii; r;-p~ (if 119!1li1.e spread were divl~d ~o Lbri:f:

J;;Jtiur.ilc terized b~' I:h! ranges of [h!! l1U: ::;~iUIJ velceirles, Jo Rc~kln l, tep.I1:s.tnlirl.il! the !"3d~ Q:r~Ir_'':1:re2lffl ~loc-li-e:i from 0 10 85 ~~~, f!21m~ spread 'lI,l'2!1 see ]~:mtive, 21ttru)'U:gb !hI: O1ocel:=ll'300[l d~ie;;wl:d 'Wiilb !!'!I! 1ll("r\':9:5C" of ~n~ ~ir-.s~ ~L'DcJay_ In RC~'i)1J U; ~mmg the Iim§~ Qf ai:raS~r.e~rn veloeities frem 85 to 125 ~mJs, local !:iBlTJ'll spread ~te. fhl,;;htlB.ted 8le~J~. and f1amCi ¥'.rt:;Id was of in.1e.fTlle<li.uC' cl<ra:rl"i~tr:sristi:;:!: i«:h'lC:C"J1I ~~00Ge- of ·~~elilcr.::JllV~ fl'9Q1'e sprend 8F,1d ~adr flame S~l:!d. 10 r~i;],n ill, representmg the: ~.~ of air-stream ~locifi;e~ flam 1 25 ~Q- ] 9(10 mil:.. flame sprtad \\'l!~ almost Ii t:ady.and resemoled tbalof dOWD"'l'aro fume :>pIGilrl!.

hi R~crn 1. a OO[ S3.$ ~Cf~am :p~b:=ilt~ the ur:ib f1)~ '[[]lIaeriBl f,s=- ~N:J;edi:ng tfue pyroO[},ru. rr(l 1 ln r.:.t::,gLQO II. dl~ lJoh'ilJl'J~ ~al:eriOlI PJe(:roing ~hc j:lYf'Olym front ~'RS; J1Fe~:;!I~.;O periadiC1lllf_ I1 [miS case, tiJ~ hcat traTl5f~r fro L o-~ ;5L& or ~ paper W~;S diEN:-rn1 fro~ the mft.::r ~d.c_~ Regi~l1I lll. the ~a.:tlltg oftJ!£ "!![]hulmd iD.iI.~ITi.3~ "!l!.S conf !jed in a narrew f<!!a.ioJJ ... head of'tlx: pyt1)I~1S i&DlJt.

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FRIT-$ T i1&lIH ~€ LOC 1 ry" ~mJ~ T~: ~ 1.h:at under l1;1ltU~B.1 I:OiliV.fJ?;t~pn il1~ ;pwarri Ham-c. sprcatll"'8[~ is nlll.ci:J l~rger than []u: do\'t.I1il'1'cml ril~1:" is '!I1!itB eomprebcnsible p.5~3"rl.

Fhlm~Hi- -ead r.;ill:~ W:Jircmd on the ambient air s~am [37-39]_ EaJ:ly paper:; SOOl,Jt [he effects -of '!.'1C alf1{j.i~r.1t ilrir sllr.otilrn Oil Ill.:: flarnc .sJlr~ad ..... ere p-ubl lshed in ~9rly 70 's, F i-gut'e .3 IS iXL&!l ~f the results preS'C111,Nj In these paPl=~5 lj"l]- T1 ~ seen ih<Jt lhc:re 3ippEar3 B, F3,l1,g.e ,of ~t'!bJe-n;1 air velocniea fer stabie-

ame Sprt;;]d. IR tIt;:;'::liT v!!:locily rall~. ch~ ,fli1lD'!:! spread rare deCif~eo ~et'.r' ~ightly wah 111U:e~.rng.air veloc iily_ Th~ &l~ 'Ilsr.,;liC:lty profiles Mar Lho:. kmdj[1~ fiimH: Ed~ wen: m~i'61.i!red., m':ld [t ~ filnlod tbB~ the air stream appt'(I~c1Li g lh-~ lr:ading tlame ed~ d!zC;2~ure-d 10 fGmil il I',~ian of 1(l1}.I'e1' ~lO~fl}' rI~il the papi!'r ~rn.4e M~~d of the I~ ing £tame; cd.ae [Si]. 1[1 Ih-::. Ji!lll~O of 9.rnt; ie:nt air velocitles for ::lJ:.iJ ble flsl'll-i;! spread, Ibe '>I!! loci!:y prnfiles of thi~ region cl:i.ange OIIly'Sllghtly. Fo~ lbis reason ~~bL-:: t"lamo:

SPNM is. observed over a J'D,gC of amh~tlD SiMIJei1Ji1 ,,~locitiG!l.

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'F~gllr't j 'Vari~till)n of tl Ii! iile:o:t[1 P')'T!J~}'5ts :preltd rare 1;'I;ijjJ rree-stream ¥clm:ity fo~ dOwl1 ...... arrl spread O\o"E:r ihis sbe~ gf paper .[1 "J J

