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Teacher Directed Strategies Teacher Directed Strategies or Direct Teaching Strategies are instructional approaches in which the teacher structures lessons in a straightforward, sequential manner. The teacher is clearly in control of the content or skill to be learned and the pace and rhythm of the lesson. Generally, direct strategies allow the teacher to introduce new skills or concepts in a relatively short period of time. Direct instructional strategies are academically focused, with the teacher clearly stating the goals for the lesson to the students. The teacher closely monitors student understanding and provides feedback to students on their performance. Direct Instruction is effective because it is based on behavioralistic learning principles, such as obtaining students¶ attention, reinforcing correct responses, providing corrective feedback, and practicing correct responses. It also tends to increase the academic learning time, or the amount of instructional time during which students are attending to the task and performing at a high success rate. Many studies have found that students learn basic skills more rapidly when they receive a greater portion of their instruction directly from the teacher.

Two well-known direct instruction approaches are examined in the next sections: 1. explicit teaching proposed by Barak Rosenshine and 2. Instructional Theory into Practice (ITIP) proposed by Madeline Hunter. Explicit Teaching calls for the teacher to gain student attention reinforce correct responses, provide feedback to students on their progress and increase the amount of time that students spend actively engaged in learning course content. Its objective is to teach skills and help students to master a body of knowledge. Rosenshine (1987) believes this strategy to be most effective in the ³teaching of mathematical procedures and computations, reading, decoding, explicit reading procedures 9such as distinguishing fact from opinion), science facts and concepts and rules, and foreign language vocabulary and grammar´ . Ten general principles apply when developing an explicit teaching lesson (Rosenshine, 1987, p.76): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Begin a lesson with a short statement of goals Begin a lesson with a short review of previous, prerequisite learning Present new material in a small steps, with student practice each step Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations Provide a high level of active practice for all students Ask many questions, check for student understanding and obtain responses from all students 7. Guide students during initial practice 8. Provide systematic feedback and corrections

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9. Provide explicit instruction and practice for seatwork exercise and, when necessary, monitor students during seatwork. 10. Continue practice until students are independent and confident. Based on studies of Explicit teaching, Rosenshine (1987) identified six teaching functions. 1. Daily review. The purpose of daily review is to determine if the students have obtained the necessary prerequisite knowledge or skills for the lesson. Typically, an effective teacher will begin the lesson by reviewing previously covered material, correcting homework, or reviewing prior knowledge relevant to the day¶s lesson. 2. Presenting new material. Research indicates that effective teachers spend more time presenting new material and guiding practice than do less effective teachers. To begin a lesson, effective teachers capture the students¶ attention by explaining the learning objectives to be covered during the lesson. In this way, students are able to better focus on the lesson¶s purpose without being distracted by extraneous material. It is important to realize that presenting too much material to the students can often leave them confused. Thus, it is better to proceed in small steps, pausing periodically assess to assess student achievement. 3. Conducting guided practice. The purpose of guided practice is to supervise the students¶ initial practice of a skill and to provide the reinforcement necessary to progress new learning from short-term into long-term memory. 4. Provide feedback and correctives. During guided practice, it is important to give process feedback to the students. Process feedback provides the student with an additional explanation that is sometimes needed when the student is correct but hesitant about how he or she arrived at the answer. When a student has made an error, it is inappropriate to simply provide the correct answer. This does not provide you with an opportunity to determine how the student made the incorrect response and robs the student of a learning opportunity. Rather, when a student has made an error, it is appropriate to simplify the question and to then probe for the correct answer. Often this is done by providing clues or reteaching the material. It is important that errors not go uncorrected. 5. Conduct independent practice. After conducting guided practice, it is important to have the student do independent practice. Independent practice provides the additional review and reinforcement necessary to become fluent in a particular skill. Independent practice differs from guided practice in that you do not provide the cues that you gave during guided practice. The independent practice should involve identical material as the covered during guided practice. It is appropriate for you to cover the material before the students take it home. 6. Weekly and monthly review. Much of the previous discussion about the teaching functions has suggested frequent review and reinforcement of new material for the students.

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The Hunter Model. Instructional Theory into Practice (ITIP) is a method for planning and implementing instruction developed by Madeline Hunter. ITIP is essentially a lesson design process that considers relevant factors in making instructional decisions. Furthermore, it is a teacher-directed approach to instruction. Robin Hunter (2004) provided an update of Madeline Hunter¶s mastery teaching.

