CENTRE OF aARCHAF;.

0LOGY - PUBLICATIONS 2
YTE
ACTA ARCHAEOLOGICA Vol. 76;1, 2005
ACTA ARCHAEOLOGICA SUPPLEMENTA VI
CENTRE OF WORllJ ARCHAEOLOCr (CWA) - PUBUCATIONS 2
"
LIGA
COPPERAGE STRATEGIES INBULGARIA
Fieldwork carried out under the Auspecies qf
Vends/av Gergov, Ttlish Museum & Klavs Randsborg, Universiry of Copenhagen
Edited by Klavs Randsborg
INGA MERKYTE
with contributions by
S0REN ALBEK,JESPER S0RENSEN 0STERGAARD & PETAR ZLDAROV
supported by
Maya Dimjtrova, Rumen Peykov & fieldworkers
K@BENHAVN
BLACKWELL MUNKSGAARD
2005
PE3IOME HA E1>JIfAPCKII E3lIK/
SUMMARY IN BULGARIAN
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8 Acta .-Jrchaeologica
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Translation Peror Zidarol'
I. INTRODUCTION
History ml!)' be a myth, but artifacts, which are historit:al
events, are /lOt. ThI(Y are signifiers, becomin.g myths as we
interpret them with our words.
J.D. Prown 1996:26, rephrased.
THE PROJECT
The Liga-project originated in 1999, when the core
Danish archaeologists of the project from the Univer-
sity of Copenhagen were guest students at Sofia's
State University, Bulgaria. The supposed "Tran-
sitional period", covering the gap between the Chal-
colithic period (or, rather, the Copper Age) and the
Bronze Age, was one of the issues then discussed.
Lack of finds and excavations, confusing C-14 dates,
etc. did not help in finding an answer to the problems.
For a scholar with Scandinavian background this
seemed to have an extra dimension, since the "Tran-
sitional period" in Bulgaria was also a transitional
period in Danish prehistory - the transition from for-
agers to farmers, indeed from Ertebolle to Tragtb<e-
ger (TRB)/Funnel Beaker culture. Interaction with
Bulgarian archaeologists raised aspirations to seek
solutions by taking action.
orthwestern Bulgaria (together \-vith the Rhodop-
eSi is considered to be the part of Bulgaria where
Copper Age culture survived the longest. Ironically, it
is also the part of the country that has been "over-
Fig. 1.1. Geographical position of Telish in Bulgaria.
looked" in terms of larger Copper Age research pro-
jects, the latter focusing on the classical tell areas.
such as the Thracian plain or Northeastern Bulgaria.
Tells are few in NW Bulgaria and studies of temporal
change consequently less straightforward. The ma-
jority of settlement investigations in the region han'
produced a mass of isolated phenomena, which can
only be grouped with the help of one or another par-
ticular type of ceramic vessel. Therefore, a site for
excavation was chosen in a particular sub-area, \\'hich
perhaps has seen the most substantial research in :\.. ,'
Bulgaria. The idea was to piece all available e\idence
together, focus on a highly detailed excavation, and
recreate the use of the landscape in the Copper .-\ge
as chains of large and small movements of people.
their ideas and actions.
THE SITE
LOCATION: GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY
The archaeological site of Liga (Bulgarian for "Graz-
ing Fields", or pastures) is situated about one kilo-
metre north of the modern village of Telish in Cherv-
en Briag Municipality, Pleven County (Fig. 1.1 '. The
first major archaeological investigation in the area
was undertaken at the nearby Late Copper Age settle-
ment ofRedutite ("Redoubts" - the Turkish army de-
fending the area in 1877), on the eastern fringes of
Telish. The Turks constructed a lunette at Redutite.
which was at first acknowledged as an archaeological
site during attempts to reconstruct the bastion in 1976
(Neikov 2001). V. Gergov, then of Pleven Regional
Historical Museum, started the excavations in RedUl-
ite in 1977. In 1979, he undertook several trench-
surveys in the area. The aim was primarily to gather
information for the Archaeological Map of Bulgaria.
As a result, he found rich graphite-painted pottery at
Liga, 1.2 km north of Redutite, indicating the pres-
ence of yet another Late Copper Age settlement.
The site of Liga is situated at the edge of a broad
plateau, 20 m high and 195 m above sea level (Fig,
1.2 & 1.3). The Redutite site is located on the same
plateau. Towards southwest and northeast the plateau
has a wavy appearance. The hillock chosen for the
10 Acta ArchaeoLogica
j
F i ~ . 1.3. u ~ ~ i l t . \ic" from Ill<' :\onh.
Liga I I
Uga seu!cment is delimited by ravines Il1 the south
and north, which were created during seasonal runoff
or water. This process is still ongoing and has made
a negative, though limited, impact 011 the preser·
\"alion of the archaeological remains al the slopes.
The topography of the whole region is characterized
by a series of plateaus, generated by tectonic block
fractures (Hansen 2000). These are usually running
from East to 'Vest, determining the dynamics of the
diStribution of settlement. The North-South orien-
tation of the regional liver Aows is also making an
impact on settlemem patterns. The edges of the pla-
teaus have been favoured by selllers throughout pre-
h.istory, especially during the Late Copper Age.
.-\t lhe fOOl of the sile there used to be stream.
However, from 1960---.1963 onwards, with the cre-
ation of a local irrigation the water of Ihe
is collected behind three dams in what is
knoll"ll as the Lake of Gorni Dabnik (Neikov 2001).
Topographic features indicate that the stream was
nllming towards the north and was pan of the catch·
me-lli area of the ViI. Rivers Vit and Iskar are the two
major tributaries of the Danube in the region; they
,H\' also framing the archaeological sites at Telish.
Tht' distance to the rivers is about 8 km. River lskar
.1.1$0 distinguishes itself by being a major access route
through the Balkan Range. It is runnning in deeply
CUI \'alleys fanning gorges, which even today are onc
.:.1' the few transport corridors of the North-South a.xis.
TIlt' area of Tclish is also rich in subsurface springs.
.-\.n 8-10 m thick layer of clay, grey in colour, is
:nlling up the upper part of Ihe plateau at Tclish.
Tht' seasonal erosion of the slopes at the riverbed
access to thcse clay deposits readily available.
The remains of an old bridge, ca. I.') m long, dis-
.:·)n.'red some 30 m sOUlh of the settlement, indicate
tilt' of a wedge. All this is suggesting that access
:.:. ti'eslm-ater and clay, the main building materials,
with an easy route across the stream were
.::itical in cboosing the exact' scttlemellt site.
Tilt' present \'miety of soil types in the surround-
:::?, 01 Telish is also encompassing small patches of
.lJUlial moderately to intcnsely leached cherno·
zc:n- charaCteristic of lower altitudes), dark brown
10 grey forest soils (characteristic of higher alti-
i.t;' .. the phucaus) and, occasionally, islands of
loess :\"'eikm' 2001). i\loderately It:ached
chernozems prevail. These have good waleI' retention
and humus contents ranging between 3.00 and
3.55%; they are basically considered highly fertile so·
ils (Neikov 200 I). The leached form of chernozcms
was mOSl likely also easily accessible with prehislOric
ploughing techniques.
The immediate vicinity of the Lig-d site is character-
ised by twO types of soils. The site itself is silllated on
an area of the forest soils, which arc considered tOO
heavy to lill with prehistoric technology (Denndl &
''''ebley 1975). It can be assumed that this area would
have supported forest vegetation and been used for
browsing and acquisition of winter fodder (Denndl &
Webley 1975). The soils to the West of the site, across
the stream, had a higher sand component and \\"I::re
superbly suited for prehistoric crop cultivation.
CU:\t,\TE.
The climate ill Bulgaria is shaped by two a(ljaccllt
major water basins - the Black Sea and the
ranean Sea - and, by the ranges of mountains. Il"hi,h
direct or block the movement of ail' masses. Thl'
Black Sea and especially the :'vlediterranean SC(\ ha\·e
great water heat accumulation capacites (Issar 2003 .
This enables [he basins to act as temperature regtl·
lators of the overall region (Issar 2003). Telisb bt:IOIl(!'
to the Danubian billy plain, which encompa"t"'
heights between 30 and 200 m above sea In·el. btll i,
cm off from these favourable effecls by the range of
the Balkan Mountains. Compared \l"ith other
in Bulgaria, the Danubian hilly plain is the coolt"!
one, open to chilly Continental winds/air
from NOlth and Northeast (Dimitro\· 1979 .
The lowest winter temperatures are reaching lllil1l1'
3O-35°C, the mean temperature in January beinc
around minus 1° (GHCN). By contrast. summer tcm-
peratttres are the highesl in the cuuntry. Due to thl'"'
low altitude, spring is coming early (0 the region ill
mid-i\'larch the lemperatun: of the soil is more th.1ll
5°C 5-10 cm below surface, and by tht' 10th !It"
April - above 10°C) (Dimitl'O\' 1979)..·\utumn "I,.,
arriving at the same extended pace.
In lerms of winds, the \illagers of Tdish are nutic-
ing that direclions are aflecting the dilllatf': tilt;'
population has e\"Cn neated a loeill etymology 1(1 de-
scribe the cold western \\'ind and the I,'arm somht'l"ll
12 Acta Archaeologica
onc ,:Neikov In \villlertimc, western \vinds pre-
vail. In the summer, winds arc mostly blowing From
the 'Vest or the The etTcct of the ""inds is more
extreme on the plateau \Vhel'e the archaeological sites
are situated than in the modern village, lying in the
depressed plain.
Indeed, plotting temperallllT data collected during
tlw period 1951 1990 (GHCN:, it can be demoll-
strated that the regions of PleVf'l1 and Vrac-.t with
the largest concentmtion of sites of the Krivodol-Sal-
cuta-Bubanj Hum la culture, to which Liga belongs-
arc making up Cl veritable "depression of cold" in the
winter. The fCf:.. riOIlS have the 100\'('sl mean January
temperatures in the coulllry l:001y 100vL-lnds were con-
sidered, belmv 400 III in altitude,:, namely -O.9°C
and -1.0°C, respeuivdy. The situation onlv im-
proves South ofS()£ia and East of Ruse/Osam, where
tlu: meanJanuary tf'mperarures are abovf' freezing.
To what extent tbis inlormation can be lranstCrred
10 the Copper Age is too early to say. The pattern \vas
perhaps similar, but tlw dleCls of generally \varmer
climatic ("(llldilions - peaking during the climatic ()pti-
mum around 3800 BC might have made the diller-
ences less perceptible :e.g., in terms of h'TaLing poten-
tial during \Iinknime:.
.\Iore dramatic to Copper .ARe peoples were the
('(lllsequcnces of the Black Sea transgression:Todoro-
va 19391. By the end of the Copper Age ,:Phase Vama
Ill" the level orthe Black Sea was lower than at pres-
ent. H. Todorova's excavations in Durankulak at the
Bulgarian coast have thus demonstrated that the
'I'ater level there \vas 1 In lower than todav. Further
to lhe south, at SOLopol and Ropotamo, still on the
coast, water tables \\'ere between :3 and ::> meters
100vrr than loday I'odorova 199R:. Sueh differences
'ITn:, supposedl')', rdated to tectonic movements
caused by rapid IlleiLing of the Arctic iee ITodorova

According to H. Todorova, the highest water table
compared to the present one is dated to the cnd of
.'ith millennium BC and Ialer, reaching a maximum
around 3500 HC'. Gradual climatic warming tram-
[armed the favourable conditions, expetienced by the
early agricultural communities in the Balkans, into
cmironmental ddtTioraLion by and flood-
ings of the fertile plains :Todorova 1998:,. Thus,
changing climate is seen as the first "Domino piece"
in a chain of events thal caused the termination or
the Copper Age culture.
THE COPPER .AGE AN]) ITS GCLTURAI.
AFFILTATIOl\'S
Lse of the term "Chakolithic" !:rathcr than "i\eneo1-
it hie" or "Copper Age \\'hen describing roughly the
time-span l.wtwf'en SOOO and 4000 HC, has become
common in Bulgarian writings. Still, the term "Cop-
per Age" seems a slightly more handy onc and will
be used here, \vhile the notion ofChalcolithic culLures
is also accepted - semantics none\,vithstanding.
In a publication of 1948 byJ.H. Galll, \,vrittrn aher
his research in the Balkans, mainly Bulgaria, in 1938-
1939 (and published after his death in 194;"), when
shot by Germans as a prisoller of W,u\ this author
argues in favour of llSf' of the term "Chalcolithic" as
opposed to "Late NeoIithic" :'(';'aul HHR, 79). Gaul
was basing his arguments on the presence or natural
copper in l3ulgaria and on Ihe plf'lltiful copper im-
plements in the Gumelnita culture :or '"Bulgarian
IVlound CultUI1:":'. During the late knowledge
of sites which later became attributed to the western
Krivodol culture was still limited. Caul was men-
tioning Okol Glava, northwest of llie village of Cnily-
ane and finds !i'om the caves of :\lorovica and De-
vetaki ,:l)evctashkata:'. At the time, material from
these sites was treated as being pan ofthe "Bulgarian
f\fonnd CuIture", but intuitively Gaul had f-,'Touped
the repn:sentative finds in the same plate ,PlaLe
LXIV) of the publication. Staying in the Balkans, he
also became acquainted with finds £i'om Bubanj,
stored at the museum in Ni<; and prO\iding him \vith
an opportunity to establish parallels between Okol
Clava and Hubanj :Caul 1948. 108\ Tlw author
riglid') concluded that "the interrelations of our
I\lound Culture r=Gumelnita] are swiftly observable
on the one hand, and on the olher, seem to lllCrg(,
into as yet unsatisE:i.CLorily defined pt:ripheraJ eOlll-
plexes" (Caul 1948, lOj\.
Knowledge about lhe late Copper Age started to
aceumulatc rapidly during the pos!-\var period. The
developmellt was paralleled in Romania, Bulgaria
and Serbia. The eponymic site of Krivodol was partly
excavated in 194G bv V. l'vlikov :'.\1ikov 19-181. Ht,
recognised the presence of a Late Roman f()rtress
liga 13
(hence the local name of the sile: "Tepeto" or "Kale-
lO") on lap of thick debris fonned during the Copper
Age. The landscape at Krivodol is indeed dramatic.
TIle steep hill \,'here the sile is located is practically
unapproachable from three sUlTOunding sides. The
only access is across a northern land bridge. At the
fOOl, River Botullya is running. Concerned with the
management of loos<: soils, Miko\' chose to put his
excavation trenches in the western periphcI)' of the
site. Due 10 natural landslide, he discovered 8 or 9
building horizons. These observations wefe later cor-
rected by repealed excavation by B. Nikolov (Nikolov
The latter subdivided lhe discO\'crcd prehis-
toric cultural remains (of 2.4 to 2.8 III in thickness)
into j building horizons, all belonging la the laiC
Copper Age. Each main scttlement burned down.
Both :\Iikov and Nikolov mentioned the existence of
fortificalions (a stone wall suppol1cd by a frame of
wooden poles) on the site in the Copper Age.
Subdivision of the well-known Cumelnila Culture
in Romania started in 1951 after lhe exca\'ation of
lhe hillock of Piscul close to Salcul3 by
D. Berciu (I 96 Ic). Before him, in 1916, and in 1919-
1920, lhe sile was excav,Hed b)' I. who
performed the first methodologically sound exca-
vation in the country. but failed to publish the results.
In 191 7, C. Schuchhardt made a few trenches at Sal-
CUla. All the finds were taken to Berlin but never pub-
lished. In 1947, the site amacted altelllion from a
new team of Romanian archaeologists, but their find-
ings were not mediated eithet'. So, all knowledge
aboul this important sile is based on lhe four tl'enches
made by Berciu.
The site is located on a tongue-like hillock, which
riscs some 25 m above the surrounding valley, thus
"naturally fortified". A weSlern land bridge is con-
nccting it with another hillock. Bcrciu established scv-
er.dl layers at S:'ilcula. On tOp of layer I of the Early
Neolithic cuhure was the sterile layer
of a hiatus. Above this was found horizon 11, subdi·
vidcd illlo a, b, and c sub-phases. ll1is horizon, to-
gether rhe following horizon Ill, marks the end
oflhe Copper Age. ?\Iaterials from these layers define
the S:ilcuta cuhure. The last, more or less wdl defined
phasc is horizon [Vi this represents the early phase of
the post-Chalcolithic period. Later surface finds al the
si le span from the cnd of the Early Bronze Age till
times. Two shallow moats, ca. 1.0 III and
1.2 m deep, were dug across lhe weslern land bridl!l"
during scuJemem phase JIb.
In Serbia, dose ro ),1. CaraSanin staned
tematic exca\'ations of Bubanj aftel" earlier treil,h -Ut'-
veys by A. in 1934 (Cartclanin 193-;
The excavatioilS COlllinued from 1954 to 1958 Car.l-
1957, 1976). The site is situated on a protrtldill:l
tongue-like plateau, 195 m above sea [evel, on the 10:1'1
bank of Nisava. The cultural layers had a thidll('"
of 2.50-3.16 m and eomained also Early Neolilhi,
Straccvo finds. The most import result was a suhdi\;·
sion of the recognized building horizons itllo pllil_l"_
la (Late Copper Age), [b and 11 (Early Bronze _·\I!t·
phases Baden-KoslOlac and COlofeni Ill) & rtI ,G[in:l
I1I of the MBA) (I). A neighbouring sitc, Vclika Hum-
ska Cuka, a hill-top settlemem, was exc;l\{tl('d
synchronously Bubanj. The recovered c,;dt:"Il,"
echoes the findings in 1983.
Thus, the composile name, Bubanj-Hum la, which i-
often used to denote affiliating cultural phenomena of
the Late Copper Age in Eastcm Serbia.
A turning point in correlating available infor·
mation and formulating future research din:C1iOIl:) oc·
curred in 1959 at an intemational symposium ill
Czechoslovakia (Bohm & Dc Laet 1961). The leadine-
theme was the Neolilhie (and "Aeneolithic") in EIII'-
ope. Among 4-5 dcleg;llcs from 17 dincrent eounu;... -
were scientists \\'ho today arc justly recognised as 11ll'
major developers of the present perceptions of nd·
lural developments during the Ncolithic-Eneolithic/
Copper Age ill the Southeastern parts of Europl': _\ I.
Gimbutas (Lithuania/USA), N.Y. Merpel1 .
D. Berciu (Romania), M. Garasanin (Serbia,. G.
Ceorgiev (Bulgaria), and several others. crucial
event should thus be considered the birth of Ihe no-
tion of "Krivodol·S;\lcula-Bubanj Culwrc" ,h('I"l'
KSB), presented at the gathering in a sllon. ahlllH
telegram·like statemelU by Bereiu (196Ib). His 01):,('1'-
vations made 011 the characteristics of this cultur.11
unit are still correct. Bcrciu defined the area of thl;'"
KSB culture as rH\' Bulgaria, S Romania (Oheni:t.
Eastern Banal) and E Serbia (to Pclagonia and Skopj('
in the FR.Y. During the symposium.
1. For the sake of unifomlily. ,hl' chronological division aco;"Il",,1
in Uulgolria is ;:pplicd in lhr lexl, cf. Fig. 1.5.
1+
o
,
400km
,
r
Aclo AI'choeologiLo
0,-
Cua.neno......
Sfedro SlOg 11 [lllffi] -.0
Tnpo.,...
LJKGKVI
Lenssa? • Bolgrad-Alde... .... ,,-....
G<SB
len\lYI'I

D of graplVl8
f.
palnled poltefY
1. ... , :\bin Law Col'p('r C"u!1urnl complun in SoUlh(',lSlern Europt'. according 10 Todorm<l and \'ajSO\ TodolU'" &. \'ajSO" 2001.
slighlh modified.
Bl'rciu also prcS<"1l1cd his iltlCmpts to make the first
rorrd:llioll of materials from the Salcu\a. Kri,·odol.
Buhanj and Gumclni\il 1961a.
PROflLE OF THE KSB CULTURE
rhe KSB is considered a Imc Copper Age cultural
which plimalily is recognized through cultural
remains from :,\,\" Bulg,u;a. The \<llIey ofStruma, in
SW Bulgaria. is under the direct influence of K.SB,
albeit the latter region is also marked b}' other cul-
tural impulses. The southcml1lOS1 known site of lite
KSB culture in Bulgaria is \'aksem-Skalelo Cochad-
licv 2001 . In Romania. this cultural group is mainl}
sprc;ld in Oltcnia, up 10 the river Olt. but also known
in a narrow strip ofW i\lumenia (lhe left bank orthe
liga 15
Oh and the southern pan of county) and in SE
Banal (Ihe county of Caras Sevenn), or, shortly, in
Southweslem Romania. In YugosIa\;a, KSB is
in the E..ulern pan of Serbia bUl ilS influence is also
identified in Kosovo, as well as in Pela-
gonia & Tasic 2003). In Eastern Serbia the
neighbour of KSB lO the WCSI is Vinca D. In Ro-
mania and Bulgaria, KSB is bordcling towars the
East 011 a big culruraJ complex termed Kod<':adermcll-
Gumelnita-Karanovo VI (KGK VI), and Varna (Fig.
lA·.
"'hat lhen is scpar<Hing th(' KSB culture from the
neighbouring cultural groups?
In fonner the priority when defining
sites was gi\'cn 10 their topographic po-
The seulemenlS were usually found on flal-
protected e1evalions, or, in caves. Thus, a site
on top ofSkopje hill is considered as the most westeOl
KSB outpost, The sctuers of the Vio(;a culture, by
fOlllrast, were linked to multi-layered tell senlements,
T('Us are also the prevailing settlement type in ule
K.odzadermen-Gumclnila-Karanovo VI (KCK VI)
..:uhure, Exceptions comprise settlements on pile plat-
ronl1S, such as Negovantsi and Krainitsi, in the KSB
,11"('a. and the so-called plateau settlements in the
K.Gt\. \'1 area (Todorov3 1986). There have been sev-
eral auempts to define some of the KSB
.u tells [fodorova 1986; Nikolova 1999); the issue
on special definitions and will be fUl'lher
below.
PoHt'ry styles and decorations are thought to be the
rdiable trait in defining cultural regions, Carns-
.:.nin defines the characteristic pOltel)' ofBubanj-Hunl
tine. highly polished, and made from micaseous
19i6). The characteristic shapes are cups,jars
-.•ith t\\O handles, and beakers (so-called "kamharoi"),
.c \\('11 as \'oluminous amphoras (Garasanin 1976).
Oi,,:-u":.ing pottery of the Kri\'odol culture in Blllgar-
:..._T0001'0'0. nOles that the most conspicuous feature
:- tht" high amount of cups with double handles. pots
...nd jars \\ilh narrO\\'ed neck and two or four handle.'\,
:";." \\ilh im'el1ed or thickened rim, biconic vessels,
?iu2"s for O\'cn, and jirt-us.stIJ (c[ below) [fodorova
:';081>. The surface is often roughened with the help
... :' b:l.rhotine. impressions, incisions 01" pinched decor-
.iU,-,Il. Graphite pailll is applied on vessel neck or
·h,)ukkrs, in case of bowls tbe whole interior is often
paillted [[OOoro\'a 1986). Among the
forms of the Romanian Saleula culture, according to
Bcrciu, are two-handled cups. small squat cups and
bowls ,'o'ith thickened and invertt....d rims; decoration
includes graphite painting and colour incrustarion
(Bcrciu 196Ic).
'nms, the description of KSB pottery is reAecting
difierent scholarly attitudes tOwards variations and
charactelisrics. The margins in E Serbia arc ratlwr
wide, and any shard with graphite paint would lx-
considered as belonging to KSB, while in Bulgaria,
where graphite paillled poue!)' is prevailing from
the coast to the Rila and lx:yond, tilt'
definitions are slIicter. Intuition is often at help in
the non-written world of semi-<:onscious filtering of
overlapping cultural tr.iits. Generally, the ceramic
assemblage of KSB is defined by \'esscl" \\ith op-
posilely placed handles, which are a rarity in the
KGK VI complex, and dominance of positi"e
graphite decordtion, also rare in KCK VI, wher,'
negativc patterns ovenvhclmingly prcvail (1'odoro,'a
1986).
TIlere are apparently no discussions as to U1e lx-
ginning of the Copper Af:,>e in Bulgaria (Fig. 1.5.
Thus, the Icmporal division suggesled by B. l\ikolo,
has so far not been debated {Nikolov 1992\ Till'
earliesl sub-phase is by Ihis author named aftcl" till'
Brenitsa site, and the subsequelll twO after the Grade-
shnitsa sile (Nikolov 1992), The middle Copper ,\ct'
remains somewhat ephemeral, wilh only Dyakm'o ,ill'
as representative in the Struma \'alley (fodoro"a
1986; Gohadficv 199i), In general, there are no di,-
pUles in considcling the KSB as the successor of tl\l'
Gradeshnil.S3 culture (Gcorgicva I995b)_ It is al:.o IX'-
lieved thal the KSB culture was formed in \ \"'''ICII1
Bulg-dria around the middle of the 5th millennium
and then s.pread nonhwardl' and westwards
\"<l I995b). Therefore, Ihe earliesl sites arc knmm
in Bulgaria. The laler development of Ihe cllhun." ha..
recently h«ome a subject of numerous discus,iun,.
resulting in a variety of chronolog1cal schemes e.!l.,
Nikolov3 1999). Ceorgieva has demonstrated lh.tr in
lerms of trcnds, Ihe mosr plau.. ihl<:
solution is to KSB as undergoing four pha..l.... ul
devclopment (Ceorgieva 199,,)b1. A rapid inne:t ..(· tn
lhe number of sites is seen during phases 11-1\'. Thi-
is also the time when Ihe cultural impact of thi: 1"111-
16 Acta ArdlOfologica
Period Phase Struma Basin NW Bulgaria ESerbia Ollenia Thrace
BC. calibrated
I IRhodooi M.l Banal NE Bulaaria
EZERO
w
EARLY
Sitagroi Va-b COTOFENI- BAOEN (KARANOVO VIII
N
z
-260012500 OikiHash
OIUA-5AOOVEC
YAMNAYA
OW
IIlaob
o:\)
Liga 4

CERNAVODA III
"'<
IV) 11
,
Herculane CERNAVOOAI
--'0
,
VakseY06
,
11-111 <1\<0 -3300I320O
,

Kolarovo It Redutite IV
,
Bubanj-HI.m lb PEVEC
,
a:Qffi
,
,
saleula IV

,
Rebal1tovo
,
,
Vaksevo· Liga 3
,
saleula III ,
Galatin I
Krivodol
w-v
BUbanj-Hum la KODZADERMEN -
LATE
Redutite III GUMELNITA-
·4000I390O
Vaksevo5 Krivodol'-1I1
,
saleLJta IIb-e KARANOVO VI
,

,
(KGK VII ,
IIIB-G) Redutite.
,
9
w
,
,
\)
KoIarovo I Liga2
,
"

<
SadoveC-GI.K.
e S3leuta lIa

0:
Liga 1
N
VinCa 0
w
w
Q.
,
Q.
0
,
U
Dyakoyo ?
,
MIDDLE
,
,
-<55<>'_
,
VinCa C ,
III
I
,
POLYANICA
,
EARLY
Sitagroi ilIA Gradestvlica
,
? MARICA
,
49OO1485G-
Dikili Tash lie
,
,
46r0'4550
II
Slatino 3-4 Borovan

VinCa B2Ie
Dikili Tash JIB
I
Slatino 2 Brenica 6-3
Dikili lash t1A
'·ig. 1.5. Chronologic.,1 mbk wilh ke)' siles diseusS(cl in lhe and main euhur..1groupillgll. Ore)' colour marks lhc period and "'id\
afliJialion 10 lhe HUlll la (Ksm.
lure advances towards E..'lslcm Serbia and Ohenia
I995bJ (F;g. 1.6).
l:.aslem Serbia and lhe regions funher wesl were
Ihe last 10 experience KSB impact. This is indirectly
confinncd by the lad: of sites \dth more Ihan onc
KSB occupation as opposed 10 Ihe multi-horizonal
settlements in Bulgaria. The stylistic analyses of POl'
lery from the discO\'ered KSB sites, 10 some eXlclU
supponed by slraligraphic data, ha\'c resulted in Ihe
definition of (WO main KSB phases. The bound:u)· is
made between sites painted ponery (graphite or
white or red pigments) and those, which arc lacking
such decoration (fasic 1990; 1995; Lazic & Sladic
1997;. Apparemly. there is still a lack of conscnsus on
which phase should be .seen as the earliesl ([asic
1990; 1995: Lazic & Slarlit 1997 , creating some con·
fusion as to whether Bubanj.Hum la. with graphite
painted ceramics. l"CprCSCl1lS the firsl or the second

liga 17
1.6. Dislribucion of investigated KSB la siles (dots). I - KotMOvO, 2 - Pipcritsa, 3 - 'I - Sandanski. j .
• - Dragodan, 7 - Valu(:\"o, 8 -YunatsilC,9 Dolna K07.n;lsa, 10- Ktaynil,i, 11 - "bIOI Fucha, 12 - tzvor, 13 :-;cgu":ltllSi. 1-1- R.lc!,.m: •.
. Pemik.Krakra, 16 OushinlSi. 17 - Gllilyanc.Okol Clava, 18 - GUllllxl\1si-l'ckliuk, 19 - Tcle... ("all'. 20 -
grad. 21 - Rcbarkovo-llihugcrd., 22 - i\lndra. 23 - Lovtth, 2-1 5taro Sdo-Yordanon.'l Kale. 2,j - Corn;! KrmlcnJ·I7\ .. r.,
." Coma 27 - Kunino. 28 - Agicn-<khilm•• C31't'. 29 - Kamcno Pok, 30 - rJe..'claki C:w('. 31 - (:h('"I'\<,1I
': - SadO'\:«-Eu:ro, 33 - Sadm-o::·KakIO, 3-1 - Kak. 35 - Pipra, 36 Gaoon:·i\larb.:n - G,'/larT-DoInOI" ,,",."
- TdiJ1-Rtdutilc:, 39 - Kamak, -HI - Tclish.Liga. -11 - BuJW',=-7.anog-.t1a, 42 - Okhodc:n. 43 - -
Kak-. +1 - Krinxlol, 45 BlIrbche\'O-Kanoo.· "r.okh., 46 - RakC'\'O-Chuljcn' kamak. ·n Gala\in.(.11u!.;:II... -18 IkI"ul1l"
-19 - Okhrid,!)() - 51 - Lc:su...·Gol:lla :\Iogila. 52 Lau... 53 - :\lalor.td .H - Rt-li
1Urr..lk...n Lc-khdlC'\'O-Kostadin. 56 - Upllhsa, 57 - I<.nt$hcni\Sa'!\oI"()\':IllSka Mogila, - Sormllk'\"()-Oant'\lll . .>9 Yal.n1'l'·\·
),l··..zib\... 60 - :\Iizi)lll, 61 - Slaliyska Makhala-8agadlina. 62 - !Ilakresh. 63 - S1atina. 6-1 - OsLrO\1J1 Corbului. 6J - Bailt' H('!\u!.,,:·-
H..pIM Cavt'. 66 - Girta 67 Vadastrn.. 68 - 69 Humska Clmka, 70 - BUbaIU, 71 - Rlldna GI.II-a.;1 '-djk........ I\..•:,.
D:.liuluj. i3 74 - 7.5 - Zlouh P«ina, 76 - KriH:lj, 77 - KOrUm1>-V"jaga "=air.. 78 Hi<ar.;9 G.,dll1l1.l·
ao - Skopjt', 81 - Bakamo Gurnn(l. $quarts mark other t'ont("mpor.ll')' illlhc n.-gion. rn("mioned in the l('XI,
of KSB dC\'clopmcnt in former Yugoslavia (Laz·
:.: Sladit 1997). -nlC relation between KSB sites,
t""J>t"cially those of fonner Yugoslavia, will probably
unresoh-cd until a proper set of absolute dates
:... ntablis,hed.
REVIEW OF PREVIOUS RESE.\RCH
The larger region or Tdish fi ...., ('";lIne imo il)("U. 1lI
1934 with the exca\<ttions al Sado\'ec I.; ...\,
first, Bulgarian archaeologists. I;uf'r joim-d b\· (Jl'r·
man and Austrian sehola",. \\'ere Lilt'
18 .-lela Ardweologica
Fig. 1.7. Satellite map ofth<' Tdi.h region with distribution of kno" 11 Copper Age
Anliquity fortifications (61h ccnlllty AD, as dated by
coins) in a vicinity of Sadovec (Welkov 1935: 1'odoro-
\'a Simconov<I 1968; Uentzc 1992). or these sites,
Go1cmanovo Kale also cOlHaincd prchislOIic ma-
telial, which later has been subdivided in Lale Cop-
per Age, Early (Orka-Sadovcc) and (Chna
U1) Bronze Age, and Early Iron Age (Hallstan ma·
terial) (1'odol"ova 1992; Alexillldrov 1992). The site
was occupying a rocky terrace sleeply rising la mOrC
than 20 III above the riverbed of ViI. The site was a
natural stronghold accessible only from the north. In
prehistoric times. Ihe location has also been valued
due to ahlll1dalll resources of flint in tht: lower part
of the limestone terrace.
Another importam archaeological landmark in
Tdish region is Pipra, situated 8 km south of the
village. Like the site at Sadovec, Pipra has been val·
ued for its natural defensivt: featmes; in fact, it was
one of the fonified junctions to prOtect mOvt;melll
along the Roman road between OCSCllS (Gigen) and
Stargosia (Pleven) (!\cikov 2001). In the early 1970s,
lhe si le \\'as btiefly investigated (Gergov, pcrs.
comm.). It has been established that besides Late
Antiquity fortress buildings, spread over an oblong
hill of65X35 m, there were traces of an Early Iron
Age settlelllCIlt. Later intensive pining on the site by
looters has also demonstrated that the celllral pan
holds at least five building horizons, which can be
figa 19
Kaleto
J·lg. 1.8. SiltS of ucrn alld Kalclo al S,ldo\'cc, a. from F•. ,h.. ramp"rt :ll Kalel....
by so-called hiatus layers, which bear tu ,iQ:-
nificant episodes of aO<lndOlllllellt. Hence. till" n'-
search at Liga was initially dri\'en b} the expeCt,tli'lll
to fill in these chronological gaps and to traCt' tilt'
dynamics of shifts in settlcmelll in Ihe micro-re{!ioll.
5..\DO'-EC-I-:ZERO &
During Ihe Ihree fieldwork ..easons at Liga "Ollll" t"il-
erg)' was im'ested in re<;Cue \\ork at a ,ill', whirh ..lp-
peared to hold material from SC\'cral Copper. \I!t
settlements. The site was disco\crcd ilear Sado\l"\. -
km southeast ofTelish, and actually illlWO part...1
lower and older onc named SadO\·cc-Ezero. and .11)
upper and younger called Sado\'Cc-K.aleto \\"dko\
1935 (shorl notc; i\lilO\'a-Dzollm:\ 1979. 61 Fil!
1.8). Despite the re5CllC char<1ct('r of ilH'l:,tig,llinn.
settlement at Uga is
:.olJ'b\. Redurite. where exc3\'ations went on for
:?O H'ar>. Separated by the short distance of
1:1 km the twO silcs are not only geographically
.li-o temporally related. RcdUlitc lUmcd out to be
a SCttlement wilh four temporal
The earliest settlement was founded in the
Copper :\ge Gradeshnitsa phase;, while the
wcre of late Copper Age,
the last onc representing the initial phase of the
o-c.JJed T pCliod (Gcrgov 1992a). No SllC-
-J<m recorded between the two Latc Copper
\:: _ -<,ttlemClHS. It1 fact. all phases were interspaced
attributed to the Copper Age, prim,nil)' the earlier
pan of the KSB (pers.observation). Significantl}', all
( lpIXr .\ge settlements seem to have been burned
Aria .Irdwfologica
ill particular Saclm'ec-Ezl'l"o yielded significant
chronological and other information. which I\ill be
in full in a future work.
Traces of the e"rlil'st oCCllpation were found 011 a
,addle-like hillock, llleasuring 65X·W m. SUITOlltldccl
by high and ne'HI}' 90 degrees nmges of lime·
,Wile hills. A nalTQ\\ pa.';S<IKc through the hills is CUI
hy the river Bclilka. a tlibutary of\"il. which is alm051
lllllloliceable in the landscape sillce it runs deep down
helow the rdngcs. cncilding the hillock.
The nonhcrn pal1 of the hillock, approximately '-I
III alX>\-c the tin'r. is than the southern onc.
Due to this natllnll [01111. aeolithic sand fonning the
occupation layers only accumulated on the solllhem
pan. Thus. the 1l0nhcnl pan remains uncoI'crcd by
..oil and \egelation. ilnd no trace.. of human
haw left impaCl on it'> appearance. The hillock.
at it'> and most llonhem poilH. approxi-
mately 173 m aoo\'c the sea level. The ntngc of hills
is rising on:r the sile by 7 m on a nonhem ,ide and
by more than 15 m on the southem one.
The investigation of the site was initiated during
the summer of 2002 after repons on digs carried on
by wry acu\'e local 100lcrs. The looters had dug three
main trenches reaching rock bottom through cultur.tl
deposits 3.5 ·1-.0 m thick, as well as scvcral other
trenches. The trenches werc actually "archaeological"
in nature. \\;lll vCltical profiles, which could easily be
cleaned and studied (Fig. 1.9). Six building horizons
were recorded in the largest trench. spanning a rul]
Copper Age sequence,
Due to the natural remoteness of the site, the con-
ditions of presclY<llion werc exceptional. Four of thc
settlement horizons had traces of conflagration while
the remaining olles had been lefl to slow decompo-
sition. [\'en in 1:\ycrs where day items were Ilot ex-
posed to fire. their state of prescr..ation was remark-
able Fig. 1.10 & I, I I . Among the most imponant
finds was a burial of a woman, placed in prone posi-
tion in a pit measuring just 65X45 cm. This evcm
took place during a pcriod po:.tdating the Copper Age
and presumably before the Early Bronze Age proper.
The twO earliest occupation phases ofSadovcr-Ez.
cro sile are dat<..d to lhe beginning of the Copper Age.
During the L..te Copper Age the seu..lers $t;trIed to
occupy also the cdl{c of the nonhcrn rallKe of hills,
forming a plateau. The site on the is locally
known as Sado\'cc-Kaleto. Apparently, at that time,
the inhabitants must ha\'e started to use a kind of
drawbridge. for the distance that had to be overcome
between the tWO abruptly separated by the
riwr, was only 7 m, or less, Not long after the expan-
sion, the sitc in thc canyon was abandoned, the scttJc-
ment cominuing on the more accessible plateau,
The SadO\'cc-Kalcto site was also heavily damaged
by the looters. \\'ho had e\'en used eXGI\'ating machin-
el)'. Rescue work was therefore carried Ollt lhere, too.
h appeared that afler the close of the Copper the
Kalcto settlement conunm:d. directly into the E..'lrl}
Bronze .\ge. u;thout an}' significant interruption or
dramatic material changes, In thal sense, this site is
truly exceptional. I)otlcry of the so-called Tmnsilional
Liga 2]
Fil\. LID. Soullwfl] [Tellch al Sado\'cc-Ezl.To. of r.ate Copper Age m"ell. lhree times n:built nnd <l<lj,l!"'11l bin.
Period. as \Vdl as of the earliest Bronze Age (Orlea-
type), have been recognised in the collected
mateli"L UlHil now, there arc only a dozen of such
Transitional siles known in lhe whole or Bulgaria.
An interesting structure investigated at Kalcto was
a semi-circular rampart surrounding the site from Lhe
acce'sible northern side and ending at the steep edges
of lhe plateau. The rampart was constructed in IwO
"lonc \\"alls with compact layers of soil in between and
a 'Oil COWl". No doubt there has also been a palisade
at the lOp. The only archaeological finds recorded in
connection with Ihis unique structure were shards of
the Early Bronze Age.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
.-\" implied. the research object.ives 101' Liga and ad-
jacelll "itcs were to a high degree dictated by the out- Fig. 1.1 I. Sl(>l'agr hin ....1' unh"knl dol\. "',lClo\'c(-l:.lrn"
_-hrhaeologita
\"1Ilt' of tht- at Rt-dutite. Information on
t\\ 0) I..w: Copper _-\ge sculements. supplemented "it It
d,ll:l 011 till' ,o-c;llkd Transitional Period, was COIl-
.icit'rl-d a good ,tarting poilll for building-up a local
.t'quclll..-e of land-uS{" and, most importantly, for trac-
ing of peoples and ideas. Complex ap-
prnadlt·s to the regional data enabled the perspective
to Ix> brO<ldcned in SCOpe and to link a limited project
10 a much "ider cultural-gt:Ographic;,1 setting. So far,
the- majority of settlement in Western
han= produced a mass of isolated phenom-
t'lla, "'hich have only been coupled up with the help
of particular t}1>CS of artefacts, A different situation
pl't'sented itsclfat Telish, \\ith an opponunity to pro-
duct' and to piece together c\·idence into coherent his-
torical sequences, resembling those of the southern
an'a of impressi\'c tells, In this light, issues such as the
organisation of the lig-a site, changes in the
planning of scttlement and its architecture, duration
and causes of abandonment, etc. could be set in a
brO<ldcr temporal and geographical perspective,
I'('vealing the "dialccucs" of a L.ue Copper Age settle-
ment.
The ambition in the present case was nevcr to ex-
cavate the whole settlement, as at Rec!utite, but to
concentrate on few areas where the archaeological
contexts could be im·c.<;tiWllcd fully and at great de-
tail. 'nlUS, the chosen strategy is in contmst to both
the usual Bulbrarian excavation practice and the main
trends within the Scandinavian archaeology_ Pres-
cntly, in Bulgaria, witb limited funding for archae-
ological projects, there arc no big scale research in-
itiatives, like the ones that could be experienced dur-
ing' the Communist cl'a (e.g., Todorova 1982). :\'10:>1
projects arc designed to cover the depth rather than
the width, viewing tIle issues of temporal development
,It a sitt as more important tban the issu{'s of cultural
differcntiation \\;,hin each temporal episode. Scandi-
Ili.l\ian archaeology suffers from its own limitations:
research projects have to give way to an administra-
tive archaeology producing general models of house
types, settlements and land use but almost completely
devoid of small-scale highly detailed inform.nion.
Therefore, conscious efforts were invested at Uga in
identifying and disclosing all structures to their fullest
extent, folloh'ed by highly thorough documentation
procedures. '1l1is approach has, for instance, enabled
us to study the excavated materials ,,;th an explicit
focus on indi\';dual structures and acti'ities, produc-
ing case sensitive - or historical- results_
As dcrives from the logics of these considerations,
answers were also sought to explain the existence of
scemingl)· opposed settlement modes in SE Europe.
The KSB culture is often defined by geographical
fluctuation, observed through settlements ,,';th limited
recurring use. TIle immediate eastern neighbour of
the ,,-S8 - the KCK VI complex - is traditionally
charactclized by multi-layered settlement mounds,
i.e., tells, reflecting continuous spatial attachments:
How can material data explain such differing subsist-
ence strdlegies and, in the case of KSB, less tangible
mechanisms to sustain the social and spiritual cquilib-
dum of society? With a full awareness of the fact that
not all variables can be identified, several specialist
sludies were designed to produce a detailed cultural
profile of the Liga site, hence to provide data for com-
parative studies, The main ovcrall objccli\·c was to
demonstrate the potential of integrated studies tar·
gcted to translate the cultural fingerprints of sile and
landscape into proper chronological sequences and
cultural strllctures.
H. THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROCESS
)oIL 1110DOI,OGI(:,\L
& l:.XC,\\', llOX TECII'IQLL.."
rht: ,ill' of Li!.:,1 ";IS c'\({.l\-.I(\'d dunl1j{ 'lin'\' 'umllwr
from 2000 till :1OfI:1. 1)1lIilll.: tll(' third '\'.1.'1111,
.111 impon.IIH t'l.'>k Wit... to unckrt.IKl" rt'<;{ m' 1;"'\((';,-
\.uion\ ,\I S.ldo\l:c-EztTO ,lIId S.L<!ml't"-K.II\,to.
rill' I'XC.I\.lh:d arca .1\ UIfoI " :17:1 1Il
2
excluding
In'Ilc!Il:,:;, Fil.\". ILl. Surr.lcl· inn... tilf.ltion, at
the ,ill: in 2000 did nOl n'w.,1 'Ix'cific cOlleen.
1I";llion of finds. In order 10 hOlh tht, Hrati-
and to catch !II(' di,tribll(iOIl of ex-
perll'{l remain... ,I Il';ll1<;{'U cO\ninK 2X30
III was sel ,.Iong the IOIJogmphic,Llly .1l1tirip,tlcd CCIl-
lral or the sile. sl:lrling li'om till' \\cstt'l"11 limit
01' the p1:L1C:lll. This transect nliClllatl·d \f-E. It
co\,cl'cd olle of the tl\O minor _ul'\'Cy m:nchcs of
19i9, _till 10 bc :IS in thc IC1Tain IFig.
11.2). The re-opcncd survey trcllch. Ilhich undoubt·
cdly had de"trayed Ihe pen.lilling ,tlllClural cultural
remains. imendcd as a cOlUral prafilt' for till' e.x-
1';I\':Ition of IIC\\' lrenches. pl'o"iding .l plior under-
slalldinc; of the n;l\lI1'C of dCl>o<ilS .md $Oils. .
.\ nc;u·b\· Thracian IUllllllll'. holdlllg
;1 locll lllc:lslIremcllI pilbr made of COIlCrl'le ill lhe
tOp Ixcamc the main referencc Imint T1l.lpping.
11 hich emured :t com'crsion of Ihe rd.llI\'c IIlC;l.5urc-
T1lenb of the inn::lIti!r-nion 10 Ihe .1!>'\Dlme..\ Total
Station used in Thc s.lid tr;IlI:lll."C1 \I"'iI.:I
subclil'ided illlo smaller ulli!.'> of2X5 Ill. To "-II'C timl'
.lIt(l m.IIl'p(mc... Ihe dl'Cisioll 1'':1'' 1,Iken to
,
" ""1' '" ",. 'l<l,,,iblc 'Ir.ni·
onh elel) sceone wnt. m . I r-
• I 1cr"ucd'\
comparison bell' cell ,onc .IAI's .LIl{ c'. •
. "' 0"", lid ICllt'l-'; 01 lhe
1.II·gcr lll\'cSlll{:llee arca. IgI \ ,I
Gl'l'l:k \ICI'C applic(l for 1.lhclting for!!.11.3}.
" " "' I " I • "nlt·,!'I' \\ou!(l .IHoI'·
111',11'111" III Illll1e. I HII ,uc 1 " . c, .
cri I')' nil'
10 cSl.ll)li"h (lnl\' Ihl' 1\'e,tCI"II borc!.-r" 0 tIC 'I C.I ,I .
<1ctel'mincd 11\' lhc IcalUl'e" of tire 1:1I1(1'1'.lp': lr.Hhl·1'
." " "11" 'rc ,1"0 under·
.Ibl'upt mt"IISI"" (I'l Ill"'''' I'., .
" ,. 'l"\i"ll of til" ClIlll'e
lakt'n .Iillll'<l ,11 p1'011< 1Ill-: .11I 011 .
. '. , n,,"1t ,I nc" '\(....'11011
an:;1 u,cd for O<'cupallon.• . .
. \ ••Il\" ,uulhclll <J0IJC,
was "(·!t-cl..d for .•
I
" k 1 ., ofhunll'(l cl.wo. a
.llc drilling' n'IT.lkcl :1 t IIC' .1\' I .' .
. '.. r' .. UT of h.I"n.lllolI 'lnll-
"troll!; lIl<h••,uon (l tu: pn..... I .,
. - - (1)<'lwd for 1I1\t"IIl,'iI'
1lII"". ,\ 11"I'lIrh of ;,X,) III ".1'
lion ubdilid"d into ...ond.Il:-(· l1''- H\ .trIr1 HR \. thf'
...lInr lilm' It .Ippr.trrcl.h.n both tilt" (/llltr,,1 'nnd.t,,'l"
nI), h.\. 1,lid ,Ino- 1I1f' old .,1'\ .... trrn.h .1II.lllJr
,wic::hbourim: nil..'l flrnt.lin,·d ulKldmi.LI
tr.\C('" of h,lhil.ui(OIl. rh" limit- of th,' LoUrr
\I(·n.- C\,·llIu.lll\ t"xp.lIldt"d. bt.·(omim: p.tn Ill' d largf'
1l'I:nch Ilf 1".11I m. In order to ("'\I"hli h .1 ."n iu\!:
(ollt'o::linn or fin<6, Ihi, In'nd, I\,I III lum
into four 'Ondagt"'\ 110\..5. i, h.\ & hB
flu: l\l...tl·nmm,t '-Ond.t£:t" no. [ did nnt 1'("\(',11 .111\
nidclll lr:ltl" of hum,1I1 ani\it), •\ dOI.I·n oJ' ,h.,rr:b
111'1\: uneo\crl'd ill .\ Ihin 1;" t'r of humu' O.lh O.:!6
III Ihick 011 lOp of ;1 'Itrilc 1.1)--I·r /)1' p..hbl.·... Dl'<pit("
,10pinA' il th.ll lhi, pMt of Ih,' hillock
1'.1" nncl' for comtmClion of" .111\ pcnn.11ll'1Il
'Intctul'.... Th.. n...xI "ondal.,'C. no. :l. .tl,u g;llc limit<:d
rcsult::.. ,\fief' cxc;I\;l\illg ,I of humll\ HA m thick.
'<Olldal\l' 11 .lb;lIldoncd. Lllt'r drillim,,, r('lf'alrd
111<: rem;lin, of ,tmClurc'" in Iht e;iSlt'mmU,1 p.m. n.a
III bclo\1 tlw
,\11 \ICn: CXC:Jnllrd in ,lrIJiu-ar, Id\ ....... of
;) 10 cm. Tht' bulk malerial '\Om'rI.lIld rollfilcd
.. dy-: p0ltel"\. all 'Ion..... ;lIld llim.....tnim.LI bUIlI....
,Illd burlll'(l d.lub. .\11 indi\idual find, dl.ll.. ttl0'0Ut.:
cer.trnic pien:". vuulld 'Ionf"l. llilll or boil" im-
plemcntS ,lIld Iheir concclllr:ltion, C·It..•1hl".lp oLlm,
mal baIW..... "dl a:. I),·uticul.lf ;,J,mpll.... "t"rr lIuli-
\idu,llh l'l'Con!('(1 in Ihrtt dimcll,ioll' "ilh Ih(' lllt,1I
SI.ltioll.
\\'.lIer ,it'\im: \\.1.5 PCPibll'lIlh allt'mpll'(l durilll!
e.leh ,c,!'on. bUl did 1101 l,rin: IIIC 1'''IJCl'Ic<! "",Ill!.).
Durinc: Ih,' fiN SC,l.'i(111 .1 "l>cci.11 1101.ltioll pl.1ll1 I'.b
(omtnl..:lt·d. Ilhill' dllriuc: lilt· 'I'(olld Iidd....,.II.llp.li,,'l1
.1 IlltllC l·tJicicnt mClhod I'.l" .Ipplit·d: I h,'
1'.1' eutl.'cll·d inlo ncl bag" I,illl tll'II,,-' 1I11",h.lOIlI.lIn·
iliA ouc blll'h'l. .md ,icI'l'd ho!dinio: lIlt"
under ,I \I .11,'1· ''In;;III1. Soil fcw ".llt·r '10:1 lll)ol
cotll'('wd IrOIH Ihl' .Irc,l" of <p....Ti;d inICIl"'I. 'lIdl ,L'
Ihl' fI,M)!" .m:.1 ,Irollnd .1 "Wr:I1!I' bin or ,.m 01t·11. ,Ill"
>11ill·\l.I\,III'(1 h"OIl1 1110: W;I\I.... Onl\ .1 11'11 l)l'I,·nu.11
p,tl.'t'nl:w.,t,mit".11 ... ro: t.YIJ!....'I('(I;L' Ihe n.·,oh
of,h,·..... df,Uh. Ol1ll'r 1"I·,ldul...... ud•••' llim duI''' .111<1
... h,II"(I,. 110:1.... ,11,,) limill'd in Ilumh,·r. perh.Jp.. dU.'· h'
tlU' .lIn·.ld\ imcll,iH' .tllI·mion ci"'1I It> 'udl !md..
\
-
o
o
.1fla .1n11Oro/flgim
,

-
-_-:.r--\
,
,
\
,
,
25m
o
uidUpUC'<""
tIlE ILl. map afLio ..lIb indio'ion aflh" oa,':Ul'd and buih W\OClutft olus;a:! dolrk gn,. UIWJ.tu.:. Eq nU<\.> lhr
OS m. ...... on """"' DOl \me ltW'b Iht-:Itn of Iht- Up :! 'on.tkrncnL \\..:11; d.uhcd Iin<" (:t ....
...", r t d bPrd.:n Iho: liD I nc.- d...h.d a- ltW'b Ihr nltDsioft uf Up. .. [.•ut. I:lronz., "It'" ;tllkmcnl.
dtp....... _Iho: tnn.ia ..... t.. uf 19.'1 \lI ....n: S..\Ibd.:..

lili:" II! 1'I,;,n of u.e, rnllral !'mm E. :\Ott
m ,hr l""";n """' ,.nrtitT dll:,/ilUnT\ un.:ba of
]Q,ll
during !Ill: e:<ca\"3Uon. Genernlh. it can be "Uted iliat
onl} limited infomlauon disappeared \\ hen \'<!lcr
siC\ing was not applied. siC\ing was ;ilio
aucmpled. "ith a siC\"(' mOih ofSXS mm. bUl Jumpi-
ness and the se\1:t"C of the mack this a
time-<:omiuming task. aho "ith only limiLed R"-
sulb.
The firsl field campaign p.1n1r unco"crcd lhe rc-
mains of three habilauon "lnICl\II"CS. During lhe
campaign of 200 I Ihe gO\1:nting to un-
cover the 10lal remains of lhe houses.
l1lt:_refon:. aJn:ad} in\"t:"'ur;r:ucd areas \\en: sur-
rounded by a ne" SCl of accordilll! 10 pn=-.
dictioll5 of lhe dimt'nsiolls of Ihe SlnlClUrcs. A srSlt:m
of St."Ctions was also cre.lIed Fig. 11..1 . The ne" sand·
ages wcn: assi!.'lIcd a digit and :1 !cller. so Ulal :ill
sollCbgcs \';lh tIll' digil 9 .ll"c connectcd ,,;Ih House
l. with dib';' -I 2, .md wilh digil JO House .3
lFig. 11.3).
SURVEYS AND DRILLlNGS
SUI"'crs around Lig:l IICI\: conducled on several oc-
c,lSio115 \,ilh diffeI"Cnl dq,'1"ces ofinlClIsil). These IICn:
aimcd 10 IIll: of lhe scnlelll,:llI alld ilS
land-use, .IS well as for idrlllif};lIg ncw .llTha<.'Olo&';cal
siles. Thc innlledi:ue sl1lTOulIding" of lhe sile \,cn.·
also im'cslig:'tecl with the help of drilJillgs "ilh gt-'O-
logical augcr'S. The survey" "'('f{' 011 fidd-\\ ,dk-
illS. '!l\C proClodure CIII,tikd .1 It'am of -1-5 l>crson,;
I'"It" IU Pbfl of Un ..uh n<2'--" iIliCbtn. '"- docilJ
:lnd lrucn tndiottc- na\-.t III ." tbt" •
m..v. ID:?OOI addtUoru/ ..nd III _ 0): 'vnor 1 ,.
unorhn "1DlI "lllllO' -.brrn Iho: -=.aDd"" "-.-
I of 1..10. :! S«tor 2 ...... <If anodwo<
Cl'kn1lll! H_ .t I <If Ua :..
sp.lccd at inl(:n"'3b of:!1) m. Para1Jd \\UC'
>Cl up "ith help of lhe Total Surion and
orient:alt'd ::-;..s. In ea..-.eo. the U"'.UL-et:t alimmolI
was diet.llW h\ the natural oricm:arion of the 6dd.
All ancfaclS .. cre colltttw pcr 10 rn, then
:U1d coumed.. an arca ofapprm:. 1500 m'
w:e; imensi\"ch <l1n"('\·w. The m:ajorit\ of the fickb
around Uga IIcre cuh.i\";uw in 2000. mn-
ing the conditioru; of falvurabk. pie
squares mcasurinl.! IOX 10 m "«11100 10 bc oprim.a.l in
n:spondinl; 10 UIC n:quirernclll.> alld aims of <uch "tIr-
i.e.. 10 find lhc IXII'der'S of the' occupation, or to
uncover possible rOl:atiOlls or "C'ltlemellt. Di,.,tribuoon
map.••ho.. ed ,('ver.ll COllcemr3UOru.. "hich :ap!X'.u't'd
10 Ix miskadirll:. IhoUl.;h. rOlllp.lred "ith infonnarion
tIll' drillim..... ::-;",·C'nhdl."Q;. the
hcJp<.'(! 10 eSl;lbli.h Ihe e"i,;ll'llfC of .Ill Edrh Brollzc
Age >eul.. nll'l1I p.lnh o\'t'r1appint: the' CoppC'r .\i:l:
Lit:a 2 "t·ltlClI1l'tIl. rT"ulted in .\ hit:hcr ..,,-:arcilCSl>
in sonilll; till' ('XC.II.Ued 11I.1IC'ri,ll... \,hich ;ilio hdd
B1'01I:I;(" .\ge lind". undinl! procrdul't'< b\ drillint:
1"C\'l:aJed Iht" 1l0nhenl and the C';lSI('nl bomcf'!; of th.:-
Copper. \,!:'l." QCl.'up.ltion.
,unT\'S WCl'(' Ii",-usnll"lll l'\\CI prime
.k/a . hd/(/(%g;m
arc:;u; the area bm-un RroUUlt and Uga. and tht
area around liZl .and. tht pre<cnl-da\ mm. h ap-
pearro that ttrUin had r::qx:rirnn:d inu:nor hu·
man auenuon lhrouirhoUl the \\ hile other.; II'crt
complrtrh mentioned bc:twttn
dlt two site!< did nOl PTO\;de a archaoological
ancfaCl. despitc rc:pcatrd BI rontmsl, tht
of the dam. 10 tht course
of the _Iream. had been J ton:-JrcJ.
and cltploilaUoll from :"'oolithic
orw..ardJ.,
Diffcrt"nt n-quirc:mrnt! for spacc and occupation
an' refil"Clcd in mc dyn:uniC!> of lhe area.
Ihl' :"'rohthic and tht Earh Copper Ihl':
are:u on lhl' Idi bank of l!ll' fonner
"lKam "en: ..... hik Luer pcricxb tllC
hil..·!lrr him! .md rathl':r more: dr.ulUtil pLuCJ.u was
ra, ,rnI tor toMtkmmL lbc propIc of thr Earh Iron
as al:;o those of dlC subsequent period:. dat;l
availabk umil thc 6th ccntun' .-\0 . mOl cd b.1ck lO
mc plains at thc stre:lIn. ICa\;;lg lhc highland for ril-
ua.! arulitiCli and cro..'Ction of tumuli.
Differing lraditions of scttling arc of great
sincc lhe\' demonstratc that continuolls occuP:lllOI1 LS
nOl nceded 10 creatc allac!lI11cnt".
memories may lakc a gcneral fonn and hence
fcsl themselves lhrough recognition ;l1ld IC!o::l1lific;JllUll
of human :tItemliolls in a such as
. . . 1 1 1 1 'illl cui·
aCU\1lLL'S or Ihe pn.'scncc of p anls oac e( "
lUra!
·nll: and E:uly Copper Age
. . . . 1., lrchL"
arc found on rclauwly hgll1 sOIls. c or I 1
. . -'
LOnc ulbgc er. abovc. Such 3rcas "en' P _
-'-- 'Il \\10
11
uc.aJl'(\. before lhe Wltc Coppt'r oco .
r \<lC
on t.he platcau. <harcb of Laic COPI>C .:",
.1_.1: • • -I' ·h
.....te Ul-"CQICl'(.'d In lIu' c:arhcr fields .uc l I al _
UJ "':"<'Y'.>W.Jll P111O.' er- [nU.)I"';'I -S
'\. ",tl'1"!U" ,,.,, Ul ..... I1<ll{ .)11I 'IIr" .llll
j" la'llu.J.'.;l\fl <11 .'loud "np <'rl\ tl-'lI.l.l1 ,'pl\\ 11/ I;t·O
".......'r' '" '.If'''' IU.)11111'.... .lrtp'l<un .nll uO "111' 1\
,," "l.fl'(l ..1110' U! 1I0IUTU1,-.IO.' .'141 OJilluoddn> .lJ.'"
W., /" J.'II"Wl."!p r 411l\ .Hl"'·1\ ',l1lb!Ulp.ll
'lnrp pur .)[111">' 1·/" ..... "11 .)41 'll-'t:.>l01 "lU!od J,:I,\I:I llO!1
",'TUt..."p "1f1 III J.lilrw .1!ui:luo JO IU;lllIOJ 111I!11 l' pUt·
(l"U"ll'W ;tmpl1I1q i11l'Ul .llp n.>I Wl:) '.1:11';) IU,'lfll1()o;
.llfl Ir p.lJ.HI1.....!P .\J;)II 'iU!l:Ul.lJ 11:JnJ]IUI' ,"H!ll:lUJOJ
-t11 I'UIU "4.t 'lUJW;)PI>- ;llll JO J"OI[1
U"fl P.'!"I'd,\PP!--" .lJOW ;UJI\ ";>;llOI[ ;llll '3" OI.\\S
JO utlnnu.•u,) fY.J.lu.ll'l t: pt:IJ lUJIU.)lll3> I l:2ln ,"I4.L
·unumn.).,u./" l.".lJl." ,"11{1 i1l1!Jllt:2ul 'llns:u .l\lsnpuo;)
W1' l<>U P'P "uU!fi!JP :ltfl .l.'tII' ·P"II'!I(It:h.l
IOU .l,f'I{ 'lU.)IX.l 'I! ''Q!WII 'U.lI!Hl'\ .141 '\jUl:d
'JIt11! W.;l\flOl>'l ;l1J1 JOJ 1w:n:::-l ,..lJ1' p"lran...HIll ;'Il{l JO
nnd UJ.>1cr-.l pm: w.llllnos .l1f1 UI \1110
IU.JW.:>flI..... ;)U .(; can ·1U"W.lpl.n II\.lnb.l<.
.xp J.t IU.>wq<1jqn-..l JO .llllO .)1{1 IC 1I0!Jt:1;)iJ.l\
J> .lJIJ r J.llJe .llll p.lJ.'I1II.l \p1!1 !,--"OJ
-n1p.>tU .>n' II! ww <: I !,--"oo.mp JO \.).).J!d ncws
pt.n' ..... nntl -'!U1'.aJo II! 4;)!-' J.lW[\.lWP p.1wllqUI1
l' no p..l-<t.1lklJ.lJ 'l'1I IJJ!II\\ ·11I.'Iw"IlI.l5
;llfl J'l u<·urllIlW.11 .l1f1 p.;»-ntD 1'Il1I \\ l.lIlOI'llOU '! I1
',;.)Iqqxl ':>41 UJ':>'\I.)(I "J.lllI'W
p.>1I·lnwluJ!' \q Jnolo.) JJ1JI'P C plIC
p.J11'ru.l \q p·l\I:J!PtIl II:Jnlcll
,..,. P.111·U.:uddl' 11.1,)(1 ,HI'II PIn/HI .11p PUIlOJC
IJ'II"lfj'pd JU J.I\I·1 ;HlI, 'Hln!:I"1 U! UJ t·O C'O
:lIp ...... 1101 IIfJ U:l:l(l .1\1'11 01 JC,lddl'
Plnn\\\,'4
1
'1Im'l .JJ.I\\ .141 U,l ..I.\\ ·W.W' U.',\.l
JlW'''' .\[IIl1 '.jJ,'II'\.\.1,1 'I.' P,\J] I' .1'1'.lJJ 01 b'1I
IOU ........ '" 10,,) ...111.... .:up '\Ip'nl.)\·' ·P"IC.'IIU,\U! IOU .:1.'1,)\\
Io.Id.-IJ" w""IUuU ·'ttl ·IU.I!"!H.:lU! 11,1')(1 .lWII Plll(HI '!lll
Inll "'11 ·l.Jd.•JI\ .1111 pUt· '1Ill·.lJh ,)11
1
011'"'-'1' '! 1/-"1111\ ''''&)1' IU.:lI,;tll .nu 'uo!1I'dluJ(J JO
r.:t.n: pu-edu "I ,dUJ.lIlI· 11'" nllh_.IUIH\ '1'11 IP!I{\\
'.lOJP. UJ;o'{UI'''; ;>111 u...."p p.nr...Jd.lp w ... 110. ,nl,LII'
Jot{J '.IA'1 "I'nj({ "1/1 i1ull,.,d:u .11.... Wf.JI VUlllll .11/
1
JO dt)1 .IlfJ ,....ifJur< .\..0./1 'UUIlI'U\P .I" III >ll 'rul'UIl.! J(
Oll't"jJnt .Jtf1 :;lndmJ 01 p.IUP1' .14
1
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\U 1ft i'-O '1 \rl ..'llJ" KoII'lI!lll .HII .11Il1\,
-<.>Wg 10 .I'll d""', ....Of•.IJI' '11'1 \1'lll"l " J.l\"1
U'OIUlI)lJ1 "JI·U'''j.lr, Illl\\ pUI" II'!PIJ,)J'"OI
"p-\ W WW; I 'UI".li! WlIljJ.llIl pUt' Ill! 11
"! p.'I'.Q! .>I{I 'l'IllIrlrlrlll j"I p..... l \111'11"1'1'.1
-.'0 '11Il1/ .1IIbl'(lo 11'''J.lq pllC :l1!zut:nb p....punO'I·II.'1I
JO \IU.llU.'iIlJJ :UlIpnpul ' U! WIll O! 01 dn 'Plqlpd
P 11'Jl1 \(1 1>.JlrIl!N1W \! \\01:1(1 .'I.' \1:1 Jlll. ·.l!P!;)I:
·j.lIll'lll J!I1l:"'Uo .lu!J IP!-" P;'IS"!UI\CP'Pul.'S
JO JJ.\I·I \.u:i I' \q p.\J.HO) 'I:''' 'tlOlI!'1 JIII '1:lI:dull
·U!C,U.l1 U.:).\.:I SU!":.:uJ pili:
-m11 ,liP H! i.:i,I.:IllJ IjJlllU P.:llS;).\U! :uI.I.
':):I\, J.'Iddo:) .1Ifl.l0 \.lI:d J:l!l.lI::l.'lI/1 :i'u!--ll1p P.'lIIS!1
-ql'I',' .... " [c..'1n .11!' :lIp 11: lSJ!} :lIU.
L'\'II"TIJ.J 'r" '!D\' .Ism,r 'I van
'(i; 'Idl
11:JI1I1:U I\'IP 'J!l!
- '!IJI! 1II!1U1lI1 hU!-,JlI!P JO S:'I!-'a!i t: I).JJII:I!-'xb,:J UO!lc.)()1
;)41 'puq .10 lo[d l(1!-':b-JplloU C 5u!t110;).1(1 ,1.I0pq Suol
III ·0\' \JI1lU.lJ '/19 ;'lIp J.llJt: l);)uuoJ ;).'1:)\\ s.J;I\t:1
IPoq 11:111 p;lpnpUO;) Jot:! Uc:l 1! ·SUO!Il:.\J;)S
-qo uo p:»"I'U 'umnOJ alll "!
\Cpol 11:1\,;) 'p!II" .lJ!lJl:.ld t: :uy .\q ;);)ut:.n:JjJ
p:ncd.1.I '<;U!I'W:U JO IUlIOIUl:: 1Ilt::l
C reil ;)UO J,lVCp JJ 1\01 :lILL
-\!P Jq 1!05dol Ip!-'-snumll JO s.JJ\l:1 0\\.1.
'snumll .10 J:lWI 'tJ!111 l):)uUOJ 1I0!1t:.\!I[ID Pllcl
JO spo!-';)d 'SIl!I'IIl;IJ Jlp JO UO!I;)IUI5:lP
Ipnlll p.l5nt::l "\1'11 S-.lU!-'1 JOJ Slip SJlpU.l.IJ.
·pJl:.bu!-\ l' Olll! JpCIU 51'\\ :)I!S Jlp '\'111111:1,) IPGI ,lIp
JO pll.'l ;lIp 1\' 'ICOS pUC cl:):lIIS JO SPJ:lII lCll1lU1I110,)
JO .liU!7t:.L.'l JOJ pJSll pUt: P:JIt:.\!1InJllll ,\I:POI I!
'S,")!ldlll! Rl1!ZI:'IQ"l ,"IlUt.:U ;)IP SV ·tSI:d .11p 11!
JO .1U:lJS ,11[ I 1I.1:lq SI:II din .10 :l1!S ,1IU.
NOI.LVIV}\OJ ':I,LlS
"0661 jJppol_1
'PUl'1 pJ1II1'1" JO IU:lIII>'1p,ll \lou'tJC J!J0Is!lpJd \1I1'
JO 3'ii1'q ,)11111' lqnup nu .1.'1;'1'\ ,';)IJ ·5.xHI 1!05 'S.UJIlOS
-;U\I'P 'J.lll· \\ JU \llll(I"I!C \1' sU0!1!PUOJ 11:.111\1"11
-.)IIlJJ,\·l" ·.II'lI'I!n"lIl:JlIllllJ Si.: SI·,1.II.' JI·IIl.l!UI·d ).l.lFh
p.xlpll IllItl \\ ·...'11·1<1111.)1 .H!I!Ir..iClJ 1I!1'UJJ JO .l.lIIJh!XJ
.llll .)lI'J1PIIt 01 \UU.l> .):]\. J.l(ldo:) .111-1 .'lIp
\1' :Ill' .'UII" .up 11' uOlll'dl\.uO \:!uu.Ul.l.)j '\lIl'u!.:1
IOU .'If)
({j.lI·.... U p.l11·n I.. ,1.1,11\ \1l1.l11[.l[lI.l\ ,1111 .'1.111 J,)II 11 'IIUI\I' \ll
'1
11
) JfJJ p .... n'I'nWllIllIUU pili' \11,\1'.111 \1'" 1111'.111' .llp
Jl'l 1
1
U'q .JIII "" 1',1.'11' .llp \I'IP ,.III·lIPU! .)IIUpn,l
"llll! 'WII\I'(hll.M! U!l'lIl ,IIIIIII!.\\ p.lll.lllllO I
£Z
lJ';jn
prr-tt\'I"d ob \-.;:U ;I.lo IM f"\lmt of dc!;lruc-
tion dthn.... ".I» ;.6 m. 10..- R.)..>1' msi<k hOllS(' ,,-a:,
Iimr PI. 3. 8.\ Onh onc !a\er
If l\nor nlUkI 1x I"f'COl!1lL'C'd. li$l-
imul.ltinn.'- IT\Tai Ihal "rult'nine.llftl....of" i. Iht' IDIbI
clfn.."ti\T lIlt-.!.lb 10 illulIlllUUon ofioct'nOr1i;h
1i1.':11I b ('IT the noo.... 2003 . B, ron-
"hil('1\ing oflhe art' not addiuA mort' lighl
10 dIe mlt'nl.""I.l <11.!.cc..\l Ill<.' SE of the hol\!;('"
11-a, p.m of .I 'tone !l.1.I·Clllcnt made of";ucr-
"cll·<;(InOO robbl", of "md,tonc and bro\\11 flim
rt',ldlinl.': 10 12Xj-1ll CIll in ,i1.(' Fit:, 11.5. Bcmnd
Iht, ..,udi1\(' or me hou-,:,I)n Iht' wUlhcm ..tope,
thi.-l t1\er of di....-.mkd ,mim;d bonC:!i and
'lollC .lI1lOnl: \\hidl hamm('r '-tonc" "c:re th..,
l1ll In:qUClll- Onc o( dK" mOl" <prcl.lcular limb
"'>Inl'" from the af".!. ilbidc dk" h..lL.... <;(InWl.':c 9\'.
I.lC\ 2 'ITO'lI) .\CI:
\round HOO ne ralibr:lI<:d \cf. b....lolll..1 11<'\1 M'III..,·
;nrm II,IS .11 lhe \il ..·. L""\'d
were ,-I\';110::d on Ihe l'Cl1I:lill\ of lht· l.ij.t;! I
,cvere <!o::,II'IIClioll of till' dchl;' of
Ihl' occUp:lliollal phase. The f"rl lhal Ihe
10" lIIound; eomplised of llllhl11'1lcd d.l\ \\.t)
prO\;dil1g linl' and casil) formed fOUI1(I.I·
for Ih... , IIl'\I dl\t:lIings. Such lawI':'! llull' good
fioo",. l'1\,lhlill!:" Ihe ...;uion of a colterenl SUrf.Il'I'
durilll.': Ihl' t,ltlin: USl'·lifc of a dwclling..b ,I con,\\,-
qUC'IlCf, u:rr.t,in!:" was more proUOllllC'ct! nOli ,md:1
mort' daoor.ttC' dcliigll of Ihl' >Ctllcml'lll cn::llcd. 1111:
inve-<ug:.luon \1";15 Illainh
on lilt' m,lIl'nal \ CStil:"t-'S of thi..-. <.cUICllU:nl, ,
dll·dlilll.,"S Wl'n: 111flr
iOClllirlr.IUOll W:b C'a.\i\ due co the fact th,1I Ihe -('Itle-
men! of 2 was bt;mL-d do'I·n. and r\:ddi,h bUnJcd
<bub c1c,lrh OUllin -d the smIClUI'O>. III lhl' nonhent
\).In of lhe -d arc;!. numerous lime,lone' "frC'
di)('()lcn'd. \I hiclt di'pla\'cd a scmi.circul:tr or o\,,;d
pallem. SlOll\,\ in mch ,11'1' ohliou,1I
, ,,'\(\'1.'1\
fc.:alllrc,. m f.U:l IOU1\( UIIOI '.
IIhell I.lc\(inll; prcSl'!"'cd bnnlcd dauh. r
HO\l..c ! \1';\. di'\Co\'cIl:d almost CXlICII) on lOp "
Ihe house f1\)11l lhc prniolls oceuplllioll111 IU1I;1.0
11
·
With a devi:uiOIl 10w;\1'(I< dlC EllSI it f01l0l,"('1I
I
,', ri" ,'''11 1'1 2.
I le onCIll.Lllon 0 I H: car lcr eon)l1't1( lu .
2. as could bt: dL'{!uccd from the ocr:l>io
l1
.
LI
r

OCCUlTl'nc..· 0 large frngtnems ofpollcl"\. ",L' - .
aho I"('m:lins of a pn:\;om comlrtlction, ,11·
the rdalion<hip bcl\\CCIl the 1\\0 ,1l1.IUUtl"
could 1101 be csmbli,hoo due 10 I.lck or 11101'1' ,lIb"I,1I
1
'
III in \,idlh .mrl n.R III d,..,), fll"\ no", lw\'t' rn-
cinloo Ihe lullo.. J.. hI!. I I t, I hi, I",... h "Ill'
dUI! 10 -I""t"pn lop.'_. III p.tn" nur 1''l\I,I,u.
Ihe \\""'1. ,\ I"Nhnk- l.j nn In rll.lm.. ltT l1<';lr ilK'
In'nch 011 Ih,' \' .....' ..01 -lop.... pc-rh..ap' illmr;l 1haJ.
.1 fenc( \I,1lI 1'1tt1C"d .U"111! Ih(' 11l;'1\< h. ""p.lr:l,iI1C UI('
L11ler from Ihe ....·ltk"l\"nl. nit 'un. \ In-,,, .-bo
pnl\oo Ih,ll di"".,rd of \I.\'"' \1,\' Inlll",lkd Onh
Iltloil(llifIC.,m amount' of ,h,ml, from tI... I.i.:..
<enknll'llI \'f"1l;' di.....·...H·1l;'<1 nil t/1<' .IIul ... tiE
foe'l of Ih(' hillocl.
Finalh. il ,hllllld h..· nOlrd Ih,u .1 h,lndJUI n/ .....Ih..r
uil! .md tlli,L-II.ull..1,h.anb. \,m,llIlt"ntC"d Ililh dC"''1,h
incL'<'(llil1..... ,md pit_. Oh"ll Ililh ... hilt lim.. illrm....
I.mon. d.,t....I In Ilw Cnp!'.:r \ ...... (.,.........JIIUI .....
11."lI1d ril:. 11 7 111.' di ,rilnui'H, "I
Ihc''': .11 !..ill.1 d,II:' nOI !'H'_nu .lm l>;lrti, u1ar
1),I!lem, "","('pl Ihal Ihl' hit:he', llulllbl"T. 1ll,'1I' IhlTt"
,h.nd•. 1'.\' li/lmd ill Ih,· "."ll" ,Ill'" .11 I/nu...· l. ...-"
'11ll(1U1l"o I'" f,,·.lIuT\'"' 1.1ll I..· l'd,w:d III Ihi.. I"·rind.
1111' ,-.id ,h.ln!- ,Ill h.I\I' ,ran'_ "f ........ ,.Il;' " ... ",K!.'f\
bun,illll. '" Ih,' mO·1 ,Ipp.m·m "·'I'I.lI1.11i,," ._ Ih,ll Ih('\
IH·r>.- blUUt:!H ", tl1l' 'lit' h\ Ill\" Lil.!.• ! inh.,hu,UIl-.
p.,:rh.,p' .1' e,nli..... du,' 11' tlu'ir t1i_llllt,i,,· om.unt·l1-
I.Hion .1I1d uril:hl ll'il u,louL 11,,· .1' ......... 1
"f 1,:,.rI\ COPI""1" \lll" .. 1.'1" .- ..i'Il.u... l ill"
.lfTU"_ d,,' ,m:.lI11. 1111" !'....lnlil.· .ill' .ol... , lidd ..... 1-
d"nu' "n .1 n.nll.lllr.II .....1 (iT:.d.... lmu'"' ...·uklll..·I1I.
.\p.lTI from Ih,l1. 1111'1'1' i, ullh "m' m<l,\·ln''''11 L.trh
COPP"!" ......·ul,Ill<"lll in.1 n,inil\ .,t ldi-h li.n.. ..."
Ill!H
lial <kbn,. '111l" .1I"Ca (If 1-1011«:" :1 \'.15 filr
diSC;lrd of broken pOllen, lood r\·lIl.1in,..'lId ""'P'·'"
ci;uh .15hC"" 1'1. 3. G D I1Il" <.,.111,' -<)11 of m:m·ri.d
discoWl'cd .Il Ihi. 'e.... ,ill" ill Lilfo' I. 111l" .H"C.l
hclo\l 1·lou"l" 3 \I llUl full\ ill\'t..'lit::II,,-d. bill e1e,lr
of occUp.ltiOll \len' ,,<t.lbla,hed. (kill'
Ihal '-llder 'lI1IClIlr:,1 rel11.dn.> \lere 11'o,..d 10
(1"C:lle •• klel p1..lfol1ll lor .1 IIC\I (h'ellillll.
risilll.l Ihall llulI'" :!, ,.n·clI"ilint! 10 Ihe ""(Cl-
pl'Ofih- PI. J. ,\ HI.
011 the,e ulN'" .'Iion, il l.lll. lelll.lIlI·el\. be
.lS$,"ncd lh.1I lite g.,!, 1)<'I\lC"1I 11", 1\10 -elll,'rnelll.>
Ilot (If .1 ,ignili,"ull lenglh. e,ell ,hulII;:h il i.
l11:lrk"d h)' :, ('h:lllt:,· in I)<llh· ....· Il"t.·hno!o!>\
(scc 1.1..-10"').
Thc l.ig;' '! ,11.-0 m.lClc lIlooific.lli,'n,
10 Ihe hillock, With IIIl' help of 1\1" 'u........ ,rel1\h,·,
aCl'O", 111C \I",[I'm .lI1d ,oUII",nI ,101>1", il h,._ b':"n
<lcmOIlSl1,Il"d Ih.II .• ,h,.lIu\I dilCh VI' Irrnrh. C,l. 1.5
Liga
29