On the C1J'1l1J ary. when tl1~ ntdfB~jO~ ir..1~I'I~al)' lS- moc.'l::r'ai:==, j~le SQlid-SYL'f; ce ~~ratlm; lnr:r.:'Bs£s :[!.t~d'!.ilHy and reaches ,~ PJl'Oly::N~ ttmp~n.mrr: afu:r B. hnr-gss 'p~lJme IS e.stilb1i!~d_ "I'm: f12!~bt~ g;a.s eO[)~II~.a~lOn ~rc~ gr.ildlliIlly. !lJ3d '!hI!: t-:::m:perarurc is Iti~b~[ at the surfa.:~ w\ep.: Ib~ r;::t~nl:iSl radiation is. absorbed. AJi.l!Jougb. the flammable ~~ e;;m.;::m1r:a~iOD woold be h.ig,l~8~ .. L !hI:! center of ttl!! irrsdiated ares, IIiht;; iSEili~iol'! OCC:U~ 81 itf p~ij"pb,=iJ" j1u~'~ _armblJ!2.b!e '!<l' th.~ effect or the selid surface, A~ [~l' pe' -pt!~" ~ fill ble gas mixes ... vitb ail" and iacreases 1~ tl;:"~rillt..rr~ du~ ~a [be- MB1 ft(!irn m~ :!il)l~-d S!.td'll';::~ i.e., ~h1: fhtmmilbll:: ~.;mdi tiGn.:b '~~~ab,li a hcd, I'n .h~ ease, igDltiOI] com in1.1£S tf L1~ tidi~ 1i0n source BS removed, The l~l1i1ion delay time for l~'i!:: ):I~lli;51~.Dt ig[lj'lOR lit ,£I hClrj:zOrd~ I !'Ij[~~ j~ kmger [ball. that ,ii' a \re:~!ca~ smi~ce. 'Thjs ci:iffe:I!t'';ce. is !lIttrlDlitiilil]~ £0 't11£ diffet'Cn~ (lor w:sRli:ibwrom: {If ~3mm:Bbll!: g;EI~ ~Q.lll:el'lt:raiio~ lIndC'f ilttl~e1~e 00£ ililiru:r..1 c!Jnvo~tiorL Fo~ 'I~ b&rlzornal so:dac~, the ~iJ..im aJ. whleh ".\If: l,;omJitlO]l;S ner.;essruy .ID[ J~.roD, to OC-l:UI 3!~ fU':n ~!isfil::d is l!:1I:.:a1ro at 1frIs periphery ~:I' tl1ei irrn:Hil.tC:d section. whll!!! (0 1IJJ,r;: 'i.crtlcaJ surface it is fi~'1M bottom of ~i:J.!l: i~a~d .se(:tioo. ~ ]iJfIlN

OC(1ffi"j rm~ri£! easily, For bi,shcr radiant :fl1JX. 1r.alillii;::Dt ignitioll is o~~Md,

jn~ Jllmp of 141:: IgnitiOll dday nme fur mral'lsil!'f'it iglLi!":ltlll .0 that f.or V-!'liii~.e:nt !t!nili~.m I;i1D be explmned considering Ih;: ilbCr'{'C' l!II~lII:i!J-ll:!d d.iiJ.::rer.i(i: in tll~ f.li'o~~:s~s of" iguition,

It should be: DaCro tibn.t even if :iii.:: ~lmfIera.~ (If 'Ih~ mtlteriaJ, rurf,sQE" ~:>:e~& ili~ gumutio:n, temperature, l~n:i,i!lIJ, ~SDQt ~m!X~y Qf4;Ut, Far igmtinn, thl!' r::I~:e <if gMif'iM:ilil:i.oD sitoollii Ibt 51lffic:ilmtly hlgb to Cn='.B.M a flam:mabJo ~~~ tnd '11:: p:~nOl: 'Of a'l) ignilion sousce or b~nng of ~ tmxtnre 10 &hi!" -!![lltil!)fl tCRIfl€Il'8!l.I!'ie is: I~~~ry,

Fi)an e Sprll.!E1c

A. :nile' k~l'ls more Se;rdCIII!l a~ tl!.e b~ >J;I'Ca incUoll.5I!:S by n~ :ij:oJ:J::i!.i F~a.me.:;pn::ad i:fWir a cl)r"lI;!ense4 eQltilH~stibt~ !lrLC(!1:' v~.rl(l\JS. cOOldliiliom has bl?et1 (!:o:~J:rtini:d, aoo apprepriate I~r!]~ iI1! .. ~ ... eM ~)rl)J1{1sed "T'b.t 1le.Sll!Hs oI)f.p~viOl!'~ *Idl~ ua thls 5UI!J.j~c:t have been .s.uJ1JEIlBri.zc::d m &E'lftra[ r(vi~w piqlE!r;S' I ~ 8·30]'. 1"JJ..: ~a,_ifni:Sm:!i Q( ~mOIJ!i ~.s of flam~ s_p~;Y;1i ~.'fe been ~I.'ored, and 3: !aJ.~ ;jIrnlJloiJl1, (If dilti1 hiI:s beea ,j]~!Jmu1~t~, Studms on Chis sllhj~, seem to hi: i:ht mnst ad\~2iI"i~d: of th~e r:.;Qno~rnmg me. devel oprr.eut.