According to Hunter, three categories are basic to lesson design. First, teachers decide what content to teach within the context of the grade level, student ability, and the lesson rationale. Next, teachers must decide what student will do to learn and to demonstrate that they have learned. Finally, teachers must decide which research-based teaching behaviors will most effectively promote learning. Hunter is perhaps best known for her seven elements of a lesson (see table). To implement the three categories mentioned previously, Hunter maintains that the seven elements be used. Hunter asserts that these seven elements should be considered in planning a lesson and then included or excluded for a reason. Each lesson does not need every element, nor are they steps that necessarily are taken in sequence. When used as

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intended to select objectives and to plan instruction, ITIP is a useful tool. This is no surprise, since ITIP contains elements that educators have long associated with effective teaching and learning. Teaching Strategies: I. Lecturing

In the days of Socrates and Plato, lectures were a means of conveying facts, information, and ideas that could not readily be obtained elsewhere. Books, charts, and tapes were not available, so the lecture became an essential means of teaching. In lecture technique, a teacher talks while students listen and make notes. It is agreed, however, that in order for lecturing to be effective, there must be communication between the teacher and students. The teacher should organize his/her lecture in such a way that students take an active role in the learning process.

Purposes of Lecturing: Lectures can be efficient means of introducing learners to new topics. The teacher can use the lecture to set the stage for a new area of learning and place the topic into the perspective of what is already known. The lecture method can be used to stimulate students¶ interest in a subject. Another purpose of the lecture is to integrate and synthesize a large body of knowledge from several fields or sources (McLaughlin & Mandin, 2001). A knowledgeable teacher can synthesize the information more readily than a learner who is a novice in the field. Difficult concepts can also be clarified in lectures. Finally, the lecture is valuable when there are recent knowledge advances and when up-to-date textbooks are not available.

Advantages of the Lecture Method: The greatest advantage of lecture over other methods is that it is economical. The size of the class is limited only by classroom space. Formal lectures are just as effective for 200 students as they are for 20, as long as the lecturer can be heard in a large room. Lectures are also economical interms of student time. A great deal of information can be communicated in a one-hour lecture 0 usually mmre information than that gained from a discussion, for instance. More pertinent information can often be taught in one hour compared to what a student could learn from a textbook in that time. The lecturer can sift through the text book information and pull out what is most important as well as include information from other sources that a student could take hours to locate and read.

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During a lecture, the teacher serves as a role model for students. The teacher is an authority on the subject and is a model of someone who has developed expertise in a field and who cares about knowledge and learning. Learners have the advantage of watching critical thinking and problem solving being done by an expert.

Disadvantages of the Lecture Method One of the primary disadvantages of this method is the lecturer has the tendency to impose the learners into a passive role of a sponge, just there to soak up knowledge. That may be true if the lecturer is not planned and carried out well. Educators who decry the lecture method claim that few teachers are good lecturers and therefore few can achieve class objectives by this method. Much less hold students¶ attention or serve as good role models. One of the chief disadvantages of the lecture is that by nature it lends itself to the teaching of facts where placing little emphasis on problem solving, dicision making, analytical thinking, or transfer of learning. Another serious drawback is that lecturing is not conducive to meeting student¶s individual learning needs. Students are limited to learning from an authority figure leaning by the stimulation of only one of the senses- hearing. In a formal lecture, students have no opportunity to learn from peers, to learn by manipulation of data, to discover, to learn visually or through touch and so on. The lecture works best for auditory, linguistic learners and may disadvantage those with other learning styles. Lecturing also brings out the problem of limited attention span on the part of the learners. In 1978, Stuart and Rutherford founded that the concentration rose to a peak at 15minutes and then fell steadily until the end of the lecture regardless of the lecturer and level of students. Parker (1993) attributes this loss of novel stimulation. He states that although people are very attentive to new stimuli in any situation, the novelty soon wears off and they become somewhat immune to the stimulus unless it is varied in some way. Thus, during a lecture, the listener is stimulated in the beginning by the Lecturers voice and content, but the person soon gets used to stimulus and stops paying close attention.

Comparing the advantages to the disadvantages of lecturing, it seems that the method is valuable and should be retained, but it should use skillfully and supplemented with other teaching methods. By using a variety of strategies, the teacher can enhance the advantages of all the techniques.

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Lecture Frameworks a. Hierarchical or Classical lecture is the most commonly used form, especially in nursing. In this approach, information is grouped, divided and subdivided in typical outline form.

b. Problem-centered format is also popular. In this structure, a problem is posed, and various hypotheses and solutions are developed.

c. Comparative Framework may be used if its objective is to differentiate between two entities.