30
tU: 11 Q ,:,;,'" 11"""" \i:'r 1">I'..n Imm
''C- IIIl. , ...... d ... 1Iwdo .............-d '" lloo- ,...... f!.r,_ \l:r
p<
LIe;. \ (OM"JI. \(.1 (L\It:llJl.\
TIK' U\rol ':' ...,tUrmnIl "OL' .mandnllcd ..heT J. confLl_
The: prtoomit\ of C-l-l and .\.\h (1;11('\ ;l.\-ail.
able fnun Rf-duUlt' .md Ul;.l Imp!"'" Uul '01.111 arln
th.. ilbandonmcm {If tht: 2 .....ttlcnK'lIl J. 1\(\,
..ntkmem Nabli"}lf'd .1\ ROOUUlC, RL-dutitt' 11
"Ilk" ahandonmcm Ilf UIr.l ..ilt' Lt, l<'d until ca. -woo
BC..\1 Wt tim\;. the ""ul!K'm pan of UK' sile was
",,1l:'(1<"d for 01 ttmMCI'\ ",ith 'C:'\'rr.U burial\. In thl'
('":X(:ilulni a1f)!\(' • ...:"ot"l\ l,'r;wn 11a\'r' di ...
CI1\'t'rM. Ollt" "-'maill\ of IWO indhid_
wh. loo "ii\l1llhCOllI\ di",O\'t'r'> i. <bcribed in Cha(l'"
Icr XI bd,,\\
!Je,,\ 4 L\RI\ IlRO'1l. 'C1.
tilt' \...;.Id. Bmn7J' .. Ill!" cx('.w.llcd art:a "'"
pan of .. marwn,tl .Kti,;\\ ;wne for a
..r up 'Jl\ 11J.lll-,tu. "!lIT (OCf'UIl;llion,,1 dellri. Qf
Ihl> ,,;t!, !l.In], IIwrl"llllinl\ th,- t'a!llo;Ol lirnil, of lht;
2 ":Il]cmrlll. ,<.' hll' ''«'11 "''''l.lhli,hcd Ihroulo\h
Ill!" full ('''Will <,f LIl<' 1l"11l/.t;
"'il.'o nnl drl'·!ll,inrd. hUl 'un.Il" Imd, from lhe
TQundilll: fi.·ld, POIlI1 "1 a tom id"l";,hl,· ,i/,e. Ik...id
,
,,
..c;aurred 1)l,U..!) ,h,,'nl\. f'mnd ll'U.t1, in 'I
On.. pll I' ""lh dntil,UlnllH lh•. LlI.\. 'Ill:
h..d all 'J\..J ,h;'IW .m,1 '" ,
,,-.• 11<'
dimerniom heint: 1..iOx 120X 1.13 m. Th,' (I.,rl..
brown et,,\ loom fill can be ........ooalcd wilh domo:,m
"cU\itih. fr.u,'1llclll,'(1 pOller)". :t fe" hom.'''.
and othcr m,L1en,ll,
_\lo,()o al 10 fmglllellt'> of 011,' di,tinCliw \I·......d.
panh intact at the li1llt: of dllx>-iLion. \'en' recor<kd
from Ihr uPI)tr layen of Ihe pit !;'j!-;. Il.S. n,<;..cl
much from the main bo(11 or E...td} UrOlllc. \lole
Sh"rds di,co,.cred on Ihe s;le. in lem, .. of.' \cn
fiO(' sand ",aull\':. In,:diUlll bT"O\'lI colour. and .1 fine
It decor.lIo:d w;lh \el) .. hallo"
racmhlint: !';uh"r 111,111 I-;rominl.:
hrncc oflen C'.tlkd Ihcudo-IhllCSI. "hich .,ro: oTJi-l1l-
i-ed in .I p.lIlem. r\ 6 n1ln bmad 1];,1-
lopped 1001 w;u applil'(l for dl'(:or.tliol1, Such dt:cor-
alioll (ommon during lhc Co\ofcni [ (ROllloln
19;6. In Ihe ,"UIlt: pil were olhc,' E"lrh' 1I1'ollzt:
..hards with exaCI from lh.. 'ucighhoUllng
S"do\'cc, 111 lIlOSI c"ses. EMIr !\t;t: pal'
ICl) could ht: c;l,i1r from Copp•.:r Agc pN-
lcry dUt: 10 ilJ, mediu1ll lO CU,lI'st: ,lIld
fed, since OllWmtl "t:rc
preserved l;'j)). IL9, The ril11s "re
ur I:\'cned, ,l11t! olicll willl :1 row or perfi)r,
aliOllsjU\l helm, lhe lip, dccOI"li"t1 i..
011 Ih
e
h'tIldlcs, \,hi(;h ;11"<' eilht:r b...."d Itu ,llld nb-
..h:tpt.'d or .....mi-o\'.,1 ;lI1d 1I:"'1'OW. t\pplit:d del"OI'-
dUOll is knO\l1l 'I) well. Such clt'nH'IIl.\ of
ha"e :, vc"-' I, I . , ,. .. ,.
., n.M( (1"l1hullllll .IU( " ,.
IOllR ll:ll\por:,l dur:lIioll,
Compamli\t' lll,lUcl)' is I(lund ,11 ::l;ldo\,<"-
I.iga
3/
Golt'm'llImn K.,It· I,xlnr"I,' Ill/lll: 111I1:!. S,ldo\"\'I'
K.t1t·1u ,I .,1 ... ,\<". ,md
C
Ger
ll'lI IIJ;q. Clo,(' .m· "I... , [rJUlld.H rn(Jr!'
liI,,' LlNo Inl\l'!' hmi/1II1\, AI fino,l(in
('I "I. 1l1;1)}. IIlI'l'r hrn;"ntll. X\', XII
Cl .d. l'I'n •. md Dil..ili I.rlh 111" St'feri.
19%,.
Thl' nlltur;d profih' of Ill<' Tdi.,h rcXioll
1101 ('omplt'lnl. EX('.l\",iorb h\' 11, "i)(/urlJ\"a "lld
\'. \'dkOl III 19iH ,tt S.ldoH·r.Goll'IIJ,1I10'O K.t1e
10 11ll" b) P Roman of
the of.1 cullllml unil Il'mwd Orka-
S;ldOH"C cultUI"C '11.I"'orO\";l I!JlJ:? HrmCH·r. r("("I;!It
n:comidl'r;l\iom of.'I'.lil;lbk. lill1ilfd d.Il.1
Ih;ll Or!t'.I-S"dO\oc 'hould in r.'CI bt, ';"\wd .15
., southern 1,'I;;'rIl ofCo\ofeni' cuhull" Ak\(.,llldl'O\'
1992: 1996. ChrolloloJ.:lc"II\. it eorT't"ponds "llh lhe
cnd of Co\ofeni I ,15 n:('l)rdcd in S-:'\'\\ Romania
lhe n,III.11, h ,lIIia..md Ohl·"i.1 .
1992: 1996. Consequt'llllr, the Ikollz,' . pone....
from UIfo' ,,1'>0 be (Lm·d lU E.'rl, Urolllt·.
I. Di;'1o,'11o-;tie flilll ,'l'lef:1t1S Lhis d.lle,
Fin:tlll. il \hould be.' lIIemi(llll·d Ih.1l a fc\\ ,h.,rd,
\\t're found "hieh be: ,1Ilribrued 10 IIIl' L.llt·
ISronzt" Thrir pro,en.lllee i, unkno.. n.
UC \ 5: !-\tU,Y IKO' \(;1.
Around H75 BC 'dmreo.d. L';1-20li09. 2725=10 BI'
.1 slI,mgt' rirual ..." pl.L1I' in lIlt' el'lllr:d p,art of
Ihe hiJIod.. of UIf.', An 0,,11 cleep pir of I.OOXI.26X
1.12 III " •• dug ,llld.1I 11·;....1 fi,ur H' ,,·1. pial cd ill il
.11 lhe bouoln IIIl' .m'" hdl)" pmfill' h....lk, p.lIth
il1lrr,it'clil1l:: Illl' pil. nOl .md
holds addi,iOll.,1 infonmlliorll Fif.:' H.ln I.
lhe pil ".1. lInl .111 e,l'}' 1...L, ,intt' lIre pl.ll"'t· eho'>Cl1
hdd Ihiek drbri, "fhUrllnl COppl'I' '\l,'e d.1U1l bdollr,:-
iug 10 rhe ",,11, 1,( Ilul"e 3. I'I·rh"1'5.m ... rempl 10
exp.llld lhe pit ill dirTeli'lIl of •..olll·r re"Jlled ill
ir,. ,'bl<'r,g form. 1\11 ,,· ... h,'ld rr."'·' or ,e'l're M.'('-
ond,rrr huminI-:. irwhrdiu)o,' ., h",d will, fhlll·d
11 big Clip "'irh "ne h;llldh' lo.'0illg hrlo.'ll .r1Jo1n·I' us nrn.
\\ lit. f,," "" "pi;""'..•11 rll<' ,.f 'h" I"""''''
,Il" ",... k In .\1." '"l..,;lr, Jl \ ,h. rh" ,,,·,,..1
h \" 'h"
1'1 I,,"jn·' 1"''''''1'''''' '"'' "
fill c..",... I '''(''<II,.HI'''' ,..... ""d,L", h.... .. ,,,'
Ill!' 'up \\.1 pl.",·(llllUJ, Ill" 1"1,,1 '"" um.I,'"
\ ,','C·I, \.ilh 1.,Ulll'lk lIUIN!. ""fl' rlr Hr-
"I,·t! I.ith I ',rdnl .rll,l, "uliufll 1Il1!,r< 1<111 "r niM-rl
in fi· Iflllll ,\ hill hill(" I"w' \\., IIIH,IUl "11 Ih(" um.
liL,· 11' ,,:],. 111111''' h"IL" 111"m Immr,lwI,.h .drrr
Ih.,r. till' pr' \\.1 Idl,·tl \\ilh lh.. 1111" Ill;t ll .. ;a, rJUlr
illl
o
. 'Hil from 11ll' 1'1\\,· I I.I\<""" b.. ill\{ Illm" " ··It."K
illllJ il' oril,.-in.11 h"ri",u, I hi .lI 1'/.111. "".l-V'C! VImt
(only,i,,,. in rnfll{llili"n "' Ill., C,"I,'11l .1l"J 'lrpdr "i
Ih(" pil, 1)I".lrilll; ill numl Ih.!1 Ir"m hN lh.. dis-
(IJ'ntd "fum'lll" \,. .....·1 "'llh IIIClr hLo:k
'Urf"l" . n''''mhll'd Ih" p"llrn "f Ih.· r
\ot·lunnrlll.
0.1)(1 m I" rhl:' "f 1111 I'll "';1.' ,I nn ul..r h.al-
101' pil dillll'Il"'''l.' "f 1.11I,clIlI; III Ihl. , .."won!
Ibl, ofchaRo.t1 .lIld I.IJlCI·r PWl;" ,.f1.11, If'lollt'd ... ",od
up 10 ; cm ill di.Illl<"Il'l', and "illl III \i ih,..
1"'0 "',nlpl,..... of I"wxl t..L'·1I rmm lilt' I'll "',.n· ",,"t'\,'o
nizt'd I" (.. 1, :\.lIion.t1 -'Iu....urn "r
Dcnm,'rL.•1' b"illll (nl/ll dmduou,."'" .....n u p.
I'rob.lbl" lhe 1\\" pilI .lIl'· .......ltl.ll.'tf. lh.. h..1I"" orlt'
...' lilt' fln·pl.IIT \\hrtl" Ihl" ..11"'1' \-nIIl'b
n:('ciH'd Iheir huminI,'".
\11 four If"->cl, \\ell" irl('IIuhed I" \1 Drmilr.... a.
of I h. !lull:.'n...... "llrr-rnw.
(u!turt'. Ivun.1 I>n I"'lh h.mb "I
Ill(" 1..0'\<'1' D.lIluhe i".. in R"ul.mu ..od
Xonhem .. Ilt).. l, "ill,lhllt"fl nm .t' " ..II.t,
1::1111\ \\ilh 1.111 h.,lldl...... M" ,.id.-l, 'I'"'.,d III till fn..'1"n
IhroLJl;hoLJl lh(' .. hok ,., till; 1.. lrI. lom \1.:" .. hil,.
.. ilh r.dl. h"riwnt.t1I\ floned u('( k, .!rt' I, I "m-
mon..\ hnc ,-omp.It"un· m.rll·n.d" Ih"pl.'H·rJ b, Ill"
..·c uf 11ll' ....vfmtril .. 1I HUIlUlu', \ ·r.u., fn..'1"1l
1I,1Il\CI 11l7h U,,,->cd "11 1ll1'1.t1 hnck lh" rnhunwullll
l,"r.:'H· ".,s d,H"d I" Ill!' 71h cerrrUf\ lJe '-I, IM, .ill
"·urpnr.:11 o'llcnlllo.' lIf II.I'-lr.:,h, 1Tl.III'n.,1 h,,,-, I)<"en
.Ichi,·\"t"(l lhrough ('urrd.rIJHlI' "id, rnrl.d fln<l It i,
genemH, bdined Ih.1l Ihl' 11.1....,1'.,111 luhu,,' 'l.lnn!
amrmd BOO IIC .wd•.lllllrdJIII: III dilrt'rirll: .11·'"
ni,led I,ll 1/11' hll, III 11,,· 1111 'I·trlll" lie II.ul>c1
1'l7lil.
,\ "'Ilkrnenr III 1'..11'1. Imn d.lIl· ".1' ,,1'·Iluli,..1
.Il till' fUlIl "f 11,.. pl.'lr,'u "'JIll' llHI n...I,'1' ,"'-,ulh ,'1
rhl' 111.:.1 hill,,,L (:'·l'Illl'.IM·I",,'nrm, 1."L".llli.
\1.b.." .... \I\I"' .......
... ,",,,,,d..
:tl
-atl"lI"lI dNrll\ro I" Ill(' modrnl 1,,1ot: ;ll1d oul\
Ihr ocriL\lnn..oI \hard <:...11 r,'llllti on il' ban4-
'I,ncn.tl uf Ill(' In>!, '\I,'l' is oflen fmulti ill
";Iholll de..r 'lruclund .LRLlialiOI1I nr r\'l;n 11LL'l1O'il"'.
(,\"(m,:;n.L 1')<11 111( Wl1lrllU an; sc-"kd
hy mud pl,!lolc,- " c<mlp"r"lJlr \ilualio1\ Ix-.:n
Il.u",-uhol,m;call} an..lp_cd III M bll.;\rm" and 1
1"".;\lm" ,md I!.I'J7' It
I"'alm Ihal " 'Ill' from ., ...."1I-d I'.:irll Iron '\lo\c pil
I'll nu. 3 ,Il Ihc MlC IJf LII,·f,hmma Itogo
z
ino\'u '11-
1.'1,"', !)"ulhc""i'llI lIuh:;nill rolll,lined ,I con.;dcr.,hle
,1ll1"Urtl of of Lt'n, eulillan!i I,'mili; fnllU "fRu.
m,'" '11. \I'nc!" C,n,·x lp, .... and >omc \Ct'd, or
Trif"liUll1 'p n,'I;\!" du, cri "Cr<' .. 1"1l f"und.
11", CU1LU'ul ur Ill.. Ul(a pit "", nlll im'l;<;li"';\I..d
IMI:u·ulll'lani\ ,,111'; lll"\ .-rlhck " IlIe filiI! ,m ""pon_
.1111 c'lluribuUllll lQ lhe 'IUIl} or dl'· Lid, Iron "1:""
11 pro,ickd II1fo.,n,\lioll (/11 C\lIllI'1lI1)llIoU)' 1)/1111"1")
I,dl nil Ihe d,'lil1jo; of "',,,,,1<, ,,,
IM§t"d on Ollt' r.uh,·r pn-ci!!C dale.
IJ(;\l.l.\II.Ai\IIQLIl"Y ... 'IUK\ ,\1)
·l1,c pcriod het\\crll Ihe hll n'ulUI)' ,lIld llll" ('1111 1)(
Ihe blh AI) in M,me lhe Ill"l-:illllilll> Hf Ihe
7lh AI)l is knuwlI in lInlloi'lri:1 1.IIt, Allliqnil)
r..lrll' 1I}"I.:uuinc ll<"tlod. AI Tdi_h, '1'ltll'l11l"ntS ofll'"
11I'nud, .lIld 1110\1 l'mllolbll' ,11", " "'''H'''''}' "n'
knO"1l fm
m
hU111 (11 lIlt' IIU,d('I'11 1:1k,', IH,I Ih,'
n'll1llilll :U,· rapidl)' rli"lPIIC,Il'illlo\ dn,' I" dig_ ,'Ild
Ilt'cll III"llloillillg II} lh,' It'llll,'r,;. TIll" ('1\11 "j
t\lIliquil) ll'llll'M'lIWc! ,11 Ug".
1\ I.,rg.·, bUI ,h.,II,." pil ("I,I.'\;. dllil"ll,i"",: ·Ij)(
2.1xO.t1 nIl ",I) l\·n>rdl"(t on Ill<" ",ullll"rll slup"s "f
"f ('lit. ',fill H"n I\iu, I ill! H( .d.
"hil.- ,,'I,lli\1 I .. d"r.'llnll "f eb.-
CIlPIM."r \l(" .,f !I1111 '1(11) \'-Ir 1'111111 ,a.-1I1 !l11I'
'1'1111111(: 1,,1 (;"""1,,,,1& n"J... lJin I'''''.
'n..,hrr p,,,hl,,,", tlt,u ('.1 I ,lw' h..j",,,·n ,11"lIlt
"nd '4l1li'11(' wnd r., ,Iu'l"r III '''""In IIr'f1INi..,
,. 1'1lu""'M."n,'n .. huh " 11'" rd"I...1 u, ',Ihl'r"",,n
,"" r elll' IM·".lIlunlf "Ihllr,'II"" I UI\I' ch pt.. no
nil .. ,un "pl.ufi>nn'- "r rh.. nu •It"""........ .,..u
.. hi,h .."t."" ru h.. 11, ,,1...1 Ihr''''IfI''''1I
SE hr hlll\ ,. 1'1.11" 1"1 ron..-nc P,-r,
h,ll>' "" dUI' U, ", \"1 uI1Ln, ..... pll\uc.tl f,"l"r hue
" ..m' r.. ch., mlhu""r "I ......'1......1 '''''"1'..1
l,hul<'I11"11.1 '"'J.IlllH·\ 1'1"1 m,,,l.- I", \\.lr-
reil ,till! Il.ml..", 111 till" "I..,II,·",,'n·
"r,'ll'd 11"'1 1.1I1,,,••uI" 'n et,u.-- e"II' I u" lu In ,11I,llh.. r
Ih"lr .,pp,,,n1\!. ,Ill" 'l'n,1t11 Ilrri, ...l,. \.hi,h ,I/\' n,,1
\,11\1,,,,(11,, Ill<' C_II ....·.lUt·It"· \\,1111'11 '''111 II.."L",
I'mil [h,' In",r I"HIIOUIlI"d 1(.11' III ('-11 11,,,<,, Ill'
hC\<"""1I ,,>Inn ,wd ""Ill Ill' ,."r'·'l"'l1Ihm: I" Ih.'
",udl.,Ii'l'ul.'d 1I1111("n,lI1 I "''''1I1"n,,1 p.·nud \\.tr-
n'n .lIld Iq/Ill 11"'rd,,,,', il h,,,
,;ncO'I[ th,llIUhll1,,1 ;11I1'lhllll\ .,1 (h'·lwn,,,II,,-,,,, ...,
Ill<' rml "I Ih,' (:,'1'1"'-' \It'· ,,,ulellt" I.,ul\ Il"mlt·
lml\ '1('111 fr"lI1 11I"(h,,,I,,I"II" .11 hlllll,lli"n'
,nil... (nil",,,, UII,I ""ll' 'l11omlll ...11(' ell<'
""1('1'-"111 1.,h"'.,I,,,.... 1)"i''''11 "I 1"11 PIn,,, ..
L·pJl,.d.I, -"''''d''1I .11,,1 \\I .... d,n..,1 hI (, I'".. 11,-11 \11
"""1'1," lI1\d""H'''1 ,'.Iud."d 1..1",r"e"l\ J1""·I·,hu,·,
illllmliltJ,llll'-'"I'.III11'"llI \luh '"Oil. ,.",1 Iltt· 1,,(11,..
"l'n' 0 I'C I'HI"l(",l ,I' ... II,) {; ['" "n'
",... 11 ...unpln ,,,.,," 'uhnu(I, d I"tlt "I
,-h,n'\I,,1 .,1111 11110' "I IN'un 111( Ill.' Ih,''''
33
I .. I... \'''''l''P'! ...... , ••••
I ne. II 11 I'. . n d...
11H' ,il' .. p.IIII"II) d"'I1<'\1II1( (:"PllI'r '1:" 1;1\1"" 'I
tl1l' "HUIt"11I ,·t!Iol" "I Ill\' I'" pil,- "t '1"11'" ,,,·il.:-
ill.,tilllt 1""111 .' 1.i,l(,1 I IM\"lru'llt hI:. 11', '1'1""_
1'11111, tin' 11011"111<'111 hi",I",..d 1IIl1ltrr ,1I1(1(1I1Jo: "f lit,·
pit; :'111"111111' I'''''' m,ult' eo 11'111011,' Ilu' 'Wilt·" hut
"\1'11111.,11\ Ihl' I1lill.llI\I· ".1' .lti't"ll up 11,,- 1."ltlltU "I
Ihl' pil ehl," t"ltm" thl' ud.",' "I Ilu' ,tmw I h, pit
h.•d " 1,lI11I'1' nw,I.". "PIl,lr .. mll rnl'Ull(ul.'t I.""",
.iu,' mU' h.• lf "I tIll" pl\ \'.l\ ,-0(, .'I,'I,·d. II1U, h n''''lII-
hi illR Ih.11 "I ., I'" h""...· ""1"\ lu·lt, rtl\(,'III" "" •• 'nh'm,
of Ih., pit. ill.ludi,,1.: 'm,tll h"l(1111'm, of IM,n.. 1") ,md
;lIIil11•• 1 hOIIl"" '111(1(1"1 Ih,t! Ih,' 'Inll nu .. ",h 1I"'d fi,r
••n"ml.'I) d"IM",11 of ",,,It· Ril(lu ,'I 11lt- ",utheOl
nll.:\' Clflh,' pit \\,l\.' ,1t,.II,,\\ lM,I\lholt- "uh., dl.lIn,·ln
of 15 Im; rhi,., dllull1ln,l) ,"""Nl,1,,-d "ieh 1111' I'".
hUl p"'l)IO...· i' 1111, ,'rt"in 111<' lW.tr,·,1 1.,,(' ,,,.
,,'nll-ml'nl \,." idnll;hnl durinl( '111\\"" It' •
1I1.ll. !1Il,l 11\ :\" "t 111(,1
rh(' IMl1l"T) dl"U\I"rt'd III 11... ,,;e hmi, '· ....Irl 1'.'1',,1.
Id. in ,1... m,lI....i.11 1<110\111 htll11 KUJ'l1l.lnll\
II)I,!, I1 i\ " 1II"UI'r III 1tM"t1 1)('11,'1\. ';1'1'\ in ('"lout,
lII,ul.· "f ""'I·Wql..,-,,,1 d,l\ wi,h""1 ,111\ C('II1I'I;rir1l:
inl"ll1"o", Uf n •. III ,11l' ""LIf.' lil(_ 11.11 ,'11
Iht di'll.\nl,d lim nllt ...,.,clI Lie. hr-m."r."
10110\' iUl( Ill\' \1I1(1:<'\II'd d,tlml: hum So,doll'l", till'
rim' d.,e<' It) 11'1' hell ,I) KUflll.tlltl\ 1'1'11.11(1
IH 11 '\0 ,:\n 1'0SS[III.1,
"1",1 lIul/:.ui.1II C-I I d.I"'\ h,'\I' I,,'r" I:,·ru·l.llrd I"
,Ill' Ill',liu G-III.lhuc,llon, \\nhl" Iltt' fi,ltl1l'IWtl.. of
IOUpCI,.li"1I inili.lI"d in I')hl 11\ eh." 1.11"".u(>1\ 11
Quill'l & (;. Kuhl ,Ul,llh., lIull(.ni,<I' [11,111111., "r\r-
dl"t',,1I1h1 {G, (;c'''l'.I:i ... ,'i; 11 1"dlll\I\,I, 1Il7',tlllll['"
frul11 (;f) ditli'cc'lI( 1',,'hi.lo,ril '"l"' h,IIC' IM'C'l1 d.lwd
\G"r...t1mf & 11, ,j.ldlil'l I(I'll •. Sill It I,ll):" 1",(1) tlf i",
fi)l11Hui"11 i. Jol"llI'l",III) ., l't'lilllfll' llw,1 fi,r 'i.hinl( 1111'
maill uf,ultlll.11 d,'\!'lupIlWtll. hUI 111 Ihi' I.''>t'
n'II"ill pl'luli:uili," ,I ... · 1"H',IIl'l1.
0111' (,f Ih,' ]Jl'ullh-ul' .'"1t,·n" Ill<' l'l(c'.
I'i .."tl)', Ih,' (:"111'1'" ,'l(" 111.11,'1;11], h'lIIl 1111' '1h"
ut' 11.111)'.,1., (K.,pil,11l tlill1illi,"", {;,Il.•rin, .11111 Ko!.,-
r,,\'n (;Ill .. 11'.•1'1)' IwlollJ.(illll I" 11", KSH 'pll(."I<' l,t IIl-
Ilucl1,e) Im',' 1""'11 Iliad" "Ill' IIIt'I".ll1d
}'IIIUll,:. I" jlllll:" 1111111 11", ,I" h...."luJolil.ll. 1<',-,,,11
(Gllr..dod & 1I'!J.IlI'i", l'I')l,'. \1 tlu' '.1111<' UII .... lh,'
\dlul,' CU!,!,I'1 .\1.\" h,.. 1""'11 d.II,·d hI " '1',111 "I 111111'
... , •. , • ""
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4190-4170 1l1l':!dJ\C\ 19%
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A.'15 Ua-20!i08
-2:·17
5650 -t/- 45
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Up2 A_\IS

-24
5490 +/- 45
46OO-J350-!s
,"""'"
4J70_GJ().ls
Upl
A.\15
1.:1-21562
-223
-U6O-J2J{)....zs
"""
51OO-t/-J5
4000-3940-1li
A.\15
1.:1-21"6J
-22
,w5l}3900-2li
"""
5215 +/- 55
JO:5o-396().. Is
J
AM5
Ua- 21 'i().I
-\9,1
417()..39JQ..2s
Ircuounun:ued1j

545U +/- 35

I fBawubi.
AM5
Ua-20609
-24
4]6O-J220-2s
EAl
2725 +/_ 40
Salcula lib
(-14
etlarcoll
905-S25-ls
GrN-I99fl
,
940-8oo-2s
S:tku\a lie
5475+1-55
B:mkolT &Wima
(·]4
GrN-1989
,
5
4
50+1.55
4450-4170_25
1'J90
SakU\a lie
(-\4
GrN·1985
4420·J IlO-1s Bun\.;off &Winlcr
,
4450·4050-25
19\11l
5450+/_55
44 20-4120-1 Ibnlwff &Willlcr
I,. 11 12,l:..b1o";a!l ".a..Lk I." ('
• ""li<a,1Jon
4J50-4050·2s 19\1H
d>.'<d """I*' f'bI" IJ •
34
_... __..
. ...... "...-
Lig.":2 S650±45BP
35
Lig.'::! 5-l90±45BP
SaJell!a lib
SaJcuI:l ne 5-tSO±$5BP
Krivodoll W5:b-I5BP
Reduule 11
Reduule III S-BO±5OBP
Redutite III 5J9;;£'OBP
Redlltile III 5::!40±45BP
RTdutite '" 5::!10±60BP
Redutile III 5::!JO.:L50BP
Redutile III
Pipra (end plmse) 5:!95±45BP
Kl'ivodolll 5::!95±40BP
Lig." J 52 I5±55BP
Liga 3 5160±45BP
Galntin I S09O±:!80BP
--4-
-----4--

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----8--
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---
---

I
i
6000calBC SOOOCalBC 4000caIBC JOOOCalBC :!OOOCaIBC
Cabbrnred d3ft
11 1.1 a.... , ..hhr.."..I'iklK•• .. «"O , • .alI ..,.ulJhk """1"'"' 'n,,,r.nl I""" ,h< <............ r.. < mpIn.. ........t
I".&J!'" d 11.11
,,-l"fled from ClIlilc " ,iL:lIili,.UII l1lUnlx.T
uf ba,..,,] 011 Iheir rqm''''llIl1li'';I', UUllCXI
and ,'mow,[ ord',llTu,d ill Ih,. ',lIupl,', rhe "lll'lllioll
".1' tcrllnt'(J flIl Uga:!..\,\IS d.,d'll: .,11hi' "'1111'''1';,1
Cpi'>lKk COll-iell-red lIlt" hill'"",1 nUl"(,"
'IC"JccWd "'''l1pll"s 1\l"I"C "_,,,,,-i,m.. l "-11h (",Il h of Ilw
lh...·•· ("W,ll,llt'd hou,..", l".,_:..Ifk,(l7 mu'uk lh,' L
",,11 ut 11,,[(\,,· :1, lh" Mt',l of "OI.'lt· di,I'.........r; C,.-
::l06{»l in'ilk I-I"n'," I: L·.I":!Oti III do,," III till" ""'n
0(1/,)",," :l
\1\ hil"'llll,d ",,,,d. 'hI' 'ource "L1Jl'hn"," ...Ullp" ....
(:om he "Ilxlil id,../ Il1ltl ""I t·r...r 'OiL<; .1\:,' '-.11'-.,'''....
rhe p,,,lhol.... 111(11•.11'" Ih.ll. h,·..,ck-- I'H!:'. Ill'" ,,/
,I,n,' ,ill' ",-n' u...... / h, ,h." 1,,'1,.... h"ile"''' Tht· bll::-
36
.leftl.lrrht/l'f)/i!j!im
qll:nllil\ ".h (lf ll't"t"'\ 8 9 cm in di.ulll'ltr, lhr
n('\I !\T\lllp l)('inl: .1bo!U I.; cm 111 di.lnl('l('r..md th('
third tll(' intt'm:\1 l'I'ltlf <upponinl: pO!'I' Ill) III :!3
("111 in di.lm('tM". In ...minI: !he ...lttlJlb. 01.'.
rlUTt'llCt'o of till' l:bl t!nJll]l 'WIT di....--:tnkd in onkr 10
minimitt Iht <'11'('(1.
11 .hOll]d Ix- TlOlM. Ih:1I 110 ehal't'('O,;ll ... ,,"{'re
mmTT'l:'d from th<' '<!tk'm('1ll horizon. Lilr,l
1. llti, -rllkmrnl 1\--:"'- 011" poorh ;;inct' it
""'" and Idi C\llQ>C(110 tl.lI1I1".t1 dt,,"Ompo.
L..1ter on. tht dc-bn< ,,;u iurorpor:urd ill Iht
b."'lS(' (If t1\(' Lir.;.t 2 -e'ldcmcnl.
1be of "llhin th<' -ellkmcnt or
2. I,ilh lt1"l'"{' r.ti>C'rl impon:llll qu('<.
rion. their <btt. For IlK- Souc orOOI\Si.',trlln.
Ihl'l"(" hum:m hone ,,'mpks "l'IT «']\Ttoo from lhe
,,\1nl' hun.11. I\w of Ihe <l.II,·, l'.,·:!ISli2 & L·.,_
:!ISti3 .ho" do'\" It'lT\p(lr:11 .lllinil\. "hilt- elu' lhinl
C.l-:!15til i!' nlolrk,,.j h\ .\ .illllilil.ull .tIIl!
tht'!TfotT .1' 1:11<1'. Ul..d\. il .Lni.'O',.j bl
Lht' chcmil:tIII\'.I\lI1('llI t'\cn.i'ed 011
of lhe IMdl1 pl\:"CI'wd ptill,;p,11 l}(lIU"S.
X(l .-Ilan.-o.l] ,-,nlP1l'. I:'ollld he wilh etw
E.'I"\' !ironic . ren):tin, .Ll lh....il \ •.nn"lt.
of .... h:tI\."\);.1 "';\$ 1\'CQ\'{"t'l'(l fmm lh E,'11'1I Imll
pit L':t-20t.i09. 1..01\ pmb.:.bilil\ do JlO!
gmllllCh. 10 doubl it- and l1lak\·s i. all import_
anl ronltibm;on l(l Ih(' I\'giol1[\1 dU"Ollol(l1.,';l".11
quellC<'.
Calibr:uion plol> ufaJl :t\,;\it..blc C-II/.\..\IS dill."
frum lilt' {'On' an'.' Ilf "SIl b .11\' pl",'l"lllcd ;n .• wp'
:tr.lIl" \,Ibll" I·ig. [1.131.
m. THE COPPER AGE OCCUPATIO

ATUGA
l'SI: OF SI'.\CE WITHI:\" lilt ""IXI LL\ILyr
.\n upl.met po<itiull j, common tor thr Ill.l,inrm of
KSll '1111' Ul.f.!loeulc-m<:m \\ilh 1\\0 OXt:up..nion
of Copper Age c1.lIe i .. 1lI11 .111
Loe.lIed nn .1Il ":<!)(I<ed pl.nr,1lI l:il!.. III I . 11 IMd 10
cop" "ilh the .........,:rif\ of IIw 'H'_lt'm .met nNtlll'm
"iruk "hieh p•.'rll.lp>- k .. , .11!.1,TTl.""i\t' Ihell c1ur
lO !l-Clll'mll, ...mner dim.lti. ("ondilion. Ono: of 'he:
l\·<pom.c:s ''.is 10 ,I <kIN' ('nnll"'"r.
,ltiOll of h"u.....·< within 111<' ...·III.·III'·lIt. 1'111: irk.• nf a
<I'lllrml'lll mode "illl.1 uniflllln ,lIld d"lbt'l.IH)Ul of
hOll'" 'tmClIl1't" ";Ih
_Ir,'l'!> ,)I' p.llh. is no doubt .1 I'dll'("linll or nlllll'I11IKll"-
,u'y 1l'111plnll'< "f .p.lli.d IIhid! ong-
in,llt'd ill Ihl' dcnsd\' occupied Ii'll
lhe bc'l ,m' E:ul\ Cnppl.·I' ,\,,'1.'
I'oh.mil.'., (NE or, I.·\ell ".Irliu. 1"1.'1>-
lilhic 'lITllp.uiom :11 K,u";lllo\O ur 0\. h•• m\ ,>-Gqr.U'1
l'odoIU\,1 & 19'J3. SlIrh ,lnlt·\llral.lu'ln;llJ:
:.1",) .trh .ml.II:''I)U' in won_, of pmlt'l."li'lll 1",m ho,;·
lile .lU.u:b .md CIT.lI;Oll of ,Iwherrtl \H'rL.I\ll1' ,,1,,0:'
oUlside Ih.. buildin!,,,,. BUl il i, n"lr1flillll: in "'l1lb uf
IThuildlll\: ur c\;p.m"ioll of old 'tnlll.. n...... \ml IlftCII
it IMd 1>1.'1':11 [u.II ill promQlil1l: 1:1.,1 :md UI1ITH'"ihk'
tk'lOlf'I;OIl of "-'nlem\"lIIs b\ hIT. \\'ilhill thl' .IIT.I of
lilt' KSU ("ultUIT. "u["h tr;ldili,>n, of ....ttklll,·m "l1f.Ul-
i-..lion e.1Il Ix- 'mCt-d b;l. I,; If.) lilt' 1\,1;11('(1 E."'h (','pper
I\\:C••1.\ dl'1!I011'Ir:Ur<! b\ lhc di,uihmK.m llf hOIL"-'"
.11 Gr:l{lc,hnil".1 ,1'"iLoIO\ 19i I. I !I'IT lllllldllll:
hon/.llll' \,,'IT .lpph'ing lh.......111" "llUt'1l1 01 U,..· of
'Il,tC,·.
c\ unifllrm ch"'I"n'll I'MIl"m of IUlIN' ,UlllmrY" I'
,.1,.., lIo!<'Il •• 1 I jg;t. d"'pilf' Ihe hlllilnl .m.'.l of n··
'c,lIl"h, h i, ,'\l'1I po"ihk Itl tlt-H·t! 1t·llIp"t .•1dl.m,>:"'-
in "". "f'Il.lCC h} Ill\' (,,,. C"PP"r
. 1 ,I' (l'IlT' "t Ill\' 11""1
:\, 11It'lIl1UII"(, " '
1
(I
· 11 ".,. Iltll ,., ,,,'It IlIl"
COPP"I' ,,'IlI'lIlt'lll .IN,I '
1 I
,.,' 'I ,'m"1111l1h'" uf tIll' 1,lIlt·!"
M'IY,'{ :" I ..1"-' _. ,
. ,. 1. 1 N.·, ".11...1.,,-,. 1\ 1',<11
di'llIrhill,>: 11... n·lll.llth I,) .I,!:,I .'
,
. " ill U",I I ",I' I.·"
ht· ,·m'.-!lId.'Illll,1l ll\l' U'.' n '1"'" •.
. . I' '1 nit· ,h,,·tlIl11t' "t 1.1,>:,1 1
f,.n'H.lItlt'll 11l,1ll III .lit',·· , '
"
1 "I'll" 1.\1'="1' 1II '"l'
"Cl " mlllY' {1'IM· .....'l •• ' •
IIl,}n Ih....... t1f LiI{.1 !. In.. LI\\1tlt mcbC !Inn-
Ihd....., h.I\'(' I......·n qUill' 'lInW.r Ul Ihe' r.-Q ph.I.on, .-
{It-.lrh {kmnn'lf.unJ tn !hI' "rirnt.lIIllJn or;aD
'Imr!UI't"- t'n Ihf '<11.'. 11,1' ....til1l.1lrd nll'm.d knl(th
....rlht' IIll\" p..nh huu "'-lic:o
I i., 7.li m. Ih.. (',mll.II"1 illlrnul 'J'-Kr brmt 39-.fO
1
.\ 111II1h {In-pt:r lIt'llthl h.t.> llt"t"lI .uhin"1 .I11Ot.11
lhr IL..... {'I' 'IMl"r in Ih.. ! '<"Itlrm..m I"hrn'
h{lu<c' ,,,'n' l"ull\ ulltl" ..n-d 1....'t'lhrr "'lh IMn- ,>I
.mmh,·r lhrrc hl\lI...·', 111.. 1,1(".1\1011 of Iht' 'lm,tu"",
in lh.· "·1l1.'mClIllontinnrd dll: Oh"..",.llit'n llw' Ihl'lr
,md otirlll,lliull ''l'!"C pn'(ktcnllin''ll I"
thl"r \lf Iht· lil'l ph.•" ..
rh.. hilln.l dl{l""ll ror ll\l' C{lpp"r ",:... '("nit·
III\'IllS .11 Iht: .ll " pblt'.lU h." [>Ilt. limilrd
pn'peni.... \-lSlhili" 10\,.11\:1:, Ill\" w.'t t'
limit ..d h\ •• r"i'1I1'>: Icrr.tin. lol\,lrtl- Ih\' \',,,,1. tit.-
lidd 1'1' \i'lhilll\ nlflltb l,..i"l: 7 R lo.m I...
",ltll- X\\ ..i Lm !tll\"rrl' \\ .md.i i . \.m ''''''.Irtf!;
$\\' P.·rh.'I>- lhl' hdd ilKIic.lIC'- the dim11"\1 1>1 " ...'.a!
mOH·m..m' .llId n..I....lI'\.:,. "'lh lIt.l 1M""lilJf<. 1" he- no·
!><:>.'Ird I'n'lll lh\' i'-t..'l .. r bdO\, \ m....btit .ilk"l l,f
Ill\' l.tU\'r Itk.l I' lhf !iLd\ "'1>lrllt.T ,>I' l'>fl"'!t'd \,n·
\inmml'nh 1."•••"1, t1lf' U"I.
nK' \1'''' ("{II:'." 1.1 the I'blr.lU "..., 11'11 unhulil I"h,.
.'lY'.' "I' .M)) i'>t.l Ill: "..., tklimu.-d lJ\ .J'>J- m lht'
\\""'1 .Ind "'''' ut' Itou_ in c.LqCm .h1T\ 110"1 \.' 11,",",
liunrd. Ilutin\: U\:.l '!. lhe .,Jope," "t'1T nl.lJr o.l...,.,-
b, .1 ,h.lU"" dill h t'r llTlIlh .,,,n ll,8 III dCT!, n..,
di...:'I\ ,,1'.1 Ik"lh,>!,' I.i <"111 in du.nlt'lt'r ,... lhe ('....o.l.
t'nl ,id I' lilt' In·I\.' It ''M'rh.II'' ut<li, .11.... Itwl .I ",.."lrll
C,-,IL'lnllli"u 1> ...•.."ml.... n'inl.l Ih... Irr-n. It \\ h<·thrr
Illl.' ".1" .' p,IIt "k ur ult'rrl\ ., li'nrt'. ,u.h .ltT.ln.......
Inl'lll iIlU'lIll.·d h' mlllhn mn"'lll.. nl bt>lh ,'','''" .md
"I' lh.· ,r"IM·'. lll'I••ll.lli"H1' ''''IT 11,1( ,>1"'· .... "1
,It Ill\' ,'.1'1,'111 ,·t!t.:e Ill' Ih.· .... nl.·lIlt·111 \I", 11th.... \'lit...
:m
nisltd ho:w, ,.... ",JUId tu'T 1W'rn malk in
," munur drnund.. b<' it .l fomul denurcation or
!Of liuSlocL. Thn mu1d IlOI h:l'T
t-n rif«ti'T ptUlC'CUnn ;ur.lUbl au.lcb.. llK: biter
nucln 31 M1' !':lIt Iu.\T ('Om(' oh;l ,urpri.'I', "illl W:lr.
no..... Ihroul!h the- lilch hicllet
m';mnmt'tll> urthc I'llunu.
l1lt' Ilmtik of the abo
him< 011 a >ptei:.li-ed u'"' of Ihe delimited .'ITa..
\' UK, ,,.]ur of li'1:"IOCl ",,-, in 'Iq> "ill!
11.... rdaU\T drclinc of I(TOUnd-w;l\cr oo,.ro
.. SI\(OIT:lu 1<l8U .. 11 ""M llCCC!l.\:an to ensure
pn.K('("lion of Ihi.., lh.. I"lU.Ill ronUllunal COInmodil\.
Lil.ch. the '110>1 fll'qurlll fonn ofCopI>Cr.
" ..... nOI bn.,..:r .lIQC hUl <null-'GI.Ic raid.,
;'Umro :11 cnck. lncickm..J.I,. ,ilnilar cudm-
urn ;1\ tdlW> lw. r IIl't'I1 .tU....l00 in Other L:Ut Coppcr
"<'nlm..,nt>, ,he fonifi,'(j of
l...am;n'1< and l..."ur;, Got,\.l ""m., n:I,>iOIl
'\lloJl'l\ l!1n er bell",
(:.I" the 'cm,il1 "\<'0 hdpro "<lJhlish Iha.
th., hou;<:, of Lil(.l :1 ",...... O("ull,ing an area of ca.
m, '11", IQl,,1 Mea "ilh hum"d f
l'"Xlculk'd u...., t,l. l:lOO lilt, howeler
11,.1 \11 hUll,,'" "tre, ,l\ 'nclm'Jlled. and
nncm.ll''t! lInusr I. hl(';u"d Oil Ihe wmh
cm
,,-a; Ihe Ihe ('xlcmal dinll:n_iom being
6..iOX5.iO III 101;11 ;n"a 36.,)4 Ill!-, Ihe illlClllall}
.l,-albbk :J.rca b 78.3 PI.:!. HOII)C 2 is
mc olle. Idli<'h ap"tin lhe bt....1 10 .1 'lIppO$cd S"UI-
darn. >illl."l: a 1)''Inll eXC'3\<II\-"I:1 ncighoouring hou<c
had a ,imilar lenl:lh PI. 1 . 111c C"ICOMl dimcn"ions
of liou>oC 2 ;Ire io4X6.0 Ill. thc imclllal arca bein!:
34.5 Ill!. Ihe IQlal al1;;\ 4..045 Hou-e 3 lhe
IOllllCSl alllonft Ihe inw<lil;;llt-d hou-e, 1'1. I ...\ >omc-
"h;lI im:gul:tr shape i,like!\ ., 1\·lk'Clioll of
due IQ lhe lerrain ,er. du' o.ielllalion of lhe ,'.I_lcm
wall. "erhall" ;\ChicI emCIII of par.llk! of Ihe
wall. W;lS hindert't! h} Ihe cin;ulII,I:m{'<' Ih:1I 11,.. "Ili-
lude alom; Ihe c;menl 1,.,11 "';IS higher Ih,," along lhe
I't"<tent onc. House 3 I'.tt RAj 111 lOll!; and 5.90 1\l
"idc in thc middle ]I.m 'el1lenml !tonglh.\. The illlern·
.uly ;waibbll' all:'1 I"IS 37JlO lh" lotal ,II"C.I '18
Ihcre is a It·,,d,'ne.. for 1:"'Hcr hOIl ...·" to he
eelllrnll) loc:ued in lit,· >eld"lllelll.
-nit or p,I";lge, 'lr lhe ,eltl"melll ,,"'re 2.70
3.00 III \\id,· ,md Oll"llI:ncd E.\\'. TI,e bOIl":s ,,'er..
'p.tced hy uf G.lIl) 3.00 III :",d ","C,'l"d ill .1
manller,.\O 11t.1I 'p.«e' betwecn hOll>l's "en'
"clo:>t'd" h)' lh" of ;ulj.lfelll 1I:lscd OIl
the, av'lilahl.. ,1.lla ,.. "I ., llllifl'rm di'lI'i-
hU1l11ll "f thc tIH,elUl'n. il ",I., 10 pr,.(li'·1 ,lUll lh"
t
d
ilg(l
3q
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JII.t. ........"m..,ioo ","Ill<" t ,..,11,,,,,,,,1. lhrl. pn .......... ma.1.:I boo,"" .. hith 11..,.. brm nubli>b<d tlunur;h MQ\_
1",,,,,1...-,, {"",,,,""od ,n ,b. ,... ,.... 'In><',un!......m.... Ud" etn""""" p<r'di<1td..-..
-'CIIJcmCIll CQI1l;,incd 20 22 conlcmpor.tl"\ houso
Fit:. 111.2. Such CStim:ulon is obscr·
'Ollloll!l from lu:duliu;. allllO>I IQlalh .. -
:lI1d other WIC CQppcr Agc "hich 110''-';
prO\id\.'tI full-"e;t1c infon1l:11ion on of'lrne-
lUn;jI IGcll."O\. pen. oon1l1l..
$e'cr.,1 .m::Li h:l\'<: 1)<:Cl! idcmirw:d in lhc
pan of lhe Ug:l 2 "Cllkmclll. \\"orbhops
"c,'t: often n:loc:ued. Ih,' di.coll:rcd
do 1101 ,upporl ;111 id,·., of TM.:nn.Lt1et11 I."k-
R:uher. Wt' :tl't: ...-einl.: n·I!<-<'lion. of L1t1-
al11uiJ.;uous. itllctl>e .md ternpomril} 1't:'lritu'd e\ellls.
SO'11e of th,' :I<:t;\;lic•. t10l udn!-l pi.,,·... d...pnul.lIlt.
"'en: ,,1'0 carticd Oul it1sid,' 11". htJuw" hut !1,·t,,·r:,Il}
it !;,.','t11< Ihal 11,,: t1HLjo.il)' of {'hot'c. ".LS ctlHdll,·lt-.:1
uutdoor,;. [n I:,... t. Mtth lIuch','"'d wllh-ull"l1l< ,'ould
IIIL"I' applied:m cXIl.mded uOliun of·'II.,h;ltl'" ,,JmJU
Hodd... r 'J>:,n' Iht·
hotl\Cs. Nu fOIlIl:,1 oUldoor d;,i,i,'", fmtld hI.' n.....
nizcd. 001 l)Ob .md implcmcl1to. pbcrd ouWclc "'en;
PCrlwll" u,cd 10 ,n..an, llJc larllOn of Ol p.lnicubT
hQu>chold.
.\lowm<:1Il OKro!\'! the ....Idemem "01> DOl <tr.U\:hl-
fon'-ard. Qnc lud 10 folkwo the 'Ul"C'U ;and livcI
<i",,; lhe entire: illlel'1'truc!ur.u <p.1CC ,,-a. oticn
filled "ilh h,'«ps of hOlL<dlold re:fusc. Pnxnful"l;'\ f..,.
halKllint!:" of ".I.>le .In; 1101 complete" £'kM froen the-
e.'l:G1\.ulon. D.....Jlilr Ihe fan dCI hc:ap! ('fban.... :and
broken pom'l'\ '",n; dl.-ol\ercd :11 Lhe nonh<-m ".ul
of 1-I0I1St· I. .I.' "dl .1) in the .uT.. bcrv."C11 !
;mcl J. and th.1I 'Om,' r,mccmr:uiOIl " ... .11
cl,.. SE ,·,Imer of Hum 2. thi; prob.thh onl, rrpn--
:><;11l$ dj'po ,I, of rcfu>c OOIlU.....·lro "ilh
hOIl>dlLlld .ltli,il;t·' rI..· I,"cr. "hich l...d I;',m,ro be-
""'CII Huu,," '1 ,1[111 :1. (I"me-tic in
1II.,iI1lCt,;t'K'·.•1Ilt! ,-k.II1;1I1.: <.>1" limta'·..... !rfl .Ill .l..-b'
bJUqlliul "itlt ;ndl"tl>tb "f, .ttilou. l"he .,rr.. \M\....
bclw.....n 2. i .lud 3_1l m in widlh ;md .-u<JIJ n....TI hold
I'll: III ....,,"'" An'OI hr1"...." , " .... a(l,..;h _'urn,. ,,.,,
fmrn, d 1'1.1
thr ult.ll mal" of rtfwc- pn>dun:d In OUo:' or t"'Q
h..u......htW,k O\'l'r ....... Umt". Oonk"tk .lnimal-. like
"'en 11<' douht u,.,(j r" dnuur onr.uUc
rtf...". nnt 'I1it;abk ji'T hum.m ("t,nsumpu"n
),I.sbcolocial doll... ,,1.-0 .uP'Pl'" .Ill imcrprt-":l.1i<lll
of llu., inll'nuuouroU art", ;I., llcinll; lb('(!. f<,r mll.\o:'
di"fl<>'l3.1 In fan. it "' .... tbe nnll p.m (of the
1:"1I:d J.n"a.. '" hidl held n-tdt-nee \If l1nd 'nail.. of UIC'
Hd"'ilbo:' famih .l) ro:'J","ed 1)\ '\ .\Ildrea..nl 2 ..
c..'ll<'tlll:l\:<:n &: Cambridl:C nni'eNl""-. in 2001.
\llcir illdKau:" 'ulflcit'lIl amount of or.
I.,r.mi, lkbm prc-t'm r'>I" .,1l1.,'inl.\, uf the H,._
\i\ lM't"i,.., arc .,1...., .ull"lIl<- fur hum'llI ("011-
'umplinn om their liuul,-d lllunh..·,' ;UlO '·'flI."t'i.,Jl\ th.,
p"..,.,nee Ilf ju,<:nik du nO! ,uPlxll'l
,,,("h .UI a 'ulllpuon,
rhe rnal,ICllhl\.,<ic;,1 d,Il,' ('\,·u wnfrnl\' ,he ob>t:r.
1
',I,
· ,tnlt:tun:s of Lir.;.1 '1 'H·rt.· rl-pt',llin"
,.llllll1 '101 .. '
1 1 "f
Ihe ...-ulelllCIIl. ,md Ilhlt 'he
11'" .IHll' I.
. , ,_,I '1>;ICl'" for n:ftl't: di'llo;l'o11 hdd the
nu...",ln" \ .. - .
,Inrim:: both Illnte,. nle 'uppon re"t·
...11\1(' JllI ••,.. .....
",Ih (kpo..i" of fn....lm mUSM:I .. of the
'\ IKn.........ntl, l.ll·,l COlllPn-"\o1 <pcnC'<i. ,IPIMl"l'ml\
to Ih(: ,lie from the 'In·.1I11 A,,·
d
<V> t Shell, of tilt:<'(: "ehO: cm·
rtJ..-t:n.•., .
plu,f'd for d ror.ttint: 1 'l.'\; ";Ih so-c.tllcd "",lil in-
O-Qon- p.lllem... . .
.\pan from Ihe tktcrilxd p;fIlCnl of tlll-
mNli.ll...h olltside the houses. the o-.--cr.dl h;.ndhng of
remain. unl..llO"1', Generally. the "here
tnilll\ ouedoor ;jcli\itie' "en: taking pJ..ce "t:rt: kepI
c\r,lll ofrefu'l" Fir;:. 111.3. 111t: fe" c.-:anlpkl of ,mi-
n"tl Ixn".... rt'I"ordcd in .,reel afCa5 C;l1I 1)1: atll;hulcd
In lr.ln.fonmltion. No
ha,(" b"l'n found of Ihc e0ll1111011 pr.relice of dispos,tl
in Tdi<h \ill:IJ:C 10 push CI't'I)'lhi,,!; beyond tilt: l'dge
of tht· hOIl,drold "rc", prcfcr.1blr illlo tllf' "II'COII'
(t';,linr;: ,tre;UlI, Ort Ihe contr.tl)'_ as Ihc t\\'o Irt:\Iche..
"cm", Ill\: ,IOIlt:. haw rc,c:lled, Ihis ",1:1 nOI lilt: C:l'>C
:It Ug;,. St.'\'t'r.,l il\\'e,tilf.\lors ha,e reportt:d Ilml ref·
U>I,' disc;lrClcd in pits behind Ihe ho"',·... "In::,d)
dUI: 10 procure for buildinltS. Such pil'. althoul;th
witholll dj,tinet referenccs to their COlllcnt:>, art: s,"lid
10 h,I'e found at 7_"llIlincts :lIul Gr.ld......hni"..
Xil..oIQ\ Illi4; 19i5. :-:0 'uch pib "cre disco'cred
:11 UI;.l. hOt'C\-er. and neither .11 fulh c):e,lt';tl,-d
Ilcil::hbourinll; R.."(!utitt:. Al bolh silcs d.lt for Ihe
'lrUt"1Ure< from day -rich dcpo.. al the
foot of the plalt'au.
of the aClitit, an: 1101 str.tight(oT\,.u"ti
10 illlerprct, lilt ceramic \cssc!" pl;,('"cd outside
do-.c: to Cfllr.t\lCCS, \'·cre thl'")' phtccd tht:I'c for
de,min" or or did the\ mark Iht: :'I"t:,1 oftht:
Ia" nW,tl priOTlO Ihe lire thal Lig,1 2? The
of UJ;'O' 2 is predicled lO h:I\t: bt:louf:''(\
ro Ih... ".I!'meT I,an of Ihe ycar, pl'ob,'bl)' till"
\t'Cond half of Ihe W\llmcr "'hcrc Ollldour tIIc;,I, "n,'
1i1wl) <o"unon, Thi, predictiOIl is b,''''rl nil Illl'" oh';l'r·
',ninn rhar no "'as fOlllld in l1w (;onWhll'l'S of
Lil.\., 2, rci-;,ml1e.... of line of
.Ult! lhe "Illllil.nion of soil HOlation pron.dlln'S, In-
dl.'t'd, rcm'ered plam ,If't: f,'''. Only
'hrt.'t' Hr-tin. (If Tritiellm dicCocul1l, ,dl within dchri.
or daub 1"U1IlCh'd "ilh chopped ''''U' found.
L.rga
I1
Olher IMI:'l'olJOI,mic;,1 rC';t'''cd b\ S, K.,'l:
(3 of Ihe N.l1ional ;\ [USt'Ill'1 orlkmn,"'k, com•• irwd a
f.·" 'It-ocd, ofjuuiller tl unipcnJ< <'K:l'"i., .md Comdi.m
ch(lT\ ConlUS m.lS bolh mUcflcd from
Ih.· ",.<Ie area IlelWttn Hou\(li 2 & 3. Illc lallCt '1
le
-
6es rillenS from. \U!,'USI lilI Ill( cnd ofSeptt'mbr:r .• nd
m.l) Ihus indicnc Ihc period of 5enkmt·nt corllla-
in t.el. Ihc of .\U"'''15I ,,"ou[d be
mosl [il.el, for Ihi,;. since. as noted .,1>0\ .... '10lK" of
Ihe bius eomaincd gr.t.ill.\. dC"pilC Aomtion
applied on Iheir (onICIl5. In6dcm•• Ihc IIl.1JOril) of
.....np[es wen.- rejecled b) not being c;,lcin.ncd. and
Ihen:fol'e rc,;:an:lo.·d as unreliabk.
Are.•s of produelion are more recognized.•\
cle"r eoncellll,nion of flakes .md <':.:h:1I1511.:<I core< be-
hind House :2 indic.ues Ihal flinl 100[, I,c.'e produced
ht·re. All n"kcs were idclllified ,IS Uc[onJ.,'ill£ 10 mill
.n Sado\tcc. 7,3 km I:::'SI of Liga. Thc dircc-
liOIl or disuiburion or Ihe flakes Ih:rl IIH; Hilll
kllapper 11.\5 silling :n Ihc n·.,r ""ll or 1·louse 2. ill
frOll1 or !·Inu<;c 5. Some 3--4 m \\'1:>1 of till' ,Il"t:;. ";Ih
llim IWO red deer arnlt;." IICI'I' round [Fig,
iliA'. perh;'I>- prep'Il,:d for prodllClioll or borl<' 1001$
or Cl en llintkll.lpping 100[5. like .mder b.llon5 or ham-
1Ilers. House '1 also holds Olher t"\;denel: offlim han-
dling. ·nn.!s. a muhilude ofslll.11l chil>" discOl't:n-d
bOlh inside .md oulSidc .his SU·UCIUn:. T\lo con: ;,n::as
of .,cli';I) "en: identifi..-d. ouc inside Ihe house:.1l Ihl:
<OUlhem ".i1l. not f.--.r from .he SE: remer .mt! <.ilI
1I;!llin Ihc :tone or d.1.rlil:!lu comill!: from Ihe door
opening. allOlher ollu;idc. aloug Ihe \OUlhem peri-
phe') or Ihe c.lSlcm wall until .In:.' of 0r:1\1: :"0
2 of Ug;\ J,
USE OF SI'.\CE AT OTHER KSIl CUI.TURE
SETI'LE:\ 11':;-' I N'TS
From Ihe \"en firsl c:':('::I\"liolls ,n Okol CI.I\.' .lIld
l'ekliuk, whid; bCC'Ulll' n:o:ugni""d Ksn
sil"', '11',1111' ,I ("t'lIlUr)' h,IS p.I>s,·d IOall1 19111, NClcr-
Ilwlcss. lIw ,UllOlllll of .tI'ail.,blc: d:"., un :>('ltlc:lllClll
p"ucrns, Il't' of 'p."·c. and tJlhcr' ,r rr ,mgcllwlll, ",ilhirr
,I .cllll'nl<'1ll r.nhcr morl,',I. Tlrel'l' ,m' ,,"'wr;r!
I'c.,surr, 101' thi<. For m;my rc.It'S I-:SB -.cllll'Ull'ulS lll-
11... a,,'ht>' i, war.·r"l ,,, I),. h.a'lI:, , ",...1,\Ill"''''''
"r IN,,m,ut fiN 1...1.or<>l....a"'...J ..."'1......
III 1 1l<,1 r",u..11Il rh<- -,,,..... " a..-a
1I01cled [CM .lltclllioll Ih.1ll Ihe u:lI o<ltlelllnl13 in lhe
·1l1r..ei.lIl pJ.,in ur ill llull{J.r1.:I. Ill.. Irn-
dition of tNC.m:h ".r; 1101 ilK" Iln-d ror
collle""..,[ dlla but "ol!> mtilaler.tlJ, OricllUlnl In-
\lOInb Ihe (o[kctttm or crr.lll1i.: nl.lterial. cnn"dcn-d
leno, 'UplOl fin ehmnoln{!ic-;o1 .md cuhural onkrinl! h
"o\!; not UIIU'U.t1 10 m.de a fC\< stll.J.ll lrendl<'" OIl ;a
sill:. "llleh 1I0uld rele••l Ihe <tr"til,,'1'aphil pi .\I<'n of
poncn bUI Ill" .• fuller come"l of <lnKlIIn:<; ami r -
Oliell '1.eh hmiled 'U"aln.';"" !u\t" !ud di>.l.....
ITOlb ron><:q...·nel" III .1 lllunln. "here le-lfinllt" (.l ..r-
ch;,eol(ll!icc:cJ n:nl.llll> "ere .md ilKin:'d. .tnc more
eommon Ih.1II ••eol.JoI,"" proper. G.ml mcnUUll'
Ih.I!.' f:.'lIluU> 11'11. lite IOt.n l.r:\l.lnl'"
"";lS eXQI.lled b, lre.l>unc humel" .cJnc.,d\ in 1'111
G.nrl .•\1 Iht· ,ne ur Pip"'l. Bkm ....'mh 1" Lil:".t.
,,·ilh rich n:m.utl, from CUPIX"T In",
.lIld I_lie ,\mi<luil' ••..,"{"r:11 'Ul"le, lTt"ndll" "l're
Ul.ldc in 1976. nle l',·"rh...In.· 'liIJ unpuhll>hrd. bill
IIr,· ,ill' lr,,, ,ill,·e ,llrm"l diMppo.·.u"{"d ,I> IIH' h"..ll
loo'c." h.11 I.' d,llWd il ,. illr ("'C'p .lIld ,. In:ndl-
e•. >(ullt'lirnc, ,'wn '·1111'10' illl( he.I'·" r'I.,·.II,rtion m,,-
chillel"l. Funl,..nmm:. Ill<' J..d "fpuhJi•.llion, "11 ",.
o:;".II;On, i•.1 'o(",,"n.' hind•.u":r "hen aUt"rnl'lim: 11'
.:lS'l'"-'-' ,h,' ,ndl.r",lol,.;, .•1-.il .... "I HulI:.ll1.\.
·1 rln ./ rrhl1f1J/lIg;(lI
n,.. _u.. ,\1 RN\uutr -it.. ,-.f r..!t_h .md .I,.....
1<\ U..:.l ",h.. "nh ,u...h.lt h,I' !JolTII .Ilm,"!
.-mireh ..".1\.,,....1 .. 11l,l(km ,k"'lnl.u,\tl.11
Ih.- ""'1"01 ,.....rif'htl'\ .md "'" " .. IhlT(' h,'U""'"
_..I L ,>ftht- ",t n,..
unc".l\.ll....Ut".. .
. .• " - ht--. 'I">.im"n\ Illl ,h"lll;IlI(: Ol'l:3n1.'·
,·,01""1<""" rK" - n
..tlOO ,,,- ....·Ilkmnll -pa,T durilUl th.. Corp"r \I.'t'. ut
thr' 1"<"",,11_ ,'>t- "'''.1utKon J.rt ,nil "\\.1itill(: propc'r puh...
1"'.111'11\ __ QIH
n.. "It ".1> h.-tl.C"C1l .lnd 1.._
1118;: 19!.l::!b: 1994: lQQt.i; Co<n:o\ ..I
..1 I!i&i: J.nd.I....."'>ll.-u cotntlll,lIIi,.lIM1n'b l1I..nllllll-
lilt, loc-.UKlI\ "",-,mill", II\;\I of
Ilf'"ll:hhourin(: UI;.j. Ddimill'd h\ pbin ,md T:!\illt">-.
th.. _it.. I' ocilll.1tl'd I'll ont of Iht hill'lt,"'1 poinh of tht
pl,Mall and ha> .1 E,r Ix'nn tidcl of.\i>ibilil\ .•
Ih.. \\l"'I than U\Col. TIlt moorm Ilflrhsh"
l\im: .'1 il' fool. "hcre .1,11.0 ran .1 'Irc.nn frd b\ nu-
in tit ...\I'l".1 rOil ..
h.1\1· lJn'n rttol;lli...-d. -n,....arli,·_I. I. held re·
nl.lill' <If thc £.arl\ Coppc'r .\1.,'(' "ith r,d...-rl P0!1cl""l
of Gnuk·Jmil",1 ""Ill'. 111(' hou!oC"'> .'I'l' l'l"pnn,"{1 to be
8 q III lonll' :l.lld i-1i m ,ddr. OriC-IIlllt.-d E·\\: l11t
imrmJ.! 'll.1n" would halT brcn 3;- 38
m' _Tb......nlrm...m cr:ued 10 ah..r a m;lJOr firt.
Ruiklitll: horiz..n :-00. 11 of UI<' Lat.. C.or!)(r .\1,'1:
"a> fi\Uud dll'l"Cth on ..arlicr -ettlcmml drhri.., "hich
h.&d -.ufft'n"d tmm _ub...-qllfml Rc.-dutitt' 11.
,u'O mchnll' in a firt. appear<, 10 bcrn "d1 pI'(.
...-n.-d MId prot"id.-; \";l\u.:ahlr dau on Ih... >p.ltial ar-
1'£ a Copper ,<ltkmclII Tbt al'(.1 "'"
''''1.-upird I... C":\:IMldinl: O\\T :HOO m
2
Tht
-.:ulnllcm and It, immrdi;ut .lCti\lt\ 1:11n.. ran\:oo be-
[\<,<"m ;uo and -.1900 Th(' O\'lT.illIa\QUt of ....".Ic-
Ill<'1l1 "ith thr «"kIll" di....u_...-d aJxt,.....
TIt(' rn....,..... "('T(' In 'i ""''- Ori"nul('(i :-0.
" "ilh a .Jil!ht &:..i:nion IO\\-..rch t and lot1l:lr:.lt('(i b\
-u·.....t_ rtmllinll' E-\\" 111<' ..nu.. alK.... \\('1'( ill d,..
,'m ".ill rh.. 'trttb " ..!"t.••,boUl 3 n, \\id... \,lninl;
h..'" 1I !.b ,md 3_1 Ill_ hi ,hI' 11\"\1 la\nut. Ih.. di,-
';Ul lk"t",...n 1111: hnu>('!, "J.! on" 1k"1"""1I 0.6 ,Lud
11_8 m. bUL th(' di,t.ll1L(' Il'!"t.." in Ih,' l'"C!lL1".e (Jf
,rhuildinll' \\l,...n n,'" ''''Il' huilt in pl:lc... of
U1W\ th.. d,stanc," b"I"wn ho"...., l"uuld t'xll.lnd
w Ut 1.3 m. moll'. ilL,"", Ilnx-..dLlt..... for buildilll:
a 1""" '1ruetu,·.. 1Il ,h....II.,"('..d\ c<l.lhli'lwd ....111...m"lll
"'-1.. <l1""".-d: Thr huu..• ..Quid I... built it, " trul,
- '" Ill ..·... of .m old .lIl{". or. tlIll' or Ih,·
ne" '"l" Ill". . .
11 I I
·',llmu'l· ,'olLld Ill: IIlCO'1Xlml,'d 11110 Ill<'
\l.t ,,1 IIC'"
I
,
- III bOlh the 11....1' htlLlw ""11.1111
I1IW.. 'Im,lhb
Ol....upirrl .1 '11l.1l1cr .11'l".1 Ih;\n c,lrlil·r. Fin.lllt ..L11\'"
,
Ihc '-'r.h.... 'l'tllcl1u;11I could Ix' laken
,I
into u,... O"',"r IIl11e. ,I or 11Ie -.ell le-
11I('111 tm, ••m,. the [..-1.>t ..-;u. notro. Ih.. C.I,ICI11 pan
,IL'<l "itt,.....,in(: mo.'t or Ihe collstntetioll and re-('Oll'
'tru(lioll initi:lli\"C'-. I'rdirnin.trih illfor...
.1110"" lhc lint.llioll Ihat up to lhn;(' gener_
of 11011:>(", ("311 be n"('()l.!I1i1.cd in Rt:duti ... 1.1 .•\1
011(' lim... :t> mam ,." 30 33 hOIL ha\"e .
but the fin,ll ph.lsc of thc M:ukm('1!t onl) 23
25 ocrupil"fl thc silc. '!1IC imem:ll hou!>C 'I),lce
:It Rt"fILllilC I1 i> :17 on tI,c a"cra!;,'C, hill ir the
.malln gcncmlion hOl1't:!i arc ,Ideled, olll\" 3-'
-,
m-.
Rcdutilc 111. of mOl'I; Ihall 2500
on 111<" tnp of .• 0.20 III Ihick "hi:l1us I"ycl·... cO\'l"rilll:
lite burncd remain, of thc prc\;OUS occupalion. 1)(....
spilc .1 ,ignifiC:L1ll lellll>oral dincn;nec, Ihis plHl'e .1[50
folio,,", both Ihc Il....hnologiea[ :llId Ihe archileetuml
trcllds of the ])1't.·\;OUS OIlC in lenns off cohel'CIII con·
ttntr:l\ion of hOLlSC5 "cll as a fix...-d spalial division
of th.. scn!c'llCllI. RL"fILuit(' 111 also h:td :; Il)WS of
bill th(' ;\I"("a OCCUpil-d b) buildillb'S ""3S SOIlIC-
"hat di,pl.1c,"{1 to\,.Im" th.. SoUlh. as cornp,ln."d ,,;th
Ih.. Rcdutilc 11 'iCnlcment. TIlc houses pn."SCn'l"fl :11I
X·S oricnulion \\;Ih a dC\;:tlioll the E..
bUl Ihrir sac is smallcr. '1u; 3\"cragc illtemal arc.1
Ixt\\cclt 2i.60 and 28.00 110 doubt re...
flcclinll' a dimilli,hin(: famil\ size. "111<: CtUr.J.IICr<i or
the hou.e:s \,,'re in Ihe somhem '11c
Wstanc.. bel\\<'Cn Ute hou.a varies from 0.5 10 0.9 m.
but Ihc "'Il<"el'" :tre \\;der Ihan pre\iou,I). 3.5 _I.:;
m. '111i, '\('111....1I1rlll ".1' prob.lbly r.J.lhcr short.li\"cd
COIIII\;lred 10 11. Tr:.lct.-S or rcbuilding .LI"C fcw.
28 31 hOLl mil:h. ha\(' existcd :It onc time.
Rcdlll;'I' IV ".IS discovered dil'Ccll\· 011 Ihe hunL.... d
dell..;, of th... Pll'\;OllS st:u!ctn... nt. bc._pil .... a c1,,>c
relationship. RcdUlilc IV dCI1l01l'lf:tl ....._.1
eh:ar hre;jk wilh l":lIl' COPP"r Ag,. bOlh ill
ICOn\ of poucl""l ,lI1d in house ol;clllatiUIl. Th,' "p,ui:11
of .he seul...mcnt is no, kllO\\'1L (IltlpLlb.
lilh,"d,. bu, Ihc "cre L10W oricllt:,wd 1::""\\', with
.... .11 Ilw (',lsl rn ,ideo Tlw sClIlcnlt'llt ".'_
5I.
i
l:hl1, to" lh... Somh ...·I.uive to lilt"
l.iga
......
.....
oI540-44SG.II
0I6OO-oI3SG.2.
"OG-oIloIO-l.
"60-01320-2.
01370-01320-11
"60-42010-2,
0I3oI0-0I220-h
oIJSG-421().2&
0I3oIG4220-h
oIJ6O..oI21().2.
4301O-o1220.h
4J6G4(M().2.
oIoso.397().h
411().3960-2.
0I05l).J97().h
4150-3950-2&
405l).397().h
4110-3950-2&

4050-391().2&
40l)0..Jg.&().1.
.c.oso.3900-2s
.cOSO-3960-I.
417()'J9,t0-2s
III
......
!,ot,&
-----II!Uo!!''''!.'.....--_
_lI'boroc IloI.o a.... .... ('"n. 'I P"''''''''-I
Lign:! 5650±<l5BP
(crunoalj

Lign::! 55<l5±<l5,BP
IdwcCl8lt
Lig.1::! 5<l90±<l5BP
(cl\lWCOll/)
RedtUlle D 540Q±50BP
(,*OS)
RedUlite ID 5-l30±50BP
(cl\Jrcoal)
RedUllte ID 5395±
1--
RedUhte ID 5::!<l0±-l5BP
I-I
Redutlte ill 5::!40±60BP
1-""
Rcduhte ID S::!30±50BP
1-""
Redutlte ID 51-0±-l5BP
,,-""
Li2c13 516O±-l5BP
""""I
Lign 3 5::!15±55BP
-
5000cnlBC <l5()()C'alBC 4()()()Q,IBC
3500calBC
III 'i. 'If ..... ..I ... 1 ,,{ """I'" rn"" Ulf,1 ...I Knl"",. \11 w,•• d"", , '" ,h..... blo- '" ......1.<-
""h 11., ..".,,, ",,,,,l>cl'. \,1,,£1, ''' 1 1hI ,I <lIh"r.tl ...", ...,.. 2. Rnl",,<.- 11 .....1III .....I..... rh fbb;:;
r, I ,hi., l!J'l.r·' mn'cml_... ...i" ."It, Il<o,hnur lJJ
pH·\'jOIl' on,", roUl' wcn' c\,'n discOlcJ't:(1 ;n
,11, arc:, nOI ll)cd b... rorc. DCl.dled infor01.Ilion is
.,hit· 011 o,w {eer!;OI I Thb j, .,p.,id.,],
7.:10 "I \9.:10 III with lhe .'p,id.,] c"d .md 1,90
'" wide. The pr,·,.'lle,· 1'1' I ,·s.,.!, or \()o(.. ,lI,·d "Schdu-
c"hcnkcl" lype i, ell-.n·l> lhis "·Illem.·'" in uw
Tr.lllsitional I'Cliocl Ill"hel'll I.."l' Copper .\I:C .",cI
E:,d)' IIrnnzc t\g".
S,'\'('" (:-1 I clal... :".,..1\ .Iil"bk ii"I"JIll tu-dud,C Fig.
1115). Tak"1l ;11 n"U"nrli"" \fi,h Li!=.,. lhe ()(TU-
pmioll.1I ph:"," of ,h.· I\.. l ,h.·s 1""\' elc-....h ;n"'r-
lillk,·d. !'hcn' i, .1 ,mu,'lh l>c"""'ll :!
.",d It·clllIil.· 11, It'fluli,e I1 ,..·.,,,p.lli,,".1I ph.".' ,. n'"
I;.,ull cI.ll.-c1 Ihmullh t.dtill.Ut-c1 ,n·d,. I ..... oth.. r C-
I"' '!lnple, from R.-chui,c I..'R' pt.·rh.,I" IIIl'I.'I;....nh
:mrilmtccl to I'h.I>c III in'le.,d of I'h.,x· 1I n,<" hi.llU-'
1.I'cr OCI"cc" R.·d"Ull· IJ .,,,c1 Ill" ,tl ..., "l ·r\l..l In
lh,· t..llihr."t-cl r.ldio;.'.nhotl d.ll.·,: il j,. lt..1 I.'
h.,\'C tHe-d fnr c;,. :lOll \ ,'."" R.·d"lll.· III ....'rn·'l"u"l,
10 ,Ill' c1.n.·, "hl.lin.·/! li,r Ull.' Ct;,\<· I. "hid, lhu,
m.1I bt ' '·Olll'·"'IIOr.ll' ,,;,h ,h" .,·Ul\'tll'·lll 1" R.·t!uUI"
II1 l)Ceup.uion.,1 ph.lX·,
O,her C"pp.'r '\1:" ';1.... ill.1 li,-init\ .,f 10.""
no, I"l,,"id"d .,," c,,,,.'I\I"\'· "lli.",n.lli'lll <In lh.. 11'"
of 'p.IO· wilhin "'uknwtl ,. Link ,. I;.n,,,\ 11 .d , l'n Ih.·
"'''11.;"".11 ",,11,'. \ {JUll .. llifli:ll'lll Il.llll·m l' ltl .\
H
./r/(I.lldwrologim
c
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rw:\ ';
-'.t.
./