Vi,fhe:l'I the- . e-mper.:mne 0'- a c-o.[)d~ed WDlbJJ5tlb[(: is 'b-=:fuw itS iI.'h:sh lc:rnpe-rllru:re, there j:5; PO I\Illi~F ~f i1!iilt!J\lflble mi~fl,'l~ ~~d ti)'If"I] 1;' !I~ In lli{S case, rn~ eot:lI;hm!cd r;QmJbusuble gasifies by. nhe: Ele.a!.&Win '1:1 €Iall)e. 1tte Plsifled .;;:o·m1:msr[b·k gM- lS o::j~~!::dJ mto :Brnbi~t ~, IIhr;: cernbustien 'f.~::u::[iaD ;;X:W1~ m Ih;: form or <J diffiJ.sL'!JD :ilam~, ilnd the MILt C'Cj~soo ~[ fh;e fl.am~ JoClIICnon ZO~ is ttansfem:d Co til!; oor:KkD!ci eomhus iblB.. MQ5t pr1:'"'.ious stud~s oc~ fI;j!Jm~ ~d over ~1i'4 rombU$tLbJ~ ~lJ.l'f;tCI!'!; bave ~ ~rfimnc:d oQn tl)£ 'bi!$i~ Qf thi;ji ;P~i!SS'a as 1,:m:L be ,~:rtll"X:d. by ~eceJi' PilIpN3 on this S\JbJte[ [J I ,~;;fJ, 0.)1 1i1e O1lt~r IiIaiod, Wru:1I the. I:'m;p~tftme of a OOnflffiS~d ~~~~ LlDk h a.bO\ll!i j~ flasb te f1PI!;rJ!.!'i!J~, ~ 1 )'~r of OIl li.a..mJmblc mixture M V1iipljnz~.d ,g2tS .BOO arnbiem !trr Js ~mbli5'1loo O'l,!!!r lllt OOlrlb\l,.~b!c: ~MC ~j'"iJH ignitlrm [24,115.30)' In tl:-~ C~.::!! plr:m.i~cd ll31n1l;!':propiLg;a~~ mrou:Sti the l;).~I.

A f]1Jime .spreading el01lg ~ polyrnJ::>11!ll material, a rypic::i!lJ eClrnbustlilll:' solid, i~ sustained by ~Lym~ oo.mbustibL,:=, gas ejected fi"cm the"p~%l~rs ~g;lo;n of 1kc: p-oLy1T<t2rk: 'L1\~~ial ,rurf.j]c.,=,~ -be r.a~,=, or:f'l:unc spread, I!:~pr~ssed by !fjfl progress l~L": of IE p)Wt15LS fiOl'H, d.epend5 on thr;: rate cf hear tr~, from dl.e fla~ eo abl:: ~ori& b}' !;(!i'.mr.:iUt:ti'Dll convertioa 2100 L"2d~ati!).n, SJIJCC IIhc: heat trl:msfi!f d-e~en~.s ,Oil 1m fic!',,!.! I'5tld, Ibe mode of fume spread is c:f.t)sc]y iileli!1.ed to ili~ ambl;2t1[ gas S Ram ile;lJ .e ]~admg. fla'ITlf ~g~.

The i8nj[~C1fi pf 1':1. i1Ii.rnmabl€: mi:l.:iIil J!o 0(;¢:1lT'S ~ ... 11~ 'tl eo. heat-release rare J~ larger thaa U1e hear-luss rate '~l .;my ternpercture below .be fl8me temperature, and rhe IgnD[OOri process nas ~ee-n dLroussed {hQ!'(lIJlgh1y J[J pre ... iolIiS s1ud~ [S.-11J- The precess oa~pend$ rn~~l.:r on 'IiIc: mixture ecrnposision. SjllD!:: [he mixrtltle IS c(}lll~ed C f ~ frDm a h::alro (ombuslfib!e' soHd ilOO ambient S~I'. tl a is'LepS of .[¥Isa:fiCBi'iCIm and !J1rx.ililg lin" impMrmt to understand d!£ igniliioll irl ~s, lil g.Gn~r. the beD. i'l~~ss~' ttl i~i1i! a flam :fibJ~ ill h.lUJ~ t~ small elllti'l~~d with 'l1iitl [I1:!~~s.S<1r)' ~o g:asidY Inc: so-.lid CQJ:.TIb"-!:':1 ible Ib~~ produces tile ~{1mblls~jb_ SIIS. Also_ mlxillg of the gas with emblem air lIt(;D('ssIl1i[y oeeu s under ~lIe mflucr..c~ of !boo~,Rll~ ,p!;S fl0~:Y near iIhc ~~a~c;[I surface,

F'ill:lJ~ :2 shews the resLllt!:: -ohl1 i:Jtpt::rlDill!mt all i,gIl j( 0'1 t1IItI:~[ dl:lr.:mal !'ad'ati~n Ii~r]ting [] 1]. W[JC"II LbR: ra'rl[.iltLoIl 'i!1:tcll:;i~ ts hjglh dl~ s-oiid-!Jarfac~ tU'f!p.e.i1!run:: increases !"EiPldJ:y ,ani;[ reaches is p}'lo1:r.:i5 Lil:mjL!r:::.T'3tU!e imm~rl i;;.t-e-Iy ~fiie.r rn.:::swt1:!r trradianon. FI.ilm.mab ~ gas S~ti~taE~ by gasiiYil'1g [1':18 ~oUd js o::l~~~.rl 'Jl.<itlt a, i1JgJ1 .... el;:xif>' jnro the .amibiclJ[ ai!l' .;D1d rni.x!!d 'wit~ tt ~G C(l.JDJ.:oO~ a fl-3mrna.bli£ m~;r[IJ1'El 1t layer s.11ff'OIllndlll~ the c:jea:eG flammable PIS.. I~ b; the tJJ? M the 'ftanuruJblc gas [et wh.e~ the- ~,;~C'mZlt ra.::liif:lrrvJ1 is most eE'Mcti ... ~ly at.s.orb£!d ;fItld ~ Illixtw-e first ,e;j:l~S [Qm:'litioos to j,gr)j({: In this ease the Dll.(1"-llg &;.:::5 not conrmue ifiM radiation SQ~_l"I;C_ I~ removsd just .... fier ~gni~on_,

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effeets of ~ ~ flow flie Id io YI1 .... e S't3..'llcl fire: !¢lena-mens. sueh as igni.ion and f]M:I:: sprea:~. /! 100, bel i'!v~or of die' ,g~~ rt>o~',i m u -tc:tJirtpanmtnl fEre Dr pool fi~ is d~tJ~~1N!I fo.r lIuiizii1g the .knQwledge 00 il to resolve futu~ i~ lJes';1:1 OlJgh only timh>rd lnowJE:dg@: i~ s.l,lI-la le <It p1CSG'r.!t 91 Ibc~1! s'UbjtI:C[~,