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d. Thesis Format on the other hand involves the lecturer taking a position on an issue or a particular view point on a subject and then supporting or justifying that viewpoint or position with evidence or logic.

Lecture Variations There are a number of variations on the lecture theme that can be used if they fit the learning situation. Lecture variations include the traditional oral essay (Fredrick, 1986). In this lecture type, the teacher is an orator and is the only speaker. The class consists of a complete polished exposition on a topic that can be inspirational and informative. Unfortunately, this type of lecture is often overused, resulting in passive and sometimes bored learners. Some teacher use the oral essay exclusively, not because it is the best way to teach the material, but because they fear loss of control of the learning situation if they get the class too involved. They also fear not being able to cover all the material (Steinert & Snell, 1999). The participatory lecture (Fredrick, 1986) begins with learners brainstorming ideas on the lecture topic on the basis of what they have read in preparation. It progresses with the teacher oragainzing the students¶ ideas and fleshing them out with expertise. Students feel some ownership of the topic and are able to attaché new information to existing mental schemata. The lecture with uncompleted handouts (Butler, 1992) involves a somewhat traditional oral-essay format. However, learners are supplied with handouts containing the lecture outline in some detail with blank spaces for learner to fill in information. The handout helps learners focus attention on important points without having to take notes on every single piece of information. The feedback lecture (Butler, Phillmann, & Smart, 2001; Cross et al., 1997) actually consists of mini-lectures interspersed with 10-minute small-group discussions structured around questions related to the lecture content. This approach gives the learner the opportunity to manipulate the lecture content and apply it immediately, thus enhancing learning and memory recall. The mediated lecture is a term describing the use of media such as films, slides, or Web-based images along with traditional lecture. This approach can be used for Webbased courses as well as for classroom courses. Using images of some type can add an emotional component to the lecture and assist in changing attitudes. A trend today is for teachers to use PowerPoint presentation software in their lectures. PowerPoint slides can give visual attraction to a lecture and help the lecturer to stay organized.

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Important Considerations: The following guidelines will help the teacher conduct an interesting effective lecture and promote student participation: a. Avoid speaking in monotone. b. Outline the main ideas to be presented first and review these points at the end of the lecture. c. Provide concrete examples (s) whenever possible with the assistance of teacher made and/or commercially made audio/visual aids. d. Get the students¶ attention immediately with some interest-catching device.. Stimulate interest in the topic. Hold students¶ attention by varying the pace and tempo of the voice, making eye contact, moving around the room, providing interesting and exciting oral and visual examples and talking with students, no to the chalkboard. e. Repeat and emphasize important points. f. Ask questions and be prepared to answer questions during the lecture. g. Include humorous anecdotes whenever possible. h. Include an element of surprise whenever possible. i. Keep the language at the students¶ level of understanding. Be sure to clarify any terminology students are unsure of. j. Use strategically placed pauses of silence so that students can think about the material presented. k. Discuss a parallel story in order to illustrate and clarify a point. Include familiar experiences whenever possible. l. Give a forceful summation. m. Always consider that students with short attention spans may have trouble concentrating. Take special care to pose questions and create short discussions. n. Be prepared. Prepare a detailed outline and a lesson plan. Prepare appropriate visual materials and questions. o. Create a stress-free environment. One way to do this is not to emphasize the formality of a lecture situation and provide information in written form if possible, and/or if students request it. p. Involve students in the lecture by asking questions and encouraging a brief discussion. q. Bring in meaningful examples whenever possible. Students should be encouraged to share relevant examples from their own backgrounds when appropriate. r. Do not be afraid to stray from the lesson plan if a teachable moment on an unrelated topic or issue arises.

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II.

Discussion

Class discussions may be formal or informal. In a formal discussion, the topic is announced in advance and the class is asked to prepare to take part in the discussion by reading certain materials or watching a videotape, and so on. Informal discussions may take place spontaneously at any point during the class including at the end of a lecture when the teacher asks, ³Are there any questions?´