.''-\
1\

....
--

..
1.. 111., ........ I \fin
\1\ ...... \\ tw-. a. "- \ ............. loo r=r-- from
HI •...-.1 \1.....-, ' ..... 1_, (.-..-.- H....-cinI\I--.
\,4L,1............
p;mh puhli_hrd l..l.le . ->Clt1"fTl('nl at 7_'\m-
i.t"'l-- \..1.010\ 19T1 Thr« on:upauonal ph."l..'<:S of
WIt' lLlt' '\I.'fl' .lu....tro here••dl hunted
dm.ll. 11'1<" 'I'" l' l'O(:.llro un ;) l'O("b hilL
11\ dim,-nnn. "ith m.L\.nll.il of iOX40
ID.lllt'.m-.l rith m 'prinl1;' From :'\. \\ and S. 1111:
'\lte l_ prull"Cll-n h\ 'Il'ql.•lhmpl .... re;achinl.\ 16
m in heil:ln. whilt' tIn tlw L \It!,,. lhe hillock slopo
d"",1 1.,.,. ..d",III\. 111f ......ldcl1lt'lll \\.1.5 enclosed b\ a
,l.l1i"dI- or ... ru1l111ll1: .1lonL\ Ill<: (If Ih., hill.
.l' ;ttl'__ l,·d In \)('\>\\1.)1"" On the \Outhcm ,lopes. al_
nU"1 HI Ih" middle, " ..n; lr.\Cl" of \el anOlher IMralld
f..nco;o_hl\: cOINrun;on. 11,\, ,'a!olnn l.1ud bndl;c \qS
li>nifird I" l\HI p••r:,lId d,,..p mo.,t>. .1110 ,',<nI1\'11 ".d!>
Ill" "rd, Ih.' ....·uknwl1l hy Ill<' ",xc:" .ut:d soil;
;, ,...i,·\ "f IK"lh,,\..- "err ull th.. lOll of
c;J,h ".,11. Ih,· 1l'\'\Cllf\' 'Jf mUll' Ilalisaon.
'Ill\' "''''WOI "nd uf Ilk ....·Ulemt:lll il
e
, Illca.<.unnl;
lUX 10 nl. ".1' Idlll"l buih Cl1l. 'IMC\'. ,i1llilar ill
-U'\Ittur,· tll 11ll' "1>1"1\ p,.. " Il"ilr Ih" <J0IWS m
"." "l,,l.r,,,,...d fmm the n'rn"inilll; p,lI1 of the S<:llle_
1
' ""h(' ln'l 1!'l·(11i..1' lJuilding .11 Z.l1l1i.
melll 1\ .1 , .. ,hl'. .,
Ill'" ".b ,lIuund :?OOO ml. .
"
'Ill 11n\',' O'T\lp.uion (A. 11 & C, ,\
ron . . ri"
,ht' olrk'l .,, l:llnim'\) I) ._
hou"-.... !lll",e \,,'''' di,"ibllll'(l in ..1 rd.lll"o:lI ellS'
)Cl"('(! p,llIen1, \,.ilh di'l,mn" 1.ll\I.,'lllg. hel" ,'('11 2
1
l
1 cl " " Of fnllr -nll,ll't' hml<t" 10 lel,..l B.
;\ll • I , -.,
thl'C'C welT onelll.llcd E·\\' \.'lUrancc< from E ,llld
onc :\"s ('llU'anN' fmm S. The C).:I('nlal Icnglh \1.1$
.", '--"'('('11 i 50 and 6.iO m. 11\l' widlh bCI\'eell
_ ut: • • , _
..iO :md 5.;0 m. 'nil' mean i111cOIal <I':'c,· IS 2;:1.30
m
Z
the .;(":.Ic of Ihe pllbli_lll'd plan is unfortUl\:lldy
J'IOI Pf'C("L'C. Ihe I:l\1lt lIl:.r!,,.ln bein,t; .,boUl onc quarter
of:. melfC in both di ...... liOlls,. \,jlh ,,,ch <p:,cing, up
1010· N 1113\ hale e(H:xisl,"d,
.\ S\1>lem of tftllchc."'i I'Cft al-.o n.--corded .11 the elX>-
1-11<: Copper sile of Kn\'(xlollO Ihe l,c<I
1'''0 p,1I'alld muTl')\\ mO-lIS \\cre enclosing
the \ill' from Ih.... X. and on.... d....q) and wide up 10 I
m Ircm::h from lhc Eo pt.'oonal made
upon ilL<pcctiol1 of Ihe dal1l:I/o:e made by inlense
In:nchinJ.:: In modem 1000.... n,
c\'CII I,id.... r, Ihe b''''1 eomp,amth'c infor-
mation on lht· \1><: of \IMCC is from 1-I0IlliIS:'. \ 'cliko
TJ.ITIO\'O Ccnlml in \pil .... of Ihe I:lcl th:lI
lhe: sil.... is nOI rcbled 10 Ihe KSB cuhurt., Fig. 111.6,.
'1,<: \patial o'1\"nis:llion is \\ell all..Med ,md h.lS p,tr-
allds 10 Ihe sil'''' al Teli<h. Ihe pnnC'ip.,1
<patial c1emcnt>. lud common ongin. I-!omil"';l is a 1..11
>elllcmenl, 5 m in The l..te<t hon7.01l. "hich
d:llCS 10 Ihe 1011''''1 pt:riocl of the Copper Agc. held 22
in Ih.. public;ltion:n houscs tAng-dol 1958: 1959;
1961, and fidd reports), The 101011 :,rea of lite .ile is
2-140 bIll llle area uscd for buildiug oul)' cotll-
Il
ri
lol'!i abouI Ii50 1800 Thc houses were oncn·
lall'tl :\-S. with "IIlr:mces from Ihc S, :md
in a uniform manner Wilh .,).:hllly CUlling SlI·eelS. Poss-
ibly, Ihere is al"o c·\1den<.e of n'buih .tr'HClllrc•. .11
li:lish. lhe larj.\c'i' Itouses (('ud 10 he pln.. ed
11:r. Ix:lo" j, The imernal 01' 111<.: <llll("lU"CS
is30'31.5m'!.
In Ea'km S'·I·hi.l, Ihe only ITI'lain illfol'll1:,liol1 Oil
11'1<' of .,1 KSn <itc' is fi·01l1 tC;llll;.lllin
1?.'l7; T"i/' 19951. Tlm·!' eupll!'!' :\j.\c 11,,11'(" \\'1'1-';
dl'>l'o\'cred. ,Ill l"l.:.-t:tngul,'r. Olll' had llll" illlt·nl.ll di-
lJf li.·IX5.i lH, tll(' ,'\.Iil:tblc <p.l('e lJdllg
35.2 'Ill
1
' hOIr ....-" \HTC oliellt"U'd N-S .11Id pl:n::"d
"1,IIIlt'r 10 c;lch 0,111'1''' G'lr;'(.min 1957; 'J:lsit
191J5\. '1'111: l'lItr:mc Ilefe lromlhc S.l cvidclll;e
'\l'l'm, to cOllfonn to .h,· l!ull-;..,;,lII
Rom,'ni,1Il d,lIa on lilt' u.-.c uf 'll.ll'C limi'nl to
S.l1clll·l. Ikrt"iu rcpom th.l1 16 "hulS" \\('1'(" r«ordcd
iu 19,:) I from thl' L:lIe COPlx'r •\l.,'l' byel"', prim.,nly
honmu lie Ikrciu 1961b, 11,c III.t-'o:lmmll diml'Il_
I\l:Te 2,7 m Limes 1.7 rn, (lIll' llltlrc I\ide l'n.
lr:mecs beil1g in the southl'nl I\,lik Abundant (l('(:ur-
rence of burned walde poilllS lo...m:b ,I ...tldc ,md
d,mu conSlrucLion. The "huts" "efe ol}fomized along
all E-'" line. I-Io"clcr. the '1ll.lll .lI\d irregular!}
rouuded Sh.lpC of these ,'$ rccon,lnlClCd
from .1 1Il1ll,bcr of prescn.'l'd I)t),tholl's .donc. iClS
douh's ,IS to Ilhedlcr thcsc fC.llUfCS \\crt' correctly
imcrprctcd. slrellglhetll'd by the re-
lll:1illS of (\\'CllS. A .. hcr "d] prl"t'l"vcd lo\\er p.lrl of
all Ol'l'n found ill "HIll" 110, 11, The dimcnsions
of the (1Vl'll wefe 1.5X!.,1 Ill, Ihus morc Ih:m 2/3 of
Ihc prcslll'H'd "hm'·. Thc of Ihe OI'CII to·
wards Ihe N. \\hieh Ihl' <ujo;ge5lcd sou,h·
cm oriClltation of Ihc emr.llIcc 10 'hc "hut". The
pos.hnles arc likclr dclincalinl; \\urkshop ,or
'pl:"fol1l1s) r.l\hcr than hOU<'l' ".1115.
ARCIIITECTURE AND I-IOUSEHOLD
ORGANll_\TION
IIOl ..... rRl-cn:IU.s
10 'hc i$-<ucs coIIIIl't:.cd \\ilh an:hi,CClUr'l: and
the U"C of 'pace within .1 built stnIClun', i, is impon-
ant to cmph.lSi7C Ihat hou-e .md <cnll'melll ,lIT con-
I1CL!l'd Il.:U1S of the prdli.'lOnc pcrception Sp..1(l'.
Ikt,h relit-c. lrndilioll. :IW>lrCllC.», ,md ,!(bpl.moll..\1-
d,c border..; bcl\\l'Cn C"llt·l.:Q';I" .In' not ,,,iCI.
il bclit'wd th.ll Ihc} rdlcel dillcrrlll of (on-
sciousncss \\hCll aClion' Ilcrc t.lk"llllunrll.: prim.'r:- ,IS
wdl .IS COlblillUiull,!1 pnllt''''''c',
dicl,lIC Ihc gClwr.d l.lyoul of ",nl"l ncn'. becn
illll,'ll,lll'd :I],OVC. m,luit,·,t, il,df III I hc IX'"
.,itirm of larl-:cr for ,pc'd,d pl11!JIl" ur
h"ld, ct'lllr>lllr ill Ihe ,1'Ilit'l11Clll, wlu1c-
l':m I", 1l<>1"d ill conslllW,iol1 of ,m,rlll-I' tr"IN'S III 111·
hihilil\/\ Iikc clo,,' In ,Iolx".
SCllit"llH'l1l pl'llll1ing nfkn u,,·d
d
- r --, - ,\\holl' ir- ,,)tl.d
'1,111 lllJ.: 0 '>tJ'("lt I .'-, , ,
,
'b
-, ,- "Ul',' I I'C'llll,,1lom-
,llld"\I'uco,moUl-"" Illl'l'" "
Uga
IXin(lII in .HI) \('",t1"lll(IIl, pr(l\i<l.· pn"'mifrnl ,.. li.
IJIOIllC • "rr.Hll.:Cnwnl' ,Uld rontc'lIl \\llrn conmll"n
of pn'",·n..llln" .m· t:l\ountbk. ..., .. I l.ilf.....1.....1"\ .._
.md 1Il1('l)ITL.lIi(H1, ;it dlf" httu..-h"ld Ir\rl ,orl'
mdt'('(1 p" ,illlt-
. \) Olll' l,'.u" of (;opptr ,\t:r .In hit...- I was lit king
Oll! the 1.,\OUl, mmi,,\( from un.. pJ.>1 '<0 an"lll<'T,
OIh(I'" l<Ottld .tln-.ldy bot' ,,, pmcurr IotriJrllll2'
m:l'eri.lh lilr Ihl' (h,,:lIinlt\. 'rn"lT \U.' .. fnr i...
\OIIC1I1CIlI of l"Wn. communlly nJl"Inh"r
<Cldcnlt'lU IalOtlt .lItd die m.mn..r I,f torulrmc-nt Irr-
milJ.lllon lik.. dl.. ,uddrn ,lb.md'Olltllt:"lII "j I
or thl' COllfl,Il.:r:ltirm of U";i:! indic .Ur l!ul loI"IlI,·-
lllCllI" Ilcre C"oIL'lnl(led cnmmun.llh Ulrr ;i .h,,"
period of limc ,md 'h.lrl'(l common r.,,("'
Since Ihe lIt.lill m,lIcrbl, ""f(' d.ll .lOd
l\Oucr, lhe:;c mu" h.llC l)("clI am"IIEllhc dj, l,llin\t IJr_
'01" of Ihe IOC,Hinn of Ihe '>Clllc:-mellh. HOlh rould br
limnd ,Il lhe foot ufdll' Ulf'1 <itc. I'rot__ urinEl nr\\n<td
for limhel' fr:lIl1l"'; .md mof'iup!,o", 'IOm.., t( or r.1l111c!J'
tion, re,'(1 or <U';lll fur ruofillll in ,uch .Ill .unOUlll IhJI
it Ilould lite dem;l.Il£b of lIlt' "hol,' '<:IlIemcn,
would 1101 h,ll'e been ul11'roblclllJUC It" lnm,n dut
cach .md 'Ionc UMII ;i f.'t ".b hmUl:hl
10 'he sile, It 1t.IS .11.0 been C-'L.,bli.,hC'd dl.l' UI.. nl';tl'l"-'I
of lillll"'IOIlC. \\ hich \\ a.; .1bullrLlIl l'l)nUl!h tn
5l1ppl\ m.lll·nJI for hou..<c found.lliolL'. "ob .tIm..-.t -t
km .0 Ihe Somh of ,h.. site. \\lll'Ula' thi., ror l'\l'n
fUMher 'lI1IRr' "en- u,rd i" unLncnlll. bm in ;ill\
GbC. ,uth t.:lSk \\ould brcll n'n. dilOCuh In
eOIllJlli"h lIitllOll' thc Il.-'C of.rM.""u'Z tl"ell·m.- dnm-
ill,IIKC ,If,Idull t-,mlt- in .hc bon.. ';IllIP/" nmfirm_ w
ql.:nifil.lIIU' nf .hl'-'C be,.","" ill Ltbour ;ind lInl mr-rrh
in me.ll (OlNmlplioll cf. Ch"pl..r X, <>11 ,JJlun..-..r
he'IlC' It h.!.> becl1 l"kul.llro 111,11 Ih.. n(;il,Ut:d ..rc;t
alolll' hdd >0111(' lOO lEl <Ion<-....
Tr:ll'C'" pn.....·nl'(l (11 I hou'l:'-'.II the ",'ulh..m
,lop<'" vflhc ,it... Ill',lr "itn,,,. III 110.. u.... "f " ..hu I
I)()l." I(lr tlH' \I .dk "lIlt .1 di.III1t;I ..r "I' :?I) .?_l, Ill, rhl'
tOlllld.lli"'l-. IOIl,Jr." Ut<' ,lope> " ... n;' '1,lbillft"<l. ,'-, t,m
h., 'CI'1l tinm .1 d,IH'1 1""l(h 45 l'1Il "idc pn·...·n... r
dcplh 17 1111 Ibid. ,kbl;,. of 1""t't.HI' Urlb,u.,..1 l"IT'
d,,, 1"" ..,f (OUI'<' indi(.'liul: Iltc IN' Ill' ...ut!'- .1IId
d.lull huildirll: lcdmi<lllc'
Prior I" Clu'-'l\1Jninn ,,1' UIl' Ut<.< I IN.,N..... tbl Il'r-
1,11"1" I,,'rl' ,''''.th'(l. (It" th.. old ... >il \l,h
1'('1IItl\l.'(], 1'<"Ulliul! in l"lx)o<ul'(' of ,I l,l<'f "I 1'0.4>1:""""-
./(Itl.lrdmro!ogiro
li'r ill'I.IlK," III Ihl' mll1hl"nl I)\'ti"hn, "f Ill<' hmN,',
,'UI,io.: it, nnnhlTn "',lH, "lit'''' it "',1' ,IPI''''t"i.lll.'d ,1'
.1 n,lIur.t1 !l.I\\·l\lnll_ nu· '\'nkl' ,,,'1'1' hil.!hh .1",11'1'
,.llhl' l.w('r .llld uit'tlll' 1)("1".lltl... "x\)\"mc: 11. <"\)('-
ci.ill\ in I!lt" iIlhT',m..-mr.t1 Art",,--, nu' "'1:111... m.lllll('r
of ("\l"Nlrt' l"Il'n kd Illt'.U'h ron,hl'lnlh dUOlll: th('
1'''''' .Iti"n Ih.lt thl' 1'1.1\Tm("U( ",I' m,lI1·nl.lc!t". In (,1("1.
the "'uk'1' ,11..... Ill\l"ttod ("1lt"nr- in ""fl'"atinl! 'tonl'
p.1\l"1nmt,. _\ '<!lull 'u, h p.u('h \I .... inll'"'li!t,ltt-d in an
,lrt'a 1<1 I.· iU'1 "ubid<.· Ih,' ('.blt"nl ,.,111 (If Ihl'
t"" ..\ Ati'd U"a 1 hOIl'< lie. 1\ j 1),\' I'nU'1ll \l
Tllade- or "dl·",nro and I,at('r-nmntkd '1I,'I\f", rt'J.l'h·
inc III I.:! cm in kn.,h. Thl' fulll'\h:1lI of Ihl'
mc:-nt .£Jld tl' orit.-m;\ll<ln "rt' n"t bIn"1\.
I('('h,.. knt.... of IlK Ulr,l I ....·uk'"
1,.l1-o m.mif.....tro m rt'lffiI),lt'lliPll'-plNt'rro floor. in·
'\KIr Iht' h"u-l"<. 1'lT'Cl'\("(\ in ;I paldl\ p.1111'Tl1 ;,,1 the
"'UtY ko.-d ;I., the .....id p.l\l:mml_\1l U'';lt'('> l>f inlrmOl!
"rtl' <!i-tuf'btd tr. thr -ub'<qul'n1
tlrr< nf Ult.l .:!_ In t1ll'ir .Illt'"fllpl 10 ('\"t'n thl' Il'mUn.
\lhi...h no duubt tud thl' hiLh Olp,,(".tr.lIllY ofold hou-'C
mnun<h. Ih('\ pu..hed \)J.n of tM roltuml dt'bn" for-
\lard 1'......I'd.' Iht' OOI:t' of thr ,\luthl'nl .Jopo.. Thi,
TTUll'1"i.al -I.l'I,-d .Ind Ilr()\i(\"d Iht" l;"rgI"'l
;lmnU!ll {If..mall hnd, to Ihl' (,olI"lie>1 -<:IUenu_"m,
lbr kngth \.l" lht" Ilrrind bo:-I\\ttn fir two oocu-
pau'JIl- i." ;1,- mmunnro, IWI I.Jmwn. PQII«\
ltul I:'<-nlual in crramic tr..diuon; had 1.11:1'11
,,1.Ilr in the hi.nu.' p,ericld. BUl hoth ""'1' of \)()lI('1'\
C.1fT\ (fu un<'ti\ e fr;lIlHl'"' of l!lt" KSB cuhurt'. and
r.nhrr r,uh ,\.\1\-<1.-111' tlf ::! IhOlt the
lCI1lp<,r.lI c\i'I;lll\<- bo:t"CI'n the two <ctUcmcn\', was
nOl ,it!;llifK;lIlI_\\.o. tlU' lraln. of Ihe 'tnJl'lural re-
main., Hf thl Ue;t I (OClUIl.lUOll had not di,.;lppcan:d
.:\1 thc Ullle nf thc fOllndltioll of U\i-l 2, Timber
fran".... .Ind puk... ({Juld '\clL h,I\C been \-isiulc elen
rc-t1'<-d ..fin the ab,l1ldonmelll, "hile Unuurnl-d
d.lub will, urt,o:tnil Icml,,'r would ha\c made '1'1'1:1'\
fertile fnl .dl 'On, of bmh) '
, 'luch 'lie, .... 'Upl'l'llle ,'1::('11\, "hell 'upIKlrt_
,md COlnll1U1MI
In 'plle Olll' IIll"W ,ml! "'h.lI....er '>Cllti-
lle'lnl ill lonmlun,,1 1\I1l1\'11'\ . ,
a
would .l\\,'kc.•\1\ old ,itl h,ld -d .
.. ,
\<)0. H"u!.C m'lUnd, of unh,,, led '-1'" '" 'd ."
, \l e"" \' le
Iran fomm-d 11110 ILIt 1l1.111'lnm for Ill''' ,,_.
." _ 'ultures,
1<" reu.... of I'Il...l,)U' t uhur"l ddl,," ",..., oh"'I'\'ed ill
the ,:1..'1' nf 111'11"'" I ,llld 3, rhe el'l'.l\ioll of It'l'd
'Urflff" Led 10 diiIi'l'cll1i,ltiOll ill ,Ihitude, '11 th,lt lhe
,1PI)t'af:.UKI' nf tlw Ill'" 'ellkmt'111 would l<lk
e
thl" [onn of ,I ....,Ii\', of 101< .. For 1'\,t1l1pk.
tht" dillrrcncc in kwl hl't"e,'1l lhe ,II1d
llool'lo of Hou"c :.! ,lIld it, ,',lqC'rll lIdghbolll", HOIl'e 3.
IH'luld h.we l)('l'n 0,3 111. 1l11llhe hOlN' <illt.lled Nonh
of 11011>(' :.!, and on th(' ',11111' IOIll.,.;ll1din.ll1ine, \\ ould
ha\'\: appean-d 10 1)1' !'ling highl'r Ih;1I\ }-IOII'I' 2 :md
.11 Ihl' ....mlc kn'! ,15 I-Iou-e 3.
On('(" un" Ic\ocl <llrf:.II'(,' \\('ft- fonned. \\en'
lall'lI to 'tabilizl' Ihe found.llioni, Se\ cml It'Chnical
-,olllUOIl;. could be ob'C.... cd in lhl' primc ca'\(' of
2. ,\ IhicL of dlam" from the c<lflil'''l OCC\l-
p.ltioll 1'"':l5 "prc.ld in Ihe 'Outh,\C,"tenl of
House I. llli, p.ln of the \\,IS the wcakMt ;'"
it W,I' to Ihe r.llhl'r (k·
.JCl!x. llm,. the I.wer of <hards hcll>t:d to
maim.tin a p1:Jin 'urf."lcc. <I"bilize tlR' found,ltions,
and pT"O\idl' floor i'lOlalion, in Ihl' CittiC of Hou.scs 2
Olnd 3, shallo\\ lrendll" l\t're :tnd filled ,,-ith a
comp.tCI Ia\cr of c1;lI 1'1. 3. Some of Ih,1I "as
abo ')ll"l'ad ilt>icle Hol,l;.c 2 in ordt'r 10 I'VCIl lhe floor
le\"el. .lIld thl' comeI' :lfe:IS
\'cre funhcr 'u....ngthened \\-ilh lhe help of nIbble of
limo.tone..\pparenu,. limestone_ for foundations
\lere uset:llo a dcgn:e for Ihc house' created
in areas ,,-ilhoul 'Inlclur.l! from lhe prn;olls
occupation. as Ihe GISC \\ilh the pMth t:XC:I\-;IIl:d
hou!oCS in Ihe nonhem pcl-iphel"Y of Ihe ime',ig:ucd
are;I, hOllS<':' "ere onh oUllined 11\ rows of
cudo,ing f:.Uher fr.:f.,'1nell1t·d bu; C0111p:,ct
COlll"cnlr.lliom of 1>Ollell. Daub \\.IS ocf:lsioll-
hcre and ollL; :IS ,I thin ht)'er poiuling to
po<l-dq>ositioll:1L Built on the
orih'inal surface of lllc hillock with limitcd levelLing
me:\Surc\ l:lkell. thesc "et'e pl'OlCcted Iw
thinm:r byer 'lf soiL lhan lhe rull)' elCc:w,IlCc! ;l1CS
funh·· ',',.,
, er m, llml dw slale or pn's,'!"'
l'allOll Il'liglu I'Vell he predelermilu'd b\' eirnllll-
\lallrcs ,),-ior '" " " '. '
. _ ron'lnlCUOll ot .1 stnlClUl'e,
. I h., foundation \,ao;.,£! li'olll 0.3 to 0.4 III
III widlh , . .
. . ' ..... en IX> ,', wlIh pOlllted \"'re set
TIlt' majority or were IJ !J fill
HI dl:l.me!t'r Q' __' ". . ,.
, lInclel' pol.·s, \\uh lh.· (1-
"meter of l'i c ' 'd
- Ill, ""!'e u'n1. S.llllples or ,',lkm;,tc
\\OOd collccll"'·"", . C
l\ r ou....· _ 1I1'!"t· d,'lel'llIlllI'd hy .
Liga
17
1\1,llmros fmlll homll'l',llll C"rpilll1S be-
but it ulIccn,tin \\hcllu:r Ilomlx'am \\,1\ u<cd
ill housc comtructioll 01' ;15 fire 1\ClOd. .• 11
were n:eo\'Clwl from lIll: Mea l(I Ihe nl't·ll. The
thinner I)()lcs werc grouped in lJ.lil'5. the di,t,mcc Ix-
t\\CCll them beillS ;'OOlll 10 IS Clll. The Ilcn'
illlen,OVl:n \Iilh rods .md .. "\ .\Ild plalitrr.:d with
daub. Sincc .111 lumps ofbumed d.llIb I'cre collttlt'd,
it \\.IS 10 dilfercmi;uc bet\\cen \';\liOIl5 "'?CS
of d,mb m.m·i:" in terms of composition. li .Ippciln:d
ilmt the core :lrea of a wall. ,It le.I$1 at Ihe level of
foulldatiOIl (the preser\"ed of walls did nOt e:.:.
ceed 0.'1 m) 1'';15 plastered "ilh dauh eolltilining
quartz t;'rains 2--1 mm in size as Ihe main tempering
l!Uueria!. IdClltifteation of this cort' hdl>l..-d 10
the precise course of \\.llIs in pl.lces of Ihiek aceurnu-
1,Ition of bllmed daub. d.lub \\ith .m .Id-
mi:.:t\ll"c of 15 -20
1l
u ofchoppcd applied. h
has beell c;I!culated thal :t sl,md:trd house ill the Uga
2 scUIClIlent 1I'0uld rt'<Juire betwcen 9.6 ami 11.6 nr
t
of non-oJ1:,'anie building componcllls.
The c1ar deposits at Lig:1 appc.lr lIS a hornogellCOu:.
\;I)cr with occ;lSiollaJ inclusions of n.-d h'ICIIl.uitc, or
(goclhilcl ochrc .IS \\c11 as olht'r ac-
cumulations in the forlll ofthill oxidised flakes, These
wefe 1011 lid aUIltIdallllr in Ihc d"su'uctiOIl debris.
l'louse \Icre 0.35 0.-10 III in IhickllL'SS
at thc foundation Icvel. e\"CII lhough tht, imendtod
thickness \\';b not c-xn'('(iinL\ 0,32 m, I-lichcr up. the
walls mUSI have been koso ffias..ivc. be.lrim; ill mind
the relative lightllCSl> of Ihe timber framc, COllll);ICt
flakcs of rI.lub wilholll .lI\) ;Idmi.xlufe poillt lo".m:1s
.1 clay coaling of the 11'.111,. llll'cstigation oftltt· rt'co\"-
crcd lumps of daub IHlI'C also provided ch;ll
freshlv SII":I\\'O \\cre lIscd for lempcring.
poinli'ng to chc p.anicllbr Ixriod of Ihe ,car for
construction, Qne of Ihe lllmp. COnl.lilled part of an
car \Iith the ".-ruino still silting in ic .il che liml; of d.nlb
cClllpering (Fig. III.i,. ,\ I,inwrilll.l c•• r \\ould not be
ablc to k"cp grain) chIt, 10 10" It'llllxr:ltllrc'< .lIld
humidily, S. Karg, I)\' Kodl (.1}. who 1.".ld"
a caM of the holl: Ilmck 1)\ lhe ".11', ,·'I•• hh,hed
Ih,'1 the ear in que'tiun ';'ich ,Ill prul>.lbilil\ <wrns
from emlller \\ he.1l Trilitllln dic{"OCUlll , with .' <1it.;:11I
.nnh"r .. I" 0. b .• "'_'h In.- ........, .....
r.'" "r thr ....n"n '" .Ilr .L."I,
I III 7 "ump lJi ......" 'nth ""I......... ...
w.m_,
l>os.sibiJiI} oflxill': t'inkolll Triticum murUIt,(Jturn It
should Ix· .1C1<kd lh.lt .111 pien" "fd.mb \I('rt' wl!t·ol·d
.md ;"\0 Ir:ICt'!i of {"olourine "a.. C'H"r I;.und.
indic:nint:;: Ih.1t t.he struelUrt" OlPI)t".trro .L' 00,,(',
"nIl." roof \\;\5 b\ lIlCI'nl,l! JX>"I.- Ol.il, twJ
I>osthole" "hich (ould be .ltIribUlt-d t(\ tht' fU"f'lIp-
conSlruttion, OU[\ 1\\0 \'ere found: 'HIt'" In
Housc I .lIIc! ;IIlOlher in I-Ioml' 2. bOlh III Ihe limn 01
of m.lSSi>c 1'01['<;, '!5 cm in dLulll"tt'r, pueetl
dil'l.'CLt) 011 thl; floor .md SUpptlfCl-d hi. '."n..... In LtI<:'
C.LOC of Housc 2, Iht' p<',t \\';'" \UllJ"Onro h\
of th.: 'MIme roe!,;. ,h.1pnf 10 I"rrr-pnnd
with tJII' "lundt'd fonn <lflht' PO"!. CnIL'C(llI'·lItJ,. Ihe-
disco\cl"i:d 'o;mfulOllI' nxb \\t're .11Ii...... tt"d h\ tin- meh
ll;mpl.'r:uUt'l·, of lht' fill.tl fin' .1IId h.ld r:u \;",<1.. \p.1rt
Iium that. no other t·eI1.lin 11:1('(', IIf Illll'nt.tl pt"c.
'\t'n: foulld. but Ihl' prl·....·nct'" of n.1l lilll,"'tum'" ubI.k
tit<: hOll....... indicalt' .h,1I (ItJler 1',)_1., ",.rt' ...... tull: £Ill
,uch. Ilm, pm.t,'Ccr:d frlllll tfc,.·.n
Linlt' io kIlO'''1 .IOOut the t'l.lt'J>l
Ih.lI d." 'pl.",lcrrd ",1O<:I"u I(\\,"' IIl"HIe up Jl.111 ..f ch..
intcriur ,Oll;lnICliun, l,h,.·rI.J.UOIl i, inlnT\'d
frOI n ,Cl 1.1" rned li ,1I,'1llen., l,r d.lub "ilh Illll'rlm,
uf IloIr:lllt-1 101, .... st:Hm' Jll UIl ill di.lIlll·ter, .1' "dJ .L'
pit'U-" (,I' .--,kin.unl umtx-" 1(,lIl1d '1r.ICi""...plu• .J.lh
hil.lh in J.IH"" of <L.uh_ Ic b ,11"" "I'" Ct' "'''UfJk'' IJut
hilu....... h.J.d t:>lbl.,-d n'..k .l> inJJt;.J.lnlln ,·L" m"Ik"I"
,\ hiehh lIIf"nn.llI\t' ntll.....''''u ". 11101011.-1, loo"" d1_
n.'\CIl'l!.11 Kllo.l>.uf..'nnnl fie IIIN t;...u1I<1!::I &--
I,", III a I 1.0, ...... ,l... '" ilK 1."1<
\,. ,...tl .., \lll' {;.,ll l'lllI
I:""IIl"" Ihr,r l1\"lrl"....·I"·U\i,'ll ,,\ th.· ","IW h"u.t
\"n1l m,h•.II1"'> Ih,1I tlll" 1\1<'\(1..1, "Ill hI' In;.1l.'1:1
"''''1110''1: "nd uml",lm111:1"'\LlI't' "lmf"l1u.llioll on
1I... lll:nrrJJ .•pp.:.\ral"" 01 Ihr ,tm,tu""" 11,,1 "'''1('
",.wo\ Al..., I.. " 'Cfl\'lb lintLl''''''11 III 1"n1l' ,,\ hIKIIlU:
"n elf< 11\"(" ..... ut..1l'l \U the' t'llI: .,1 ", .."'t nn ul.luon.
I ndrllty In-.rn. ,11 ,1.1\.1 h,.,I)l;'Cn mudl
n\Ultk<ll... "n ha..."'.... ". III \1..lni..ular
n>\lO.-.:nurn:. Itlt- n.lturr "I l'rrhl,,,.n\ ""hnn:lurt'.
haikimt; In:hniqllir", b'-;IIt; • "IKllllt.n.... er.tlb. 1;'\\,
11....,...11 1'1l,1 1'1141., '\nmhr""'.... tht'
I".. p.u'.J1rl. IU till" ml.l 1".11 UI:..t "rr h)UIKlm
'I'm "tlt"rt' ,lm\)",,1 lltltl'<'l .I
I "ntm,," ...,,:hl, I ,t'Il.:l -1''''1 1Il"!.... U,," ,11" fr'" "1111,,
I,,""..... III "'11-11 will pn,m"lr .Ill UIKkr-\.:ln<II\l1:. "llh,'
Im'UII*'" \\:." d"rllllll:' ... ull>l;ulli.Il1,
\)lI.,.-ll>.1rJJlrb ,,<'Tt:: r.m\1lI\l-l, ..,,,,,ll-d. hill \I,n'\(' of
Ill<" '''11 IN< \",,,.01 "kml'lll\ dId >('t-m III tOll'l"'p.,md
\l'1\ ",·11 "llh lhr un"""',,,,,l l...t .... ,'I UI(.I, '11,,: in,
'I"" ,,-d h"u...... 1IU" "d"" \("\'\ ,. ,I' "1:.1' ... hr,\" >0
Ihrll 1Il.1IlIlrIMIIl:C I' I,,,,, mClI'1\I"u, .lI,d 11"'ir US"
p",h"I" .•1,« k" illll·lt;,· Ih,1ll 1II lhr ,.,,,. ul' <I-,..Ilil1\:.
il,,,, .... , O...l.""ll,tlh .• 'It''' I." ••, u! <I.lUh ",I' .ldd.'(1
III ,\".... lit" .-mc\..., in .hr ".IIl-, hlll 110 <lilt'. "h"\I
.. \,...1. 1'1"1'''11<'<1 ,h.ll ",mk (01 1""'1' "'"Ir .....
"""U....\I"11 11", lI'u.,lu·pl, i, Ih.u in
.."h .. ,.t...:' '>l1t" ,,,,,,kll,,,1 Ill<" 1Il"1 ,n, .n huild.I
"
,,',,'111\' nll' ,lIl·.,'1lI ,,\,m"'" ,ulll,I'I'"
"\1.' , Ut" ..' .'
rn •• 11 ""-1\ ,hI' \\'I1,ln"l1<1I1 01 ,Ill' {1,'lIbl',1
'".lI.....
llllh
..... lltJ'-".'-'I"II.l11d .1,-'1l1\l,... 1Ih,1I tilt', ""11'
huilt h\ th,'lr \"m'll!' nr I:nuhlp.trI'!U" 1hll', 1111' ·'11·'
{\l 1111""\- h,.u.......11\ h." c"1I11,1.."(II" hc ,11 k.,·1 101>1
5(l H·"tI'- ••..t1\·'I)<.",11II1: 1l\ Ihe- .11:.e- nflll(' mhlll1lel"ll.
nit" .1.1' I"r fe-...III d....hin\:. n"'-"d "',11t 'hllll:
'-"1111 Ill'rl""'''ltl, .. I{I .'ppl\\"i.
nMtch I 'Iflhl' 1,11••1 nI,,., \"iUMI dll1\\: \I." ,'"",
\i(1.'n"(l hi hI' .1 h"II"" .1I1I'1I'-\IIn· IIt.m ('11.•11, "hidl
n-qUl ..."l .,cl,hli,lll.ll P"TI,\f;II;"ll, Ille- ""m""> "l',r
.,1)("<11, tramp\.'!1 11001">, "hidl
ha,,,.m 111\('\ I'll. !',l..·t! <lI,.t.rr: .ll\{"(' .1 1100" i,
1'(\. 11 " illlp,,'-.\,IJlto 10 I'\"\'n lhe- 'lIl{,l.e
"N,"" d.l\" \,'ill n"l ,Idh.·r\.· 10 111<' old '111'111"" ;1\ d,"
\l1,....,io..., ", Il'\ ,·lIiu!l. (If:, 1I,'()\" \"tmM f('qlli1'l' pl.", •.,..
ing \11111<" "hok ,11",1. nOI jll'l p.lld"",,
1"111' "., 1'lIl g.,I,!t-11 111"[' w,'rc 'uppo""'(! b)' ,I SI nw-
11Il'<' "rp'''l' ,111(1 1){',II11S wilh llll' b"rk pt"lcd "le ,'Oil'
Ill" trll 111 11ll' 1lI,I\Illl"1' of ".1 i,....
";,,h1lu' 11,,' Ilf n,li\ •. III r.b(· of ,Ill '·:II'lIl1"I\I,'I..: MI,"11 .1
'll1"l1ln" \,,'uld ,1l.ll.e. bUl1l01 collal'''·. the ini;.nllt'I"
...id, IlIl' ,,)ulId \)\ hh h.ld a (li.mlcl<',. or ,Ipl'w;<.il n,lIt,
" li CIll ,l1ld I\en' 'uppo1'lclI 11\ 1l,llliml'Slnnes,
din" I ('Ollt.It I "hh lh.· il\Xlr "ould ('.m$.: Ihem 10 foe
ol)!;C\,\.llitlll "." .1(111.111> \I$l-d 10 inIC'l)f('1 Ihe
pn-.cn,'l' of tI,11 hm''''lOl1c< wilhin tl\l' hU\I\C' of Ui<-I
:2 ..nd JILtliht"t! Ihe number of P',,'holt-s,
l)omr lde,IS ,lhoUl l"OlI>ln":lio1l. likt·
.\llOn III 1.II)\lur. fOllSlllUPliou of b"i1dilll: m.lIt·rial,.
"!Ir of .•md .."1.'11 li,i.\\!o: conditium. (",Ill .,1", h,'
1"'lII lh.· '''\''-'rh 'Urczno e.spclimC1I1' cl.,,·
'it:nrd III m:Olhl"'IC\ SI.I\i.c h"u....·,
fl\tlll Cht"'I,, l'I.'ln.:n:>I., 19116. In lhe;r [I'" of h",il
m.l\l·ri.• Iht"Sl" hOll"'" rc;.cmbk Ihc pn·lthllllie \".nlt-
and d.lult ,'on llllfllom ,11 11\:;\.
11.1' 1It.·lIlo ..·.uu 11m\ (\,Iub;1I\:. lIf
".1\1\.: \\,dl, ".1< '111<' llf.he \"'n 1.';;1 ."sl, in ,h,' ('llll'
'1I1lniu'l.l1 t h"il\<' il ,I\'O 1,:qllin',1 ,I p,U-
I;, Ilhlr IMt ... ,ille,· ".III\c "'o1'l ralllllll)' ,UI'!l"1'1 ,I h,)"I'r
or" ,'.:n,llu ,,"t'111o:111, \I hich tillS 10 drv '(l1IwWhnl lJ\'flll "
.1 IIt'\\ I.I\<'I"\'.\U IK' ,Idlll'd. 1. I'lo-i""''':\ ,\ 1h,11 po,IS
wIlh h'lrl Ill" InI\·!:I.lled in d.,ub """Id
"l)(\(!..',nllll\ l' ,i!'l:UIl1>,.Il\l·,: lh,ll illllil'.II':' .,
hilt
h
cl"IlI,lII{\ ,11 l.il(.' lll,..lch.,rkiul: " ......'" llilll
\("r.IP"..... \\ luth ,IUll.llI) ,Il\' ""r. 1ll111lc1'''''' III •hi' IIi1l1
"""-llIhl.l\:." (f, Ch.Illtl'l" \'11. hrio"
Ltga
-
19
lIlt' 1"IWI111ll'1I1' ,1110 1.\'1'1' ,I hlll1 on Ih,· nlll'lllllp-
linll ,'l 1Il.'!l'Il,L1,.•\ I "IX 1.2 111 II,tlllt· ,HId tl,wh hou<;c
\\lIh till Ihnk \\,tll, ,uul" htllollll tIt ''\ III.n Ihr
.. I,oinl 2:. 111\ I,u..d. 12110 ImUlchl"
d5 1.11 III .md 1.'1 Hll Ilmk "I ",ltlll', S I Ill'
It,", ,mtlllMMI "fh,u\nll'd 1't",h1lLt Il'n"- J\ 1101'
I,ll hOll"'" ,,",II'd "uh 1'\(." \'''''H .d\O rt'fIUllro h.lr.
"f.11I ,\It·.1 01 lfIOllm·' JI""""1Il ,wkl"
It I'1;l1I.llitlm r,li<,t' "CI,"M" dIMII", ,tllOU' Ir-.-
dll ....II.I1 .1 "11I11)11111I Ilf 1't'("(1I,,,... ,, ruufin1l; uf C;opp..:r
hlMI\I le mu\! h.I\I· 1.........1 "\<'I'\ l..htlrinu" ("\TII
imIIO....,,11k I.I ..LIn IIJn·t IlIr d..III.IIM" tlJU'I '!fir \ffi.\J1
'lC"ulrmrlll Illt· h"u\(" lIludd, ..UI· r.lIhM" t.K"i1ll0l '10
the I.....'llr nf nlttfllllt, .1'KIt- Imlll .1 fn. ruqltion.., .•
K'ltl1dlfknllrll, "hrrr IMr.,lkl Ir.t,rf'o(' m,.:I.>JOrn tln
t11r nlilM mil.\!lt Iif' IIIIC'llrr,"I.l.' IlltllL. tit he..un.' Fit::
IIIH
In Icnn, of IlIr"I1M fc.llun-... Ihc Oh-VIO rspen-
II1C'lIh dCll\(liIl,tr.ll("(III\,;1I "lolllilllt " ...' the dr(1mr f.K·
Ulf in Ihr link" 1,",,1c-<1 IU hc"t .1 1\("-1'0(" .n "dl .u i\l
Ill(' "hdll\ h) '11,1.1111 It'lIlllrr,lIl1n' l'\cillao\ .. IQ&;
nlitL n •• ru\,'" "'Mlk1Im",id,' brUM" L-.;oluionn. hUl_
III tum.•ll'O .. n .1111"1111I "f fud III of;J
fin'. L'liIlMUtm, "cn- .11.., 1Il.1I1t 1111 ..ITlIlUlIl
«"lluin:d Ii,.. hl",ull1l.\ l'k-uM"n..... 11lfkJ ,\hhooe.h Ihe
\:,:I;\)I"mul"nl.11 'Inklun' \\.1.' 'l'lllt_'Ulllcrr.Ulc..n .II\(I
Ihert"lnn' t1K"nn,tlh '(KJK"\,Il.lI pn"'<"tlnl. tlk" ,IIIIOUI1I:>
IIX'd "If thl' n;p"rinll'l1t IIKII•.•It,· th.1I ,,11("11 Ihl" QUt-
1I'1I1IIC'r;IIU!\' "," hd,n, ,,·m. h...-..til1"1l of
,I h'MI"-" (Ifr,1 I:! Ill' In n.olH 11I
1
'''lnd 11I.1 OOIll<'
(\\t'n t,fll'll,) m: u'uld pm,itk- IIIt.. m.l) trllllX'I'"·Uun-<
uf "l' I.. 7 1IOC 11... hl't·,Ulol.,t! u-etl JU'I Ii'r ulI..,lcin"!l
'''lulc1, '"1 ,1 '(',lrI, h,L'1' Ii,r mU' hl'll"-,,hnld. "".,ch
>llIIIC 111'11'. nit' tkllll '1),llTI"'hll1d tl1l' "'Cll... hit.:h
".r, pl,lLI'd {luCIII, nil Ih,' tlo"r, "'l1hll11{'d .old """11
.. h,·n Ih,· hn' \\,1' hI. \1 1Ir.·lll", 11 .,1"1.1 ,....I.lh·
li,I"'d 1l,.11 I'H' .,dlll" .md Ihl"" Ihild""'1I "IIUItl nc.-.:l
:1.0 :I..i pt 'p.UT lill Ih,·,r ,In'plllLt .m.lllI:cmCllh
(l'I"in"I'", ,I l'IUhl.
1\ "'ri," ill l'Iilll,lh' "'lwlinwlIl' ,.,ni,·cl tllll .tt 1Ill"
F..,]",rllUt'lll.d C"III1)', n,·\1I1I.u'k ill l'I!1ll 2()O,l
,·"uli"," Ih" nill11 Ilk"", N.A.
"ullal"'1I 1I11i, "I",il'. 11"'.... ,,11.11 , '1111111.\. \, I il \\.L<
dt'lil,,,,,,, .,u·t! IIt,ll rill' dkl'l "t I.,kllll.: .1I1111Mb
itll":' \1111,111I'" j, lilllill'lt, Ih,' Il!Om 1"111-
p"I,Illll" "llh Oil<' dl'I'lt"', .11 ",,"'1
n..llh \,I"JI"I" h,,,t' dl'lIl,1I1'11,'1t"{t Ih,u th.· ,un,I.I-
lir111 ul moL,· " .Ill 1I111'''rt.mt ploM,",n I Iif' "I'"nl.d
'Ilhl1icllI "','m, 10 hI' tilt· I "U·tnl<lI"n ..f "f'" nu,", In
lilt· .s;,IIIII'l 01 tlu' "MJI .llltt Id.tll\r" ..1'1-
du", . .,.1 1I1.It th, C (ll,t....1It 11".,," 1111 'hl 1'11,11 IIJl
lilt" '!llnLc· j'\.-m... ,n., 1'1111, 11"""-'1. ,t.-.plr '"Il,h
..fr.,n. ,11..\rr Hf milL, ",11.,1 , ,,,,ulllULaIr unrIr,
tilt' "",f \1 I.ql". U It" 1 11 1'1.•14, !In:l dwl 1Iw.
.I,lu"lI, I 1.1\""1""" I", ,1n.lllq "I (,ot:M!.-!Cu(& or tOr
hid,· ..... hut thr .1II"'IlILI .,( ( () P £ouId I..
f..t.l1 rflr hum.tll
111011... ].11 l.ilr" "·Il'.un...1 t"I... lorntr I....' thr I"J'If
£(lII.<tIUlIl<>Il 1II11:111 h.l\r 1><'r'fI rUrndnJ tu tlA'r'
t'tnf,t1tt .. ,t! thr h..ll.... tI,,!' , rr.. lIJllI: JI thdfrrn:l tpa'l:
lOUL.... 1t 11. In.-.l (11111>1.". t.to 1...... lnn Ibr ,.M,(
ptNhuln. I:" '1Jl ill .h.a'llI"lrr, rftnnJrd ca.. I .. jf\Cl
Ihe- ....lllwTII .. .ill,t! Iht' ""nJI"lIln' fe. III • (ldJrT
ht>U .. m: fX'rtul'" .11..... l->nhrd. hw lhrir __-
n'Mlndllll:" \\rll' no<t Jm mrr thr
... """ di...... -.w Ihe- lamu f1l f.- ......
Thu'. thr h"u.... Inl"l£l,",1O uom pn::"C"lItrd helT n:l't
nn .....nplt-mmt.an h..t _... idrn&r hrinc «JaIbInrd
rn;om bo.<th lI'l\L'C'" 1..10; J. ..ocI OUJlI.oncd I:J\ hidl' ....
In 1:I"u..- I Inlrm..al .ur.mgtlilO11b,.,.d
.... "VC'" ..nd Ib'lnhUUnn ,t! 1''''10-1'\ ..I,.... 1Ddr<.1du..d b-
c.;to;h m(lihl.ru-b....... 11.... ' .....1 1olpt .... thr oI£ftW
,iIU.lU,>I1 UpVII di...... ".·" Ilw 'n. urNruo.lltllB.&IT pn'
f,onnnlln \MlurM:1 R "1"""1.UII. 'i
l'\IlRIl1R....
\11 h.,II._ III "rn 'U11..:"'.nMIflw-t1 1I"",-nt"T, thr
illlt'nl.11 '1"1'-1' \\.1' ,uhcll".I lllU" ..,,1''''", l.L L lIJIIrI
1-1":. III III "rl I"U"'....lth.. "'-'qJ'fnf
u·;,diu....m.1I llll" ,i,,1O" blll \\.1' .u......"Ltpl"') I" IM l...n·
,it!u.Ll 110'1"11, "I ".H h h"'h"h"ld Oo.\,.l)"'luIh."
!".IU<'IlIlI.llmil' "'Ill.... ",1' 1.11l11": rJ.h'· \1II"">: thr
11:1< inllll\l\.,hlo- h"II.'1· 11I'1"I1,IUtlll' ".1' ,h.. ""'u Ib,
'11.1' 01 Iht' "\I'll ,uti, It' lilt" ..c,,· ,>f th.. 11<1\1.....
Ih,,,, 1110' 1.11'1:'.... 1 "11'1I.lurt· 11.IIN' I ,11...., h.ul th"
I.u......·.. l ,,,,·n "ult dun'·II'hlll' ,,) I -.'\ 1.1 rn ru:
111.11 & I:!. \ ,,,'11.1" """"'It ,m.,It,·! ,11 "11 .....' dl.'-
1"II"'I"'d ill IIf'll"':!. tilt' h,·m.: 1 :.!:., 1.1-'
111.0..l. lIlt' 11''''1 "I,h,' 01,,'11 l"<lIll,II,,· ...1fn"n
\ Ilk' .. lut lo' \ .. I"" , K,· ',,.,,.-
,ho",.. IM. _1,1 _1
",I..........,.........." ..,.Iow..............
,

I
- 'IL
• ,
!rln .Irrhm'fllogim
1'1 III "'--.1 , """'", ," '"""..... un """""1nl hUln 11,,,,... I, I"" 1,) ,-",knrr " ...""k<l ,,'
Ibrr I".. IV. ." ..,"" '" lIltnn.1l _&nar1'""" ," '1'Jl<> .,{."-", '''b•• Ii"". ... 1"....."''''1'''. "'.. ,,, u,
kt-non.""'''.oo <In"" 1'1 11. 1"..".;".
';0
Ligo
<>
a
51
·1r la .1 rrhaf
rl
illf.:/ff1
I •

1
-
III 11 11....... 1 , .... I..... thr 1-.
the- dc:hrU tI buf'tK'd daub in Hou...c- I.
..nd Ib sW- c;onnut he "'itb u:naint\
h .. .., an arrrpt"d principk' u'"' r,(
illll,nul IQ pbtt me, O\t-n OIl ilic: ";lr md of the
mom. in f.u1 a.t rn" middle r,( tI.., \lllrrinr
....u md up t m fmm It. 1111" ,,,-.:;n ",;a.. OPP(l'Iil<' of
thr rntr3n<1r •• dw- lJor.",.. -.itu..tni in thr
...... Thr:- onh &-'uu..n ..", I'fI(1 in H"u\t l. ..I!f'fl'
tbt 00.01 W;" pbcni ;l\ me, "("\1<"m ...ill. '\u
,,f th" etltnJl(:" tu.. llC"nl dilC,,,MTd in tlu. 0Ut", H, .... "
.....-r. il nil 1J(' UOoumn:l lIul ar;crsa fmm 1I1e
..ould lu,,: Ilffn e.xnpOC-<Urd dlk I... ;lOO
!Jr. ..."''»le dr northnn ....u .,( lI"1(" loflWo':
_l...nl\ indir4lr\t- Ul \nTm'A' an mtr.ul«. m.W1I11j,
tI......_nn .. and ;o.n Q._'I"TTI r:tltr..... ". thr mtK1
Iilrh Thr '1'.l:Jl> "r.r con trucu:d on till:
fit" ... bo. fi ....1 a nilrd pl.atf"nT1 of
..11'1\<' I:> em: thr roc.m. n""
:J\m> "'''''"' ........ in doJlllt"d.
;o.n abu I '<D tiu<l.. fA' ,LI\ pb>lrT ,.,...,rint; lilt'
(O«,(,ltltrO\rn madt-flt..ilt' ..., I I,,)rmin
di<lmrl.r:r. Th" cb} held orxanic temper ill smaller
;unounl' than Ihe w.ub u..ro for "'.dl.... "In.. cia}'
for thI:' ha.,", ohl.., o'.en ",-;u tcmp..n-d ",ith '\:;tnd alld
... of '2 I mm.
'nil: ovens in Ilou!lCi 2 and 3 undcrwelll rt...<;wra"
tion" mdir.J1inl1j, .I prolunlo;ed ..d of Ih" dL...ice, On
,,(W 'lU(h th" (";UC of I-I()U)C 3. " I..yer of
-lam. "'''-, in Ihe dome- by the Ill:'" laycr
•.,( '111;. mu 1 have improved the
propenlL"'lo of Ihe oven, JlmlonWI1Jo; the period of 1ll':1l
rurliation. In tlll' better Ilrr""C'l"'l'd 2 and 'I, .'
clay plulI; "''" f<)\Jnd at "'elU. rr"pec:th't:ly I1 and
13 cm in dWnrttT HI;. 111.13:2, 3 " Such plui;!i "Cn'
u.v:d f'>f do-illl1j, th.. O\ClI hole<. .tt 11.., 1CI1', m.nk 10
1lllprO\l: Iho:: draft" In hoth l"'-l;n Ihr plul(S "eft'"
IOC-"lCd r,t" 1 m a",,,) fmm .ht: (J\'('m, likc1}
Ih..1 firr "'d) lIet ;11 Ihe tim" of Ihe conll••".-r:ttion of
the:' "h'M ""lI..mrnL .\1..,0 a ftrc.\rwel Lf b,,1oI'> "'.OS
fr:.und in ck..... .. ith tile I
111.13:1 &.111.11
"nu, iU CC'WII) "". m,,) 1)1" "xtl'lldcd ",ilh cl;<) \lI1X'.
, ~ III 12 11 ... 3,..-afthr
-,
"
1
.. '
e.,. .. " ..
"" .
...... ,. .. .. .
.. .. "
..~
11
..
'" ...
.... .. ..
e .. " " ".
.... ..
.. " ..
.... .. .. !I ..
.. .. "..
.... .. .. ""
.. .... .. .....
................ ""
... ".. ". ..... .. .. \
.. " """ ..
.. .. .. "" .
.... "" .
.. .. " .
" "
2
4
3
lilllllll.lI.........I.o.... I ..llh .............,fI.... I ........ .,..,(,!.! g ~ ~ 4
,,,_,p__~ " " b ~
.Ida .lu!lllr'lIlngirt/
tine "Cl',' (,mml !·ig. 1l1.l5). TIlt' t\,O \\cn·
onh pn'\<"""d In:l heighl of 0.15 111. Thl' [('"gc" \\.111.
nmning E·\\', i.,' .. ll.lr.,lld to till' IHH"thl'l'll 11.,11 of 11,<:
hOI1'1'. ra. 0./10 m long :lIId 0.10 thirk.
\I(',t,,1'1\ "lIrl \upp0l'lcd by a likdy
ptN. 1'.1I'l Ofll\{" \\.IS eOI-
"red h) .1 thick I.l),·r ofhllOlcd d.ll,h. \I hiell lmmper-
rd .1 del.uled \lUd} of Ihc di\'islon. The \\ ..11
MlIllIinl:, \\";I5.1l le;...., 0.60 In long .1IId prc,mll.lhl)
!\;Id a Ihillll'"" of 0.15 111.
HOll"" 2 ".1' cquipped "ilh., pilho', \\hich
m,nl,' up .m impon.tnl p:ln of Ihe imlllO\ .Iblt' 111\'cn-
10"" ,\hhllllgh Ihe \e,<;c1 \\:.a.s cOI51,,:d by .1 r.,ll,·u ".111,
dimclI'.iOlI' could h,: olimal('d fmlll 'hI'
l1,t pitllOS Il.Id ;In \1"'lx·. C.I. 1 III
IUlIt: .IlId 0.;0 III hit:h. It ,,-.<§ placed .1\ lilt' e.Ulenl
".111 .md 'lllTQllllcktl I" SC'\CII 'T'i'lCh Fig.
\11 III & 111.17. !n of hiJ.;h {·XIX"CI.llitJn\ ,the
jluh,,, h"d .1 C.lI):lcil\ 500 lilenl. I'\ClI '>(Iil flot.llion
did lWl produrc .m} p"la,-obotanK;;,I,e'idm·.
·11,,· 'IOl'lg,· ront.line,", III l-IuuSC" 3 "ere ftlUml ill
tht· "'llIU' IJ.lI' ofllw house .IS "I)O\e, i.c.. do,,' 10 ,he
C.I'lt'm ""ll 1Il.91. 0111) 01lC mil(ln ha\'r IX"II
dUI; illl') Ihl' \Oil. '" i" hasc fOllr dmn
'Mm)\\e!" tlmll ,hI:' opening. the In:ight heing ca. 75
1'1ll. TIL(' I"'m:tillinl( in dU'le," at I!-a't
1:1 lien' '1\'1 ......'IIj.\ed i" •• p.lrtieu[;,,· l),(t1l·l"Il. 011
till' ''''\lnll ,i(1o- ufllie 0\'1'11. ill the N\\' con"," nfthe
h'llI,t, .1 Ill'nu:melll 1l1l' grindillf:: .1
rlITlIl.lr p1.'lfilllll, C.1. I nl ill di:uIII.:lcr "II"lo.ed to-
lI.ml, lIlt' "'om hy .1 10 Cm hif:h .Ind .c
l
1I till Ihid;
...1I1 1'10\, I11 la TIlt; pl:.ltfonll " ... left "pcn .It th,·
I '" III 1,. 11,,,,... 1. ""rnLlI ,!.IIlh " ..11.
"Iu(h 'lIT uhrn illlrlllfl'ln:1 ;I., ph.llIll' ,...mhol, ;md
"«11 ;1.., rt'lllllrtp.l"-" I,) lilt" nmUllnll '>()o(""lIl:d
\I"tll<'r fiCllrim"', 1I"ulint: lIIall\
-1 "d"n... ,I. 1 Grrgm lit:. III 11: I . \ pr.lg-
m.111< im"rpfl't:.uinn ",,\lld, "lIun I lhe "llh.llloi" wilh
mrwlluf\. .... -«ing Ihrm ;\\ p;ln, "fbdlm' I.Hln
,,)(',1., upponC'd IJ\ al and
In mllh-w.",n. IQil 'mwlllt"b, mock-m
rn:"rd, un .\fn<;.lI1 pr.lCtic.....
.md I",bd", .tl..., '111"''''>0 .1 ph.llli, lTl('anintt of
.I.., lul"". pl.rillt:. thcrn 11, ,I. h"UI.111l1.cd
.. hrfT ,I. mdtinJ:: {unl3<'C i.!' .UII ltkr,-d a f,·m.ilc and
Ih.. hdlO\\ J. nw.. d..m..m '1:.,. lle Bam" 111'l;
111" nnh fmd of .. (I." 1"1,,...11 Utt.1 I',\) made do...,
III 11... Oltll of 1100..... I. 'ut:.l:,("\,int: 11"t! il ilia, hale
10.1 h"uICh"ld hell, .... Il"C'(I,O n,kiud1(' the
fut frum l!I""int: rimkn n"'llll"inrri Wilh 1111: help uf
hIT.'" ",,1 "'t: IIdt,,, o..,ull. Ih., fine! uf dm:r copp,:r
11,'"'' "'t: hd(m in IIou,"" I lll,1l \lI1IIIUM .1 m,·tall"r.
1ti{.1l hnl
\ for"",1 clivi,i'lII "l '1J.l'C \'.l\ fill1nd ill 1'10,,><:1.
Iml 11' PUl'jllN." i, nt" rI,·.II. no, In'l. hit:h ,h;\
l,nltino\U\ ".". I"" IX'1xndi, utII' (1.11lh ".,11, "r";ncd
.1Il t"l1<I'"Ul'C ill till" ,,,,,,I1l·m 1>,1'1 "f tlll" n'01l\ in
"lulll th,,", n·r.uni, \" ...1. nil" d""1l b01l1 .md t"o
hilt 1"",,1, I)d(L,.d ,,,,,t.tl1lt"l d,.{{>r.",.d "itll b"rho_
I ,e III 14 I ,.... ...l ..>td ,., I'" ,,," In ... nnl...,. ,t""
"'11'" ,,"]/"", 11""" J
Liga
J'
I Ill, Ih. 11"".... l . • "r 1'''10", ",,10 .,tlio(c'" , ......1.
SOllthcn! sidl'_ Within this l'nclO'\Irc 1"15 found ,I
mas-.i\"C milling SlOne IMn \\ith;1 dl"CP u§c-
wear depression. Two <m.llkr milJinl; stOIlC'< uppl:r
p;lns wen' c1tXc b>_
The other hOllSl.><i did nO! pmducc .m> in-
stall.l1iom ,lilt! onl> held finds of hand <Ion......
:11 Ihe >'1"'\Sl·ls. I-Iowe\ er. the present" of 111.1",_
ivc J;lindillg <Iuncs. 100 to rdlen ,it.:nilic.Lrlt
posl-depo<iliollUI in Ihc l.re.'
indic:lles Ihlll grinding ....Iso earned out
I of.Irlef.lcl re·
cordings of llu: "ngl.,. of point 10 lh., exi,tence
of $Omc sOrt of 1l,".IIII, such d..:!ln "ere
inslalied .11 dlC e,t:;teOl \, .111. ,., ill I.. ou........ :I ,md I
IlUl. IIU9 & 1'1. ,;. 111(,' \\("re pl'rh"I"
intelKk-d .IS "exhibition for di,pl.L\ of lhe fille"l
1)QIlC!). bUI .•1.0;0.1 ne(,·"Sit\ to ....In-limited <p.lel', .\1
leaS! 15 'e'....·b in I-Iou,.. 3 llluSt h....: ht'C'J1
011 such ,hd\"(" .11)()\"c Ihl' hit: '1Or.'t.:'- eont .• in.· ..... n",
hOllS<' walls ,,,'n' :lbo Idlh h.L1lL.. oint: 1,.,,,1,.
often reaching 10 cm in dbmell'l' (;011 p,'rflll,LI"d hc-
lull' Ill<' lip ,dlh., h.-.k .wd "ith 1r:,C'" "f,d,•. ,-
,iuns 0.'11 Ihe h.,ck ,idel, mmh lil.c '>OLl\,-nir pl.u.·,
n(n,.ldal"'. $I...II-e, \,el" pl'l'>h.,hl, .1150 ;"sl.,II,"(II...-
the PO'L, th.- r"of con'lllIlu.m.
Som.. of lh.. ,LOllt· illll'lt-llWllh ""IT I'rnb,.bh IIl.Kcd
on lhC'C.•\ bC:lnl .J1)(I\l' the: O\t:n in lIowc mu.'1
ha\c heen ckcor:llcd with .J dol\ amhmpomnrpAA
fil;\lnne. up Ihrnu\!h ruspet1>I(IIll h,*, in tM
Item Fi\!_ \'1,2, llul .Jp'ln from um. .ill odttor tind'I
"elT found dirccth on the 11..01' with no .Jpp.uTOl II!II:'
of pl,"fonns. t.;lbk",. or the Jiloe. 10 f-1nu."" lno=" al.\()
llH) lilllt"lOlle roe"" .1 tnam.. "d.lr IlII Ollt" .md .J
,m.tller roundl-U om- 'h,'pt-"tflO fil e,teh other. Thl'ir
,L«oci,uioll \,ith lilt" ,,:roup of \t:W;:6 ,Il thl' emr.lllce
m.,} illdi.:lle lh.1l lh.,\ IIt'n: mt:.Jl1l 10 ,it on. liloC'!\
\IIot'n .·.lIint: IIL10,
nil" l110'0t f."l\ourahlt: condition. of p.........-n'aliull
"cr,' met in HOtl........ :.! .md 3. -nl........ multi-limo:uoru.l
buildinlr\ "C'n; 'Irut:lUIt'd -olllC\\h.Jl dilfeR'111h Ill-
l... rn.oIl\. bul folJo"cd thc '<.JfII(' rnnllal ltll\O"f't.' (111
lhe .L..... of'P;Oa'. 111,' ""'Jlk (:oppc:r ,\:.:• .lJTlul«U1rC
".1' hOLl.. in!.'.ill mhl'ritrd order. "hlth .l1k"'rd e:.lCh
iudi\lcI".11 hOLL...:hold 10 .. ull'o(:nbc 1<> It.tnm<>.fI 1K'l'Tfl.'
.md wmllmnal ..\/1 ad.Lp".lti'>f.- .Jlld rdu-
"tliOlh l'l'n; unckn.•lo...II mlhin ..",:h lr.ull....."'rl. bul
ill 'pit.· ..fllot: unir.mnil\ I'dlccl,'C1 in ..-nkml·ltt !.I..;rlll
.'nil Jlliutipl.·, the lur"ri"n 01 hnU-l"hold
ill'I.III.'I;' ltl,. th"n' " ......d."-' n>um Ii,r /;\>lI'I";uu. >lI :uv;I
ril .ill'. ,r' ...:ell ill lhl' p;.ni, ul.lr illl nll<'1"\ t,f the indi-
,id".11 h"u...: -«" hd,m
111t" rn.tin ....u, "f Ihl' .trucrurr-- l' rho
, 'It 111 I 11,.... 'he 11 ' ."..1 ,4 th" IM"'........ r'M''''' Ih.
pOll I.. 11., ,,,..01
tl"&IT(l l...l;\o ,om th.. nllrolllr<, and ,hf' (JI,'{'Il. ,llu,l1ro
01\ l'PI","'Il" f'lIn, "f th.. "M,rn. the \·...'tl·m ",,11,
,., UW 1I1'l'"n, \\,..' ,UI ,lIT,1 ,l' f"r "llr-
lwo 11 I<Mod· tulf, or th.. im-dihll' \;t1u;lhln of till'
h,1U!It" I1m I:Qin hin' "lid "K"ht"\. "hieh dt'l>!otH-d
In.. ttr"ll"'l p"llI'l'\ "'<"n' dJ....,,'t'.ro thelT. ,,,ubI.,, till'
m'nt I.....uulul \ \ f'M,md III lI"u"" :! ",l.'
3t th,· IInm<'l\.Ibk pithl)', 111 16 & Ii. Ilu-
,lH.I ",. tl1ftlll' ('\Tn \\,1' mnnru,:d with fuod Ptl'l)o
0If,l11<0I1 ,md h, ,n·tl'ml "m,\l:'''. I h<' I,.-rilldlllt.: in<I,II·
ttlion ,,\ U'I\IK' 1".I 1"\\lId hnt The "un" p,le" in
Unu ! UtTUp}rd In thTT"l" hili; oprn \.-w;;L, .md
.. "'!no&Ilrr "'l<" 13 ".llenUJl'II
lld,hln .Ind a .null b"flnil'" rup "'"t' IId!)'I, Olhn
.........·1_ funlwr \h.. "1"11"" W;Il! uulil,lIt, 111,11
.tI"" un olrrol "',l' u"'d f"r prql.lr.llmn "I fuod. liLd\
....u",ll1l. 'of \.·rr.l1_ '" \ll<" 1LL.c.\ "',·ll-pn·...-nro lun.
rtltrolll"n "I' 1""...,1 "'ol dl"I"t'rcd ,It Ih.. "')Ulh..nl
;tit ,..- 1hu....- 1. n"l lol' lmm tlu' ,"ml";\\1t' 'Ill" 'itu-
duun \""XI"""d durinl! ,'xr;l\,III"n 1""lil'(l ,1'111U11
\oll!"d: uHllund'''d h. 1)<1\\1, .md ,. du..... lI "" ,,'1. ,I bit.:
"\101\. "l, mhhnl>\. L,tr "'U\) lUITTn.
hrlol ;all ill"" I \ lfl Ill! 1II:.!' Wt'u' Ih.....· lhe 10·...
tll.,'" ..,. I.." 111<".1' nlil\ rollllll( "d' .... 1..1Ilt.: plol'" III
11". ,.."nh"nl "nol"fI1"' h"u,,', I ])"""'P lonhm\t'd
I" th, Ildni.llll I'n""'nrd phlll"t"' f"!Il1 II"u",' :1, LIl.
hr 1Il 18 \hU",11. pL"I,,",, do.. ,n.."'" m 11... 1.'11' C,,,,,...,
1<11 AI ""<11,"1<"""",, \ \lllllbt 0"1' 1<," 1"<111<1 '" 11"".... 3 3rrr,
G,,,,I l'IUl,
of .1 hi!: do!lCd ",Iter jar f,'uncl in
four ...-::p.1I ,lit' I"IU,II'I.,. !Fig, 111.22 & 1'1. 11; I),
rhr fluon of the were h'[lt ch::'Il. III It'\\'
.lrc.!.S I' hc", p;lrn of unhl1rnl'1:1 noon \\ cre
.l..\ .1 o/t"' cb. " C\cn Ihoroul.\h cx,lIllillOllioll
l"'lUl.\hl fC<,uh., :\p,u·t frolll till'
Ibm rhip\ n-ronlt-d in 1-101"''' 2, 11ll" 11001' onl)
"f:, fc" picces of flint.; 1101 cl\:cet,{ling the
,ill' of"
Iksitk<. Ihc utiht,lrian or Illilitmi:lIl in-
, ..mon of the it \\.!.S e,idell1 Ihat Ihe
hO\heS ,01..0 held reli!!;ioll\ dCIIlClll';. HUIlSf' 2 \\ ,IS
equipped will, a ,mthropolllorphic figllrin",
f:I'tenec!to 0111' or tile logs "hovc ,md 10 the "'esl tlf
Ihe onm, LT nfonUI1,lld). only Ihl' lo"er half of the
\\,l\ discO\en:d l'i/ol. \'1.2. bUl iu posilioll
\\ithin Ihl' ';IN(:tUlt·.llI ,,('11 .t'o use·l\e;,r InICt·S around
.1 hO'I' m.,dl· ill the :,rl',1 Ilf 11,,: fcrt 1«:l'e
nf 1111' plaC\,: 01 tit<" ill tilt' hOll'C,
In Ihl' NE p,lI'l 'Jf 1111' IMl'lly I"IOU'll: 'I"
'urroull(kd h\ and \lIJU. 'I";\S.I compte".:l} pre·
""nn:l fi).,'llril1", ,I <,o-c;t1led ·'Siltint.: Godde'oS""
IIl:H '\'-1<110 the ,I '"Ixmr', "hif'h :.p-
1)I·.ued III be till' !VleTh\·et Im'er l),In of lilt"
fi\o:Urill<', Ul1H'lininf: ,1I1 uhj,'ct in CI:I)'. TIll'
di'pl.l, i \HI douht oriKilHll, re'
Un! ,11 t",nrh dllNil11o; h) Ic'>S Ihall 5 CIlI \ 1'1.
\ 'nll he"d 01 Ih.. fit.:llIllle \\.IS r<'Co\\'red Cl. Olle
IIlt'U" '\(Inh of the bud., 'mouthh I'm through Ih..
'''''ll h)'I'I'IUl>lIill!:. TIlt' fi\o:Ul;I1I' r.,"';111o; Wo
,I'l' jlrnul1l1'd ellll.mee. Ikl111ld it WCI'C fi .... hi·
.H
III 1'1. ,\ "" nr hironj, r",>< r.1I1r" r",,,,., ,hrlr.lik at 'hr f: \\ ." ,'" •.,. ,. " '.LL ••• __ ,
" 'R 'Olr 'n' ............hu .. ,11,
"1", .. ,,1 'rmr;,1 .id... s.", ..1<.. 1'1 I
collie ('Ill'''. sl ••ckL-d 0111' in till" olher 11I.19'.
'illeSt: must 1"1\1: fallen from .1 _IIt'JC ,Il lht' C.1511:m
\\.tll, "I)()\I; the fib'lHinc. TO/o:clitcr with lhl' (Ill" \\cre
,I flim bhuM: and ;lIt cud-scmper. Close 10 lhe <f.lded
were another 11'0 CllllS of the '\.11llC" 1)'JlC.
seven cups 1Il:1) e\'el1 poinl l(I the 'lUmber of illh•• bi-
1.1Ill5 in the housc.
The dC'I(:ribcd arc lhu) .1 rdlcclion of tlu:
Illllhifllllclional 1I,t!Urc of lilt' COPI)t'f house.
"hen: the wHit.L1i,1Il ,Illd the dlU•• l ,Ire iJllC-
/':....01 led P:II'I' of 1111: JIJIllu.J (WIJ/I 1ll9O). N"ilolh.
bourillt; It.:dutilt- nl,L) c,'cn hale l'CI'C.III'cl
i'htaJl.lliom t'd:ncd lO Copp.'r t\f.:" ril",I!s. QIW
in HOI;l.on III COl1lailll,d " cJ.I)' "cb, illlcr·
prclcd .IS ,LIl ahcr (Gf'I'J,:o\' 1992hl. This
ru th., 1I0I"(h.'I'11 Ill' .'Pl),lt'eJ1l dOUl-
IWII.'I)',
The 1.ij.;.1 :1 ,cult'mcll' "h.llldoIU'd ,I' Ih., n:<IJlI
of ,I 1:;1I",'d br " J.:I"t',1l 1"'11\'1";,1 fin', '1111:
C:lo:I1O"'d ""llmins poilll 10 .1 .md Illlt'>:P"('I"d
Man "f Ih., fin', mU<1 pl"(,h"hll '<1>1111·,,1"'1"(" .-1(1..... tu
Ih.· ("cnln: of .....Illcm.·nl. \ ·c,,,,1.-. .md b"llt·
511I.111 p'·l'SOll.Il Ul.·.ISlln:'o IjJ,;e ;t rollcnion ..f kmll:
h!.lck-s. J,;cpl 10000C'lher ill a k:uJler pouch, m.L.'I("m
cr.lfl.'tl .md 10\,\ :tll \\t'"1T kft behind Fill:
11.1.21 & ilL! 1 111c alailabk dua ..tIT d'
limiled 10 the thr("(' fulh cxe:t1.Uffl ..tlld indilidwJh
fumi.dH:d h,lllS<.'"< '''lh diffcrinll: of plT'('r-
1.lIioll. 1111I it .......·11\.1 111,11 infubiWnl,' of H{>ll'< I. ;It
Ill<' 1II.,n.,<iIl> of the 'Cnkment. lutl <om,," Lime' to t:UI-
It'Ct their I,!lu.,blt"• .IS Gill be ob-icnn:l fl"(l"l thC'
limill'tl (Illantill .Uld of Sllktl! finw 1T'(00t'"rcd
"hell comp••n:d "ilh thc othe'r '\\0 IruCturt"'\" \Jl
hou..., .. nccd lhe ,11llt:' dc1,'Tl:'<:" tlf
rc.lehinl: ill 'O,m' pl.lce_ lemper:ltun;,. up 10 l.'tO() dC"-
I'n·.... , .Co c.ln ht, jlldl:t'tj lrom pi.'CC5 of d,l\ ,1.111,
cialll fi-"lIn I/OU.I· J ill r.,u illdic.llin,;: Ih,lt lin° Illll_t
11;11'" from ltw l"lX'( ,\u "-:prrinll'n1;1t U.1""
DCllUlrk Ita, 111011 tlte erf,..:I..' 01'.1 lire .1"'
lIlllch le,-_ l,lIlllihl.. in \I;lulc ;lnd d;lub hUlL'l:' II
,1.lrtl'tl iillll1tlll' 11001' !rwl Of.1 h"I.I...• 1-I.III..«'n
'nit· u-,II.lp.,.cd 1\ .dl_ ded.iu' in PIT'o('r\ ,Ui,,"
of,tMer.u-b, 11111', lt1l" (',l;"'m lI..tll 01 11011>(' I, l.tllinl.:
illl\.Hl"I_. 1000i'lher "ith Ihe ruo( ....·..tlcd .•U inlent""
.lelfl .lIdlf/rologim
h 111_ 1 1 !ant ....-. .lur<'d I" tit t",h 1'I1hrt. In
H, 'O«'1hrr ..."b A 01 , ....'"'-
in Ux- potn ollhi._ F.'I\'ourablr ron-
WDoru. \\ttt,u-o cre.llro '" !he .... of !he WC"I-
nn "all •.r H""" 3. Thi- \\"311 thc o·..en :tIld
Ux- itnm .ldj.K'('1lt III il. pan oflhc hou,,;('
" .... aL-o ""';'Tf'C'd in do:--tfUrtion dcbrn, -omc of il
cominl! from thc n.'I(l( The C;I.l.tfm ,,-:ill of Hou.-e: 2
rolbp-«I in C"-'1nn dittttion. crntinc a cover for the
.locumubted in !he adpccnl intr.lStnx:tural
"P"t-'('. 'rcmiot:h. 'OIIH' pan.. of tht' walb of 2
rmuined "Wldiot alter me fire r.ldrd :llId crealed
..hdlcrcd an"ob for an accumulation of \\ilieh also
filkd the e.. of tht' !>aid prelt'T'linl:\to .omc
ex\C1l1 the oricinal -NPC of the dolllt'.
"auk and <hub boo _Wt'T(' also buill b,' the Ra-
IDafu.. \ 1U'U\'i\b, the famou,. Hr<! ccmuT'\ BC Roman
tncitlCCT and archil«1Ur.l1 mean,\. cOllsiden.-d such
"lrUCt\lI"O a cheap 00\ to adobe
He "TOtc. - ..\,. for 'waltlc and <hub' I could
"i41 that il had llC\tt htttl ilwemcd. TIle more it
Si\"" in tim(' aud in \he gre;\Ier and the
more ttlleral " the di)<lS(("r mal il ma\ cauS('; for il
i, madc to call::h fin". li]";(' lorchn. h seen" lx:ller.
thcrdore. to "pend on walls of bunll brick. and be al
cxpa1SC-. lIwn 10 sa\C \\'ith ',,";mlc and dauh', and be
in dam:cr.\nd, in the )IUCCO c(l\'Cnnl;. 100, il makes
crack.- from \Iit' in)id<' 1l\ Ihe of iu
.llld 1l:irtJ.. For thC'C $\'odl "id, rnOiSluN: :b lIlty arc
daubed. 'Old lhl'll Contract :t1I lllli' dry, and their
cause Ih(' loOlid SlUCCO 10 YilnJlius
"Dc ,\n'hil('('IUr.I" ""iii.20. pp, i7-58,:15 eill'd h:'
R.lpp 2002, 26i '
It ",h ,Umf,r<i\ a rull' r.l\her Ihan an Cl[ctption lh'll
a .(;npJl<'r 't'nl"nwnl "'" Il'nnina\ed fin:. .-\l
Ut:""" OIW out .l '",, 'Iot\dl'nll'nl,) I'ndcd in conftl_
in RNhuile _,11 ti'lIr \il1dul!iHg. i11l' 1..lIe
\. }Cl" •\''\' \CtT!:U\ HI9:2a), III Kl1nK!ol .,11 fi\l'
.0PI :'! ., ,...
\;\ik"lo\ I in S,ldoWI'·EJ:I'ro 0111 \) 111
Z;ul1lnt'C .11Ilhrn' (Nikolo\ 1975\. Just 10 IllCIIllOll a
i1:\\ of the I Copper .\gc \'x.llnplcs. Tlm... ,11 le.lst
80" of the" dl-'IUdicd KSB 'cnlelllt'rlIs ended Ill' in
IhmM.. \11 Oilier I"C/;ioll< ,he !It.'rccm,u,w 100,cr,
ho"c\l'r. The Copper .\I!;t' ldb of NE Bulg:u;a. 5)'S-
Icmaticall, in the 1970s and -80s. demo
Ih.1l auk 33° 0 of the I_lIe Copper c\!-TC scttle-
1111'11I pha..-c; ,ho\\ 1r:tC'C'" of gn:,1l fin"! the :I\"ailabk
dal;} mainl) bcloll1.,"S to the c,Il'licst ph:lSC of KG" \'11
Todoro\":l. 1982. ll,c pcrccl1I:lgc is {"'ell lo\\(;r in the
urtier p:ln of the period.
e."v!:matiolls for grc:u fin."! ha\1: 1,..:clI put
fon,.uti. r.lnging from ho_tile all:lcks to rilUal :ICtS. h
cannOl be: c-"dudt:d that hoslilc aUacks "ere a real
Ihreat in the Copper :\1:\1'. h is also possible Ihat a
rimali,;t-d pcrcrption of sculelllent was common. ...
ing hOlbC'i :l.Ild objccb :IS li'ing organisms. \\ hich arc
born and can die. evcn create a line of henl:lgc
Bailey 1990; 1996: Chapm:m 2000).
:\1. SIl:vallo,it. stlld)ing conll:l.gr.ucd l\...."olithic
\ loc.. houses. is secillg Ihcsc :l.S c:\l)rcssions of prac-
tict:s to assure cominuity :l.lId ,isibilily in the mne-
Illonic domain of 5OCiel}': Ihus. she is suggt:sting Ih:n
connagr.ttion should be' regarded as a cultural trait
among agncuh\Ir.l1 comm\lIlilil'S tSle''allo,it
1997 . To suppon Ihe claim Ihat houscs \\'ere bumI'd
hence deslroycd ddibcr:lIdy in :t con-
trolled fashion\. she refers to the hick of dlcct on
soils in areas bcl"CCtl :15 dCllIOLlstr.lIed by
examples al Opal·O. YUbTQsla\·ia. Ho\\'e"cr, n."CCI1\
expcrill1clllal work 011 Ihc enCCb of fin: on soils havc
proved thal Ihennal tr:U1sfonna,ion only occurs in
\'Cry r.lrc cases, e.g, on soils which :tre
influenced by hcating above 500°C (C:tllli & un-
ford 2001). Thcrefore, the only cerlaill way 10 sus-
l:tin lilt' idea of conll'ollcd conf1:tgr:lIiolls is lO (km-
that :1 or a group of houses, in ;1
scldclIlcnt wcre singlt:d Olll 10 hc pUl 011 fin:,
Such pmclices \\'l'I'C .lclllalh' cal'l'ied Olll ;1\ lhe
lrOIl Ag... \;lIage of HOlide (2nd CI'IUIII")' IIC"
hI CClltury AD). wlll."r......onflagration :111 inSlnl-
ment of cOlllrol uf 19115). As rq';'lrds lcll
SCltlement.!. ,I·· . 1 , . 1 .
, ,Ill ,1ft'" Jy )lIrmllH (ceaymg
11011"-'5 ,dso seClllS 10 be llll' b,'sl choice ill of
IlllI ........ \'I"....... .. bilI: .. -...p rm.... T
tbr- Lb' mr-.d'
if)
[illlc and <peril. Indttd, <C\t·r.t! '\Jch
lilt' Copp\'r Age Ru.c Iell. NE Ilul:r-ui<l. hold 1.'"\;-
dcuce 011 l).Inial burning. n,lturt' Hojad-
lie\ 2001: Gcor!,..il.'"\· & .\ngdm 195;,. I'o,,,ihl\, abo
lh..' \'11 sCllh:l1It'l1l of .\lid(lIe .\gl'
cl:llc bllrlll·d 'Todot'O\'1 19U:? !l1l'
tntal :lball{lomueHl of KSB ill the of
!-:1"I':1l ('all" fo!' Olher .'xpl,Il1,uillll',
Rq;al'c1ill!( hoslik ,lIl,ICk:.. 111,1\ h,I'" l.lkt·u
phtrc Wilhulll k,l\"illg uflUUl1,ll1 ,;,Iim'. [11 l:u I.
olll\' .t1111l' h.ll, I!Un ,1l1c1 \'llll-
.It,ilt', ,md al-o I{'N', ,I' cl"'111l111'I1.lt,'d h\ Ihl"
o·'\·\,llu.lli('11 oftl1l' t"".l\,Uiml n"lllt, r,l(lom-
\,t 1!1B6: .\l.lh,lml\,t 21)00: noj,ul>it" ;!illll .
,... re lllUud in,idl' IIU' bUlllnl ,lllU tllO", Illc....· .J.d·
cion, "(I'"(' c"'cred In Laic C<'flPl'f .L..... hou.....,
Inn.lrd, ,I ,i<>Jcm dt'alh,
b\ ,kdclal .1Il.lh,<, .\bL,,",llO\.1 :..'01111 ,\ <I'lJlI.
.md "II..... "'."ion. Thi., indirt"Cth COlIU".Iru. I, ""M:lII\"
\it'" .ldjUIIU th.ll Iht· .un,'un! t'f '>r"I<.l1"lt'
m.lll'l;,llll,cd in mlc ,lIld d.mb .m:hitn::lIln- ".I-'
I.ll,!:'· CllOIlt:h tll ·IY( .l.> fud to h.Jl.. t/W' .1.1\ [O.l
,I.nt' Sll"\ .lntl\ i, 19:!17
B."t·c! (Ill till" nl",'n.,llitlll_.>;'\ Ut:.1 :!..I riIU.t! ,n
tor lhl" nllltl.ll,'T:uinn. "hi,h [c·nnin,ll<...1 th ·nl.....
f.lIll11'1 h.; ..... I.lhblwtl, R.llh<T. ch, C\l'''·IIo.T
'Upp"I1' n Mll.ui,>n ,11 Ill(" tin... ,\I- II III ,,>,; ut
..1 ,ilU.lli.m .;imil.tr [., [he- ,>ne 1'1.'" Jrdcod:u lhe
full\ .. \.-.1\.11,,,\1 R..-dullll" ...'ttlell1rlll t;.·,l.:"\ 99.:-
Ik.lrim: in rlllm"! Ihe hi,,-h mUllhn... 01 , >,;,:.toon
60
.Idd .lrrh(lfIJltlg;ft!
l;a-........ a ntu••] .\("thit, of 'lld, ;j n:I1Ufl' WQuld poilll
(,mw, 3. (\TIl _uicidal. of
...:rim. "hich unlild- RL-ju\l.·nilOOn aCl> mi"hl
h.1\" I)<TU n:fll:"'\hilll:. bill _[;In, fronl 'Ol:r.llch
jlf\lb.1Uh prllTiwd .t'o .1 fri!:luC"n;n" pel"'\lCcti,c.
In facl .....ch of tilt' K"n cu!tUIT \\;llo prob-
.lhh narW I" "lK"h unhaPJ1l n;peri.
elln""'.
Ind."M1. Ihl' fin... _hould rnthrr Ix- rcll;,micd ;1.'> ace;·
denh. ko=d .md ""3I. .lS rn."£ribro In \itnn;lB.
ckau:d ..ntknu·l1l'> <.itU.llni on dC"<ltro ilL"" han: ell'
iO'o't"d "illlb fmm 'h," Ilbill'" "hid! ..\ould pro-
mOle tile- 'prrad of Itn: ";Ihin :l '>Clllcmtnt. e<>]lcciall)
th.. ummcr "hen the hoU';c "all, "en: drinl
(Jf "iJltn humidit\.
),Iodem th.-lIdl!T'. ad\Tni;illt: Iheir roolinj( -;Cf-
,it,-•..11"''-1\ <"m hv l\'I1lI;n,L': their of pl'l:-
cautirm •• I fin', S",mf m:l.k ,l \aver of'r'l'sulll. or
""'" ot1K"'r rte;ot'llth dnl:'kopt'd m;ueria4.
Pcrh;l\>, lhi., n:pLa.in. "Ir. ("Ien "oodo;,n poIe;11
("It'll III rhe roof. '';is pl.IMen..'(! ";lh day: i"ll:llion
m,-.' linos thal "en' ,110>l1 fire Wh"l n·m:li..
puzzliul/.. h",,("\"t'T'. i!> lh.ll "hn' a ""'Ilk.
mem ,.." .dl"ll1do>nl"d. t1'"'" "a.. no h.-.cl. ;is
if w.IMxl la". "t'tt It> ..\1 .•.
...ml" 01' 1111' h,!U...· <1:tH'd expo,,-'(! .md
prnb.-.bh intact lUl,l1l\ of Ihe items were indeed unaf-
or on!> mode<lh ,.lfl"(:U:d bl" fire " bUI there
"en: no of :IClions' to felch or look
for rc·u.....blc ilems.
Sonlt' C'>tim:llion can .llso be m,lC!l' on hl1maIL I'C-
emplO\cd. 11 has Ilttll general!> accepted th:.l
lhe sUlalle<;1 -.ocio-«onomic unit of early a\:.'Ticultural
i< lilt" houscholcl. compl;sing :, nucleated or
eXlcnckd fillllil, & KnHic 1990)_ Ackno" I-
cdgino;:: the cOllCC."J>\ual of the Icnn ICr.
Sahlilb 1972 .. in this stud,. a hou.chold is mkell 10
be ,I kin-h:l.'o\.-d rc<id,'mial group (fdngham & Krstic
1990\, which .111 11l<:11I!x..". :,1<0 lhe .. ged
,,"d Ihe children. -Ille imet(r.ltion is SUSlained by com-
mon inl"ohcm..-Ill in d.li!, aClivitiL";;. allt! in
rnrinl\. Ahhough dil;sioll of :I(liviti...... is
confined to .\ rmlle!" SPCCUl:lli\'c level in :lrchaeo!ob'}"
the inlem:<l in,tall.uiom ,lIld Libra cle..r-
h indicolle tlte :lUUlllonlOlh Il:twre of the ..I ulIib.
I'hieh inh..hilcd Ihe an:hilo.:ClUl';ll Hencc, in
thi, ".,,\ ll"nieul:lI' cas<:, it is pos.sibk «) I;mplo}'
.",d hOlL...:h\lld as S\,1I011, ms.
of I;ouscilold 'iu:s \.11'\ between 3 5
l);"ic 10 6 8 <:x;..,ndcd r....ntH}
Ch:.prn:m 1981; Tripko,;c 2003). IkcClllly, tiles<:
hal'c 1)<:"" by :Ill .n
Ugn
01
the tell of "Ul1<ltSile, Pa7_ardji1.: :\1:U""I01 ,I ::0000, In
10 the fil1.lII.':II(· Copper .\L,'C 'Cnle-
lJJelll 'oril.,oinalh occupyint: Clt. 0.85 h.l, ,1.:elet,u Il:-
1ll;lins of ·11 indhiduab "ell: found
20fK1, Fi/o:_ I: panl> pR'St·rYl.-·d rem.lin,,_ like ,1.:ulls.
,'Il: illcludt:d in this number" 28 persons "CIl: fOUlld
1>;111; on hon.c !loor5, ofiell 011 101' of fr:I.t:ll1elllw or
itll.let ceramic and ro...cred "ith bUnLt-"(1
arrhilecluraJ Scn:r:11 skelelom "cn- found ill
Ullll,lluriLl I)()SIUR'S, «lmc trilce, of,ire, 011('
In.tle h,ld de"r of 11(",ld rhis r.:m,lrk-
.Ihle discover) is Ihe fir51 "cll-d()('"lIl11ent,'d It'SllIlIOI1l
co illlcr-collll11Ulloll in 111l' pl'ehi'lon of Ilul-
!Vu;:!. il pln,id,', n·icl.'II("c on Ihe 11l1l11-
ha of illliahil'lIllS ,.lwelted 10 (·.!Ch hOllw.
of nine hOIl,e, "ere ITcorrkrl. hUI uul> flI1l' ".l' ill-
...d fullr. The fe.1 \\"t·n· ('illwl' .'rod,'d lO ,.11)-
ing degrees. lrillg :11 ,lope,_ dnlnl"'d I" 1.1I,'r
In-lItlle,. vr lI'ing panl> ill dw nul \t'l ill\'·'"Lr.lIerl
h.tlf of tl1l' .... uJcmcnl. 'Ill!' hou'l" \\ en: i"
,I cli,p.el....."(1 p;IIlCrll •• \\ilh Ih" 11'11.11
L-i"'UUI of E- \\' - :rnd -1TiK:IU"",, uti.. nl.lIro \_
S. Cencr:,J1\. Iht-'IT ".lS .1 m<tr1.:cd difTem\u.uinn In
h011Sl" ,i,((-. IIf the hou.. (t)lll.linnl lckul ""_
m,lill' ,lhhout:/I 'Ollle \\tTc Ld:inlt ;a fuU ....1 t.,.
oom", pl'rh,lll1< .UI indic.l.Unn uf .... /" .. ild
.mim.tb .Ifl."r Ilw .Ih.. "llldolllllen! "f lhr "'·II....nJ<'ot
1111: ,kd"1ol1 Iinrb oclwecn the bunlCd h"U)n.
'1,llt'd b, \ .\1.'l,,'rlO\.I• .J.rc proper bun.tl.. "hrrT
dl., h(l(h ".l' 1'111 illlO .1 hll("w ..n "lnd ....
(onlll.llllt"d h\ l!OOlb, u>u..uh pt'lIen. Ill<"
'(erl.trio Ih", IIllpJit.... ,I ITIUnl of Ih.. _uni'inl: p..ut
(If lhe t"OIllIllUlli". prt'j'l'er IIT.llllWIll 1" Ih("ir
d.',,<I 1lI."mlwr., 1l1i_ 111 i> .• ,ilflliti,.1I11 -1.11('0
IIlem .Ib/,nl _01:;••' b.:h.l\iour (If .1 Cupprr \I:t' pOpll-
J.lliurI, Ih,u the ,lpp.m:1l1 /.Id Ill" huri.tl, 1I1
Ihe I",-,!::iun. dlt, rhr:.ci.Ul pl,lin. "jlh tfl<"
n"'cplic]I1 the f.unoll. \.lnlot J:l'l\\....
_hulIlcl Ill'l '''-' 1.lh"ll ,l' nn::ui\e e\id"lll'e hUI r.uJlt"r
rh ,tll .udt.'e"l,,!..';,·," prohlo:m. One h"u... ,·,"II.\ll1rtl
.J.ekl," l'<·n1.llI1_ of 1\'<) illdi'idu.u.. I"" !h,u_ ,.1
four. "hik lht' n'm,linin!: Ilm...... h"u'f'" nmt.unnl ,......
.Ir/(/ .lIthf1'·Il/og;m
and .Iolad< 1"''Un.l ....., t,...."" 11... "'"' '" 11,,,,... 3, 11_ .. n"", l'l" ,,'lC",h....
.. pnt..o ft ,If nlhrT ' ... olhn 1'"'.h..I'" m.ol<n.o! .. ..tl.. , ,1... '''r''
'J'''' IJ\ h h\(' , .mcl M"I.,'n in<li,idu.,\"
,hilrirrn_ Ik"ring 111 mind dw '''l.t.! Tluml.ll:r uf indi-
'1du;,\' .fl . <i"illt·d ni,w hon,,·'. lh...
h·,,,...,h,,k1.lln'Uutt In I' indtlidu.•\.. ph" Ih.., 'UT-
\,\,,"'. 1'",I"lhl, Ill<" I.ul:n hnu".., .tl"" hdd 'non'
1""PIt- lh"n 11..· n...ll.-r "u'
Illr I111""n .I\.,il.,h\t- h'lu\(· 'llolU· "I .t '>('lll"ntl'nt
'-;Ul ,11", h.. u,,-d to l'nedi" llu· 'if'" of ,hl.' tlltn-
munm '" R "'.Iroll. ontO ,mli,·idu;tl ,t\CI"-
"1,'<" In ,n- ,. 'nn." 'm',"'m·' intluding
l,thk' n, "'.u"ll I"h! 11", 1.\Un ....,. n,n pr",..,llI
,n 1,;:::;, "h,·n· ,-."h pn.... m. ,", lhr ,n.tI
h,,,,· ,,'quil,·d 'm" h.tIr ,hi, 'I'."" '" ,Ii:::lul\ ,n"rt..
-11... 1.i:::.1 h"m..... "I :m In "'. inlt'11MII, .md Hl
-,(I m ",1<'11",11,_ l1M\ ,In" It,I\'' ,u""UlllUlll,'h',1 an
,',wn,h·d t.nnil\ "I' .11,""1 ,,',,·n itHh\,Idll,tl,..\'"
""1',in::: d,,· i/" "flh,' h"II"'h"ld ," -, i. i. i, n;.
1><"'1,·<1 .h.ll " "h,,1.- ""lIlo-lIIt'lIl ,h,' "f., "I l.i:::., :.!,
1'- \"1111'" ,'<I "I 111 1.! h"II" h..d.t !llll'ul."j'm of
100 1'10 indi\idu.lk Illi, i, ;n ,l••-md,nll:'" with im·
plir.uiun, frOnl 'lu<Iil" in hr.,i" dn-doplm:ut
,lnd loOI;i,ll 111h"r.u tiou IM'pul.llioll\
cliflieuhi.', iu .)11<"-
R. I)unllotr h.ls Ihll\ ,I (tlrrt'l.lli'l11
b'-'I\',·"" lh(' ")\'"i,tl hdt.,vluur tlfpri"1:lll." .ulcl th.· ,ifl'
of Ih('ir nco,;on"il;. lb,ll Ill<" 1I",'d 10 ill'
n",N' /o;n,up 'W', .tllll h"ll'" "M'illl HUlllllt-sil)", .,ewd
.t llwd',lIli'I" nf ",I"uiol1 il' 11". "\011,'111"111 of
lalllt' n,'U( nni,,·, I)unb.,r I'N'.; I')tIGl. E"t:t hli,hillg "
I1COl"'l11.·S tn lilt' Oflli'·)u,lill." I: l. lit" pt"'-
dirt;; lh.,t lilt' 11\<1\1 "U;'ni\'('ll t;ln'tiol1illf.: 1111lllitll
" ill 'ol1,i,\ llf appl"lldll l:tll'l) 1;,0 1ll"IllIJl.'l'1I (i .•' ..
tlm:\' ,(\ 'llall) ." c1,impalll.C"t·s). /\l'p,""'II1I)'.
""h p'\'diruoll ..1'11", ,.plimul11 J.;tllllp i, ,,'p'
po,1t'd hI' gl'llupillg IMt\<'I"\1\ prl"\.,!t-m .11 di1li'r"ul
kwl' ',f hum.llI \'II"I.·t), ." """mplit1t'd hI'
n'...·,,,.. h "11 11111(10-.,\ .11111 hi'\"r;, d,ll.t,
11". mai" clt,tll,·"J.;l.' or lilt' loiJ.;., I \',(\ It, 1'"-
n1l'cr lllld Ihc 1l"l11aillS ill thtir filii
CXll'llt, iIllclIlp,inR 110t 0111)' to look ,11 tlll' \",Inaliom
in produclioll hili IQ 1'l"l'lIgnill' Ihc '1'"
lin","ll ill II11ich ,IU' 1>OIlcIl II;IS i\lJowiuR ;,
fncll{U)' iron)' to\l.Ll'd' loc,.1 for 1)(Iltt!)' rc,
(pcdi:cll)' lmdCl"lt;mdabk in Ihe ligln of ,he
amOll111 ,md appMI'llt •• ppro•• c1mbilit) of IXluen as .,
501111::1' of infol'll1:llionl. "'eTC rIl.ldt, ,It Ug:, 10
include olher "lOko.:ns", "ith cqu,,1 dCJ.;ree of ,men-
tion, into Ihe llni\t;I'$C ("rcatcd b) thc pOllcry,
The 1II11hropolo!.1' of lL'Clmol1Jt.,1 ,m inSlnl'
mCnlal ,Ippro:,ch ,'idinlo: in n:cOJ,'nilion of social
groups through of mundlllC producls sueh as
utili';II;.m poIlC!). lools, and ,u'C/lIlcC!lIrc Lcmol1nicr
1992\. h is bdiC\'ed th.1I soci.L1 infonll.nion is 'toR'(1
in Ihc sleps and choices m:ld,' m,lIlu[l\:llIrc as
well use of l1I:\lcri,,1 CUltllTt" Smrk Cl .'11. 1995: "ith
referenc"\. Such bc:h:l\iOllml \'anatiOIl rdk'Cled III
thc malenal culture i' dClcnlllllilli; "h:1I is lIamed :,
It:dlllological ""It·, .\rrhiu:CtllTC is considered Ihe
11IOSI comple-x "IJ.O Ihe mO'! i"fonu,lIin: me-
diUlu of \tylc ,St.lrk Cl at. 1995, Con-
'ITllction lechniq,u:" choier of 1II:llcri,,15.•1I1d use of
domc.sllc space .m: lhal ., panicu-
lar fe.ili,·ucc 10 ,,5 opposcd to sl\lislic van,
llliol1). and ;Ire oH"1\ illdic-•• lol'I of -ocial
(St"rl.. I·t at 1995\.
to I .,nom of culture. re:ganl-
Ic$S of \dwlhcr tht;se clllpl1.,.izill{,' bcha\iour:'l
or <ct, of nI.llcn,11 n:m:,ins.
c.d SI) is 1',111 of "p.,cl..,lgt;". Not .L11 ,lSpccts of .1
culturnl p,.d,l,!:c ,Ire: lr:IIl'l11illt:d ii\H1, ,I ",<i\cn
core .Irca, hOllClcr, U>l1g10l1lI'r:lte< such ,IS
th... "SII culturc wcll dcfillcd, Tlms. il is il11porl-
allt '0 ,H:coun, Ilot ollll for onc Ir:lil o"rh:l' llll' <Ill.
istks of 1'0lh'l). bUI ,LISt) fut" Mchill'Ctlln.' 'lIld use of
Sp:lCC. alllong mall)' thin",,,,,
D"'pi1t' III Iht; d,ll., from
siit's alllihut"c1 Ho the KSU I'utllll\·. it i< pos.<ibk 10
lllld"I'I,lkc 't:\'t:rnl OI'er;,1I <UIllIl:uiwll" .,dding 10 ,I
bt:lIc,' ulld"I'Slallding "f Ill<' KSlI prolilc,
S"cmingl)', 1':II'i,uiul1 nUl 1)(' It'I'd ,I'i ,I
IIll"'. ""I'"cI,III)' ill r,1 II'hCI'C Inli )1-11 mlr' '11 10 "bl'lIllcd
on llH' ",'ncml IH)'nlll I>f ,I .cllkllH'Ill, Il<Jtc.n-
. ,. ,. . ,. , .", ,',"
till 111111' "t:<P,·t" 1'(1'1):.. n '. . .
Sil", "hidl .litl,,,".,il',' dc(;ukd pllhln.mull ("0"""'111-
inl-: lhe i"IlI' of 11'" <>1 'I""'" ill d"lnnli, ,·unte"1'.
Li"ga
it i .. ,L1r(',ld, nu" 11I)'o ibtl' 10 t,lll' th.u
Ih" ('011('('11111,,1 \I.trcilll,' pHim (r,r RI'dUlitl' ",l th,.
saInt' for For ill C.lIlU', II h" bl't'n fn .."rl'<.!
in diSt::lI«ions Inth the ":'0(,1\ ,11(11' th,lt, ",h"r
siml!:,ri,i,'s "ilh UIf-" ,11l' hOIl'>l" ,lt i<c"dullt(' .11"1 IMd
.1\ ,hr middl,. of IIH' nnnhl'n' ",ul.
emrancco in Ihl' 'IOllthl'l11 (>n{' (f 1'1'1.101.
Some has bern fn·.I1l'd III lh(' It'onin,
0101,"1 11'1('(1 to dCI.:nhe buildlllli; Fnr 111-
SI,lIIfC. \' "hrn dio,cu lIIlt Ihl'
dlltilc. llll'ntioll' th.Il,' !)f'('i"l In.hlll'1Ut' II,t..
apph..-d 10 erect tlu' hUll Gl'fXtJl I'I'I.!J.; 1Q"I,
30 I , Wilhoul definitinn••md "l1h a 01l're: rdtll'rn r
10 ,hc <truclm ,Il l-anOIl\ rnpflh,' (' (,1\01.11"(1
l:n 'I: Pauel h,!If ,I «"nun .Illl), hI' "pll/iM U'I' t('on
"gl/ntJhlt1W" in Ru, i,m, ,\t lhr I.U1'l(' IIm('.
mcntion, thl' U<C of 1'01.", i I:? ("In III di.IIIlt'ICr dUI!
into fOulld;lIion tIT/I( .11 .... t'n. _'iH till (Ill. .md 111.11
thc d"dlinl('> of c,leh RrduUII' ,(,lIkmnJl " ..no
bllnlC(l, hCIlCC:' thc Ilft"<:n J.lj(lll 1
1
)<,.!.t;
1991. 301 ''(;In.h,ma'' III RIb.".1Il hllOkI be I"-J.It__
l.ltt'(l ,I!> pU; 01' Imr Pu; b 1l,('rt'Ii" e. 1-1. ., odm\" ,I.
in hl'l' pl'l"'iCl1laUlln of lhl' pTl'llI'lOm dndopm..m uf
Buh"..,n.'. '''ill''i Ih,l\ "Ihl' huildm\,'" ('IC.II,'11'd III "-"1_
ish h.II'1' thicl d,II-(:O'crcd ,•.111, ""tl1(>\ll p"'1 or
",udc" '!o.klr"O\,' :lOIl!.:!88 1he I'.,rh l'"hli,.lUnID
b) !'asscl 011 ,h.. SCnlUlIl"-" ,I' Inpt.lu: ha\<' .tbt, It'd
OIher.; 10 t:IlllluliulI', l' Il:.. t1,(' I'f
",Idobcll" in (OIl<lnHlion ul tIlt' hull ...... L,;(.,nl\llI &
LIl.Il\llici 2CMU, 11 '1
Poundcd ,'.Ir,h. 01' l'i'1." .,n: ta"" .Ip-
plicd to d,''Crilll' e,lflh lUlIlp.Ulctl h\ rallll1liull: R..t.1'1'
'1'1". ...... hlliquc " rWlll' lC1I"pll-
c,lIcd lh,lII ".mlc ,lI1<1 d.lIlh, 1'1'1: ".,ll, cl,. lint
bum, ,lI1d bumim: "f.1 lh.lld1('d or Il','(l mol ""uld
h,II'C 1('1"\ til11ill'd 1l11·rtll,r1 Ctll"t'l" Ulll ('\I'll ...IlNIII:
,I Il'de'"l11: uf ,h,' dl'. Thc c[',:.-rill" Ill' pi ...· ".lIl, L'
dqlClldcllt ulI .' "dl.b"t,ulco'd "'II1II<:"n;,'I1 "I" "'1\\
1ll,11"ri"I, ill "rdn III jln""lll ,hrilll,'I:". III 1;11 I, ullh
,I ,m"Il,Ulllllull ofdl} j, IIr"d"d .1I1I111",rr III,U! Jtr'u
,
.., ,'>'""
c1'I) ro.:<u ,. 111 r;'jll{ ,'nNlltl ',lllp· •
The ,',Ill hi'" IUli'lul' i, "m'" 11 ill 111I11:,Ln,1
(, er l!or 11."",,,,, \ ... \n ha. ..- \I
& I) 1"""1' I"jl) ,n Iht< ("n.-•.tI K,blt-

