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# TITLE

## Drag force in flow over body

OBJECTIVE
To measure the drag coefficient CD, over the range of velocities in the test section for
hemispherical (open end facing flow and open end facing down stream).

THEORY
Drag is the component of force on a body acting parallel to the direction of relative
motion. The drag force, FD, was written in the functional form FD = f1 (d, V, μ, ρ).
Application of the Buckingham Pi theorem resulted in two dimensionless П parameters
that written in function form as
FD  ρVd 
= f 2  
1
ρV 2 d 2  µ  -----------------(1.0)
2
Note that d2 is proportional to the cross-sectional area (A = лd2/4) and therefore we could
write
FD  ρVd 
= f 3   = f 3 (Re)
1  µ  -------(1.1)
ρV A
2

2
Although Eq. 1.1 was obtained for sphere, the form of equation is valid for
incompressible flow over any body; the characteristic length used in the Reynolds
Number depends on body shape.

## The drag coefficient, CD, any body defined as

FD
CD =
1
ρV 2 A
-------------(1.2)
2
APPARATUS
Wind tunnel and accessories

## Figure 4 b streamline body Figure 5 Holder/connecting rod

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

## 1. The diameter of hemispherical is measured. This measurement will be use to

calculate the Reynolds Number and projected area of hemisphere.
2. The hemispherical body is fitted to the balance arm, open end facing flow first then
open end facing downstream and finally airfoil body.
3. The inclined gage is set to zero, and the reading from drag scale is taken.
4. The blower fan is switch on and set the velocity to 8m/s.
5. The reading was taken from the drag scale.
6. The velocity is increased to 8, 10, 12, 14, 16; 18 and 20 m/s, and step 5 is repeated.
7. Then change the hemispherical body to open end facing downstream.
8. Then step 3 to 6 is repeated and data are taken.
9. Finally change the end facing downstream to streamlined body. Repeat the same step.
10. After done the streamlined body experiment, then placed only the connecting rod into
wind tunnel.
11. Then step 3 to 6 is repeated and data are taken.
12. Reynolds no. and coefficient of drag of streamline object and hemispherical are
calculated.
13. The Graph of Reynolds no. vs. drag coefficient is sketch for both hemispherical and
streamline object.
DATA FROM EXPERIMENT

## Figure 1 Open end facing upstream

Velocity (m/s) 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Force (N) 0.16 0.28 0.44 0.74 0.94 1.21 1.48
Table 1 Drag force, FD for open end facing upstream

## Figure 2 Open end facing downstream

Velocity (m/s) 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Force (N) 0.05 0.12 0.17 0.24 0.31 0.39 0.48
Table 2 Drag force, FD for open end facing downstream
Figure 3 Streamlined body

Velocity (m/s) 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Force (N) 0.03 0.05 0.09 0.12 0.14 0.18 0.25
Table 3 Drag force, FD for streamlined body

Holder/Connecting Rod

## Figure 4 Holder/connecting rod

Velocity (m/s) 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Force (N) 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.09 0.10 0.13
Table 4 Drag force, FD for holder/connecting rod

## RESULT AND CALCULATION

FD CD FD CD
Velocity (m/s) Upstream Upstream Downstream Downstream CD NET Re
8 0.16 1.2281 0.05 0.3838 0.8443 35912.4
10 0.28 1.3754 0.12 0.5895 0.7859 44890.5
12 0.44 1.5010 0.17 0.5799 0.9211 53868.6
14 0.74 1.8547 0.24 0.6015 1.2532 62846.7
16 0.94 1.8038 0.31 0.5949 1.2089 71824.8
18 1.21 1.8346 0.39 0.5913 1.2433 80802.9
20 1.48 1.8176 0.48 0.5894 1.2282 89781.0

## Table 4 Data calculated from experiment

Velocity FD CD
(m/s) Streamlined body streamlined body Re
8 0.03 0.2303 35912.4
10 0.05 0.2456 44890.5
12 0.09 0.3070 53868.6
14 0.12 0.3008 62846.7
16 0.14 0.2686 71824.8
18 0.18 0.2729 80802.9
20 0.25 0.3070 89781.0