19l1i tioll

I gmthm is a ~y phemorncnon 0- fife 4}(:C'IJJTC[]VI:_ A I~ge number of slD:di~ h VI: been clm'i.c::d am 0- 'l1ti:i s~bj1ZC't. TI~f'(t1I;ghQ~I~ rhose ~trn%::s, quantities r-er'J e.t:el1tin,g jBIJjlio~ f:mt:k:rbEic.s, such ;8::; logrnl i on lemp~n:( re, miolmlml ~gni( 011 t:n~y, and igni1 i(l~ deta.y time, bs.,,'e beim evahuat£d M Jt'Je:.i'ifiun:d, and lli-l: ffiecl~niS'.n'it .of ;"'iJriou5 typ~ .of ignition h .... e been 1I'C'fo::31lcd [S·I7]. lndeed, 2J E~trg= iitrn'I.OLllDt Dr dasa efi'e(;ti .... .e for o£vc'opin.g (I;f improv.iJlg 1eclmolagi~s for flm pfo,et:tiol) f.:5 a .. 's.ill!;bl~ 01'.1 this topie,

'1gnmon of m~ eombusdble materia!:>. in bLilildrngs, FGTe.5 5, er veaieles ocrurs in tl!e gas phese ibc processor ~<IJ ignition at fires is shown in fii1)le 1 [iJ.tVblm a oCillnbusfiblc soJMJ of seeh mru~nills i~ h~a~~ .(1- ill lemp::rail:I!IH' above ili!: ~ifkaljCln t~mpt::rnrureJ E'Ji!ml[lt'lbl~ g<lS stans 1~ b~ ejel;;l.cd from tt.t surface and mixes ".'!.'ith f1ir. Egnlljofi ~U[!. in Imj~ ~CI4tlbtl:!:ll'b!~ ~s-air rntxtu~ if tI-~e coo:di.ti0M of conc.:::mr!'-tion and temperalurl: of iii.:: mixtn!ioE 1bEc:.eS:i~ fOi .igtljlion ;(ire- s.~tisfL-ed.

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Uti:!; piI~ presents :;iJ'lT~ e;>;jlmpl~ of peactical aspects of ~D'W fli!:'bm!:l ir. ifi~!:1, A!rl'!(,tS,' all the pll~mca.~ oQf!li tm: depend !JIll ~:; mDVC[D.!=l'_t. Wi1i1eut b.owl~!!:~ 'iJl1li thi? ~lItl~ei1(1~ of ili~ flew 'B~H en ~~IL pbelJome.l!loo In 2l fir>i:', fire b::!ha'&'ioC" cannet K understood ;!ncO :il1Y t~!!t.9Di!hl~ tnethod 10 nutig;,!~ the adverse effects caused ib::.' 9. [il)'!' 'I!!Ii11J1rl I!lO~ be a'bll!" 1.0 ~'bH..5J~, A~)I' ji'OOitQTIl~.;m ot,mJ:: OCC'U~IJ!;;;:" is ignitiorJ_ In 8, practical case, l_gnj~)OJI, an: tbe surfaes of, a .solidfl!l:rnmabl{! material depends ~trongly OJ} the dj~ctiilm of llie surface, Tlse Ci!ill!,:e" (if [It£ .iliifktett~e 0'£ the i.gni~~iZ!'J1 dda)' time: :N 9. ..... ~roc::i~ surface 'from chat ;;!I~ a OOrlzl)[iU'[ ~f;!.::€ is ind i~~ 00 he ;Htrib~lO!fbl!:! to j}~ diffcrcfiC~ m'f;!ow fi~rds. Btiha~i:ot' i!:if fhl~ Splr:.ilJ ()~n~ StD'Q;[lgly QtI cb~ Pl::nv.l.r'o[J[f]~n1i111 ~ondlti.ooS. Mo:s,t P.bimCfJ:l~~~ t:haru::~rn.ztf"l!!l tlt~ tpr~dmg fli!lIle~..J .j] ::;~dfl(! condition tan be i!!:ol.plllj~oo Ib.:.- con40iru;:~8 the futw f~ld n~:1T 'iM l~diDg nanl'=' rogi::. Fla.w fj'~]dS in COtt1IJ'3,ImlC';lH and p:!'D1 fl~3 ;!F.!O t]~ t ff~13 of iliJJ.::i~ an ,r~ ~h.rno:J:Ix:Da. are a~S'D discussed, It is ~!Jimcrl OO~ W~ h~h::a'il~or ;;)of a ~tlrup:l:I1.mJ:n~ (ire or !II l.iJ1m'== =:mk fire is ~]Ds~jr J.el~d to d::i~ ~s i1Iow in it. Key fse:[J, !fle btow]e-d,~e. "'OO!;JI w.bi~h WDO]d be IDSCfuil, for c:;UblJ'stJiD!!l: :3 no v ~l IItM'tl!.od foil' 'tire: prer~lf.'lJbilI 001' jilrr.~ec1j(!n. :::J~ i.:J!di:eil'Ir:d,

KtJ'W(l;n:l~: rm:., l'L"{i'W :fu:ld; Jgnition, ,f1a~ ~pn2:dI

In gc."'l.ernl, "reauha a;f baser Srud:I~!>" hla'll'e bom ~IJP~d ft:t; ~ "lMili:d"::~:!I," for p.:rac.tic:ai ~OS~ii.