.. ldll .ITfharologi((l
m bOOt lhe: 'C\..ti1hK ;Uld Iht' [..ar" C,,'MX1". Co-
.. -"13.1 .\\ the- '\"ro.'lhlro.: "'lte .>1 GulublUlIl...
...n..un.t in Ihe' SIn1llU the' lC"Chluq\J( h.l.!_ ror-
:th .,x....,-rihrd a.. .I -bo:Alm-d.I\ - l('£hmqlX'.
:bm dr buiJdin,,; mlum.U Q<>l duI(,- from mal
('{ dr cum.-.uncbm! Innm- In
dr ctho.: m.vn:l cl Bulc:uU- _r.unnxd Nnh
MT .Ibo,., m.._n. pn11lAlih 1\I Ihe' ll<lI'them
r-m of dr ('OUIllf\. lhe of
( ..",iud!:in IQ .. ICI8J. 19; Th<:
..;aB,. lIt- bou,..e. .l.lT O..i--{l.b
m ttu.- I1l.d' of ;l ch\ miXl'd "lth ctwl "hich u
-h.pcd in.l" the- GnH--
19; Th<: ,,-;t]b buih ofb\'t'TS 0.5(1 m
Iu.-:h. me Iini.<hed compo-cd of <uch b\"tt<-

Rc!uminc: 10 dr the5C" ha\'!: bttn
-built of thicL poks. joined by wicker-
" rl. pb..<laOO 0\'1:1" with day- 1959;
bul aL-o 1956: Pa....c\.; & Chnml.:h 1963:
Swtl., el.u. 19!!;. Ht!'-. 6-1 & 65. TI\C u.e of
pounded cMth h ooh found in OOf1Jl«rion ";lh floors
.IDd cnndim! ibtd.. it ilo not OOITN1 to
.Ippk dr pounded anh Imn to Tripohl: fealures..
The cL lbc Tripokl: and. 10 .I
cnwn 01l"r1l. cL dr rultuR: ;u; kno..-n in
l1:r.linc_ U:... the.l.lT3.> ofl...o¥.n D;anu-
be- .-l. l.o<ou Pnil i" ch:uxInUcd b\
bo:..- pbl:fonm.. The hou.e pLufonm ""CTC m:::;utd
-athe bdp cLw. mIb teil1pucd ..;mpbnt
bid tidW\ UfXlD .I ..oodm bo..e und firm in §(I(I'IC
c;a,ro. the n:6 "''n'r fifai pm- to Ihcir
<::ban.-.b Pasd: 190').;). fl, a... ciltd 8cjId:dti
Ill-a. 61 & >,. teduIiQl QUDoo for mabne-
i:l, mono dosc:k- rc:6ted 10 than 10 the
,_led ant. trdmiqut. \'4 .IJId 0'0-etU in
Tl'IfXIIT "'ere: ..;lb dr u>c of "Olttline: and
cbab. boooe-tt Cham1lh 1%5; 8. a...
Bcjkkchi 19;8. 01 & b:
Ik:anne: all tlm in mind.. il i" -lOIfe 10 conclude that
the hou:o in "'nT daub houx-o "'lh a rcla-
Iirllt. but dcme "'lluJ.: cnllltl"UCtion. This i!; :Wo
india.loO !he fr.uunmb cL walb from Rcduule of
burned lUub "'ib a hiclt COIllt"'l1t of cb\ C'Xhibitcd at
me- (I/" TIle >il/ll<" ctmslruC_
lIOn I«hniquc "'ll.'. U noIoO. record.-d in
l.lza. Hcnox. it an br dun.->rl>lr.illrd m...t the 5Q\C'd
e.\.C'q)tiotl.lhl\ of 11ll' 1'(-li,h·lWmite is ba5Cd on
f.--u:< plTlllLO<-- er. IktilC\ :!OOO; Todol'O\";l 2003. .
"no...-inl,! Ih.1t m;tn\ other L.'IC" Copper .\\,'t"
in Buhr.uu h.wt' hotL<c"> ...-ith <ulJslamial ...-oodC"n pol-
C" III ltlC1r wall,. diam(icr of 15-25 cm . it is prol)'lblc
m;1I the heht \\";lU ron,!ruCtioll in me l(-luh ra;ion
cm;n.mmenw C'OIl.m::lim. E..en lhe houses of
the: Rtdmile 1\' buiktinll; homOll ofpost.Coppcr .\t;e
dale dctllfOmlr.l.tinl!;t break ...-iul earlier sl\l-
istic and ICl:hnokM.;cal ll'':Iditions had a liC;lll frame
COl1$l1UC1cd for dlUbint:; Gergm 1996. 111e con·
sumplion of...-ood ;lnd pombly clearint:: 100 could well
ha\'!: beTn l!IT.ltcr man me natural pace:
of the uus of the mnon.
Looking at the brooder me infor-
million on KSB houses urestricted.
There: are: onl> a fC', cas<:s CXCl\";lted an:hi-
l..-etur.tl relllains. GenC"r.tIl). the built sln,cturcs eom·
ply \\;Ih Ule principles. Fe\\ e.xecptiotlS.
<ueh :l$ hoU!iC5 al Calatin. NW Bul!>'ao;1
Gc:orcie-'a 1995b and Ikligo\"o. E Scrbi:l (Nikolit
1998 en:clcd on tllC 101' of stony hills may reflC:<:1 an
::llhplaoon rather UI."l1l ch.1nging archilcctur.11 pon-
cipIc:s.. Copper societies were: nOl dcvoid of inno-
\-ati\l: polcntial. but me faimful subscription to C011-
!Unl p;111e:m.-. of .sc:nlc:mefn :lJ'r.lIlganem and house
buildine: mal indicate thal was go>'Cmcd
b\ less langibk idc;u m:m thc: n«d for shehcr.
1bc >CItlemelll Ollld thc: l10mc can mlb be a.-.
;an 'l2'CIl1 of communal Klc:nti'Y·.
n-rES OF SITES
RaooIl.l1.1J1d wpra_rc:gionaI PCDPCCri\"l:!I hil\1:
hiah.l\ \OlIuabk for the: undcmanding of I.:i1r.1 :I"d
\iddt:d ;t far emnpla pictun: of a L'le Copper
.. settlement lhan hiuleno assumed. The lnl-
ditional icka is that the secmim;ly shon-Iin:d KSU
settlement. "en: rrWltly located at hillh a1litudt:s. or
in ca.-n. in COntroLSt to tlle long-lasting tell scn1cmcn15
of Ute KC" \"l compla; on Ihe ·Ilunci:ln pl:lin 10
Ibe ca5l of "S8 e.g.. Todoro\':t 1986l. The
:t.iSumpuon that tells a1wa),s a pcnn.l1ll:lII
occup;lUon h;u bee" challcng<ed by bl\"otig:llions ,11
the ill XI: Bulgaria.. demonmming Ih:1I
repealed cpiJodo of rning W;ller tablC$ forced Kulers
10 abandoo:, me Id! and lTlO\'C: to d.... 10c;llion" Uaik\
. .
f.1g(l
6.1
1999). 011 Ihe other hand, .11 Redulite.
nexI to Lig;., h.l\e produced evidence that KSB 5Ct-
tiel"!! fell a Stroll!; ,1ll00chmenl 10 ee",tin per_
ceived 10 be pi\ olal in lhe ,!:eographicll ;uld eUltur-al
land"e;IIJoC· 'nlis is 5Cell not onl) through reoceup:nion
of the s.... nle 'p:lce but also in n:buildinl; and Clllemion
acti\'ities. pl:ci;tlly Redutile 11 Gergm·. per-
$.l:omll1. '.
In and around Telish mainly 10 the ea5t then: arc
;.t least fi\'e ty}JC!l of 5Cnlemelll. thus.
,t\ Stro"!!wJds. such as S.1dO\-a;.Golcm.mO\"O Kale.
with ol1e OCCtll);.dofl ph.:uc Todorol'a 1992, and Pip-
r.I_ "it1l a minimum of five pen. inspection of treas-
un: humcr pits in 2000. 2001 . 200'1'. These sila arc
11alumUy prolttlcd by Sleep slopes al thrtt sides.
being onl) accasiblc b) bnd bridges or less SIeq>
.slOJX"$. L·nfonun;ndy. Pipr.l has '11:\l:r been properl)
in,estigau:d. and Ihe remaill'l ofthe L:lle Copper Age
<ctt.lemelll :ll Colemano\'o K.-.Je ha\(' been damaged
by Latl.'r occup;lIion. Other stronghold.. found cl.sc-
when: in thc KSB area appl.'ar 10 have been addition-
ally fortified eanh or I:\CIl slonc "'alb. doubk-
trenches and palisades - e.g.. Okhodtn Kalelo :\"lko-
10\' 1968, 7_"I.minclS XikolO\ 1975, Kri\'odoI :\lko-
101 198-1 and pl.'1"!l. observations of lreasure humcr
ill 2001 and 2002, Tht strongholds an:
usually oblon!.!, 1()l'IguC- or eUipsc--sll."I.ptd hilb. "hieh
imp....n limilation... 011 Ihe .'oC:ltIl.'ml.'nt size. tht available
are:l being around 0.2 ha "illl a maximum capacity
of 20 23 hou...es.. Not aocidcnt;,lly. :ill locations
"en: l;lIcr eho.cn for hcal;l) fortificd l...ale Antiquif)
5tronghollb.
B .\JUror JI/U u:ilil aut» "l:re euabli!;hcd at
ob5cure locations :md hence lelllatil·ek imcrprelcd as
rcfut::cs. -1111.' onl) f:X:Ullple in the Ti::fu.h i!; S3.
do\"(:c·E:ze:ro. :1 saddle-lil:e hillocl: in a Cln)"on bclOl'
r.:l.I1gd of high rising hills. '111.' area useable for s,nJC-
lUres "';l'i 0.075 O.OIl ha, thus onl) 8 10 houk' m:,)
Il:Ile exi'jl<.-d ,11 onc :md the ..ulle time. ·Ilu: ocell'
palion,tl debri, of Sadon-c·ElCro cm be subdi\idL-d
in 6 building hOlil.Ons \\ilh a 101:.1 IhicknC§.'i of alm05t
4 111, Elsc..'herc in lhe KSB Mca. pl.1cn ,lfl'
established on hilhop5 in remOle :trea,. c.g.. l'eL:1iul:
al Sofia l'ell:O\ 1%4,.
Cl Opm-air pla/ttlu JllllmrmlJ, R<"<iutile. :tnd
I1g", were CSI.lbli.§hcd ,11 IIU" edge of a pl,'leau ''1lh :.
\ie" orthe surroundil1[;l'. bUI no defelb-
II'C mc:uurc', the I,Irk of tIJIJooW"dphic rnlnr_
tions, such \ftdemenl \eCS " dcID.(' ennC!"IlIr.:alirm "f
hOIl5l':_. a ,harp di\i i"n het"!"en built
alld tht llnbuilt '1>.1(e. "rho:- 3rt',l I,., hou.\M
bcl"een 0,18 and O. iO ha; Ihf" m...jr'lrll'\ nf IlIn
an: :,rollnd 0,2 hd. "ith bcl\<offn 20 ,md ]5 h......,...
D Opm·fIU itIu.-!J1JI,f "lIltwntJ "rre C':\Ubmhcd
Onc such "<15 recorded hcl" ....... n Teh h and 5.Jdo"...:.
follOl.ing information rrom 10caJ l"Midt-nb. The: "'
marked a5 SX on tht map fill:. I 'i .inca: no loca1
name could be OOl.linro. It Iline on the Io-.rr ltT-
ratt by a strcarrt. .JopInfl: upwards tOlO-;ud"
the Xorth. The lop of the terrace i> matUd '" 1\<00
pTl:Sumabk Thr.&cian lumuli. In a pIouehed 6dd MId
an area of COl. 0.2 ha "ere I-n'\ m;un, of Uta:
Copper ,u,: and miUin2 roon. laIC .uad
post-Roman pot:ten "'";l.lI proem_ ... d\ .u hu-
man bono. So incbca.tions of could be
found 00 the hi!.!htr hins: ;rrc:a.s around 'loch bo-
kin!!: scltkmtnb hall: been and
an: mad) IlOIOO in reporu.. ·Tbc majQnn
also SC\l:reh b1 imtnIDe culti1';100n and
UIUS less than the hicla alti-
lude sito..
E 0J0u are common in thc T an::a.
L:nfonunald). the suilabk for oc-
cupation, hall: suffered b1 modcrn InC. C-2_
production of fela-Hie: L:p;trearn. on the
ri\'er \ it. occupational dcbm has been m...co.-end m
tht Gl\l:'li orOehi1ata and 11.!kn. OC\cta1:i al to."CCh.
funltcr al'';1I. remaim the fillC"l cx:unpk of
«ttlement... :\likOl & D!ambazO\ 1960
mcnts mn be diffen:nualcd .lC'COrtIinl;l to the imcnsin
of ocrupation. but UIC majoritl 10 be It'tllpor:l1
illdlel"!l for rn:ro...mtn. dc<pile of built 1nK.-
,"=
HI ,he end of the Copptr .\I:t' ;! llC\\ n"JX' of-e11k-
melll emerged in ,he: KSH area. ,.. ptJt tb.,n:.:,
round ill "ell,md ;area" jtl(:h as XCItOI,,-ui
199501 ,U1d Krajmliil dO$<' 10 I'emik toclwct.tin
2003;, : the ...arlier Jrulcrn....m... at \al'Tl.l
on Ihe UlOId: Se'1 Co.L>l_
NOlle or lht' :tlxl\em...lllioul"(1 .il.." are bul
rather ehall";nt:: in function and purpl"". ....'l"\.-t:.c-
ero .1,Ulcb OUI a5 tit!" Ix-<l ....'(.'lIllpl... , Dunnl: the ...nd of
tlu: Copper. \!:C. "t th,' tim'" t,rll' 4th (lilt of
b', th... sile,tIJo indudrd p.tn vfthc" l'It'lchbounl1C '\.ldt:>.
66
.Ido .lrrl/lU'ldo.eim
\1;'I."·K.tkl'll.",-.11i1\ 111(' ['",",),lnUl" "'lIh'IIWIll \\,1' ,t-·
j(." Imin 1\ n-.",11.'1\' "llh 11<1 "'\ll\llnll
,lU <o('UI,.11lfnl dUI';nl! ,h.. l1!m' ,.frhr '<M',lltnl 1"',111-
Qlion.lljJol·nnd. a, \H"1I.1._ in Ih.- .lIld i_ICe Un>llJc'
..md in 1_\11"' .\miquil\ IAIl,.r .111. rh., ,ill" ".1' Il'<'ri
,t••\ Ctni,u.llI hun.11 ,ilt". In ,Ilt' E..uit Rll1t\7C' .\\l;l" 11,,-
-.ill' "a.' f,'f1i!iord m a m.t·....i\l· ...tll
It l' dif11fult III ,,,,.lhh,h h,">\, Ill.un of the 'f"ulf'-
mrllb in Iht' Tdi,h IH'T\" i"Onu'Illp<'r,u, I'm-
1c.'T\ fl'\l11l G.-k-m.lflm't"l Ka.... h.n ("u,"t 1)'1I":llIel> III Sol-
dO"ff·[""'l'\l.1l Ihr rimr ,If it- "\l),lll,i,)n 01110 S.lrlo-
\'....·.",I1t'tu; U"" 1 ,,'mllllC' ,h.IIl" fl'.llllle, "jlh
I'tlll,-I' In'm rhl" S.• d,'n...· .ill'<, Ilu\\ to, n. ;" Inll\:
tilt' hili ,,'Utili,;I, nf,lw pOllrl" in
'lllt·.rinll h.I' 1"l,lhli'lwd. 'IU h
h.l\1' huk , •• ll1e. relll.un...·I,. i\ e.m hI: th;ll
,Il k.N 1'''1 'Cllknll'Ill' (,Ol',i<lt'(L ".g..111 0IX·tl-,lir
"t"I1l"lllcn\ and.1 dcft'nrll'd ,itl' ill ih hintnl.l1Id (6 10
km .1\\.1', .kkno;l\\kdgt·melll ut Ihl' Ilil1\ :u
S;ld,lIC(' and l'ipr.• indic,ul" lh;1I lhl' :ll UI;.I
"CT"<' t:lIuiliar :lho ";Ih the..... loc.ltiti('s (er. Chapter
\'11. hdo".
IV. CERAMIC FINDS
I'lOi'l'
lk'pilt' Iht, rdlli....h limiled lhid'l\c,-, nf IIIl' cuhuml
dl'IJoo,il' .11 l.i\fol, t'on(lilioll' of IJfl"Cl"\ ,llinn \"1)
depending: 011 dr:plh. Ihc dh.·(u of "hich
ht'illt: ,1e,Ith olm:I"\.lhll· on pOllC'" , 111 Ill<' 10\\(:<1
1,I\l'l"'. l.it.:•• l. the ""rr.'ce ofllll' pOlle'1 ,1l.lnL, h ce-
rllt·lilt·d by thl' soil •. TIll' Il.Ilin,"iOtl orflim
,lrter.I(U is likl'wisc progn·"'iCd. In Ihe upper cuhural
hori't.on of Lil(.I '1, the: calc;,n:om Ims
('r'Catt't:l high pH \'llucs of Ihc '\Oil H••'ccort:lim; 10
lilmus p.tpcrl. I'rOh:etl'd only by., lhin hl)l'r of h,,·
the POIIC')' is further .11I;:eled by moiSllllc and
fhlCIllHliollS of Icmperalurc. Dudng lhe summcr dl)'
.,. obsen't:d on location ill '1000 tlll: soil scc" cmcks
up 10 0.5 m tll·ep. Thc comhined ;It'liom nf ph)'siral
aud chemie:al pruperties OflllL' h.lvc lhus re.ullt:d
ill n'hlli\'dy poor conditions of pn·"cl"\.IIiotl for top-
le\'d 1>o1lt:')'. Some shards 'lpp•.:.lt· wilh ".lShcd OUl or
cxfoli,lted $1ttf.'1ces. in wmc C:lSCS 10 such .1 degtet:
Ih,lI IlIe oril:,'inal surfhcc can h:mll) be r'Ccognised.
This is p.lI,icubrl} common for ,lrc.1S oU15ide Ihc
hOUSC5 \,hete; Ihe poue",! \1.15 1101 ;lffccled b} >;(,"<:ond·
"'1 burning or prOtccled by .1 It"'" penncable 1"yet of
f;,llcn <mlclUr.ll debris. Olicn Ihe upper I.l\ct of a
'hanl i, 1l.Iking in Ihin S('ldes of
(k'cOf:uion .1lId finishing ;1 cOlllpliC::lIed 1.1,,;1....\PP.lt-
eml)', 1I01lt: of Ihe dC5(:ribcd f;ICIOl" had am nOlC-
worthy imp.KI on bones.
l'OlTERY: SORTING I'ROCEDLlRES
I'ollc')' processing .11 Lig:l ",IS dic\;\led b} rt::alilies
.llre.,d)' prclot:nting Ihetllsch'C5 durin!,: lht:
As \\ork progrc:.scd. il bcramt: c\idetll th,u 1I.,e In:utl
bod)' nf pOllt:ry I'd.llcd 10 Ihe l.iK.1 2 Cpl-odl' .u
Iht: Silt:. Siguific:ult amount ofpnllCI) 11.,;
II'C!L:d from Lig:1 I l;lycrs bUI diloCrt'lc (11t.du.lll,'e (h,·
tinClion, !JI'III't:t:1l thc IWtl St:ls o(pUlLel)' .I11uI\l:d for
:Ill immedialc of mixcd 1ll.lll·d.Ll., Th.·
<,uuc C,'CIl morc .Ipp.m:nt ill Iht' ''''Ill' of oc·
r.,_ion:.1 OCCUlTcnCI", ofslmrd' fil)tIll.uer periods.
Almo,. all <lLtdic5 focu<cd Oil Ihc llUlncrou,> .",d
bCllcr pte;'t:n "d '\:Inains of Litr.l 2•. R't dCbC-
up of., d.u., -el. rill"', Ihc
nll'Ihod' li,t prnc.... inv; pou("n \\("tr dMil(fl...d \\ilh
n:f"'U'ntr III Ih(" m.lltri,1I pmdlKed Ill(" 'J.
'oCUlrlll{'nl, I iN of ,Ill. Ihc in\ 10 ...0' f.vnj
\\ilh ,I ,1l11</Unt of .harm from !fulurhrd nt un.
ccn.,in COIllr-xt. St-nmdh. o:<ipecialh durin... Ih.. 1it"1
11t(" qU.IIiI.,li\l:· diffctt"nliation r.lf pr>tl"''''! dp-
pearo'cl 10 1)(' 11Intl{'d IlJ jun 1\\0 ttMrY .md
'("1"1 CO,'!"C \\al"(". ;1..' ba...oo on fabric.' .md urfact
tr(",lImenl..\11 ••Urmpb.1l Ihi) IQ diffttt"nUotI("
hCI\'1:-cn e'(c,I\.II('d 'h.•rtb did not produc(" cal('I:tJnn
Ih,u could bt' re.,dil} and
of 1\ hok IC">>cls pro.idcd inform.t1inn on
1ll0lvhn1oKir.Ll fc;uurc5 and 'hJpt'o
OriCnl1lICtl tt·cordinK. E\'enm:Ill). Lhn.:c
pl'occdlll'c) cloIH'd, wilh ftf mm-
plndt): sIre,unlint·r1 rorting of 10
codcd of <h,lrds In
morpholufjir'll If:litl> .md IlJl{;ICC IfC.nmcm.•md. de·
l"ilcd tlc<criplioll of \I holc or rccon51r1lct"bl... \' ..::b
or Fot all pnxC">
procedures ,. Sl.lncllrdiscd d:u.I .httl \\;1$ ooil!l1ro
10 Ihe enlrie< of a pouel"\ d"l.lb.l-'<'.
"nle m"in cxc;l\,Ucd arc:l of'1;5 m
l
'Ut·
\e\ trenclie< yielded a1mOSI 1.300 klf ofJX>lt...1"\ Pol-
le"'! fr.tl.,"Inelll.t1ion IlImed up 10 be 10\\ \\ilh .m .l\'t"t-
.II;e of20 IZ pet 5h.lm cxdudinll \\hoIr \C"...:I. Ot plll-
le..... COI1CCIllf:llioll.• 011 house fIoor<. The dnrrtT of
fr.ll:'lllt:rtI.llion did nOl "ppe;rr 10 be lIuetu;nil1ll in ,u,\
I>::Inem depelldint:l 011 lht: dt'J>lh: incbcaLinll UI"I lhe
arca h;ul undert:onc Iimllcd po<l-dcpo-
5ition,,1 di.'llImmcr. In f"cl. it (::UI be concluded. t.lwl
Ihe c,'I:('.I\ •• IOO IMn of Ihc 'CltJcmrm ".ill Ihe beller
prt'l>Cl"\cd om:. \\'11<'11 .tlllhe 1.U1d ofTcli..'h bco;.lme
irncmi\'d} cuhh.lll:tI. Ihc p.ln of Ill(" 'Cnlt:-
rnCIll >CIMf:ucd from tit... ;lr.tblc b, .1 I'l);ld " ....
nOI In r.lel. tJ,e OOt'prc-e"Td n:-
m.lins "en.: di'>('o\crctl undcr un: flJ<ld.
»011 n;>:c: 01' \IIJls n \II'1.lIl:\'(; :\1 \1'1.111 \L
CrUdClll'" of ,ht' pollef'l erc.lled Ihe Itn-
pl'CS>ioll Ih.u il 11.1\ rd.lled 10 Ih., 1.11.."1 ph....... of Ih...
Copper. \J,!c. ,uppo.ctIl, m.lrked b\ .m Ul<:fC.WIIIl me
of of).::lllic .Illd I:'<p.-ci....tl\ ,hdl lelllpcmlJ,! Gnll\,"IC\.\
68
lie 1\ T.............. ",,"" .. VC"¥'- ...... pt. - ...
-, •• L.h.-..:oL
00I1.pla.-qiC indusiom became lhe
rtl(l!A <icnificam in <lul'd duni'll! the
fiN In tnCl!l indul.ioo.\ .. COlAA
b\ frnh brWcint! ..ith IOIUK oM r.llTh .to
b&nd "'a-' utni. "The proco:dun:
cC Wni- from __ unll inlO

shard. "l:Tt' funhr.T subdindtod acrordinll; to morpho-
InciGaI lr.Lib. drwr.l.lion. :md a<qluon;al or nOl('_
.. ontr. f",antn."§., Whm l(Intd. ;ill w!tb "nl:
COUl1II:'Ci ..ridiKd. 1llc tou! munhn "0&> 12.642
ttunk .. k:e .\"." I.) diffQ"CDllrnr
pa1ll2 Et1JUP .. "' .bhdvd. but oM 11 of !hoe
zppan:d lO br Mi'istiea'h ou:nific:ull "-It! IY I
H'tlnt"l. \\('illhlnl .1Ilt! ,oc:lcd .1I1-ordillll; In ddmj,illn,
on ,11.. li,ll.t fllll"\ Sh.lrd.. of pniod.. Ih.1I1
,hl" .. '1 'l:uknll'111 IH'n.' <"I),ll,lIed lInd 111';1[\"(\ .H-
runlim:1\ \\"h('l1 Ilo"ibk... Il'lh' mud.' Oil ',·'...·1
-ilc hill I'r '111all In of the tim dj.Ullcl,·r.
thicuK"-\ ,.r \\;tll ,lIld ,(',,<.'I \\lx' I;lJX'n/dO'«! \
...MT n.-.lro ,,\! ,\(.'11 Conmll'lll\ .md dm,,;nll;"
nudt' ,-.r r;1I't' ;md C\l't'plioll.11 fC;IlUft'<> of <hapc and
(krorali...n. 111c dU.l CTlU' _httl .11Io'wd OTIC 10 0:'
tkct on o:1.ltion\ hcl\\ccn sn'Cml or _halll!
";lh \t'wrnlmoq)hological ;ltlrilllllcs.
IIMl dilTcrclll have dif-
ferall liff'-<pam and llallcms of
laoon RXc 198i. Table 9.4; Onoll et at 1993. this
«<tlllit proccdurt' ,,-a.o; con...idercd mcaniniful in cs-
ublishinl!; a prolile: of Ih poneI') produclion
durinl!; the U!j-l 2 settlement. .\s nOll-od. lhe >oninl!;
procedurt' did not include" holt: vL"SSCls or _hard con·
o!hc,...·cd on house noofS. Funhcnnon:,
thr initial <oninl!; prottdure b:bCd on non-pl:l.!otic in·
dusions dcmolblrnlro. ;u, ju...1 mentioTled. thal the: dc:.
IrrCt' of fr.u:mentation ''';is the 'I.lITIe throul!;hout the
b,'Cf'\ "ith exception of the poneI'
on house floors. pointing loward... rdalcd po5t-dcpo-
sition:ll hislOries..\Jbeit lhe: numbers are not con'
sidcn:d ab>oIUlc. lhe frequency of appc:lr.mce of for-
mal attributes or .U1i"acc l!'CaUllcm Icchniqucs \\.IS
10 be 'le:ncrnl
on POItCT\ production. Information '<';is elllel't'd inlO
it ditta1usc §klllming from 230 or 5i5 kg of ct'-
ramic sham....



h
.....
.....

.-
11
m_",""-_
1\ •• (_...
\ .-..-_lo(__
'1 , _

,._.a.<;--.lo __
ll. __':--&1 _ ... _-
"-
ll_.n...
UI _. e.--... __
UII ."""""_I.C_....._
"" ,"-_.._-
,...
orr\IIJJ) DI.SCkll"no:\ 01 \L:..M:I.S .\."1} SHARD
..tll-\110':.
I'ouer. TeCO\.-cnd in cbcd and undislUrbed C()flI(;.'(U
• MIll \<Ol§ trC:ll1ro \\ilh opcciaI :meution. This in-
dudcd \\bok as \\cU as shard conccl1lr.ll
ions
:uJd rnaenostic or olhcr....isc infonn.lli\'c ... hard>
lnomugh retording was undcnakCll holh imide: .lud
OUUltlt: lhe buildings, in places of deposition
and in area.-; of particular omdoor aClhilics. Field re-
cordinR; proccduf'C3 included 3D lIleasurclncnl of in·
dnldu...ol potlC'f'\ lO-tlers ;u poIygOlll or poinu
m..pPo:d ..iUllOt.tl SIiIUoo TS 1'1.4.:\ .l.,'1'3phic rq>-
retcnliltion of cO/llexlual information dl'3\\'inl: 1'1_
4 B. p1lO1O documentation and imml"tliale dc:5crip-
lion of \l" ...·1 'Iil!t", of .,riflll.
of f.I.II, pll'ilioll\ rim/boUorll Ix....moll in rrl.tU'JI1 10
",'ch IJllwT .. t'IL budl dts("ril)tirm " .. funl1l'T n-
1>.lIIdtd ... h,," ,harm!\( -.cl, \\eft' rul!«lrd ,me:!
and ....,iened indi,idual numl)(" of lotaI
St.,lion n'H:.15UKmenL Soil from thl" \"t" I, ".L' abo
<,;lInpkd, Ille procalurn indudcd
c",ln:ful Ck·.lllinl.l. mClldi0lO; and p;lniaJ rn'or.uion. if
dra,,;ni;. and metrical. and
IcdmolO1(iaJ tiocriptiOIl .•\lmo<t 300 ... hok or rtton-
SInICl.,blc \'C'I-eb "en: doco...c:n:d from prim""" con.
rats :Illd 100. predominanLl\ smaller cuI" and
00..15, rl:cO\crn:! from unccnain .. HO\\C'\er.
Il3rd of the 300 was only gr.. phirall) I"«on-
sln,cled in pan. 'incc: 11\(:ir r«OllSlruclion. due 100
hij.;h fr:\I;mclll.ltion orland fragility, would be 100
limc-eonsulIlinl;.
I'OTrERY RA\\' "IATERIALS AND FABRICS
Initial infonll.l1ion on I':\W m;l1erials u'led in pOHCI')
production at Uga "'as g-til1l:d lhrout:h bumcd pieco
of d.mb. lksidcs added apL'Utics. 'he
d;tub conlained bigger lumps ofcalcarrom incluOOn!
and ochn::. indicating Utat these "cn:: occtJning n,ll-
in the clay deposits in qucstKIIl. 'nlCrdon:. an,
modest occurnntt of C3karrous inclusiom or ochre
in pollcn "01.'1 comidcn:d nalur.J.i, A rich depo!:il of
..n clan likd, 6-8 m in was dir
CO\1:rcd at' the foot .ithe plalcau "ht:n: the site is
situated. "nc is lighl grt". in colour and comains
'cl') line plant malcrial. Other impuriu(".. as oc-
<"MionaJh len!iC:5 of <and or iron rich fbb tcnd to
lump in !lCpoll':\IC layen. The 10\. [eu:1 of impuritio
"'as appreciated b} Late. \miquil} pOllen in
the an::a: did nOI need lC\ilption 10 n:linc thc
for hie;h producu. 'Iltc :\Ilc POI-
tcrs, COlltr.l.'il. had 10 makc proper chOlcC!ll of tem-
pocrini; nl,lIcrial 10 achiC\"'C a b.llanccd romposlUon of
1):l.';IC SUil.,blc for prchistoric firing conditions.
Ex'llllin.,tiOll of thc paSlc rai>l--d lhe kno.,,' prob-
lem of" hcn prcscnce of :tpl;lStics in cbp Ix:
I'L'K'lrdcd ,IS natura!. or. imClllionaJ. 'nlC IS on
f;,bric lypes COIlI;tining quam: indusiom. upper
la)cl'J of the c1;t) deposi", at the sitc com.un fine·
"'!':Iincd sand. and Ule decision ".b tIl.,dc:,o lreat
.111)· :Ullount of qll.lnl ;U
Vga
proprr t..mpt'nnl( mdtl"ri.tJ. 1Hl....d on ,}wo '"-UilmlllJf/C
Utd! It rrfkcu d trthnol."" rhtMc. 01..-.J1J,..... ill'
.11<0(1 p". iIJ11" th.-.t .ntlt!ll"r ""1U1'Ct' r,( d.n .Ilth IKh
('Qn'UI1l("m " .... minrd. C" 2· ilt thr- -ur.m. .. t...n- k'••
'oOn.t1 of d.., "<&,' tninlf plMo:'. F"uwJIv
a vnall JMn of;all h.trds lImf>01/: U_ .. fn. (lU'-
nf Late \nl;qult}- pollen Cntlr.;omn:l ""' (1nl"
mica. indirdun2 tlidl ilt /n.'1 001" 0tfw0T ,jcb\-
has htTn in wc. .
Thl" ""rtin2 of pOllen .hafd.,. lICcon:!inlf to) tlton-
p1:utic inc!u1iQn. occurrin2 in lilt- bbric prodlKt:'d th.-
...bo\e Ibl of 1') dilTerl'tlt combtlliltiom!;, ttTml"d tcm-
f(IUr lmlUp" ;}re bo, \'O'n
sm;dl numb<:" and in fact rdteel
or foft:ign ori'rn,. Onpnic lJ1;l!ter ""as the mt...1 mm-
mono Such m;\\, be fft:Sh plalll m;lterial (mm 'f'n
fine k';I\;nll; linear in a <cetion 10 crude-
5traws with corrr:oJll)nding somC"-hat ;}IlI{UL'lr \oim.
or allium[ dun/ol. '111<: sc:cond :rnd third in imporuncC"
is qu.'lf!7. and chamotte ofa1m()l;1 C"quaJ impon_
alll:e. Quarnls;uld is found in a mnl!!' of 'iW:J..
though mosl frcqucmh in lp'aim- bct"ttn I 2 mm.
Fine ponel) ronujn qu:uu panidc::t <>1" onh 11.5
mm. The inclw;inru ;u-c mostly rounded. bul 0Ull!;Uhr
ones arc ;Wo oa:urrinl.l. mwlh in qUlle hid! frc.qucn.
cia. sancblonel. onc !2 an
in Icnl!;lh_ disro\m:d 011 the si"; .. en: <c'\crm bumn1
:md brillle. easih COlmbbnl! imo!iCJl=llC u.um. "Ilr
;rngular form md sW: of these- ltf2im COI'TCbtc "'lib
the quartz inclusions found in the fabric ofJDl1 of tfx-
a1IO\\inJ,! the iI.WI1J1pcion th:u Juch >tonn
could indeed h3\'t' ocn-nl ;u .. <ouru !Or qlUltZ tern-
pcOf12. Ch=KHle or 2TUl.! is apparinl! Ul
abun.bnce. It can br 2-1 mm or find.
cllllhcd 0.5-1.0 mm. ",ben it appe;tr" in combi-
1CI0011 "ilh other lempcrinll: moucriab. il URWh
domin;llt'l. like the other tempcrinll: m;l1a1;W. ch.:un-
ottc ,,-;U lilcd (or production of both and fine
..-ard. in boI:h Ulf.I I nd 2. In the case:- of COolnC
il ...Ll almost ";1\3 pn:sent. The m.ult p"n
of the ch.unolte from cnnhed potten but
fired clar" "", also noted '" a mor.,
pulverulcm 'I.U"'. E\idemh. the b3sic tC'Chl1011x!ica1
llrncriptiollS in\Ul,oo elt, mixed "lth ort:;llI.ic m;utt"r
dnd 5t",'II;lh.,lIl'<I "lth 011.. or both o( the h..1'Ckun.-
e1emelll.. qu..nz/';1I1d ;lnd chamoue.
The ll.>C of c,.)(drnIlU mdusiom "015 ;U,o unpon·
;0
,
""
wcl ","11'
h
>I'.ill ,h.•o' ,,,".
"m \1 k.l-'t ,I • lit 11.. hUI
. I· m\fl.lU-- Inn.- ,>T ,.
ammllU <ll .-.Inum la • h,,- ••r
h
. nnrun' ,'," ,
n....u ,hdl,. in hrni ,IJt<,. I ...... a,_, . h ... '
, _L hrtl .. 11 ,l IIoU',
.rUot-"h -.oli lIKlu'lOn" r,l."" ".'1; ,
>f noo.pLl.'11C n'll·ntu."tll' \.,l.'
Ibc ,llIltlUm I I ..-nI
1tIt"Jn-JI(' llIIITquc",'" , ..m"hn1 r< .,
iJlro .-......'ldnTd .... .addc-d
, n-JI nl,IN f"'III·....
\monc. Iht' ."'Ilr'1t"'JDr'" "rrr """ .
,lurd, n.-hh trrnpet'l"d \11th .'1\l,hrd Ibm l -I mm
_.. _.. 'och 1.-.n1'l<"n1lC. I'r-..-o", " ...' .It-
.!.nu qUolTU' ,mu. . .. .,._-- . 1-
lC"tffl "n .1 h.mdi\ll 01 ,holm,. "Ill'.. rq>!'t"<lIIIIIl,! ILe..
liu.I.-"alkd anci rrtali\"rlI "o::U·til't'd ,'("0....1, ,11 kMI
"", , Iht, lunrt;on of" hKh h.\, nOI ll('t'n r-:l.lhh.'lk'd.
l'our I,-,unci in lhr LiIl"J 2 ....·IlIMll\"nt dLlfcl' from
Ihr 11<1110:: vi Li'f.\ I nnl "ni, in qualil'. hUI a["o in
....'ml)O'ition "f Ihl" ll"lIIl..-nnl,! UIlI,mllt'Jl.I' \\11rrras
It:-llIp..rine. Gmu!" 1\· .1nd IX er. 1\ I m.ll.. up
thr l'I'I'ferrcd (Omposil;on in both Copl"'r 't·tlle·
nll:m,. the occum:ncr of Gmup' I .1I1d 11 i, Jll\lrh
hit;h..r in Lit;:! I lhan in Lilf.l :2 Group III OCOU'5 ill
htllh >elllcmenl.'. bUI "ith a Mie.lnh hil,!her
in Lil<-l ] Lig:l I pone.... J1.-o Ilmdurro (Xlne.... "ilh
tempcrinc. matcriab of Group Y bUI "<'re I\">I in fa·
'''\Ir of cb" than Ih.. I!()UC!"> of Lil;!a 1.
R..nurlJ.blt. ,inwlh 00 pour.... "ith ornnic oon·
'UlUrnt,o, ;OOllC ha.' been altribulrd 10 Ihi' Lil,!:l 1 <,cult-..
mml. "hich onh Irn'lperine: 1lf'OUP"-
"The Iitt ofindusiom I> the, olllt'r '-:lrUbk thal dif-
Lic.a I pollen fnlltl thal of 2.
tht proportion of in-
in Un ] fall "ilhin tl\(' 'OUe inlen.u
I ] mm. the mlN. fl't'qucm inclUStom $Ue lin arowld
O..i mm in the ca.-.c: of I.
Gcncn1J,. the pOllen of Lit;a I rqlrr.entrd bt
fille "0Ul:l\ TJl4do, of "cll-'IOTlcd fabrio "ilh
1U\l",mu of inclusion•• hOTllOt;enom in \.itt ;1l\d "ith
nHoun from I!T'<'l IIJ blacl. Cdo
ur
Chart. lOYR-3/\. IOYR-I/1. IOYR·5/:! E...mh
bumi\lloo. lustrous. and ofirn 'him
fjl('('t ..dd " funher dimen iOIl 10 Ihl....· CCI';unin. in
COIIIT:lJ1 "ith the cO"-I'>t." hrown roloul"I:d lIOUC" of
LiJ{<':! lot't: hdow . •
In ..n .'llcmpt 10 rJbc,ill cfUnpar.ni'·e dat... nudil'l;
"ere abo undertaken on find, frulll Ih.. 1I0tllL!.>;l 'Idl
111$10.... of YeliloEtmO\u nu: up!>l'r
'l'nleffi,,"t of Ihi>. tlOll u "ell ;md daleS to
the Late CopJlt'r .\11<' 1'J58; 1%1.
th1l' p,l1.tll.-l ill til1ll' HI I Jt.:.l. IlL,LIlT;"I. '1\'lIl1JllI't.:
In.m:!l h.III'..... I'. hn\,ner.•utnhlll'·'\ t" l1w KGK
\1 ,UIIlIl.11 "'lupin DuI' III tht' I'ln;:t' tI".nuitl nl
lin<k "I\h nMIt·li .• l In1111 I" II hOll"" \I ' ill\ .·'tit.:.III·d.
J,-... rihr,1 .lml I. Con :rn;nt.: t,'lIIlkT'
;nl,! nlJtrli.\b.•• 1Il1ifol1nit\ in coml,;n.l\i.l1I t"ro:i,,,
.\1 Bomil,I, C.\k,IR"l'"' lIldmiol1' domin,l1e.•lHell in
romhin.lli,m ,,;Ih 1\rl:.Ill;1 Il\.lller. ,<ldol1\ \\;Ih (hol111-
onr. Ill\.: 11<.(' llf ,md i< \t'l"\ I;mitl-d. "hilt- ,ome l)tll-
IcI'\ l' <lnh Irlllpcrt"d \\ ill\ org:mic m;lUl'r 11'1' di.-
....111·" ,If .1 rcl.llivrh hillh rCl'rt·$t.·Ill ••tion ('of ory{olllir
m;tIlC" Ilod 11' 11ll" Ih.1\ org:lI1ic Icmperint.:
I' "flcn llH'r1tlokcd in Copper. \gc l>oncl) frolll Hul-
It.1riJ.. Olher COJJlp;\r.l1i\c 'lI£..lll·q Ihat tl\(·
1".,riJ.I;OI1 in tl·11I1>Clinl.\ eombimlliOlll (1ll1illg Ug:L '1 i.
:I rdl('("lion of o,(lCi,L1 plwlIomcll:! diM'"us.>cd in sceliml>
bclo".
DECOR.\TION
1111' fn.'<Juell'l of <lwrds from 1Jga :.1 [in·
rinh. \\ hich .Ire more oliell lefl ulldcconl1cd
Ihan hod••hardSI high: 3I
B
B. in kt.:. This;l perhap'
nOI 'UT]lriSinC. ,iller: lhe mOSI common fonn of "dec·
or.uion" t,o, 'urf,-.ee nlstiC:l1ion. no doubl imen(kd 10
be funetir:mal. In l.,'t:ncral. nlstieauon of the <urtlec is
3chiC\-ro bt a Ihiek breI" of e\;ly 10 ;1 ..d
in Iralher.h.ard <laiC. Depending 011 thc p;lll<,m
disuihulion orlhe appliro clay. Buh;arian
f('rt:nu:u(' bel"cal "b;.rbOlinc·· and u-:uhng
olher arch.1COIOt;isl> "ould call bolh fonns b;.rhOline
<utfacc llr.llH\("ll .\OCOrdiIIS to Ihe Bull..... ria.'1 tra-
dition of dacription b;Lrbotinc is an :lppliGLllOn of
thirl "hith crca'tC'i rough snrtlce< ill no P:lllicu-
\ar pal1enl. '\11;le linger lrailing, as Ihe n:m... 1< <11
7
-
;, ,II§(! ., rough relief applie;nion. the shp
being dislribull-o on Ihe .\"face br 1r.,ilillS lingers j,(\
Ih:!1 parallel ridt:;cs .Ire r.liscd in .1 ccnnin IMtlc.rll.
"
I
. . , ,·,..'rI10n
U.\II:\ y lOn1.0111.ll or I'{:rtical {l'clleclmg I II' ( I •
f
·'· f I'll'lt-
o Ir:" Although sotnetimcs bOlh "
. . . ,. de·
C.llIOll 'nLglu l>c combillc(l l'I'ith olhcr del·onlllll.. ,
InO:lltJ, ,"\d ere'IlO: ., (cn.lin il'1prc:;sion tJf C:>;Chl'I\'lI),
,
"<Iam-
'uc I surf.I(C 11'I'.,UlICnt is llI"inly I'c",;,,'I'e( ",1"
=
Ill!." p,ml!JO'o"" U;lUO ;U" SI',-,!d. p:.<!:lII! JO p;,sOdlIlO;l
§lll;>ll".1 . 1lI;llll1C,>JI .:>;I'!.pns 1'
111
'. ;I!J(I':J
.. ",:.I 110 'p""IlI;lp lIP'U;I;I
J,)U':I '''11 '1I0!I'!.l'O.,p IPIII!,'d ;l1!'1dl;.l,,'i' JOj
SI'll;I:IS i><llIl:I!lIl ""'!'!:JII! 'S11ll.L 'SlIO!'!:JIl!jO dl;l'l :I'll
Ill!,., p:lltU:>:\';III,l,'q 0\'1" ,',\1ll1 ,\.t:1l10d IPlllpld
jO ,'lIJ,lIwd J'I:>lI!I!,\..IIl;l .10 1':.I!d, 'Jllln;)
'J!J U! P;l§!III':lJO ';lII!1 III!ofjo SIU:ll111d X:lldlllO
J
''\POfI
;11011" ,1111 J,l,\O §IU;'II"d X:lldlllO;) :uo'" ll! .10 S;ltI!1
IIlIIlO7.!J0ll II! p:l \om (Will (; 01 dn) J{:l!15 "!IP p.lllllllq
.10 dJ"ll> " 'll!." :>JJl'lll §! 1l0!'FlU[ '(·B9(;) P:IS!jll! S!
UO!/I:.IO:l;l1' JO ;l(Li.1 IlUUJlllO;l l§OlU ::1111 '(lill!I!t:JI Jaliu!J
I'll': ::Ill!IOfjJl!l1 :lU!PJuj;US1p '§! 1111111 ,u:l\lod 1),)11;.10
,;131' p:l11l3UIfiI;.lJ JO 11l1l0Ul" ;11011 \\ ;1111 JO B,,!;(;
1I0!1l:J0J:lP JO UO!lnq!JIS!p ::1111 l\" SU!llOlTI

IIn,,< \.t;).\ U! llIq '1U;JoS;:Ut! OS'Jll S! UO!J1:JO»P JXJll1!Cd
:l1!lldt:.ili pU\! (P§!;I""""3 "U;>""I!l 3.le UO!II:JO;l:>P ;I;)llJ
-JllS P:>II,luq pm: 1).')I/3I1:J;)5 'plllU IPS!l:J 'UO!11l
-JOO3I) IPSPU! 'S,:l!IS pjss:>.J<lw! 'S}!d/S:lllll:ll.md
JllIMIIl'!J1 .10 P.JPUIlW pile ll:llls OSIIl
:SUIlpJ0;) 110 lI::>!Jo pilI: [!1l1U::IS
-U!) p!'"S :11/1 jO §UO!j':U!(/UIOCl 01 P;lI!Ut!l S!
1';l1j,)II0:l ::1111 UIooj U::I:>S ::>(1 ue:> s\: '!Pllb!1l
-11;);11 1I0!IIlJOj,)P ;lII:.Ioql:[:l ;).Iom jO :lJ!oU;ld:u :UU.
'::Inb!IIlIj,')l lU:llll
-11':>.11 :I::ICJJIlS :>.\!It:..loaap " 51: tllllll J:llpt:..1 '[1l110!IJlIllj
I: S,' P:l,\\;)!.\ U:I::I(I ;1,\1111 Ismu 1I0!IIl:l!ISlll .\..I:'IHod ll11p
:lIp l1U!,\\OIlI: ';I.lt:..1 S! IU;lllt::lF' :'1110 llIl,!l
:"'0111 jO p:Jsodulo,) 1I0!IC.lO:l,lP '.llIC.l;>U:I:) ·fhl!!!':.Il J:li'!
-II!J JO :l1I!IOftJ"(1 s;I'\lo.\ll! 1l0!IIIU!(IIUO:l jO :)(L{I w,mb
-;lJj bOlll :Ul.J. ·§I:lS1;.U :>1°11"\ lUOJj "Spur 01 p:>IIl:>S,IJ
.d;lJJ:lpun Iqnop 011 .\:lu:lnb:UJ 11 'SpJlll[S :lIp JO "BI: 110
punOJ '! SIIl:llll:lFl j,\!II;.IOj:>p (Ile U! pSI:a 1 [ :1:1..11[1
Jul 0"1 jO 1I0!lllll!qUlOj V ',\poIl P:lW:I!IS1U :lIp IlIOJJ
ll;):I"/
U1
!J :llll S:lll;.llld:>s \I:1ijo §uo!ss;udw!
d!l- pt!"/.10 l!"IU:lllll!J JO uOI:UOJ 11 JO pm'q 1':III07.!J0ll
\-' '.',,!;(; .\1
110
dn ,1J{IlUl 1I0!It:..lOa:lp jO s;xHj llu!II!"UI
':>.1 ':>11.1. "J;)(JoJd 3U1\O(jJl.'f1,l0 pUl: J:>:iu!J
jO S1'\\ .,.,oq "I:UI''!s JO :'nt 9,,1 UO P,lSI'j]
'(; u.'in)O 3111'j(11I1.....'il' :1111 U! '1511It.... \ s! :ut.'." p.>lI'.l
-!I"U jO lIf>l}JoduJd ':>11.1. "PL'fIUl! :iU!'!IIJ!UIUI
PIJI' 'SPIo,,)\ :>lJI-1JOjUt.u liu!dduii J:I\l,X!lIUlll'
':lU :"','.\ 1':.I:I\:l\ U! p:lll'f).')Jdd,' ;l(l 1II',l Ill;lUlll',UI
,')JI:J..Inlo 'l){'\ jO\I!II·UOll.llU!J :lIlt .. "ol,xI .1,1\ ' .. D..
;W!.\.L .. ifU!1lI.. "/dmllo,, .'>!UI))!11 pill' "1,"",1\
p:l(h'll\ PJJI'(I "1.'''''>1 JiJ":JOI'i a!q "! Will ',,:>11'" 111\.1
))
/
'0
/(f ;
. =--