## Table 5 Data calculated from experiment

Graph
CD NET (hemisphere) vs Velocity

1,4
1,2
1
0,8
CD NET

0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Velocity (m/s)

## Graph 1 Graph CD NET (hemisphere) vs Velocity

CD NET (hemisphere) vs Re

1,4
1,2
1
0,8
CD NET

0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0,0 20000,0 40000,0 60000,0 80000,0 100000,0
Re

## Graph 2 Graph CD NET (hemisphere) vs Re

CD (streamline body) vs Velocity

0,3500
0,3000
CD (streamline body) 0,2500
0,2000
0,1500
0,1000
0,0500
0,0000
0 5 10 15 20 25
Velocity (m/s)

## Graph 3 Graph CD (streamline body) vs Velocity

CD (streamline body) vs Re

0,3500
0,3000
CD (streamline body)

0,2500
0,2000
0,1500
0,1000
0,0500
0,0000
0,0 20000,0 40000,0 60000,0 80000,0 100000,0
Re

## Graph 4 Graph CD (streamline body) vs Re

Sample of Calculation
Air density in lab
P
ρ=
RT
105000
ρ=
286 .9 × 297 .5
ρ=1.23 kg m 3

πd 2
A=
4
π (0.065 ) 2
=
4
−3
=3.318 ×10 m2

## CD for open end facing upstream

D = 0.065m
V = 8 m/s
ρ = 1.23 kg/m3

FD
CD =
1
ρV 2 A
2
0.16
CD =
1
×1.23 × 8 2 × (3.31 ×10 −3 )
2
CD = 1.2281

## CD for open end facing downstream

D = 0.065m
V = 8 m/s
ρ = 1.23 kg/m3
FD
CD =
1
ρV 2 A
2
0.05
CD =
1
×1.23 × 8 2 × (3.31 ×10 −3 )
2
CD = 0.383

CD Net
CD Net = (CD for open end facing upstream) – (CD for open end facing downstream)
= 1.2281- 0.3838
= 0.8443

## CD for streamline body

D = 0.065m
V = 8 m/s
ρ = 1.23 kg/m3
FD
CD =
1
ρV 2 A
2
0.03
CD =
1
×1.23 × 8 2 × (3.31 ×10 −3 )
2
CD = 0.2303

Reynolds Number, Re
ρVD
Re =
µ
1.23 ×8 ×0.065
Re =
17 .81 ×10 −6
Re = 35912.4

## Percentage of error of CD for open end facing upstream

CDtheory = 1.2 CDexp = 1.6307 (average)
Percentage of error, %
C D exp −C D theoretica l
= ×100 %
C D exp
1.6307 −1.2
= ×100 %
1.6307
= 26 .4%

## Percentage of error of CD for open end facing downstream

CDtheory = 0.4 CDexp= 0.56 (average)
Percentage of error, %

C D exp −C D theoretica l
= ×100 %
C D exp
0.56 − 0.4
= ×100 %
0.56
= 28 .5%

## Percentage of error of CD for streamline body

CDtheory = 0.04 CDexp = 0.2760 (average)
Percentage of error, %
C D exp −C D theoretica l
= ×100 %
C D exp
0.2760 − 0.04
= ×100 %
0.8433
= 85 .50 %

DISCUSSION

The drag coefficient values can be calculated after obtaining the drag force. The drag
force can be taken by the experiment. The Reynolds number, Re, also can be obtained
using a formula and the data from the experiment.
ρVD
Re =
µ
From the graph drag coefficient, CD Net against Reynolds number, Re for hemisphere
object that has been plotted, we can see that the highest drag coefficient C D = 1.2532
occur at Re = 62846.7. At this point the velocity of air act to the body is 14 m/s. But then
the drag coefficient decrease dramatically to 0.7859 when the weight and drag force
increase. After the drag drop down the value of drag coefficient sometimes is increase
and sometimes is decrease.