Purpose and Advantages of Discussion The most obvious purpose of discussions is to give learners an opportunity to apply principles, concepts, and theories, and, in that process, to transfer their learning to new and different situations. This approach presupposes that the learners have already been introduced to a body of information on which they can base their discussion. Another purpose is clarification of information and concepts. The discussion method, perhaps more than any other, helps the teacher gauge learners¶ understanding as leaning is taking place. Misconceptions and hazy thinking can be assessed and corrected immediately. Through discussions, students can learn the process of group problem solving. The discussion group may be divided into subgroups, so that each can work on some aspect of the problem, or the entire group can work together to fully define the problem and then work toward a solution. From this interaction, participants learn how different people apply the steps of the problem-solving process, and they learn to draw on the expertise of group members, capitalizing on each other¶s strengths. Finally, an advantage of the discussion method is that many students like it and may even prefer it to other methods (Beishline & Holmes, 1997)

Disadvantages of the Discussion Method One drawback of discussions is that they take a lot of time. There is no doubt that discussion is an inefficient way to communicate information. Methods such as lecture of computer-assisted instruction are superior in terms of time efficiency. Conventional wisdom tells s that the discussion method is effective only with small groups, which makes it an expensive strategy. McKeachie (2002) believes that discussions can be held with groups of all sizes. One approach is to divide a large class into smaller discussion groups. The disadvantage of this procedure is that the teacher cannot be the moderator and facilitator for all groups at the same time. Another approach advocated is an inner circle or fishbowl technique in which an inner circle of 6 to 15 students is involved in

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most of the discussion while the outer circle observes. The teacher may rotate students through the inner circle in subsequent discussions. There is no doubt that small-group discussion is more effective in most situations because more students can take an active role. Finally, many discussions are valuable only if the participants come prepared with the necessary background information. The contribution of uninformed opinions and misinformation benefits no one, and the discussion becomes simply a sharing of each other¶s ignorance.

Important Considerations: a. The teacher needs to consider fully the topic/issue to be discussed. The discussion must have a purpose and a focus. b. The teacher should consider group dynamics. Some rules will have to be established. c. The teacher should decide which form of discussion (formal, informal, large group, small group, debate, panel) is most appropriate for the topic being discussed. d. The teacher needs to establish, before the discussion, whether or not learners will have to do any research in preparation for the discussion. e. The teacher may wish to develop a procedure to be followed in every discussion. This procedure, however, must be flexible. Because students will become familiar with the procedure nd, therefore, know what is expected, they will be relaxed and self-disciplined. f. Having students arrange their desks/chairs in a circle works well because they make eye contact. g. Establish a stree-free environment. Students will be more responsive in a relaxed atmosphere. h. Never establish or encourage the attitude that the teacher is the ³all knowing´ leader. Let students in on the fact that the teacher often learns as much from the discussions as they do. i. The teacher must be supportive. He/she should encourage participation from all students, discourage ridicule and refrain from dominating the discussion. j. Teachers should be aware that the following may occur during a discussion: i. One or a few students may try to dominate the discussion ii. Because of the unpredictable nature of discussion, there is always a chance that it will lag or , on the other hand, really take off. Hence, the discussion may have to take anther direction in order to boost interest or more time may be needed when a discussion becomes involved. The environment for discussion should therefore be flexible. iii. Volatile arguments based on differing opinions may occur.

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iv. Students who are uncomfortable with the discussion process may ³tune out´ and not benefit from the discussion. k. The teacher could use discussion to take advantage of a teachable moment.

III.

Questioning

Asking questions is such an integral part of teaching that many teachers take it for granted. They ask questions to assess learner comprehension but do not give much thought to using questioning as a teaching strategy. Research has shown that although educators tend to ask their students a lot of questions, most of these questions are very low level, requiring only recall of factual material. They do not ask many questions that require higher-order thinking (ProfettoMcGrath, Smith, Day, & Yonge, 2004; Savage, 1998; Tanenbaum, Tilson, Cross, & Rodgers, 1997; Wink, 1993; Yip, 2004). Educators can benefit from a structured program designed to teach them to formulate high-level questions (Wink, 1993), and it is hoped that when teachers begin asking questions that elicit critical thinking, it will prompt students to develop the same questioning skills in their own practice. Awareness of the effectiveness of questioning as a teaching strategy seems to have begun with Socrates. In the Socratic method of teaching, a teacher asks a series of questions that are designed to first make the students aware of their ignorance. Each answer by a student is met with another question from the teacher. Each question is designed to bring the student closer to reasoning out the fundamental truth about an issue. Although few educators today use the Socratic Method, instructors would do well to put more emphasis on questioning as a means of teaching reasoning and critical thinking. Research over time has confirmed that questioning by both teachers and learners increases learning of facts and comprehension (Watts & Pedrosa deJesus, 2005).