-un 1"IU01U(l11 q "mll'-.lO;);'p J" ;l(hl 1I0lUlUO-l ,-
•.l.ldllf....:> .'1' \C" ;"'U') :I'll "! 1'....11 ;>(1
PII1(U U:l111 'pHI" p.llU '11/1 :JU!W'U 1(11),111:1"..:13.1
P1110.llU:l111 u;'a."Pq :I..lll1'!>!P aliI IUO,) I' Ill!" .1;>111'1:;
.<)1 punoq "'P!I' 0·"1 :i"!>!1 j),1l1'a.n <I'" UO!I1'lIl:lIU
-I'IW' Wlp 1l1l!,llrlUl! JO "'I!I"(I!JI<!P I'll!
l),lY'''CI(' \1!Jl'llh"i;>,J lI!"lJa:J I' <! :>..1,)11,1. ';,,'1\1 ·l'l!.:[l<lop
"'/1 "",.",1, ..d
1_"" 'lll"''''UtU'1' .><noli Ul m »>-.><", \I
It
v:Jn
72
. .\ '\ ._\' "iftft "h;dl
Jl"'""unn. wilh hn..,-m.II' .11l". 1111:< ,,1 '-' •
('an hi" uoillim li"o.l!. Ill.m l'llhl'r 'Id,', III tl.,uhll...li-
m,n.,n.tl 11'" nlllll1l<'1l .11111 pt'l1...ntll....lm ,I pindlll\l:
Ill.lonrr. l'hi, I'll\" ,.t •.m .\1", ..
,i,klTl\ .1 nl,li••mt'n .,1' th.. 'llrl.ltT. ,1111'\1 lhl'
"hnk \'("....1,..rl·.1 \1.\' .....i in ,I,..h 1lI,llml"r. !"IT'
qUI"OIh.. dll' r.1"{" 1' .I1'.:o.r,llI"ll " u-ni ltl "IT.m: .1
r;oi...-d !l.Il...1 mlntdcd III "''P'lr.ltr Ihe' nn:l trolll Ihe
\'t'TI\.\inm,;: \'l.ln ••fll1<' h.>d\ 1I mi.:\ll,ll",1 he u...-d I.,
IrmliTWt{" h.\rl..,uIK' (IT tr.\llio<: Ol,tk.lll<'n.
"hi,h u,u.Uh dt't" 00>1 ill\,>I'T!hr 0('t:1. Rrlllro to
111<' t\'f'C' "'. drt....Uli.nn i, a tnl(' rr1i"f m·...raDQll: an
.lpplK-d ...,rdolll "ilh .md/or un-
pl'C"'"j\l"-' \., IlK' pJl"\il'l\l.... lh" i., al'>(\ \1><11 10
-<par.no' .. ItK' nt"Cl.lwm the b,..m (IT to .1ctnnU-
ale L'nl.lln pan, u,wlh IlK' -J,.l\JJdC'r<. 0"-.\ \......-d.
1lK' dn·...ratinn rffl"t'1 .....' Impn:--<ion
mukl.lli<> bt ",hint.'d ",th a <lid, \lilh fbnl"Jl('(\ tip,
R.u.....d d.-conl...., " ... .11'>(\ u.'C"CI in a mol'( t'l.bor-
;ur m:uurr. \pPIird cordon, Octa.,jonalh \li!h
'Prcad on lop rould bt
u-rd 10 (T'(';lle rumple.. Ilallrtn' (In;.aniztd in circlc<:
and <piral, MId nbIiqllt' pnl\u\xr.tOCt'" •. Another
"''Pt fA r.li.'C"CI rk<:or.l.lion I, bo--e< on:anUrd in
a 'lint:k h"rlwntall'O\l or pan or \he \nlCl
boc:h Thil. "'1lC' or dt-roration has 001 beeo di,..
on whnk \ -cb .11 Uca.
l"inr'-ware potkT\ <uch :I> bironic and bowls
an: frntuenth dC'U'lr.IlM "'Ih Rminl!; 6' •.
can be in concenn'it: ardes or oblique
Illl('!; around IlK' <.h\lulder of wpanile. dO'Cd \"CS'<:ls.
art:' <kror.ncd around the hp and rim on Ihe
Imide. decoralion l'lJor i, fC!C\'t'd 10
more POUCT\ I\'PC!>.
.\ a:ommon 1}1>C of decoration during Ihe
Coppcr .\1l;C I, cre:ued "ilh Ihc hdp of puoclalesl
wl\lt'h ;lTe produrM "illl a slIIall Slick
"11h eldln o:--a1.• or. orcasionallj, lIMTQW
rcclanL:Ular up :)0., 5.ometimL'S lhl" <lick was sluck
UUII die cl,,,· :ll :11\ alw!c Ihe TCSullin" p "
, .. ,,' " a emrescm_
bllllJ.; Inanl:Ular illlllrcs '," ·\1 .
r
' . ,,11,. us lnlC
o \1.1> apphcd in TC1lC;IICd ,.. .1
. • •u" .llIu !iOlllc-
1I1l1L'" oo\·cred Ih\· IIhole 'urfaee .\
. row!> or
o,-a1 OT nalTO" fn:la1ll:U1:lr ,\1\: 'horizon_
1.1111 'qUI'.\lt·11 \\ilh ill\i,ccl lilll·'.• 1\·.UillJ.: .I hOIl"}'_
romh ,Mlll'm
m.l{k "ith ,lldl, .\1 riJ.:ll1 .l1\J.:k, .In·
l,t1<'n t;'J\lIl,1 ,'11 ,lwuld,'1 III hi, onk III nllll'r hip.lnit,·
\"N'I, J"ft. Snnil.lI 1\I}I' 01 ,kn'I.lIion ,'.m .II!'O
.-IT,I\I"\ "ilh hllltl·rn.lib IK'illlt prt·"c<! illlO cl;l\ .11
rli<11I .Uli<k :!°o. III hlllh l.I"·'. impn'",ions .1
ll:lml" \tl''l"Clll ,h.ll'I'. bllt till' 011," 1Il:1{1c with
('(\C\"' \1Io'llikeh fn',!m.ll\·r IIIIN,d, ofthc
chbea C.(llllprc,,,. 'IJ<:cie, .• idl'ntifil'd N. ,\ndrc·
a..o:n. •• lId ..lIllblirh.:e unit cl""iti,'S. in
:?OOI arc Im;Mder. Idc;llh. Ihis 1}1>C" of
onl.unt'nl.lIion intended 10 rn'ale :1 paHcm of
".IIe-.. as tht' oricnt.llion of w:u
ch.anl!inc from nm to 1'0".
Iht' ran:: I'lle' arc dceor:ltion .3',
and graphile 2'0'. UOlh rcprcscllled b} a num-
ber of imprcs.,ion of rumplex pallcms
of multiple lines. E.",c1st--d decoration is
'01llC\,hal deeper 111:111 Ihe inci'L-d, but is silui1:lr in
"idlil.
1111.' la-I represented decor:ltion I)1X
I', is pOllcn "ilh scr:lIched or brushed $urf."Ia'. Sofl
da\ was bmshl--d "il11 ;1 bundle of coal'SC grass stems
or similar material, Such decoration is IISII:III) appliL-d
00 Ihe "hole vessel in inlcrchanging din:c-
tiOIU: a lIlorc rc!,"\llar p:menl was c::rca,,:d
bl bl"U!ohing onlv selcclcd p;llchcs of Ihe surface.
POlle!) nlstieation IL'Chni<!llcs h:l\'e also been ap-
plitd by Ihe pollCT'5 of UIfoI I. but less fi·equelllly. hl-
stead. paimed I)QUC!) held .1 much grealer pro!)ol'lioll
of tIll: ,herd:u;:e. "ilh C01l\plex b"-;Iphilc pallcms prc-
\':1ilinl:. bUl in combinalion wilh red, ydlo\l alld
"hite paims [1'1. fit Cmphilc motivcs "cre llSually
made in cOlllbinations of line group' {35 !illl-OS, 1.5-
:1.0 mill broad\. bUl Olhcr e1el1lcllIS such :IS ImtchLo<l
or meanders arc .• Iso p\'\·$elll. ORL'll f,'l':lphile
is cOlllbincd "'llh thuing. 1':lilllecl dceor:ltiOIl W:lS
".milll} found 011 lhc uppcr p:ll'l of \"cS-.-els. SOlllcliml:.5
nms wcre .,Iso 01'llOlmcIIled I"rOI1l whhill, lhc mOSI
dabOl',lle being fuulld in Ihe illlcnol' of
\)<),,15, eOl'<:ring Ihe ",hole s\lrf:lc(;, decor:l\io1\
is commOIl. occ:l,ionally wilh "hill.' 01' red illcruS-
1'lUon.
V. POTTERY AS SOURCE
OF INFORMATION
I'RI::."J:NT.\TIOi\' OF I1A"li\
Prior 10 ,I of the I't"l.lled 10 pOller)"
produclion. lhere is ;1 lleed 10 m,lke ,t pre'oCIll'IIion of
lh,' d'll;\sel. \\ hich Ihis 'lUd} Oil. AI inform,l_
lill" the ,h;lru 1II:llerial is. il call nelcr lhc full
complcxit}. 1.. :l!i idl',nion;11 of lilt' ceramic
production: hence. the below cOnsideralions ,Ire 1),lscd
on COmplCle or ne'lrl)' complele discol'Cred
in ccrl,lill COlllCXI!i, primaril)' inside buih
HOllSC I (pI. 1) is represented 30 complele or
rceoll<;lrUct.Lbk cer:1Il1ic \'cssds, foulld in IlII are;t of
28.3 m
1
; lhis IIlLlIlOCr is 1011(:r Ihan
of Ihe l'emailling 111'0 houses, Ihc damsel
is impon,L111 sillec il l'eMcls wilh :lIH1lob';es in
Ihe olhel' hOllll(:S,
l'louse 2 probably rCI1;1,15 lIlt' full"<;l infonmLlion on
.m origin:ll COlleClion of vessels ()'1. 8 & 9). De<;pile
lhe f:,C1 Ihat lims of \'wcls In sitll "ere in somc pl.lces
jlJSl 15 cm belo" Ihe <;urulce. Ihe area oc-
cupied by lhc house: h;1S sulfered littlc d.mMgc duc 10
sllbsequclll aClhilics Ulall hal'C Ihe OIher hOLlSL'5, In
gt:neml, Ihe malerial of House 2 ,imem;11 'p;lce of
3-1,5 dominalc.'tl by IInsophislK;;llt-d. nmicalt'd
or plain surf:lce pollet;. fin:d :u 10\\ lemper:ulln::s.
;111(1 .. bulldLlllh lempen.'tl "ilh o'l.':tnic 1II,lIIer and
chanlOlle :IS Ihe maill conSlilUel1l:ll. SUrf:.ICe:: bumish-
ing is :Ipplied 011 Ihe inlerior of olll} :l fCI' IXlI\ls, QUI
of ,12 16 can be classified .15 Coolrsc:. 2-1 ;15 ICt;
COlII"IC .md onl), 2 as fine ware pOIlCI)', "Ille l.utcr
,Lre Ihin.wallL-d hiconic jugs (\I,dl Ulid.n,,,,-, r:l\ll,<illl;l
Uclwcell 35 mill). decor:lIed Wilh ,md slll,tll
hos..'lCs 011 lhe shoulders, The dt:eor:llioll
ledlllique, except for barbOline ,md lr1liliult,
(2:1 I'c"clsl. No
pailue(! \\';In' has been discol'ered in Ihis hou..·. The
lIumher of i, limiled 10 9. :111 !idling wilhin Ihe
fmm"l fepcl'wire of Ihc KSB ,
l & 2 WCll; mainl)' iUI""LLb'1lled dUI111J; lhe
fil'SI fiL'ld c.Ul1p,Ligll (2000). IJ,lscd 011 Ilw pullel...·. bolh
SII'lICILII'C' were (1;,led 10 lhe \t'ry cnd of lIlt' Copper
Age, l1w S<:lIlemelll or Utr.L 2 initir,lh pl.,ce::d in
he,wt:cll Ihe la't 1\\0 of Kcd"lite, Ihal is.
1)(1"('('11 C0J!prr '\1,'" RcdUliu: III .md Rt'dulit(' 1\,
Ihe 1.lll!,"r ,lllrihUII:d 10 Ule ..o-<dUrd lran-
,itiondl I'rrilod to the 1:"lrh Broru.e . !oluch daliJlI\'
II,U III cOII('onL11Kr "ilh published inf()ml.lu'lJI .lnd
funhenllorc confimwd cOl1Suh.lIiom "ilh Bull:.
...i.1Il 5Chola!' 1100.C'('r.•,fin Ih(' full di>l:lr"ul't" IJf
HOIl5C 3.. \odl .15 p;:tni.Ll of IJtlwr budl
SlmClUrc'. Ihc'lC' idc;tll I.crc .toolhhed.
Home 3 ".l'l lhe structure al
Ihe ,ile linlental of 31.8 m:, The:: pollt't\ II,l'l
disuibuled in ,L much Inore conccnlr.th'd m,lon!,"r
lh:Ln in Ihe Olhel' hOlI.'IC'S, 51 reeOIl!ilnlcmbl,. ,!,"'\)(,'I\
were discOH:n:d (1'1. 10 The bulk p;tn \\,IS foulld
in :1 heap of shards al lhe eaSlern waIL Clt'"rI),
indiC.llCS on shell'cs. The
comainel'll\'oluma r",tehing 250 lilres I"'il'
on the /loor. "hile :,I)()le, 'm,Lller la>cb "ere 'lad":,d
in ,11 le;l'll 11.'0 le' cls, .\ of \'C5SCls cOIH:entr.tled
011 qu.t1ilalilc!r pOllen \lilh \\('II.bllr-
nishL-d liltlll dccOr.tltd "ilh P.-.intM or com-
plc'\: incised p.lllenl'l. EI1:n thc con-
tainen had onll a 1Il0der.tle inclll'iion fn-qu"1KI and
\\en: bc:lIer fired Ihan Ihe COld!: pollen from !he fil"ll
me::nLiont'd hOLllCl. I1 "hole or ne::arh '''Ink tr.aphue
painll'tl It:SSCL. \\'cl't" di5COl'cn:d Pl I:! In facI. thi.
was Ihe onll hou..: al UIj.l 2 thal cOIH.litlC'(1 I\'r.Iphilt:
painted potlcn Somc IUlC lried 111"-
plain Ihe:: lid of 1.!r.tphile P;lilllr:d potlC!' on C(>ppcr
Al;le ,ilCS I.ilh poor Todofll\.1 e::1 .LI
2003 ..\1 Ulf.I. Ihi.-l nOI die:: tmIphlle::
paimins done prior 10 bunlishinL!. "hich had .1
dur:lblc proll.'Cole nnl,..cl on pollcn
if is imporllLlIl IQ 11011', llt.U l),ulL! ".l' nOl
fCsel'\'l,<1 for \,(... ofiell im"!'JJrclcd ... 10.:1(/
ones, bUI \\,IS .,1>0 "pplkd IQ
fur slOmse. Thc m.lIIller (If
surlhec lI'e,,1I1I1'1l1 ,md (b:or:uioll is Ihus c1ulCr 10 Ihe
e;Ldr pan uf thc Copper. \se Ill,m 10 1"nllill,Ll
ph.tICI. ,Iccol'dill!l: l(l Ihe l'IXdOf.,<iGll ord"""L! <\_u.'nb
'Cl up in Bu!l.;;ui,l. III [In. I I. \'1:;UJlll;l lit..
,i1e in 2001, r:u'<"d till: "helller pouct\
,IJOuld be d,ued 10 lit,· E.lrh U>ppcr .\ge::..\Jl Ihltt
. kta .ln1/(/((lIO,l.';r'1I
,
I,. \ I I'...... _...-.l .."h _..el·oft<t'\ I
p<.-itit_..-. ,_fIlC' t... ...... Ll Ui
hou-'C" \\t'n" "-....1'\"' Irmp"r.all\ l.......lIld IhrotLlo':h Ihl"ir
,p.tu.u lTL:unlll<'" "rU l"Tnain "ilh .1
lu..:h dr(rn' ,.r rr-nnhLJ,mt. I'Ilt"N Iil.rh of
the ....Olt r->ltC'1'
Iltu... Ihr C'.l.-.trI\<T III qu.Jlioun'h \
tTOm "lIlltmpor.1llC'OW1
cuW' ......tT.lI Iml""1J.nt ... hoprfull\
.lll."'l"tl'd In thr 1000"""Illr
I \, to tltol' bUlh ,tnl\:turn; Cm rotllcmpor.1n
'\nK1UW' "llh qU.lll1J.ti\"l+' difftrrnt COIlIC'llb Ix:
funrtioil.&1h tqWlt'(P lllc usual COIKnll of;\Il
tu;t.IJ.t"r '" In diff,",nl 10 rcl;lIt'd
bLU MTrtMll \('1,> uf nnd>, 10 dcmonsu'alt
the ftLlll'licltlJ.l ..-..ri:lbib,\ of ,Iructures, oftclI ,,;th
jU.foundrd t',-pblwUnn\ ;t.lJei O1lt'CUUom.. :\1
Un. prot'C" "'" ret"t:'l'\l'd, and an ;t.ntmpl
"," m;jdt 10 ..h.", dUI quJ.lilau\'t udusi\'CllC""
.1I1d hnd L' nul 10 "Ir.msfonn- ;1
dwdlulI: IK)IL"t' ima ;t. or ;t. communil\
hULI"t'. \, h.llo btcn nOlrd alx:r."'t. C'dlt1;Qncs "cre
nn, ndu\l'"
! ICl \Ill" w\Tnil\ of punrro. Ilmduetion Ir.ldiliolls
.1nl! \I'rir Irtn\IOI,,1 ..en'LUI;'\. \\1,;t.1 an" Lhc cui·
In rtlalll C3SC!i.
1:'\"llll'O..".... Q:pbnalion\ h:I\T l.M:cn SUI:I;t<ilt'd 10
Llllcrp'TI prdu'lOllf d''\TlollmClIlS in Lh., lttlblls.
MC plT:!ot:lllrd <IS m:l.ti>CS,
.ollcrll\l'11 or In....'CSlin .• .
, 1;, .... "mol<
.",d arrl"llunlo; r:,d, olh..n. idea> On ,I,· d
" c SUITQun _
Hll\ "odd, ALl)!hl"!; c"lcaordhnl'\ ,. I· I
. . " . e"I' ;\In..''(
"'uIL 11", 'If n;ner:un motSltTl; whh all
"''l'' 1\1 Lr.,,·r ,md" geolo;t'aphical k"o"l.
l-dl(", ].,nnWLUIo\ Ih,\l Of h" '11 I
. " '"I Iq le:lp
p' Cl ""....1. , ......\ tr:" d-].,,-.:n 11\ , ·"d . I .
I
. ' ,. c 10 C.'l:. l-
Lh produuwn relLl"', ,1uscl, foil ' I
' o"'"g 1 It "Mr_
].,,'l ,11111 ',Ill,hill!, 11ll' ,11-111:111,1, ..I llll' Ildl-
I11f"nlll,,1 m,lIl1'lll',m, 11011"l.lIioll, 'ICIII"I,'I, :"
tllll.
h
,L' lh,' klh,,,k,IIo!I' (lll lll1' C.lPIWT ,\gc is I'\:-
'ill,Wt!, _lIdl ,I 'llllphh",l \,lIld illl<'ll1iol1.,II) nmg.
...'r,L1t'd pirllll1' "Ill h,m:!I\ 1)1: lnlC'. rh,' t'\'idellC','
Oil Ihl' \lI.IUl'1'\ pnJ(hL'liUIl :ll till,l ,'onli,nIlS III
Ih... (If ,Lll b,'W'T LLlI"'lig,ll.-(1 ,il"S. rhe gr.lphit..
p,lilll',,(\ Ilt11lt'I'\ nh"1l h, .. Ihl' rh.lr.lcl .. r of mm
IlroduCli,m, Ih;,.1 it IM'iCd
.11.lil,lhk kllo" 110\\ then might it be ex·
p1.ul1ed th.'l onc \\01110111 from ,I IMni<-ular housc
\\;\!l ".Iler frOlll Ih,' .lllhe fOOL of
UIf.I ill.' dull \\";ller jar. "hilt: her n..i!.:hbour for
IIll" ."unc mill!.: :I wcll-lmmbh,-d,
_hint gr,lphill" \MlmL"(1 jar if nOI in l.. mlS ofindi-
\idua\i_lll?
3 ,\5 to Ihe lI11plil.llium for an::h,lcological re<c;u"(h
,tr.llC1.,';('<.: ,\re wc doinJl; lh,' things? With-
oul imo dccp(·r disc\ls.l.ion, it is t:'idclll Ihat
onll romext.d('<.illIlL-d ;md recording
I'l'l:lttdurcs can pro\ide a reliable profile of;1 sile.
u'ual Bulg:ui:1Il Ilrllcticc: U'cnch c:o:ca\";llion
in limited ,Ireas is c!"C;l\illR r:llsc ,upposioons, tern·
ponIl\ as well as olllur:II1).
I'O"'ERY l'RODCCTION
All thn.-.: houses ,ubjcctw 10 dcl.tilt.-d in\'cstigmioll
contain "OIIlC nidellcc on produC!iOl', "hich
('an be ('onsidercd romplt:mellltll)' to al leasl a p;,r-
tial TttOIISlnlctioll of the I>oUCL)' ,.."Chllolo!,')'. House 3
hdd ,he mml sOl'histic;llCd \>oI1CI)'. comr:l,ting Ihe
olhcr 'wo I>OUCI)' SCIS 10 _uch " th.ll c-"lcrn:,l
illtlucnccs "cn: mnong pos.sihlc <:)(1'1:1'
nations (1'1. 13\. Such werc j.;l1ldually di.sc:trded,
thoul-;h, as il :IPPc;u'c(l Ih:.l cxc!US;"I' p;,iLlt
()C(lIn'c<! Oil dillc.,.. LI1 l)lleS of Illilimdau pOlltry,
nminlr on hig C(llll"iners,
'1'1.,. produClion procC.'i5 of llaiuII'd pollCI)'
requires., pWller In:,llmelll ami gnlphitc ;'5:'
n;.lur:.lIy fou..d C:lI'l:ful SdC('lioLL of Lcmp"I"
illg male';;ll iml'0rt:lIll in onkr co Illillim;1,c 11,,'
risk of rmcking dudnll. fit;ng. Co,lIose p;trtide5 rUlllcl
,.1'0 cumpli.. ,,,c ,urr:.ce Irc:.llll,'1l1. So. 1I0l
gr;'l'h;lc P,L;LLIt'd P<)llC')' IImdt: of da)'S ",j[h
,uooemle or line cnllsliLue'IlS.
prefcmhlr ol'Croup III .md org;mic "',Lucr) ,,,,d
Lign
75
... O=I.K Oll'''l.. .... ,(,htl....
C'Il, I. I n ..
Group \" (organic 1Il.lller. Such ConJiSl-
I:UI") is nn doubl sib'l.ific.ml in the liglu oflhe pOSliible
eomhin.lliOll< .llles,cd ,Il llil' <i'e...\ lac:,l orib,;n of
gr.lphile painu::d potu::.)' \\,;IS :,lso confinued b) lhe
Uf:l gmphilc conc in Houw :I. ,,'hieh "as
hrok"1l lhc perforaled Iwh' for <u,pensiOll. Thc
ilem h:,d ., poillled lip (Fig. \'.1:2).
Simil:,r COllCS arc kno\\'n from Kar:lI1o\u .md Olher
JilCS 1966). Gr:lphiw a l'juile common pol).
1Il0'llh mincr:d. :lppearinl; in lhe !>Chisl 1.I)"e,", of Ihe
11.llk.111 .md Rhodopi IlI0111!l ••inJ. hUl il is mOSI n;.,dih
.1\""il.lblc in lhe moulll;.in ofNonhcm 1I11ll.,o:tr-
i" N. Zid.lI"O\·. perli.romrn. I. In an) C::"''C'. ilS
CIITe in L.ig:l :mCSb 10 a comidl:r.,bJe 1Il0":IIICnl of
Ix'ople and/or oojl.-"Cl..> ,molhcr imJlon,1I11 <lOllellll:nl
aoout Coppcr Age .md ib lllooilil\ and/or
',el\\urk.
Gr:lphi.c Il."lillll:d poue!) ".IS
lhroll.t:h j);linrint; "ilh ,!,rr..phile on a <urf::ICC
in a le.llhcr Imm Slale. I'.'rh:lp' Ihe "en: Olll-
lincd .1.\; il1ciscd lines. for Ihc «lmplc"il) of Ihe mo-
li"c' impli... ", lh::u ,hcr "ere ,,-dl pJ.ulIlcd Ixforr :ICUl,L1
dccor.uioll, IMintcd cowr Ihe
ulll)Cr p.trl or lhc whole '·c.,;,d. G... philc kepi in
pl.,ce h} suh""(IUl'lll hUl11idlin!{ uf,he "hich
cuh,luced Iht: "C"-'CI'5 "isu,d .lIld tlllu·liull.d
Sudhlt:< p:d11lcd wi.h gmphilt: "er,' l)Clll'" blll'lli<l,,·d
Ih:m 'uditccs, "hich ,,'cn' Idi lI"illllllU il. The bUl"'
n", "",1"" " ,n 0, :-;,l"I. I"Lu"" I)"... ''''' "r ,hr
<>fGtfll,'Il"!. ("r .1", ",,<I "Ihr, ,,,r. ,"".""'" 'I'''''''.
III Ir"
Fil{. r""OKl in ••"hen.::.! pol ......d,nl{ ,Il ,h. (hen' r
11"".... t,
nishing \\.15 carried Olll "i,h and
ooncs with ,L 1l.lrro\\ ,ip of:! 3 nUll. :t.'i
Gm Ix deducl"<1 from Ihe .uzc of till:
..\n impon::nll find ",.., made in HOllS<.' ;!,
.·\lont; wilh bit; Jars pbc<:d 10 lhe: \\t"51 of lhe:
..1 of 1\-pe ':r IT:<lrictcd <ph.,.rical 1"0-
IXlrtile POI "<IS diSCO\-.:ro:d. conraincd a <nuJ.I
biconic nIp "ilh srn,"lJl Jmobs bul "ithonl handlC'< plus
H rolled <lone!' \:3,. The bucr Oil be:
grouprd .Iccon:liull: 10 size. shape. and ..one: I\pc,me:
main "rroup is made uI' of qu."lnzilc "ith "hllt<h or
reddi.lh lim"oc. 3 pico:<':S fr:Ill:lllcnlC'd arc 01 bffi\\lush
bl.Ll;k sillSlon,,_ ,\$ 10 .md illc. then: an:.1 O\;t]
and fLu 'lu.Lrttile ',onC!'" 1.i-3.1 crn lonll:, of bill:
l'jllan:.ti,e b;.UJ IJ.o-t.8 C111 long. J oblOll!:" p<lInlC'd
SillS10llCS13.1:I 15 un lont: . and! triant;Uloar l'jn.lcUlle
piece:' 1.6 cm 10111.:'. Dc<pu.,. tI'e cnil.'11l.ltic rllUllcnc
on:lcr. lhc 'IOIlC' be connCO:lC'd "ilh
lmd hurni.hint:. lllcir >nMII siz.,. m,L\ illdic.uc Ih.u
,lIch 'IOIlC' "en: .b-«k;i.llI.."(1 in p.mien!;'r Wilh pruduc,
lion ,lIld trt:,Llr'H'rll of Ihc popul"r .m,IU b.,
<:onir
8"1<'1';11 (r.Il:t11Ctll< of pOl 'l,lllels "i.h fI,'1 lOp ''''I"C
:Ib.. di'll'o\"CI"cd ,11 UII"· Dill' rt.-cOI1.>lruclt'd
CQ""', fT(lnl HOll'C.l 0 21 Clll Fill· \. J:J • '''0
...d,crs IJMth llf lhc ... ullt: .md:ICI (rom.1 ""1..........n.1
iti
"Ido "llrlWfO!f'br;(I/
I.P,.np!"!IInI'I'IlI'lI1!i"i! .ml!!Db'd
l
\. \l..-.t.d .....
.l! tlw- non!l<"TTl ",.l1l '" 110... \. 1nt bUtf \,-;t-
_In;uh -nuIkT in di.lItlC1<"'f. bu, In 'trm- of p;1>'t.
«>lnur ;md t;:t'oc-n1 appt";l.r.Illl"C' cloY:h
n:-<"mbk'l:! ,he- tiN (>Ilt". Tht ........... cam-ulll
tlw- Ihi.L ".ill- \,"ftt TlUlk,o
"ri;;:h, .......:h -t.md!> ;l.ft ;Uo,(l known from
<othrf <.:appn .md Rnmu .U:t: ).Iiko\ 1%6.
11\ 11 \ ).liL... tw. du,
.,}-"ouki Iund-tIJllrm1Il:» a !l,mub!t
, plxffi 00 iut \),Lor< "ilh tht ronlt prollllxr•
....KT to .....1tlw- -tand on )'Iil\ll. 1%6 rnt
funrnonalit\ of ,uch a dllbtou. in prac-
Un. il j,_ bkh lIu' tht 'land. "n"t indtl-d wed ill
!"'oll["f\ pmduction.lk main pan oftht has
fbl ba.or< 81- .. b.1>td Oil wrd malerial. in
Lt!. dnn<lIl..tr.lUIlt! dUI M;rt fomlm on ft.ll
Mml" 1w.c-. ;al,o shQ\O a of
-.:md ... indln.unll ,h'1I a IJser of ....nd "';I.';
ilr.llllllllM 1t:""L-I from m., modclhnll ""rl"acl::.. KI Ihal
a ,,,,,od ,,,mid IlI,)\ adhtft In Ihl' <uMace. Ih con-
U;Ul. ;( l}.;In of' 1111' d:1\ Iillllrinl"!- lmpn-ssloll!i of
Ir;IIll:" of on Iheir f('('l, pmmotillll lhe
Unn thal '!)('Cia! .... orl.!iholl "fta. \lere nOl nec(k'd for
thcir Im>dU('Uoll. C"llc.. po..-;ible rolalinll de.
lve>. Ihcir I'mplonlll'lIl I,ould ha\"c bt.-cn more im-
IJOn.\lll fllr "hich ill\oked r":peli';I'e
11\ on,' dlll.Tuon..\11 lhe iO"cs,iI!,"Jwd 11::';-
<c:1, '\1Ih humLlhcd 'UM:ICC!i had \1'1"':'-'5 of hori.
I.mll:.1 'Im","-.
.\ frl'qurnl find Ul.,'3 2 lllalcri:i.I art: rt:.
Cldrd llOl1l'l'\ ,h..rd..I1,e\C al'llC.!r ill
ham. and rclll'l;l dll.llllCI function•. Sc\cr..i.l 5hards
11lIcrprell'd .., llOllcr.,- ·nlCSl: arc:
ofi('"n donl;.l1oo rim \\ilh onc or. in >Qnu: cases
two. <;IllOOlhll .lbr:II;k"d Fill. \"..1:2 •. Ilu: !).lltc:m
of abrasion ,Il.lt thl'" h.wc been used in vcrtical
dirtt,ion. Tbc ('"Olltact an.:.l of !iuch :1 <hard i!i around
of ,j cm in Icllgth. lIIuch too ('"'-'ensile fOf <uccnsfull}
rompactint!.l ,unaC<.'. ·Illerefore. il 1II0n:: likcll' tha'
the abr.ldcd "en.: use<1 for .-crouching and
ID1()(){hinll of \'C'o-cl R:"nlting ill a IllOrt even
di!itributioll of Ihc c1.1'. Such conclusion also COli'
fimlcd I)', lImck in ..\frica.
"hcn.: shuds ,,;,h sill1il:lr .thr:uioll p:lItem halc been
.a::n in action the .mlhor Fil:. \"..1:1,. Indl-cd.
anah-..o of 'c«c1 'un;..ccs confinn Ihal Kr:lpillS
US«!;U onc of,hapinll 'loclmiqul-s. '!lle I'cs:,cls of Ug:l
2 ",=n:: built using Il'Clmiqucs. liny
miniamn.: ",.. ,,'cre occasionalll ImIde hand
moldinl:. i.c.. fonninll ill ,he palm withoul \l5itlS ad·
dilional cia). Ihe same wa, as b:tSt.-s 'U'C fonned. 8o,.ls
'>ere .II!iO madc using Il"(;hniquc,. Ihe liS<: of
1Il01d, could nOI he delnonSlrall-d. Closed comainers
"'ere built smning fl'om Ihe IM:.e, "hill' c:II;lIall:<I I'l""-
'>Cl, secming.!} ......rc buih ill IWO p.IrI';; and joincd OIL
the 'houlders. ·11,<.' lo\\ ...r p.1l'! of Ih... \'<lS in :L
lealh...r h'lrd Slal ... befo!'e bcillgjoined ",idl lhe coil of
a rilll. AI Ihis sl.n;e, I,hen Ill<' hasic sh.. p...
achil...·...d, ftmhe!' rdilll'I\1CIll of Ih... shape :LIlt! Ihin-
ll;ng oflh... ""lis "c....· can; ...d OUI by Somc-
"cr:,ping "<IS donc ill less
likc Ihc i11ledor ...c of till' shouldel's. B... •
,idC5 llOll ... ,) slml'd,•.1I10lhcr grOllp of im,
plcm... nts miglll .•Is\} have ..1.0 I)<;cn eLllplo)cd in
>cmpilll\. '11Ie<;c :,re roulI(b:1 01' 0\.11 ,Ionc di,cs. ·15
1.6 cm .md 0.8 1.0 clIl lhick. lhillllin" 0111
l.iga
7i
,
ror: ''i SL,,- ,lion J""U'n.lI'" r... I""'1n'\ .';>JlIfIIf If>
tun! ,u,<'
fired during .1 louj,ocr prnod. <il1ce the rorr h.e., the
colour as lilt' wr(;,ce. ,lIld ,hI' i, \(l'ner-
.,11\ h:lrdcr. Ilid! Ihe Iil.:ht coloun:d pottt'T\
prt'<,Cl1th p;lnll discoloun:d due to "''':Ilhn''iot! ,md
other post depo-ition:l.l elTcn, """.I -null W{>Up
of d.•rkl.'r \ ...... bl"Ol"l IOYR.:'l/3, hnOl,n
,2.5Y-5/2 .md ("\'t'n d:lrk I(lYR..1/1 "inc("
nl:llll ,m::h"eolo"..i'L' ('oloul"'l ," .m indit',ltiotl flf
firing condition'. d"rh'r I"olollr< .H'" .nllolll,llic,t111 c\·
pl,tilWd Il) firilllt ill ,wluccd ,lIt11mphe!"C'i. !'ruper I't-••
dUlIiol1 <XCIlI"'I 1\ Iit'll iron ... P"-,"C1Il in tilt' rI,LI,
:,rl' heiull' alTcct,-d o\er leulllll\ pt"riod. .1I1d .It tl.'rn·
IlCr:ItUfC'\ in of850
Q
C GilNlIl & \\00<1, I
Such firint! "ere UtX irnpooo.>ibll.' It. ,lChin'('
b\ th.. nrinll' imt,dLlliorn ImtJ\\n fmm ut!'".I. bill IJI
\usl.•iu Ihl.'tJ1 OWl' .• lont!..r period•., poiler "ouId
11{'('(I.1 kiln GO!'.....].Lin 1tl9:! \1;
011 llOlIl'T\ kiln. ,,·rs <p:U"":..L' (111 nther
1}1"''S "r i'l>I.,II,ltions. Elen puttilll;( :Ill '<:'\ unll
OrIXlllC" \\ithiu Ih,' <{'ltI.·nlt'nl
,11 UIf.I I\Oldd riOt h.L\<· lJ<en 1IQ,.iIJle. p;,n!\ dul.' '"
<1"'\" limil.lliOIl. hm mililh tll \\indl fUIldil1"'h .11
lhe llJp of till.' pl.lle.'ll. ",.,kin!! CCN,,/.lmti"ll ,,,mm
imj!O:Noihlc. So, i, i> I'rnlielrd tlwt I\oul<f h.ll'('
bn-Il ,-•• rric<f OUI ,It .. nl<Jre J,dt..n:d _lie hdl'" the
1"".lId, Ill\" 1C(llo:l", irnpkrrWI1I' IH"" <h-e olnnl
ill lIuu,," I &:! lilo:. \.:'1,
Y,'t lltlwr 'IIJIl!' tonl, n,.l)' ,11..., IM' rl'l,Ul"<110 IH'ltl")
prndl1rfi(lI1, 1[0"""'1', th,'ir im"rpn'I,lliol1 is !lot al.
rlnl1'-lut. FI'I" 1':rc.IIIIJlle, 1).I,,·d (HI frorm,.1
tU;I) "ith Ih,· ,.hr..dl'c1 n.1I 'tunes. r" hX!'l
cm, wilh .1 n.11 dlll"\,,1 .lIld .l:round \urf..u· on
both ,ide, .llolllt lhe ftu ,Irr ,II<,() illlcrprctrd ,n
heil1lt u'Cd for pOlll'r)" BIll ";thOlll mi\ ro-
-COllic ,tlldi.'$ such rc'main \Mlrk.
Br\idl" Ihe b·Taphit,· conI' u5t:d for !XlHcry
of 11lll'111"tite or red ochre "ere found.
This pigmcnt h.., abo been 11'1'(1 ,., pOllery p;lil11-
Ho\\"('v,·r. compared hi other Coppcr '\g<:
il is rqJl'Cscmcd r:tlher 'IMrscly. SeI'cr:.1 ,dth
n:d :ll1d )dlowgoclhite. paint "el'C di5co\-ered in
laycl'l d,'led 10 lhe I !it:uJcment. In Liga 2. onl.
House .3 held somc C\idcncc of 1I'>C of red pit::menlS,
A big ,wrat;:e com:,inef "ilh .1 globular !xxI) ".IS
p:,inted both ";I.h .b>r.lphiIC and red ochre. mailll. to
enhallCC lhe \'cl,icalloop h:ll1dles 1'1. 12: 13). In such
:t case, p:.int ",I< ilpplied ,Iner the I'es'id ,,"s fired, In
another Cl<e, pull·e';l.rd h:",;m,llhc appli"d to the
Sllrf:LCI' or ves..'!:l ill le,llher-hard S!:lte .md then bur-
nished. This h"ppo:l1cd prior to All occurrcnn..
of hilcm'ltite lumps "ere tn;alcd Idth caution. <ince
their presence in bumc<l d.mb indicale.-d th", the."\
wen:: IMWrall} occurring in loe:,] d.l) source<. so dut
their prc<encc at Ihe <ile could be explaiue.-d de-
cOlllpo<ed daub. Sclcral big lump, Ilere di5t:O\ercd
in House 2. Among IllI'<c " 'l11all hCl11i<pltcric
piece with ,lbr:.ded cd);,'< ,md .1 dillllleter or l.il cm
(fig. V.21. TI1C p.lucm or •• brasion bears ,,;II1C'<$ tlt.1l
the h;u:l1mtite piece rubbed .I!folill.1 .1 h.Lrd, 11.1\
sunacc.
Evidencc on the mm' dem'Uldinll p;,n of
the production C)de h,lS been indinxll\ col·
ketcd. had ,races offirc cloud. a ...."\uh
of Ihc of carbon dunrll; opcn firi,,/;. Tltl'
light coloun. or UL:lL :! Icsscls: p:tl<' ),.11011,
Colour' CIIul'l: 2.5\'.11/3). reddish )1'1101' li.5YR-6/
8, 6/61.ligllt rcd {2.5YR.6/1:I1, red
brm,,, 7.5YR_6/-i ..md Ihe like ,11I1)()int to",I((b tir-
ilH: il1 oxidizing condition,. IU\C<li!.:.ltion, oflt's.,d co-
res 51>011 Ih,l\ o:rcidllion \I.iS nOI .,111:1\' complele. Ihc
comhu.tioll or ont-mic tII'llIer 1101 .11",1\- brin!.: «·n-
eluded, Gr:,phile I),IUllCd IIQIll'f\ -er"'. 10 h'lI"C lJt.....n
i8
TEJoftAATtJRES I'Cl RANGES
,,. '"
30CI SOIl 100 TOO 100
!lOO 1000 1100
\
,
\-..'
- -
lllll 1'llII JOO SOCI 600 700 100 900 1000 1100
r... \ li.. Tc'"4C'_' nIIC" lot IM u.6"( ""'" t-d.... d.,,_........ "".... I "llnI '1 Of"'" ,,"h u...
PO'" &nar; 1M hnooi; ..>tb.b..vdo ..... lbr llpIbli bln ;01,... eo....bln In Da,'id.It K...o.rn<"' ,!(101
pble"u, probahh do<.e IU the: <;tl"l';am and th" cia,
'OUrttlo Thi. area h;u apnlt:IKcrl tt\l5ino
3Ild n;ploi\alion mrou$ it. minimal
c1o.llcn for <furoo.'l:'l". of a finnl:: '11C:rtc is. llD".-
t'\'l:t". allOt},,,.. !IOUl'CO: of illfonnaliQlI, llaJlIck rq'In:<;cn_
IlU;"'" in cla,_ often found un Coppt:r Al,'t': ,i,o ;md
actin" it, tokens of non·, 1,;1'1),11 rom,llUII;(";IIIOu, .\1\ ill-
ICre"linl\ find in Ihi!> l't"lw:t\ ",I, IlIadc .Il SadO\"t.'C.
F.7.cro: ;, frnl\l1lcm of ,I n:cmllKular lllblt-like: ill:rn
with ",,-ernlllCrfornliom Q1\ lhe upper f:,\'e \\a.I inler.
pITII-d a!> a model of a ,uhlcml1lcan uIHlr.tll\iln I.:iln,
b:oSI:d on bcl\Cr-llrnel'\c:d hislOri"al ril;. \',7 & \'.11,
but aho Coppt"r .\1.,'" <"Qmp!... frum the ROlluni"n
Cuoucn; culture Glu:orghiu 2002, "'llh
remains or;l kitll ill Bulb",ri;, were fOIJlld In
the Cl'" ;11 ,he Rhodopi 1II0Lllll"il1S :lI1d
all! (liucd lO tIll' Tr:Ll\s;,iOllal Period
1992" Such kilns "Quid have \)cell su;,ablt- rUI' ('!'C-
:Ilill!;;' n'(luc"d firing :'lmosphcfl'.
n;.,dil) "\'o::n, dark colour is :H:hic",'d
\nUull,olIlK ., 'cchlli!!",; of depositing C:l1'bull iml11t'(h·
.lId} b<:1o\\ the SlIr["cc (Gihson &
"hi,h :Iba 1rllpro\'c, !he surface rc,isl,LI1rl' IQ
Skibo ct ,Ll. 1997,. Smudboing is ,-",11)' .ll"hkl'l'd In
"
, ' ""cslIupk
Inn!,''!, ",o::n 0!"b....mc <n:uena. 01 . ,
,
• '" "\'r,·cd
I:R't'1\ COl"'!>, .'re pl.'ecd near hOI 'll C..
1IIIIIIIIIIIIIIhl"IIIIIhllllllllllullllllfllll1
Llgn
79
\\ith fuel (oS\gcll deficiency is ncedcdl. Smudging is
coluidcred .L improvcmenl due to the 8[00>
sllrf:,ce. (.'\·clI though this procwure is
'cl) simple. sllmdliOO all' beillg 50Id al 1/3
times hil;hcr priCI;$: ch:1I\ lheir o:<idiscd t:qui'<llenb
person.11 obso.:r....:lIions ,11 pollers' \\orkshops in BCnin
and Ghan:" ..\nolhcr "idcsl'rcad slIrf.u::e-d:rrkening
1(.'Chniquc is qucnchiut.: C:lrhOll 2002. Still hOI POti
are beillg submerg(.-d in a 50Upl o'1.>:Inic solution c.I; ..
flour mixed "ilh w,l\crj illllllcdi:lld> afier firing, :md
as a the .wlid componelll of the solution Glr-
bollisc. cre;uing a d.lrL; SUn."lCC colour C.'rhon 2002,.
l':'idence 011 firinl{ colldilions is also gained in-
dirccd)' from gr.lphile IMimed poUel). Conlrary 10 :111
O1S'>UnlpliolU about pyl'Ok'Chnolot,';cal :ldl<lnocmeJI\S-
induding the ide:1 offirinli laking phlce:u ;50-950"
\"OdOrol,1 19861 it lh:1l gr.lphill: lJ."linl(.-d
poUe'" ollly l'cquin-r; rcl.lliveh 10" firing Icmpcr.L-
turcs, since gmphile lcud, 10 bum OUI al lcmper-I-
lUres .. bove 700"C Arch:,eologiClll Rc·
.'IC.lrch LaOOmlOI)' 20(3). Tnll' profcssion.llism thus
rcsts Wilh lhc .Lbilil)' 10 lemper-nun'! :,oo,·c
500"C. needed 10 comhust .-MOOn from con: areas.
:uld below 7{)()"C. 11cllce. 'lI1\1(lb';ng Ix· re-
garded as Ihe m051 prob.,blc for dark ponery
colours. OIS il l>cnell,Lll'S deeper and Cre:lll" :, Illore
e\'Cll Inyer Ih.m qucnching.
Firing :dOlL!: wilh f>a'l-firing lrc.,lmenl
Ill:,)' hold cuhuml illlplie:uions. 11 h:" ueen nOlcd Ih:u
Ihe gr:llphile Ilaintcd ])OIlCI)' llf Ug:1 I has II d"rk
u:,ckgfound, while duriu!: Ug'L 1. painl i,
onlr foulld Oil lighl colnurctl I·es.<ds. Sirnil.,1' ohscl'.
,Lre madc .11 ollu'l' Copper .\g,. siles. II
h:l$ f>cell nOled. fill' cx:u"pk. lh.11 :Il YmMl.ilc lunder
i"nuenCl: of ,,"5B and Sudic\o Tdh
under influence of Ihe KGK n romplClll in the
ThrJ.cian P1.,in bumi:d,cd pOllen Ml
om,mlented" TCM:Ior'O\-.\ rl .d. :!U03 _ The- Ill'nd :11
li:lish is llO! Graphile p..inlW poUr", from Sa-
dcn'eC Golenl.lnO\o Kale h.u dui 'un.lCn.
11 and III ha'e lic:lll-colourrd <1I":lC("l.•llId the ...
is lhe ClISC :11 the muhi·la\ercd silr of Pipm_ Hence.
it mighl be ch."l1 dll'l..:oIourcd l(r.Iphile
p.. imcd pollel) is earlier HO\,C'I cr. a dilTerem p.ulrm
al the of SadO\'C'C·F.:zem and Sacloo.t(;.
Kalelo. "hell' Ihere is 110 dear,,:ul di,i!iion rc1f.I-rdinll
b.-.clground colour. In earlier L"lle Coppo:r.\!re U\cn
light colours here. "hile 100'arm Ihe bll:'l
phase of the Copper .\1,'1: darlcr colours domin.lle,
Imerc::stinljl,. "hell comp.Lrillli ponel) of:ill l-hrcc
C-.>tC!'<lled hou .11 UIla.onl, HoLilC '2 h;u <hrl
sun."lccd . .\ mOSl ,ilrildlll: ClI5C is lhal all dun'
houses had;ll IC.151 olle 1OM:1 oflhe 11C.lr-<h.lpcd 'I\pe
··S". "hich. idenlic-,1Il>'. is dl"\:Ol':Lk-d ...idl linllcmail
impressions pinching 011 the main p.,o of lhr Ixxll
belo" lhc II<"CI. :lIld (.'qUil'pl-d wilh 1"0 horiLonul
halldla. Hou.$C< J .md J cUll1aim:(1 .1 coloured
rcprt:>cm.ui,·e. \I hile I-lOll\<: 2 h.,d ., doll" cnlllured
onc.
So, despite the ullifonnily of ,h.lf><·<..LIl nlll>afl.ulI
p:lllel11 of lXll!el") \'lu'i.lliulI '·lIlel"),. ...... b.LSCd nn
1I0logicaf lraditions. illdi,idll.11 ,li[ls..Ind perh.,p-,
c\'en compelition ill !lCl"<l,".illhoLN:hold
p:micul,llilk5 ." e\,prl·-..led lhlUUllh lll.lIcri.d cuI·
lun,.
In lel'm5 of cI·idellce on pouer\, pnxlllLliull. HOII'C
f is som""h.ll Lllltlern:prC'l·lIll't!. I'all.lp' Ilw b'1\·.1l
alllOUlLl ofr18urlne p<1l'1< ,llId mini.llun· I'\'$..<d". "-'Illl'
80
ht. , 11 R _ ",..0... ""'" 'lr IT'P'"' d 11.-. , ....
...... 1'-
cl "h... h c:>n 11(' reQ.rdtod a> mal in-
nidll,11t 11\,11 d .., \\"Ol>.l1.O('l,1 famili."\r medium
r,,,. th.. "",,!km, (>1 du. 11,,, od",. IWO hOIlS<:!'
hall' producl.'d IlOlIer. fur lheir own
,K'('(k .\\ Ih" '>.Ime tln'c, thcll' al..., \OmC
fell t"xr h,11l1:'l' a', the ...·tdnncnl 1110: clllonic ap-
I'",;\rh 1<\ •,"n.un Ih" al",aoh mcntiol1t-d
1",,\1"\\.11)("(\ In....l 1\'P" "S" • for C>;;unlllc mal.
111"'<:""'. cmnllhr;lIr Ih" dc'ttlion of
Ilmlc", !':>o l..r [crm", ,"d , .H on ex_
dl.U1J:,C n",lIr_ (0 '"'' UIll\lJ1r"..J biconir rul 'I
I' ' n "l( lOll!
\ le \I'Il,,1 u'nl<;t] h,'ml1'.... fouud in 1-luu"H ') d'
1
"" • an 3
""Ill "d" n,. \'!J '
t -. ",,,nuore a Jug
mm I Inu"" 2 .\11 rICK! p,'r:P.lld 1\ round ill &\huiu:
111 r,,11Ill1\\ .nk.menl (""rmnl" , .
h ,11 . . III
" • ul"d .",d unh 4 mm Ihie!;. dl
d r
". '. :IIId Ihlb
I"n '''''I mm Ihe 'nn.,inin" I' - r 1
"
..
\1I,IIO\u.... ....r.1 ()
'. a Inon' c:Qlnple-; COIII 1 .
W,,·u, I>n .o"'ll.ln-.oll' .unl SO . . lot:
In. 'Ilt.-cul,mon.
hili ,,"1 ,·,.Ilwlt''' "p"1ll111( 1"'11 It<""I ,il;1i,·, "I J.:.'I .]ll'l·r
h' Ihf ,1.,,11 lif<- ,,1 pn'lli'1\I' i. "lI1111lll1lili""
n 1'01.0G\, l'\\, I DIl' L\ 1 .\ND
I Ll 11 ,\O1.11(, \
h,,' .In h.u""]"I.,"I'I' 'I,ll" illl( ,n "'11 k ill h.I\ ...
lh.. ill";""" hdirll h.ll It<ll' \.111 It·lI ", 111\11.· 11t.1ll jml
"'llO'ill"! lhfir 1l\,llfl;.,1 f",I\llI'"" or ,1"" h... ,i,· \ .IS
':"Illl'wlu'nd.'(! "ilh .1 modem .'\t'. nUl Oftt'l1 .\
nol of 'ludi." o"l.. mull, ill d.·l.,ike! ;\IId <:0111P",·
h"'lI'''!" '\pIl1ol:i(,\1 li"" "hi... h. de<pilc Iheir
Ihonlll"!h'''...... h.,,," hu]{" 10 oncr in leOIl< of wider
"l>O!o!-" h.tS h'.'f:olll... ,1 ...d ill
ibdf f(ll' nl.lll\ .,n.:h.lcolfllo,';'b "ol'l..i'i1: "'ilh thc rkh
Pll'hl>lorK IIMu'ri,,1 ill U"hr-u;.1 Todoro\';\ &
;UlO\";\ :!OOO; Todoro\ a ,'I .11 :!OO3; K.II".ll"O\ 2003
Just 10 n.m}\' ,I f..." n'f:CIII 'nl{" "rellglh of
ordcrilll: ,.... :I 1001 i, Ih... !;CaTCh for r...pcti-
I'l"('(>I.!1lition (If prinMI foon' and nOI as
(lltnl ,1 of ccoaill uniquc
IiLc hp \,;\J;'llion. Such arbilm'1 on:r·
.:l1.-\1,iflC.llion is producilll.; ,1 101 of Ixha\;ournl
";Ih link cuhuml Si"'''Ilili{",lllCC 1.\olOld 1985.
B. Ha"lcn offer; ., lI"eful definilion of Iypok'h" lhal
"sllould pl"O\}(',h "'fer I(l s}"'tcms of {"alej.,'Oris;llion.
"hich I...} m.....11 -omclhillj\ aoo,,1 lhe nalure of hu·
man heh;l\;ouf ill rrl,lIioll 10 ;1I1el;,cIS. \, hcthcr lhis
infonllalioll is 1)\ l1:tl\lrl" c\oIUlional'). fUllclional.
IcrhnoloWc;,l. saci:,I, or
811.
EthnO'll.... hacolol,.;{"al .1 ,ulIl1bcr of
<ludio ;UXtlUmillg. for ill<l.llIcc. for in flU'c,
.unong 1>0\11;1) ,YPl-OS 10 :1 dq,'l1:C
"]lIclt 15 hy no m"';\IlS .Icn·,sihk for .1I-r-h,lcolog;;IS
eh'a!;ll!; '';lh p,.... 1ll.1I ... liab. Th,,<, ill prc,;c11l
dJI G]h1n", food \"rvim; hem Is with., dj'linr' cb,.,i-
licalOI) mllllt' C.1I1 be su\)di";(kd ill'O s... sub-
depending 011 thcir which rellerl' ,he
of;, nmlr puson rO"Slll\li"J.: Ill<' 1ll.... t1 {Br... !ell-
$;Ih 20011.
for Ihe plH'IIO,e of rt'\'en!inl; "I]'" role of
1lI111t'",,1 as pOlenli:,1l1' :lc,i\,e cOIlllwnellls of
hUUh11l heh"viuur" (Fleld,e" \992), lypoloh,)' i,
Oil "11...111:11 lempl.ll"'s" or "pnl1
u
lYI}C'"
KCllIl'l<ll' ltJlll1. ,,"d"I'\I(\O(I.<5 lhe irle;,1 rOrlll of:lIl
.1l1l'f;'I;1. eXbling ;n lh... Cu):uitilln (,f pt:up1c "ho sh,.rc
Liga
RI
the .... llIIe culture. Of conrse. lllt' rt',\ul!, pn:>clnced
wilhilllhe of III is lheoretic.d cml-
1101 he w,lcd .lg:linsl the d:l.«ifk.uioll. wllirh existed
:Il\\<lLlg lIll' potlery U'Cl"I BUl lhrough
uHlppiUI: or h:lsic ;Lllribules :md 'llh,e(]IlCllt sed.llioll
il i, ne\'Crlhdc."S 10 .1l1'i\t· :tI lOllle h<lslc
slmpes. "hich .Il k:lSl "ould h:'lI e bt:en b}
lilt' pOll cr. II ho thought not onl) iu cociatl} con-
SllllClt'd concepts h) alMl in of It'ChnolOt:icill
pos.sihilities :md .1 rlll/int o/1;m!<Jlff. Such .111 •• ppro.lch
b in lhe pl1."q·nl supponcd b} PUIlC!) anal)scs
from olllt:r KSB siles. confinnim;; lh... lhe pll)('CS' of
"cultural n'pliC"dtion" Ihe I.IlC Copp"r . \ge \1 d.S
well 'Cr. "'elcher 1992·_
QUI' UWII l}llOI01..<ical Orderilll: is JlI1."'ClUt-d ill a
'SChcme 1'1. ].I &. 15 alld hdoll , Gt'Qmetrit.11 'h:1pc
b l.Lt..cn as. lilt' <t.ll1illg point for d.IMirlC:lIioll: 111C
numb.:r of l-l:l:ollleu;ctl fon11.. med dClennillt'" the
hiel':.lrchical order, unn:>lI;clcd IxmI '01'.1 cont' beill\:"
""l:::lIded .'s the .implc.<1 ronn. 10 t}"]JO-
IO!-<ic.,l cncompaSlo their '''PI>o,<:<1 runction.
'I hich 111.1) 1101 .1I1,.ln correspond 10 the intended 11"':
blll .Il IC.ISl i< casing I crbal comlllunit.ltion.
110\1'1.'" ,\:>.'n rllI.m I>EIU\',\r\"b,'"
A Sim/,It IimdJ. Tlli. ill('0'1,I1r:,le, w"d, or
1I111'1"II;('wd .·om: _h.IJle, ,,-il h I .11"' bell,""'n
I :md I 1 uflh,· 'lIilxinmm diameler .lIld with.1 1,.111·
h.•,,' r:tllL";lll: bel''''''1I 15° .1Il£1 1:'°. Siml,l,'
1)01,1, i) lht· mUllerous "fth£' UI(oI 1>01-
lCr) Thl'> .L1lO Io;;nd 10 bc (1\ trn-pre-
in .1n·h.lc:olol{ic.,1 rq>orts. ,incc a li'lnnall"t.'l"on.
<trllc,i,m '.Ill onen b., pl'Ifomltd nu •• ... 'h.trd.
For r".IS/Ill. olll\, bo"ls bl I\HI ur
more: .1l"C 1.lken inl<) prc<cnt con,ic!l-r:ltioll.
HOld \ .• ri.uion m.mire.l) ib.:lf throullh ori ... nt.llHll\ or
rim and ,h.,l'c or lill. 111\ t:ncd or str:utdll rims doml.
n:Lle. El crled ri,n• .Ire u'uall) 'harpl\ c.lrin,Lled C.I-
rinalion mit.:lll h.tl t' .1 chrouoIOl1;iC".t1 \i\:"nirlC:lIlto;;• .l.S il
OCcUN in t::rc,u ntll"I,",,,, dt th" S.. ,Wn: SlIt'>. and
comp.lr:ui\cllr:t",,:Ll Ug;I. lJp dlidclUnt:: i\ aJ"l ....>n-
di.ntnOSIK:- rc:tlllft." ofmc: lat... Cupp..r dt
Ut:::'! it is u!-u.llI\ for boo"b Oro..l1er qU.J.Im.
Fllnhenllor... IX/I'b " ..."" onen llHXliflC'd b\ .tddint::
h.mdlC" or other .mribuI... ,,;th the <aml" IUllctioruJ
prop.:n\ \'oI"rnClric-.Llh. Ixn'b :uT a hlehl\
group.
B. IJ«p b«.lJ ,,;Ih dudcncd rim ,uKI
hd!.!lu .Iround I ; uf the ma.ximum di:unet..r. ,,;ill.
1>....... dnt:1e r:UH.'1Il!.! bcmOXll 50° and 60°
C. Dttp fJwd.J, N10b5 n1a\bc ..applied
bdo" the mmin,tt pOUle I-lillhl\ placed tunl;"\! pDtnt.
diameler of lhe urifitc bcin\! t I Ulllt'" .lIld bill'
gel' th.1ll the oollonl di.lIll1:lt'r..\ .uOC:ue\!on lll..a'
h.I"'" round...d h.I'".
D. Off!' IrmllJplrmrll/ brnd, IIIIh ffllJ.'W wnl,,1 ""'.
The lllrniujr [loiUl i., llIark"d with .1 p"ir uf h.lIldlC".
or krrolh. \'olurllelrk.IJtI lhL, ,!lI'OUI'l.' tlllifi.lllll.
E, IJiJhtJ: .1 'h.llt"" Il.... ,d runll ";lh unrC"lrillt-d
oritic.· .md .1 h.. i/o:lll b,:im: mon: Ih.on I ,,,f ib 1ll.l.'l.1·
Ilium di.mleler. Di,ht" ill UIr.\ ha.... "ide "rincC" ,,;th
82
r.'
'1
lr\."l<i rh.. tr.tl\'1li"ll
l
K'-
a o:ham<"lrr " ,-m .lrn
"",""0 \,.,...,,,'" ho'<h ,11\(\.1 rrbl".... t-. ]"mt.: ,lr.\I\:llI nlll
I' nu.ri.n.l. with a n.m.m.•t."'W;ill"tl ,,"h
. '"-R l"n' KIl'''''..r
hnl:'"nip 'nlJ"T'''''''' or .,... mlprt"" _ 11)("
h IancIIr- .u'( .,al"", found .-.n till' l>nIlIl
I
>!'\l'
\. "ra -m..........brd \ ,,11I1Il(1';' ,..Ill, ,hI' ltfl>Up
I- un,';>rm h h< b
t &1fft JiIIIwl \,...,0:-1. ",1 I I'
_ ,,--:. .LL Ih.. hc-'l::hl (If
,unMrT "I Ill" ,mtxT 1'\,U\:ru' ...
• L_ -' Th.. orillo."T i; 1\,'10" dun ch<" 11011<\111
u..- \T"-n. . od'
\ ....ul'llC"lrkalh. it ;".1 Ulufonn \,hKh I 1<"3'("
" .. __-, .nd "'...{"(\ function \11 IwU' ru_n.-.lll:·d
a " ...........-'11...... ..'1 . - ;u
_110.1('('0. .md art" equil'lM"d "llh m.b'lIT , ..rue
h.lf\<U<", (Or cidK"r on "r hd,..., Ih.. 1!IIlUll!: pom,.
G I I"fl ,,'ill> his::l>l\ pla{'('(\, ,h.1I'pl1
'hnuldr'" and upridll or 11I\l:nro fl.lnnlt nn-b nit
,hnllld.'r< (".1n mailed "ilh p,,:udo-"11ldIllC ror·
don" 1',\il'" of knob< or honz<l11l.1Ih I"b
handle> or.1 combinalion ",fbOlh ,UT alw pl.lcrd on
Ihe ,houlde"' ..'" a rult. IIle l""er p.m of Ihc bodl j"
nl,Il<.lIffl. "hill" lhe lIC'Cl i, ,moOlhcd al1d bumi,hcd.
If d....·Or.tll'd. aIT dl'llbHd on lilt nce" and
The imerior i> weU·,moothcd or
ni. "oIullll'uia.lh. Ihnc: j:m' fotll in 1"0 .;ill" COlIC-
IlOfi<:-o,: mntium silcd and ITn com.llJ}(Th. The
inll:rior U ",dl-smoolhed.
H &_....... with rounded "hll:h can
ht pbcni either hil1.h or in1he middle. 1crU-
cal Me pbecd on or lJdo" lhe luminC pain\.
Tht ,urLa£'e 1> fU--<ticav:d.
I &dd......""""ilhaconDlbod-.
necL b\ a >Illde oM iunh prt:SC\'l-cd

J Rnmnei splJtnctli la .J>IIfbJt fW''' "ilh irnmcd rim
and me lumine poinl brinC in tilt middle of the le<-
<d\ bodI Thi§ l:!TOUp il. one of me TI)(N nUlllt"J'QU!
\mhin tlit poIl("I'\ ;w.c:mbul:("..\ <ubwoull
It:'<""l, "ilh hi$1I pbttd luminl\ poinl. \'CS'C:b of
du. an: found in .. \";lr1et1 of e<)1\lem and come
ill a l":In,1> of l"OIumeuie bUI mainh in middle
and "nail siZQ..
K bimnJr (IU/J "idl m.-.rLl"d rim.
dosel)' rclalctl both 10 11Ie "11" ,1IId ':1" U!iUalll
die tllmlllS:: IlOilll i, in die middle. bill .)(;(:;uiO'l'l1i:
,tlKlluc
her
up. runcti"notll,. dlC'\(" po!.> miclll be simi.
br 10 'r pol.>..
L .)pNri<a/ /'OlJ ",ilh m;ukd Ile(;l,. Ull" diameltr of
I
I
· '"(I" ,Ill' di,II11l'I,'r of Ill\' rh;,
llr ,mllO •
.up l' ,I" ....·!- ,,-1.,10-(\ h1 Group ':J"
I (;l,J",;"" lV,od' dr.,\, rI ,11I;:hth do" n. \lr.lil\hl or
;11\1'1"1('\1 ..... 1iml,i, "I rilll',
allO'1l \ , .............. \\ 1111 {, IJ'DRIC.\1.
:'\ n..-r."" '1<1;' r..th ',TI1II4nrll!1I«4: n.il llumcr·
,
• ,.01111"> III ,I \ ancl\ of dilfeTCnI appe.mmcts
,m' a 1U
in 'pile of Ihe f.ICI 111.11 111t'1 <;('C1Il IQ bc
akin. III Iht''C thm·",tllcd. sYllllllelnc;l1. and
IhOTOUl;lhl1 mad<- I'l""..el' C.1Il Jxo rq:;arded .lli fine 1101.
ttrl.Th.... ('(IIllC "ilh t\\O or olle \cnicalloop h:mdle,
<ollll"tilllC'> "illl ,mall hori7.ontall) perfor:uL'"(1 lnobs
or I.lb handlrs. placeo Oil or I.x:lo" lhe tllming poim.
.\'1011lef '\Ihwoup cO'II:,in5 juglels "illlOIII llundlt's, .\
p-1nieU1.'r rellrt"'t'111:ui,'(' of t his is ;Ill .1I.nphom.
likr jU!; "ilh hi!:hl)' pl;ll:ed shonlders alld vCfncalloop
h:l\ldh.s eonllenin!: riUl "ilh shoulder. Nu
ha\'(' been f:u·. this grollp is
considcred a.\ robusl. since it i.\ ,II.\()
\\ick:h al Olher Ksn sites. prim,uil)' Rc·
dutile :lIId Sadovt:C. As a nlle. Ihe jugs .Ife dt:Cor:lIcd
in Ihe mO-I protmding .trca. i.c.. lhe sliollldeT3.
o Close!\ relaled 10 Ihe pn:\ious group arc bifiJnit
CliJb. 'nu:51: .1Il: ,hallo" vascls u.lIal1y equipped "ilh
1.... 0 opposinl;l \Tnic;ll loop handles wnm:eting lhe
shouldeT3 "ilh the rim. BUI repre;cnl:lI.i\1:5 "ilholll
such handlcs OCl:<\.Iional1y appear. 'nl;s group i. nu·
mc:rous :Uld prob.1bh onc of thc 1110.1 fJTquent Inenl'
bers of a 'Iancbrd ponery sel of a 1I0I15<:hold.
I' Bll bitwtK)fJrJ ...illl cylindrical or slightly e\"eo("(1
nttL.. lllis poup comprises voluminous closed
!i(:b.. The tuminl!; I>oint i.I exactly in the middle oflhe
s1lalle. Half Ihe '·es..ds is cquipped Wilh ITl1ieal
handles, pl.lced either on Ihe shouldeT3 Of bclo". ,\1·
dlOUl!;h similar in ,h:,pc, Ihe \'olumetrie dilfercll(e and
Ihe dilfefCm:e in POIlCI) ITcaunenl (slIIoolh \'crsUI
nmicau:d surf:,cel imply .h:u. funelionallr. Ihis I;l"OlIp
miRlll hal'c been heterogencous. The tnlC is ,.Iso
UII comellll>Ol';IneQlIS si"s.
R. 5111,,1111 10 "1''', bill highly pl:.ecd 11IrnillS pOilll
:uld a more glohular apllC:ll':lllce of Ihe bod)"
S. Bironu- Jugl lI'ith Jllgllt[J· n'ntfd rim ,md Ifi'll 1I0ri:,0,,11I1
lIondlls pl,'eed 31 Ihe bebolllning of the necl (pear·
shaped,. Ihc handles secm 10 be:' slronl.l
II1'ulogic:,1 allrib\lle••I.'i exactl) the s;ulle sh"pe "illl
lilt' '."m' lyl'" .lIlt! p",h'llu "I Ih,· 11,111(11", t .... 1)(·
1(1lllld ,Il 0' her \'i' ri,L1 i"n 111.1) "uty .IIJJH',.r in ,I U'
I) 1"-' Ilf (k,or"tit,", '1 h,' IIIl "I fn'q,Il" " tn)(' "f <I,'\"or.
.uion. ,11_0 "PI)('"rillK .n 1l,Iwr i, ""nlc hy 1(,,-
gcnJ.lil 011 "Imm, Ih,' cn,in' <urf:,(C, I\ll
thrc... in U/:" ("fltl1"illt'd 'ype.. of ""'<;e1. A
<"ugflJUp is in :, 'imil.,r "")". llUt ,h,. orificc
i. mud, widcr as (i)mp,ln'd .,ilh ,11(' dO'l"d n·pr'.....·n.
of I!w nl.lin group.
T. l1",m;r Jf(lrJlgt' rllfl/arnnJ (;Ill .Ippe,,,' "ith .1 _hon
ewned rim or" lonl; C}lindrk.1I neck: widc orifloCe.
L'. Gfobula, Jr"rtIIY ronliluln'J wi.h qlindric:al neck:
"idc orifll;e.
\'. Staragt' rllfl/arnm 11'l1Jr twlrlilaprJ futl'n f"J11 ,'nd
long. C}1indrir.Ll. ocr-.lSion.LlI) invcned upper
p.-ln.
Ugfl
83
-...
--
- --
'111' \·.10 III '-om.- ..... I fmm .... 1.0/0' L<,..
p<T Itn ...,............. "noln <i It>- K(.K \ I
<ompr< O"""'''IIIl1"" .. ,LW:......
VESSEL
'\I,hout c;,;dusion, the :t1}()\T Ib, of 11g:1 I)Qlte"
1\1)(';5 - primarily on \GKI shapes all:
Kju:tn:I. includ.c<1 in th,.gclwr:lIt\-poIodca1 n:pe:noin:
of the KSIl, ,is "ell ,IS in ,he KCK VI wltur:J.I (Om-
plc.". This deffiOlls,r:IlCli .hal thc source: of is
the s;mu: for both cOlllplexC!i ''''d must go bad; to a
period befon: the \t.-m of the COPIKr AI,'I.:. When: the
diffefCnce bc'''ccn .he IWO eultur:tl eomplt:."o be-
comes ,isiblc is in .-.pplic,'lion of ondal) morpho-
logic.-II anribu,,"S such as h:mdlcs. knobs. :md <up"
plclllem,,1 .hickcnillg, .,herinl: the profile curvcs. For
e:\(;.o"plt:. ch:lr:tCleristic for KCK \'1 ;Ire bro.ld al'""
plied b.",ds tl,,' 'houlde" of biconic vascls,
lhlb c":,,ting Ihe visulII diCe, of ,I l:}linc1ric:a1 b(Kh
element iU'iCned bct"ccn " lower :md
the upper oflhe \CMCI Fig, \'.101. :\Iore puz·
zling is, ho"e\"'r, lhe "bund"'1I "se .md 10
sollle extenl ,dw knobs within ,he KSI! cuhure. A
comp:,r:"i\"c ,I11,Ll),i, ofllle m,Lleri,l1 front mo hOLLSC:S
of ,he 1..,,:'11: Copper Age si ... of 1-IOlniLS.I. \ 'diko ·I:,r·
nOl"O (coro,idel'cd :,s hdolll.. .-il1S to Ihe KCI' VI sphere
of influence) 11,'S _howed Ih:'1 onl)' I"" of ,he "hole
vt:S.'cb w,'l'e ."quilll'cd "'ith 01' pcrfor:ItI"(1
I;,hs. In US" numbel' is 11101'0' I1mn 7(j'u in Ihe
group of dosed biconi(" ve,se!' II i,h q·lindriral necks.
What c"en morc 'Iriking b ,lUll hOlds .lfe :,150
c'lllipped with I11l1hi]Jl .. :md ,."i..d 'll)!;> of
thu. 37". of,he U;;;o:! IXl,,·I, ,,,,cl dcrh,u;le<lknoh,
not indudt:d . 'lltiJ marked 1I.ltUtKaI dill"cn:ll(e lllU:it
halc ruhural c:cp[allatKln<. ro 1Il\ mo..ledll'",
tthno-.m::hacolol.,.-ic.11 studlC':S arc ,ikm on uch mal·
ters. morpholo!;ical ,mrihu'M lilt: handl..... elllcnnll:
Ihe formal rcpt:noire (lfpottcn m,tkinl:i: lhroul:h fUll(.
tion;ol consi<kr:uiom. E,en "I..'n shifted into the Wo\-
istic domain b, incorpora1inl:i: bandles in.o lhc l.,'n!.
Cr.lJ doh,'!l of" v<:5>C1 • "functional ;l:"ihc.-tn(c it <till
pn:scn--OO. Quite IIXlic-oll., it h;\) Iln'n 'UtOO lhal onC'
of thc nl:t;" 50UrttS of .... eh'1nl:!." i'I
bad: from th... comex. of u'C"" Schlffcr & Sbho l<t8i,
598,. Consequentl). h,mdlo m,1\ rdlcct much dttprr
.hal> simple '" c"pe:nmellu or bor'
n)1,iuEl under influence from other "itlo dif-
ferenl (UltUr:IJ
H,l1ldlcs :,re 111 tenm of produc,
tion, since tltc' "re "n e"tr:1 complication
into the: pl1)(,...,.;. '!lley ,Ire ,1[>0 unc:eOU0nuc in tenm
of <p,,(e requirentclIu. pl,,,OO bd{l\' ,hc tum·
illlj poi11l. lht·'C in mind. 1l be-
(Ollle.' ckaT ,h,n h,llIdlc' mmt h.I\"c ,. beha,;uur:ol
pl,l1Hllion, rheir u!o<; be (OnlU'clt"(l "illl ch,II1t.:·
ing ide,1S on use: of .md fumitllft". lilT ex.llllple.
""hell ... ;orl" lJt:inL: kepi h,u>t,:il1L: r:ltli."r lh,1II
on fluol" or ,hd,e,. BUI rn,"'l 1II1por',l1llh.
handle-s inl"n:al>C the pon.,bilit) of"
it more ,,,imbk for ,r:II1SIKll't,lIion, J-1cnn', II1cn\ucd
f"'q",:IIc\ in the u"" of h.Uldlc.... "d,OC".llc'" f(lr an in·
creased mobili,} of the poplll."iou; ,I cuhur:ol ph.....
84
noffi("n"n ,.1 1hl" h.. ,I1'1''' \.r ,hr K:-.I\ lr.lI!lli0n. "hi. h
r. n..\ ...' \0:1 hlll••It 1..0""1....
n\( Tln\ \1. co,... mrR.\r\O\'"
Prrh.lp' Iht" Ill''''' iml'"rt.lnl 1"111' in p,'lt!."" .1l1dil'" j,
l'ul1<"ti"n..\ .....I" ,-"",\(krn1 I" 1x·.1 unlit.1T1.IlIWO!
Ri...:- \(18;. 1118 "hi. h ''I •••,\nrull, m.l' ..r 01.1\ nlll
C"n!rr IIx "mh"li. ,j"m.\in I1K \,\n"l\ "f po'llICn
<Jw.pt.... and -u..... 'un:.'.... 1....·lmiqut'" .100
dro'l"3u,m {.m ht- -(TO .L, rultur.J.i ("Vft"-.l(m>
"llh .1 d('ar tilO('....n.lI .l'tX"'"\ .l> m,:uID Ule I'lC"C'lb
and rcq\lirclnnJt' of Ihc'c \10-1 p<'Ilcn rt'-
.l11tT'l" ttut f,>nn. lrmprr .md ,urf;\l,.Y treat-
fTlnu rrftn"1 .lnd at'( dt'1l"nmnC'd h\ function Ricr
lo,l87. C..n,oollJ... Qf thlllUcli -II' :md (TIl)r"".
ruh .lnd.K1 I' rn.llUlC'd M,'('lrdinll 10 ib !Jnfonn·
an<'T maIn,' that hcm prodlKtion
mn\! of r;m m:unUl... tr,"pmn!!. rl>Mumption or
fucl. C"\< u..'C and m.;UnI('nMlCC' I'r'h to a ,-e."cr. per-
forman.:... dUr;)I.1CTbtic-o hilTrr S: S\;jbo 198; R\
CNllp;ulnl! lllfll!t";l\ of \('o-N r."fIO (>IX mal
<oIlY IUrtirubth n..tm" cuhuraU\ and
funeti<.llU1l\ "ab«:, as "cll loOnll' "cakr r.-pes: in-
u:nm plll'nOfllC1Uo n:fhtinl! Ihe ilUlO\";lti\"l: p'0u::ntial
oh. -ociC'1\ SUI _och as foon. lC1Tl-
ptr and o,urfan- Irt'auncm canl101 a1"";l" be ilIum·
bil!\luus. a.' a r.rn of Ollll'T f;KIOI" mal bia!; Iheir
<clttlinn, nol !c;cl Ihe nalTO\\ analqical
of lhc 111\ Ul:"iI\or. T,lle for cxample Ihe SO<a!k:d
cam ....Ionic da\ pan' cla\ 1';lh lUmcd up edg-
C'!o. lX'Cll Idcmiflcd on silO of Ihc <ixUI·
\C\enlh ct'llIun\D, "hich "l'rt rct,.'ardcd as SI,t,ic_
,m: im"fjlftlNl Ob facililio for b;wng bread
!cil\'("S.. ba.....-d on wpolngical link "ilh elhn0llr.lphic
dm-a from Ihe U.dLtll,. "hcll' ha\c been in
u."" umi! l1:ccnl!\ Cuna 2lX12. 2951. Ho".......·cr.
anefacu, 01 Ihl' foml .'l"\: known from
in and \'olh\11ia
"I,,:rt Ihl) I",re ull'ti ,.. lid, for 2002):
I-knee. h.I>I..'(1 (In Ihl' hmcru1:I1",,,· '" I I
.. -"" 1:IS reccm y
Ix:cn Ih:ll should be rC.l;',lrdcd as
hd, for eooMnj.\ nou, Cun:.! "lXP N . .
. ,-- - ." 0 ,ul,'llmcm"lloll
h,1S hc:cnyl'()\1drd ,I> 10 "h, Ihe and nOl Ihe
,mal""" l\ mu'e 'eh"hk !)uch uh<;cn .
. . m,lle Ihe
probknl) of funcuon.tl lI11en)Tel"'uoLl f I .
f Li d .., 0 c; .1\ P;UIS
Illm oil,,·!" Jl,dll lorie ... 'l> in cf.
h,'II'\\ hillhh ,llIllt'. rh.' unh I\illl ,I
_lllll-""Iioll .111d 11.'1 l\)IIlh"i\,' ,',l1nn,'m,. BUl I,h;\l-
I'n'r illlfll1l'l"I,lli,," i' Ih\"I'Il, it ,d\I,,,, h"s I'lIhllr.tl
imll!iI:,IlHl11- ljd- 1'01 \IIO\..inl.: plll' 1","ld indic,ll,' .1
I\llt' "I clli,me h,I"l'lI ull _ICI",(I 1I1c"k CI,\\ IMm
\\C'ulcl impl\ "I' Idll',ll bn,'.u!. I.lH;-kih. \lIch
illICrpn'I,llil'n' Ill.l\ II(' ,,_1("(1 .\I,r-lill-l org:mic
dU.II\-..("o. rill' ("'l,II11plc. ;t h,I' n-ce1l1h 11('el1 demon-
,lr.l\{'(\ Ih,l\ ,1 l'llC, l,hil'lI for h.llf ,I ccmUl"\ h,1S
bttn lnl111 n in SE [UI\lP" ,LS d "mill jUl( due 10 i15
fonn ,1I1d .•lppcars to bear no
trace- of bein!!, Il",--d .b ;1 milk font:lincr rCr.li/o: ct al.
:XI03 .
In Icmt'> of lempcnllg nl.lltn:llS used in
production. Ihen' is a I)()(I) of Clidencc thal
sdtttion of tempcnm;: nl.llcn.lls is go\'cmed by POl-
ten function Stcponailh 1984: Rice 198i'. For ex-
ample. cookinl!, pots :In' c:\.lx'Ct...-d 10 "idl<\;md ther-
m.ll shocl dunng epi;,odes of rcpc:l\cd healing. 'I hich
ma, reach 300 l:necli\'c l'l'sisl.lncc 10 thennal
C:Ul be achil.... Ihroul:;h thc use of organie
lC1llpcnup; mattn:us \1 hieh creme greater poro<ilY of
a \'e'<cl and IilUS arrests Clelll\lal cracks R)e 19iG:
.\nlOld 1985,. Chamolle is ;100:1 suil:lblc Icmpenng
material a5 it at the S;tllle rale as lht cia)
maui, and "ill not C;II1SC et":tcking .Rye 19i6: ,\mold
1988. 11lis also lh;il Ihe <hlinkagc rol\e is Ihe
glllC. makil1l; ch:l1nOIlC ltlllpCred IlOll':I) re-<ist;m.
evcn 10 frcezing ttlllllCramre" Org:lIlic ,cl1lpc,ing
malerials c.ln be appn:-ci:l\ed for ,I IlClIer workabilit}
of .he and b'l'caler <;Ircngth during fonning pro-
Schiffer & Skibo 1987), In lerms of libel' ll5('.
,h,lI(h or h:wt a rcinforcin!\ dlcct on non-lired
or low-fin:d (11)' SIOr.I£e cont:liners, Organic tenl-
vC5SCls ;11"C appe:ning 10 be fliable. In order 10
lllcre:\SC rCSi,mllCe - for in-lance, ill lhe
of tOOkillg, sc:rvillg and l'celllTCIIl cleaning aCliollS
a !>oller had to t;on,ider additional t;omlilu<:l1'S ,hal
will enh:ll1ce the pCl'fornmllce char.ICleris,ics of "Ic
h
III the of Uga, pOllcrs 11:l\'c ;It;hie,·<:d
llllUg;lllun of fnability Ihrollgh addiliOIl of ch:mlO
HC
or sand, or through of the walls. It ha'
becn lhal lempering is prdcrrc<l for
productIOn of hi!; \·... as it decrca,es Ihe 10\:11
of such, A medium sile weighs G 7 kg,
so \\elglll h.L\'<: becn cOllsiderecl as :1II i""lIc.
\\hich tould nOl be trc;llcd ";,1511"lIy.
Liga
85
\\ell lIndl'T\lo"d i, lhl' u<,(· of C.i11 com-
ill ,hl' ch,)'. AI I.i!-t., it i "'cd ill r.lll1l'r mooer-
,Itl' qml11li,ic<. prob.,bl) p"rtly dUI' to its IloLlUral oc.
CUlTellfl' i1l1hc cI;l) bill ••ill. ih prc'I("lIce C.Ul-
nOI hi" exp1:,illcd ,m,l) .1< "ccidl·111.d. 111 other
COn1cmporan ,iles, lik!." 1101llits,1 Tl·1I :" \ 'diko Tur,
110\'0. rale.m,·ou. rompollelll' n1.lkt· up the mO,1 im,
I)()rlanl ,cmpering cOIIstilU!."l1l of lhe cby pc"".
The lhemhll expansion of cal-
Illaleriab C"CO,I is dose 10 the day thl:)
an: inco'l)()r;'tl'ti ill10 Rp: 19761. At lirin!; lempcr:,-
1IIT'C'l of620 '900°C. CaCO, Slam 10 decompose 'into
c;.leium oxide :md carbon dioxide. Ic:,dil1l; to 5p.1.Iling
and dl"5imcgr:llion R\'c 19iG), recon:red \'a-
sels do have lime blll these .In: belic\'cd to be
the resull of 'il'Colld"T) "hidt occum:d 1\ hcn
thc SCll.lemelll bumed down. -Ille use of
in any C:lSC excludes lhe use of firing kilns, poinl-
int; to lhc ["lCI ,h:1l .heir utilis."I,ion mUSl ha\c been
limited. pOlleI"'\. prodUc1Ilt; \'cmacular pot-
u:!') in .he Balk.lIu. aoo cOlIsidcr cale;lrcoUS malerials
usually e;.1c11e, as ,he superior malt:rial
CanlOlI 2002,. Which qualilies cx.:.ctl) makc C"aleilc
superior arc 1101 being fOnll\1lall-d, since such m:mcI"'\
do 110' seem 10 occupy the minds of .hese pone....
[Carllon 2(02),
leads 10 anOlher .,rea of ullderst:U1ding of ,hc
,edmolo"oical dimensions of lcmpering malcrials.
mlllld, lhal ,hcir ..election la5 ,dso ,hc sck'Clion of
clays} well be CUllUr:II1) bi,l.'lCd. B} <';Ilillg lhis,
rC;'S\)Il< for t:",ouring olle or anOlhcr
clcrnem arc nOI rejccled, but lhe l'e,'[ reason lIla}' wcll
bc coalcd in diflt:rcl11 [") CI"!i of folk beliefs or Il'ClmOo
logical inO:l'lia: "lhis is ho\\ "e do il", Cenaiu dis-
co\'cril:S Ill:')' !l::ld 10 l'csuhs \\ hich rniglu bo: dillicuh
10 rncdialc dirccll). imlcad ,I <Cl of 1110rc undClOland-
:,blc an; being pill on commUnil) mem-
hcn;, For cxample, in Illilling <IOlles. lhc
population of Bcuill b eotlsl1'aincd IQ usc
rock 1)1)<'s, which Gm onl}' be exploilcd in Ihe nonh-
CI'I1 p:1I'l of lhe COII11I1)'. <pn::lding lhc folk bclief lh:u
Ihe of 0111<'1' lypCS of l'OCks will C'((IS" he,lfl dise:t.<cs
:\JId lh-:llh. Thii is lIO' .Ill ,Illcmpl 10 m.l-
nipulme lhc l)opllllltiOIl for Ihe bcncfil ofcerl.. ill rock
{Iullnics, In f:,e., lhe i"ue is fur lhc
mcs_,'ge is l1Ie.11I1 to II,lI'n ,II-:;litbl soft rock
found in solldtel'll I\fnin. \\ hich and
may c,'u\(' delll.,l or l1lnrilioll prohlrm In_,rad of
()nlplic,lIl'd rxpl;m,ui"m, rWJI'(' ,implc and rf-
li'eti,c onc, ,1ft.' "l''\('' lh(' h....-d rock I\'P<" and
<\<') hc.dlh)/.tliu'"
TIlc .. mit;;/n ht.' lht' C.I with ,ht u'«' of ral-
cart·tllls malcri"l •. I'Olll·r-. imph beli"" .. 111.11 thu
1<:mpt:rinl:: m,ueri,.1 <upcrior. I'ollr-n l(·cllI1iri.lI1_
:Ire 10 IIndenl.llld \,h\ cmnpli.
cued maleri,us arc ch()\("ll, I\hik l>th('n, "i,11 J
chemical backo/OUlld. pm\ick lhc:- .. c:-xpla_
nation; ntalcri.L1 cn:d'C.m dllwlinc:- nl-
\ironmcm and Ihu thc of bartcna.
"hich nccd an acidic cmironmcm to imcracl "ith
alimemar-. prodUCb Rdthof Cl ••1 19f'IO. Hc:-ncc:, \00-
sels ,cmpcred lIilh c;.lci'e or .torn!:c com.Linen pl.1S-
ICred "ilh lime or p1asten arc suitablc:-
for kcepint;; s;rain alld othcr dr. ObM'r-
\':I.tiol1 mus, led 10 in pn.:his-
IOric times and thc:-n lrall.mined .1.5 a euhuralh cn.
forced idiom.
:\.n imponan' i!»uc:- in ,hr case: of UIf.I is to explain
the ofSC'\crnl diffefCm combinatiolls of u:m-
prring m;ucri.t1s. TIle cxU'rncr of:l 11 lcmpt.:r-
ing Groups \I hich can bl:' fllnhc:-r subdi\idcd dC-
cording '0 COllstilUelll.:i \Iithin a combi-
nation - .ho\\-s .ha, <uch an: nOl accidental bUl
!lied ,1l1d .Ilxqm:d combin.lliolb, Hc:ncr.
il \\ould 1101 be: wronl; 10 t"qIM'e lempcrinl.!
"iLlI technological lradiliolls,
11,c usual p,tllCm lhat CIIICn;l':l from elhnorach••c·
oIogiml f("5e:.rch is lh.u cer:llnie trndiliorl5 an: ,rnll'-
miucd lhrough lhc:- fem,,].. line of L1le f:lInih Gr:,\e"
199[: & l'\:r:llller :?OOI. Circum51.1rIIia.ll\, ,his
is e\'l:ll pro\C1l b} arch:ll"oJo,!,oic;'] e\,idclIce.u fr:lIlCh·
lhi, Gl't'1.'Cc \ilclli 1993, '1l1C of combI'
lIalions of lll,ueri.l!> be r'"
plai1l1>t1 in lerlllS of <'"islcncc of dilfcrinl.! l)(Iller. Ira'
ditions. rdlecting .1 of lIl,llilll: nCl\\orl. rcJ\'inlt
011 IMuilocal prill<.'ipk'$ of l'esidclICl', .kw.,lh. lIIale
pOIlCrs would lIUl allcr lhe OUICOIIII: re,lSOlIinlt,
for ill 1\11\' ";lSC di\I'I"il\' of lr:,-
diriOlls ,ld;'OC.llC for :1 siltnifir,un mo' CllWIIl of pcople
,me! :. bread,h of" eClIlIlllUllic.llioll nl"I\ork,. of
lhe sculcr. of Lig<l :?,
Tumilll.! 10 Ihe Uf.::' r rn.lll·ri,d, \l hich n:f1cct.> d
r:llhcr hilth "lIifonnil\ ill term' of pouen Ir:ldition,
ll'Sll'I"t'i"U) :" 10 _urr.lcc lI'I:.lllllelll , on.. 1Il,1\ ill tlti,
tin<! .. (\1 Ihr- lSSIX" nf ttt:hnologio.1
chouUlf"... hi<::h ('I<.-ruocd :IlkI' the abandonmnlt ofwc
'o('I:t\nn(11l. The quali\.J.ti\'(' diffeTClICC'> be--
n.'r'r'Il tM twO sil,!llif\ a of <CIci:lI
from to ool-l!oinl!. fmm 3dapti<"C
to o;pk-rali\"C. from pK<;i\"C 10 a<m"C. 1bc causes of
lhis a but lTIOI'T
111= tlat. the- nrcd to br dJ.hor.lttd thl"Olleh a dilfrr-
mt 10 1br;iliTad\ I'lUlrriiI. pm.
nabh frnh SUlCC rn:ionaJ lhlil are roll
\'n"\ "l'n on MnIIlI"It.
.\lbal pOllCl"' from the nciehbooriTl( silt ofRnlul'
IlC i... not :I\"2ibbk for elol;et- in\"C!ilit:J.uon. whok
<c:b ptl':SCrlltd in publiaotions or mlnalm coIkctiOIlS
sIlO'" :I :lffinit\ \',;w the pOIler'\ of L..iga \'el)
p;u2lIro ;m- found bolh in Rmuute 11 :md in
lhe more dislalll RnIuule IJl Hg. \ '.11
This wKkrlino tWO tmpOrUIIl points: thc 101lgt:\iry
of ceruin \ud t\]1'e5 :Illd :I sem<' of 1cr'riIOrialiIY. I
IJm:, cmplm the tctm -t\"flC'- to illdicate an cnd resulL
o:prn.m a combination of shape + sc:cond-
U\ :lttnbuto + decoration & l.Qncs of
AccidcnUtl cont;rucntt of the thltt main
\-arUbln is sutiMicalh improbable and can onl\' be
explained \\;Ih :I conscious It:mdm.'t:r of "produclon
rcopo-. 1n turn, thh mdicucs thm g>:ncalogic:ill)'
COlllll':Cled lKOjJlc WCl1: comlllnd) trJf1l1uv: Il'e same
u:mlO... dUring '\C\'Cral hundreds yean. In faCl, Ihe
hUltu\ b)cr of0.2 In betwetn &-duUte II and In need
oons.idcrahle time to be fonned. much longer thall
by the )"e:ll'$ GergO\'
199_a cf. aOO\'C. I'unlt"r unphcauon, of this reawn.
1lI1l \,oulll be retum to:1I\ earlier a.nd not \'ery oril;'
mal n:undy Il,at poUe!)' func!illnaUly is
t'1'" un.
"l1,e l;t!;t \"dri:tb1c 10 I,., «Imidcred in , f
.. cnns 0 pot.
Ir'" lil1"l;tln i, 'Inl.IU· m:,llllH'l1l, IlIlll:lm 'Ul·
tlCf 1l\';ll11ltlll •• Iom' l11hll'I1l.lt1W "lI<lu\(h III help
,kdlll';m;: 1l1l' hmcliull of.1 \,·..'e1. nUL,. Ihe aUlon",·
t;'111 "C"hi" Il"'t'! + ,miller \'C".
",I" n:n,.illl\ h"ld, mu' ill 1110111\ ,·aS6.
.\ 1!f'C.ll \.u;rl\ of 'Ini:I\T trc.• tllll·1U t('l'hniques
h.wl' bern f("Comt,<I 1"1'0111 the U\(•• :.1 <elllcmenl. Sur·
f"IT llI,t;catiol1 ";Ih O;lIhOline and
ha\'l' alTl'a,h bttn mr11lioncd ulldrr lech·
n;qul"'. bUI the 1110S1 C01l\1110n t\'I)I: oC I.1h<;\ 2 <urf.'Cl:
lTl'atnll'nt is simple .mOOlhinll; "hi1e Ihe paste is still
pI;utic. I'erhaps of thc \l;Uer·woOl quanz
{X'bhlC'" found \\CTl' for that. besides illuaI
smoothing. ,\ true slip achil"\-ro through co.,t-
iog ,,;th la\'er of in order 10 ch;lngc the
coklur or to reducc thl': pCmlc.lbilil) is \'cl) rure.
\\1\('tl found, il is clear!) distineth"C as.1 SCI);lrutC 1a)"Cr
Tl';lChitl!t up to 1.5 nUll ill Ihidmcss. il occurs
OfIlhe interior of doscd or. sometimes. bo,,!s,
"hich Ihereforc aTl' illlcrprcted as liquid COlllainers.
oflen. occur<;. a technique "here Ihe
surface is being smoothed \\;th a \lCI hand or cloth,
lhm concentrating Ihl': fillCSl p.,nkles of thl': cIal m.',
tri.", a!l an Ollttnuost covering layer Hodgl:S 196:'}.
1ne main surfact'S ofline poucl). the cxlcriOrs ofjugs
and gr.tphilc paimed \'CS5C1s. and the interiors of
bo\\"b had bumished surfaces, As lIIemioncd. bUOlish·
ing reduces I'enneabilil)' "I'd pro\;dcs drceth-c
methods 10 faslen colour pigments, Despite such tech·
:ldnUlt..'lgcs. bumishing was primarily \':ll·
ucd for i\.'l \;sual qualitit."5. 11111S, the interiors of
closed \"CSSCls ..-cre mrnnh bumishcd in the :lrea of
the rim. BUI imeriors wc.:c nOt leli untrc,Ltcd, Quite
often. (races of brushing an: ll.'COmcd on Ihe imcrior
ofclosed Iksidcs surface smoOlhing this could
also be used to beller dinriuute lhc c1:ly, csp,;cially
minimizing the l><:t\\·t.>t:l1 the toils. Brushing
\\<ll; done with a tun of line twigs or Olher kinds of
lil)Crs, Sometill1l$ the i11lcriors h:wc tr;Lces of deep
striluions, covering thc el1!ile Sllmlce. "1llcil' prc.',cnce
big hieonie jl11'li with Ion/; narrow nccks shows that
tlllS was :1 special surface cOl1lp:,tling tcchnique. e:.r-
out ill the statC "hen lhc \'cssd ICHlhcr-hllrd.
:n,ercfore, slriatiom almost appe:,f :.s d""ll groD
1

es
.
llu:, mil1tiolls arc usulIllr 'l I1nll wide, m:.de with a
brush of rdati\'cl)' slill" stems or simil:lr lll:lleri:lls, gen·
e<.lll} fol1o\',;ng a hOriZOI1!:11 direction. It should be
,
hum \lnbd<" III .0\... Gn1::<"
1..... lica.H_1
'1"". \ 11 Bo. _ ,..-..
I""'':'' :
86
Liga
87
'I'd Ih.ll .1100 ell( I;'t\' lit\' 'HJC
.md .11"';" of tltocor.ui<m..L' I.m 1)(" "'<'n rmm 1,.......·1.
IIilh fhnn.,1 .'nd dctomlion.d .lllinil) hlt!
.,nd fmKlion.,J .'-, 11 c.. n hcc
<c.·I·n fro", 11ll" Ulccnic" ofm.tin pOllen ,1I.tl)("\ t''(em-
phfll'{l h) \\hole vt."-<tls. i•., dc.tr rorrel.lliOIl
bc:1"ttll I("\(."I <h.,flC and \urf.-.c...rc.,IIIICI1l
Illl' 1"1"••Ircngth ll'\CaKh ,11 UI(., lS.' fo"nh
di"u:n<ion or I·oulablc. Ihc conle'(l. 11,e pUloilion of it
\'0: <,('1 \\ilhin " hOll5C, '" "ell .1.5 nl a.uc.>ci.llion "ith
otlwr or is .m impon.tnl IC'ilimon\
10 lhc II'\C of \·c"o;cl. 11,e follo\\inq cousidl'f;Uious
on fUllctiormlil1 :lIT .hero:fore cxplored lhrouqh ,he
cornbimllion of Ihc .. bovcmo:mioncd 1,lrhlll":
Il'mp,·r. ilnd ."rfacc Ircatmem. and. Ihe
Follo\\ing lhc funclional calO:l(oris.uion <;ul;.qcslcd
by 1'. Rice (Riccc 1987). POUl'l) is 1I'C;Ill't1 in IClTlU
of Slom!'e. p,'OC\·ssing. ll';ulsfi·,'. :md other. -n,e I:m
calcgol)' is ,I mix"d ouc. encompassing Im'U'l)' ')1X:S
wilh spcci,tl or lmccrl"in c.g.. firc·vcssels.
Thc comiclioLl, Ih:ll funclion.,HI)' om Ix: dcduced
from the POILCI)' Sl:LS. is sUllporled b) Ihe
fact lh:ll de<pi.e mrilllion.•hcre is .l
cl ...ar trend n::plkation amo!ll;- lhe selS (d. thc
abo\·c section dc;oling wilh production .
Funhenllon::, Ihis issue C;III be clUt;ilblcd Ihrough
cthno:,rch...:ologie:tl work. pl'O\iding c'(.unpl<:s thal
poncl'5 h;l\c in Iheir of
production Skibo 1992. Thus. SI:obiJitl It';l\ nOl
Ix: $<."C1l :lS t;ullur..1 incrU;., bUl :l'I a n:f1C'C1io" of
C\"()I..cd functional pone,: rom:ocpondinlt 10 Ihc
nc:cds of thc pc:opIe.
Rc\'o:alinS pottcl) function is Ihe oplim..1J;031 for
any ","d). sirn:e <\\Ch is t;OIUl.:cting a
of compliolll'(l ;"'ucs. lik... sul)"islcnlX. dil"'. and
architCC:llln: and lhmilun:. h is imeresli,,!.: loobscn·c
th.1I the nOlion of lull:ul) W,U"l:S objlocb ,isu.tlh
s.lll\{ling OUl ha" .,l,.o IxOCIl !l:Cognilcd b, Ihc >CIders
of Ug:,. bill SIIt;h ...:tres ""<:fl: nOI from cl,...
lIlililllli,,,, 'phcn:. I'.m of tl", gl';ll,hi,c Il.1illlcd ".II'C
has rubbed oIl" .IS I' re<uh of U>e·. SO. the
...ll:c!llsi\<,·IIl'_' W,IS >l:ued Ihrough .,t;li"e u,e .md
"ilion "nd nOl :0.< p:Issi\"c exhibition OIL ,h... I\'(". l·kllC"'.
,«io. ,In(1 ickarUllclions .ltMU SkilXl (Skihu 1992) can·
110' Ix: scp.'l';ued rrom IL"Chllofunnioll_ ($I..ibo 1992l,
.1\ k.lsl nUl in the ,,;w: or the Lit.:', :! lll.llcri:t1.
FUnt;lion.11 deductions I,n: pll:'!oSiblc UIl IWO Ic\"c15.
;ntcnd"d ,,,,d .1llLlollu\(' "lkil", I'.I"I:.! n,r 1.. I rn.tl
('on'Il1i,.lI('d w ,lrl,i"lr ... ilh"", uppl('mf'"nt......
mkn....·.11I" ,m.ll)", .. _"rh .1< n:<i<lur .111..1\, In•
lend,>tl u,,· m,11 lie lOO hr'Md .. 10 be in-
funn.llilc .tt .tll.........·nhclnJ•.'n .tIIettlpt IS bnn\("
n\;l(k lid"" to 1lI1\ dJ .hr functiOl'wl \ ..ri"bdll\ of the
UI('I 2 u:'\.'ot'k
Ko;",1 is .he 1.,r"ltC I of all poncn l',ll". 'n..;,\
are .r..dllion.111I ('.. ",ith food .Iwl '"
<ut;h upt'ril'n((' the 'lre<o' and th.. Imn....1
Ri"", 198;, Tabl.. 9.1 (Jf tht'
rcfusr .nca 1l('1"("{"n Iiou'c:'< and J. intcrprMl'd "',
.... n immcdi.l\e: disc-ard .... rea of domc:stic holl
-howcd LlMl lhe hil(hC'\1 frequ,.,nn .. mnnlt pol'"n
fr.u;mcn.... "'" held .. nd small t;\Ip'.
"ere in bit: fralllllcn......md (X(;'-'l"n-
:tll) ;0.< of .. hole Two of bO\.u
up 10 25 t;m in Iti.lOleler. and lhal usualll
"round 10 t;ml ma) indi(':lle person:.1 \cnu§
SlightJ) imcncd rims. ;tj Ihe m..joril\
of Ihe l.Kmls h.lS. "ould prC\"<:m <pill"ltc bill .U\(I be
\Cl)' U1UUil.lble for pourint:. :'\umCT'()U1 found
around lht' 0\en1 impl) lhal such may also hall' bttn
llll"oll'l-d ill food proct."-,int:. bUI prob;lbh nOI m n>n·
nCCtiOll "ilh liquid foodslUffi. §impl\ ba:oIll3C Ihe: Uze:
IUSU.IUI ... illt wide OrifKO :Il\d the .s.bape of
thc bo,,1s recorded at lhe O\l:IlS ha\1: pr:loCtica.llinll'
t:ll.ions. nwkint: pOllrint: from onc containcr 10 :10-
othe:r a e:omplic.lto:d lask.
Thc USe' of bO\, b for of dry food,tul& ........
not be e'tCluded. ("lcn thout:h thi.. .. ouId be: Ulll"Con·
omit; ill lenm of "J':I'c; in faet. \hi" 1Tl31 nplim the:
need for h..ndlc:'< or Ihc like:, Rounded car Iundl("O.,
lab haudJo perfor"lcd blNh hom:om:l1h .uKI ICT1I-
e:tIIy. or mm :tn:: found on aJmo.<l h.tlf
bo,,1s.. In 1"0 horizom..lh pcrfO....lro ub
handb ....-re f:,shioned a.lo .m ..nduop('morphll fXl'
wiLh pro.rudint: no-c. pl.. immcdi;ue:h belt.., Ihe
turnin!.: poim .md liddinlt e'(tr.l t;h;wdC!er 10.1 rn:'>I!'
nized pUl. rhere ., ret:IlJ:uin in tI..: w;1\
diffefCm "lJl"< of halldk< .Il"!' placed. \·l'rtic.llh 1xr.
rOr.IIL'(1 l.lh h.lmB..._ :Ire I'f'lt;W on lUmim: 1)(I1lII.\,
shoulder- if .m." markcd i.e.. Ihe "id''''l 11.1" "f
., bo.. l). orjll'l belo" lhelip if a bold h;"..l _lr:,it:hl
profilc li.l<'. I'il'r\:int: L_ .11.0 mad,' inuncdi.,It't. belo..
,hc lip. Cle.ld\. lhi) indil'.ll<:S lh.u <ueh !XI,,!> "elt'
.,dap...d ror hOrilOnl.U 'u.pen;;ion. \ 'cnilaJ halldk\
88
I" \ 1\0.01 "'Ill I"''''' ,I 1"'\"""1\ of 'Il>ll-.. In""
IVtIUI, .. II ,".,hol.IM ... llo..........I MOl....."'.
n-c... lll .......
"r homonulh pcnOra,t'd l.,b handl,"I ,U"I: found
enher ahQ\"t: or bd,". th.. ntmiml !,uinl .md could
atOll bt u-rd 1i,r _u>ptllSlon _.\br.lSiOll nl.lrL. found
un th.- C"1cnc>r of pic:-rrtd ho\. or dll'ir fr:t!!:-
tnntl_ bt"'" lilt- h..>lc-, ..!>tWo lhat till"(" "a't' in IT_
pr"lni "'1lUC1 "i!h It.lnl ..urfa<..... He1lt'"e l\ " ....
Ih:n....-.nC' bt:mb ...'t1l' hunll: \fltit;..lh OIl the
• .Ib
JUl:'. ;lIld bM-nni< rop- -h"Pt"" M"_ &. MO"
;ltl"ullbmh rcprnmlt'd Ul e,,<lt hnu.,," al UI::l- ..hoold
J.I ..., 111' .." p.m or .. 11""," a", oflen
fnund 111 ...i!h oo...llo. 'I1t"lIJll:h ....oociatiotl.
iul:. or T\'P" -..,- pc;ltr-.Juprd nu, lit" indudcd in
tll......nll' Thnr t"KJ,rd oriflC.... and IUIIt: neck-.
all" Uil.lbk fl)l' JlOurinll ..\11 \'nIoC!, of tlll' WOUp arc
"l-C:tllni Itmnl: t\lJn. rrfketllll: \lJ11I:.... of tradilion.
t"Uhllr..J adhercncc and. parallel, "ilh
K(,K \'1!)(Il1'·I) .••ffili,llinn "Ilh r"I.';'OIl.l1
.1 ",ri.moll!.. Ih" "ell·lnm,,, hr.llcl'\ of ,h" TRll
cull,,", 198i .. \C"I""I\ e'Il1 he ......,11
lule." or "OD:'\ ht'l,....l(,Ur n:ll111e"I"d "ilh runullOll
eaulll( 'll1d dri"lilll: Yc'",l. or lhi. 1:1'0111
1
'" lhc 11\1"1 dl'"11rl IlOnc'I) uf
1_110' c.'l>PCr 11", cannul hc " ...·d lill1l'-'Cn'ii_
"
,
,",,\_111 k ,tUIt". (Jilt' of lh." iul.(' hnmd III
11"- , • "'. •
lh,",,' ,,>IlI,lIm-..1 .\ '111.111 \\u,knl ,IWql!/o:O,11
Ir,u:,llu'
\ .......1, "I hp." "F' h,lIn'] ,h,llJol..d 1.11 .0011" hi-
1
"
• "nh nl\lll.l... l ... Imuldn.....md "1"' lnu
....'nu . ,
,11.11'"1 p.>I ,Ill' nll"'1)I'l,1t-..1 I,'nll ) lit"' ·lur·
..' \1',....-1. lhn.m:h 111<'11 •• "on,mon \\1Ih \:.\("h I)\htl
.mtl "lIh ,h," "Mill pllh'l' 111 HOllo,(' 2..\11 h,t\(' 01>11-
r.Il('l1 _un,l' t', ,md "id!' onlin... bm ;l!'I:' \ .)JUlll,'1ne,lll,
_m.1lkr III.m lilt' f••lkm illtl ••11('\.'01'\ ofdn _tOr-II,'" \ ......
'0("1, .\11 \""'....l, (lflhr l,Tf"OUp .In- '"quipe<t wilh h.l11dlC'
or n1Ol_";''I:" hilI< lion.11 I..'lOb" dcmonsm'lI11j.: their
\1'l'n••hilil' RlI_U••UNl 'un:u:c_ proddc limit' ..
pin" and ;I\Cl'('.N' n"j,i,t:lll("c.
1...0111.': I,'ml rom,lim'N ,wc .he mOSt \01·
uminml' \)(llU"'\ '\lW. co,·n.:"ponding runcliolllllh 10
Ih,. p'enlhUlC'1ll1l illll;\lIcd pilhoi. ill Ihe '1.
TIwir l\l)(lliW;ic'll .llld ,l\li..lical \,;uit:1r <Illi,,' I.n1:c
:tn<l proh.,bl} no, rullr n'pITSelllt'd ,inrc' l\lcnding of
hil: rom,liners .' la,k. Tht: ft·COIl·
<\OII'led l\llt'S include 'implc cOlll,lim'l"S wilh conc-
IOI,er pan ,md 101lg. cylinchic,d upper p.m
-1\1X- .. \ ... '. "hich (.m he mSliC;lled and dec,mlll'd
\,idl cordon< and b;mds or tingt·nip i111pre<,ioll', or
Il<l\e ImoOlh S\I1{;l(o:\ "ith im;is.:d pallen'.' mronir
or I:lohubr ,h.llx:\ TnlCS "T" .U1d "U"l could :tl..o
be c11()'o("'\ for ,"ch 101l1l1liuOII. 1}1Jt.."S .15 <lOntgC con·
lainen. Dceor.llion ,,:.:m5 10 pl:,y :l double .vk for
Ihe-(' Il:'>'>('h. \\ilh f"" exceptions. \'olllntiuous slor-
com,line,"" J.1'e dl"COraIOO. 11lc' call be percei\'ed
a.!, \lalic "'.'ulpmrcs. rarell nM)''cd and :men·
lion of 1".....,llllal l;siIO...., Ih,' "e;tlth of Ihe
o\\l'cr...\1 lite s...lllC lime. decoralion could h:'le bn:n
for Ill'Olcrti,c pUfllOSCS in .he realm of llI"l,';e.
Spir."-snal.e p;ll!rrm arc nUlllCl'Om. c<pcci:dll on
ho,.h. "here IlIa!'e heads an: ad,kd 10 Ihc sJliml
'
,
m:l],;im: Ihe cqualion betwcen sn.,ko; :md '1'1r.,1 on':"
111Clll::llioll mOh' \'.121. Thi. 0111:'-
lllclll.nion found 011 female ti),,'lllincs...teh... iUlcr-
pIl'led :l.'i .llmf>. :md olher nlUOII ohjecl', and is
.Ipplkt:! I'l lhc l;'UlIl) of slorage conmint:I'!>. cilll<'r In
tl,e Iimu vr incisions I Fig. IV.2) or p:.inl (I'l.
121. CC't'lainl)" 1'..:,\c1, holding ,It..: vilal rc.O,lI'('1·' Of.1
lllOU'>l:hold lIccd.·d litis eXlra pro\t;elioll 10 ..... i,h,I.l1ld
pUlIidil)' .1Ilt:! h.lCtclia, .1lld olher llU'lHICCS.
Utll,' t:!ullhl t.1Il an..' in relating \,c';!,c" uf T)'IlC'i
"I'" .1IIt:! "R" "ith liquid,. Bo'h types havc hi,UlI;C
Lign
89
-Imp". ,.,p.mllin).: In .m .• lnu-'1 ).:Iohlll.,r ,'ppl'.lr.lIlrt·.
In Inn" "I .• p,·. 1111' 1,·",'1\ .In· I,pul",,"h .111) n'I,I1l'd
III whl'f hi,Ulli, 'lW' iml'lI'. hUI ,,,hlllwtric,llI) Ih,,)'
,,n' 'Illl' h l,i).:I.['·1 llnitiJrlll m ,h.,p,'. Ih,",' I)pn ((lll'r
I'Hl rUlluioll.,1 (,lln:llli\'" 1I,m.f,·r .md '1111 ••).:,·. H'",'I,
I.ilh '111o"t1ll'd ,ud:\( ," "(Iuipp"d "il11 h.Uldtl·' IX'inf(
wen .• nU111e("lt'd \\ilh Il.lml(-r. I'urllwnnur(", h., ·d
011 ,I 1:(1111111011 ,·thllo).:r,lphi, '"rh j.u ,rc
i11l"lll,'("wd ;1' Ill'in!:" u"'d fur ... If!) iUI-: ".11,'1'. The hig_
!W.l onc, "ith wcll '111oOlhcd "'tcrior ,md iUll'rior
cOlnp.,cIl·d b} deep ,111<1 rquipped "ith t"O
m.I.<iq' h.ll1dl("•. h,ld .. C:lP,IC"ity of 1I litrn. the lOt..1
weighl. whCll filiI. 60 1..1;. h w-as found c1osc: 10
the cntr.lIlCC of 110""": 3, \\hieh "ould indicale th,11
it Il.Id .1 hichee 1Il0bilih Ih,1ll :1 .tor.,!:"e (OIlI,lint:r. h
is nOI llIut<lt:ll to c.lm' m.. nual lo.l(b of 60 kg in tm-
ditional •. Jlcrh,lJl'l wilh a helpcr. Other
"cUl:ltiH:S of this l.:roup. without h,mdles and with n,:>+
tiC:lled 'Urf:ICCS. "ere for 'Iom!".... Onc slIch '"('5+
<;cl found at the pitha- of l'lou>(' '1 widl a
corn"<pondilll.: n.1l lid.
'11H: l;Ul m.tjor functional Will: 10 be in
gcnemliscd pre'tClIt:l.lion concenlS food Ilrot:C'i5ing
1J01Ie...... 111c main di\isioll "ht'lher Ihc
is made "ith hell or "idiom hc.1I Ris<- 19811. Cook-
ing 1)OIlcI'. Im. a ,cl') 10" usc-life. higher Ihan food
sc.....inl.: 1)0111'1) but much lo,..:r than for POI-
IC!) u<cd for slomge Ri>(' 1987). '1l1e 1I"c+CXpcCt:lIlC)
is Il.uall) around olle p::lr. :"Ilml of Ih,. 'cs-
sc1s are nOI dbc;.rded inllnedi;l1d\ aller bcinl: 1.'\'.L1u-
:lIt"<l Ol.. no longer ,"it:lbil· for cookin" !for '.11;011;; re:l-
sons, blll due to :.pp",'.lrinl; ,urf:lcc cr:leksl. In-
slc"d. thq <:l1ler :mother f"I1Cliomll dom:lill 'l>Crs.
oh!i<:l"\.uion<, ,.II;OU' siUI.uions), In
Lilfol. Ihcn: .Irc t\\'o big 1)I'lI1CI) gnlUp" Ih.1I C:1ll be
associ'lIrd wilh cooking :md f(Nwl Wilhoul
he;!l.
Ua!i<:d 011 <uff:lrc In::llmcut of inlcrior< \"cll-
worked .md COlllfl:lCll'd Ihrough 'Illoolhing or bur.
i, h.t< bc,'n Ihat Upriglll j:u1I ",i,h
highly placcd. sh,lIvlr :ltlsled :",d uprigll1
or slightlr im','l"ll'd nrck> rrl'llt' "C") \It'll.' for
hulding liquids, l·.);" nu' 3o.lkinl( pU'lKJ'es. 'l1H'ir
shape i, "Iso uplilllullbr tilt' IilllClioll orcuokil1g \'eS'
'icl. \\'hen placed in,id,' .<11 O\"CII, Ihl' 10w"'1 hc.lting
ICI1lPCr:Ulll"l' would bt' .<1 Ihl' b.",c, "hich "ould he
,n Ihc '.H"': I""d •• , Ih.· tilt·1. Su..1 " ....1"0"
b.• >c "(,\lId '·IMbl.. l<l nonu'ulr,I1I' thr m,lill p.• r! or
Ih,' food hi!:I"'r up, "lwII' 11I·.l1in!: ,. mo t Inlrlhr
Th\' n:l.llil,'I\' op4'n oritiq' IH'uld '·I",hl.- h.mdlinf( of
food ml1n' ("."il). "hill' th.. ,Iil;htl, illlrrwd nnk.
Ilould pn'n'lll "hollilll: o\l'r .111<1 r["11I1<I' t'\'.lpor.ltion"
Rise 1987 I h... rt'!.• ti\t, dtplh "uule! prnnit tn mo.
<;('I"\'C Ih(' h'·.1! Ri....· 1'11l7 I-Icl\\('\rr, .udl .1.< ump"
nOllS ,lr!' nOI 'upl'0rwd I" irlllifl(:'.dh ,'nib l"d ('th,
ncx:r.lllhic (I.U,I from rOl\1('mpor.,1"\ tr.tCtition.tl <ot:irl-
food pl'l'p.,,,.IIu.ln i.< m.ldr I'l\('f .111 open
firc-pIOlcc. po<inl.: diffnrnt l"C(juil'l'mtnt' for cooltint.:
JXltlC!), 'uth round«1 1>-1.-1:" \C,'(' Rif(' IQfl7. 2j'l
E.'l.uuplcs of dcl!lC .Ilfiniu,"l It> thr I/lUUP ill qUC"lion
C:1Il .till 1)(" found in remOte Ru ,i"n whrl't'
coolcinl.: continucs 10 bl: mOlde imid(' .111 fJ<rn, nQ<\_
acl;l)S in mctal POb of .imilar oKonic ,h.tpr-<:. I'h('
Cn::UIIIS1.tIlCC: th.11 m.tm I '>('U of ::! \\C'Tt"
affwed b\ second.11"\ buminl.: m.l{\r 11 diffICult III 1't'C-
ognise C\l:ntual I>-mds of MlOI ('.11ISI:d bl
Within IItC present I;rouP. p;trt of the j.lr'l did ha,c
Imccs of 5001 on the kl\\t'f IMn of thc bod\. but tll('
origin could not be "ith ct:ruin", Pt:rh.lps
the di5cowl"\ of a spoon .uch a jolT ill J-I0lt>t: :!
GIll be used :u C\iclcncc: 111.11 t1lC\C \cucls.
modem <oup lIlrt:elb, connccted "ith food pro-
cosinl;!. both hOI ;md cold,
On lht' Olhrr h.md. Ihc greal numbt::r of "'pC MJ'
vessels Iclosch rcbtcd 10 "1\:" and "t" mOll
indirccth bt:: 1154.:d in <I.nilll;! t1u:ir illlolll'melll in fOod
Ill'OCe1.lCS. Onc of Ihe IJO'" of t1ln l.,'I'(Iup
Ihld indeed .1 b:ll1d of 'OQI 0' er Ihc lo"CI' IMn of the
bod) Fit:(. \',13 . 'Ille'\(' are found in a numbcr
of sizes: from "nail cUIl,·I,!.e 10 'l1l"<lium
ones of 3 -4 linn, Thc, brlie\\"<I to be Ihr func_
lionalh mOSI unil'("r,s.:tl \C'lS4:1 I\PC..... ob.<o':r'\"t'd from
Iheir remc. 'l1u:c<c n:sscb "erc for ex.llnple mnl for
SIOr.lgc of lool•.. \ found "e'! of llle 011'11 nf
HOll>t: 2 com,lined .1 .n",1I bicon!C c"I' "id,ouI
h.mdles. I,hicli I',b pl,lced un lUll of ",ller'I<Onl
pcublt;.j us.:d in IlOlIel"\ produclion ,tf. Ihe ....>t:lion
abo\'e of production 1,,<,lmolol.'}I, .\ut>lha "·.<cl of
Ihe >:Ulw Iypc \\,'5 found c1<"'C I<J lht: Clllr:mcr Oflh.·
S.UllC hOll'c. it cOIll.li"ed .1 .ull Iilllcliol1.11 .ul!.r. Srl'-
ond,lI)" .lfC .1150 tlb"'f\ed Oil It·.....b or
Ihis Iype:. 0",· <uHllltt' I'cpl"c'cnl:llll"e h.ld .1 /"·rf,,r.
,.!iou, (':t. I cm ;n d;.une,,·r, nl.l4lr eellllOl!I, in Ihe
b.c;c l:mOllwr h..,c of.1 '",.dl H'",'I "ilh "mil.lr pcr_
90
r... \ \«...1 "l'" -r .t.",,,rtffl ,n .. \.. lomd
col "'.... lht ...n I'"" ,. tl'" '''''''
rur...UOTl I, 'll-(l known; both item' ,Ill:: from Housc I
.md"t't'r prob;lhl, I1IIClldl.'d;u J filllllC!> Fil: \'.H.
\eo;",b of ,hi>. !lTOUp an' "ilhou( h.. bUI in-
,u::ad :lImO!ll 31"3'" cquippl'd "l,h IWO or four lnobs
pbt'ro on tM \houllk" llK' _Urf3«' l' rustic:U1:d
u_ualI, b\ fincn-uailim:! "lOCh i.' and
}u.) d«or:l.UOO cff«'L :.uch f;'I.lO:n"rlexlurinc-. "hich
h.:a> al<o bn:n noted oil .. pm100, l,!l'OIlP vox!> or
T,lX -C- . doe-<. not 1llC«";UC:l \n..... hntim: dfcc-
'1J.lbo et ""- f'(lIlIrM\ 10 bclitf.
Ikq>ntmor pl"OlCCU fmm <.p3l6 ;md
crxkinl: produced '" lhtt'tNl \hod. C\ ;u.
In;U1\ Q!oI;. dW' rqlmvlI;nn't:!>
I!TUU(l m3' h:l,"!C btm in"*,'nI 1Il cooL:i.ne E,'al
thoud'o M:MCh for nlcnal '<XlI "'.,." ill Qr
,-ain Cl>L .sintt from bumin!; in
""''''' t"a>I:'- «lUkl nn' 11<" roW OUt CUq'>\ for lhl: onc
r;lIhrr <XTUin ea"" . Well: in [;act
di""O\Trtd "i,h :mOlher ludic<uioll of U'o': ill
food proct::WlIl1. "ilh he31. "Illco,c c""cmall} lil;h\ col.
oured ,-.:w:I,. \'Olum"lriGlll) each other
lil= ,,,,,.. found "illl ,u",ll,' hlaekmc"ll ill.
«'li()!,>. of Ih.. rilll. m:t)
a jJTOCt".' '0 '1,w'Khi"l; ".IS laking place:
h\.,hnll of" he"l OT mhc, floll' 'OlI\"\)(mid
• , ge.
n", ..,UI'I.,'O('\ lU b.. dl .... lI:.sn! ;.. a b,
'.u: \ 14 I tIll"""'....l ,..-I ""h <'MI,raIh 1I1.....cl I.",."" 1>n1o."·

