TITLE Drag force in flow over body OBJECTIVE To measure the drag coefficient CD, over the range of velocities

in the test section for hemispherical (open end facing flow and open end facing down stream). THEORY Drag is the component of force on a body acting parallel to the direction of relative motion. The drag force, FD, was written in the functional form FD = f1 (d, V, μ, ρ). Application of the Buckingham Pi theorem resulted in two dimensionless П parameters that written in function form as
FD  ρVd = f2   µ 1  ρV 2 d 2 2    -----------------(1.0) 

Note that d2 is proportional to the cross-sectional area (A = лd2/4) and therefore we could write
 ρVd  = f3   µ  = f 3 (Re) -------(1.1)  1 2   ρV A 2 FD

Although Eq. 1.1 was obtained for sphere, the form of equation is valid for incompressible flow over any body; the characteristic length used in the Reynolds Number depends on body shape. The drag coefficient, CD, any body defined as

CD =

FD 1 ρV 2 A 2

-------------(1.2)

APPARATUS Wind tunnel and accessories

Figure 1 Wind tunnel

Figure 2 Hemisphere body

Figure 4 b streamline body

Figure 5 Holder/connecting rod

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES 1. The diameter of hemispherical is measured. This measurement will be use to calculate the Reynolds Number and projected area of hemisphere. 2. The hemispherical body is fitted to the balance arm, open end facing flow first then open end facing downstream and finally airfoil body. 3. The inclined gage is set to zero, and the reading from drag scale is taken. 4. The blower fan is switch on and set the velocity to 8m/s. 5. The reading was taken from the drag scale. 6. The velocity is increased to 8, 10, 12, 14, 16; 18 and 20 m/s, and step 5 is repeated. 7. Then change the hemispherical body to open end facing downstream. 8. Then step 3 to 6 is repeated and data are taken. 9. Finally change the end facing downstream to streamlined body. Repeat the same step. 10. After done the streamlined body experiment, then placed only the connecting rod into wind tunnel. 11. Then step 3 to 6 is repeated and data are taken. 12. Reynolds no. and coefficient of drag of streamline object and hemispherical are calculated. 13. The Graph of Reynolds no. vs. drag coefficient is sketch for both hemispherical and streamline object.

DATA FROM EXPERIMENT Open End Facing Upstream

Figure 1 Open end facing upstream

Velocity (m/s) Force (N)

8 10 12 14 16 18 0.16 0.28 0.44 0.74 0.94 1.21 Table 1 Drag force, FD for open end facing upstream

20 1.48

Open End Facing Downstream

Figure 2 Open end facing downstream Velocity (m/s) 8 10 12 14 16 18 Force (N) 0.05 0.12 0.17 0.24 0.31 0.39 Table 2 Drag force, FD for open end facing downstream 20 0.48

Figure 3 Streamlined body

Velocity (m/s) Force (N)

8 10 12 14 16 0.03 0.05 0.09 0.12 0.14 Table 3 Drag force, FD for streamlined body

18 0.18

20 0.25

Holder/Connecting Rod

Figure 4 Holder/connecting rod

Velocity (m/s) Force (N)

8 10 12 14 16 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.09 Table 4 Drag force, FD for holder/connecting rod

18 0.10

20 0.13

RESULT AND CALCULATION

FD

CD Upstream 1.2281 1.3754 1.5010 1.8547 1.8038 1.8346 1.8176

FD Downstream

CD Downstream 0.3838 0.5895 0.5799 0.6015 0.5949 0.5913 0.5894 CD NET Re 35912.4 44890.5 53868.6 62846.7 71824.8 80802.9 89781.0