Indero.. it [os ntDt (:3:S)' to find direct reJati£!l'lS >:;!if t.!1~ mU[[t -ef basic ~s ana s.~1~, ~ppanI,tIl~, st.IDdMlf;., 'Dr r.egW3!twD fOO' fu~ ti:21[~ty. Cf..1'I~~i!d~, en.gfi[]~~ M"~ been not iDOOf'lfS'tM i~ h5i~ :IDliHe-,s ilt fl!(' ,$s,fcty .5.C~s,ru;:~. Af,so k,f.I some eases, tb~ l;I~cJessll~s seems to be :Ei S~ ~i,!.S.E! fol)r :re:::~~hel.B. wbQ h2Ve ~en clJ[Jdu~~~ng ~df-.l:jLl.tidkd ~s" Any ~,~!b] il;iif eq't!ipmetJu fur f'ir.~ :s;::Jfcty, ha'l,'O'(:"~, .:;:al:I:ti)~ be invented or impreved .... v:ilbm.lt );:oo'ltrlM,s'll 3£euml,!ik;!,~:~ lilrol,.lgh ba.!lL'l:. frr.e ~!!'£. Even ~ftw iJli"~Dlrol!l or irr~"em~l1t. is app21l:'i::lJtly 3~CIm'ip1 i;)hoo by lriul ilrull error, iIm: ii1:~T.ltor or irrif'f.O"'~I ~d imp]~ i1J~ ftl,2.~e !!U! Ijf kJJo'W~gl:! wbith b bas iJtJ.:Bir..::d befi:ir;J2'h!£iI1.j fJ'O'l"nIlj;~r~ or ~~lIJd:fjN!i on m~ ,i8[cty (I-ill].

A~ tlW, situation j" ,f]lust be tIlS~fu~ ~JJ md~c~tf.! tlt.e impmt.iJnc~ of besie kmowkdeo ,For oBru.cidari~~ t1w ~DGC:iiS of each ilW.livi.o!illJ2!~ fire, bE:I:&I~e" \ll]de.rs~~Ji.din;g ~ precess of a lla.rtiC:U~3f r~ is :indl:sp!;!ru;;:',b[~ ~o ~mbl~b. aD ~ffe.:::[~ ... ~ o!'l~::H:cftl1:.1!! mitbg.jHe leases to be caused b)'Hl~ fire. [t ITIIJ.St be :d~ '1Jaol:fu1 1:0 show ~ypkal ,~'tiIiiJi!'k~ >!:If J[f5:lgbrful in1:.=rprrta[lo:ns IOf reTE: plteu'l)lTh':n.I OD the hIG::;i.s of oo~~ :krJ..;)wl..i::~f:~ uecurmrlated thrcugh basic fir~ N3;!I~S-C'J~,

AmtlDg, basic f[[C ~Se'!!lrc:11.c;r::i, il is '>'ron l::I;IOWli ~brJ L .j]lmos[ all ,~ pb~ornl:!'I:!i q.f 11 fire depead op. g,2ls ·[oo"'PII:m:nt. [t .5{;C'F!'!!io ToO rne, kIO'.t'~""";J, !~I p:ri!o;;r[~al fire 1!';1l.E~'l~~f~ haw Mt I~i:zro iliie irnpor1ar..-c:~ 0 f this mn" Thas, in w~ paper. an ~tti:mp:t is ,pen'Q'J:t'm~ 'Il;) indicate lflt '!J~furnetS ef kII!Jwl~g-il aOO"rnI the

MG,Farl:;me~ A, C, (1 ~9]). PTSD: Synthesis of research and clinical studies; m '~:Mt'ema.d Dna:! Halld!h.ook of TIalilwrujc $t~:s Smd.!2,[n~s_. Eriiterl by Wilson J'P~ Raphael B, Nr;w York, Plenlnn~ pp 421-429

Mitchell, 1. T. (l983). '\Vhe-rt ~i saster nAtEs: T,ne critical incident stress dehriefi'r'i'g proeeas, Journal 0:[ Emers;~[Jcy Medic;al S(cd:c.~!k8" ~~,.3 5-3 9-

Mitchel], ].1,& B~)', C- (1990). Eg"te~"gen;;:v Services _Suess_ Englewood CILffs.

NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Milihdl t. T, & Eyei~y, G- S. (J 995). Qptica1 tndde-nt grew qellnef:lfIg: ,An, o-pe-rations man:ual .for tiL'€: ijJn~-~tiQ.n of trnlllm3Jti-c s-tress among emcrge:my ~r:f1I]C~ ...... wlzre- Elli~lt City, Mn~ Chev,ron_

Neva, 0., Keinan, 0., & Tesbimovsky-Ardit], M. (1993) Humour and pain 'l 0 1.::: I:1lJl{; e;,. R~rrngpr, ,6. 7]-88 ..

Ne4U, ,A_ M.~ N e'ZU" C. M_, .& Blissett; S_ E_ n 988} Sense of Humour ;:J._S a Mod,t:r;:l'[or (!Ifthe'Rebti~ between stressful events and psychol(11giG~] distress: 1:1, prospective analyars, J 0 uTpal @ r Pei'.sJm~JiW ~m(i S.Of;i~1 F's,'Y¢'nolog,v, 5~ (3) 520-525

S ubstance Abuse: ~d Me~'ta1 Health Services Admini stration, (1995). Disaster:

Work and Mental He~l~; P;;e1L'AA~.,jn~r:K~ Control of Stress BlnfJ.n~ W()rb~rs" W~Mhingtoo. D ,C.: AothoI~

Wagner, D ieter; Hei nrjdl$, M.Qtku~~ Ehlert.Ulrike (19'93, December).