('"du,ion, tr. n1iMrllnnrollJ \"csscl 1\1>0 or
ceramic 1\1)(" (\l1t ,'.t\ or anolher rd,t,ed to
I)diberald" ,he'oC items arc 1101 liSlc<l lo!:t:lhcr wilh
lh(' POl1t:I,\ "hich is the USl1 al praclice in UIlI!:".
rl:t. 10,1 or ,he ilrl1ls I",,,c a ralhcr Qb";Oll' fnnction,
"h\(h cI(>I."; nOl depend 011 lhe shnpe. like n lid.
\1'1F.OUS
\lll'U11..Rl: \.''1) \I:RY VESSELS
11,i!! I\TQUIl includes n number of \'cry small \CS5C1s
"hieh rail outside the usual functional aucgories dis·
em....ro abo\"e. \"t::5Scls an:-\C5Il thall:' cm in
hril/lll. but in J. ..-;t\. Iheir shapes \:cho Ihe ,!tapes or
dll: bie \"t:'''Ch. meonie Pt \6:1-121.
Olha "':Md "-pe! liLc simplc or footed 00" Is :1('(: aha
rq>l'OCIllcd. '\ltile !iOme or Ihe tin} \"c<;-els ma)' 1)('
consitkn:d mCKkIs or c\'en 10\"'li. as for Co"':lInp1c h:md
moldt:d MIxr.,6- Illade of un;cmpcrcd cla} :md 10'"
flTrd. appear to ha\"c a lllOn: R.1ooula'cd fu'lC'
liona! okll:nnin:"iOll. This assumption is bascd Oil thl:
Ihal ccn. ...ill minialUrc \-cssd I}"}>O (!CCtlr
;\!; 0laC1 cupic:s also al Olher site<: ill Ihe lleighbourlllL:
5i10. hut al!iO in a n:-,nou.o silc likc ,"um"Sill:
TodQlm" & 2'000) fl'1. 16:13 I"). l1teir
IIOl\)US do nOI sccm 10 he sniwblc to conll
1in
liqllilb. ;\I\d i1 can onlr fem:,in :, spt."Cul:.lioll "hell
wf
chilnns or herb:'l medicinc was kepI in sneh
'n'e funelion of SI11:tll ..essch Ihe .i1.e of n colk,'
cup iJ, no, deal' eilher and G,n in fOCI CO"cr ., rmlg'·
ordilfe"Cll1111l11>O\oCS (1'1. 16:15-l9). Th" h:lS
m'cncd rim. which makes tlu;m "n."it.lblc 10 1)1,' 11.rd
\ .,
'IS Clll)!;. '1''''0 ,.=Is allli!JUlcd 10 the gronl' 1\:,( •
uu 1'0111.: II 1I1l111il ,11 \1"'lm "ith .• di,lI1H"ll"r "fO.; <:m
,"ft'I,t1illl.: h"ul.·" 1J,,,wl-lilw in .I."IK' "ilh <li);llIl\
l'll',1<:1I rilll, lhl'Y \In,. 11") 10 h\.' ('om-
plelrll "''{;('"<lnl\.I.'et, hlll IIU' ","\."li"l,Ilt'd 10
hi: ti (Ill, lI11th '\I'n' fmlllet in I Ill,,<\.' I, N'mf" of Ih
l
,
rqm:'l'll!,uin" (,f lhi. h,l' d,'<:or:llnl .urf.....
1.1ga
91
lo"er rhl' di,,"'rll'T\ .111' If) 18 rm rh('
art' dlhl'r pl.lIn or df'(Or,Ilrd ",ilh II1ri ...cr
."ir:.6. l\onr of lht IltJI ",111(1, 11.1\1' lr.1I 1" "r
hcrn in ("(}flI,I{1 wilh ftI"('.

of lilh PI, 11>:2024 "I."IT "")' oflell r('_
cmcre'd. bm Iht'ir Ilropl;r idt'11liftcl\ioll i.. nOI alw,\\'1
m-:.il;luIOm.ml. -Il,n' \.·,m h,l\c :111 of fLoI
diJoCl.juII .Iil.:lul} cllf\l'd, Or Ihe) C;tn r:"hcr
lkep, Group 1\' pre-
I,Iil... 11,e lid. r."I1l III 1"0 sizt' lllme .,ilh a
diamcler of 10 15 cm .md IhOSt: of 20-25 <:111, Dc-
c'lSioll,dl}. Ihe}' cm he l.'n;er, up 10 36 CIll in di.un.
cler.
Onc C_'I;nlJ1ion:.1 e.'Co"lm"k :lllow. rccollSlmction of
:. ,·cs:.cllYl)C .1..< )Cl unknmHl Ihe archatoJogi_
calmalerial, Ihick ".tlled .11111 \\ilh a nafTO\' ncek: a
boulc·liJ.:t' \"0"'1. c\ diSCOl.'Cn:d rim liJ.ud mighl
perlJ.lI" gi\"e KIea or Ih:ope of such ."CSSd
1"1, 16:25). -Il}!: lid in question is circubr. 8 cm in
diametcr, "ilh slighll} rone,l\'c 101' and a plug-like
circul:.r "romlxr:mcc Ih:ll Clll be inscncd imo a oon·
lainer "'ilh lhe di:uneler of 4.2 cm 1"1. 16:24.
I'OT Sr,\I'ms ,\,'XI) 1'00 IU)
I'ot h:lI"c been.I eon<l.U\I member ofllu: Cop-
IJocr A);e home inl'l:n1ol)' fl'1. 16:26-21:11. '1111:) art:
oncll Wilh 1)O"ls 10 prolide C.\Ir:I stability
if lhe b.I\(' is nUl'O", bUl il c.lIlnOl bc mlcd OUI lhal
lhdr use conncc,ed with social .•,pir.llions r:llhcr
lhan "r:lctic:olilir" '1111: t'.'I;islcnee of fOOled 00" Is,
.. hich 1)Cl'h:ops dcri\'e from Ih,' s.une aspir:llions, U\;Il'
be reg:,rded ,IS ,I kindn:d l}l"'. fOOled oo.ds \\cn:
r:ln: in LiI::. :",cI ,Ire onl) n:1ln:<cnlt;d ,I)
(1'1, I6:29), I':;,eh hou... eOn1ained 3 -I 1101 .tHllds.
Tlu:)' ,m: of I\\'O 1}'llt:J, Th\.' usu"l "lit: ha, tlle sh:ll.K:
01'., loll' doubh-.cone ",illt :In idl'l'tie,LI ,it" of llle ori-
fiec.i, i\!:l,,:',,ioll ;"l'ol1n ahout Ihe ",llIding SUl'-
f;u·e. Anolher I}'pc' rc,em!:llc.i :1lI q:l:-l:llP: a sll:lllo..'
ling-fOOL "'I'I)orts a (let'P brl\\l-lilw uppcr pan. The
dill"rt:ncc !:l"I\I"Ct'" the h"l t)pe mid Ihc fOOled l)Owl.
is IIL:II 1)01 .IH"d, .L1\' ,upporled I", a bm,lder "lid
1'.\..'..,
III layrn ,1I1ribmrd both 10 U'l,t I and U'la 2. ILl ce-
ramic diso "ilh UI"Umtd .. h,,, .. be('n Ii,und. Imt.
Jar 10 the earlier cli.'>Cu,\("cI hrr.ld potn" PI
16:3()--32,_ Such ilcm. ,1ft' dll(l}\crro Jl ('\1''' K.'iB
.ill:. -nle IUC bct"ern I:; !f) cm III d;;'m-
Cler. The imcrpn:t.l1ion;u li(b Cu"",!Ofl1. cf_ ;tIXl\T
i.'I dhpulable, dllc 10 Iheir momi.('ncq Jnd.
10 Ihc r."\Ct lhat a ....ricl) of mOIT cJ:abo""le lids dlT
abundanti} rt:plT"Cnled in lhe rcprnoin: of Clipper
.-\1,'(: ... FunhcmlOft':. d fr:<qmc-nl or oa ,irniL:tr
shapc ..·ith ;m llpri'llll handk h;1.J bem tfut.:O\«nI.
\\11."11 an be di!puled i.'I ,,1H:lht:r such JK'fl<> \\elT wnt
for bread b."Ikinll or cbe 1iJ"t: s.tll produc-
tion, It is quue ccn:oin th.u Ihis I'-pr of POllCTl "-.u
cn::ued 10 be c:xposcd 10 hlllh
nRt:-\,ES:>as \XI)SIltU:-I:RS
ThC5C 1"'0 t\"JICS ofanefulS an:: »miL:tr III oaPPCdr.llKt:
bill oomplt:.d} dilTcft':1I1 in fUllction. 1111:\- hJl'c thr
sh:'pl: of J. 00.. 1and;on:: dotted ...nh hol..,... The dilTcr-
1:.lt:C bcmccn lhcm 15 Ihat nU3:1 &.
14 'olien ralhcr mi5lcadinlll. known ,I,';
hal'C lWO orirl(O, a n:trro" ont: ,md a bln.d, Firr-
n:sscls ha\e bc:t:n a l\'picd i",'Cnton of c\CTI hOUSt:'-
hold. In lhc Lil::l ::' lCltlerncnt complelc ITpl'CS<:111;o-
u\'t:S I,en: discOl'Crro in both House 2 and J, dose 10
lht: O''l:n. '111e use of 'ud, <pcri,1I cL"\. dC'l;cr; h:o!i
bco::n compn:he.ui\t:l. di."","ssed h, E, CoJ;ad eo.
s;.ck 19<)·11. Er.unplcs "ilhuUl "hili", all; ,lbo bIO"11,
!:llll Ihcir Gm IJc dt'flucnl due 10 .races of
.>l:COml"l'}· bUrTlillll, nil' IirC"C1$C6 "·CR' I'rr-
servc lin: period, "hell Ihc OI1:n \\,1) nQC in
U>c, l}lJiGdl} :11 /uhe' with ellllJcr could IX'
covered by· ,L 1in:·I"(''>M:l, "hich IIo,dd lhcn rnimmize
lhe 01' :Iir, kccpillg the but
not bUrTling. Surh ,m: knv'Il' 10 h,I<c lJcen
u.l<'(1 rl'Olll lhe l'koJilhic lh\.'
l','riod, .'1 1C;"'1 \Cm.Lck
Quile oflen !h,mb ..ilh llt:rf{,r:llt'll .. aJb lie....
.1 ((11 • hdl/lI'of/lgim
l,ltIod ,>ffl<JnI: the t'<:.I\oIt,.d m;ltnUl. l1uou\!;h
dJ".ro!...-n (,{ lull\ pR"n"ro itCffil.. it ,,3> etablbhcd
WI thM'r .ltt t<JnlI:' d1ffM'nKe'o hdpinl: 10
dNlnll\mh l..-t"«I\ 1iJ"t".,,,,'<b ;md _u'3.inrn; I'l
li"1 \l,hou\:h d... -;ile of the I'nfuraoom; nu> he
the t.afI'l('. their &1I11t\ " I"n a> l!tt'31 01\
pr 3 nn' ;1.._ HlfllJ>.\tt'd "ith fire-\"("SI,cl.s· 16 pr
3 on' 11... h."'" in _tr.UllCr<. tend to l:,e:t lU.tTOIH:r
fl1>t11. UK" n-n11l" to\\J.rd_ tht (lUll;r "hik fire-
'T'SCI, Lr<-p the: me..ur of mt Hoks on
arT di uibu',.d from !>dO\> the
"hilr thr hfhll"-\'\"li...,1> hO\.\ J. band "iUlout
'.nn fire-,e.....,I_ llitl"(" f;,r bentr JomOOthtntd
uutn na, .... dun 'tr.Unl;1"lo. 'nlt inSIde: 'UMatt!> an:
n!l\ ",,,\.I'd in e:idll't
·11\11.""(" lwar" fompkll: 1I';,in'·.... "t\1:' found. 11,C\
;'.l:l"'.;I' ....' diam,·ter of 1{\ cm ;llId.l heie,lll of6'
, CIlI n,\ "llotllhl} .lhndcd celllml pan 0PllOSl.-"(\
tu :l roue,h nm .md mUlldcd honum indic:lll:i Ihal
_II':UII,·'" nlll_t h,,,·,· I>efn u",d Ill!(clh", "id, I"t. ...
""nh .m (>nhn' no, ""eredin!; '1.::' ern.
the and ell»<: 10 the milline, pl.l1fonn. h is con-
.,i&n.-d c:nle,m.Jtic sincc <;(. ... el':,1 possible inlcrprcla-
tiom of ib function can he SUI:ll;C<lCd. It is equipPed
"ilh four <In.Jll ,crtit';11 handl,"" .Ipproxim."eh ill the
middle. proh;,hh imcnrled for a ....idt· orifice heighl
16 C"rn. 01: 18 C"11I. 02: 8 cm Fig. \'.15. 1'\. 11:::',.
Such oojC'("ts al"(" :,I'C"I lnO"" frolll OIher Copper ,\ge
and later silt:<. u<uall\ "ithoUl h:mdks or occ;lSionalll
"lth on' Ihe of Ihe ,;11l. Tmdilioll-
.tllI. Ihe ilem' Imn: h,'t:1l illtt'rpn:lcd l'S dmms. UIlI
other. mOl"(" 11llml!;l1le fUlll;tiollS :\1'(: :11<0 possibk. for
cx.lmplt: a <it....,; or:, funnel. "hich could be fixed 10
hide or the like.
\\ 1111 A:-rnIROI'OMt)RI'lHC ,\ND
IU.I'R
Onc bo"\ ill HOU'l' '1 equipped wilh
"ertie:,1 lab h:mdh:s lu;.ril';I..m,llly in ,I
lhal ., hUlltall lilCC willt pro\llldinl; 1100" lll,d Ill'
cm:d qcs ".'S Cl"eo"lll,d [V;I;. V.16). 1·lons" I (,0",:';1\1:(\
a which ""s equipped with IInllt;nl:d ho>:>''';
,\lid small jll·,mmlilll; Hllllllorpltic he:,d" IllUst pn.)l/·
.,hl) n·\.t·mhliIlK.m ox (1'1. \7:1). An ox rcpresenl:lllOll
.,I!lO found in IluuSl' 3. A of.' ,phel;c:,l
tlnn·".llled \·c>wl '''uill:llllp''?) Ill,d ,I ll;;,llj"....ll.'rlll":ld
'qm''''n1,1I101l "r hom_-'-. ,I Ill,,, 1,,.1' "n 11ll" nn k .md
illriwd ,Ill11ond-<I,."p"d ,."., 1'1. 17:-1
\1'()(1'"
, 'llImh.'r Or'IXWln, PI. 1i: I l,. m.lInl\ rr;lll;mCl1lt'(l.
h,,.\ .. 1)«'11 diJ,Cv\t·n:<1. 111,"" C.lI1 h.. di,;ckd lIun 1"0
1\1'•." "1.h ., Il.llldJco or cil\:lIl.Ir. or \\ilh 1l.1lI'·Il,d
tnl<\-'C( lion. Ilu: 1:1$1 ..r in <ill:.
hll1 lhl: Icn1..<th orlh.. <poon\ ,ario bCI\"'O:Il
1:I .md 9 nil..\ 'pOCOll "illl Ibu"Tll"d h.mdh:- ".'" f"ulld
iu,ick.1 H· '1 "C" 1'1. 1i: I . ,,11
<,)()c)IlS cont.lill amonnt or ...md ill 11u- 1.'1,1) rn.l-
ni". u<",I1I) combincd "illl 0'l:.llIit nMlwr.
& PERSPECTIVES
-nu' bod}' or ccr:unic d.II:I COIlI,,.·I('t! lh,· Ihn:e
field c;unp;,igll' "f20002002 ,u Lig., i. 100 l:irgc 10
hc pl"·"·lw.:d in ils rulJ nW'Ill. Nc;u'lr CI'U)" .h.ll"d has
bcen l'11lcred imo lhe .mer;lcl d.ll.lh.m:. "hich ha'!
becomc :l Vil.lI .lI1d a5 reI nOI ,·."h,IU'ICd 1001 for
runher sllIdies. The <1rellj.,'1h of .he 11oI.c lies nOl onl)
in .1 vcr. hi"h degree or del.liled infonmlliotl relfotl'tl-
m:llcrbl :llnibulCS. blll .Ilso. due 10 coupll1l1:. in
col1lcl1l\J.,1 infonn:u.ion bridl.,';nt: .he "ilh Ihe
,\n5"erinl; the Cjuc•• ioll' ret::,rdillt; 1)Qller.
\'ariitbility posed :11 lhe bn.,';nnint; oflhi. Chitl'l,,·r. lhe
foUm,int; ronclusiom Gm be "hick Ihc
'! nlclnt:l1l.
Fir<d}. cuhur:I1 u--:onsmi-sion l'!x·r.llcs ill .,
hier..rthiCOlI order. The nJO>t in11)Qn:llll fc.unrc is
,h,lpe. or rather il.5 idcali'Ol.'<I ,ersioll. ofiell ;.
mem,,1 lempl.uc. ScrOlld.,I') lIlO'1JholOj.,o1e,11 .mriblllcs
\ll("h h:mdlcs arc ollell irnel.,·T:ncd irun Ih("
perception of\l;$SCI, bul lheir plo,.,:c i, nOl .11".,>" de-
Icnn;'n-d. as lhe\ drill bel"CCll delll.Llld, of the pmc,
lic.,1 and cuhllr:1l COIlSlmcl5 "hi("h .11:.Iin (".1Il O'Tr-
I"p). Telllper, dccor:uioll .•I"d melhod uf Ill.,nulill·lurc
.d.,.l 1.lke " <ecOIld.,I')· <il:nifir,mee in Ilu- hw"dcr cul-
111f;,1 l'el,<pe,·li\'C. (Iilli-renl ..-;,1
Iradilioll\ 01" SI}I ...", hdl'inl: III d,·wl"-
mi"e 'flI'illl lh:m ellhw;1I hound...';," (d: .'5l.ul
"1 .d. 1995. "'id, I"dcn·nc,.-sl. TIlt'I"C i, .1 lllllnbcr of
e,hnul;r.'l'hic cl1"lllpj,o, ofl)OIl('l" dllLul:inl: Ihe rqJcr-
l"i1'l· "flhl·ir produclion ... lhq IIU'\'( lH IIC" pl.lcl·'
or "hcn nmrkcl delll.,lld, r.h:U1I:'" "lulL- •hn l'I'''·'''',"c
Lign
lhl' oril.,-in.l1 1o'.lmu1<ol(I ir "" Hm Ir.1I1l t.1 .111 k,no
.1ft' imlll...rd 1).'11(\ & :?filII
lIem/". il, 1I1111.... rd lh.1l Ihr luhnt.I''ll1<,.) v.,n•
.,hlli" "r lilt" 11I)1ll"1"I prr..llI< lllm of l.ilf.' 1 Imm, ;a
mi:O;NI H'IlII""'lIi"n "I· ell(" "nUp.olll< 'n'l '.Irvn.IUtltl
n·inrorcnl I" I "rnp.,r:U,I\" <tuc!i...., of rrr.un" In-.m
1ilf.1 :! .<111'1111>11111,., 1"/1 "I "diko Tdm<}\O. 11... LolIlrr
<hm,ill\!;.1 mUI h Ktl".u,·r unir'mml\ .•hu Impi}mll: lhr
c"i'l("n(t· "f dilktl"m p.tlIo:m. "r i.oI hrh.ol\1<lUr h
hit-, Ix·...n Ilrupl ....·r11h.,( lh..... dilrnnlt'"... h'MdOI.. n-
plaioo:c1l>\ .1 hit:lwr rnohilil\ and np.lntlinll' nrt" ,rb
nfinlcr:.(linn." hidl. 1lI,"'1 imponol11lh. hd'l" Ird l"rll._
Ch.Ult;.· of1lorol'lr lhrout:h di.l.LtlI alli.'nrl:' dnd rTldllnl:
<1r.11I:1o(i.·,S. I unher 'Iudi
,
... confirm lhr ••nun-
Ihllion IJ.l5<:(1 011 1.i/o:',.1Il.111·ri,J. lh.u '1>1'11 diffrrrncr- n"
lice•., di.,cl1fI1I1ic lrend itnd p"rh.,.p, r.1I1 11..
consid("l'l'd .u" lo:mporal m;trker.
'\"OIher illll'llrl.lm obM·n.uion l' lh,u Ihr 1)<!l1en
produclion of Lijo(.' 'l \I.IS on .1 hou.,·hold
Icvel, .incI· I"" uf lIlt" lhl"Ce fllll1 in\<.',d\f.ll("(1 huu\C<
cOIll.lined cen.,.in direct ;Co "ell ,l' cirrum'l.ulli.d
piccC"\ of e' i(II'nec ,,.bouI ponc!) pnxlllcutln, H"u....· 3
i, Ill.· 111011 "''<illllple. with nidtncc "11 llUllU-
folClUR: or tllHir.lri.lIl l..'T:lphilC p;.oinlcd I'OU("I"I. "hid)
;lpp_1R:11l1, ".Co ft:"\('ncd for dlC hou.\C'hold il ....lr 1:.,-
11C1"err1 11ll" Imu,<:holdo. \\.l> limil<"d .LIld pn.ll-
.lbll ........c!L.,i,d\ "mIX>lic ill ll:UUn:. o,.ldilr-d pollen
.maJ.-<i, h.c> ,,1-.0 rne.lkd ,upt:"ri"r,
il\ GllH1{l1 he .l' 111111..1011 Ih... bouU (If pon........ d...:"r-
alion .md 'nlCC chirf dilrcn:ufr br-
1\\1'1"11 pLun ,,"d dclOl""dlcd polll:1"I is lho: lIl'NTm'1ll
of limr. nm,. uumi>hcd t:r.lphilr p.timnl ",.urn
lItt'tkd lhl: period or manllf!clurr. bUI " ....' no
lL"Chnol....;c;<1 nn: <il\.
r:,i""-,,, '1U Ii<!lb .IboUI lht' Cl>1I1", ... iu"n llf lbe-
hOlL'.dluld.....-.:.umi'll: 11,,,1 \\(If,wn "rrr rr-<pon ihk ftit'"
1111' poul'n. Ir,·.,d, h'lll!'Chold n....'l"in:<! d 1Il"rr Clr I....
,I.,ble numh"r uf ' ...,..:l\ pCI' mcmber. h"" 1.111 II lit"
cXI'I.,ined lh.n 'ImlC could dlrurd 11I111'''''
lllrL'" lil11'''' "I" mor.· rrn·n.,"\ in puuen pnxltll"li"n.'
on,,· i""IlI' of hUI11.lll n.."<Om","' ",·t:d., lunhl·r ddriti-
(".Ilioll. "hill, lh,' ,.lIlll· ur ,·i'II.,lI,· Olll_l.lI1dinl! !'I'lll'n
:1 mediurll of "-K:i.llll !O.Il!t-d nlt·'...ll:.... rt:lll.lill' I,."
\,ond d'lllhl. \ll;'" ponen dl.pl.1I l"\.·U ill Ih,' m"'1
e:I>II.II ,il1l.llil'll'. liL.· lhdlinl: \\,lIer. 1.'11 Ill' .....,.·U .l_
.111 i1l'"'lInt·m.,1 IWI1·,crh.d d.lilll .0 m.ullI.lill tilt· ,,0-
d.,1 l>ll'lilion /11" 11l>lN.·h"ld rnernbc,,-
!lllT'lItr.
ll
l<,n, "f ,h.IfO lll.lll"tl,ll, h,I'" ......1111...1 III
.,.,,, I),lW "ll1du,i"n' I,m.llilln '<1);11'-
.llch h.I'.1 l'en ...>.\1"0("' 11I'I>IW1<,..;,.II ...·
n
,il1I11
1
• n"""
u>.lN' 1II,In " tk-lrrd III ,ll\"h,ln>l,'t1'" Wh.1I -«lII'
1" cn,ul'<" l:lT.l1fl '"I>11I1I1"11\t In .1I11>11l,....... .,..,11 -ell'"
111;11 I' Ih.. lK'llTII',ll:l" ..I dn"lIlOl,i"n .I,k- "n,lln--h·
mqu..... "1'lT'o<·m...l QUilt fMl1.lrl.lhll. ('\,'1\ <IlI)lCl"'
fi<i.al "udi.......... 1.11" C0l'prr 1,"'lIrn fl\'llll Ill..
\':11..'0('\'0 Itll in IlK :-'mrn.l 1,:,lIn la> a1lT.,dl pr.xlllN'd
n'1do-llCT '\lI'I,",rtim:. 11Ii> .I-<",umpllon. ,1hlloullh "ilh-
OUI full .xl.n...... kdl,.'<"lll('lll ..... IIK' ("1(".11 .lln, Coch.ld!i·
n
Thr ",....Ilk of I'0llrn nnl ..11...." 11' 10 qll("ltorl Ill..
,,'idm .KH1"rd ""'UnlIJl.l<>I1 ltul mllt"h rlThl>lOO(" ('\;-
"lll h.l-' b,mr ;lI1d in p.anltul&r"oocku iltlm
I ,llll.hffl.mdkit ;l 't'O<'lU' .l!1tf.K1u;U \lOIfI- Loobnl.!
.11 Iht numhrt'< .,f rrplT'<'lllM. 111<' di.uibution
..Ilhrit WI"It' ..nd \11", "lrh Iht motn";ll;..o lIu.l :I ,il!-
11lllO,ull p,I11 tlf Ih.' IIlI".'I1111Il'1l1 tmll .tlll "" hllkin\:,
Ihrl't l' .lP]l.",·tI111 '111 W, h,·It-tlltJl ",):.l11i, 11Ink I'h,·
1"'1'"""1<1' nt ,("1.tnll' 'Il<ltm' 1111' m'''' t"",III'II<' tlf
.111('1,1< I "<""flr,,·tl III h.lm' 01 ".It...-I , t I h('
'Ulllpli'\Il IIMf Iltl' h'" l'",dtl" ion h,t, ,n\'t'I\Cd tIl.'1t nf
Ih., n"NI, in II'm" of r.lllt"im· .... ,'11-.. "'Cl'p' for \'nl.
Ulllil1flU' .111,1 ht.:llt h.I,I..,·I,.
llu' llt>lu'" .,f 1Jt.:,1 \,en" fillllih.u· "ilh lIlt" m,lin_
,tlT'.lnt (If pOtu,,-, produc,ion. hOlh ItK'.llh .me! do;c.
"hrlT'. CuhLl",1 n-,plic.llitlll ('",Ill h.' Ihnlllf:h lhl"
,h.llll'" .llle! ,OtllPO'llI.ll1 of I '''-\l:I, "''<;01"C1'l''d in
('.n.h BLlI Ihi, did nOI ...,dud... ,hl"
of :tl\ hm:.·tplim. ,lhoUl
11)0100(' ;,bI11l1(,'. ,l1Id. not \,I"inl;
<llld ;uti,ti, ,1I"lh.I,-oIi>WCOlI lint·II'
poIOI!' 'imph hou>o('h"ld I ,n;,llion. The Ul.,'.l inl'l:S-
'it:"'\lio\l h,l' hrottl:ht lhe indil;du"l Copper '\l.,'<:
and ib membt'r'<. into hi<lonc;1! .
VI. SMALLER OBJECTS OF CLAY
I \OU, 1
\Inonl: ,he 1lI0lt· t"'\crpli0I1;11 fill(l, rr"m Lil(;1 i'i a rI.•),
cli'\(' .1 'IO-(";\Ikcl c1.I) l.tM"t "ilh illli'l'd .lI,d
in ,I m.lm... r lh.lt i5 .IICidO:Ill,ll
,implislie. ,I cUlIlllllmil";uiw 1(1,1(1 i'i .Ill'iw)\(:d. M in ,I
klltr Fi,l;. \'1.1 '1111' lablel ".15 found ;n lilt" .11,'.1 or
J, in Ol diJ.\urllCd lop la} .-r. 0.2U In helO\, the 5llr.
f;ICI' and tht'reror.- nOl .lIlributl.'(IIO ,Ill) p.tn;( ""Ir rea-
lure, fr.l\;mented fl'cent brc;lk",l:c
tnlCC \, il prO\idC!) "nOllgh ;nfoml.u;(lll .IS 10 thl' fiJnn
.llld p,lIIern, The I:lhlet lloIS a I'OllllCl.h.lllC. 17 lIllll in
dilllneter. 10 12 nUll thick with flat .lIld .moolhcd
hOlckside, The I.thlet is !iglu SrI:) hrown in colour, I,dl-
Imked (no \r;l('I'S of secondary burninJ:l and madr' of
.:Ill>' IcmperNl wilh fine sand (some anlmmt ,jforg:mir
mallCl' is lllw pn'sent). It.\ original cSlim.lied wcighl
35 S' Int'iM;d lincs "'ere made wilh II "'llOtll-n 1001 wilh
a till! 2 mll' wide nib. The dots :lre sli!:"lul>'deeper Ih:m
the lines. I'ans of the linc.< eont,li'wd tmcc'i of
(\, hitish) pa,te, po.-ibly incn15t,llion, This ohscn.,uion
is only h.lscd on visual analpi5 wilh m;lJ:nifier, 1"crc
arc. hOI,,:VI;(', other indudin'ld.lr disk from ,"un·
,Iuilc '-also kno,,," as Plosk.1.ta di'lCo\crcd in the
1950s. wilh Ilhite incruilecl .md doo Gim-
but.ls 1986.251. Fig, 9.55.
Cb> milieu rcm:lin an 1)11C of objfCts, a
fealure shOlrcd with other no doubl rd;l\o:d itcrll'i.
such .llt so-o:;tlkd smmp <c••ls .md bollOlll$ \\ith <iI:115.
.,hun.d.'III]r found .11 the site orGmdeslmit.s:, \Nilmlo\
19i11. \\'h.1I is conspkuous, is th.1t alre.ldl in tho: Nco-
lil11ic such Io,;lded \,'ith eomnmnic:ltho: ,.llue.
m.trkedl} O1l1weighs Ihe \,,:Slem l),In com·
p"rcd with Ihe f:lr beuerin\csrih'atcd I'"" ofthe
eounl.)" (sce DlhanrezO\,l 2003. 91l, i\bp I: Coch,ld1.i-
e\' 200Jll; Todorova 1986: 1993), /\1 We-elll. 110 COll-
I,jurius il1l"rpn:l;ujoll C,IIl be gi,en. 51111('11Ir;llIr. lh"
LiS" Il,hlcl 1',·,,,utbIcS;l "'''p, "hclher" of<ml'!i or POlll1S
ill ,llamlM:;op".I>cI'II;'ps e\'I'II,' sl)('i:11 e1ml'!.
FIGURINES
FlGL'1t11'l1..:>
The WIlll... or .mlhropomOlllhic fil,'1lrines filHlI
is VCI) 1.lrse COml).lr"d 10 Ihe .lre.1 C,,"l'.n,IICel. tht' 1l'.1-
\<)n I.t'in,l! ,. hil!hh Ik-I,nkd iml"'ul(".lli,," I"", llf'oIrlv
(o)mplrlt· pl"rrs ,ond:m fr,lI{lJl('Ilt) \'orrl' f"und..dl lotH
uur .mrihuu·d In thr 1.ilf.1 :.! "'ttkm"n1. Ilw- rn.-.. t
rommuI1 p.lt! .lInunlC Thr fr.ll.. '1n.. n,m pi..n'-, "'no 1'1P
ind. ft'rT: 11. I. ]rh 3. b",h It-$rl !
and hl·.lcI, hi"",,, ,\1}II.lnrn all' "Tminl(h I.u bnll'.
lhl·r.. i.. ont' \\.,,--: r!;1\ item "'1Ih p"llI\ffi
0:1111 "h,( h could h.I'r 1K'n1 11"'11 rti .m .tml 1"1,
19;12.'1 I pi..rf"l .1( ("()um f".. hip'i 1'\, 111:9/1lfl
kl1l'C'l 1'1. III:'ll'\. IfJ 1010 .lnd mmp 1'1, 1'1:'i(IH
T\\() fi""urinl"'i .Irr rl'prn('n1l'(l lhrl" I"""'r I"m "f
Illl' hod> onl> 1'1. 19: 1I 9086 & \11 ilH'i
I1 ill'm. lom.. frllln "p]I;lrrnd> undi"wrb.'d Unit) ,llId
onl> two do nOI h,ll .. ,I prt<'i-e prol"n;,'n..,'. Iwinl;:
aeddelll,L1 ill 100le <<lil ri, 1');L:i\l)lI.'j/l),\,
2001/17). Til" l'em;linin!:" 'ii>; pil-eC'l ",'r(' di"m,'ro'd
durillJ: the wur<;c or t'X(",I\.ltiOIl, hIli ill rt'di'\lrihUlrd
fills.
P:lrJ of ,I fil(urillc. "hich l;ilIl he ,Iurihull:d III lh,·
Ug;1 I 'ielllemrlll " ..., di'«:O\'l:n:<! bclQI< thr "'\\ pOlI1
or IIOII'lC' I of UIf.I 2 Fit:. \'1.3 80')') rhl) hou"<"
,,-as COnJlnlClCd on rem.lIllS oLm c.U"lier ono:, lilt
pan. ,It lhe dc'Ccndlllt: beinl: sL,blliu:d In I,K-
eup.lIjonal debris of Iho: prniom 'lCllkmrnt d
abo\e. Chapl<:t 11 Ul'net. lho: oril,>ln,lI ptl\luon of Iht
10
IOtal
Ir.:uch. hold a mudl darker brown ('0 r.
_t' " \. hi Ih; "OI".lll
hadll ut .1"" IS 18 cn., ,\QI:'),
. " r' r,,,,,rille ",:\>
1.1 lkarh To the lelt 0 I,e '."
placed a ha,,1 0 - 10 cm with ,,1\,11 ,Il,e
'1'1 "00" pc:ln:d 10 bl' ,I cla\ cRg in;1 Fi!l. VIA. 'e ,
, "hllfof ",;
"'" 'h.l]"Ie of;1 funnel 10 '
'
" ,'I,-t"OS ofll'" IIp\lt''T 11,lInclCT. 1,c \lene",1 OUl lIle :,ll( , ..
I
,
,
' ,d"in.,lIl,
lr.:" .11 Ihe ""rro"cT cnd I I.ll,' ". <
,
. , r ,,' (to cl \\'1I1r .'
I H, fa} .. <fnnd" "'I' in fact :0 ,':lf1 ,n,I' I
,
I r " r. . .., ,'," ,li.,ro,<,<f\·(
§ ll{J to :1 Mllrn, "'!lmnc. 'lIlll:lr 10 .
cs'
"hol,· fi,l;U''illC. '11\1", Ihis find abo .In I'
"Hlpl,' ur 'hining u"'lgc \\,;Ih; .. Ihe "'Ill\(' litu:.
dUlnain.
l"",.... pan of n.., teun.... I'> 71H:' d1"""ntd ,n
1-1_ hn<:tu ; nn 1", R l'..-.ln
fil!llrinc rould nUl be' ..,.Iablliht'd. al·
thoodl tho:- ma'r'd :and l'ffi1l(W"i orlhe: b\'U
of WJd> "here me, t....ll1d 1TllI\ ll1dicalC
Uu.1 me, OUlm...h ,,'Cl'tC <'),U¥'It'd from MI MCa of
u1.lr " .."c.
T1n> ",'OUk! ttrUinh. &ll m line ",th 00!.tn'300n!.
m.x- on tho:- dblribution fi fu:;u1lllCt in the "lib-
Io<'qUl'l1l L..izo ph.- \'I1th eIUbIbhcd
prtJ'aUo:ntt "'eR' found U\ ......Olr tIWlIh illonlI:
!he oonbcm and c:L-tcm "'.ill uf H,'lL"C I 6 Cilloe'.
onr "'''' di"""nn1 HotbCS 2 ilIld
] 1'1. 19:11):161
"c:n: ilI>G Pll"all ",thin \he hou.cs. :\
I"ilthcr \lIUiltion unc"'nl'd in !he
;ua, of H,lU>C 4, oM Iwth 1:Ua\"illcd. Cio!c 10 11""
agcm "....n. f..an\; tilt prt"<UlTllIhlc cmrana in lite
ill1 cnnoul<'d cb, fil(\lnnc " ....., tfuroo.'Crcd,
cQlTUTOOnh 1<I"",n a> Oil "gum\; 11,L; VIA,
1'1, j & 19 111c hca.d ill'(lc.I''C(! I In '\onh of tile
body, ....'Cnly rUI lhroul(h Ihe ned•., in .Ill Prol>abilil)
1:1\ a 1'lool,;h hl;llIc. 'Il,e 1K1dl '(Mid '0011\"" hal deqloCT,
hrnce Ihe d,rrerrn<;r in lli
e
head
'le,.vcd in drl(l" tmldlllom and Ihererore hghl hrQ\"1
in color, "hilc me hod" locill,'(\ .11 Oil rich
Ugtl
11l1: \ 13 IlDwiDo: 01 A <Lt, <'lI:II"- p.<I' 01 chr • .........,- liod
............J on chr "'II1:II:;....,.... """" ,.) ........ {J ....... H""
...........,p.. "lit
,he Rom,m period. ,;miIOlr <"1:.'1::' Iupo-d cruObIt.-o Ul'
mo"n fl'Ofll otOcr p;in, of F..urnpc.-. r.IL Ens:bnd.
.. here their wc \\ ..... nude In 1.1... 11.'" ofITk'Ul
lonl:S ,,-kcote ]99:!. fill"_ 13:s: fir....!h. the con-
finned crucihla round .. , ,UT or 01 .. hulh dilflT-
enl open wJJe ,.ilh lb.1 bonolm Irt;" br.....
-n,errfOTl' Ihe: .illusi()l'1 of;1II cml. held in the: ..tin
of .. fis;:urinc: <ttTTU more ron\ioons:, 1nc: rob<"f"'m'X
of the i'enb i> "renl:lhcncd In the fXI. duI :111 mm'
h.1'-C Kkntir.al dol' r..bric 'CC brim, \I0fCO\Tr. m....
..re rela,ed thmuch 1.11.. -.;un.. 'Olri.lli"n of bnJoI,ll
.\1. GimbUla> h:15 noocrd tl...1 man' h"ll.....
figurines of the CucUle:ni pt'riod conl.Linrd ..-imin
Ihci.. hollO\, bell;es 0"" or 1\\0 <null Cll\ 0"
d;,,- balls Gimbu.as 1986. :!·n, !-is: (qO '1,,: <"-Tll-
boli,m or ,Ill is ra,her <1I':uelnli;>m.ord J.lld m"",
like!\ FurthcnnOIT_ il nllTC:'pond' ..ilh the
p"Cl;ln;\I11 ,'.lIe of'h.. \lOIn.m in qul.... ,;Qn,
11'e pt,ICed ou A'lOr "ilh 11_ J.('-
Cl"50ri..". "",b 'urrol",dl-d In <'C'<.-eh bn.,>inuillS: Iu ,tp-
pear 0.36 III b...Jo\\ d,,, PI_;; \11 ,,,'IT lound
ull ,I d.IH'\ 1.I\er illl"l'JIITI,-d ,I, .1 'l.Jlllped
Hoo.. llh" ltoo.. 1.:\1·1 bring C.1. {U.i '" bd,,,.
•\, Ihe I;me of Ih.· ,-oIlIl,Il:r.P.lion...."n" ..., ....6 "TIT
pl,lced higher. perh.III' "11 ,hch," i,..""JI"d .Hlhe "."\-
er" ".,11. .,. lhrir illlllli..,_ C,l. :: III r".ml ,h..
nllnh..,l1l ed!,'C .,r,hc In'!lt'h•.llld':'..,IIl rn'", I"" In,'llr-
, I, I!I,,!
I,
I'll VI Cl:" (M:Un"", "l>rl",... " A' ··Th ,u'''= I:'d..... And
'" ,10.. """,.... ', ,or ,11... ". ..... 1 ,<:1" ofl"" Iil1unnr
1B,,"
-nu: "cl.,) CRI:" !U1"rd 10 bc .1 hollo\\ COllla;n..,r
wi,h ,list,,], i", r1'o,d li", ,wd l)Oiul,'(1 00110111 I"il:.
\'].51. SlIdl ;1<'"" "''c 1.11"" n fin'" olher co",,'mJlor.
.Il) Tt", mO,. nUlllnOlI. ,11 k...q 18
held b) lhe ,i,,· .11 !> IUII,;<n,1 IJ.on,-' &:
Akk,.mdn'J\' 19%. 19. F;I:. 91. "I"'r<: ,tU'
an, ;ll(crpn''''d ," n'll'ihk,. Th" .lIuhm" ",rill ion Ihm
.CIIIl.., of ,hi' i,cm, h.,d ,111ifi..,d "'I"r.,,-,-,. lcnt.lli,d)
confinll;ng lit,.;,. fllllC'l;nu rllo"... & .\Irbllldln'
199(;. ,191. H"w'·'1"'. ;1 n-n",i", ll"zzlillll. llt.1l ill'm,
\l11h l'u;lI",d h"UUlII' IIl1d n:l.uil'l'l) dtl>!'(1 fill'" \\'cn:
""'d Ihl" ....udhl<·;,. ,ille,· 1111';1' It.ludlinll ",'uld I", com-
I'I;c;"ed III Iltll""'O'I', ill la"'I' ';111<", dlllinll
.... 11 ,,,:t, 11\ I,ltrl'
LIl" ,111 rn.urn.d Il'l1lolLll' W('I'(' ,\\,' • ' " f
1'>1'1>1".1.\, In ...ll1n.", lIOn "11h, 1\
.I "'lr\.Il1l lit-nIT. Iht" {Irt'"'t"n",1 1l11"ml-
U1nll

hmil",ll.. Iht" 'I rnnlO"r "flhr ho".... "hldl" ,ul-
11< ...ru 11' ,t,Ut" Ih.n Ih.. rilUAl ,lml Ih.. prol,UIl' wel'('
not tnffil.l,ll, -« ('h.lpl .... 111
. PI 18"1
Ilou...: I c"m••in",1 ;& lr,u,mrlllrd . .-
c'I,:?7 .nd;l m11t'ti cb, lump furnL..hcd ",Ih .• nthro-
pt,m...rpltK k.. lu"" PI IR.· ·Hil.l Thr I'
. ' f lhe
Lnlrrpf'C"lm.l.-' frllll!ol h.:un1X 1\
coddr-'" f\'P', \l'f\ Il!och ,.h],;r Ihe ;lbo-.T roenti<,ncd
011<" ef hdo..... \ hnd .If ,I "lIh bem blCO
I' IR''l .w.w OU,,,,<k IM ..,,, ('(tI'liCr or HotL<c 5
m-J,\ '''!'I''''" (tx' a"umpbon Ih;&1. <\(tinl!
"efT;I r.llhn" rommon ,1unbulr r( ID\ hOU'lChoId 10-
\nll<)l'\.,1nd trol onh dur 10 dilfKull..... in fT'C(lI!I'tiz-
1nl! 1tK-m In ,I frnl!1nrmm ,uu·, lhe: fJ1<c or
thrir CU'!U>l\eOt'" h..> hrnt CrTlIlrd TCtdurO\'" 1986.
!u{l Tht...ut'J(' "bo,('l'\...O"n \\";&.) b\ \' GcffO'.
011 mJ.1..n..l' froll! ,he- nrll:hborint:: Rr-duUle site Ger-
£"' '!I1l1O
Hnu-.c ! ,Il...... ronwned twO r*'ct:'\ or
01X ". .. di' rump <fu,err.TrTd in the ;tt"\\
cortl<"l' m-J,\;ilio rt'\ll'("o('l'll ;& situllt::" fit::urine bul of
dilTnrnl I.:ind than tht ..00\1: mentioned PI.
19'.lHl rim or ...!. th(' ,,001 i, IItX intc\!pfcd. "ith
thr bBch. ;md. <crondh. 11 beJ.1"I:I n:llurnfutk
reockTinl! or;l, hUmllrl pan ... hit'h uswIh IS not cm-
ph;wzt'ti. AMlher Irnl!fllertl disrot.'Cfcd in House 2.
thr ""'rr p;&n of;l fI.., 'tandinl.! fi\.!Urin.. \\ith roIlmrd
Il'\!' ;lOO O\-..Nzcd hips l'il.! \-1,2, intiic<lll:!i that
fil!Urlli('" "''00 had an imO\",hle po:silion ...ithin ule
hO\l§lt, fil!Uri1X or aboul IS cm in hcil,!hl mLlSl
lu\ bn-n f;l.<tclll'd lO Ollt of Ult timbers abo"e lI'e
(I\'cll 0('(' Cluptu III thmu!!;h a hok of 1.0XO.i 1:711.
pnor ll) ;lnd tl'aCl:!i of wl:'lr. 111('
J>O'ltion of UI" is in roncordanc" "illl the
fall dll'c...tiun of Ult" nonh"m ...<111 from Nonh HJo-
Soulh. 111'" Ir;lCO of wtr<= re-
('CllI. hUl th... ullJKr pan W3.!o 1l0l n:t:O\"l:red.
Home 3, "ith Ihe richcst in'-<;IIlOI')' of poUel"\·. con_
tl;e poorCl't \'\-id"nce rc!folrding Just
a S1t1J.:lt- lC,ld ...," fOl.lIld in Ihe 'oOuthem pan 1'1. 18:-1
1065,1 !Illhe foal1lC area "':IS also a ob,· "001 ,.,
d
,-.' " '\'HC\
coul IX U1tcnd\od for" fi""'rin.. Unfr"n 1
,
. , ........ . u Ullat<;}'
\ IU Ind "'as made alicr the Danul, ,"n' d'
.,
\l'.n..... 111111 Ihr <=XCl\aL10n He thus '" _
, ,\''" no\ rc·
c<'rt!c<l in hilt' "ith olh," it"11I\ iultl11ll:nioll 011
,kclch.·, h\ r l\.,i\I'·'"
\ ... Iher hil1;h l1lunlwr or hgl11im' h'<IJ.,'lIl,·nb dis_
....",.fI'd III Ih,' \\,1\11' .In',' 111l' 1l01'llwrn ;lud
e."I.,\t'nl \\ ,dl or Ilnll..' 1 indil Ill;!! CI.I\ li,llurilll3
\tt'IT in ,uti\"\' 11'" "nd Ih••• tht: or Iheir L1'C
m,l\ h.I\'(· l)l'("n ,,,\ era!. E"'r the \\nrl.:
or P l',lo in IC\f,R 011 L'.ko 1968" ncarh
{'\'C'I' -<"hobr tl'('.ltim: the i"u," of prchi,tol'\ i;,
Eump" h.u ldl 'he 10 cOlluibute '0
Ih(' iruell'1Tt"tion of lil.. "Iu'<lIi\c ,,1'1, But .05 D. Bail,,,\
h.n riil:hth "ere Ii , and 'up-
poncd mo-th b\ pCr"OlI.,1 o.:oll\"ic'iom :md ephem.
cr.\lll..umpnons of p"cho.lnah,is 199-11. Gim-
but.J.S' won. 19H; 1986; had the b'l'CalCS' im-
pa.C't on ..ideh acceplc<! imerprcladons of
;l) ··'l.l(rro of di\;lle emincs" Gim·
226 RqpnUCM ,his llllironnal ap-
pro;w:h. man\ put forward Gimbm-
al'(' still \"ahd and r'o'Olinl.!. She qrcsscd the oon-
'"1:lItionalism <een in the molding of fi!,'1lrines "ith
IitUe auemioll l(1''en to details of (he human bod"
bul "ilh much effon dc\'Oled '0 "propel' placcment
of fonif\illl.! and appropri;ue symbols" GimbutaS
1986, 2':?6. Soch charged cO'I''ellliona!·
ism can abo be in the Lig;! m:ut>riaL
,,11(,11 compared ,,·i.1l other find:. of die
period, lllc mOSI dear Clll manif,""mtioll is thc "sit-
eoddr:ss" ,,;.h rq)C;uc<! minim:.lislic rcnderilli;"
or a bird-lile r.,ce, r.tisro. emphasized
and amls collecled 011 Ihe bell}. To a mode!ll ob-
5Cfver. the 01)C§(: sc;ued on a ,,001
wiut the face pleas.mu)' din:e.oo the sk1' firs.
of all emanate a feeling of "good timcs", perh:,ps
the b."lSic i11lention, lil.:e .. h:lpp} [n this
t;QnlCXI, the obSCI'\'ation Ih:1I Ihe Lig:l fib'llrine is ,is-
iblr pregnant is impomllll. Al the sallle time, I.hen·
arc :.\so ce!lain SiJ.,"I1S of indi\-idualil)', which :LSI: for
a1tenuliI'e explan:'lions. Itt Lig:', this is seen ill
!lI)\lIe COLdd)' yel precisdl' captured de.:,i1s, like 1\\'0
COll.C!i of rcndering of .1 hLlck1cbone :llld loes.
Ethnogr:'phic dmu pro\-id<: a suing of opdons (for
sce Ucl.:o 1966; '1':11:11;\)' 1993), hUI "hat
Lhe)' fail 10 delllollslr.l.1e is a multi_dinwnsion:ll use of
fib'\lrinCll \\ilhiu the s.une !>OCit:t)'. :Ire also
belinl; 011 co-exislence of figurincs nJ:ldc of dilli:rcII
L
materials, <;,/01, da)' ;l11d wood. Despite Ihc"" lill1
i
-
Vlb. Ct" IIr"" l'mdurcd I" nmr 'Ut old I::...l, Con.... D",nc,. :-Onn!>rm Cnurtno J \ OL>m-. :-O,oU
...1tk-irn "leh """'" ,,,,h 11<',1<- ",,11 .... " rnnI.olr " .",j mim".._
l."iam. clhnogr.lphic rccorch <lill n:lIl.1i" .1 WUl«' of
in'pir.ukltl.
,\ \.t1u.,b1c Gin be gotincrl from fl(Jd"ork i..
i'onht'l"Tl Rq;on ofChan.t Glrrit'd OUl b\ J-\. Ol.oro
JIl'''''.comm.' I. FolIO\>inll: Ihe "ork ofloc,tl
I>OItl'l') produce""..,]1 "0111>111. he di..<cO\en:d
Ih.. l Ihcir!l 10 \ ....;'r old vandd;I1lt:lllcn "erc ".'in!,'
cia} 10 produce to)". "hich (l('C';tSion.t11\ ("o"ld be' 30Id
to lheir pl.,pnale,. Incidclll"U}. the d.n1t:ht(11I of lhe
I)OUCI'lI "cn: nOI the cr.lfi. The ilCIIl$ lh.ll
","id.• wen' producing "rc: hum.ms, furnillltl·.
'lones. mi("rophOl".:S. mobile Ilh01l1'<. hUrrlbh,..:1 snlolJl
'e'\lels. '"cou,in dri"jnt; a ><,oowr" .1I1d 0,(> on cn'I"}-
lhing Ih.'l i, 'urroulldillg ,he drilcln:n in their d,lil}
life \'1.6). ,\t rhe SMue lime. Ihe ttit'd ro
("(lmc ;,s cll))c a< possible in thei1' 1"'llflc,;nl; "r rhe
·n... '" lk Juhn 0.",,,. l·,,,,""i,, ,M
Gh.,.... rot '0 "'" .....I f'um
Ill, "lid,.... I'm""""
objn:b. bill Ilti! don nIX impl\ lhal adull ob-cnt'l"I
..ould !,'CI Ihe \';"11<' ..\ n;amllk
"cousin on .1 'COOI(r-. "hich !nob lile J.n ;un-u.d
1i1,'1lrinc ,,,,hOUl .1IId holdine: 'iOmelhine: in IU
h.. -II1<b rnc:lI1b1int: buo.:rJ.nion..\ rilUM performance?
So. [n a 'otlllt: IKlII.·!'! n1md Ihi.. -boo. of!1 '("",u'\-
i:; holdint: lhc h.lI1dl..... of a I,hed.. ,ho: of Ih(
-comin" be'int: IlI.,cC11 on lhc ridill\! pl.ufunn hcnce
1.hC\ arc nUl import.lnt..is ,inu.dh di.""war
behind Ill.' !Il:rITn. Sil(lliIiGlnd,. Ih........ il(llU
arc Inle im.'t:e-. uf re.1! ollJo:'CU. if ",.,d pllJlll'rh_
Fil(l"ill..... produn:d bl tlillcrem children h.,d \(,-
1'1'111 curnrnnn f.·,'lurt:' . .\I.mile 11:1., .... for ('",.,mple.
"ere IIl·C.""'I"\ '0 It'ep ,he hum.IllS upr.,i$c{l. [n ,h.lI
\\,'y. lhn "(11)('",,-.([ '"'I,llld.ll1:lilcd'". I\ht·" .'"'l...d
:,1>0111 ,ht· lacl..ill,t: h.,ir. ,,<ir'ls .>lared Ih"l h"ir l.ouJd
burn dnriut.: 1he filillt: proce>s. Ht'" 1','1'1'. J.lrer 0". (lIIe
of ,h,' }O,"'t.: IlOllt· .... rdle.lt..:1 0" ,hi:; limi,.nioll .ll1d
I'rocluCO'd "HI .1 le"'.,].. wiU. lont.: h.tir ".1>
Jell unfirelL .. hile .' "",.It- fil.:urine '''L\ lirrd lot.:('lhcr
,,,lll'dru-h.-, "llh.. \ 111.11:'- Iml 1•• l..m!o: hll111.111 \'mhlldl'
,
",,
- l11rlllh.:r- "I .1 "l1l1lllUllll' ,'"uhl oh.'n dr-
111<'11 •
nilit' ,h.' Illl".unm: "f tht" 1I-:111;n,·.. on ,Ih.- h''''l' ••t 1"'1
'illl:k .1PI'I'I)l'li.II,- ,']nllclll. \ddlli"n,ll .KIl·' ....'f_
;r- "f ,1\<" r""il;'ll1 Ill' .1 tit.:1111!ll' CI'uld lurth,'r
Ill<" lllt",minl.:
In Ikmn. ,blk,,-nl nl"lUlcd f;llllih,", "ou1<l .,1....,
.\ _p." i.11 hu'l. "ht'fT -en-r.11 ,llllhn'ptlmlll'phir
",...><kll hgl,nlU" ''l"n: lq)lI01,'l:lh.·r. 1111:<0(" Hl'!"N'll\
(\c<T.l ;\ 1'I:1.lIi\\"' tu:"'!n!;! ;ndi,;<lu•• l ft',.-
IIlIt"'-. "1Ih "':'11.\1 .'m',. lht' (1!-.'l.uilll... ;I!"C clJuplt-d up
"ilh ,hI" dl"<-'C.l.'t-d Ihrom:h '1X'Ci;,1 (crrllloni," Ind;-
,idu.l.\ 'l"'lCl'\hill "f hl.,'luim·' i, oft"n .....·11 ,mlOlll: ,ht
rhildn"ll ..\' Ihl' ,uh of i, .en I){\\\t·rful.
childrrn \,ho 10_1 11n-ir I\\in \\ould 1)(" IlHl\'idcd "i,h
fil<urinc lhr rlccc;I!'Cd ,win. fi,SII'n 10
,h"ir ".li_1 10 \It. I,......d .1\ lnck) ch:wm but .lbv .'
doll .IS ,m .11 111:111)(;'",,011. onen \It'illg red.
,,'hell or. \I_wIll) sold 10
tOllli_l.mind••d lllt'rch:ml'. lIlt" ,'t:Ic.L'c Iheir
pO"cr.. or _piril' in :, ccrf'lnoni:ll ".Iy. ",hich c.mu.
mon" h\\'olvC' Clll 1II:II"ks on aOll\ or ,'l11ual
dt....lruction UOI .1!Tecting the \O\lut: oflh,' i,em
;IS :1 rommodit\ .
Wilhout ;m\ din:cl :In:llob'). lhe l
KJinh
h,'re ';CI''-"e 10 underline Ihe :l1uplilU(k or
lC'l""b on \\hich lil1;urine:!l m:l\ cin::ul:nc OOlh mentall)
;md oomo:malh Fir<1 or all. lhe pos<ibilil) oridcmir\·
in!/: chikin-n as llroducel"\ irlspircd to look Illorc Ihor·
otll;!:hl\ al till: \\Cn: produced. 1'n:J.
of Ihe Oinl malerial from lit;:l has ,icldt--d
some nidmct:. Ihal local Oilll. found Oil Ih('
'iile. "as U..M ;" .\ medium of No h:\\r
IJoct:'n made of Ihis \)()()r qualil) nilll. bUI '\t-"'\Tra
l
Imal'llnl corn indic;uc Ihc practice,
All discQ\'t:rcd cla\ ftg\lrim:s. c.xccpl onc.
lhrce«\illlcn,ion:\\ PI. 19\, Thc onc lwo-dim... l\>loll.,1
flgurinr iOU, ".IS disco\'en..-d in House '1. "h...re.."
alrcad! m...miom·d. i, muSl luI\'c 1}L"(;1l ,'Il"rhcd 10 0111'
Oflhe lilllbt,!,> .,ho\'c Ih... 0\"1'11. For or
lil.,'urincs. 1\10 u:",k lechniqucs ,,"'re "pplied. Al k.Isl
. s:. _ " , 1 I 11' . '1I1rl du'
lII0\C C"SI'S \\1.'1'1.' mote c( roUl nu, •
"'une lump or cl:II' (70-15. 9405. 902·1. 'llmll
\
"1 '11' , '1 r 1 ,1\ li",Il"
.', I" ,s .,1.0 Ihe C:I'C \) I II.' lll, .,
, f II lhre':
Ulc (I lhe UIt-' 1 "'ul"ll\"l\l \80991. l11dclcllI.
I
).
of Ihe tl11.... ... WCI'C rn.ld.: of UIIll'llll)\"r.l"d
c\;l\ 9llll6. 200111'17 '. ,\nothcr 1"ch"icI"e Ill'
....,m a t,..,....l.hLe dc\ri "hic:h H>uld hI' pul on :1.._ its
h",r
Dunnlt on. in Bmin. \\r;t\f"CI. .IIlhoueh un·
c\mnn'trd ,m "udic:-- of li\tUril'll". IhrN' "'t'N' >('\'t:r.l!
III tJb.<,n'tC the' runction (l( ....im;n
dilfrtl'nl ,·ommunities.. !he \i1.
Ct\u!d hi' found at their limn, "tunnel could Ix
....n\ both ir$dr md uull<idc 1>tlU>C\. :lnd Ihc\ could
tu\" dilfelTfll lco.'t:b m C'Mltn'hip.\1 Iht- \i\l.1ec of
(;rL"li to rhe East or A1J<mrI dM' ""''" of FOil Iilr
main feu h ...." .. ul>Ul1lrd m die ('(InleT of a Ulchl'll al
iI,,- ,hirf, hoou..o<. A ..'OOCkT1 fi\tUnlM' of a m.-.\.. "idl
hem Ul<'n> aud l'ffif'hasi1.n1llha1h" ";u '>aid 10 rl'\lIT-
....m ll.,Il.l a Yorouban dril\ die "holl'
\ill.llt" all;'lln<l i\l""'<!I Ht:- \l.j h "M \1\\0 a
10 cm hidl pbtfonn ;lnd hlC,...II11 '"1T01.mdt.-d In ki"
ehI'll ,,-,.re. Outside Ihl' hOIl...." riL;h\ .<1 ih "all
"t'll" IWO tllher fi""rinL"', a f"UM!e .oml "n :'\l]l:u\'ml\-
•, ......11••1 c<.llllin"...d tll h" .1 bOlh ""id
rqH1."C1l\ )ollluwn .\I"l>ou. for d,'"d tl<ildrcll
Ihe ""rid \,If Ill<' "i,1< lhe world
"r,h" 'p,nts \'1.11 'n""" lil;Uriu,,_ "er,,;oIoo ill
lhr ' .....',r"lup of lh" "I"lir '''ltulluuil\ .... "ell ;0"
I,; \.,' 1'CU"J'l" Ilv \-.""""'" <In" 1\,,1>••
....
tOO
J(JI
,ol-t'd mdi,idu,11 nl "'1>"1'.,,1;' h'l(I> po,n•
.md Ih.n \\". ,Ill' Wth-
niq,1l' ," Lilf.' 2. I h., mun' inl"rm.lli\t· ",_
,lir.,w dllll ,,,lit! limb, ;md I""'d \\,'re .'II.ll'lted I.. 11
h"II<," hu..h-. Th... hod) wo"ld hI'" _impl) "H'xkll'(l
I,ilh hnl:el,\. "cn' 111.Id..• 10 ;lH"rh
lhe limh_ 11,;, t,1Il Ix- x'Cn In'm [hI;' IlI.lJonl\ of Ih.·
fil:\InlW \,hi.h "rre hrol..·1I (>lr.1I JLJlluion-, [11
mor,' dt'm.lIldinl: l."l.<C«. a \\Otxl"n of 1 3 mm ill
di.'II1",,,·r \\.1.' .".'d."" con'. ,Iround \\hi.. h Ihe hj.,'1,r.
in..· l'o"ld b.· ""t·mulcd. Th,,_. alia ,,,ch .,id;:§
can he 't:en in bOlh ht::,d. ("-llli. AnoO) .mrl k,,"/ft·...,
l!lO(5). In 1\\0 ... wid,hl WOllp Ih.' figm;lIe.
\\el'(' llUlIIUfilClllITd of LIl11"mlx-rnl cb, I022{;.
UN"OO9/!l1l .
...nlS of nmdc of urucmpen:d cl,,)
allf:lctcd <pl'd;11 :lllemioll. 'incc Ihcr .lppc,lr lU
el'cqnh..HJS in !l1l' 101,11 1)0(1) of IlOHcl) prodllC:l5.
N"'llI1l1 cia)' ",'S ." Ihe LiS', Sill'.
Thb .I\·.,ilabili,)' could cel'll,i"I)' inspire ,','t'n llmkillc·d
membl't'li of,llt' communil)' tu el'press lheir Creal;\;I\.
el:l) "ould ;100 be uscd for .ld hoc ':l<L. !tu·
llO"anll}, ,he di"co\'cn:d fr:lI,'lllellU of fi\t: figurine<
made of Im,elflpot:rt:d cL"!.) "l're fired. 50 ,hde hellu
wen: ,re:ued Ihe _:,me \\':1.) as ,he olI1CI"'l. Of cour.se.
,he .1I110utll of llnfired fi"'lu;nc< willuC\'l'r bc known.
All fil'e pieces :"'1' sOnlcwh:tl 'pedal. Onc l)f Ihem
:. I",.•d (:lOO 1/127. "nknOI'" p['O\<enicncl')llladc of:,
lump of cl:l) ".'5 C:'l"\'cd in ,he m.. nner of., W(IO(kll
objL'C'. 'Illc cu' m:.rks wen: smoo,hen..-d "i1h
\\CI fingct'li. Caning of dot) lumps ('an as .1I1
3uempl '0 ,ran,fer m;lI\ur:.eluring techniques applied
on 1,0001en ..\t the ..mic ,ime, il .•
gro"p of ilems \\ hich h:ls dis:'ppe,lI'ed. n.IIIlt:I)
"oo{kn Anolhel' ...;,hin ,hi. glo"l)
is I],e nl.(hl h.tlf of,hc lo\\el" p.,,' Of.l S1:mding fmml.·
fil,'11rine. This fi,,'1";u<: ha, .llso lx."Cll prodnct-d of .,
sillglt.' lump ofd,I). Thc _hape .lIld inn,ion uL, puhic
ui.mlllc .,re made with ne.•rh m"lhenulic I'n:ci,ion.
'111is \t.lS nOI a product of " 1I0\ice. Th.· CUI ",.•do: in
lilt' middle of the fil:urinc h:l$ .'pp;uend) oo-n con-
trolled. lc:lI'ing a '''''y p1.'in ,,,rf.lee of 101lI.(ilud"",1
h,-..:"k.,ge. Th.· i,em ".IS f01l1U1 in 11ll" lower I.• yers l,f
\\..." •..Icnllnlll.,tl·d ,,[ong lhe C,lSlent " .• 11 of llonst' I.
Wilholll l(oiul: into fun/wr considcr:lliun. ;, c.UI 1)1:
mcminued. th.u .imilar fr:ll{lncn's of:\liddle NroIilllil
15000 1500 BC) fil:\.rint:> ,ll Fr:mt.'lllhi, CrttCe "n...
'-'" \ 18 \\',.dm I'CI'"................. IIm,,,,_ '- "'J'I"nWftII
I"," \ ...,.b:on 'lnr. u..l. ...
inll'lllr"ll'd by 1_ .IS., kind ofcuntmclll.ll dl'-
\;el" or idemifyinl( lokens ""l di$I.lIl1 contra".
101"\. prn"rn.lhl\ holdinl( the o,her h"II nf ,he '\;I1II1:'
fi{fllnne TaLla\ I99J, -15 16, P1'IlC$ 11 & I:!
111<: relllaininl: thrtt denm't::" from un-
l<:lIIlx-rcd cb) mi.l(lu "ell h.l\e bct:n
duced 11) incl'l",n "",ken. rhl" include ., rolk-d cl.\\
lump with :ll\lhrop.,mOI'J,hie .lIld .h.llloII oh.
lique illd,iollsollthc b,IC\(. found in Ilou'l' I
. \nother c:l:::ullllle .• r:tth.'r cn.,dd\ n",de Im:>l.<on
on' ,11 Ihe jun(l)<..HJ .Ind found in tit<' M,m'("" "re" .11
Ihc I>..d. of HOIUC J IO:!2b Illt: Ihu'''' IIcm u" k:t:
of a fitrUrinc ,,-i,h O\l:nin.-d hud.leb"l)I:
UNOO9/f1B. di§,"rlll:d fiJI perl..,,,, .m auemp, 10
imi,.lIe Ihe del"'!' ...·en on ""'ll.'rh produn:d til,'ur-
ines !.l003).
Thc'l' ,ugge_liflIlS do nOI .'",e1ude Ih.ll uther
m:1(1c of IClllper'C.1 da\ could 11.1\'1:' been Ilroduced
In children. l"d."C<1. .,JI fr:.I.(""'''''' of fi....unnl"!o can
be di\ided into Ih...... nudC' I" ,J.:illful 1I""'len. .Jp-
I'lmll: \,dl b.lbm:n1 fabne .Iud U'C'a'nlel\l
It:Ch,,i<lul''' .1lKI thme 1II.muf.1('11In:d in lIInll: nld,-
llIelll.'l'\ 1:I,hion
Cl'l'lllill un;'l;' <il, .."lIU{l'S '-.m be n.:....);I..-r,i;.L-d "hen
,icwilll,t "ll lhe 'lII.dl hud:, ru"l·llIer. It h." !I.... n me,,-
t;on.'(1 th.u Ihe ,illllll,: fil,'lll'iuc found in Ilul.l>C IlL"
I,'t'lher ,,"11 iu .lca"-lUrie. ".l' ",.Ide of idt-tllical r../..
rie d.I\ ,lh""(I.,,ul\ [I'ml)l:rnl ,.j,h \;Illd '\".JrlZ p.u-'
102
lid.,... I ! mm on,;.mir m,lUff, lltt- ...lme
f",bric "ith llx- _.une -<iTt' .md propllni"n "r 1t111pn"
'"I: romp..nrol' ,,;l> ,ll«l idrntilird In .I ,J.jUfull\
ITUolk mom ,rphic hl:UnO(' rmdmnl: :I. Ill\: I;c \"I,ll
thi. tnnprr rombilUunn ,,-,-, ('Ollqdrn:d
minimum ri l ImlJIC"T. (ruunlll: IIut lhe- ",m. in-
\'e'l.C'd In prodoclio<llJf ilnm"ould nnl br jn;>p-
.udittd dunm: till' hrtlll!; procc'" Pl"Th.lI'" il Q'\ ..J..,o
lX' ;u .m indi\idu.-u Hf a pout"r.
The lowt'r l),ln "f the fil;!Urinc dl",'O\ ('red in
2 111.': \T::! (ould he linked "i'h a tripo:1I1 fwnd in
Hom".) 1'1. 19;4:!(l!o. PI. 20:1 both h"w rt'Ccivoo
Ihe .....me l:T'OO\inl: of the <U1fatc :lnd "1'1"(' made of
1111:' same f.lbrir: abllndalll prncllC(' of on:;U\ic malleT
a.nd chamOllc 0.5 3 mm .md 11100.,,,11(' amOU1l1 of
SOlnd up to I mm Two 1ThbSi\T 1(1(" & 9022
di!;coI.'n't"d in 11... " .......e ;rre:l '11 Hou..: I "CTl: made
of 1JH, W'M f:abric. lud IIko .,;un(' <brl. bro....n
ookn- and btolh ....(·IT bunu,hro in th,' faoJtion
On Ihrir M'I"(' of point:
me to t:.et Llu,\ llrir production ,,,OL In a
not fonnoUum .. rn'lnxtme:1ll ,l.IId durinll
pan "f th" 'al". 'n" fould cam, Ix
uL,n "" 10 ·t;mdinll 1i1,'Urin" if
oM ilin "ffT '}O{ Id'i both {,f Ih"m. Inridcnulk
a '!Imllar ".1> dl'lfO\TfTd al b c· .•
'. mdl-
QUIIIl. that un- i, .1 l'llC of Ild'';'' "d
" ., d . . • I: .• "l er
,Ill Icmporn.! Wstrihunon ""' "
. le pmpomon of
le).... I,hat 'uch Ih,'11l111\"!o "1)\lld haw been
around 30 n1\ III hCll;ln.
"", CQun'nll<",,,di;l1\ "hich i<
_L . >«11 III 'I,rt."'-<inl; cer
tam "",mclIlJo in fK'Urilln .......... ; . -
., . - _, __ut" '·110.'. ,\Ild <k d
cnc:" on ruin "f a "'ffiblillll u\(" Ii .:pm -
1l;I.lnn".,. did nOt fT-
qUtr. 'I"" 1.\1 ,1..i1l. III ,I< hIt", I'lllt' ".mtt,d l'C"uh, lilt"
·.iUllll: l.. .."kk,,·· "O'llltl ,ull hI' l)('rt"t'iH-d "tht· 'it.
\::."I,k...... lit' nl.llllT il "lit· \W'" llu.: dal)tl',ll,·
rumpit-. t,,,md ,,1\ .lIld Rt"t!llIiw !flUll
.If Ihl· I1n"'1Jhi'lI',ucd rn""lh{"lll' Imm 1..\lllmC'(' ;'\il..ll-
1,,\ "md 01..01 (ib\.! 1'.·midle\,,1 :.'OO::? Rt,·
li,ln.c· ,'" nlll'l:nti,m.•Ii,m p,,,h..hh e\pl,tin, "11\
-{"I1lll" ,.llhl" ,IHine ti"'ll,nnl"' \,,"'"e 1I0t l'qtlippl'd "lth
'1'"1,,,1 .l,llribtlll" '('C :':il..ol,)\ Itli 5 1)(,1'h"p' th."
l.!I'l\cr;,1 ,1l.lIJC It"II ,llIu,i,," "Il1111!o:h 10 dl'co(k lh,'
of ,u("h tiglllll .... rnlll(1 a150 be Inll"
.lbOlll ,'llu:1' IVPCS of tif.,'\uiIlC.<, likc. e.g.. Ihe hdl·
Ih,lprcl til:unlH" (li,co\l"lwl ill I,he lo"er ur
,,;\.!l' [.l..<l of Hou-e- I 1'1. Ill: I . Prodl1ced of"
lllmp of rla\ "11h .,nll <I,umps
OIll ;llId .... r.ti>ed ,md with a r.ti!;C<i hcad. it i\
l,nne -e<'n ;l) asc,",ual" ahholll:,h fmm
RntUUlr I.C'IT <'quipped Illth brca..ts Cr.tlll;h;lT()\
1999" Fil.':.::?5 XC\"Cnhc1eM. avoiding premature eon-
cltl'l<llh. lhe IllcntionL-d brll.<h,lpcd fi,b'llrinc ,tlone
"llh .. rolkd lump from House I an: hefT
wnsidrtrd """C,",ual·'.
Ccn,.in -e-,",ual dctcnnill,llioll within the U!.':I ma·
,crial c-.U1 be made in four :\IId in all, il is .1
mallrr offelllalcs. 111c onc ,Iod ollly Uga I fihTunnc,
pn'Wf\'cd onl} in half, had iociSl.'d pubic ul:lIlglc :mcl
:1 hip belt. ;In emphasized bell)' was mOSl likd)' a fer-
10 pn:b'llnncy. Also lhe b:u;k cO\"l:red with
lllcmOIlS.
to Ihe Uga 2 m:llen:ll. tht full)' pr>::scly,:d
sillilll; fit.,'Ilrine has both bn·a..'ts and inci!;C<i pubic 111-
Pubic lrianek :1150 SL'('n on a fr.tgmcm of
a siltine fieurinc <fuc;O\'crcd in a "street" :In:a prol,.
abh n:-<kposiloo Ialcr. since il had Ir.lces of second-
a..... bunlin!:,. conlm..... to the finds from the .... lute
afTa. \\ ithin the pubic tri,tne1c il richh (kcOf-
at"li "1th mcision:. fonning a double 5pir.t1 (:x:\ alld
dou..\ ribbon oflincar \'"'' nllltli"g .1(1"05>
Ihr II.Heh) 1'1. 18:9. band is perhap"
A double spiral mOlif Oil pllbic triangle' i. ,t
frequellll) "pplil'(\ clclIlenl or Copper Age ligu,ln,·s.
In tlli, .. nent ",'5 lht· only Ill,ly
fl'agmelll at 1. 111e lhird Lig<t 2 c.l"·
"her.. ·• "" .1'·' . . , , .",
• ·_,",Utu ( IsUnct,ull could he llI:tde IS I, "" 0'"
ll:trI of:\ found :'" 110115C I. As :tlrc:ldr nlt'lI-
1101.100. Il' fcltlillinily i. rcw,tl..d through .• "h:"1'1>
1l1oCl.<'.'d lJUbic 1'1. 18; 11 .
Lign
103
It .11'lI h" IlWllliml<'(llh.ll 01H' of llll' IW,'II,
(.111 hl' illte'1J1't,!t'd n1.ll,' due I" ;I promi-
IIt'lll rhino 'Illudill,l: h,·.lld 1'1 Ill: IT"" perfor."ion'
011 e;llh ,id,' of Ilw Iw.ld Ill.,rk lIT,· Sudl Iwrfor-
.lliom 'H,'re tllIl n'wrv,·d for femak 0111\,
,inCl' there "a' '1(." of nl.lk 1i1,'1lrine, "i;h
car perfonttiom \Nikolo\ Itlm, 6:.!; FiJ.;. 11; Todoro,.1
1979. Fig, I, "'hill' fem.tle FiJ.,'1lrinc1 aI','
equipp..:d "itIT three or mol',' male
tclld III h.I\.' unl) two.
10 n'p'.';1I Ih,1I no indh;dual. natur.,listic
r.... cia.l fC"t\lrC$ can b,' deduced from tlTe pre'iCr\"cd
heads. l'rotnldint: nme Ihuall) considncd
in reproducill/o; hum.m imagl'$. E)I."; ma, be rendered
as dOlS. pcrfor.lIions or protnlsions. is repro-
duced as :l depTC$\'ion or a :l(:rics of dOll>, E.... rs would
only be marked ,IS Such :,ninic puritan-
ism W";Ili :lq,Jabh :, conscious choice or rcstriclioll in
order 10 .l\uid bhtnint; of lhe m(.'SS....gt..\CCCllung lhis
';L'W, more <t"-""S should be pill on lhe de-
sigllS of Ihe fil.,'llrines. percch;nt; IhL_ as .\)TIlbolic no-
muons ,,;th <p<-'Cific me,minl;,
Attempts wcrt' made 10 recomm,ct thc 5C:,le of
figUrillCS. 111e sm;IUC!i1 full)' onc the
bell-shaped figurine of 4.8 ClIl 1902-1,. 1111: an:
represcllled by two 1Il;lSSin: legs ,,9014, 9022', onc of
" hich is preserved in its full l:.'ltelll, Such figurine is
estimated 10 be around 30 tm. 'Ille reOlaininl; lIould
f.'I1I illlo groups: 7- 12 •."d 1-1-20 cm. rcspcclh-d}".
The full) preser\'ed siuing lit,'llrine ""as 18 CIIl in
heighl. It c:m be IIOled Ihllt simil:lr Iil;urincs:1t Rt:dtll-
ile range between H alld 25 cm IGergo\' 2000).
[n Icnns of color. Ihere ,1I'c Ihree b:lSic color cate-
gories. Those figlllim:s, "hid, "ere m,tde of UIl'
tempcn..d clay SI.md out b} Ihcir light gray to !,'l':I)"
brown colaI'. In thrce C.lSC' the color is black
(legs 901-1 & 9022. ITc"d 1065,1), "hiclT is ullttsu:tl for
Uga 2 The rellT,tilling picces range be-
tween light rellow bro\\llto medium bro"'n calor{oc-
easionally, with rcddish ::)urfi,ce i,
lIsuall)' limiu'd to Muonlhillg .md ,'vcuiug. SOlllC
items. likc till' .,ttrilnned to Ugu I (B099)
:md legs from Ih,' W:I<le .,n'.,:It HOll.>c I (9011,9022).
bt:ar II':Iees of btll'llishing, Il.o'SlIlar burni,hillg is ob·
served on lhe surfi.cc or till' hew! I'm'" liOllse 3
(1065-1). The ,lIrf:.ee of Ihe skillfull) milde pair uf
t9005) "noothed ",ith thc Ill'lp of )t·lf-
slip !'.III,'rn dl'fOr,llion ll,inl{ inri ifln \t"," ,x-nTd
unl\ in lhn'l' (.'M'< HIm. Win, 'llfll
Liltit' c,HT I", "'lid {m ol')l:.lIlil,ttiun of pmduuion (If
tlTc fit,'llrill(,\. 11!l'l't' i., hO"l'\('r. "Imf' c\idl'n(c ,hOlI
.It le....l p,tr1 oftlll' fll;llrinc...... pmdu('rd in the "Imc
seltint: ..5 pout·!,)". !lIC 1110'01 'killlull, nl.;,de llf'm
;1111011': the di.)("()\Tn:d pit''''''' orl'l;Ilrin... i< con'idcrcd
10 h,.'.1 p,lir 'lOO'! 1'1. Ifl:lfI l"hi'MI
onl} recci\cd tIll' bor-.l <"",IIC trc,lllllCnt in form of
<clf-<Iip. hut it also delllon.S1ral("\ ,m eltCl'ptiorul de-
Cl"« of .,IIt'ution p.lid 10 "Kh ",m;T!r'
.os toes and huclJebonN. Thc \1;1..< ItmJlt"rtd
,,;th fine orwmic mallcr ,md dl.lmfJUl': on the ,,)In
',.:n: mall) panidl."; of'i,;md. oI..'i ill thc (.)..'1:' nf \C"'....[
bonoms. So. a 1.I\er of SolOd ".b tht- r('('1
from ;1 n.1t surface, in orrlcr 10 J.'oid .. durin,:
Ihe moddinl;.
Lookinl; 301 thc p.l\lerm then:.Irt' Ir....
fr:lll"lIellts \I hich can be linkd to dc:liIlil:'r:tte bn::akin2_
;-;-:uurall\, group miCht be biwr. The criterion
dlOSCII10 dislineuish bcl"tttl (\('liber:tte bn:akinc and
"n.11urnl" relics on t\\O Fir<t of J.ll. the
frnt;ment should nO! be broken al it:> Junclurc poi.IlL
.\nd. 5«Ondh. the brcak.or:c <hould n:lkcl a con-
trolled action. like "'1);Ir.uint: fil,'IlrinC1 1010 equal
hal\f:5 or cn:atilll; pl,tin 2. 1"'0110\1101:" lhe<c:
cuiddillt::5 of the l,'TOUp of dcliberalch
broken items includes the left bUltock of the Ul;.l I
ligurine 8099, the lo"cr left p.-'" of ,I fieurine ?086,
a leg ofa Illa.s.si'·e fi!:.'1u;ne 9011. alld a pair oflel:"1
fcct \90051 aU found in ,I MC.1 ,It House I
plus" head in Hull.>C 3 1065-1
11'e Uga nMlen,lf. .llthoul<h limit,:d.•usa pro,ides
SOllle clues Oll ownership of tlTe fil,'llrinC1- 111<' par-
licular loc"tioll of ., on a ITou>c: 0001'
at the rc:lf end of Ihc room ,md pre-ullI.lbh dO!< to
lhe Ol"ell indictlcs lI,.,. lhis ".lS 'l<:l'\inc croup de-
,,"II1(b. As cI·idtncc frolll UI:" .md IU:dmile -ult-
gcsts. e"el) hou'" could hnn' b.:en <-q"ipl',ed ..ith
such .l figulinc. I"his .,1,0 mlrro", tlTe (111'''''1''
ship to a ho"'cllold I..,wl. TIll' "uoe e,w be ,-,id
.,WIII the Fi!>'1lrin" of "hieh tlTe lo"er p.ut \\,1.> di,-
CO"I.'red ill I-IOIl<t· :! .",d "hidl ",l' "Ixl\"c th,'
:! he.ld ,.r III tu,r;:1""
I...,"" I III t"NII 'hr b<Nt.. ..., I..... «TU ",Il. bu, ,Ill",
1"
I().I
r \ 1 0 ( ..... lIl;llnn< .u.-.,,..,...l ... no •• a I lbr An-
...-m _ tmIota. ,.- t.,tol. l.haM-
m.t"l1 1-ill \ 1 \cttptinl! dUI potn (If lht tlrol"inc<.
("!.lId ha\'t" br<'n 10'''' prodlKrd I,., childll'lI. 11 i-
po" illl... 10 -tall" Ih.:ll ....me: welT illdi\idu·
a!l\ owned. BOIlI' "I:\uino, IlT'alnl b\ P. lid,trI)l.
al-o pr\'l\idt imponall1 Ch,tlller IX .-\s:t
row. da\ fill:\lrin.... ,,'t:1l' «<:mint:" ck5l1!;lll."d Il) 'ol"n'l::
I!fl'llP dmulwh. "hilc bollC fil!;Unnes 10
the ffiI>lT indi\idu.ili...ro of use and O\'llCT'
..hip ..hKh alT o:a-... 10 am. for in-
.1Mltt in dcothill\:. ;uT Ihu._ "I'll. uncommon
t:r.1\C cill., ..n' Chaplfr XI of bone
fiqurinr- I' al-n le·, ..rd and requires
'p!.'(iill _kill_ cllmp;u"t'(l "11h productioll of cl:\\
fll:urinC!<. -11,i, nalur:ill\' ,"me on the
number of IxMbl.. 0\\11l:T'i .1> as pU1unt: ouch
Item, mlO a dilfn't1\l Qlreon of \41uc.
Boot- funuillO ;uT ;ilio ;l.llOI.l\
..rulllll\! O....,lC"I'\}Up ...-(: ChaptrT IX 111C on!> aJllhro-
l)O(OOrphic f"!Uriroo: roooo ;'1\ Un ;uuibuled 10 ilK
'. ... dn:-or.nn:lt\\ic... malbr n"Cn
thrn: \l1TlC> nl.. tint.. it rtt'l:i,--' -'I
_ _ <:U ;U
lI..nal of dll: )lCriod the n''', ""'
• I' " ne"
ul"lcr 1I\;,dc .1 mnr.. fonhrii;ln markini; of lh,' pubic
tn.lIll:l.. hUl.H Mitt heil!;lu .....,min\lll.
"llh th.. allU§lI'cI\n' of Ih.. ori";,--' . L )
..,...... '1
3):6. "'hilr lh.. w, Iil!;'Urineli 'l"Cm I •. --k . .
r_.L 0 lJ'C 'HI!; III Ih..
"''' ...... 9,ll<'re "r poIlO'I pmdU<:u"n. iI b Il<JI unlildl
lhott Ihr flu and puruhlr ,,__. .
UUI'" 'pccrnlCm "'ere rnaIe
prudll(U.
1_1'lh.•I".. the 'lk·ri.11 nlk ,.f tIll'
h\:unno:, it _hiluM tlIW<' .1I(.:Iin hI' 'tn-"'nl. th.Ll ....·nlc.
11.1' 1I0t .1 pl.llllll.'d .111 I[ bte, •
.In.)lit hut •• n.1'11 'll111liw. Idlich f01\"ed llll'
illh.lhil,llll _10 !r;1\l' ,'I ,'11 tl1l'il' 1(101, lx'hil1d, :)Udl sit u-
.l1i"1l 1011\ pcrh.lp' hI' illtllnin.III'd thlTlll!:h nlllllMrison
"lth lu,wrir.lll"H'nt<. In IfI!t!. in Gh.lI1.l, tIlt' Brili<h,
umkr lhn.".u ,If t',mml fin.", IOl'u"(i tIll' "Il{lk oom·
lllUlIit\ ,>1 Kroho 10 Ike .md ab.moon their be·
Innl:in"",llm'. "'oll111lllllil\ idol. can ,till he found
.llmmc: th(' hOll>C 1\.111- ;ll1d brok"l\ no<;<els of
thi_ Inl,,'t' "l'ull'ml"nt \'1,10,
It10\tORI'HlC nt;lIU'l:I:':'
.\n,hropOlllOrphil Jnd 1.oom0'11hic hale
lx-en di.'C\1S..'<d in .llllwe related to the j)()\'
U'l'\ Ilridh it can be SIJted thal only onc :lIlthropo-
morphie protOl1l(" .md IWO 1.oom0'1)hic 0111"" n:scm-
blinl:, ox \,,:..... found. bOlh attributed to the Uga 2
-ettl"\lle11l Fig, \',16 & 1'1. li:2.3l. Onc proper 1.0-
olllorphic fiAll1il1l' I'.IS discovel"ed behind Honse 'I. in
the "'MCe\" area. It 1\-aS made Of;l singlt- lump.
It'lllpcrrd wid, fine organic m:l.llCI' :l.nd ehlllllOHe. Thc
6.6 cm.•\I1hollt;h fmb'1TlClllCd p.lrI of the
head and an: missing, it holds se\"eral dct:lils of
K1entiflCation..\ hump on Ihe 1);lck is 'Y1Jic;ll for oxen
PI. li:i . ,\ p3ir of nubs bcl\\Cen the b.lck
lIIdic;ue th31 i, was a bull.
11,c ,;,"(.'ond 1.oorno'Tlhic figurine call tnll)' be con-
<idercd an :m\\ork, whclI c01llpan'd "'Ilh Other fib'1I1'-
ine' of the timc, 11 is made in lhe beSt GII111l::llli\a
1F..dition, lIilh IM,ur:tlistic. de':lils llOI le:lV-
in1.\ pace for <pcc\ll:nions Oll \\ h,l\ it represcntint;.
Citinc: Gumdni\:t is not Jccidem:tl. for Ihe p;tl"
alkt, an: from the KGK \'1 :trea, nlt: he:ld of the
i" mi;sin.l: .IS il m:tde using :t Ics> common
in-enion technique. The bod}
13.5 Clll bears fCOIturcs of .' pig ()oil:'
\'1.9 & 1'1. Ii:!l), The dal to Il1lll111lhClnrc this
fil.,'urine contained org:lI;ic mll1tel' and •• buIIC!:llll
amOUllts of rather coarsc lhe s:mu: c011lbiu;uioll
and Ilroponion ;u in Ihe c;t:SC of the full, pn:scl'\'c<\
hum;1.ll Hence:. il b likd} thlll Iht·
pc:non "as rC'lponsiblc for Ihe: creation of both,
Ilns animal fil.,'Urinc found ill a lOp 1.l\'cr Soulh
ufl-louSl: I, "hen: die fih'llrinc di"co\"crcd.
l.iga
10.1
L\IlI.l:.ti .\,'''0 51;\IIUI{ DL\'ICES
.\11I0111( 1hl' r.llher peculiar find\.11 1;1.:'1 .,n· fmltlllCIlL'
of <1Tl.l1l t.lhlt--hk!." dc\icc<. "hich u<II.III\' .11"(' tknomi-
n;ttt-d .1-< .Ih.I'1'ICCC<. cuh·I.lhk... 01l1allll)\ .lIId till' HI-c
1J.\nll\ 9: Ehter 1986..ID3, ::lulh \.lrieh in
ch.lrnt ll:ril:ltioll m.l} not onl\" comic-
of a dl"'Cribilllt but alYl .1 fun("tional
.1111plimdc of'lIch items. ot111'r .mer.lcts.
like snMIJ IJO\\h or plmC$. nl.l\ h.t\!: O\crl.lppiul.; 1l."C
funCtion<. of thc sdf-eol1stnu:ted teml "t.lhle-
likc" .Il1Clllpt to :I\'()id str.lightfon,.Ird illlerpre-
lation<.
fr:IWllcnts of table-1il-c de\'iCt'S ha\c bccn
:11 PI. 19-21). Onc is deri\ cd from
Lis:, I m:lIerials, the remaining from Ug:1 2 d.II:t.
,\l11ong lhc fr:tgrnellls arc four lq,'s. r\\o of" hich I,cre
broken .Lt or belo\\ thcir junclion poinl, so strictly
speilkin!:,' il Gl11no' be c1clcmlincd ",h:1I lhc)' Iml·C
becn supporring. The m:l1cJial provides:I I'Ct)' rnixnl
"inure', :111 slwpes and t)1)CS being repre<;Cl1lcd. There
:Irc oolh lripods (·1: ·12026. 2000/15, HOOO, 1(659).
rect.,ngular (3:200 1/250. 9028. ·16251. :l11d hcx:ll,'on
pirccs (2:8001. ·16·16..1. 10659). T,,'o IIhl)
be eonsidercd ;IS lle;lrlr completc. since onl), their
arc partl) dam;Iscd (42026. 90281.
A common feature for this group of items is an
imL-gr:llioll of a basin "ith legs SUPIJOrtillg it. As the
only c.'\:Ception. the OIlC fr:tgment auribllled to the
Ug:l I 'lCttlemelll was 1I0t equipped \\ith 20011
250! PI. 20:3,. 111Uo was rcclanl:Ular in slmpe, \\hile
outline of a b;l.';in was rounded. lllf item wdl-
,llld brown in color. Onc of the '1ideJ \\,IS
\\ilh graphile decoration. find <pot
\\ ,IS bellc,lIh the western of l-louse I. \\ hielt
st;lhili:l.I:d by debris from the U'i'1 I sculcment.
Thl1,;c of the fraglllclHs altribull:d to the Ug:1 2
scnlel11enL \\ cre found in Ilppennost b)'ers, hcnce
thdr p1"Q\"enience is unc!e:ll" (4625. 9000, 1-10001.
1111"e<; fragmcnts (1I00L 9028. 9000) \\'cre 10llnd in
lare," or waSle :'ccumulated "1 the NE corncr of
House I. Two f'':\1:>'1]1eIIlS C;1I1 he :I.-5oci:llc{! with
l'louse 2 (46'16.-1, 2000/15). Onc fr:lgmclll WIIS IIllri-
buted 10 Housc 3 (10659). and OIlC foulld ill thc
"SlIeet" :11'<':1 :tl the SW corner of HallS'-' 5 (·1343).
'111e bes, I'rcsc"cd table·like ilem ...1$ found up,idc
down in House:: 5, ," the :>Qulhcnl ".dl 1'1. 20: I
·n02611.
\'1.1 r. 1>INlrl nf nI.n ,h"'''H,,,d amllnl{ <1<01>";••U1nh"I<11 I"
lhr U/l., r .... 111."'.,,1. It. ...
Despitc form.:! 1.lriation there 'iC\o:raJ COIll-
mon characteristic<. Firstl). all bllt onc spccim..n
ShOl' manur.1clllrinl:,' I:M:\-ond the' ordin.ln. botl,
in tcnns of surr.lCC treatmcnl and dc:cor:Jtion. Con-
tr.m to Ill.. t.1blc-lik de\iccs 'H'n- pro-
duced sl:lUfll1 m;utcrs. Onh onc n,,-ullpk'. rCIll-
I)(:fe(! "ilh org:lI1ic matter. was m;uk ill ... eru<k
manner \\ith 110 .mention \,';\"cn to 'urfaa IUIil.h
'9028. &condh. range of oril,lin..-u colon u
limited to lit:ht bm,,,, ,lIId liflll Il"ddi.h bnn,n.
lllirdh. :111 Ul.,"Ol sll.11'tC ;J \en sil.,'llirtc.Uil
fl'atul'tC. n:ulld\ th.lt OUl' geolllclriC fonn tt 1IIl'0'lX1r.
alcd illlo another. 'nle rollnd b:wlI j" thus im:orl'or-
:Ilcd il1lo n:cl.IIH.. '11I.1T or hC'UI,'Un,11
<h;lpcs. Sueh fonn..! .... i5 had 110 doubt ... m-
bolic meaning, Ihlh c1e\.uinr: the t:lulc-lil-e
.Ioo\e the pro[;lIIe. [11 this lit:1u. it rn.llle....
of pClil'her:11 10 detcnlline Il!lellrt·r tho: de·
11,'re or. mon.: ,ilr.1I111l·e('\.
Certaint)" thc io;sue hill rt'tluire more el.lbor:ul·
rh.m uu.cr'\,lliuIIS undcr microS('upc le[
B.mn} 19!J7: Sdl" •• rl!xl'l: 2003,.
R.lI/wr more full) pre't'n t't! fr:IlllnCUl!; .110" th.u
Iq,'!> of the 1:lulc--lil-c de\il·C" c,>;pcnenec<! the 11\0"1
stre". 11'0:' tr:lec" of .Ibr.,-..;UII". C,IItll-d
by roll!.:" ,mfilen. S«rninlll\. dC'iee cDlltinul'd III
\06
tot u-n:! ,.1\0;1" brr.umu: "I" 00(' (>1" {"\Tll I\W 1ft\. 11.1>
indk .holl ublt--Iilr lud ;a I"nl! dur:mOll
..( u'" I'M- ;unot\l! di.--e(l\"Ml'd i"
Ilw ,ntdr ..ne <l(I.!R. 11' al'l' onll
b:i X18" 18 cm, rh., dl.lnltlCr of the 1>'1'10 bcinl! 2
CllI 01110:-1" pin........ ;m: '''KC ..... bil!. the knl:1h \ ,tning
Ilt\,'t'('lI 9 12 cm. "hill the diameter 01 the ha_in is
-4 10h.'<I.:; ,md li 8001 ern, 11C<fIl'CliH'h.
'111' c;rr.,lr,l \";\rl.1U\)t1 j. "l't'n in fr\11lI 1.:1 to
10 1.2 un, iL....oo (lll 'Uth ,.\nC!' of ,h••pr_ and
"h"n pr.l(ti<.ull Ih..n' .lIT no llircn repcalint; each
"llllT, 1\ un be a,.umo:od Ihat ",her_lilt- <k\m
ulljn:t. uOC'd m ndWll!c. In 11Ii. <m< tI.,", an in-
dcTd I.. .1....lrial «Tamio. :mi 1)01. onh
dur to thoojr n.. pulpO';t". ;1.., potmro om
I" r n'ltT 1981).3413_
ll.c 1l1'f'l'T 'un...,,, Ih.. po.tl hM re-
ITl\n1 the mn<.\ 'l:lb1r-lil.c dc,iCt.... tUI be
,hl'l><,d ,\lid hunl1<lll'd . bUnli\hcd 1()G5Cj" COl.
," I'd "'nh ,", 12t1211, Ulci><:u in p:ull.:nlS
U\ I. I()!);"!. rJr "qmpponi 1\;lh "xlrn.rnodd"d
140no, 2nOO/1 j , Ont" Hr du· I'icrcs do..-
"'1'"\ ,., ""-',.I all"nur.l\ IUbi"! Il!> OUlo;r i- li hI
rrddJ.h hrown. "hill- lilt" b.lo;in il. .....1 bl. 'd '
..1.' "'-. Ko. ue 10
.... 'm lnoouon (or "I('lh. Bnido-I d ,._. . .
• le: ......,11 1> 10
1.-"..,\1 b...lIuw\o<'d.md I,n... 'L •.• -
....." ''''''·lltrtnr..1UU''. OlileT
Ilrll
l
' .1.1 ..... h,I\<· Il."'·' .,t 'C'L'IlIII.II'\ Inll lit
,..... ,n.. "UI." 11.111"'· 1.111. MOlll IkIlH·. Ill•••
llIjlnl.lli.1ll ,lf lin° in n·I.,IIl'" .. nh l•• hk·likt· dn;n..,
,.mml' Ill' ,',dUlit'cl In ...·rnl. nf I,.hri,. lilt' d.l\ 11
.lhlln,l.ltllll lClulll'rr,1. lh.. prl'"I.lilllllo: l'omhin,llillll uf
It'llll
lt
'.;m: 1\1.lu'li•• h 'lI'K,mi, 1\1,111,"" "dl"or1"ll
•. nul .met t'lI,mhllw.
. Ill,',,' 110lIT .101 "la,ih,'d
,h.. fUrlt'l;on "flhr dc\in'., il 1\;1, bccn d"lu-
nl1\u,m'Ci ,h;lI Ihc p"Xhll lion f('qllin.:·d "\I>cri"I1,ell
IltlUC..... Ihll. iml;l;.ll;ul.: lh,lI .h., (,OIll,'Il of (heir u\\,
...l> mo", ",""uilt''1llh,lIl Ih.1\ of the filtUlinc.,
),10111:1. OF on:s
),IOIkh of or ol't.'n. belong 10 a group of r.lr·
;li.,. in Copper .\g., ,ile•. ani) OIlC such ilcm Il'a,
di",olrn;d al h i•.m O\'CI1 model Wilh :Irched
found belll',llh Ihe SE P:lt"l of HOlls!: I of
thl" :.! -elllcmelll \'1.11 & PI. Ii:91. As h:'5
1)1"("11 mentioned hefore. Ihi, slope .Ire;. was stabiliso.:d
\I;th d.-bri. from lhe Lig;. I stlllcmclll,
Ilh;c!l thm \I";\S rcdistribmcd. '111C Ol'en model was
an inlC1!1"".l.lcd p;:m of .1 laTgCr i'elll. nlc
ible intcrprt"lalion i" (hat il was a p:ln of a lid. h
rem"ins unclear, howcver. why a holc of ca. 1.5 cm
in di,uneler m.. dc in Ihe bOIlOIl1 wall of lhe
dome for TIn: holt was 1l1lldc filing.
rhe ridgc of lhe fnnl:lcc furnished
wilh Ihree protlll,ioIlS. of which onl), IWO ,II'C inIac\.
The <unacc of the domc is covered Wilh 10 longi-
Illdin:11. p'lr.llId incisions.
CRL·CIBLES & )'IET.-\LLURGY
'nil' cxc;l\'3tiolls .Il Lil{:' ha..'C also pro\i(kd C\idc.}(c
for 1llC1.illurg), It \I.l'l allcstcd in bOlh Copper .\1:('
'lClllcmenU>, as ',,'11 a, in Cr.,,·c 1 (sce Chapl"r ;":1 .
IncidclI\.l.lly, .lll ilems rela.cd 10 were
found in lhe ,.nnc arc;!, ,Il lhc SQlllhcrn
slop'''> of thc SilC.
Tllo fragmc1\(, of [WO crucibles werc rccon;rcd bc·
lIe.lllt Ihe S\\' part of HOIl": I. Tlll"r "cre in a dt'U'"
bIer of shards .md other finc6 from Lig;l I. .. hi<h
"as crealed afier 11,,>·c1ing and ".lbili'1.ing lhe ,101'('
.ITt:a prior 10 conSlruction of House 1 of the U\f.1 '!
'lClllcmCnl. Bolh crucibk-s \len: n:ct,lllI1;u1:lr ill .hJI)('
107
J nit' .'Utlk"';' Jo:rd,d"ll" \I.\' fo>r ... "ut
,hLO
1·louse I. This pill .tlst} h,td " (lu.ldr.lIl\tulnr CIU>o.'-<;«-
Lioll. It is 1'1'1)' "cll pl...·"'ned .lIld 11wrt'furt' ar.1'e
ground, to think th.lt it ".1, 1ll.ldl' of !Jnllllt'. The
item ".tS 'Illollp:ed with :\-r:1\ flOllre<t:entc h, U.
Gonlieb (3), N.• tion.L1 "hl'I"1l1l of Dcnlll .• rk. It 1\.15
\'r,I:1 ..t d'" .lIId b".... "'nlllt. ,.! (1I. Cu
3"t '.Inn 11.. ,t,,: j{ !;.,>In
"ilh nJl1udnl h."ill ,lIId 11"1 ht>lInlll I\ulh ,,("n° m.lc!t-
\,1 d,) Inlllwl'\'d I' ilh 11 UlIlt-r.ll!· .11111Il1II1_ "f wdJ-'on_
I,d ,.md .,"d 'H'n' .ltI,,( II'd h) "·Iond.I!' l,urroirll;:..,1-
thOllfll, UN lilrifwd
nu' \lilt· hl'uI'r 1'1I"I.·I'\I·d, ,l11d Illort·
("melt' Ih.Ll' the ,m,IUn OIl!' \'1.12 & 1'1. 11:10
.. 'tim.u,·d It'lIflth 1 nil. Ihl' "idll, I nn, the
101,,1 IU'il;:ln 2.5 rill. Dill' of IIU' \'(Iuipped
,dlh '''0 pl.Ked Oil Ihl' "'''Ill' 1"\('1 ,Il tht· middle
"fll,,; ",tll. The di,ltIlcln "flhe hok_ i_ 0..) Ctll. rhe
hok_ "en' u'\Cd 10 fh: " h.'ndk. t\lO
"rx>dt'1l 'licks. for \·",ttllplc. Il) usillif 1"0 "
<It·.Id, Itnp IIould hI' provided ,md spoiliul.; of meht-d
copper "ould be ,.Ioided. Copper tlepo<it II.iS dis-
cowred ,lII,.rhrd In tilt' bOllotll of Ihe cnldhle.
The 'm,t1krtn.rible ",I.') more Ihomul.lhh m.mur.--.c-
lUred "ilh,1 <url:--.cc oflhc intenl,d b......in. The
pl'C"ICl"led fraifilleTlt. " eorner oflhe crurihle. m,,) ani}
.,lIoII l<llher CO,\1'<l: c,tim:uions ofc"IenMJ dilllclISions.
11 hich III'n' 110t e"teedin\;: 4.5X5 CIIl. Ihe heil;:lll 2.3 em
1'1. 1;;11·..\5 Ihe pre\ious itcm, il was equipped
IIith '''0 hole, in lhl' micktle oflhe ".111. nut Ihe hole!
\\e..... auk half .L< hi\;:, around 0.25 cm. the diametcr
ll.lITOlliJl!; from oUl5id,' IQII.lrW Ihe imide.
Acttt.ll copper itl'I1IS \lere found in 1;lIcr layers.
n.uncly inside Hou<t: I of Ihe Lil;:a '2 -<;ltlemelll. 'nlC
find_ inclu<lc olle .,\11 ,tIId 1\10 l>il1l; CllCapS1J-
1:lIcd in burned 1:1>0:]'<, of d:ll'\) .11 the floor Ic,'cl bill
in P:lI'S of the
1111' :,,\ I (859;, ",ls;.1 em 10111; :md 0.9 cm "ide
al ils wido:sl 1),11"1. II \1.0.. n.lrrolling
OIlC cnd, IIhirh was <;Ii\;:hdy hem VI,13). 1-10'"
c\"cr. due 10 corro.. ioll it could nO! be e,mbli,hed ",ilh
ccn"inly. "hieh cnd ",;os Ihe working onc. 'nlC :,,,,1
Imd a quadr:'nl;ular crm.'-'l.'(:lioll along its "hole
lengLll :uld ,t poi,m'd I·lld. II was foulld ju<;t oUlside
the dividing of I-Iou<o: I.
Thc longer pin {9-1251 nW;'Sut"'d ·/.I cm in lenglh
and I''', 2.9 mm wiele (Fig. VI.I·I). It had ., CJuad-
l""nl;lIl:.l' 1':lrt of the 'lld:lee was cl"Odcd
all';I>" btll il could he dedm'('d Ihm tht· pin w.tS t.lP,·I'.
ing to " pnilll. The pin W;IS I(mlld tOgether ,,'ilh lhe
h""d of " pl"l',tI malll)' silling 1110:11 dllc (1'1. Ill:2 :15))
in l'lousl' I.
The Shlll'tCt' pill (90119). me"slIritll;: just 'l.t cm in
len);th :lJId 2.5 IIlIlI in IIidth. II,l.' found lIe.lr Ihe
1l1ajor eom:ellllOltiol1 of,tomgc .ond uthl'r \"t'"cl, of
108
I \Tn 1\._ .."h 1l1tJ """ plT'un",I'" ..... pin
"<p' • .....tar ..,<11<,., {) I <nI
\'.-\RIOCS I\IINOI{ ITEI\IS
SI'I:"OlJ: \\'11011.1)1
The number of \,horls i" limiled to si:<- ('OIU-
pklt: and 01\l' unfinished <pceimells, all ill cia) :uid
,,1 " pn"l1lH,lbh 1"0111)(" pin "ilh
qu,ulr,lnc111.u ,-1'1"'"'' '"lll I;ic, \' I. 1.-1
n'ultl.II"'l 1,1' ,l.,,-"kl,HI"(1 "nh Ihe \Cl'
Ch,ll'tl'l :;"'Wf,ll rI'PP':" ht',l<k hoth I,ide I... till_
dl;r,ll "I, l..; ,111 in klll,th I i!;, \ 1 10' ,lIld IJ.lrHlh
(\lil1lh;\;!1 It:.! 0,:\ t'111 111 1"IIIo:tl1 "t'IC fi}und ill
Gr:I\t· I. in ,Ill" .\l't'.l III ttif' hl'l';I'l of thl' hlxh. Cr.IH'
I (im: uncll'r ,Ill" \"\\' ('onwr of HOll\.l.' I. nil'
n'n1.l111' \lrllw ,1...11-1\111 "ilh ,Idloining \lliJ.
I,rn' ,mlwd In lIlt' 11"'OI;c.,1 <}f I'lt'\CII fi'r
('(111trollo:-d ,\< " n"lIlt, lIlorc ('UP'
prr hC,ld, ",'11.' di-«lH'n.."(1. rhe h{,;uh IH'I'l' Ilmdl' (If
roIl.-d 1"\1l'per ,h('('1 I,ith l'dl..OC', 'nle roll-
.-d C\ finder \\;lS thell CUI into .ingle picccs. -nil' di;U!1'
('II'r of the bo:'.uls ".1' "roull(1 0.5 CI'I.
The 1110>1 cxclusi,'e i'CIIl di"co\TI\:d ,1I ;, a
coldrn pendant "CC Chaptcr XI) I·ig. \'1.1 it The
circuublallCt..... of ib are unclea.r, as il \\,1.';
I'red in 10ClSe close to Gra\'e I. It was m:,rlc
of a 11I1ITO\\ of golden 0,1 cm thick rllt
lon';tudinalh until approxim:llc midpoi111. 'l1,e
lI:nninab were then rolkd in opposite i11l0
"pir.Jb. tOllll Icnl.,tth of the pc:ndant ,1.3 cm. ,\1
Ihe other elld, a hole for hanging made b) rold
hammering. The s111vlus/extl'ssiw metal then n:-
cllned,
Rt:c:arrll il5 unecnain pro\ocnicnce, the goklcn
pendant, lil.eh a phallos \,;th GIn be alln-
bUtl-d to the Copper Age, The best parallel, al-.o
in I';old, is exhihiled at the NaliOl1al i\luSCLl11l ofGree·
« l'il';, Yi.llk Although it i, lIlerdy ll:ll"l of a biggu
rollfbClted ho..1nl of iQ \!Olden items, the ;lS5OCiation
\\;th ring-idols 'TOOol"O\"3, \':9SOI' WOI.
1'1.22 plac il securely in Ihe period around the cud
of the fifth millennium BC,
Copper pins w;lh double spiral l1('ad ,tre rcl;lli\'dr
ooln11l011 on Bulgarian Copper Age sitcs 1'000('01,1 &:
\";9\0\ 2001, 9, Sueh a pin was also di<C()\'crt-d
lhe. ncillhlxu;ng Ro:dutitc sill.' (Cergo\' I98i), in.dl-
cmn!; lh:tl l-:old 1>Clld.. as lokens not foreign
to the s)mbolic rc;um of the COPI>cr Agc ,tt Tdi,h,