Velocity (m/s) Upstream 0.16 8 0.28 10 0.44 12 0.74 14 0.94 16 1.21 18 1.48 20

0.05 0.12 0.17 0.24 0.31 0.39 0.48

0.8443
0.7859 0.9211 1.2532 1.2089 1.2433 1.2282

Table 4 Data calculated from experiment Velocity (m/s)
8 10 12 14 16 18 20

FD Streamlined body

CD streamlined body 0.2303 0.2456 0.3070 0.3008 0.2686 0.2729 0.3070 Re 35912.4 44890.5 53868.6 62846.7 71824.8 80802.9 89781.0

0.03 0.05 0.09 0.12 0.14 0.18 0.25

Table 5 Data calculated from experiment

Graph

CD NET (hemisphere) vs Velocity
1,4 1,2 1 CD NET 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Velocity (m/s)

Graph 1 Graph CD NET (hemisphere) vs Velocity

CD NET (hemisphere) vs Re
1,4 1,2 1 CD NET 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 0,0 20000,0 40000,0 Re 60000,0 80000,0 100000,0

Graph 2 Graph CD NET (hemisphere) vs Re

CD (streamline body) vs Velocity
0,3500 CD (streamline body) 0,3000 0,2500 0,2000 0,1500 0,1000 0,0500 0,0000 0 5 10 15 20 25 Velocity (m/s)

Graph 3 Graph CD (streamline body) vs Velocity

CD (streamline body) vs Re
0,3500 CD (streamline body) 0,3000 0,2500 0,2000 0,1500 0,1000 0,0500 0,0000 0,0 20000,0 40000,0 Re 60000,0 80000,0 100000,0

Graph 4 Graph CD (streamline body) vs Re

Sample of Calculation

Air density in lab
ρ=
P RT
105000 286 .9 × 297 .5

ρ=

ρ= .2 kg m 3 1 3

Projected area of hemisphere
A=

πd 2
4

=

π (0.065 ) 2
4
− 3

=3.3 8 × 0 1 1

m2

CD for open end facing upstream D = 0.065m V = 8 m/s ρ = 1.23 kg/m3
FD 1 ρV 2 A 2

CD =

CD = CD

0.16 1 ×1.23 × 8 2 × (3.31 ×10 −3 ) 2 = 1.2281

CD for open end facing downstream D = 0.065m

V = 8 m/s ρ = 1.23 kg/m3
CD = FD 1 ρV 2 A 2

CD = CD

0.05 1 ×1.23 × 8 2 × (3.31 ×10 −3 ) 2 = 0.383

CD Net CD Net = (CD for open end facing upstream) – (CD for open end facing downstream) = 1.2281- 0.3838 = 0.8443 CD for streamline body D = 0.065m V = 8 m/s ρ = 1.23 kg/m3
CD = FD 1 ρV 2 A 2

CD = CD

0.03 1 ×1.23 × 8 2 × (3.31 ×10 −3 ) 2 = 0.2303

Reynolds Number, Re
Re = Re =

ρ VD µ

1.23 ×8 ×0.065 17 .81 ×10 −6 Re = 35912.4

Percentage of error of CD for open end facing upstream CDtheory = 1.2 CDexp = 1.6307 (average) Percentage of error, %

= =

C D exp −C D theoretica C D exp

l

×100 %

1.6307 −1.2 ×100 % 1.6307 = 26 .4%

Percentage of error of CD for open end facing downstream CDtheory = 0.4 CDexp= 0.56 (average) Percentage of error, %

= =

C D exp −C D theoretica C D exp

l

×100 %

0.56 − 0.4 ×100 % 0.56 = 28 .5%

Percentage of error of CD for streamline body CDtheory = 0.04 CDexp = 0.2760 (average) Percentage of error, %
= = C D exp −C D theoretica C D exp
l

×100 %

0.2760 − 0.04 ×100 % 0.8433 = 85 .50 %

DISCUSSION The drag coefficient values can be calculated after obtaining the drag force. The drag force can be taken by the experiment. The Reynolds number, Re, also can be obtained using a formula and the data from the experiment.