Prevalence Dr $ymp toms Qfp.a.snrau[(l!il:t.lc Stress Di sordcr in German Pro fessioeal Firefighters, Am J Fs)'Ffuia.1:ry r55." pp] 727-1732

AJi.deJ"8et;1; E_ S .• Christensen, A. K.,. Peren:en, G. 0 (199]). Post-traumatie stress p;.:-i!c~iO"[i$ afl:'tQngsl rescue wi)rkerj ~~er a. majcrrail accident. .JmJ:ictv R~sA_ pp, 24,5-.151

D(:Pmieli~, T. (I9~l5', FebJL.ia,I}'). fjp~figbt~::;' PTS.D at daagcrous levels. A]'A .Monitor, PJl. 3·6-37.

Dyregro ... t , .A .. (1997). The pr"OCC5~ of psycholo gi.C21. dehri eflr.!g£. J,.@JTl·aLof TnL"l.ltj'Jatil: Stjle~s, 1. 0,. p~. 5-89--605.

ErS"lilllll", So; \Ve.isae:t.~ L; SUrl~ A. (l9g9). The stress i.JlPOJl rescuers involved in an oil :nig dEsaster: "Alexander L KieH~lllcltl 1980_ AG:t~ Psychlan Scalld ~u~, .pp. T&--4,.9'[tYfed.l iDe].

Fig1C)"~ C. R (1995). Cempassion fatigue, as secondary ttatnnatic stress diro.rdeJ'~ an overview, in Co:mpassiml Fatigue. Edi~ed by Figley eft. New York, Bfi!Di1~rl1'4azel, .pp 1-2.0

Floren, T. 0984., MSKbiApriIJ. ·Impact of death and. dying {:.t'II emergerl~Y ¢ar"¢" personnel. Emergency Medical SSf¥1-cCS.. :13 (1)., WA3~-1.

Green~ B.Lj Lindy, J ,D~& Grace .. M.C_ (19&5}- Post-fraurnl ~lic Stress Disorder: tg\i!,~ard DSM -I'V. J Nerv M ent .ID i~, 1 73, p-p.40Hl I (1:4c;dtinel

Greenberg, Leslie .S- (200.1)_ EMqtign, 'EOi;U6 Th{:mp¥, \Va.sh±ngton~. Ameri~an P.sychologic8·~ Associ aliOiIJ

H~Jn, R.C_: Gardner" E.R.; redo M..; Sttclmey, S.K.; F'ft:tIerbaum, H. (1979).

The proI'essiorulll burnonr iS~drcome_ Pn-qhj1a.·[ Qpinjo'flI; 16(4\ pp.12-11

lioogmltSOIti, EE.; Stewart, M.. (U.?91.). CgpingWjtJ;p.,!duj.is:trnpfje;~ a Handbook 9ffii'SjI.{I'l$r Mf.n:a~~€:nt, .Lofid~t1: Routl~~·

tntemanenal Association of'Fire Oids: fOii,)"fiId;&li'O:lJ.. (1991). Stress. rnanag'lm1qnt ·Mqde~emgcili1'i. fOr ma·i·ij.UJining nrcficlJ.ter well-beillg_ Wa.shtngton, D.C.: Federal EmlCTgene:y M:sm.age.rr;u;ru Ag,ency and The US. Ff~ Administration,

M~ilil, S- (Ju!ile, 19;E I). St~s art-d the Fire Service .. The .Minnesota FIre Chiei.

Vol. 47(61

Mar"li.n, R . ..:iJ;.,. &. Lefcenm, D. M .. (1983) S ense of Humeur as iil, MOGCTdor of the rc:l::!holJ iberweefj 'Srre~1:'S ,i!!.ild moods, JonH11a)o:fPersonaihlv and Soc,ji!l .PsvehollOg~t 45 US) 1313 -1324

M·cF{trlane,. A.C. n 9:89). TILt; ~e~iQlogy of post traumatic rnf.lroldi"(y: predisposing, pl'Ccipits6ng andpcrpetaadng faCID1'S_ HI" J P%iW1furt. 154. pp.221- :n.&[Ab&,~racl]'

MtF:a.rlaJ]~, A.C. (198"7). Life Events and Psychiatric Dtsomer: the Role of a

this enables emergenc y workers to function -a.dtq uately EVen. when they are feelin,g· fe::":lt CIT horrer. However; this defensi ve toughness Q f atti lucte, temperameot, and training rna y. also "become an interpersonal .sty]~ that the emergency workers adopt ill the] r [e] a t~oJl5-hip's with 'their :&p!lus-e ·arui chi] dren especially aft.::r they have accumulated ·11 certain levef or :saiJ"1¥S;;5 reacticns. This would have: become aa

unconsci nus choic e of relating to others as their own capadties to deal '!iJ.'1 tb aaditlQnai stresses in li f.e: decrease as a resul ... Thus, this not on "i rrnpedes their capacity to be able h) involve emotionally In au inrimaee fashio», but else creates a dlstance .lJl. themr reloi:!l~j unships w~ th people QrO und [hem.