Functions of Questioning The use of questioning places learners in an active role. They are asked to recall, to form links between previously isolated information, to analyze statements or beliefs, to evaluate the worth of ideas, and to speculate about what would happen ³if´. As questions are asked, learners start to mentally formulate answers if they think they may be called on in class. Questions can be used to assess baseline knowledge- to find out what group already knows about a subject. They can also help the teacher to assess understanding and retention of information. Questioning can also be used to review content.

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Motivation to learn can increase as learners hear questions for which they would like to know the answers. A really good question can arouse learners¶ curiosity. Knowledgeable teachers use questions to guide learners¶ thought processes in a certain direction.

Levels of Questioning Questions can stimulate specific levels of cognitive activity in learners can be formulated. Educators have devised several classification systems for questions. Questions can be classified as being either convergent or divergent (ProfettoMcGrath et al, 2004). Convergent questions require learners to recall or integrate information they have learned. This requires fairly low-level cognitive activity. Convergent questions have specific, usually short, and expected answers. Divergent questions ask the learner to generate new ideas, draw implications, or formulate a new perspective on a topic. There is no single correct answer. This process requires a higher level of cognitive activity. Questions can be categorized also as lower-order questions or higher-order questions (Profetto-McGrath et al, 2004; Yip, 2004). Lower-order questions are those that require learners to recall information they have read or memorized. Higher-order questions require more than a recall. To answer a higher-order question, the learner would have to be able to comprehend or think critically about the information. Barden (1995) contends that question classifications that have more than these two levels are probably not valid. She believes that although hierarchical classifications, like the one discussed next, are theoretically helpful, in practice it is difficult to determine whether a learner is answering a question at the comprehension, analysis, or synthesis level, for example. The most popular classification system is based on Bloom¶s taxonomy (Bloom, 1956). Although this taxonomy is often used to classify educational objectives, it nicely explains cognitive levels of questions also. Thus, many educators refer to questions that elicit thinking at the levels of knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Table 7-3 lists Bloom¶s cognitive levels, explains them, and gives some sample words and phrases that could be used in questions at that level. TABLE 7-3 QUESTION CLASSIFICATION USING BLOOM¶S TAXONOMY Level of Bloom¶s Level of thinking Terms and Phrases Used Taxonomy in Questions Knowledge (Remember) Involves recall of memorized Define, How, What, List, data When, Where Comprehension Includes understanding and Compare, Contrast, Explain, (Understand) interpretation of information Give an example, Put in your own words, Why Application (Apply) Require using information in Apply, Consider, Use this new situations information, How would you Analysis (Analyze) Involves breaking the whole Classify, Explain your

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into parts, and showing relationships Requires combining elements into a new structure Includes assessing a situation based on criteria reasons, What evidence, What hypotheses, What if Create, Generalize, Plan, Predict

Synthesis (Create)

Evaluation (Evaluate)

y

Appraise, Decide, Evaluate, Justify, Judge, How would you rate Krathwohl (2002) revised the cognitive domain of Bloom¶s taxonomy and proposed the use of verb form for the category.

You can see that Bloom¶s taxonomy forms more of a hierarchy compared to other classifications. The advantage of using this complex tool, however, is that it helps the educator realize the types of higher-order thinking that can be drawn upon in helping learners to be critical thinkers.

Types of Questions Besides varying the cognitive levels of questions, instructors can choose from seven types of questions to achieve different purposes. 1. Factual questions. Factual questions can be used to assess learner¶s understanding or to simply find out whether they are paying attention. 2. Probing questions. Probing questions are helpful in assessing learner¶s thought processes. House, Chassie and Spohn (1990) delineate five types of probing questions: extension probes that ask learners to elaborate on a response; clarification probes used when learners¶ responses are unclear; justification probes that ask learners to justify their responses; prompting probes that help a responder who is unsure of an answer or gives an incorrect answer; and redirection probes to elicit a variety of responses from the group of learners. 3. Multiple-choice questions. Multiple choice questions usually test recall and can be used to begin a discussion. 4. Open-ended questions. This broad category encompasses all questions that require learners to construct an answer. 5. Discussion-stimulating questions. Once discussion about a subject has been initiated, the teacher can use various questions to promote it. 6. Questions that guide problem solving. A teacher needs to phrase and sequence questions carefully to guide learners through problem-solving thinking. 7. Rhetorical questions. It is sometimes appropriate to ask questions for which you expect no answers at the time. Such questions can be used to stimulate thinking in the class and may guide learners into asking some of their own questions as they study a topic. What is used as a rhetorical question in one session may become a source of discussion in a later session.