c
o 1iii '
dcm.>II'ir.ltnl. tlw lfw, pm ".I.> lTI.lde _
. ,- '" copper dtn\
1nl!; n,m lWO diffro:m 'it)Urtc.. ;\ _ ..1 --,'
"
' I ,c'wl pcrn;\n<
ae Ul"\ed Telndlin, of dtr., ,
I
' eftl1l copper 111'11
l hould bo:.· mc"tiunoo that -n " ".
H
' le \\ e-tCnl waU f
llU>t- l \\'b f""nd a llOnl:'...-x:kt pt 'I. _ ' 0
.I.(i
r'Ko \llt
·.11 t',om lI1K.... l.• in «'lll'·Xh. Ilm"·' ..... dll" 10 tll"if
"em".i1 ,'PW··II ,1Il\ " .11Id C1.1I Itloll rix !l1(') (.m I)\' ;ulli.
hUlt'd hI Ill!' J.il{ol 2 '1'111"111.-111. d"'pill' ill!' r"n th.u
Sll,ll'l'_ (11 'pimlk \\ IUlrI, ,Illl\> limil"d "'mpnral "'nsi.
til"il'. F(lur dill;'n'll\ ''''1111,'' MC rcpr(''I'rlled in tIlt'
LiI{.1 ll1;ll ....i,ll:
,1 lliCQllil,ll: h} tl\OOrlhl' "horl,. OntO
or Ihc'e h.I' tfluH.I1l·d \(Ill .md h,l:>(" PI. 17: 12.I:h
b Splwric,ll: 'eprewllll'd hy Ulll' hni,llI'd .lIld (lI1l'
unlini_ht'd "hor! 1'1,17:11
,Cl 1"1,11: lll.lde of 'l'nlied PQlll'l) ,h,II",k "hith ,,(re
,h,'pl.'d into ,. mUl1(bl disc .md pierced. repre.
scnted t\\O itellls 1'1.17:1.'),.
,d ConiC;I!: ";111 ,I n.1I b;IS(', .epre<emed onc ilem
PI. 1;;[6,.
I.,i'gn
109
The dimcnsions of Ihe I\horls are illdic.II,'{1 in Fill.
\'1.19. In lenns of tempcr, Ihere is .1Il equal di\"bion
into two groups those produced of n:uural ,,"d
those ICmIXI"C{! \\;111 oll<-lIIic m,mer alld
ed Sillld.
Onc .. heel·like objl'C! alo;o dcscl'\cs to be mention-
ed in this context \'1,20. le has the foml of .1
A.lt pcrfor.ued mndc!. but the hole: too
small ror thc «Xl of:. "hod. The rondd ibelf is 5.3
cm in diamcter. \I hih: Ihe diamCler of the pcrfor.nion
is just 3.5 mm. The: cdl.:cs arc \I'ell smoothed. indi·
c;uing Ihat thcse wcre in relx;ncd com:,cl. The func-
tion rcmains ulICCluin; pt:rh.lps il .1 mini.unre
"hed due 10 the srn.LiI hole,
Despite thoroullh i11lCSlit;;lIiorb, tmees or tt:xlilt:>
I,ere found ill onc .Il UIl:I. All imprcs..iol\
of .1 Z·laid cord O. i7 cm thick W;lS foulld below the
lim or the biS in Hou<e 3 (Fig, \'1.211. t\ppar-
eml)', the cord was 10 with"t:md the r.e""u't:
during dl)'inl-: of this hUlle eOlll.Lil1er,

Three loom wl:ights were :1I Lig:l. IWO Iy-
illg togelher olllsi(!l- the nurthel'rl of I·louse 4,
close to Ihe SUl'lilee aud IlI'nee with uncerlllin pl'Ovelli-
ellee. All wcil-:hs .Ire couk:i1 ill shnpe wirh rounch'cl
basc ,lIld hori,.\JI1l:t1 ,11 the tOP Fig.
\'1.22). Their bct"eell 9 10 Clll. thl; di-
:lIl1eter of the 7 ij cm. SlIdl ,,"';gllls .lre
interpreted .IS IMl'\S of "."v·weighted 100111<. The
n I;'. Gl>Idm "md.lIlr .pI....... bnm, t -m. I'bolo;
K ",oIn

o 0
\"I 11:1 (;0,>1<1.-" l>rl"l>m t ca, h tin al thr
Nali,'"al \1"..."", "fG t nlrH",,,
Nll.lt)'pc· O. mm l'c,f""'ti,,n,
"ull
mm
•.I/a
'"

"
4,<
\ MJ
"
II \"
"
9407/11 17 \
"
"
.1(l
of.l9Ml
"
"

'I2rlJk .w, of1
'-'

"
21011tAl of2 \ofll
'"
,
110
..
. ..
..';4-.. tfl'·'
... .•. ' .Ill
... ,.' T
..... .' • 1>
" .. , ", .,...
',' *,,' •
.-
.!'-'
of l":Il"h item j, al'tlund O.J \Xliminl!. co I'do,-
uwl\ Ihid. thread,_
\It loom weight> w("n' madr of umuuIlCn-d cla\
\\llh ,int!" UlC]u>irm, ufL1rt:C"r '-J.nd COl. 3 mm .
UIT,l..;ionAl YTlall pC'llblr. and ochrc. In tt'm\!. of £,1..
ne. 111('\ do not differ from o;:ll\ for d.lubinlt Ihl"
ul'llot'T I.l\ t'I' ,£hou..c wall•.
TIle' .trilo;inch "man numbtT of l,lOffi weil!,ht>
pntup' an indir;lUon Uul th(-ot ,J.nefarl.' \\t"tT
unfiKd .lOO thu., disinu."(!,.:llro if not 10 fire
durinc ronlhl.!r.lli"n .\1 11)(' Qr!\( time.
mr b,L of C\nll«" within lltr« r.nhcr
p"""",Td <>pen, up for 1"0 l'1Miom: J. lhat
"l".llinl!. "a.. r.uritd OUI ourudr- Ihr hou!n. :\C-
cq>tim,! dUI tht ..n tool. IlloItt durin,e; t11('
\\""" period \lf the ""ar. b Ih;ll \\t·;winc: "'" nO!
(ommon "" 'l.l"llcrall\ umed.•md in (;act nar_
rt)\'ol'd lO a hmit<'d numbo:r of 'pcci,tlish. unlih the
JI"\lI<'n production.
I, IIIhllll IIl1lullluIIllIIIlIIII IIIIIlullhl1l1
\'1.11 or .,,,r:,1t': "ith "f tnrd.
,Sl',' Ch,lpll'!' \:\. The IOlal of fish
rt'm:llm al I110,l Cop!'.... Age c.mnO! Ix: c,,-
pl:lincd 1ll('1l,'1} b} t'xG,\>;uion pl'ocedurcs. SOliit'
melieuloml\ C;lIT1l'<l-oll1 fieldwork. as n:cemly.1l ""'1'-
:U10\'O or in Ihe Dr:un,1 \'alle}. have 1101 produced fi'h
bone m.llerial .11 all lkikonyi & H:lnosiewicz 1997.
386 ..\1 two fish \'cndlrae I\(:rc
found. bOlh w;lI\ '«onda!) abrnsion. of lhc
Ilhich Ir.lnsfonm Ihe pieces imo a c:llcgol) of toobI
\wrll'd bone. and ruling OUl :11I
of ullfaHlllrable conditions of prescn,;uion. On the
other hand. \'en fe" ri'h oones \\ould !);\ssillg
through
To add to the confusion. bOlh ..d ,11
Uc;a are m:l(k of poorl)' bakcd clay. ahund,Ulli} Icm-
pen.'!! with org:llIic mallcr and therefore '>Ccrningl)
unsuilable for lengthy periods in W;1.(t'r.
llLAlh
Three day be:lds were discovcrc(l. all allrihll1cd 10
Ulfol 2 rl'l. 17: 17-19). t\ common fcatu1't· is Ihat
Ihe)' arc made of u11Icmpercd clay. Two of llll' ue:Lds
MC spheriC;LI 10 ,md 20 rmn in diarm:lI'r), or]!' dis-
coidal ,21 nUll in diamelcrl, Tr.,ccs of \\C:II' il1dic:ll
C
\h;ll tilt' tIller hung ";Ih the roundcd side OUI,
perh:lllS.lS .\ cloth "eight. Two \J<;;lds lIen: fOIl"c1 in
a "slre".'-· .11'".:1, one in front of I·\ou..... 2.
\'I.2J. C,t",dnc.J cL" "...1;1". 1r"I{Ii, nf,,,," 11..... '(0 .... I..to
1. I cr" 1'1".. ,,: Il ",-, ""
I I I
I.1gn
\'1 22. Cl..) .. ,..... oqu;o... of It... b.><I.a:rno'nd I'l"c
"1,...1, 1nn
;\100111.;0 \ l:sst:!.
or pOlle.... <hards has bccn a "idc-<prt"ad
pr:,clicc al UIfoI. In mo<l case- lheir S('("on<b.l) runc-
lion could be deduccd ,·ilher through Ihe <h.tpc !c.g.•
spindle "horb\ or tr.ICCS or \\c.lr C.!!;•• polle!) bur.
nishCr<). BUI then: is a group or modified <harm,
1\ hich do not pro\idc am c-'Cplicil clues :15 to their
runction. These arc l"l,-r.unic discs or nearl) regubr
circular ,Imp.:. ca. 2 10·1 cm in diamcter PI. I i; 20
21 \. 'nlcre are 110 explicil 1r.ICl"i or we.. r..\ h.. ndrul
or such items "cre rt.'t"On:!L·d in Ug:1 2 la)crs, those
with exaCI pm\'cniellCC c:\me from areas outside Ihe
houses. A suggcstion Ih.t! thc) I\en: gaming pil'Ccs.
VII. FLINTS
,.
.... 'at' \1 Ill .... " ..
nu.I'\DL·...TR'
"'m.aJlrr lllnt h">l-.md "hro ,... wi.......W
in n>ffiITl<'n "''''''.1ti.-.n- ,\ll.ii:'t. .l.ltrr lhor .Il<ln miti..ll
,.1 Ihr CC"-.l,:;ation. 311 nUll_, ,,,,rLrd ,md un'
""ri.ed. ""IT o;nIk.lrd. \\.1.,h...1. ",,,rtkd ,md
_tudird :'-1.\11\ plO...... (ll HT' JX'OI' qu.llil\ l1int
....l..,h.-o oUI .U1d hritu(" wrn' found, Ih.. 111.ljOril\
un\\orkcd. Ih.. ,,,)rll'd Hint' ,dm(>-1 .111 of
qll.11i1\ m.lwrial Ih. JX'rcrru.ll('t' of 1001, i, Ull-
u_u,llh hir;:h. 111(' an' of a hl,ld.. indu<ll'\. ollly
.1 If'n rc , an' made from com or R.,Lt..... '111e
lTll''l'U1'l. bdo" :lIT ofcomplrlr ilrm'_
H.unmrr<lonC!> at UIl::1 ;m: in Ihm PI
\11 ,UT l>f rl' or a link muller. "illl clur cnl!ih·
Ill!!; marL, .\poIo from a 0\-.11 '{romm.•111 are
"Pht-rKaI. maLn up .3 ITn hnl:TOl:enrom
s=roup. ,,-jth itnm from I 10 on, i.am
an: mm. or Olher!; flak,. and \lJUI1.
ubk. the <kbila2:l: N1h malinl: up «lI'Tk 311". of
thlo "nrlord ftin1.lo item._ Ill!, "Ill ,\nnola woup
''''''''''''''''
"""'"
l:nd-srnlpm
""""
Knl''!:>
"K:Uc·blJdci
lnd-lo<T;lIlC'MnI\'tI
Km,,\:> or <w;:I<k-tlbl.b
Addl\lOllaltooh

Towl
"
"
.'
"

'"
17
.'
'"
"
'"
,
Y7
,
17
J"
.md I-r.Il,'llll·ttt' of C(>n... CQnlprl!« c\h,tu,tcd
;tnd con.·<. ,\lid fr.l!,!ll1elll< .\Ild f1.ll.:
l
',
("(I1'f"', thr I.tIlrr frol1llll.lkin,;: or rcjuVl'llalioll Of"ril.:.
in!,! pl.ufonll' HI.I(I('< ,lIT oblong f1,lkMi lellwh mort'
th.Jn double the \\i(hh m:ade in din.'C1
tC'l:hniqu(", 110\\I'\e\'. mo'\ tool< "ere m;tcl\' in illdirect
lll'l':u"ion tl"£ll11ique<, <ince bulb<. .md even
-.c:al'\ :art 111(' qualil) h g<'l1cl"';llIy high..\
<1>eCimrnl,' :arc
The 1001. ,Ire c1a'iSifiecl according to functional
ch:ll'aClcli'lirs: p\irn'llily, 'hape (lI1oqJholo/-,')', includ·
ing dressing and retouche), scconcl:llily. "ork traces
tr:tcl:"i oflmflill!,!, nlllcroscopic usc-wear lIlarb. gIOl'.
crushing.marks" ,\ccordingl}', :l number of n\llno-
morpholQRical 1\1>CS h:a\'c been I·ig.
\"]1.1 , although <;OI1lC items C:tnllOI be delennilloo
am doo;cr than "Knife or SiclJe·bladc", or "Cn,
1m00,n 1'001-, thc fonner arc oftcn \'CT) sm:,1I or frat.:.
memcd dilfJCUlt to dctcnnine due 10
limitc:d size, 111e laller group comprises items m,u:k'
from bladts or blade-lil.:c flakes. "hich C;UlIlot Ix- Ik·
tcnnincd, either bC'Causc they are reworked or multi·
purpo!IC ill char:tctc:r. The Cros:.-<tttiOIl is lIi:llu,'ular
or the: 3,()-.I.O cm. the width 1.5
3.0.
Items here c1assifil'd :l$ Scrapcrs an: made frolll
uliel.: lbl.:o, drop-shal>cd in outline and \\'ith .' <tecl'
scr:lping (."(I1,'c Fig. \'11.2:1, PI. 22:1.4). The is
3.5-j,O elll, the width 1.5-2.5.
End·scr:,pcl'\ 1l1olke up a highly ulliform b'fOUP of
1006: all made on long ;Ind well-sh;qJed blade< or
flakl", 5.0 7.0 cm long, lhe widlh b"illl-: 2.0,
2.5. :\I:m)' hal'e tr:,ces oflmfting; lhe <;l;\':l.pinl: edgc IS
las <leep l!l;m al the "I)O\'e Seapers, 1I1;tIl)' sper.illl
cm
al"l: brOken Fig. \'11.2:2 -5, PI. 22: 2-3.5 81.
IkJrers m,Ae lip a helcrogelll"Ou< b'TouP.••11 lll.t{!r
on m;w;i\'l: hl.tdlos, oftcn trianJ.,'lllar ill
thl' is 3,0 6.0 elll, tllC width 1.5 -3.0 (1'1. 2J:6-
8.
LJ'[!,fI
113
Knivcs is a largc group of relouched blldcs used
for CIIUilll;. 'nu; \ .Iriation in length is con idrr:tblc,
'1.0 8.0 cm. lhc "idlh I"; -3.0 - 110 doubl a reflection
of dirreremial use (PI. 22:9- 12. PI. 23:10 I-I. Thc
is usuall) lr.lpaoid. rilher l"fjllil.llcral or
oblique. lhc long side usc:d for cUllinl;. ,,>cd.
Ulcns carT) lr:ICes of haftine. "hich lild) \'.\li 101lj,oi.
llldin.ll.
Sicllc·bllldes .Lrc. like the :tl.Jo,c l-:nd.'Cr.,per'S. :1
vcry hornogcnc,'ous group of 111l1dc on medium·
sizc'(l bl.ldes (pI. 23:2 5). "111e> all IUl\c gin..., 011 lhe
onc cdgc, somclimcs 011 00111. of the
hl.ldcs IUII'c smOOlh or 0111)" lighll) relouchcd L'(lgc!.
onl)' vcry .. I)' :11',' Ihcsc dCllled. The ICllglh is ·1.0
S.D cm. lite width 2.0 2.5. The Cl"Oss'lcrlioll i. u<Il.lll)'
obli(!lIe Ir.LIl<'zoid with Ihc 'Iccr 'hon ,irk fOI'
cLlllillg. Tn judge (i'Om "e:u' m:trks .md gln«, 111l;re
were secmin/oil> t"O 1>1}Cl; of ,ickle. The fir", IYI)(' h.Ld
onc (ur IIlon:) bl:ldcs .u\:u:hcd .LI thl' unc "nd direct!)
10 lhe .h.•n, Ihc ,ccolld lype had bl.nlc> illwt'tcd .tlone
Ihe onc >ide of.L eU1"\ l'(l sh.lft ur c'vcn inlu lh,' llLirkUc
piece of .1 h.llldlc.•\!an> sickle-bLlk< .I.", brook"n.
likeh durinl; use:.
do 1101 enter chis Ihe abon'
End·.o;cr:tpco. CIC. "en: proOObh used for \\orl.:inl: in
bolh \\ood. 0011<: .md .LllIlcr.
Addilion••1 Tooh wrnpri-es biracial poin!., am)I.
hc:;ld, 1'1. 23: Iti. HI .•1 of a bil:lcc hLch a
con: a.'l:c • :c bif:lcc lmifc "llh fin(: fLwlllt of
lhc "uti..ce... l>t. 23: I i ..md a hean poimed
1001 "ilh ....'Cond.Lf'\ n·tOll(;he on 1"'0 <idc... d.tel.:er
bl.,dl· or I.L'1.'e burer?, 1'1. 23: I . Thc' I:IC\ lh.u Ihc
poillts "cn: ....'t;lrIinllh 1Il.,de from cores lor (fA",.
!lOI ol.Lde<. I>t:rh.lp> as is cco.linl\ Ihcir
small IllllllUcI·. Olher IIe.'pons Ihan lhe :Ioo"C Ont"
ill nim .Irc UUkllOWll. C1<CCJlI perh.Lp, for WIIlC oon,·
poinl>. "hich IIHt) h.l\l" ....1"\·"d as ,urnll hc.ub ,r
Ch.tpler IX :md. oftoUl"'e. Ihe Slone ... ,dllch .LL-o
"en.: 1001< d Ch.'plcr \'11I.
foln.tlll ..1 fc'" \lf lhr /linlS lllil:lll be: E.lfh
.\I(c' in d.lle:. indudinlt Olle: of lhc .Lrru" hc.ttl> 1'1
23:18.
&
1111' obscl"\.nions should bc nOtl-d rq,o:lrd
im
:
the llinl5 of UI::I (er. Fig. VII.I\. TIll'fC arc
no "C,lpOt\> or hunting_rel.lIed tools .ltllon!; lhc /luus.
B)' eOmntSI, lhc S.'1111plt- is domitl:ned by .cr.'pcJ'!i.
knivcs, borel" .me! sicklc-blades fOI' er.lfis :md .lgriCU!·
lur:11 work, 1..o<::lllIim i< ,,·idcl.. and has Ildi\"l't'-
lod th,' of ("or,·5. .md flakes.
w;lh .1 ,h'm \Hi· span ;n'c lll;linly of IlInl,.
Kni,'cs art,' <Jflcllllflnrc'ib'" ,uf:J:lcs,ing :ll11tll!'on
of IltW blfldn. Numedeall)'. a 1001-kl1 seetll
S
1
- -,.
10 la"C r01N'led l'f.m :, km ,', .1 .
iliad., pillS onc 10 I"" hl:l<l,", ur multiplc. llten·of. '10
lome' sunlC r:P.w nlaledlll.
'\1 , - , " [1
. llO Id nHll"I,:,b h:",e so ar
,In,1 \.d", 1'1'1:! n/o:. \·I\..')}. 1"pr.1
'- n \..111 t,1 lh," "'luth. or I :h:,I: Plpt,1 I\;nt i, qnite
'llll'lh :\I"l'h .,Ilh,' ttln'l((lt tlmt ,uppo-edl" t11.I;n!t
1'l\'tll 1.lr .1",". ,,111'11 't! till' Sou,h or the R,llau
r.lll\(" I' 'll hi((h '11l·tln,
ll\,m tht' 1.lhk hI:, ,·lIJ. it th.u h.llf
till' tlmt l'Il.11. mll" third i, rt:l.,ollll1,\1. .md ,h(" Il'\l
t"n.'il.'11. Imen... tinlll\. tlwn.· .1 hi.((h of
dC'hiMI.,...· onl, in hlC.II Ilim. Ihat non·local
tliot .Irr\n-d ol.linl, 1lI hllt'hetl or n(";",!, Ilnishlod
fl'ml, In 11.'11..'<" 3 .11 11",1 i' .1 or hoard of 9
b1ad<'- (lnh Iht' pro"im.,1 \'nd j, of on!:
f"'111 the ",une aln: Fig. 111.24-
"11(. '·II.h. i, Olhel"\<i-.(", l\illl is rarc inside the stnK-
tUIl.". ntl doubt .1 rdlc,<:,ion of noon. being n.·gularh
''''1't It ,hQuld be ,Idt:k.-d Ihal flint \'"'S conUnOtll)
found in '\),1<:('" ocl,,«n <mlclIlrc,. lil..eh Icmpor.m
\,orl.-,hOfl!'. \lhtle anim.11 llIainly camc from
p.1rtKular .11l'3S.
1..ool..inl1; .11 the mO<1 COnllllQn ancr:l("t ly"Jl'C"'. twO
third> of Ihe SidJ("-bl,.oc,\. lIith " 5ho" life 'Il:m.
In.Jdc frolll locd flint. bill onh onc third of
Ih(" lniv("... of 11 hkh C''t'11 .1 founh i, of flint
.11:. \'IU . !llC [nd•.cr.tpcn arc di,idl--d <"quall\ br,
local :lIId "'l..olomtl flil1ls. only a tcmh bring for-
eign Ill:. \'11.-1. The :md flints
in p-'nicul.,r !Ill' I.ni\Tl; prob,lbly rt:fkct C"Ch:lOl;(t
""\("nI', perlmps ,tnicul.llcd throul:h slll'ql/go:1l
Imnshumanenre (cf. C"Cldlere in Ihe publication. ill'
dudint; Ch.'pler XII.
Tm,l/
333
2/8
/lJ1
65:!
---
Other


1711.1< I
l.xll
R..-p.lIUJ

(.'Il't'
-11171
,
1-11:!-1'"' I

Spau.
:/'IIN"11

7(1(\'H
''''"'

,

I
"...'
\
19(1:''1)
"..

I
sIn.. )
I llIJ·.... -nrm

1,(1(46'" \
-01'1)
"'IlIW
:!J It:!'
,
."t,u'il

1 a/4"'I r
allt

l
/
.-Id Irbilal:t' 1.blr ,-.r I"""'"
at ...........
R.\\\
Ibr ,,-pt'" ,,\ Ibm ('Olpk...'C(\ "tTr nuinh dr:t«mint'd
IIlllllf' ba.<L' ofUI""ll orcuT1'mcr';md onI\
u." hml1td drI:rtTon d.u.llromolb.,- Foci
"rlhl' dl"t"rminau"n .uT \ ,olourl. inclusion, iocludin!:
r, .....it>. \:rnin wt:, S1rorlor rondiliom bOlh ror-
IM. ;md lrn,turt" 1.(Jl;.,] "('f(' i!i01:11ed and
-.unpb lmm I"" \
\:f'"l"t:J t.- in "orL. "1>0 ;m
R llalC\-A-l"zunCI\'lI, ".ofLa, on
nun III nub"'lJ;a. hd' pn."idcod \.lIuabk ad\icc. indud.
l.Jhk (If for 'lone "-nd flinu..\
10 lhc i, b, Col ;'\aeh.
l'\ &1 K 'deh", '\.Ieh,-,\' & :-':.leh<.'\ ICla6.
.\ ,h'i,iun 11.1.' lIl...·n nlade hell'l"Cn loe"-!. rcl,>ional.
.md Ibm \QUITI-" Fil;. \"11.3, idclllilicod
'l/lnn-, u)l'(\ .11 the foUm'in!;: I.QGII
l'l.ldu\"("( and Pipr:, \l 10 I.rn the
\,Im,· (LI,.' 1<'1• 10 30 kl11 Tctum 111<;
d." ; 1111\l\ OrIel) ",,,'1, ".
• n ,,1"( '1'.
lUlll alU'r d.I" , &If;\'l\ 1'<: h C11 km ,; . -I r 1_
1 1
.,. . . ...." 0 ..llfol
1 'I<."U\ ,ompn 1111( mo llim.he"n" < "
, II l(jnnaUUll'i.
I, \ 11
..
T."d-
I .... al \1I1 (.... ' )
I )
N\II\')
T,>/.II
------- ------
IH
-------
_..•.._-- -----
\ ll'j n,m ",,<loo -....w...«. Illf ....-In,f< , ... <m, Idc
I.. n ..t,,,,"
,.Hcd .Hld ]Juhli_lu'd in lIulg'H;,L, 1-1t>"cI,·r. "h,ltlinlc
,!:Ita 111l'1l' ,I n:. '\Ccm la ronfinn fil1rlin
h
"i of [.ig;L. From
Ncolithir,Co]lpcl' :\g,. K:H':llIO,'O, S'1llthc11I llul,!;.n-i.1
cumc, .1 rich of flinlS, hut mainl} from .,.Ifl)
phiIS!" (Gal<O" & KIlIT:ll0V 1997), Ill:,d.·< ,L1ul bbllc,
Ilitll relouchcs domin.'le; <Oll1l' ,m' .<ickle<.
FI'I"JOll bqond lInls-aria. :, fc" ]).",:,111'1 d,lt:I'SCt<
ImH' 1.\C,·n \\Ich ., f,'" c.wcplions, 110 de-
c,'m 1)l)/,lo!-'} or numcriol h,l\'c !Jot'cn pr('_
sC.'Il1t'c1. IhouL:h, [n Serbi". Ihe Ncolilhic lIMlni.,1 from
Di",)<,lin sb:th milknniUlll nel IMS hn,n "[I«i,"(II)\
"lltllt'l,h;l1 OIhcr mClhods tlilln .11 LiL:" Trilll:li.lln t'C
.d. 1983. NC\cnhclL"'''.'' domin.lluc ofhl.ldr"/lmiH."<
.md i. noted. "hilt: sidlc-bl.lck;< ....'C1l!
rdmhch fC\, correcl idcmific:l1i.on', ;" .ll't' .,1,.0
Ih.1t "r.: nOI b} conlr:I'I. bon·"
lire quile: plcnliful.
I'-mm Neolilic .·\"Z<l 1.11,' 'C.··.-emh-'i.-:lh Il1ilk'l1limn
ItCl. fonn"r YII1.. Wl\ :\bccdoni.l. come-. ,L ...llllpk·
5tudic« U) 1 "I other melhods l::hter 11170 Bon:".in:
rar.:. ;IS M" cnd-«rnpers. " hile bl.lcI<'"I ....cI Ien;, c<
commUll. ;In: onl} ;<kll1ificd ,15 ., <"I...
'>Cl of lIt,<k•. ,.\ morc f,-CCnt b 011 N''fllithie
So.:!n,lC fifth t11illcnniltlll BC', in Scrhi., \ ·U}·I,·1e
19901. Ilcrc cnd-sc:.[lcrs ,lfC \t.,) ct)tl1t11un, ,lItd
Ienil'c' (;nduditlJ.: dcnliculalcd ...·iltlct"i.I)\,I''''''. :lll(1
,ickl"-hl:1fIt" '''un''11011.
r\ wtllcwll:lt :llypir.,1 ;;"npl,', ho",ewt' C"PI'''I' t\L:C
in cia"" ,lilt! B"II::u;all, COIl".i rr'ltl1 Dtll,II1lul,11e ,.,'t11-
"lcc) (Sic,kol' 2002). H,·l'c. "ccmdi"J.: to N. Si",l",.
is ,I dc"t' dOl11in:lllcC vrbl,lIk, 1117', \l'lIik kl1i,," ,2111,
(I GI. ,,,,d minolith,/lI,IIl" '''''''' .It'l\>\'·
Il.l
\ Ill, fLIl' poon <rl hL>do- pm"""""""
..llfll'... thr '"m on U... , j
'-Ill \·u; c;....."'.h ......d llm, hLodn ID H...... J rriintd_

hC;I,b I1 .ll'e 1'c1.llilc" r:".:. In uther "om". U,.. ,ut:.
I<C-'lcd "UL:,I"" lool·l.:i, '$ pll:'>elll ill .' ,t"f'lion "ilh .1
high ntltl1bcr of hl.,d.·,. .\lic1Olilh. I"" ... IlUl bccn
idelltili"d .11 UIf,"
1'1\1", lh,· ..'u[CtUCnl of Hutnil"'· \"udol'.,d,l. X"nh.
cm d,llcd I" th,' .'t:>-C,lll-d
I'ctiod 110 lltt' Ilrulllr d: clot'" her,· ill thi, publi.
c.nlun). CO",," ,I "ItIlIJlc Ilultlit"'t'"I:! U) "1I.,l.·,·", pl't'-
h:lps. ;11«"CII. f1.,l" .. b.C, :'it.,l", & 1'....,,,<,, IlICIC,
I1wl"c ,Ill' 'o(!lIIC hl""k, 11I ••t< "ell .1> bl.ld...... "ldl
ft"lvu"I""" ,'11 indudutL: Ill ..1lId
116
n llwlT.llT ,J... "lri"U' ,,,,.1••,uh
&d,m "111111,.111\\11' lh' ."'uht '111.11--
IJbdc:o- \<4 .-mm hr,ld, -" h"I,'I' I, piu' ,'llwr
..-....' .md dCnu-h... >l, le ,h"...1d h.. nnlC'd th..lI .Il...:> thi,
,I", iho •• \;on I_ (hlfe-rinl! fmm Ih.. p" l\I ,lnt" n'll'
'Tmine l.il!.\ '\n't"nl,.,]f"'. -(1111(' rt mh1.mcr "nh
Ut:.l j, !lNn:l
11,.. nl.l(.·ri.u lrnln "'ll.u:n';. ""nh..nl GiT'f'l"'t'
",tll.thin! millennium BC j, ,\f ,,'\'l'r.ll .\iIklTlIl
1\1>l."" .>1" r,m-malm.l!. t"\'('1l .\ n'" link ob'nh,m
Trinl!lum ............ .illrd hOlll'\-tlUL1. "Inch
m3lt'" up ,l link IU.11T lh.," h.Llf the m.llen.l!. ,,""
hroUl!hl 10 the' ,itc .."('min>:h rnll\\ f.u \\,1\. 1>O."ibl,
l."\'nl oonh<'.l..\rm Bullr,ll"ia ihhou\:h odl('r ;.oUr('C'$
hJ,,'(' l'l('nl RI.,<k-IOl'l.' dominate: Iho:
....lIlIplr. indudllll< I ,id.!t-..hl.ltb. I ti<l rnrl.<cmpcr.;
and 1H "Il-<;.,l1td Inl1l'.\I00 h1.,(!r-, lni\'CS 'Iller'!' alT
.{ .........a1kd n-t,1UCld oJ-bo J.ni,'C>. I; _null
drill>. 16 13 "O-(·.l1IOO dcmicu-
1;1Ie- ;"a,,·hbde_. and a ft'" OlhrT anef."lCI_. :\'ol,lbl\.
OM amll"w-;&d; found al .\ ("('T'
lam rncmbbncc' 10 Lica L_ \1Otro
Incidt'ntOllh, ,LI L"lrh Bronze TTO\. "ilh in·
du,lrie-. duminaled \y. "flalC'-", Ihere i!; a hill,h lIum·
bn of ....lChcd l"'lOb- \uppoocdl\ for <:rnoOlhin,:
rounded obJ.:n\ Illr antl\' 366. cnd-,ClVcT'!- 22-1.
"U'UlIc;uions" po"ibh ,idJc·black; 1931, and 011'-
n:w••h('ad, I ;1I. "hill' -retouch«l bbdc-," Illeh
.ltI: rn;lli\"d\ ran: .fO GatsO'l I9!lB ..\be) lhi>
'Iud\ is follO\\ll1ll, orit_ own,
Indrcd. oodt Lhe high number of ilem,
found 6'l2 and lhcir del'likd and 'Iud\
rn.tln the !o'Ullpl(' quill' unique: and a highh
\".tlu,.ble rcfen'nt:t: ll;\.'oe fOT the fumrc.
{. Ilo". I 1'.1\ (1111,...,1 "I"ne 1'1'1" Inn It, \1""0'"
fI"l:c.t ..... \ ...... ('('t '111 "'r..l ... J., .....II,.. ,... " l'''''...nl\\
dU"'"
l'I'm I 111"".1 ,m" h ..... "I \".11,,,, "I 11., l1.'PIM'd "1"",
\. In.." ",,,d... I "''' d li 11111
{;.n' I \ ""n..'" 1'1'1- " ... ... l... Ir...·r>!"'....'lrbll'
\ h"'T he l "1«"" h,,"c u"d lu I"".. h'I'Il<>!"IlI" ht
I 'h,u"llrn'lil, Ihllee & ',l"I", 1'1'1;, :! I '1I1
ti-rte:'.... \ I (; " S, " 1'11\.;. "',...",.,d",i ""..L.... I.
pr"" ..,........l. , ...·I"t'lr' m lInl"IJlr I'"'· leI,.1t. l'1nrnu..
I" "'Lt!" ",1 ",,,trot" , ..... III 11 n
{;l1nh,,"". \1 ..-d, I'liti. ' ....,1,,1'" \, I"
b,.,-..Ii".. dI \n,... :-"'''lhrd'' y".:.,... :\1"""""llld \,.
1'........\1:00 .. 1.1." .\nl:l'1M 1"'lllut-r nf \n 1......... >11'. L'''.rni"

11IIIrl', (( \ '\"il.,j". 1'1<11. "'.m,,,,,,". I),r lm
I lQ<l:!. O.lrm-irh,.... ....ltr '\U>I:-rdl,..
nt und r, .....h,,"l:l'n III ..d'.."" 1,1 2 T"" & 'I:d'rl
.... 1"'1tllll. L·"".",i"'l SdI,hullt,
tinnl. Ilio" Ik-o.:rl' .0:: :)"fi" ,\rdl,lrn,,'bchn h"".
I"L. U"lQri........ \ ...."11-,,,.., Or, l\i"",,-\OChdhrll
\tePdm..... ,\. & D :>njool<' <'f!... 1<lAA, O",,,u... ,\lIcl ,.....
b'hir n( ("rll,r:tJ :>o:rbi•• bl"lf'dt>i:o :\1o"O«I"dl'h. IO.
Ix-p.mmrm M l'"'"""i,, or
' ...m. Cl .\: L'" '\"ad..... 19II'i. Di"rib",i".. and 1:,-oI""on or
thf Roo:l.> in llullrd,u. Con'I"'" ""Id", d" l',\rddmur
do:- oXir,...,.,. 3'1;8. RIIr
'I.' 11"" "nitre!> '" pl'd.".orir ;l\l<"Itl·
bbl:n fron, tlM' l)ur:"'"ulal 11ICr""'O!i' Todo""",, 200211
2111l
"u:U.no., & TT"" l'l'l,; Ch'l'prtl-Slonr M"""I>l,l:l' of H",·
ItII ..I·\'od<,,,,rt, 1:" ,1,,11;"'/1:",1) Bro"zr '\1=" 1'1''''''''''''' 11\
'''''born UullP";" ."Id 'h" of lh-r I:'"h"" "Su:"..
1",':UOOnM in 1Wl.:u... I',d.""..,,, I:"'''l''"t'n,,-r 1. :!11lf
TnOonl'I'3. 11 rei 2'00"1 Dll",,,llllol 11 I).. pr.•hl>lori<cb-rn
(;"brnddrr 1 2. Ilt:,l", Iklll..:h.. I""illl'
'1 n">:I....._It 1'W:rt1 Sln,,-r, EJ"r, & Rrnf"'tl 611r
lrindwn. R..I< I) Kmr nh. 1'l9O. ')-rln""." Nr<Jluh... \ilbCl'
in IS. I...... ,\u<:o:1r< In·
'"Iut, or L' ..""rs;" nfC"hfnrm.,
'l"nll'\lw". It L, ,\ :\Id'arron, J. Gun" & G. Odrll. I'llill. 'nit
Iblni S""... I"dU>ln froml>,,_m :md &
1<'IBlI,
L"nlr, S. rd 19'1"!. Dir '1"'''"l1ll"n 'vu Sa,""""
1I111tr,<ri..It l:r!t<·h,,"'.... do, ...h..".O'tr,r-.il'h.
""Ion, ,\u"lt":lI .. 1931.:\ hlnclll .... .lll' "<>t.
W1d ...h'r H. To'-
\'.... 1'. I<lCl2, Grnloo.,..\(h.. ulld L.-..,r
1'1<12 !31f
\'OOl<l. H l'oQ(l. nor L·........ l)IUI.... llno.'Iff" & K,,,ji/'
1'lo.n. Hilr.
VIII. STONE TOOLS
INTRODUCtION
Gl'llllllcl .hdr ,1bund.Llln' on
111:1I1}' prchi'!nric ,m; (ml)' by
naming their funcliOIl.t1 Tht'n"
.m: fc" :IHCnlpI.S 10 tre;1l ground 510ne indu\lric'l
,,;Ih IIlclhodolo"oic;t! con"islcllq Kanc!ll'\' 1970;
KandH:\ & Nikolo\ 1983!. lllcrcforc. lK<itk<
crnl 51:lh:mCIll<, :lS \';lh the flints Chapu:::r \'11 • dc"
I.tiled compariwlIs arc nOI HO\\l'\'CT, Ihe
I'rt"SCnt SlUd) i§ inspirl"d b) the .ll'plit:d
at the Ncolithic <ill' of Dinblin in Scrbi.. Prinz
19B8; G:ddik:1.li 1988).
The LiWI Iml'C produced a
able alllOllllt of S!OIll; lOob, indeed nC:lrlr ·100 in all,
rcllcCling lhe di"crsity of dail}' .1cti,'ilics in the Copper
Age. En:l)' rock dio;coI"crcd '''IS treated a!i Cl polellli.l]
implemenl, lhe gcoloj.,'icoll emironmclll of Lit;a
holds p.. and small cobbles ouly n:;Jchilll;
8-9 cm. 11111!l, m" ,m;ucria15 for Ihe larger <tone irn-
plcmcnt5, if not lhe lools themsc:ho, must havc been
carried 10 Ihe !lite from a distance. ,lIIal\-
sis has lIOl bceu p055il>[e, :10 Ihe pn:scm d'lS$ific,llion
is based on morpholob'Y combim:d Wilh funclional as,
as rdleCled by lraces.
The fir"l and main set of definitions, mainlr b)' 1.
:\kl'kyte, is :umlylical :llld broadl\, fUllC-
tional. 11te !ioC."Cond $1:1 of definilions. by S. ,\Ibek. is
ami rcl:llc< to the IlUlllt'ric;U
<pecific;Juons of.1 l;,ble \'111.6' ,cl: bdo" ,
H!\'\L.\IE.RSTONES. POUNDERS.
AND I>ESTI.ES
Slone 1001. It,ed for cmshing .llld l)(lullding/h.lI11-
mering make Ull the mOSl group..
simil:lr in funclion. lhe sp..·eimells rdkl:l dillb'l'lll :Ip-
plk.nio11S, H:lItlmer..lOlle, ill'" l'q,'llbr, rulled
llimlchert rocks Ot" OCl:asion.lll\,. s.lndslOlIe b;llls "it h
.1 dimn"lel' 9-9.5 cm (1'1. :N:ll. .. rl' .11"
no p..efe'·elK'..·•.1S 10 the ,"rl:,ce U>l·d...mr.. Ihe
h.II11111C!'SIOlU' is rol,II<:<I :lrolllUI it> o",n a.'l.i,. Som,'
h:lmnlt'rslOIK" ....... ,JiS;hth fL-tlU'IIC'<1 on th...... mra]
tick. All rxn'pt onc of tht" (ru,hinlo; mm("\ ''''rl'' found
out.ilk Ihe
1'(llll1{kl"l .!lld h.lmml·J'<, on lhe mh"r h.md, 'H.'re
found in Ihe Som\..' of lhelot.". d(K(' 10
the O\'C11\. m.l) 1>1' connrcled "il.h food pmc('< ins;
.Icli,;tie<. "hile odlt'r<, found on die floor<. hold li"el\
faJll'n dm'1t from lh\'ir plaeo ....<tht' hilmmcr<
in Ihl' nudtU\' of Home , Stoo\, IIdmmrr< ,Irr lY\;lM-
he. frl'{]llcnll) flat <lono "11h an alm()lt
shape..111d .II'\' ofll'n he.l\;!\ /\;tkcd ,,;th 'Ieppc-d ,<:ars
indic-.llint; blo'" on Kllid SUrt.ICl'1 1'1, 1-1:2-
., . TIll' m.tioril' ".IS prodUCI:d of,t'r< 1!<Il'd. dc:me
.md Sllloolh stone (li"e di.lbaJt: and diorilC porplr. 'I.
or Olher ignl:OllS roc"s. bUl 5;.mdSlOncs .ll'\' nOl un,
usu.t1 eilherl :md thq .11''' lo;cncr.llI' ground o'c.. till:
entin: <urf:,cc. In 'iC\"t'r.d C;lJt:J both ends ,\t'n: usc:d.
Some hammer< "crr rru'>C'd broken
111\' Icnj.,'1h bct"l-'C1l 8.5 and 10.0 CIII.
I>oundcr< wcn: 011>0 made of han:! <fTl()()Ih <lOne
bcarilll:" Ic<s hea,:- troe\':! ofmacro-WCOlr. such.u dtip-
pins; !lGU1i or lbkim;:. 'Iloe cnd. usual], ha,\, a uni-
fonn[) "br.lckd or roullhencd <urfacc. PuunckrJ arc:
elongated in <hape:. often l'\·lindriG,I: th\' erm,,-<ct:lion
is rounded 1'1. :H:5.bl.
:\ fCII lools hdd multiple functions ..\ COlllbin,,!ion
lool (16.6 Oil long. 5.11 cm maximum ,,;dlh' m.ule of
diOI;le ])(lll,hr'l' ""as u>;('(1 .15 .1 pesue Ihe cin::ubr flat
end h.15 l,"';nding .11 Ihe nll:d .md roul:"hem:d
SUrt.lCC".•15 ,I kllnmcr lhe opposite bc\d !'lId IIiUll'SS-
I'd he.", ftlldnc .•md. possibl,. as a h;md 'tone lhe
roulldcd sida rc:tJcclinl: miKolourilll: PI. 25:]
11 _hould be m...lllioncd Ih.lI proCliGlU, "TO
fOllnd I",d >01111' tr.ll:CS of usc:. oflen due 10 _lion
pcriocb of .nl hoc "url.:inc Ii"e pcclcinc ..nd cmID-
ing "hich le:l\'e Ir.LiX" ,. hich an: noc unambil,'Uous
maero"·opie,,II).
:\1 ILLlNG STONES QLlER.'\'S
,.\ .. n lllillillC _10""_ quelll'>'. u.ouJh l·!>mllk' ....
......... di>co... rcd.1l l.ig;l_ "Ill" m;ljorir. ".b tound oul-
silk lI,e hOIl._ or in u"......n.un ronll'\"b.. H<l.. n ....r...
118
\llll ...
dl- ,., d

".l.Ikd crinchn", pLllf.>nn will. 3 nu.''!\"(" pcnn.ull:mh
in'talled miDinl!; 45 x·nr.... IR cm ".l' ,li-co\t:r·
ro in Iioll-.c 3. at lilt" o\t'n Fill_ 1II.1! _In dll' \irinil\
"'.h found.1 'Ionl' \,ilh;\ Ibt lurfan:-,
"hKh m'I"tlilch \\::11: u-NI:ll: J h;md _\011("
with thl" ,rational" millml1. 'Iolle..\ third milhnl! 'lOu('
al....} corn" from .lIT;!. hut Iht' (ontC'l.!
1l11(("nJlIl found oUhid. ,h.. hou>e ne'l(\ In the ".111
Fill;_ 111 1\ Onh th...\.IIionan millinl!; .lOlle lMd
tr.tcr<; of imcn<i\"t' \lo;('. \\ hidl T"C"-Uhl'd in dccp
on ml" Imudin!.! 'urfatt.
.\ nUOlbtr uf holh inu(1 and fral!TTK'lIIm minim:
_lone> "'CIT in -'lrttl Ml".l.l-- ;lIId at How.<:
\, Onr bill; .\one 39XltixH cm
tll.lde of ""lId<Ione found .lloll!!; ";Ih
rod", in the .. ,lil !lasi.. l'If Hou'l: -I i.e.• !'t-
IDIed al; a founduinn <IOU(' Sonle' C"JI'C-
cialh Ih.-.'C' fa"lunnt'd of ..and<tOlle', "C'IT firc-<:r.u.ro.
. 5tonc> "en:: (hltcllOO on
onc and had.! plano-colI\cx CI'O,--,ttlion, indi-
their unif;lcial utili7..'uion. .I faCI h)
llUOl..\"..;ar ana.h 111t' knl[lh 1k"1\\C('n 2;
and 37 cm "ith a m:uimom "idlh of]1) 15 cm,
thidJlC'_ be"twttn I1 .lnd 13 cm The oflhe in-
tact port.lble._1J'CCilncnb i., hel\\l"eI15.0 .lnd;.5
u<ual "hapc 0\ ,11. Oll" OllC "1J«1ml'n is I
-Ibe _unac('!i, an' ,moot!l and
n=adunt! a d<-pllt of:l 11 mm ,
"" It'\! mm <ur-
fOUrldlll!:! OOk- millinl,l 'Iom's ili<:Moo of
dchhcT.lle.poxklDl,l 10 ruucl1tll t!lr face..\11
f.l.>lllOllt'd fn:rm 111 Onc C'lSC
niCk.<.. "fwl\ !ialld'IOIlI"lo ho, •. , '
"
!.- '. ' ""'" OIler
"lion, ''''' I!I""d\lLll', "Iu"h h3.l> quam("""v. d
' ....,1l:1lI5 all a
>lTUClun.', "'tte aJlprCtUl.'d,
Itllinl:, 'lOne, dominatl' 01 er h,md "tones indud_
in!; mon,t" , "hich ,In' 51ll"ller. nOI e.xceedillg 20 CIlI.
Rt'Ill.lrl...lbll ..111 fnUT han(l \lel'C found wilhin
ho""c5..\paI1 frolll the one mellliOllcd comin/-:
f!'Olll HOll'o(' 3, three '1)t"CimclIs were tound al
-10l':l.l.. 'C COll1aincl' in, oc<lx·cti,"c1>. HO\l<;I' no. I two
'lX'cimcn- ,1nd 2 onc. rwo \'lX'5 c.1Il be dis·
flallcncd 'pccinwns w"illt fOundl'd
to work "illt bOlh hands in a hack-and·forth
mOlion, :md ,n1.lllcr round onC5 (nol exceeding 11 cm
In diamelcr. onll one found\ 10 work in rOI:II)' mo-
lion. Bolh 1'1:K::> were found in 1.
at $:ldovcc·K:t1cto 1t,IIC dcmoll5tF.lIOO
lhat ulilizalion of milling W;lS not limited 10
rI'rc;'11 pl'OCes.<;ing. Colour pigmcnls, wrh as ochra.
could also bo.• .!,'l'ound 011 5uch SOme worn-out
milling "land or quems \\ilh lime became Illonars
\\ith dilfcl'ClII of 3pplicllion. Etltno,lrch"col•
ogiG\1 analogies lhal CI"cn son foods could Ix:
])I'OCl"iSl'd 011 milling
A.'I\ES, .\DZES, CHISELS
In '<1>"ll":ninl;; these thrct: calcgories of illlplellU:lIl5.
attention \1':15 paid 10 lheir shape, the cros;-
'CCllOII of the edge, where aXC5 have .,
\\ilh Ihe \\orkillg edgc loe:
ltl
:
1
In tIlC "hile Ihe of adze' "
ko,.cd. ,\lIention \\:\5 ,11'iQ paid to U5(-W(':lr
..c.:
n
On lite cutting edges. stri:'liollS perpen-
dicular 10 lhe CUlling cdge indiC;llc Ihe \lliliz;tliOll .1;;
adze i.t: .. chipping, while lItiliz:.lioll :Ul .,);1'
!.t'.: is le:t\inJ:; 10 lht"
(UtlIllR Scmcno\ ]%-1; Prinz 1988.
Ill!' I1MjOIlI' of .• d..:!'y 11;1", .• rq.:ulolr IT.lIJol',,,id,,1
,h.111(" \\1111 tl,(' 1.IIX'fIIll( l"".lId, tl1l' hUll l-n,1
\ III l. 1'1. The \\nrkil1l< ftl,:{' iy IOIlWX
'(>111\ ill \"1111' 'lr:tii(ht .1Ilt! "h1itlllt' "1111 .1
,h.I •• lt!l,ns\i( .Id/t" ,ls\mllll'll\. 'nit' fro "''(''lion
n,(I.Ulj.,'1II.tr. but dlip'oid.,1. 'nil"
bUllt'lId j .. rOllllclro OT qTO.ighl. I1w kllL:lh \.lfit... he-
['\I'l'n 5.0 .me! 6.5 cm. th,' lIl.lXilllllrn \\idlh bt'iny
••hom 1.01.3 C1I1. 0111.' of tl1l' di\('o\('TCd ,ldlet \\.IS
.Ihuuo;, lri,lIlglllar in .h:lp4.', It';lchinK 7.11 nn: it II,\(I a
1I.1t .lIld .1 m:lighl Such illlplements
IH:rc uS(;tl to I\ork on or to cr,'alt' roulIdcd
Prillt 198ij). Sey'cral h.ld of h.lftjng
nOletl h)' OPl>osilcldiamclIical deprc,.ioll', C<l, 1/3
fl'ol11 the hUll cnd. Such traces ill<lic;IlC th,Lt <ldzes
\Iel"e lralled PCIVel\(licularly to the
.'\I\other adze type has wilh dlc
bcillg nalTOWlT dum the first Iype, widllr C,l. 25 crn.
[I is I'CCI:Il1"Tlllar ,md symlllellical in while Lhe
COIlI'CX working edge witll peq)cndicular stri:rtions re-
flect.' \11iliz,l1ioll as ,Ill ,ldze, ib'lleOUS
rocks, like basah, wcre preferred bUI roller rocks, like
serpellline, wcrc also used (Fh;. \'111.2,
f1,lking i( ollcl1 seen on the on
lhe 10\1 Cl' (Ice: bUll ends arc usual!) intact.
A.xes :lppc:lr in <l of sizes and sh.lpcs. -nlc
common fe:lIurc for lhem all is he:l\"\ usc·"car lraces.
OfiC'l :l.'(C!i are broken. despilc lhe liS<: of hard
of rock. '1111: prc";liling rock lnx: lhe large
:l.'l:l"S is dioritc 1)O'1)hyr). \\ hilc il is bas.llI .11110111,: the
smaller lnll,."S. 111e sm:uler .LXl"S Up 10 9.0XI.5 cm
arc almOSI reclangular \\;Ih slight!) taperinl{ ,idl'S lOo
II.L1'ds Ihe rounded bUll end 0'1. 25;3, ., . 111e C1'QS.>-
seclion is rccl:ll1b'lllar and c1u:: "'orking l'dge '11':liglu
:md symmClricll. Anothcr 1),llC (I0.8X4.5 cm the
highly ground axc, also rCCI,trIbTJJlar in crlbS·,cctioll
,llld with CUlling edgc. but wilh :1 1110rc ebb-
O1':lIe CUI"\,:lllll'e, being Iwice as Ihick as thc ;lbOVl:
described I)VCS (Fig. V1l1.3. 1'1. 25:5).
The Ihird typc is lIul knowlI as a wllolc piece: Lhe
discO\'Cl'cd fr:lglm:rus indic:IIC IhaL it W;\S 1':,lhcl" long.
1'I·arhinj.: 15 cm with " nm....il1lulll widlh nO!
eXlending IlCrOlld 5 C11I. h 11.1:> rt·("I.lIIj.:UJ.U' "'ith .1
(omC.'I: edge .md fI.t llcllcd bUll I·ud. thc ,ides upenll,!:
101l,II"ds the CUlling edge. \Ihich i., IIll' 1l.1rro" pan of
lhe ilnplernelll. The edge i, ")'rnnlt'tne.Ll. bevclled. Ihe
.000,l.;lc from the <ide being ·10° I't. 25:6. 7" SolllC"
119
I'il(. \ 111.'1 'I""" ,1Xr ,h"-ll\'rmJ III lIo".... I k"l(lh ItUI .. m
Il. Kill.... ,
\111' J.. ,)d....... L, t.! MId ...", J ......_
l1l.1croocopic chippinlo: ma\ Ix: found (,On IhC" cdl.:C", ,l/Id
rounded ll.,h· 011 Ihe bUll cnd. '111e furKUllll
of Ihi, implemcnl tl'Jl'C i.. 110t cenain. rill' I.ld of
011 thL' CUl1illl{ cdl,(e 1':llher ,hun U,,<,,·
life "hile dlt' lhe l'dl{e 'ul{ll..... t>:
lhal 1001, h,II'e been IN·d as chi'i(:l- lor
lI'orkinll \dlh hard
.\1110111,( Lhl' .L'(t·' Ihere it .11.-0 .1 C01llillkuou' 'Jll'Ci.
men hhiLc <lOne Fi!t', \'Ill 1:3. PI. 25:8
I'n..·d<;o,.· iuel1li!ie.ltioll of tht· rod. 1\'Jk' i, 1101 pi'" lhle
\1;tIlOIlI 'pcci.tli.'l ,tudil:"\. a \ ..ri("t\ 01 rue.l. tI;"-
",mole "hl1l' n'lllp"lCt dull. .\11101101;1 The
120
he \111 !to. "'- '-alt
bun eod of tllli ;ne tu,. bC'Cn broken in prt>hi'lOf\.
but lhe :l,. ..e ulo('(\ alier lhaL 1llt convex "m-
me'trical roi?C ,,";l!, durinll: the e,ca,-auon,
The' pT"C""CnI .1ft' -l.8X3.8x 1.6 cm. flake
ft'mll\;ll, O\'cr Ihe ·U1"...CC" and lhe direction of the
indicale that Ihe nallellcd bUll end had httn
,"':po"t'd to hlo\\,.111e i. ,\1·
thllUl;h macro-wcar tr:ue-, rnl.'a1lhal this -oft a.xc ""ill.
in ani\ \LO(', iu. utilizatiQn rcmaim uncle.u.
T",) t\-pc<- of chi...'CI. h:l\O:: identified.. -nlc
fiN t\l'C is a r.llhcr implemt'm up to 6.0
cm in lcnmh and cm in "idth, "ith a hea\ih
batlC'Tt'd hull rod rill:- \1115, The chisel. art' al.
m,.., T't'CUnl!;Ular ;md <\mmt'lrical. \\ith
cur..-ro and a trunll:Ular or
-ection. i.' the prcfcrm:l t\-pt of rock for these
hean dul'\ chi.c-h. 'Tnt clInin" roge often h:l!i lrac
of bil.1leraJ m:lCf'O'("pit lbking, 11,,: second of
I. ;) n:lall\ch Ion" and nalTO\' onc. rcachinq
4.2 cm in leniWt "... th the \,;dlh \'3ryillL; IlI:l'\{'t:Il 1.2
and 1.6 cm Fig. \·IIJ..l:I, 2, 1'1, 25:9" 'nil: cros.s
"Cction i5 r:cI;Ult,'Ular or roundedl. Despi!e
the \maU and lit ... ;wumlltion Ihal l()ft "oad!.
"ere wor\;cd "it1l ueh chi!ICl!i, e-an be
on bOUl the CUIUlI,\ and the hUll 'nd 11
. . It: CUl-
un" cdll;e of br>tll dli.. ...I-I\'jlQ i!; located in the
l1uddh:.
and fUl... i!. IIOIro on a11lhe men.
{JClIIro unplcrrlr'lllll "ithin tlm \!TOl.Ip (of IGOb. To lhe
,,".up ilho br ;lIIribuled '" uniqu,-," acb..e-lik
impklll"1lI t,f !Hi" .L\ 1I1.I,innnll nn. ll1.1dt' of hne-
\,'l.lin."'(\ ....,n .1Ilt! \\ilh .1 1"-'\1"111'(1
.1.'\l1l1Iwlri,.llh I"(\unt!t'l.\ 1'01:.' .1Ilt! Il.lH.·n.'CI bUll .·Ild,
It IM.' ,lhp-oit!.11 ,T'O"-'l'Ctinn ,md .1 roue;h \1II{11 I'
nit" ,nl"-'t'\ tltlll nf the ('(It::., mdir.llt"" th.1l it Illie;ht
h.\\ .... l'l('('ll IN',1 .1 diwnR ill1pll'lllellt PI. 23: Iq
SII.\IT.1l0LE ,\:'\":$: CORES
no _h,lft-ltOle was found, tlte <li'cOl'l'l)
of twO r\ lindlic.ll fhun ,IM'-holr chills indicates
that t\l)(" of a.'I·S wa, ;\\.0 known ,me! produced
on the _itc, Onc core was complete. 3.2 cm long with
end-diamclrc, of 1.00 and O.iS CIll, It madc of
"Chi.t \,ilh t.!TO'·CS rdlccting die rOlating mOl"!:"
menl of Ihe drilling tool. I1le other specimclI was
made of rpcminite \,ilh :m on'mll diametcr of
cm: !hi!, \I.'ti brokcn. the ma....imulll preserved length
2,i cm, The IWO core<; \ho\1 Ihattwo diffcrclII
pcrfOr.Uiolllcdmiqucs \lcrc kno\\n.
SU1\G-STONES
.-\ number of was diseo\'crcd. 1IIainl}' ill
the area of St.'Ctor I/Housc I. These arc 3.5-'1.0 1.'111
long doublc-eonic;tl pebbles with a round cross-St·C-
lion PI, 2-1:i '. h should also be mentioned 111:11
some s1in'\-''1oncs I,ere in cl:n 11'1. 2-1:8), Pn:sellCC of
.Jing-\tollC$ Ihe zoolOb';cal analysis (Chapter
:s: . demOltSlratillg hunting of small ;lIlimals, in par-
ticular,
RCllBIX'G STONES AND POLlSHE.RS
Sc-.'eral ilems, differcnt in fonn, can be auribulcd to
this !-'Toup. Flallened shiny Sllrf;lces indicate that lite
lools were applied on organic malelials like leather or
wool. Two pel>bles had a llatural bo\,'1 f01'l11
".OX3.7 :md 5,9x3.0 cm). olle piece was uscd Oil
Ihe lounded "!>Oltom" side, while the olher had well
r
!r.lCCl> on lilt: ··L-dges··. Olher finds include a rounded
quanzile pebble ,5AX3.6x3.3 CIll) (I'!. 23:201,
Within House I. a fine-grainL'CI reddi.h f1al sallcblO
lle
WOU diSt;o'.-ered, rttlam;ubr in .hatx: \ IOX 12 Clll,
,,'hich could be identified :LS poli<her. used both for
d
. ·"",ibk
lOll!: an bone tools: fiml conclUSIOnS nOI I"""
"it.hout micro-IIear analy.is.
:-; I 0'<'" (,O'\'1I( Ill) WIIII l'() 1'lLlty I'II.(JI)L'(; 110'\
.\11 lind 111;1d,' in 2. Orl\' IlW-
di\lrn hironi(.d oll1d
1,1 W;\II:r-T"lk<l IX'hblt' \',3,_ Th("w f.lll be
grouped to ellcir _itt. 1h,llx' and <tom" l)-pt:.
I1Mill p,1fI i. qUM1Zilt:' with "hi,i.h or reddish
,in!::,' whife IIlrl:c piccr... an: of brown
ht,cl. .ilt!'lonc..\5 10 sh.lpc ;tnd si/c. lhen: arc five
oval and 011(" fI,1I (Iuam:ile Slone '2.;-3.1 cm
four big qU,lflZilc b;llls 3.0-1.8 cm 101lg. lhrtt' ob-
long pointed .ihstOIlCli \3.8-1.5 cm long .•lIId 1\\0 tri-
all/{UlJ.r quanzilc picrcs ,,1.6 cm long. In spilc OftllC
remarkable numeric order of the Slon("'<. these arc
most likdy tools COllnCCIOO with production and sur-
face Irc;llmCIII ,smoolhing and burnishing aflin} bi-
conic;u cups. Analyses of bUMlished ha\'c le::d
to Ihc idcnlificauon of a tool .\ith a pointcd edge. 2
3 mm bro;.ld. Among thc discovcred implemcnt.> such
a tool secms 10 be lacking. the being thc
only poinled ones.
AnOlhcr l:o'TOUp of connecled \\ilh pol-
lery production is also found in sln,clum House I
and 21. It is a mallcr of rounded or oval SIOIlC discs.
4.5-S.0X3.1--4.6 Clll. and 0.8- 1.0 cm thick, thinning
OUl 10\\'ards the l:dgcs. used in sllloothing. for c\'cning
of surfilccs. and for scrnping surplus cl:l)' awa)' (fig.
\'.5). 111c shal>C \"15 more UHln lhc rock
1}1>C and hcncc tools of bolh scdimClllal)' and mcta-
morphic rock.,; wen; found. POllCT)' surl'i1cc:s could also
be smoothed with rnlhcr morc Slone im-
plemcnt.s. flat in crolt.:>-scction. with :. nat dors;.1 edge.
and a ground sun.1.CC 011 bolh of the edgc. 11le
sh:J.l>C of such 10015 POllC!)' shards, ., hich
:,re also used for l>OlICI)' smoolhing (Fig. \ ',41. Two
fiuds of burncd fr:1b>ilc cO:J.l'se.gr:.inL"(1 sand-
Sloncs should also be mClllioncd, perhaps prep:'rcd
for crushing ,md US\· l>olICI)' ICIl1I>Cling Imilcrial.