It is the duty and respom;ibil.ity e f every emergency Senllef officer to provide for and eni'lanc e the emotional wellness cf his or her department. WlthOUl the Silp.PQo.11 and dedication of everyone, stress and griefwi1l continue totake a toll on firefi~te:rs, paramedics and their famili.c.s., Providinga "rol)n~ table' sessian:l'), i!lfll;rr each rl.a.y's work CIDl he a ~at :b:el1~fii for fir-e:fighirers: and pararnedi cs to rel ~5C their emotkm by talking freely about their feelings. Recognize a~d ;;tck.nO'wredgc good week aru:1:s.ohd achie ... 'Crncnt as well '2lS regular check ing 1]"1, w.hh the learn members a few d ays later [0 ~l;1t: how they are doi 1'1& B u;ilding. up the morale and bondi 1\8 among thSDl carl create a supporti ... rc network tfJat allows fot open sharing of d.o~bts and gullt f-eeJiilg!j.. Floren (1934. P ,4 3) "points out ... "OUi' training saould emphasize the. need tOf" supporti v em: ss and free expresstQ:n o.f Jeelings ... in stressiul aituations to help prevent serious problems. V!JTo: noted to be prepared for Ihc internal conflicts that may sUl1l)undi .1"1, patient's d-eath end k!-)(J\-Y how {'JIJI· self-image. m~L'y· SI:Cn1 tl::trea[ened by that

event." El:.pe:rLenCi;n g :;J full support OOIT,! top mlaJ:l!s.,g€rr.le,[U also affirms the ftre:flg1lt~ and paramedics to trust their own jUdgme-D and decision in faCing emergencies

o peran on IS or disasters, .A..mLn.ge for a. structured CIS debriefing or defu:z:m;s if nocessary .

. From an organizational tevel, prO'l,l'jdjD_g tl".::J!.inEng progrn:rn that 'prov~de laforrnaticn on grief, suicide and addiction prevention and p-rofl'lO(ing emotional wel]nl;5S are very much needed, The blter.tta.tiooal.Asrod.alion of Fire Chiefs:" FO~lI.dation (1$19]) &t~!e8, "continuing education and uo:aining within fire (te:]J¢ttm-t:nts are faveredby many as tools faJ .flilleviatLn~: :streSifi. 'I Furthermere, "S!pI:,;;;aEI: training fn dealing \: ... ith death, crisis aed suicide an: needed, and erieruation programs ~J;a}' Elelp recruits better prepare for tile p:f1yskalaod p&J.cho~t')gi-c:o,1 rigors of their ]Jew profession," Ronan (J 9841, p.43) suggests that there is a. "stm[1~ need tD provide a more hamanisric approach in ~h£ tTainlng of emcrgeney [service] perso I'Lne 1. " A1S(i1, "we need to learn mOP!; about death and dyang, the stages of grirl~ \ .... hat to expect from a sll.d-d!en.Jy bereaved fart\lIy:and haw we may TnQS[ helpfuUY interact with f~""'·ily members,"

7

managing ODf: is emotion, Artknow],edge an:d accept ene's llnpl eas.tmt emotions ~ sad, rtr.Jgry 001:1 of controL impa~jent, etc, is crucial to manage ene's emotion, Buildin~ a safe support network where one can dms~tls~ frr.:cJy one's guilt' .feeling and allow

00 j ec live feedback from o(hEI1! would be helpfuli 1'1 oro Sf to reduce t~e distress o f false guill, Being eble OCt ta.lk about tl1e pressures involved in (jaum~tic situations, to uuderstand what others: hatrl: experienced in similar Situations, and know thiP.t they are not atone rn their feelings, These aN the djITerent Ways tel facilit3;'te the reI!:a.J!'€. of stresses in out emotion,

Stress. also mows up in our muscles, aIJ{I regular release ofexcessive.muscular tension 'helps to.relax -OUT body. Heat, bydroUl.f:[;;IPY; exercise, stretching, shaking, progressive muscle relaxation. and bO-iiy Work are all different way'}. to release excessive tension in. muscles, .Nlany bodywerk methcds facilitate, t:be release of emo~on, Gentle e ercises like brisk 'W,a)k5 are [Jot only good for the body, but they earn have a. calming effect on O~"S mind as. well, A rel ax~ exercise' session can nelp combat stress, but an Intense, afl-ou: w'!Jl';ko]j~ every day -can sometimes be another wayto avoid facin.g a lJainfuJ reality, Also, ever-exercising can easily lead to iuju y.

Ak.QhoJ .• mea tine and caffeine arc o.flef.1 frequemly used to release stress or to deal willi str-€ssful situations. "rile act of smoking is often a way to repress feeli flgS and put distance between or.i!::;clf and a 'JJFoblem, Peopl e UDder ex treme stress may ~cl1ld to "self-medicate" with alcohol, trmquHlims, coffee and other drugs. both :le,gaT and mega]. However; nicotine and caffeine can C~5C far more problems than ·tbey

~(1 lve, It over-stiruuiates the body raili~ than relaxing. Ml these create depeD~ency, whi en. SfeD15 to exacerbate stress as we] I as raise: the. cortisol levcls and bre~k.down the genetic protection that every day Ftghts -nffbacteJ:i.a.,. virus. afid 'C«nc:er 11] their body. ms:read of' 3 drink, hy 'taking a walk. Instead of pi ITs, tTy talliiiilg to a f-ri,eIld or'SPOI,IS>;'

Stress can 'b-e contagious al'ld one may easily pass on. one's stress. te others:

The iIII!loijity to deal with stress .at work often affects c,he way one r.eJ.aks to people ~LJnd them eSpeei~Hy w~th familymembera ~~h:as spouses and children. Whrn one Is: under stress, the whole bClrd.y and mind are 'VeT")!" alen to that particular situation wbi(;~ becomes the focus, Reht.bv{:ly Othl:f situaiions Of 'the: needs of spouse aDd others are .Cilol given much ~ttmtio:n.. The strueture of O[IJT millo. automatically selects to pay allrntLofl to wllat is moot bfiportant to our survival at lhat :mG~}f:fI , Neglecting rug needs of OIL!'" SpU'Il:5J:'S and . .::mldreo ms a eommon tphenQijlr::oon"ofbcing. MOeI' stress.