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Questioning Techniques Incorporating good questioning procedures into class requires planning and forethought. The first prerequisite is to establish an atmosphere in which students feel fairly relaxed and free to ask questions. Research has supported the belief that students who perceive their teacher as supportive are more likely to ask questions than those who believe their teacher to be unsupportive (Schell, 1998). The following questioning techniques will help educators become more confident and proficient in asking questions that will help to meet educational objectives.        Prepare some questions ahead of time State questions clearly and specifically Tolerate some silence Listen carefully to responses Use the ³beam, focus, build´ technique (Wigle, 1999, p.62) Provide feedback Handle wrong answers carefully

Stimulating Learners to ask Questions One of the outcomes of questioning as a teaching strategy should be that learners learn how to ask questions. As Elder and Paul (1998,p.297) state, ³thinking is driven not by answers but by questions´. Teachers can stimulate student questioning by guiding their thinking along a path that will lead to the development of questions and hypotheses about a subject. But this guidance must take place in an atmosphere where it is safe to take risks and to ask questions that might seem stupid (Donohue-Smith, 2006).

IV.

Demonstrations

A demonstration is similar to a lecture in its direct communication of information from teacher to students. A demonstration involves a visual presentation to examine processes, information, and ideas. The demonstration allows students to see the teacher as an active learner and a model. It allows for students to observe real things and how they work. There may be pure demonstration, demonstrations with commentary, or participative demonstrations with students. I

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Important Guidelines Demonstration can be used to illustrate points or procedures efficiently, stimulate interest in a particular topic, provide a model for teaching specific skills, and provide a change of pace. To carry out effective demonstrations, consider the following guidelines: a. Carefully plan the demonstration b. Break down complex procedures into separate components that cn be adequately demonstrated, c. Practice the demonstration d. Develop an outline to guide the demonstration. e. Make sure that everyone can see the demonstration. f. Introduce the demonstrationto focus attention. g. Describe the procedure at the same that you demonstrate it. Repeat as needed. h. Ask and encourage questions. i. Permit students to practice the procedure if they are expected to use the procedure. j. Provide individual corrective feedback. k. Plan a follow-up to the demonstration.

V.

Recitation

A recitation involves a teacher asking students a series of relatively short answer question to determine if students remember or understand previously covered content. You might use recitations as a means to diagnose student progress. The typical interaction pattern is teacher questions, student response, and teacher reaction questions often deal with who, what, where and when, recitation in highly structured with the teacher clearly in control of students directing the learning. Teachers usually ask ³known´ information questions during recitations. Thus, you ask questions to find out if the student knows the answer, not to get information (Dillon, 1998). Recitation has its flexible use because it can be tailored to the amount of time and the number of students. Gage and Berliner (1998) noted that the most common uses of recitation are in review, introduction of new material, checking answers, practice, and checking understanding of materials and ideas.

VI.

Practice and Drills

Practice involves going over material just learned. Practice is intended to consolidate, clarify, and emphasize what the student has already learned. Practice sessions are more meaningful when spread out over time (not just the day before a test), when conducted in

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context, when whole issues are examined rather than parts, and when used in different activities. Drill involves repeating information on a particular topic until it is firmly established in the students¶ minds. It is used for leaning that needs to be habitualized or to be retained a long time. Many teachers find that drill works best at a certain point in the lesson, such as at the beginning of class. Practice and drills involve repetition that is intended to help students to better understand and recall the information. They are useful in developing speed and accuracy in the recall of facts, generalizations, and concepts.

VII.

Review

A review is an opportunity for students to look at a topic another time. A review differs from practice and drill in that it does not require drill techniques. It does involve reteaching and is intended to reinforce previously learned material and to sometimes give new meaning to the material.

VIII.

Using Audiovisuals

If used appropriately, audiovisuals can greatly enhance teaching and can add interest stimulation to the classroom. They can address all three modes of learning ± cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. If used inappropriately, audiovisuals simply become time fillers and entertainers, serving no real purpose. It is important for the educator to know what media are available, how to select them, and how to use them effectively.

Seleciting Media How does an educator begin to select the appropriate media and how and when should they be used? These decisions are based on a number of factors. The chief determinants are the learning objectives. Some objectives may be best met by using lectures. Some by discussion, some by individual student assignments, and some through traditional media. If several methods would be suitable, it may be best to opt for variety.Another factor to consider in deciding on media use is availability of both materials and technical assistance. The level, ability, and number of learners are also important considerations, especially if you want to assign audiovisuals for individual use. If the material is either too complex or too simplistic, the learners will be frustrated or turned off.