From the both graph we can conclude that the drag coefficient C D increase when the
Reynolds number decreasing from big to small numbers. After the drag coefficient CD
was increase the Reynolds number also increased. So its mean that the value of drag is
depend on their Reynolds number.

The average of CD obtained from experiment is 1.6307 for open end facing upstream
0.56 for open end facing downstream and streamline body 0.2760. Compare to the
theoretical value, the drag coefficient, CD for open end facing upstream is 1.2 while for
open end facing downstream is 0.4 and streamline body is 0.04. The percentage of error
of CD for the open end facing upstream is 26.4% then open end facing downstream is
28.5% and finally for streamline body is 85.50%. From the percentage of error
calculated, it is not much differ than the theoretical value.

The error due to parallax error occurs in this experiment while taking the reading and also
the error because of apparatus itself such as the air goes out from the hole around the
holder that connected to the drag scale. Also the balancing of the hemisphere body maybe
unwell balanced.

CONCLUSION

The objective of the experiment achieved. The percentage of error between theoretical
value and experimental value is not much differing. There is no big difference between
velocity and Reynolds number and can be concluded similarly same. The parallax error
occur in this experiment is not constant that’s make the reading become difficult.

The drag coefficient profile on the graph for open end facing flow and open end facing
down stream is differ from each other due to streamlines and bluntness of the air flowing
towards the hemisphere. It is also due to the laminar and turbulent flow that occur during
the process that takes place at different Reynolds number

From the experiment also it can be concluded that the higher the drag coefficient the
higher the drag force involves. For 103<Re<3×105 the drag coefficient is approximately
constant. In this range the entire rear of the sphere has a low pressure turbulent wake and
most of the drag is caused by the front-rear pressure asymmetry.

In summarize, the drag, which contains portions due to friction (viscous) effects and
pressure effects, is written in terms of dimensionless drag coefficients, CD. It also shown
that the drag coefficient, CD, is a function of shape and Reynolds Number, Re.

REFERENCES

## • Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 4th Edition, Wiley

Bruce R. Munson, Donald F. Young, Theodore H. Okiishi
• Fluid Mechanics 3rd Edition
J.F Douglas, J.M Gaslorek, J.A Swaffield

## • Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 6th Edition, Wiley International Edition

Robert W. Fox, Alan T. Mcdonald, Philip J. Pritchard

TITLE
Flow Pass a Circular Cylinder

Objective
The objective of this experiment is to study the pressure profile and flow characteristics
for flow around a circular cylinder.

Theoretical background

The structure and development of viscous flow over a cylinder is described in figure
9.17a below. The development of the boundary layer and changes in velocity profile from
the stagnation point at A until flow separation at point E are described in Figure 9.17b.
these changes are closely linked to the change of pressure gradient from A to F. negative
pressure gradient tends to maintain laminar boundary layer, while positive pressure
gradient will accelerate it to turbulent and (subsequently) reverse flow resulting in flow
separation.
Figure 9.17c compare the pressure distributions (it is customary to plot the coefficient of
pressure) around the cylinder between low Re number and high Re flow and high Re
flows and of that predicted by inviscid flow theory.

Experimental procedure

1. A 2-inch diameter circular cylinder of are placed at across 300 mm x 300 mm test
section of a wind tunnel as schematically shown below.

P∞ θ

2. 20 pressure tapping hole are drill at equidistance over half of the circumference of
the cylinder in older to measure pressure around the cylinder.
3. These holes are connected using flexible tube to the multitube manometer for
pressure measurement.