Re =

ρVD µ

From the graph drag coefficient, CD

Net

against Reynolds number, Re for hemisphere

object that has been plotted, we can see that the highest drag coefficient C D = 1.2532 occur at Re = 62846.7. At this point the velocity of air act to the body is 14 m/s. But then the drag coefficient decrease dramatically to 0.7859 when the weight and drag force increase. After the drag drop down the value of drag coefficient sometimes is increase and sometimes is decrease. From the both graph we can conclude that the drag coefficient C D increase when the Reynolds number decreasing from big to small numbers. After the drag coefficient CD was increase the Reynolds number also increased. So its mean that the value of drag is depend on their Reynolds number. The average of CD obtained from experiment is 1.6307 for open end facing upstream 0.56 for open end facing downstream and streamline body 0.2760. Compare to the theoretical value, the drag coefficient, CD for open end facing upstream is 1.2 while for open end facing downstream is 0.4 and streamline body is 0.04. The percentage of error of CD for the open end facing upstream is 26.4% then open end facing downstream is 28.5% and finally for streamline body is 85.50%. From the percentage of error calculated, it is not much differ than the theoretical value. The error due to parallax error occurs in this experiment while taking the reading and also the error because of apparatus itself such as the air goes out from the hole around the holder that connected to the drag scale. Also the balancing of the hemisphere body maybe unwell balanced. CONCLUSION The objective of the experiment achieved. The percentage of error between theoretical value and experimental value is not much differing. There is no big difference between

velocity and Reynolds number and can be concluded similarly same. The parallax error occur in this experiment is not constant that’s make the reading become difficult. The drag coefficient profile on the graph for open end facing flow and open end facing down stream is differ from each other due to streamlines and bluntness of the air flowing towards the hemisphere. It is also due to the laminar and turbulent flow that occur during the process that takes place at different Reynolds number From the experiment also it can be concluded that the higher the drag coefficient the higher the drag force involves. For 103<Re<3×105 the drag coefficient is approximately constant. In this range the entire rear of the sphere has a low pressure turbulent wake and most of the drag is caused by the front-rear pressure asymmetry. In summarize, the drag, which contains portions due to friction (viscous) effects and pressure effects, is written in terms of dimensionless drag coefficients, CD. It also shown that the drag coefficient, CD, is a function of shape and Reynolds Number, Re.

REFERENCES • Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 4th Edition, Wiley Bruce R. Munson, Donald F. Young, Theodore H. Okiishi

Fluid Mechanics 3rd Edition J.F Douglas, J.M Gaslorek, J.A Swaffield

Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 6th Edition, Wiley International Edition Robert W. Fox, Alan T. Mcdonald, Philip J. Pritchard

TITLE Flow Pass a Circular Cylinder Objective

The objective of this experiment is to study the pressure profile and flow characteristics for flow around a circular cylinder. Theoretical background The structure and development of viscous flow over a cylinder is described in figure 9.17a below. The development of the boundary layer and changes in velocity profile from the stagnation point at A until flow separation at point E are described in Figure 9.17b. these changes are closely linked to the change of pressure gradient from A to F. negative pressure gradient tends to maintain laminar boundary layer, while positive pressure gradient will accelerate it to turbulent and (subsequently) reverse flow resulting in flow separation. Figure 9.17c compare the pressure distributions (it is customary to plot the coefficient of pressure) around the cylinder between low Re number and high Re flow and high Re flows and of that predicted by inviscid flow theory. Experimental procedure 1. A 2-inch diameter circular cylinder of are placed at across 300 mm x 300 mm test section of a wind tunnel as schematically shown below.

V P∞ θ

2. 20 pressure tapping hole are drill at equidistance over half of the circumference of the cylinder in older to measure pressure around the cylinder. 3. These holes are connected using flexible tube to the multitube manometer for pressure measurement.