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Types of Traditional Audiovisuals The most commonly used audiovisual media are handouts, chalkboards or whiteboards, overhead transoarencies, powerpoint presentations, audiotapes, videotapes, and DVDs. Handouts Printed material or handouts have been around for a long time and can be used to communicate facts, figures, and concepts. It may save a lot of time to give information in handout form rather than spend class time lecturing on it. If handouts are distributed in person or posted on a course website before a given class, learners can review them in preparation for class discussion. Printed materials also ensure that all learners have access to the same information and review that information whenever necessary. Handouts that will help learners to take class notes from lectures can also be formulated. Sakraida and Draus (2005) present some guidelines for preparing quality handouts for hard copy or online use. These guidelines are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Include key points and minimize unnecessary detail Format text with headings, paragraphs, or bullets Use font size of 12 to 14 for hard copy and online use Include diagrams or graphics Add to visual appeal with color, borders, or varied fonts Edit carefully Include appropriate references

Chalkboards or Whiteboards Chalkboards or the newer laminate white (or gray) boards are universally used in education. Although they have several uses, their outstanding feature is that they allow for spontaneity in the classroom. New ideas or solutions to problems can be jotted down as they are mentioned. If learners are suddenly confused about something that point can be illustrated on the board. If learners cannot visualize an object, it can be quickly sketched. Chalk/whiteboards are especially useful for working out mathematical problems, for spelling new words, for outlining material to be covered in class, and for having several students place their ideas on the board at the same time. Creative use of the board can add dimension to almost any class. Among the drawbacks of the chalkboard are the mess made by chalk, the fact that material on the board usually cannot be saved until the next class, and the fact that the board may not be visible to very large groups. Also, while writing on the chalk-/whiteboard, your back is to the class, which may cause you to lose the flow of contact with the learners

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and interfere with their ability to hear you. Finally, this method is not good for the instructor who has poor hand-writing, since the information may be lost to students who cannot decipher it. Overhead transparencies Transparencies are sheets of acetate placed on an overhead projector that enlarges and projects the image onto a screen. Transparencies are easy to make, use, store and transport and can be asset to any teacher. Transparencies can be used like a chalkboard for writing down spontaneous ideas, outlining class content, or doing math problems, but their use surpasses that of chalk/whiteboards. Transparencies can be prepared beforehand to save class time and to help organize and illustrate content. Diagrams and drawings can be drawn or copied onto transparencies. Concepts can be illustrated and lectures can be outlined. Charts and graphs can be presented. Cartoons can be projected for humor and illustration. One of the nice features of the overhead projector is that it stands in front of the audience and you can face the class while using it; thus, eye contact can be maintained. The room does not have to be dark, although it is helpful to dim the lights around the screen. The projector is easy to use, requiring only manipulation of the on-off switch and a focus knob, so even if you are wary of technology, you will probably feel comfortable using an overhead projector. Videotapes In academic settings, videotape technology can also be used to film students while they role-play interviewing, communication and counseling skills, and while they practice psychomotor skills (Burnard, 1991; Winters, Hauck, Riggs, Clawson & Collins, 2003). Playback of the videos for individual feedback or group critique can be very instructional. In clinical settings, videotapes have been found to an effective means of health education that meets accreditation requirements by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations. Videotape technology has several advantages over other traditional media. On a videotape, a teacher can still maintain eye contact with the class and provide something of a personal touch, even though the performance is not live. Also, motion enhances the realism of the situation and often increases interest and affective learning. All learners watching the videotape are exposed to the same teaching, even though they may be in different locations. This helps maintain consistency and quality for the teaching of each individual learner. In academic settings, this consistency reduces the problem of slightly different information and emphasis being given for different class sections taking the same examinations.

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When videotapes are used for individual learning, they can be used at the learner¶s own pace. The learner can replay and freeze frames according to his or her needs. In classroom settings, the teacher may choose to freeze the action and discuss what has just been played before proceeding. The disadvantages of videotape technology include the fact that only one-way communication occurs and learners cannot interact with the medium; they become passive recipients of information. This effect can be minimized by instructor involvement before, during or after showing the videotape. In addition, videotapes are fairly fragile and can break or get earsed. Digital Video Discs Digital video discs, otherwise known as digital versatile discs (DVDs), are gradually replacing videotapes in many educational programs. DVDs serve the same purposes as videotapes but have distinct advantages. They are smaller, more portable, more durable, and easier to store. They have higher-quality audio and video capability compared to videotapes. They can include closed captioning and can accommodate embedded Web links. DVDs can be played on desktop or laptop computers with DVD drive or on televisions with a DVD player. One of the greatest advantages of DVDs in classroom use is the ability of the instructor to quickly navigate to various sections of the DVD to point out critical points in the program. Old videotapes on topics not yet commercially available in DVD fromat can be copied onto DVDs, with permission of the copyright holder.