A second phenomenon to tress reaction is an excessive need !.(II be- in GOiHr;Q]; strh::tlY ocquiring spouses and ehildrcn to. follow one's plan or requ irement A high alertness and atlr:nhQIl to certain details :aJboot s~fttv moll\' become a demand mid

~ ~

burden for other-s to fQIl ow. Research bas found rl~~t people under conlinu:oody bj,gn

stress l1UIIy lead to (1; scrganization and. aggression, Initatioo and short temper are frequent expression-~ wnen ens can [lot experience being in eontrol of the situati.on. A tow [ole-ranee for jndjvidllaJ diiffcrer.Jce mlon_,g family members can cause either a fearful response from spo LL~-e or children and leads 'to repression of reeling and . submission 1.0 control or aCl angry response~ wmreb J.ea{($ to resentment Of rebellion.

One ofthe rn~t important funC'Hon.a.{ skm ~m~rgenc)' workers employ is ,ill state of emotional t:ontainmetit. Contai nmemis not an absence of emotion; it is a conscious choice to temporarily isolaLe· certain ematicns frOoItJ file interactions so that

i rtcrease one's mental stress.

Humour can provide some form of tenston release, and can fadli[ate:a reinterpreta ri on of.a gi ven si tued Oft or event (Martin &: Lcf£Ollit11 ] 9S3). AJSO] t provides a re-lease .for a ggresa I On although there j S !JJlcertaln'ty about whether aggression is reduced or increased by the more overtly .aggreSshll::· humour. If aggr.eS5ivt: humour occurs itt emergency .... rork !t .ma}' be more like!')' 'Q be. directed. a1 an organization rsther than an emergency sima ton. Stu:dj~ sugge-st that p~p!e with a high sense cfhvmollT do fI(fIt experience less stress, but they are able '[0 generate hamour to cope with he stress {Ne\'Q, Keiillm &. les.hirllo"l'l$iky-Ardi'ti, 1993; NezlJ, Nezu & BJi ssen, 193ti)- Apart. from ene of the common example of using humour ED reframe even ts is c.apUtrec1i in the onom quoted phrase "thin gs can't b-e i\.hat had if I cen sri 11 Ia~.gh. II humour can also serve more speci fie functions in challenging s elfdefeating or harmful tho·l,J!ghts_

Critical Incidence Stress Dehfiefing (CISD) has been o~rJizatjon~Jl'y formalizeo t('r law enforcement and emergency services by J"efrMitc'hei] and his. colleagues (Mitchell, 1983:; MitcJ~r;U & Era)" 1990~ Mitchell & Everty, 1996). anc the "Mitchell model" ofC]SD is flOW implemented in. pnbJi.c :!lafety departments ~hro1.Igbol1~ tbe United States, Britain, and other pans o1~tho: wOl'.!d (Davis, 1998199; D)rf.\f:yuvj 1.'989). The primary goal is to 'prevent the. derifii]opmerU of serious stress disorders 9nd lu prelfen~ an accumulation of offects from. one <:ntk:Q] incident 1:Q the !lCX L Cumul alive stress, even from 21. series oJ nor-qui ~Q-{:riti:caJ cncld6l~t&, can c.re.atc: the same response patterns as a single 'f:KPQSlU€: to a large-scale disaster; Jt ~s a careful process which £ rsl :strt:r.Jgt.l!ietls a rescue wor:k<er's capacity for ODn!l.;;limner:.t lilt th!i! disaster site. and lstcr :&scijita!~ the t,,-ansitio:t\I from c:Qlltarru:nelilt to r,eoo'l.(cry. A typ].c:~J d.ebriefing takes pt~~ 'witMn 2A·72 hOOTs afi,e.r the critical incident. 'The st.(ll~C"S of stress management offered fur emergency responders are "'clc::·fusitJg'!! end "de-briefiag.'

According to mr,aUm:::l. expert Judith Lewis He:mliilll,M.D. "The capacity to preserve SQC~g eonnection and ;[(;t~ve coping s~gies... even in the face (!of extremiry~ seems to protect people to some degree a,gainst [be later d'evelt;;tpmle:Cll of POSIrraurnatic sytl;(lromes_" lJe-fu.si.ng introduces that iPIiQfection..al 111e Me: orille critical incidesn whiJc rescue efforts are ~ndeJ'\V~y. De-fusing focuses OJ] ~he rt Cost stable ~rn1 pro-active factors in a ehaotic sirustien such as: "~lIa[ time did YOll ~ here?" "'Vhat did! yo 1,1. do first?" ,t\Vben will )'·01) 11:,0 back to wort?" "v.-'bat will you do .tlext~ II h provides emergency personnel the opportaniry to relax. into :a ma.U>C'r-of-J~ct socl:ai

i rneracrlon, while 5~ilJ preserving the con=:ammrnt oJ \1Qlati ['e emotion,

De-briefing is the stage of stress mal"1i!8,eInen~ which occurs when the 'Critical. incident i:'!i OVe.T_ This, [!QQ, is done in it contexr of s~)Cii3!~ cennaetion, llma].y in a group 0 f co-workers, Setl:5iClTIS begin .... vtth An eID,p!hasis 011 tho-u8;ht proeesses and ·graiJ,l.Ia.ny shift toward an Invitation for emotional responses: r:-~at was tbe \1i.'(ITSi part of the incident for you?" Itis an [rnpcrtant cornponent of the CISM [0 release

emot ions and promote the lntegraticn ~f the [iJ.o'lJghts.. and teelillgs about th e ineidera, Hence, regular d,ebrie:ling after ea-Ch day's work can be 41Th sffecti 'I,i(1: mean to re~ea5-C on.e'5 overwhelmmg cmo~j ons,

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