Tabular form for velocity at 10m/s

Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Angle, θ (degree) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Manometer Height(mm) 226 227 229 232 236 240 244 245 244 242 240 242 242 242 242 242 242 242 242

h - h∞ (mm) 3 4 6 9 13 17 21 22 21 19 17 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19

P - P∞ (pa) 0.023 0.031 0.046 0.069 0.100 0.131 0.162 0.169 0.162 0.146 0.131 0.146 0.146 0.146 0.146 0.146 0.146 0.146 0.146

CP = P - P∞ 1/2ρV 5.867x10-4 7.908x10-4 1.174x10-3 1.176x10-3 2.251x10-3 3.342x10-3 4.133x10-3 4.311x10-3 4.133x10-3 3.724x10-3 3.342x10-3 3.724x10-3 3.724x10-3 3.724x10-3 3.724x10-3 3.724x10-3 3.724x10-3 3.724x10-3 3.724x10-3

Graph coefficient of pressure against location

Sample calculation: Location 1 at velocity 10 m/s θ = 0̊ h = 226 mm

h∞ = 223 mm H = h – h∞ = 226 – 223 = 3 mm = 3x10-3 m P1 = P∞ + ρgH Given ρ = 0.784 kg/m2 g = 9.81 m/s2 H = 3x10-3 P1 - P∞ = ρgH = 0.784x9.81x3x10-3 = 0.023 Pa CP = P 1 - P ∞ 1/2ρV = 0.023 (0.5)(0.784)(10)

= 5.867x10-3

Tabular form for velocity at 20m/s Location 1 2 Angle, θ (degree) 0 0 Manometer Height(mm) 216 220 h - h∞ (mm) 6 10 p - p∞ (pa) 0.046 0.077 CP = p - p∞ 1/2ρV 2.93x10-4 4.91x10-4

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

230 244 262 279 292 298 292 290 284 290 292 292 293 294 294 294 294

20 34 52 69 82 88 82 80 74 80 82 82 83 84 84 84 84

0.154 0.261 0.400 0.531 0.631 0.677 0.631 0.615 0.569 0.615 0.631 0.631 0.638 0.646 0.646 0.646 0.646

9.82x10-4 1.665x10-3 2.55x10-3 3.387x10-3 4.024x10-3 4.32x10-3 4.02x10-3 3.92x10-3 3.62x10-3 3.92x10-3 4.024x10-3 4.024x10-3 4.069x10-3 4.12x10-3 4.12x10-3 4.12x10-3 4.12x10-3

Sample calculation: Location 1 at velocity 20 m/s θ = 0̊

h = 216 mm h∞ = 210 mm H = h – h∞ = 216 – 210 = 6 mm = 6x10-3 m P1 = P∞ + ρgH Given ρ = 0.784 kg/m2 g = 9.81 m/s2 H = 6x10-3 P1 - P∞ = ρgH = 0.784x9.81x6x10-3 = 0.046 Pa CP = P 1 - P ∞ 1/2ρV = 0.046 (0.5)(0.784)(20)

= 2.93x10-3

Discussion: 1. According to the graph coefficient of pressure against location, there are two type of graph refer to velocity 10 m/s and 20 m/s. The gradient for the graph at velocity 20 m/s and 10 m/s is mostly same. At the beginning the value of

coefficient pressure is increased until point 4.3x10-3. Then the value decreased at location 11 and next it increased at location 12. After location 12, the graph is constant until end of location. 2. The influence of velocity between 10 m/s and 20 m/s are very small. It not affects the experiment result. We can assume the neglected. Conclusion: 1. The coefficient pressure increase due to locations but at the certain point it down and become constant at the end. 2. The velocity does not give big effects to the value of coefficient pressure.

References: 1. Fluids Mechanics Volume 2 J.F Doughlas & R.D Matthews Third Edition 2. Fluids Power with applications Sixth Edition Anthony Esposito 3. Fluids Mechanics Fundamentals And Applications Yunus A.Cengal, John M. Cimbala Mc Graw Hill

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