Chapter 4: Reproduction and Growth

4.1 Gamete formation The necessity for organisms to reproduce 1. Animals lay eggs or give birth to young. 2. Plants reproduce by spores, seeds or special plant parts. 3. To ensure the continuation of the species, living organisms reproduce. Types of reproduction Figure 4.1 1. Two types: a) Sexual reproduction  production of new individuals by living organisms using sex cells (gametes)  involves male and female structures, or two individuals  shown by human, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.  Flowering plants like the sunflower, maize, papaya and durian. b) Asexual reproduction  production of new individuals by living organisms without using gametes.  involves only one individuals  takes place in simple organism like the Amoeba sp. Paramecium sp., Hydra sp. and fungi. The necessity of formation of gametes Figure 4.3  In humans, the male gametes, called sperm or spermatozoa, are produce by the reproductive organs called testes.  The female gametes or ova are produced by the reproductive organs known as the ovaries.  The reproduction of these two types of gametes occurs through the process of meiosis.  The process of meiosis produces haploid gametes which are genetically different from the parental cells.  These variations in the gametes, together with random fertilisation, produce variations in the offspring that enable them to better survive in the ever changing environment.  The normal number of chromosomes in each human somatic cell is 46.  This number is the diploid number, 2n.  However, sperm and ova have a haploid number, n, of 23 chromosomes.  During fertilisation, a sperm fuses with an ovum to form a zygote.

 The zygote then divides by mitosis to produce millions of cells in the child, all having 46 chromosomes.  Thus, the diploid condition (2n) of human is maintained from generation to generation.  This characteristic of gametes formation ensures the survival of the human species on earth. The human male reproduction system Figure 4.4 1. Consists of two testes connected by sperm ducts to a penis. 2. The testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, testosterone. 3. Testes is enclosed in a scrotum. 4. Temperature of the testes is 2°C, ideal for the development of healthy sperm. 5. Testes has about a thousand seminiferous tubules (fine, long and compactly coiled tubes). 6. The tubules are joined to an epididymis (single and much coiled tube). 7. Epididymis connects to a sperm duct called the vas deferens. 8. The sperm ducts are joined to the urethra and to the exterior. 9. Seminal vesicles and prostrate gland make up the fluid part of semen. Sperm formation in humans 1. Spermatogenesis – formation of sperm which occurs in the seminiferous tubules. 2. Seminiferous tubules are lined up by germinal epithelial cells. 3. Germinal epithelial cells divide many times forming spermatogonia. 4. Spermatogonia undergo growth to form primary spermatocytes. 5. Primary spermatocytes divide by first meiotic division to produce haploid secondary spermatocytes and undergo second meiotic division to form spermatids. 6. Spermatids obtain nourishment from nearby Sertoli cells, develop tails and mature into sperms. Figure 4.6 The Human Female Reproductive System. 1. The human female reproductive system consists of two ovaries, two Fallopian tubes, the uterus, cervix, vagina and the external genital organs, collectively called the vulva. 2. Ovaries produce the female gametes (ova) and also two female sex hormones, oestrogen and progesterone. Figure 4.7 Ovum formation in humans 1.Oogenesis, the formation of ovum, starts in the ovaries of the foetus before birth.

2.The germinal epithelial cells near the surface of the ovary divide repeatedly by mitosis until many diploid oogonia are formed. 3.The oogonia grow to form primary oocytes. 4.These oocytes are surrounded by a layer of follicle cells which is called a primary follicle. 5.Every month from puberty onwards, many primary oocytes become active and grow but only one oocytes matures. 6.This oocyte undergoes the first meiotic division to become a secondary oocyte and a first polar body. 7.Both of them are haploid. 8.Then, the secondary oocyte undergoes the second meiotic division until metaphase II. 9.The secondary oocyte which is lined by layers of follicle cells is called a secondary follicle. 10. This follicle increases in size to form the Graafian follicle. 11. At intervals of approximately 28 days in woman, the Graafian follicle merges with the wall of the of the ovary, the ovary wall ruptures, and the secondary oocyte is released into the oviduct. 12. The release of the secondary oocyte from the ovary is known as ovulation. 13. Secondary oocyte, also known as mature egg or ovum. 14. Ovum enters fallopian tube and completes the second meiotic division as soon as a sperm penetrates it during fertilisation. 15. Ovulation takes place from one of the ovaries, once every 28 days. 16. Two ovaries take turn to produce ovum. 17. Graafian follicle released it oocyte and develop into yellowish mass of cell called corpus luteum. 18. Corpus luteum degenerate after 10 days if pregnancy does not take place. 19. The production of a few million oogonia in a foetal ovary take place in a systematic and orderly manner. 20. The whole process is regulated very systematically by hormones. 21. Pap Smear Test – used to detect cervical cancer.

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