## Tabular form for velocity at 10m/s

Location Angle, θ Manometer h - h∞ P - P∞ CP = P - P∞
(degree) Height(mm) (mm) (pa) 1/2ρV
1 0 226 3 0.023 5.867x10-4
2 0 227 4 0.031 7.908x10-4
3 0 229 6 0.046 1.174x10-3
4 0 232 9 0.069 1.176x10-3
5 0 236 13 0.100 2.251x10-3
6 0 240 17 0.131 3.342x10-3
7 0 244 21 0.162 4.133x10-3
8 0 245 22 0.169 4.311x10-3
9 0 244 21 0.162 4.133x10-3
10 0 242 19 0.146 3.724x10-3
11 0 240 17 0.131 3.342x10-3
12 0 242 19 0.146 3.724x10-3
13 0 242 19 0.146 3.724x10-3
14 0 242 19 0.146 3.724x10-3
15 0 242 19 0.146 3.724x10-3
16 0 242 19 0.146 3.724x10-3
17 0 242 19 0.146 3.724x10-3
18 0 242 19 0.146 3.724x10-3
19 0 242 19 0.146 3.724x10-3

## Graph coefficient of pressure against location

Sample calculation:

## Location 1 at velocity 10 m/s

θ = 0̊
h = 226 mm
h∞ = 223 mm
H = h – h∞
= 226 – 223
= 3 mm
= 3x10-3 m

P1 = P∞ + ρgH
Given ρ = 0.784 kg/m2
g = 9.81 m/s2
H = 3x10-3
P1 - P∞ = ρgH
= 0.784x9.81x3x10-3
= 0.023 Pa

CP = P 1 - P ∞
1/2ρV

= 0.023
(0.5)(0.784)(10)

= 5.867x10-3

## Location Angle, θ Manometer h - h∞ p - p∞ CP = p - p∞

(degree) Height(mm) (mm) (pa) 1/2ρV
1 0 216 6 0.046 2.93x10-4
2 0 220 10 0.077 4.91x10-4
3 0 230 20 0.154 9.82x10-4
4 0 244 34 0.261 1.665x10-3
5 0 262 52 0.400 2.55x10-3
6 0 279 69 0.531 3.387x10-3
7 0 292 82 0.631 4.024x10-3
8 0 298 88 0.677 4.32x10-3
9 0 292 82 0.631 4.02x10-3
10 0 290 80 0.615 3.92x10-3
11 0 284 74 0.569 3.62x10-3
12 0 290 80 0.615 3.92x10-3
13 0 292 82 0.631 4.024x10-3
14 0 292 82 0.631 4.024x10-3
15 0 293 83 0.638 4.069x10-3
16 0 294 84 0.646 4.12x10-3
17 0 294 84 0.646 4.12x10-3
18 0 294 84 0.646 4.12x10-3
19 0 294 84 0.646 4.12x10-3

Sample calculation:

## Location 1 at velocity 20 m/s

θ = 0̊
h = 216 mm
h∞ = 210 mm
H = h – h∞
= 216 – 210
= 6 mm
= 6x10-3 m

P1 = P∞ + ρgH
Given ρ = 0.784 kg/m2
g = 9.81 m/s2
H = 6x10-3
P1 - P∞ = ρgH
= 0.784x9.81x6x10-3
= 0.046 Pa

CP = P 1 - P ∞
1/2ρV

= 0.046
(0.5)(0.784)(20)

= 2.93x10-3

Discussion:

1. According to the graph coefficient of pressure against location, there are two type
of graph refer to velocity 10 m/s and 20 m/s. The gradient for the graph at
velocity 20 m/s and 10 m/s is mostly same. At the beginning the value of
coefficient pressure is increased until point 4.3x10-3. Then the value decreased at
location 11 and next it increased at location 12. After location 12, the graph is
constant until end of location.
2. The influence of velocity between 10 m/s and 20 m/s are very small. It not affects
the experiment result. We can assume the neglected.

Conclusion:
1. The coefficient pressure increase due to locations but at the certain point it
down and become constant at the end.
2. The velocity does not give big effects to the value of coefficient pressure.

References:
1. Fluids Mechanics
Volume 2
J.F Doughlas & R.D Matthews
Third Edition
2. Fluids Power with applications
Sixth Edition
Anthony Esposito
3. Fluids Mechanics
Fundamentals And Applications
Yunus A.Cengal, John M. Cimbala
Mc Graw Hill