KEY CONCEPTS: a. Direct teaching strategies are instructional approaches in which the teacher structures lessons in a straightforward, sequential manner. b. Two well-known direct instruction approaches are examined in the next sections: 1. explicit teaching proposed by Barak Rosenshine and 2. Instructional Theory into Practice (ITIP) proposed by Madeline Hunter. c. Explicit Teaching calls for the teacher to gain student attention reinforce correct responses, provide feedback to students on their progress and increase the amount of time that students spend actively engaged in learning course content. Its objective is to teach skills and help students to master a body of knowledge d. ITIP is essentially a lesson design process that considers relevant factors in making instructional decisions. e. In lecture technique, a teacher talks while students listen and make notes. It is agreed, however, that in order for lecturing to be effective, there must be communication between the teacher and students. f. Comparing the advantages to the disadvantages of lecturing, it seems that the method is valuable and should be retained, but it should use skillfully and

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supplemented with other teaching methods. By using a variety of strategies, the teacher can enhance the advantages of all the techniques. In formal discussion, the topic is announced in advance and the class is asked to prepare to take part in the discussion while Informal discussions may take place spontaneously at any point during the class including at the end of a lecture when the teacher asks, ³Are there any questions?´ Questions are used to assess learner comprehension. It can be used to assess baseline knowledge- to find out what group already knows about a subject. They can also help the teacher to assess understanding and retention of information. Questioning can also be used to review content. A demonstration is similar to a lecture in its direct communication of information from teacher to students. A demonstration involves a visual presentation to examine processes, information, and ideas. A recitation involves a teacher asking students a series of relatively short answer question to determine if students remember or understand previously covered content. Practice involves going over material just learned. Practice is intended to consolidate, clarify, and emphasize what the student has already learned. Drill involves repeating information on a particular topic until it is firmly established in the students¶ minds. It is used for leaning that needs to be habitualized or to be retained a long time. A review is an opportunity for students to look at a topic another time. A review differs from practice and drill in that it does not require drill techniques. It does involve reteaching and is intended to reinforce previously learned material and to sometimes give new meaning to the material. Audiovisuals can greatly enhance teaching and can add interest stimulation to the classroom. They can address all three modes of learning ± cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. There are number of direct, teacher- centered instructional strategies. These include lectures, discussion, questioning, demonstration, recitation, review, practice and drills and use of audio visuals.

SUMMARY: As a method of instruction, direct teaching or direct instruction is probably the one that has the fewest flashes and sparkles. The students are not divided into groups. There are no experiments. And there is very little drama and student participation involved. But the effectiveness of direct teaching is evident. Direct instruction does not assume that students will develop insights on their own. Instead, direct instruction takes learners through the steps of learning systematically, helping them see both the purpose and the result of each step. When teachers explain

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exactly what students are expected to learn, and demonstrate the steps needed to accomplish a particular academic task, students are likely to use their time more effectively and to learn more. The structure of direct teaching can be rigid enough to hinder the creativity of the teacher. There is very little room to improvise because this method follows a step-by-step procedure. The procedure usually starts with an introduction, followed by the rationale for the instruction, then by the instruction itself. The procedure ends with a summary and then followed by an assessment. Direct teaching, if utilized by unprepared teachers, can be disastrous. For direct teaching or direct instruction to be effective, the teacher must have a mastery of the subject matter, must prepare a well-organized content, and must have excellent communication skills. Without these traits, a teacher could not effectively carry out direct teaching or direct instruction. And without these traits, direct teaching could not develop higher order thinking skills in the students. Direct teaching is best for learning specific concepts or skills. The specificity of the objectives or learning targets also makes it easier for teachers to create assessment tests of high validity and high reliability. Students, for their part, do not suffer much confusion in determining which part of the lesson is important and which part is not. However, to take advantage of these benefits of direct teaching or direct instruction, the teacher must ensure that the contents of instruction are logically organized. The teacher must also ensure that the students already possess the prerequisite knowledge.

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