Ground stonc implClIlcrlls ;11'<: a and imporl,llll
c1"ss of :u'Ief:H:tS, finding .,pplic:.tioll in. all. of
d,lilr lifc. Thc idcnlific:llion oftlwir ILlihl..LlIon IS ofJen
. 1 11 . I' ',., It)· lhcsc tools
problcl1lanc, pro la) y c:o:p limit S '
p•.:rh"ps ,Ipan from lhc wood-"orkiIlS ones onl.)
1
., . 1 .' ,'" scicmilic I,ubh,
lan; rccClvcd hll111C( :1I11;nlLon -
. I' I' \I::C, lhc ap-
cations. AI :ll1r ( unllg I Le " .. "- "
121
plir:ltiolJ 01 IfUIl' implrllwlll' in ffluff procl' nu,
Inl·ric.llI) f.lr otll\\ ... ilth, Ihf'ir U\f" in \oHIOd'''flrlUnl!;
millilll(. 11101. \o\t'r... u\f'd for enl hllll!;.
poundillll;. ..md 'CIon,
!:ilOm' "crr ,.1\0 \('1) impnrtdnt in plllll'....
production. Somr WJnt:<- \\f'rt for thrir natural
appcM:lnc(', hrncr. " fOnl' oflocaJi}' found flim/ch,""
was recorded from Thi. h,ld d rounrl rnh'i--'\CC_
tion: :t 'lalulOIl hol(' throul(h lhe' middlc of the 'Wilt"
ffi.1t!c a u>t' ,os loom-\\eill;hl JlO'-"hk "il1K1LLI
f,,"her modificituon".
Prehistoric citrpcmi) j,., a rrJali\d. un\r;.no)"n fidd.
gnec liltle C\idcncc on the final prodUl'b has tunncd.
Often, can onh bt: mad.. on the:: baiUoflM
lools idclltifitd as rdOlU1l1!; to "ood·\\orltin\l: Wooden
support» and split-lo:tf\ ustd for cOJUtnlcUon <ofhowes
e-.idcmh d<'.mandcd m;mi. (' Jnd chi3ds. and ad-
zes or flint scr:.pcn for dr'barkin(!. The:: prot'llCf: of
fine::r lools, cspttialh those:: mOldc of bono.
brooder dcmOlnds and skills for mm"<: sophi..ucltcd
task! than coll!tmetion. Slon(' lools I> ere no doubl abo
used in oUlcr. nOl fulh achtOl> IcdI;Cd areas such
as m,:lsonl), indudin(! e:O:lraction and
lime slabs found al
A sq),lralc issuc is identif)(';Juon of the 50UrttS of
tllc rn\HIt:ltCria.ls used. includinl:; both and
Ihorough COmp;If::.U\'c <tudic:s: such 11.1."<: not
pouibl.. in thc present c••St.
.-\RCHAEOLOGIG. \L ll'I'ES
The table Fig. \'111.6 refers 10 the fo[Jo...inll; l\l>oIOI!\
of stone ane!:lcts del'eloped b) S..\lbck, "hidt dni-
alc.s sollle frolll thc "oo\"c dassilic,uion:
SIQIIU l/';thfl/(dJ arc ofrlSl Sill' .md with onc or more
f:u;cts. Rock "re £llmluilc :md find}
gr:milc. The lnlt: is vCll L"Olllmon :lIId no doubt hOld
scvcrnl lilllctions.
IJ,lfI-sllllpd SIQIII-" ,m: Slllall smooth qU.lrt'HtOnes-. 1-
2 cm ill di.lmclcr, oftcn found ,cI'cml logether. -!lIe«;
arc quile C01ll11l011. 1>Cl"h:'llS u.>L"(1 in produ.:tiol1 of col-
ours ,md mcdicincs.
Qunn-sf(}n1.1 "rc Ofl"O .1 ,urd .1 n\ll11t:r.
The 0'';11 slL'q>c1' is 35 50 cm in Icnt:::lh. h j" ll>u,l1h
nI;ult: of reddish ,llId grcri$h gf>lIIilc or "lIlrbWllt'.
The nmllcr C,1I1 b.: rl"Ct,lllgul,lr. circul.Lr or Oldl. ',11'\-
ing ill sue frolll 35 10 I....., th,1I1 12 em. it b otir'1l III
122
.Irfa .lrdwt'fJ/ogln'
\ Ill.. l.olW re _
hard 'Wile'. arc common.
and ,,<,IT l...\lnd in 'lIU.
.\1 'ff4t\ ;tn' ...kndl-r "ith pacu.Morn
;1.\ Oil(' or both hnnl;;phn'K.ll mm. di:unc:tt"r aboul :)
cm; hard roo.:b "ct"( u..cd. moo;th f!r.l_IIitc. length ID--
15 cm.
an: smaller thall 6-8 cm.
tJl(' "hole 'iurfal,T of \\hich \>. \I<\lall, finch polished
and prol),lbl\ mM In ceramic or le."tik produc-
tion. QU.Uuil<, j. or olher \"l:r. hard lim::k c:rain-
ro rocl.... 111(' from et:£!:. Oath o..al 10
b....n.•hapcd or ucher .\ fC'\\ nu\ "ell be SllJlt'i/lJIltj.
lIamJflm'l1ftu ;Ut." up 10 fm <itt and used for ham·
ur (nI,hill\!: there is much and both
'>Ineh:: ;md muhiplr areas.: no
doubl bOlh ,m (Id-Ir. ,\lid ,I <pn:ialil.«1lool. the hlller
prolMbh 'j)('Cimcn, m near perfCC\ ball shape. Hard
,\\:ue,;ab "ere some <1)t'Cimell1 ;Ire jU<1 a
CO:U'<,C pi('Ce of IIn"Oll.ed rock. of which onc or IWO
"ere u<,c<\.
1t7II1Jlul1tJ ('omt in 1\\0 findy gr.lined sand
<;Ion" ;md \'cl) hard ,lmOlvhou, rock. '\1le 'J1'CCimenli
,1ft' flal, onc UI' bOlh sides "ilh lracCli of shaipt:ning,
aWIlI a cm III
rllth Jl!Iwllr Qrt/IJ do nOl fOlll\ a 1\1lC of 1001
, I 1 -
...... le Ihl...., 1\;\\c been u5.:d 1,,- " - cl
. ,,1an, ,In
<mallcr or areas ' ..:re lring Some or
,rll ma\ be cobble, Ha-' . b
. ,'u gral\ue Ul also
som.. qUMU ;md hasah \\ ..re used:\1 - r
' , OSI an: rag_
'"
CQ:\I!'ARI50NS
1111: bcs.t jl.\ralld 10 Uga in of SIOlle tools is the
scltle11lCm ofSimb'l'Oi, Nonhem G'"CL"CC (sixth 10 lhird
millennium BCl, olle of Ihc vcry fe\\' locaJitiCli in lhe
Balbns \\;th published material frOIll Ih.. Nco-
lithic-Copper (\ge (Elsle!" 2003), The delennincd 1":1"
malerials used :u Sitagroi arc loral (46 cases). non-
local (6il, ,md unknown (58), respeclively, 1111' high
nurnl:H:r of lion-local rock likely refleels high 1ll0bililY.
Simgroi also used much foreign mm (Clwplcr VI1).
11\l: :tncf:'cts !i·orn Sit:Jgroi \\"'I"e di\'i(kd into I'ri·
nml) Tools (OlXCS, CIC.), I'rocessors (st:Llioll;u)' and
rnO\<lblc gtindillg CIC.), aml I'rcscl\ll·r'S (sym-
bols, im:ludil1l; mace hC:l(l5), 505 specinlel1S in :lll,
]Jlim:try 1000ls comprise 171 spccimens (or 3,1"0),
I h.. pert"ining arlef:\Ct lypes Me; axe b!;Ldcs, [,\3
'l)C(;illlCLlS, <Imft-ltolc ,lXI'S, 13, :ldl.C blades, 7, ,Il1d,
O)lh\:r, 8. The ]ll'OCCs.Mll'S make up 307 spee;L11CnS
\61°.1. The penaining 1),I:H:S grinders!
1111'111'. Ihl' "rir,:in,11 ,ill' lJl'inr,: 1:1 1'11l. nil"
rl1ll11hcr i, hir.:hn. '11111' 'Oil\(' 'pl'(irr1l'm IlUl id"1l1itinl
durim: ,·\.C.l\,Iti"1l
S, 'It Jr,",,,ntT' ,,/Ill ""/lnd", ,1Il:- hrll"h "'OlkCIl tool. of
\1'1"\ h,\T\I tilld\ l,'1';\lI\I"(\ 'lMI. or ull"1\ with
,turp..·t1ed I_I" hlll'!l poli'lwd .1I"\'.IS. SOllll' ,11'\" n:·u<t'(\
.L'\.I .... ,,;tho\1t 1"(1"", , utlll'!'" II1MIc for h,lmml"": ...
-.et:liom ,HOC or '(1
11
,11'\".
chO(lt ,11'\" fiul'!\ m,lde in <1i,ll>'l'C or the
('(Ir;:t"'i line ,Ind ,h,II1>: the knr,:th ,ll>om 5 1'111, the
\\idlh I-:! Clll.
GM] e aJ.;,tJ :1.1'1'. lil.e 11.1111111('1"5 .md
fineh mack, oftcu th.. like of I1IClal. Twu
driHinl: \Iel'{' found hut no <haft-hole a.xcs ,5«
Othcr.
0tMr comprises ,I fr.lgmelll of a mould for a
copper a.x.. \\;Ih ,lil:hth pmtnlding edbocs, a
of a mould for melal pl:uc \bolh sandstone),
a O;il limestone \\;tl1 very ,smootll sur-
fact", and t\\O C\lindrical cores from axes
er. alxn... 1.
Tmrpmtl!!. :\Iall\ SIOIlL'S found had the SUrf.1Ced sys-
lemat.icalh hammered away_ to produce tetnl>cr
for ceramics. -nle material is CQ.lTse nod
\\;Ih coarse gr..,ins, or ycllo\\ -green with fille grnins.
and \\;th mic;".
(!
,
"
, ,
'"
"
,<I
"
<I
,
,
,"
,
,
..
""
,

Ill!
J!J
....... T,u]


II

J
Shlllf:< "llh r..."C'I\
<l,1(C.\
Quem o,l,vo: 14
'1,'l1_ 11
1',"I.tI'!lt <1.«'
IU"mm..-N,""'·' 1<2
\\11«-<1.,'1110.'. (
I. ,-.n.:. ",Ilh .m...."h,'\l.\tl:.l' It>
lil.,n: twnI'ft,..".\, ,,'Un.1:I' i
IOl....h '
Un &. :klrr. I
'Otber 2
T.....,hll'Iall
IQ.. llW<.'Nl.o, Ill.'ml'-nng.o."h: 1 ;.j
T('tal 32/
l.ign
nlhh,'''' IOh. ttn lil ...Iddl.: (jUfnl' .ill.
h.II1,/I)()Ulldt·'" n,. h.l.tlllll,·r \tonf" ,2
1
1, .IIul. tlllwr
',:Ii ·1111' IJl'l:"·llI.. rs IIlllkl' up 27 'IWcinl\'n\ I :l" "l.
The mO<1 nmrkl'd dim.·rnlce III i, Ihl' hi1!;h
llulIlber of prilllolr\ look rn.tinl} .1'C('<O;••11 in
rd.llion to OIher IIorked 'l1w n:.''I01I fnr Ihi.-> i\
prob.lbl) lh.11 .dl \IOnes \\t·I'\' tolkctcd .md <tudied .11
.in(:.- lhe)' evidctllly h,l(l come from pl;,ce
r:tiSC"l Iht: number of "non-axe .tt Ihe
Bu1tt,lrian _ilt:. U) COIllr:I.M. ,11 Sit.lo/O;. "common"
SlQlle. lmw onl)' becn rol1l."e"lcd (.uul rttordcd) ill lhe
Ol.'ll· (If c\'idelll 10015. 1l0! JUSl ·'.onlC\\ h:1I workcd"
stollCS. Fin.lll).:1I Liga <omc ""orked stones".
cdl). ;n lhc main common "hammer alld
"Sloncs \\'illl faccts" mar. :t.S leasl ;n p:lI1. h:l\'c been
cobble Sloncs from lhc firsl phase (Liga l\ ro:-uscd in
2.
Thc SIOIlC ;1l1t:r."1ctS from Kar:mo\'o. in 'pilt: of ,Ill
E:l1'ly Copper Age d;ue, make up lhe bCSl compar:,-
dl'c l11:uc,;;ll IQ thc Uga "'Ullple (Hilkr & Nikolo\'
1997). .-\t Kar:I.I1O\'O there is a \cl)' high number of
rnoslll' adzes) - about 213 of the lools collec,,:d:
lhcn: arc chisels 100. In addilion "'t:re found:
qucnbtollc.s (sleepers :l1ld runners\. nmnr h:lllllllcr-
5101Ie5. polishers (including round ones of qU:lnzitc'
and \\illl mlces of etc•• includillg SC\-
er:lll)1lCS not foulld al Ug;1 (f.ex.• poli.hers of .IITO"·
shafts).
123
lHBUOGR.\PIIY
,\"U,," • n I of 1...ln \ll,M ...,"" In I.... { ,nlr..! IWk_
a". fup'u'ap'l.\'lll 11..1f{TA'" I1n
!J'I". I.• Anti C)d_
\<1,1.00, F,hrr, '" Ilt-nl...... ;/!JII 1;'>«
U....... l . .lc { Rrnr...... l"r!a..,,.,,.. <'''-' h "'.!.> n. In
;.;,,,d......, ("rnT. I'"'" t n... f,n.oillrp>n. \1..... ,,_
rnrn,., .I.,..,h.,... Iloqir. trl I." ...." lm"w.. of I.,.
d I 'U.\
('.ddi " iI 1'1lIR "'. \1, Ptw-rm It "... 1'_
"'" lhl.... <. It \ "I.tl&o... 1'10., .."".. I}" ,m
S",I",klOt 1'1lI1 1""1.' Q'Ir.....,d"",hlluh,.n,d... 1".ItI""Ab"" ••
rn "'Kl f".... hu..ll'I'" ,n tu"'no:n" 1:1 .' '" l..f-t
'\;WI.". \'d....'ll'.. hn lm",ur, l· ..............,
Ho",. I\om rndln.tnd 8rt"I(I"f '" SnfLo ...b. I",,,.
...I.... \Ltdnnic <Jr' "-_nl<....r,r,,
l>kl'.ltl'(ln. ,I. &. II ::.,.,.j<nli: ... I'llill Di"II';n .\ncl ,lrr , .....
hlhil" s",bu.. f.Jh",>klf;\ __.loh. III
Ikp;."",..,.,. <>f L'"'" ...
l'nnt. 11 1968Thr C;"""", '>I, ""...." 1""" 0;.""""
..""" '" <.,."jtrly 1981l.13.'>1f
K. "aMC'''''1 Oplo,1'IN or 1%.111"1"
"pa" C. 'laIlJJp. COIIIltuc,m Ap'Co.10\'11J1. tal
x..,-,
". 8: HI.I<o.101O 6 1'llU .... CIUIWI-
C""1'. "'"II(IT "J c:e..11lU13 or u ..no.ll1TK3n (IIOU no.
I "" R CCllePOlJlla;JH3
6101lrJpluo. 11. Bp"'la 'lIT
Sm>cno-. S. 1%1 f't<h_ I.... \n npcnmrntal.....t>
of ,he oIdI:1l lI>l'b;and r""" 1rM'n of .-l
",..,1 I.ondo.., Con.. \dAm. ..,
IX. BONE ARTEFACTS
,.
I'll IR
...T\TI. Of RESF..-\RCH
l1k prima" d:na undrr 'IUm hCTl' C'\lfn(' from fttt'nt
(":'I.G\\ .11 .....lIkml·m ;md C1:"lT1<"trl' 01 Lifa in
Pln",n dbuirl. :'-Ilnhcm llull!:l.ri.l In pn....iou,
puhli<:;uinn, the ,il(' i" rcferrro w .\' Tdi,h-Lica. or
simph. Lic:;ll XlOI: ("1(. 10 di-,,:o:m 11 from
ncicl1horine l(-fuh-Rrdulilt. the- b.Ut'f brimi! Iht onh
romplrtrh C''''PfIC1"\C'(' multi-bHTro
in the.ll"("a nf
Hum b. rohul'Ol.l romp('\. Ckrw. 19S,i:
19'1!b "RcdUUIl:.&1..., ha;, an ImpolUnl bont'
,}flef"Kt ;t..w:1llbbe:t:.
11\0: ('>f Lica. locale<! I.:? \an from RrdUlih,..
-upp<.""<'d t<l m\'C bttn 'C'l.Ilcd durinl: pcricxh \\ hell
Rcdutilo: ..1I> l'IOI. O(CUpitd. Cnfnnunau:h. thC' ....,orted
borr tinlb fl"l:'m RrduU!r ha,,\" 001. In beat mack
,,-jib oM .a [<:", si.nclt' bci.n(! pub-
1i-:hc-d 198;; R.ibuo\ &co.- 199; Of 0;.
.., the- tfutnriaJ ),1u.-<.aIm in Thlb. m
the- <tudo. it "'ill oM bt to :m
account t>f the obo<n";\Oofu frunl Uta. OUl
da...'C1.I.fions on diachronic Ilrocesscs. Other
an::hat"Oiocic.alh rd;ul.'d sita dm.tt-Goknuno-
\'Q TodoroI... 1968: 1992. Pcl11O"a
oS. 1%0: Kuncbr:o. 19i3,
dol \:iI.olm. 191:14 MId Umintc Ylkob. in
Bulnri.l.. in Rot1W\ilo Ikrcio 1961
and in Trinclwn &. Krstit 1990
Onk 0lC fomiohed compar.Wk materia! ;ill
Olhn onh bttn throu,h'
, tCSt
, ;umed .1.1 the <Ir.ltimphic !<eo
qur:nce.
ll-.e ,onh auetnpl to e-Ol1u;ne tll( roIc: of bone:
toob ID o:xnpan.o...n 10 dripped and qonc
from Copp.:T '-wo: loiIcs in ''\\ BuIpm
bun:t reWn. uthus
on too:lll. Ja:O\'ttni (j
...r difrcrmt _ rom
.... _.....1:__ " ....... ""l5IOnlo at \<lnOU!
'il,", ......................n: "'ith
;u, \"il Ol'> tll( rtOlturr: of tl '
le pa.rucular de,
po-ib "anchf" & :\ilolo\ 1983. Such <tudiC'! aT"('
th('lTfo", I,:on"idt-n-d irrclt'\';uu to the li1fot material
and "ill not be considerrtt here,
Sincr 1998. thc author has had the oppol1unit)' to
<llld\ .';C'\1.'ral lI11publi5ht-d bone .lrtd:tct collections re-
CO\'Cn-d <\'tcmauc c\C:I\,;,uions 3\ various sites
<\llchronom 10 Ligrt. 111c-<: arc the tell scnlc-
I'TlCnb at Duranl.:ul:tl. Kablcshlo\'o-Koz.are\':1 :\ logi-
b. Yun;usite'. Homica, and M\'(ldoL as \\cll as the
C'CrJ1('lmes at Ourankulak and \ 'ama. rouncs)' of the'
project diT'CClors and museum curators,
Pror. Or. H. Todorova Archaeological InstitUle and
:\hiSC'um al the Bulgarian Academy of Scicllces), Dr.
P. GC'Org;C\-:l Sofia :\Irs. V. :\lats:lllova
and :\Irs. S. :\Iuscutll of pazardjik. :\Ir. X.
E1roili of \'diko TUnlo\,o, G. Galle'-
of\'ratsa. and Dr. \'. SI:I\1:h(\
snJffi of \ ·ama. The' purpose of tht' present SlUd} is
10 offer a gcm:ra1 pn:M:lltatioll of lht' char:lclcrislic
lrnil1J of the assemblage:. l1lUs microscopic examina-
tions of uS('-wear pancms \\;11 not be addresscd hen:.
THE SA_\IPLE
"The: bone ancfacu from Utr-' belong to three distinct
periocb of human acU\if\ at the sile. from sulw:quent
phasa of the L:ue Agc:. FoIIO\';ng Ihe tcnnin-
dn-clopcd for publication. they arc de-
scribed rcspeclh'dy as; Uga I - the initial occupation,
a great.!> disturbed by acti\;ty in
hori:l.OllS although recognizable as a distine-
U\'C unn on the basis of architecl\lral c1cmcllts stJ-
called House: 0 postllola, walb, plastcred floor, pot-
wnaJl fmd". etc.. Uga 2 three c.xo-
\0l.1ed "itll adjacc:m !p-"lce"
arc:u., and Ug-oi 3 _ a cemetery. The ,u:
ll
j-
<fuuibution of the bone 100(;; in fill·
The majority ofancf;\cb i2"ol comt: frolll ;UI
Illl
en
shcly OCCilpicd Mea of Lig:l 2. It n:pn:I>Cll15 ;lll
In'lnllll''-"ll fl
llgal !l
lip 2
I 7
TO/ill 7/}
Liga
J2.;
LulLmo.n
, .<1"'11..- ,.....,
,...
Up\ ,
,
IJp2
'"
"
,
"

,
I
, ,
T",,J
"
.U
,
'.
lill; IX! fu.... tinn.ol <'-n..("'-.&nrbr
I"""," ,
:lre;1 .. ilh the hiI:hC'<t pef(elllat,tt: of bone tools per
household .15 comp:ul:d to cOnlCml)(ll""dl)
at Durankulak. YunatJiitc. HOUlil.Ji.l or Kablcshhn'O-
KOZ;tfC\';l Zidaro\" In Jmnt. unpublished per-
sonal oo.'>CrvatiOIlSI. Ho\\C\'er. it must be nOlW thill
all of the Ioulcr an: ,It leasl 200-350 km from
and locntL-d in diffen::1Il of landscapes. pn::scnl-
ing \';lrlOU5 ad1pti\"c challen!{cs and in reon-
omk Thc said sito also differ signifi-
cantly from Uga in tcnns of metJlodo; of recovcry and
aamination. Ug:1 is the only sitc "hen: c:"lcnsi\l:
scrcc:ning was used durinll: aca\-ation :lnd .. hen: all
r."lunal remains \, en: chedw for traces of manufac-
ture and wear.
From a funclionalj)(lint ohi('\•. onc call di\idc the
finds roughl} into c1:lW:!i b) Ihe lools and
the handles for tools as critical obj:cl'l. in order 10
t/\I:m from bodr omamenUi. and
Ibuencd <;liOn boil . all referred to as "non-utili-
larian" objL"CI5. Frm."ncnl5 bearing tr.IC of mannf;lc-
lure :lI1d/or U5l;'. as well ;l'l lIIanur.,clUring \\.lSle. are
grouped as "other" Fil;. IX.2 . "here:1S
Ihe proportional ralio bt:lwccn utililari:ln and non-
utilitarian finds in Ug::1 I and 3 ten(\" 10 malch
the expcrtalion that lhere "ould be lIIore lools found
in a 1mbitation .Ire" .mc! more body onl.llllenlS and
fi1,,'l.lrillC5 in gr.lvo. Liga '2 cOlllained 55
0
0 nOli-utili-
tarian finds. SI>ecifics .lbOUl Iheir distnbUlioll relaled
to d\\e.llillg stmClllrl:5 in LiI,(:I 2 .Ire prodded in Fill:.
[X.3.
From a 1}'Po[ogic,11 point of I>one arler:lCUi
COIISlitUle Ihree main groups: 1001s. Onl:uncnts. and
misc::dlaneous. TY1liC:t1l) for prehisloric sile,. Ihe moq
numerous 100[5 arc points. followed b) bc'
and sp.'lul:ue implemenlS. 'nle c.lleC;Or} of tools b
closel) ils..oci.llCd "'ilh hone and duller h.ulS..\1 Uga.
'Ull.ler 10 f:lSlCIl ehipped- or l..'found-SIOllC
lools. The sillll:lc h.mdle from .hup IIlCl:'C.lrplh m;l\
'.....
..._!
"-
--
,,--

,

"""""--
"

"""

• ,..

"
,
tU I,. 2 """l-.I dbonbubr.... ,-t r-..... et--..
....... _.
hau:: held a metal ;ml to b\
examples from other wntcmpordl' siu--. Ornamenu
comprise beacb. pendanu and appIJqU<'. -:\l.l!ld-
lanrous
n
is the tenn W4:d 10 eroop oon-utilil.lrian 01>
jeeu such as fil{Urillo or Ibumcd ,hon boon. To a
great exlent (hi.. dh-uion i.. minnmf in l.bc Ml'hac-
olot;ical contt'Xt. Bom omamen(j iU Ilea fl)f imunce.
arc almo'lt ('.'(c1usheh rttO\cred from llT3U'S, unlike
Ihe mhcr 1\\0 occuninll: in h.lbilaUOII

UO.\ I nRSl· S£lTI.f-\/tXI
-ell bone can be .luributC'd to the
occupatiol1.l1 IL.... d al the 'lilt: Fill: L'\ I 1\,"0 bn-cl-
cdgt.-d lools PI. 26: /.1 • one point PI. ::!t.d . one ;mtlcr
haft for a poli!;hC'd Slone . onc 11:11
lIlorphic filfUrine PI. :!ti:6. onc "'\>11
deer alltler lint" "ilhoUl Sil..'1b of prob.,bh m.mu-
f:I(:IIlTC \\-asle 1'1.16:2 ,me! finaU\ ..1rrn1!lnent ofl>oor
wilh rounded t.'d1l:C5 Ih.ll h;u ullden...une dramdue
.lher.ltion due 10 c.'ro:treme he.1l ,lIld "calh·
crins::-. blll "hich ".IS lila'" ell1plO\ctl >l.'I <t "l:r.lpin.:
1001 PI. 26:5 .. \11 from U!::' I all.'
rn:,dc in .m c::ro:pt-dicm m.lll1lo:r from Iont: bollC'l 1>1
[aT\l'c mdmlll.ll>. .set.'mim:I, from Il.'trinC'd Imm
rcfU5C. unlike tllC lools from U"'" :!
Ixlo". -l1lc sint:1c poim .100 OIlC of tht" bc\"kds:nJ
toob all.' lIlost like!\ frorn ranle Urn.1 <pIill1cr<..
"hcreas the .\ol.'('Ond bc\"I-cdl..'C'd llX" L' from (""<tIll..
ulna. In all lhe na1Ural form 0[111(' pierC',
i, hasicall\ pn."'Cl'\'rd :md 0111\ llll" .1(lilT ('nds ;l!'l'
dabOF.lld\ ,h.lpro throul::h nlhhilll:: :l.l;.Un'l
'lOll('..\hholll!.h rel.uin:h \\om fmm the I...lrldn!!
IU"" (Of 3.lI me looL. art' f\llk lunctional afler mmor
.Jurpminl!. R/xeTll dunatt' Oil (\'ll tool>
cmsion l>1l \\"h<-mer lOO \H'1l' dloQrtkd "hen fulh
fulK'tiOlU1. or dl"posilM in another ',J.\.
U!::,l '1. ,In' n'n ••lI'dillh pl'lIlnnl. nl.IIII1I:,\ tullX! in a
\llIil'>\111 1\.\\, .lIId tlftt'\l rt""tllL.cd. I llulllllC'"
llf \u'rL.nl IlC1nl' pa Illlu'l'hold dl·.ITh r!(ollllm<tr.ltt..,
tlt.ll .l' .1 r,llt'l.ton nf .lIwf,ll!' thn h.L\\' 1t,ld ,I
""11,LltI ill1pt1r1,1l1ft', ill ,pill' of 1111' cO-l'l;i'lt'IlC(' ofCOl).
pt'T n:n>,llt'(1 in h) l1u.'Ld ;11lpltnll'ntl
IJ!l,I ,md cl11cibb I). cC Ch,Ipll'l' \'1.
Ul. \ 1 U \ll.l ER\
St'-tl'rall!r.l\"'" hdd madc of .l1limal <kdelal
m:ttcri,l!-. 1Il00tl\ diOcI'\:lll eomhill.ltions of bone and
,hell. In 1X',<;;hle a1o-<,(M;'i.ttion \\;Ih 110, I it
child or6 f \C:tT'S a pig mel;\tarslls \\;th ,I
dislal articlll.llion found {Fig. IX.5, PI,
28: I , Such finds ,!,ecifie for lhe Copper Age
in :lI1d ,Ire ll<;ual1y illlerVTclcd as:l particular
kind of .unhropoll1Olphic figtu;nc, having \'I'T)' close
COlLnI(''l):l,I1S made ;n (c[ Fol 198B, 25·1ff.; Blelll
2003. The\ are ICnncd "prismauc fib'1.U;ll\·s"
198-1, !);ISt'd on the OUlline, or "slUp.llni IroOl] idolj"
in Ilullf.\rian. emphasizing their bioI01,o1c:t.1
1910,. In Ihis panicular C:t5C, the proxi-
mal end is mi""in£ but the important distal cnd i\
scem;ngh intacl. To judge by Olher specimens \\';lh
prcscrn:d cOPI>cr ean;ng" & V,USO\· 2001.
PI. HI, Ihis part is supposed 10 represent Ihe he:,d of
tht, fil,'ll1;nc. Deposition of flars IJIU (alo goods is olien
seen ;n L1.\t' Copper Age bm;als in Bulgaria. for ill-
at the ccmetcriL'S of Dur-anklll,lk (IOdoro...a
2002. and "ama & 2000: FoI &
Lichardus 1988. TIle attenuon paid to \':Irious smOlU
bon ill t.Il<: CoPlxr .\ge is helo". :\11o
l
ll('r
pan pro /uto ilem from Liga is 11ll' c:utlr
homcon: rc:c::o\'crcd in Gravc no, :'I (Fig. :-':.1.7-9. er.
the cudI' <kulls (burr-mia) reeo\'cl'cd in cclllelery
DUT'ankul:tk (I'odorol'a 2002). Anolher pris
l1
l.l
l1C
fif:(\u;nc, with an idcl1Iical lj'agmclll:ttioll
disco\'en:d 1.2 III NE of Gnll'c no. 2 (PI. 20:21, I he
gt'i1\C pit is dug into sctt.lel1lCIll debris, l1I:Lking lhc
a '>OCilluon \\;Ih lhe b'l':l\'e questionabll', !\ l'l'Ct:l1Ig
ubr
boue plllle dt'CoralOO \\;Ih diagonal ro\\'S of encirtl
ed
doo " <'." . . G illlh
r
.• : was dlsco\"crcd In r:1\ C 110. .
area or the chesl, tinder Ihc bem left .lnn. It is n1:ldr"
01\ the 'plil rib or canlc or :HlTochs .me! h:J>
::lIiOllSon both short. ,idL':S. \\'ith reg:u'd, 10 conlC;<l,
" . , cl he 11('CL.
ems 10 I:\\C hUllg 011 .1 IOllg S!l;tlS aroUll I
,
"
,

"

-'


,
-,
,
:
,
UG.\ ,r..co'\"l) 'QTl.f..\IL'I,'T
The find, of OOm: lools from :1 and their
;lIT listed in Fit:!.. cf. 1'1. 2; .. 1I0l.. -d. 1001, .lfC
rd:ltivd) n"('T1I, rn"tribuled. l:.ach of the how.cs
\;dded 31 !ea.'1 1\\0 pointed tools. 11,('1'"(' I,ell: points
onh in 1. "hik thm is a Imdt:1lC\ for furnu:r
<pn:i;iliutinn in otheK In Holl.« 3 'thcrr: was a
concnur.u.iOfl tooL. '>hiIe in House I
fQuoo.ll "eU as 3 bone it\\l,
- I OOWC'r a,,1 Fie \1.13 and:1 Copper pin. Fig.
\1.1-1 All hafu. were COnCClltfall-d in Hou5I:: 3.
belong 10 onc 1\ an antler Slt'ne \\;th
twO OJlClIlllJr', one of \lhiclt inscned into
wooden 'h,tfl. The other W;ts lllCal\l 10 I,o'd ,. "
ed apolSl'
stone 1001. l)lbSjhl\ an amI' 1'1 ')-,.. T' , .
'." lelurd
one, made of ,htt'J} metaC<.lrnUl. .......
,
. .,- • ;en."" as a !IOCkt
or a metal a copper pin or drill Fi . q -"
PI. :11.t>, The dinnhution of the tiI g .b.
al!.o fC'\-ea6 a dear . !lOIl-u ltanan finds
asvTtlmetne;a\ pauem \\ith a
nificam roocc:lluation in HO\1)(' I Th _, 5l.g.
alial\> arc be1Q,..,. ' e Impli.
tile m' . __"
aJOnt\ ut the toob from
-
-
-
...
.....
-
...... ""
...... r--..
....... ,

.,.... :" I
.............
.-.
T<tI1II1::t 1
r. 1:\_ Uca _ ""-&n be- arvb<":' m;llhrit dr.<I...
..... -
126
Liga
127
Simil.u' .,r(' I;,lIo\\n from I'" "
. ,. • t .lnM H'm-
{'U'" nluhl\loll, :\,nionallliJ.lorir,llllll'" "_,,
,_ • "dIm, .......,
;md titllll Kmlo\"o "l'oooro\-,I & \ '.ti\fl\ 2fMll. PI. 21
tihdJ nc{"kl;\Cl'\ of dilTcn."'ll COIllI)u\i,iom \\t'Tt' rrrO\':
{"n..d in Gr.I\(·\ nO". 6 .lnd 7. 111 ,11(" fin, ,
. .....llo(.". IIC
("OlISISled of 8 C\'lindric;11 drlll.dium bcol(is
dl\ldcd .It lhe from by a bone imit,llioll oLI red dttr
(',mint' Fir:. X1.1 2. PI. 28:10·: it 1'.Lt TC(Owrcd mule
the IImndiblc :md bctWL"CII the skull .ll1d the ,ltlas
.111 18 19 year old male. thus. h:llI,,:illl{ around his
lIeck. In Gr:l\'c no. i,.l double gran' oLlII"duh male
(25 30 y('.u"'!') cmblOlcing a C:I. I
1
! reM old child.
dClIlaliurn shells again domifl.llc. thit time comple.
by cardium shells (Fig. XI.II); a \inl-":lc large
dClllahlllll be<ld was found below lhe of lhe
:ldull, thus showing thal it either hUlIg loosclr from
lhe ucck or was a deposill'd b'Ta\'c ",riO. A
double llecklace of ahcrillg delll:lliulll and c:u'dimn
ol1l;lI11en1ecl the neck of lhe child (Fig. X1.15).
The composition of lhe particu.
lar :mention. The two shell fiUllilics. DnllaliUIII ,md
Cnrtii/llll arc marine specics and Iheir prcscnce mon:
lhan 300 km from the ne:lfCSt sc;lShorc the
of lheir prO\"Cnancc. A study by Willms
19851. updall-d by 1'OOoro\':I (l9951. demonstrates
that thc Spom!r/UJ and Om/aliun! finds have lheir
highC5t conccntr:ttion in the area of lhe \ ;Ima culture
but also 'pre:ld gr.ldually along the D,lIIubc and ilS
tributaries North·\\"cstw;u"ds to the Rhine \·a1IC\·.
Thus. the proximity, of Uga to the river ViI. onc
the principal southcl1l tribut"rio of the D,l/lubc in
Bulg:lria confonns well with thc general
pattern. Nevertheless. a working ",IS lCSlCd
thal lhe shells could be mined fo.sib. In f.ICI. in the
\ricinil)' of Ilb'en (25 km from Ugal fObil dcm.llium
and pos:.ibly c:m:lium shells h:l\'c becn collccted on
lhe 5ul'l:1(e:H least llmil the (N. Zidllro\" per-
s.comm.). Ahhollgh the survey of lhe Lig:r ll'am in
2001 nOl slIccl'ssflll ill OUl:lining n:fen:ucc
s:ullples, a repon by N. All(ln·.lserr. Copl'nlrllgcll &
univcr.;;ities. rhe fo....il il1leqm·t.,-
lion.
AnOlher issue is r:lised b) lhl' di'\Covcl"\
of Ihe imit.ltion of a rcd decr "01":111(1<-1", .r canine,
in Gr:we no. 6. Its ccllll":ll IXlSilion on .1 nocklace of
irll]>oned c:'Colic shells suggL"S1S :1 p.,rllcul.,r
likcl) due 10 Ihe r....ct Ih:1I onl) Ihe ,Idult red dt.-cr ,r,11;
.....""1;>..... ""h .... ,,' u.,. ....,
q>iJ....,... l'fMuu< dol. 10000 111 G",,,' I rt."n k.
",>In,
1t,I:; .1 represcnt,tti\C pair of <uch lec:th, till'
Holocelle, with \Cl"\ fe\, e-"ccptioll5. Ihe of
red-deer canine$ .IS be,l(b is a phenomenon dl.H";tt-
rcrislic for :1 lirndille st.lI1ing at Ihe cnd of bth ,rnd
endirrg sometime in Ihc Ith rnillcrrniurn JJC.nll· ell<-
lom 11.15 \,'ideh 'We.,d throughout EUl"Op,e onh 10 bl'
rcpl.lced by prcd.lcors· c:mirll's SOlllelirrrt· irr Iltt' e.lrh
3rcJ mill","rrium BC, 1'0"ibJr reflecling ,I ,ij.:llilk.ull
dHlll!;:e in ideolo,",,,, r(}\,.lrds "-Jrrior/hunwr-rc!;ll..d
IHedi,llcd llm:llIgh <\'1nbolie di.pl.l\ L\u,IJl\
found ill \ en lidr l><;. lhe caninC"S are .......·11 ,I'
of prt·stlt:l-· or d.1lI otllili.Llion Chod,... :!DOI CUllrt'lll.
I>oran "'Om \ :1I11.l ;wd Our.lIII.ul,lI. \\Il!1
Ill"CkJ.1C'O of dwclI. of rc,1! C"J.luno -IO<k,nl\,. &
,·.ti'oQ\ :IDOl. 'l:d,.:?I .trC hit:hh ..... nle
128
BOM: Il'n::i
••\ll' p.lnicul.uh inh'l'('.UlIl!; hec:llI'l'
"I 'he' numhrf and \ "rie!'. III ,,_.11Ird ·',wo-uuh·
I.u;.;m- lklll(' find. or Ih,.....· ill!('!T"tinll' hnc!.
n-.mr from rdub!<' ••mlr'l.b
lbt:- !hI ,l.nlhror"mll"Phi.... hcunnr fT\)rn Uc;l I 1'1
::?ti:h kl:'\ rn:;udin.:: JUilu<Jc.-.. to\\artb
.uch ohjr('l!. in ('opprr .U:t' ,,)1.-;('1\ n.unin.t·
lion !T\('J.1- .n 1t.1.'( twO if not IhlT'{" 'l1pt'nmpl)'l'd
l),ll1cm, of inci«<l ,111 hoth f.,CD..h pI'('.
\;omh th(' u....·lif(' of lhi. line! of fiWlrlne'
extended ll\ rc>.hapinl! .1flfT (llllIflCC. untiL\' Ihe
cla\ "hirh. 10 rn, lnO\lll"dc:c. lln'tf
rql.lirt'd or aflIT bTnkinl!;..\ d;\>.qc G-o,(' of
nm't'l u'o,(' i> :.I lb.1 bof)(' fi!Ztuine from Kableilil('I',1>-
),Iocih 7.Jdan:r. m 1'"" _lhi. hrol.:rn
in t\<.o al mr "'$-. bul m(' imp.>namlowcr poln
,,01.> carrl"ulh prntn-cd:me! \\;Ih a <uspcn-
.;on holt. The dunoo deo:!l"3uon on this pieet'
;u; wdl a.., other; rorn:<poncb clo,d\ 10
the Liga In the OTganil;lUoll of the
111U". it I>o"ibl\ dC'lgnate> an c1"mClll of the CO,IUIII('
thal HI thi" panirular archaeolOh';cal (Ome.xl mighl be
;moei."1tOO with the round cloth appliqub. found
in numb!''''' in the Copp.:r cemetct'\ of
Yama I
lbe "-0 "UpcrimJllhCd dttol"3Uon pallCrm. 011 the
Lil<-lli®rinl' !ohm- thal it .... ;u dccllr.ttOO \r. "-ll dilfcr.
CIlI !J"'lICf"!, about the: motif.
The fm;1 Qt'\'tT prqxtml a t\hud outhne: .....ilh pro-
do-rh foll0\\1ng thl' nalUraI ones, the ler-
mlnauon of certain bOlh pam 11lark«l \'ill " "
"d'".ll 1111
oS( InO. le SI."<:ond rnrver b\ c....",_·, d " d
' . v ,..." lTMl1e
comp1clch from Ihe lIalUre of Ihe fi "
. '. "" 19urc,
nificamh place of ,"b' " I
. . ' le Inanl!; e
Ihus ratller abstract for hod\
and om.J.mcnta! demt:llb CO<lume' ,. fi "
tl ...... n llnUlu,tch
le for tho: depo<ilion IIf the ilc:m cannot
I1 .... found ca.. ,
metre !"Om Ihr
oUler ...."illI of a a._,- .
10 tht' Ul;.1
I undt:r floor of Iiou , r '"
0 .Ilf.l 2.
11("11"(', 11 .,lIl1l.1t hr .·"llIllnl. Ih.1l n'n.lill ill'lm
It.lll' l)ffll ;nlt'IIl;.lIt.1l1, (kpo'lIcd Im(kr tltl'
Ik'lOr nf Ilou'l' 1 ill .1 IO\ll1d,lI;\11l litu,ll.
P.1I1ifUl,lrl, 1tw thc :!
bl.ll.;C lh(' .IHClllioll lMid 10 the nf ,.lri0
1l1
I.in;l" "I bOI1l>, '11.-11 lilt' hI .11Id
2nd pll.ll:l11!.,'1·' Ill' IlIcclilllll-,i It' II ,Iml Ille_
1,llxxli;,I. 1'1. :!IL 1"'0 ,\\'oid C(lllt"itsion, Ill{' .t(!icclilc
"_hon" ,Ipplil'd 10 ;I bonc in lhe
"ill bl" u-ro in ,I casual .md '01111'\\ hat in-
ronTl"lh in Il'l1m of au:tlOm\, In gt'lIcrnl, 'kdetal de--
aIT di\idcd inlO thl'Cf' plineipal
bone- Iltr lubular OOn.... of lhe thal
roughh n.mnd in St.'Ction .It the .lItd h.m:
distinct cpiph\'-C", "uch Ihe femur, tibLl. ele.: A:tl
the bOlll'" of the the peh;s
and tilt' libs: and short or bones mainly
from l,leme11ls of Ihr \'Cl'lcl>ml colulllll ,me! the cubic
oonl'" of the cXII'Cmilic" ,lIrh as phalanges, aSlragali,
CIC, SuiC'th the lllctapodials arc :tlways
cbssilicd as long bones, but in f.'l(1 Illct:tpodiah
do, in siu. :tnalOmi(";l1 \\ell in overall ap-
resemble phalaugc" and wOllld
prob."1bh be approached accordingly by 'lI1),onc \.ho
is not awJ.!'t' of PT'C:'oCIll d:l)' taxonomy. ThaI is why.
\\illt rcg;.lrcL. 10 pasl cognition and for Ihe
of lhe prescl1l sludy, il found J.ppl'oprirLlc !l01 10
scp;lrale lhc'ic hollcs from lhc short boncs,
The fhmcning of Ihe lateral sidcs of the ,tstr.l!f-Ili is
a trait for Analolia. the Balkalls and U1C
Carpalhian Basin since:: the Ncolilhic, The
of't\lized allulropomorphic fcalures 10 pig metapod-
ia1 j" documented n:pcm,,:dl) at l-"1te COPl>cr Age siles
from tllc easlern p:11b of the Balkans, lhe tWO
cultural area.!! of Hunl la
and KodJ,adenncn-GUlnclni\:t.Kar.lIlo\'o \'\, Both
bones appe'lr commonly in e:o.:cav;nioll reporls, often
"ilh lhe ;ll>Sumpti01\ thal the fonner wcre used :IS
g'Ullillg pieces ancllhe lalll';l" :lIlthropomoq)hit: idols.
Flaucning of phahtm;es has only oceHsion:llly bt.·ell
reponed. R. POl>O\ a A:l1lcllcd n...<J-dccr
phalanx from Tell KodLldennen. lIlClluonim: thal
similar find", \\cre di5oC0\·crcd in his C;lrlier
at Salmallo\1) and POI)(:W 1918:9If.\ ,\n-
other !il.l\l;Jt' find of a 2nd phalanx of <hecp is kno,,'1l
from Tdl Koz.-an:va neal" ill thl'
Bu'l,'a!; n:gi01\ ZidaTQ\ III pnl/II, has been flu-
Liga
lCllt'd Iln p.IIII1,I1 ,ith'. likl' ,Ill' find, irnm Li!.:.I. bill
.d'" nn lIlt' {.llld.1I 0111' .11 Ihe (h'I.lll'pillhy,i, "lwr('.
.1(ldiIiOllalh, .1 hull' ".1" drilll'{1. To lll\
kIlU,dl·tl!.:I', till' illll'I1111'I.'lin' nf
find.. h.1" Ill'H'r .1llr.1("I..d p,lr1it.:ul.u- \cit'miht
nln 10 Ill' ulldl'rrl'prl'Wntf<lm C'(C.I',llion rc.
porb \\dl. 011(' "fll1l' r",L<om ("ould hI' lh.lI tllln,ll
llloUo:ri"l w Unt'n "'"llplt-d durinc; .md "uch
ll1;nor moc:lihGuions I'ould ('.I,il. go unnoticed b,
l1oll-<pcei,llist,. It is 11011'''Orlh) lh," Iht, major pan
the "orh·d phal.lI1C;t'< from UWI recoverc<! onl.-
afu:r ,I Ihorough wareh of lhe tnuml rcm,liltS ,e(
Chapler X.
Here ,m illle'l,n'I,lIil'c of 1111: ulil,
iZ;llion of fl,il1O:l1cd <hon bones will be <111;-
gcslcd. laking into ,1(COIlIll contextu:11 d:lla. Phal-
from the o:xtinct f:quUJ f!rt!11lIltlIlUS wcn: rt:CO,.
cred in Copper .\ge I:ra,cs .11 the cenncr) of
DUrdllkulak :looorO\';I 20021. H. TodoTQ\"J
<pcci:,1 auemiOIl 10 Ihe as.sod:ltion of
",illl male gr.nocs rich in supposed ceremonial fi11(6.
and lheir possibk use in rilual pr;l.ctil;cs.
.\long the .... unc line ofiTlle'l>fClation Ihe disrowry
of more th,m 200 phalangcs and :lSlral,oali intention·
:lll} deposilt-d under the floor of.l 1... "Ile Copper Age
building :11 Tdl HOlJlit&1 in Ihe \'diko 1'UOlOI'O re-
gion (Choklmdzhic\' & Elcnski 2002:15" Thi<
bbge, reco\'Cn-d \\'ilhin h:tIf a "'!u:m: meler, penains
10 a "ide of "ild and ..d animals,
including red-deer. c:'lllc, .IUl'OCh<, wild bO:lr, sheep
and goal: the find could be ;nlO:I1>re1(.'(\ a< a founcb-
lioll dcposil. These ,11_0 lise 10 11,,: ide" Ih:u
Illlworkcd cOllld hrll'e been with
:II>OIl'Opaic pOWCI'S o\'cr :md propen)'.
Thc idcll1ificllIiulI of fl.IUI'ncel pig IIlcl:'I)O(lials :IS
S1)"lizc<1 l'llIhropomoq>hk prhmalil;
figmincs or "sl\Ipalni idnli" in BIII/{olr;an thc
subjcl;l ofont: oflhe I'CIY fin.t 011 worked hOllc
:ITlCfacl.o; in Bulgal'ian .Irchacolob.-ical Ihc
1I101phologicall}' idenlical clal' li/o:lIl'illCS being known
alre:ldy :11 lhal limc (Cllilillb.-iro\' 1910). :\ CClltUl)'
lalel', Ihere :Ire Imlll}' publil;:lliolls of finds. bolh
ill c1:o)· :lIId bOl1c, somc ,.lIo",il11;.1 m'ucr Imdcl"l:wd·
ing of tile slyli7"d encoded in lhe iIlUl,l:C, On
SOI1\C figlllillcs. faci"llrails ,Ire m.lrkcd .md 1l1t'laJ e;'I"-
rinb'S :umdled IQ Ihe :.rliclll.llion< oflhe di,I;11
sis, Ihus. i(lenlif)'illg the he:ld, "III're.1> OlheN h,IH','
129
:'IJoI:'ninj( lht' lo",('r 1"'". n.ltlrl1m "ri...
rn.lIIt ,.rl" hkd\ If) hr irtrlllillrd ...ilh frm.d .
u·I..It·d po,,,· ...... Ihrir m"rll"1 it.. Implin
,11lt"llrnp.lI{ IN" ,... Tll'l"lnn.d 1,.Ii,m.m , Oht'n it i h.lld
10 find COI1l0:'(11l.l1 infonn.llinll in lilt' .. '((.I,alion
]>(trL' .Ibo\ll 1110''0(' •.nl"!:1( h l.l,ll kil" duriul: lilt' fll""t
eXC.IV.mOll ,>(".l'lt:H1 .n rll1(' lil(hll\ ""rk..d pill;
rnct"lx)diul11 ".L' found ill (;"'1\1:' no. I PI_ llU . "Ill'
olher be .L"fl("i.lll·d (ir,l\" no. 1 PI. 18:1
cf Ch.lplcr XI
Thc n,lllcn..d .tr.. lr."lilioll.II1, '\{·t·" ,L'
piccC'< dUI' 10 Iheir ..imi1.lril\ 10 Ih.. (InN U'«'(\
;n Iht" l:f.\mc of Imucklcbom.""_ !If
ha,·.. be.. n r....ordrd l!\ wriu..n .\lId pltlOri,l1 'IOUTCI'"'I
from Ih.. :\lcdit..rrane.1I1 f'\er 'inlc HOnltr 1Ii-.d
XXII1.88. "l1le r.lpid dt'HClU(' in popularil\ of Iht"
t;'lmc 10 I;oincid.. ",ilh tht' indu lri.llizalinn uf
lr.ldilional <ocirlie<i. In Ihe P.b!' .I..'lr.ll,r.di "'''Tl.'' aL'O
intclllion.:llh dt1_iled .15 ,oli\l:'" in \dcrro pL"lct'$.
'11lis cuSlom is fn:qllemh c\oculII.. ntcd C1.L....,i·
rot.! .\ntiquit\ bill often olcrlookcd
dcalin!; "ith pt"tiods..\l(:lin, 1111.' limiled
auclllion l),"Jid in Ihe c,lrh CWH of areh.. 10 UIl'
panicular COtlll'Xl offinw is nOI helpful "hcn '>CJ.n::h-
ing for Ihe rilual usc of ll;l\lcned a!<1r:Ilf.di.
.•1 model of a shC't'p :tSlr.l1fol1u.'
fumished "iUl.1 SUSpell ion hole, "a.s from
Gr.l\C 36 from UIl' Copper. (cmete!' of \'am."1 I.
Gra\'c 36 15 a s\'mlJolit I;cllolaph in "hich no
IUJI1loltl n:m.lil15 "ere found, il is eXlf('md\ rit.:h
in I::oods, llInon!: "hkh !:old ,md coppt'r mtalia.
omorphic rcpTt'SCIll,llions in I:old .1Ild c1.I\ ••b ,...11 :t.'I
numerous clolh ,md 1)0(1, om.lIllcnLs "ere 1II0"<th
found .Irranged .IS if .1 hUIll,1ll 1i1,,'11rc h-
:11101' 1998: 196f,1, ·1111' I;Ol11l>osition of lit i, ,·xtr.lOrtli·
nary filld mll1l'll:'. is cCl'l.tinh illlcndcd to rdkcl con·
ccp;nal con'I11IC1<, filrni<him: dc.tr I·\idl'nco: lh,ll dur·
iug lhe I.nc 5110 millcnniulll llC r,.ler:llh 1l.lllenctl
1'1:1) ed .1 role in lilU.d .ll;ti,-ilies, .\, indiGllcd
b) Ihe <uspell,ioll hole'. in lhi, p.mitul,lr elSe, the
golden IUlbr h.l\"· ht'en "om .1' .nl
l11ent, prub"bk " roll' in <otlell not Irnk''l:l
fWT Jt IQ ,I IMnil'ul.lr person nUl r:ulll'; .'1' mdll.Il''l:1
b, Ihe svrtloo1k !:r.IH' 10 lh,· Ill,lllllmm Ih.u Iht'
powers i,; '1l1c.,tiOl; 11,"" the ',trim!.' '11l.l11
bonc' willt f1,lllclled <lde, the pn.I11.IIt<- hl,,'1mue"'
from pi!: IIlcl,.podi,lb .Uld the 1,1ler:dll 1l,'llcn,'I:! ,l>Ir:I-
....
1llt' bol\<' from UZl an: ...,lnt in O\("\1:rnl
in pan)rubr silKl: their COnlc,'\;b MC
In',,""ll (l('('\1pati"n 1t:\1:b. and l(l'a\ as "ell
M difrcrenc-t" In Ull' composition of Iht" docUIllClIled
Inlt"re;;tinlQ\. Ult" I is
ch;u;r,(1eri-.<'d In cxpcdieTl(\ \\ith 10 cr:Ifl
pc:op\e!;' ,Itmud,' 1O\\;rn,h bone ;b a \\orlcd nl:lICnal.
B\ a dcarh :\lIC';il"d tendency tOW,tlns 1ll;1Il-
nilll:; .lIld ,areful cxt'CUuon of manufactuI\' '>Ccms 10
lm\c been custom:!r'" in UR" 2.
rhe rrm"rlahlr flat fij.,'Ilnnc fl"'\eal5 hiRh work.
Ill.m,hip COIllI,arro 10 UIC Lardul work on
mO_l UI.,'a I tools. 111e 'It'Cond.11''. ck'cor:uion of thc
fil.,'Ilrin,· leliufid 10 dt:\dopmcm in decor.lli...(: con-
C"pb time or acTO'" \,a(c. if imponcd and
Ihe C........,xiMencc of diffcn:m perceptions. Ch.m!;c of
O.... I> rc·locatlon oflinC'S demart_
int: hod\ on S1fllC' fis:unl.... -Ille r.1lhn
UlULlOGR.. WHY
l\M'riu. n IQ(il {,",In/oldu'" f'roh/nnrfl "".1'11(1<1". "t /I"",unNl m I"""""
..,i", ",,,,,,". 1\"on""I;
ll,dd. l' '''''' ,IM l'\.... "",I ck'r
"",,(mc'l on 'IIK"Nru"'I"" .\a4f.....J.n .:;'" .IIIn/ll..w....
I>-III...on.lbbdL
Cho:nl.r.\.\! 1\101. 1..;11" ' ....hlh;( Dccr e"""r Ik;>tb
lbcir Im'Ulion... 10 am,.. i:! //ar/aS1r..",.:: r/Olb./. /kM:
1 ,.,.' T_ _ ¥M', :!"ltf I'r",,'cdin!t" of
lht !nod ""1; of 11... ,e..\7 \\or\:cd Bo..e Co""",.
"1;. (hford:
L. 1'l8-I d'O!> I'm,,,,,,it,,,,, d'f'\lOQ"" " ......'ulIqur
en }l.ounan>c. ...,.. )iYll l.l :?3,
Id \.. .. I <'1 ;01. 1"ll3..II...-ir. Hmwkft ... C..M.
bn><",,"
G;a\-.bnb 11, ..... l.. Go"".. S
:!IlUt ;a"d TOOi,,1f. 11... 0.,,1,1";>1: 1:.......I"h>f
'0""""'1", lIo...,d f1lJ:o<rnnr \"11I12, 11 31
\' 19<1l1 l'c1\odl7.;ll'oo of "'" Knl"Odol.S3k·u\.,.lluh""J
Cull" !.. 1'"".uJfl",ll<-w' lti;
11-- ..,..... I., \,...... .. '1000. I""", 1N J",n, ",.:.n.,
",.".
J"'';IIIO\"it.1I \'l"lR, .. IV, K,;,"odol ;",d .."\:",,,n
.."d IMfr""rrl '" ,h, 1.11f 1':",olilh;. of lh, Cell,r;,1
In In /lot .lhp, if]""", /lan,., rot. I. 197 2(12. Sol"'.
ToJdoro,.'. I,'. l'lfill: Di, "orgcJ(:lnr!ulid,rn """,I.'
"o"'I,,,I\I..,n,·,,1. ]aJ,'burh Jfj UumU(h.C.....UlnlJ,/lnl ..(If
,lIu...:: 1.l;I.l ..,3,
To<Io......,., 11 1<\<12. !knell! "ber die KOll,rola:r;,l.>""l1. ,,,,, 1<179
anI' (;01""""10/)1'11 KAle ,,,,cl N..u"""'''''''''''a: , .....
....hco I '" .Lr 'I...U..ul, .. lkl'c";t:u"l':r.. "Ill s..'''''.....
lIull('llVnl/__ Ilnb.", .::" I•. _fill hoJy:rlflntb'

T.......". 11 I'l'}". 11r.. ""n ftllhe.. "",,,lrh,r'V
llr
Io.d>r-md tin , ..,,alllul;o....,, u"" .k< CI...llolilh,l""" '0'
131
K-"w,cII. K 1'17 \ .JQ "tlppllo'rtlUln 11 "'","INIlCl'O IUIIWCTTI
IIpc. lIcn,1HTd, CHcu.ll1T11l1 CIIOU ApfroW-
"'JI XV J
K'LII'IC". K. II"KU1"" b 0p1..'I1I1I HJI TJIY;L1 " CT'f1IUIII"
CKIIII .ollllMJT 'l.l CC.'1I1l1ll OT ,a.un"'1'IIJT1I tooU .....
BpJ'IQHCKO. 'm ........"rn.. "
r."""'I'"", 1I 'I I",. Bp"'1lI
I>IIIKOII. IJ 1"H IIJa.ll1:oT1I n.,acrHU "PCI ItQIIOUloItHH:oTJ
Cl10U If.-cn"''' ,u, r. ..."IJI'<..·.. IJp .....,m'u" ..o,.. wKm,,"
rnl'" 11 1111 111. ("0$1111
H 1"11I npc.'lJlCT<.ll'"'ICO:aro o:.'"'ue 1IO KpHIIO;JO.l,
Up;"laJlCKO I'w",,,,,,u" "ptll'f"."W/f I 2" ("011l1li
M1lKotI. B /lM.il"rJaIOll 11 nClH'fflllJU><JImJI 1YU¥P<L
CO<J!"II
I";':' 3a.oo""t14 "J!'dU<ntl'pU'f«IW"'" U.'''_
np" c. r.JpHIJ KputffllJ. Co4J""
6 l'IlH Kpll-.oO.J1 "JH'8>'"lrum.p... Co4J...
nono.... P 1'118 KO,UQ·!l.cl"lcllCUn MOf1l.U lip" rp. W,-
"ell. If.J<<'Cm,... "" opuo.'Q/u'«l<tJmO I'P'1I€«ttWO \l.
11116 18 CO<J!III1
Pll6apoa. r. 6oc•. 3 1
1
",; KOCTllIl ocnMU aT:POIl 11.10-
"am,", *"IIOT>III aT "PJIICTOf'II"CCKOTO o:.111lUt "Te.lIlW-
Puynry-e·' np" c. T"""I\' (n.lel1ellCJ[oj, ".---....
p-u i, til ;0 CocpllII
'!IL'""nJpo•. A. 1910 CTW1;L'MIl KOCTll" 1OQ.'''' If.-oruut
HlllJp.T<'U.IOIU"«I<""'O dp.xr:«m..,. CO<J!""
'-lo.u.l;o:KC•• C. 11 E.leHCJ[H AI"eo.,Of"II'KCU "PO'....
U",", • tt.1J1I1l11JT1I "ona.u =1'0 XOTIIllua.
&,Illo.OT'loptlOllQ;o. npcJ 1lXJI r. XU ll:i1lllOU.l1Q
"on",ec:l[:i Io.OOljlcPCHlUlII Ap..-ro.w,,,'f«1<U
poJl<""1<1I ]()(}t; IS. CO<J!Id
\',lwl/C on
L,mr"",
\ 'coluh..:
... \Ul:'tr.
'" "h. 1"-,, .... 1,".11""n" ," "" 11""" I. 11 , 11, /In"'''!, {",,,,h
If,A,h, u" hI"":' w'"' {nJIf",.:"IIo,A," .'ud",,,,,,,,,,",
\,' I, II " I ,\'ll", Ion), Ilr'h"
I,.t"""., I1 10,.,,,, In <; IMI,.
... "l \ l\'k"l", .-r!. A"'..... III 11,,/1 \,.t,,/rd- '"
11', 11! \\ ,n,
""'.', I1 . I JI" ...J.1.d,. I"''''' 1/ IN ".. /Itn
","" """,,,tuLI#. 1...1 I l><lI'" hr on
lkllo" "'''h••
\"'1"",1
",ulIlit.,n h,,,,, ..."",,-,
1""I\h,"", It. ,,""ll' l)
\'''11',,1.'''.1 If...._ I'.
"f (;"101"..",,
\'"1"... C. Pill"! "'.... ...,"""..,h,,,..'t"mlC..... llur....... J....ll'
h"vh""\il (.....-IlI hI- HI III
bd....... I' f. f!'t... \\,.,lrd 11."... <:<.>lk.-I"ltl r"",, Tdl ""...
"'''I(lb. 50lllh".I>I,m ..n.a., '!I IN JnI ,\/1rllR( of'"
//(..I.J lI ..W 1'- Nn-rll ("..., .. /hod.
rcP"'". B 1%, n9ncropll"CCI(0ll) ttll.IUtC 11 ."I PCZlynrTC
npu c. TCJllUU. ",,'Nil .. " .......",,"UCIl ..Il ..-,.'.ln..p<l"w X.X\
1: JI·33.
rcpro8. B I'll!;. McJltllt IIUOj1I(U OT Up3l1cropll'I«I(OTO «'1"
ltulC "". I'CJQ'Tlfl"C urn TCJ1Illll. nnCIICHCKII 01(1'. ApJro.,·
01"11 :"..\:\·111 141 HI, Co(Imll.
fCproB. B 1ll'l2". MIICTOTO liD ttlll1U'cro TCJlIIIU-I'C;".,)'TlITC 11
nVC-\O.'l1ll111 ncpl1o.'l 1:"\," P6E. Ap.f<'(l.lOl"1I '1. CocpllII
rcP"'". B 19'12b, ROllCTOPI1"«KOC Tc.l1tu'-
I'c.lI)'Tlrre. ,'It.fwl /\-'t".... 11 I! 3H 3S7. OllIJllII
rcproo. B. "P.'lCOIIOnl·ICCl(ll HQ Rp<lnCTO-
pl1"CCI(OTO cen'III'C 11 M 1h.I':I·· Upll C. TcnllUJ. rlnCIICHn:D
OOnDCT. npcl r. "",,,p"''''''' I' po'l-
"O'I"U JU /999 :!OOO,. c. 1\ 17. XI. HA" Oxflllll.
x. ANIMAL BONES
h,
nn.
nll.- .mlm.ll bo,lflf"< fmm 11g;J ,,,"IT '\IIdirrl .tllT"ld\
,'"r,1' arinn Jnd andh7rrl in (hI' hdd Fill X.I
IlNnlc(ioll thr r\...l\ all'!' r;li-.n! the numher
(lf :mim.ll bI'nr n....-o\ rrrd 't"\('r.ll timc«
O\l."r. Thr loc;'llinn of 1'\<'1"\ .....imrn ,,;\., l11.1ppro
:ll1d tht' ltI'm Indi,idu.l1h da."ihed to de-
(If p,,·wr..luon: no d:1111,ll.ll'. old. Ill'
cl,mM.,. rc'cent ril.l. :\:.2 ..\ \\;» ,tl'Olll"tdl'
I)l'"lwffn llalur:il dJ.llUl.;<' duI.' 10 C011le\!. IQ
n;C;l\.llion look l\ocO\'cI'\, dr\;nl!. lran'llOn,l1ion. or
In in P;IJX'I' . Such n01(', ;l!'e quite u"Cful
,incc I) much hankr 10 ancl' J. !)Criod
(If and d"i"\! _In addition. infonnation was
t1lt"rt"ln obtained on me It\TI of plT'<noation of or.
TTUlcrl.\1 ill Iht are;u .Uld lC\"l:b of tJIC
Ol"3.I";lUon. "hich aided the pl'"OC't'dure of "ml An
n..mpk b &-\ alld 8B refmc .lre3. 'Iith
...>d pm;cf\.l\Jl,n throuehOllI.
The: tron SlJCh as ,houkkr blade.... rib!. and
hip-.. art' 111(' ,urfa« Thoc bone!i ah.o
tmd 10 a k)l I'hen e\cal";lIOO
c<-pccialh when <in..-llio here nOleo- on Ilk' <tale or
art' helpful ;u art "0-' 00 "- h
. . • [U) u.... weat er
mndmnn., t\CI.\";luon df\"'-,
. ''''''' «IlCraIC more
Such cXl:rci5cs art
n\'t:C'\aT\ 10 the d of non .
f I .. ,
o a <JUne: sample from difft:!"CliI d 1 .
. • .... an :I)cn UI
:In eXC:I\OlUon. Flotation I'"al; carri'.J .
'1' \'\1 Out on m11Xln"1II
sanlpk, In and around 0\('111 '0'" 1 0
. . , Cj '"'-
slc'1nl; WOlS nOI prodUCliw alld 11' • 1 I' 1 '"
, '. as .t >0 IS led. Some
>onc were probabl 1
, . • I 0>1. but nOl 100
lllRtly or dewlls of cxc,l\alioll techniquc\ '
482Q bOllt: fra X 'd' • see al)()\'C1.
, • were 1 t:tlulird d
I\"cd accordill" 10 S1anda..... 1.,.J, an an,,·
_. ., IU mCI lU<.l) "'lId lroced
X, I ..\11 d..U "ere ' lures
•• C'I:U 1lI1uan Ace .J.
""""" pl"litn of dcpanure fOI nI 01. ....1W·
;u Ihe PI"C1iC1I1 \abb alld <tatis"uc:
cr
<'uc!iC\ ;u well
fral(menb lna\ hmiled b . TIle lIumber of
. Ul wilh the
mock'l c'\lu\sion c:\ca\,ucd arc,t ',275 fo1ll:.
:'\A 1\ j, much lhan at Olhcr ,il
c
,. ;\I,lnl
Ixmr' ,ntfcrilll:: from dl"\ing and splintering IIt'n.· n.'.
filled. il \\,!li not pcrmiued to 1.lkc lhe
bones In lknnurl.. It)!" a pCliod or compar:lIi\c studies
for 1'C;\$Oll. lceth and jaws were excluded IIhen
dClemlining age or indi\iduals).
i 16 or lhe fhg'lllems (i\') could he ideluificd as to
species. The mOl'e ullcertain minimum 11U1ll.
her orindi\iduals (l'. INI) was also eSI:.hlisllC(1 for each
'I>ccics \on lhe lMsi, or paired bones). Among lhe
dOlllcslir:llcd animals (16·1 i\INI). c:mlc amounts 10
Noonc
"
"
...
1
'"
"
,
'v '05
,
'"
.l2
,
'"
71
,
".
19
,
,
>'
,
,.,
., ,
M
'"
"
OR
IS'
,
,
119
,
SA
603
"
HR
6JJ IJ
'A 11
91' ..
,
YV
'"
I
lOA
W:\ )
lUll
.'l I
IOV
'"
,
1(l(j
"'
,
lUll
122 3
101'
68
,
IU"-J,
"
,
(j11l'C 1 H
I
Gn",., 2
"
I
v_.
211
,
ScI1l)
112
,
T_I
4820 100
X-l,
'uno..."", "'''d IlC"'nua'l'" of ;u",,,;l) lx10lCS d",nIJoI1r<1 '"
11 ... nc.aUIM >OrKl:..ga. d FiJ:' Il 3.
TQtal.J&ZO
X, 2, and p.;onnm (I( """' .n
lh.. boo.. ",,"pi<-
IJeLG.IRI.I
KtJT/11IlJt.YJ, \i;w l":lrgcsl Xrolithil:: ldl in 8uJt.;.lr.
i;l. 250Xl50Xl2
1
2 m. Continuil} XcoIilhic.
l.,IC CopJX'r .\gc. and E:ui\ Bronze ,\rrc. E,'q';l\.Ilcd
b} ". :'Iliko\ 1936. G.I, Gron;jn & ,. :'Ilihn 19H
5i. S. Hillcr & ,: I\"il.:olo\ 1988-2000,
Sifig..SlllhntJ. &Jin. E'lrh N.:olilhic K:1r:mO\o I &
Ill. Bones from upper Ic\e1 of sclllcmem <1r:1I.'1
slUdicd br S.
I Utrn-o. hjUJlffltlil. ..\1 Rh'er E1t.... nic-,1 fccdinll
Slruma. 850 Emh Ncolilhic. /..;IlC
COPIll,:I' .\gc. ,lIld E.lrl) Bronze ,\I.,'C. Th... \·.IJ.:sc\·O
sample i, 1I collt.'(:II\c onc from ncighbourillll Sild
(1\'0) ,ll SlLIdclIO Vodn .lIld (olle :u Sb!clo: \llIdicd
b)' H. Uerpm,lllll & Nitlo"
O/'(llIlfIJl'O·C>omltl. 'OrullfiOl·iJtt. b\ H, 10..
.Il the of lhc 1980" .... ..,.:mo\o 11.
Bones 'ludied b\ G. Nobis.
(;/J!lYlI/l".. IJtldlmJ. lama, Tell -1.9 m hi!:h, K.J.r:ll1u\o
I 1I."1lI 1\', \' .'/.; '"I. £....ca\'.'lfcd b\ H, Todol'O\";l
196B iD. In K:Ir:U1o\U \'1 .• C'emt'IC''' of JI Ill/m-
m.llion. ill hodt'r.
Orr/uurJro. Ra;,gr,ul. Tdl 60 m acr();.;. X-I I III I'll!>'
'lb. 'heqJ/,lltJ,1l to 91. pi!.: HI 17 .\I,d ,,1'0 (0 17-
\\ild ,lIlilll,.I, ,11ll0l1l1l 1o 21 \1..... ' '1111" cl .
. ,. om!:",,,.
(.Ill'd .lI1irn.lh .... wild j" in Ill'rn·III;IlW'. 87
l(J 1:1" 0 1111 h"'I\ of the limited .\11\1 numh!:" of 'he
\.Impll"..\l,o;o age profitc', \\nl" It'llIal.i\'l'I) cs-
I.Ibhd'1'd. 1ookm'l: :11 Ihe '1.IRe of /0:1"0\,11, of 'he
hom....1Ilt! jOil1t5. In the cnd, fr.U.,'1llt"111 lIulllbcn :'\
\\err ('lIlploycd gCllcr.tlly. h:elh. to deler-
mine' the differing "eight of the spttil', FiR_ X.3'.
SI:CO'iDr\RILY IDI'.i""ml::I) root.,> ,\''<1) \\ EAR

Some with traces of wear and work {"veil frag-
ment' 01 hone tools - were rccoven'cl during the dc-
failed slu(l)' Oflhc bonc sample, otherwise consisting of
refuse from meals and work (cf. Chapler JX011 C'Jualit),
bone :lrtdhcIS). These fr:I!.'lllCllIS of lools, \'orked
bOl1es elC. arc 1101 ;Iddcd 10 lhe species lis!. Fragmellls
of bone lools and figurines, and bones wilh rn,lrks of
work ;111(] wear amount 10 150 (cr. Fig. :'\.21. Among
lhcse hones. a few arc wilh ccn:lill1)' (dear ant-
ler) or oos (horn ofcank). Pig-ph:danxes \\;thoul wcar.
which 1ll:1}' ha\'e been used for gaming pieccs ',or in ril-
ualsl. arc includl.-d in the aoo\'c spt:cil."!i lists.
·I11C tcchniqucs of manufhClurc and the fuuction of
tools wcre :1150 sllldit:d. A corrcl:l.lioll cxisl.'i bch,cen
the thickness of lite of the hone and the 1}l>C of
lOO\. Boncs w;th .. hovc 0.5 ellls arc u5(:'(1 for
heavy lools (blows and stahs), OOIlt:s wilh walls bclo\\
05 ems ,Ire uscd for light 10015 (;I\\·ls. ClC,). Tools wcre
nC\'cr nmde from e:!Sual fr:t!.'1nen15: quill' the [011·
Irar}'. ,I lhorollgh selection is 1I0Ll-d wilh rcg:lrds 10
harducss of the material soft tiS.'illc being ignon:d
and ol<kr ,lIIimals prcfern:d. Probably, Ihe he;l''}' dUly
lools came from old largc animals. in p.'ll"licuJar c:tllle,
wilh largo: massi"e tick-w:tllcd bOlles. The smaller
lools al'e likcl)' from sheep/go:ll, the bones of "'!lleh
arc tUl"IlL:d inlo awls.
cm,IPARISONS
SI.I.H:!'I:O WITH JlO"t:

"ntc following sculcll1clllS in Illl' h,I'"( "iddcd
publi.sllt.-d animal bOlle s,,"lmpks of loOllIt" and in..
10 \he curn:1Il slud) (c[ Fig. X..5I,
Lign
R«mld.....

I XC.lI"iIlinn 10"1.\
0"",
Well PftM:n'ed
Compklc 1Ion.:\
l}all\J1!t.' hy fin:
I imucll
wo.... or war Il'1Ice=----

Dnlhng
BlllI\ \
I'iI1."
Polish {:t,o;lrtlg:tl
Figurine (.1 ph,ll:lngcs I other)
l\nIJcr(lIecr)
Amler (call le.
DOl: ICClh (lIi;lphyscs)
Ne
1717
...

In .112794
""
"
l.lIt!
In 1111921
16
,
211
211
[
,
16
2,1
J
In:tll 1O.'i
133
111
113
"

1261

2859
,\I
\I
,
,
\I
,
,
,
3
,
,
"
9
\I
\I
,
3
7
,
\I
\I
\I
\I
\I
\I
\I
\I
\I
\I
\I
U
112
,
\I
,
,]
\I
\I
\I
\I
\I
\I
\I
,
14 2
18 3
18
57
889 78
"'3 80
J/J
,
\I
,
\I
\I
.13
,
,
,
"
b
' lIulg·
I
: ) anOI')) v, VI & Earl}' B''OIlZC Age. AS •
anan·Gcnnan team 19113, \I I\.'L.-:"IOliJ
"
\' - 'I' "'OOX 1·15X 1 11\, "
""0 . Ol'Q • ",om, c - \ 11 E',.xr:'-
.... , r'O}·,
III IV \' \'\ & F ,l'I" BrOlw: Age! . SOl1CL
' "- 11 I '-10:'11-
\'all-d b\ V, 1952 511, by \c.u
u
\' &
' "'" It "",Ill •
leanll9Gl 71 headedb}'\ .. \'0\'•.

2SJ
117
127

7
,
\I
\I
\I
\I
1
I
U
,
,
\I
\I
,
,
,
,
,
"
,
,
,
,
,
'"
"
"",
"'"
""
9119 87/D
,
,
"
·4(/11 .llrhfltl1/llg
im
"dull
/'IlIllu", Sl'nlll' '\1:1'\11I);1111\,"
,
\1/101
"
\I
"
"
'"
\I
,
'"
"
,
,
,
,
7
"
"
"
"
"
17
,
"
,
"

,
:.
"
'-
,
\I
,
7
,
\I
,
11
,
,
,
\
,
1III
,
'"
.l7Q
",
,,,
0'
,

" ,
.'
,
TOTAL
l ....nl,.lltML__rn
SnWl
\lNlllm

All.
\\111)


C.:f'oll) darhll.-
,,""
'-'
C.tSlilf tit-o..'T

SI'
"''''''

"ALe
TOTAL
no\t1!'ino.n n
"0"
Canl!-
Su,
Oil.! &('flI
011_
C"'"
,\11
ani(:;:, K,tl'alll"'\) \' &. Gllmclni\8.KodL.,dennen.K;L.
nUlU\'O n L>,t,l\';l1ed hI J-I IOdoro\':l 197\ \973.
I'ml u. ,\humm. Tdl Ill, KalOlllo\"O V,
!:llrrilr \ '\ TOL:L!!' exr:d.I,Llrd 196, 69 A. R.:l.
dundte\Ol., ,\L tht sile .... '·re -46 inhumalioll\ frolll K.11'.
."I<lI'O \'1
l),lmlt2, lambo/, Tlnld:.u l"Un. l"ell 16QX20 Ill. Ka1"
134
Liga
J't'>
till X \"..... f,um ,,,,,..nI. tI... <,>.Q,,,,ffl " ....A. hum ;un ofs..c. 10,•.-1 A"'A ut ......."" I In tJ,.. u.. pLun .. hm-
T;,h>l, u ,cd.
GREECE
S'Iql;ll)l. Tlrmn[r. Northeast E:m of the
mouth of StrUlll:l. Tell, Cuhur:1I bver of 10' 1 m,
NL-olilhic & r:.... Bronze <\ge. .irnilariliCli 10
the Ualk;1II cllhurcs ill potH:n .U1d fil,'urinC"'. E..u....-
1968 69 b) intCmalioll:t1 lC;1I1I hc.ldcd :\1,
Gilllbllla.'i & C. Ca. 15.000 !xUln )lUdil'l:!
hr S.
PI/,ti(l M(lgllld,l ::,Irkoll (p.If. :::mkot/). 'fhlJJlI{I', On
Volo.. !lav nc.u' K.il'c!' Pencios. Tell, Neolithic: ILl £.11'1)
B"oll'lc .:\gc. 11,613 ;tllil11al UOII<" 'Illdietl 11) C.
Beckc,.,
Ol;;uki .I111j,'<Jldll. "l7u",sJllfl', On Vulu< lJ:o)' 1ll'.1I' Ri"er
!"'lIdos, Tdl. Neolilhic- 10 E"d) Ilrom,,· Agc. 77u
holle, sludied hr.J. Uocs;:lled
.lr1lillltm. "t7IrJJol", On \'010;; RI), N,-oli'hic ", F",,'l)
llrollzc Age. i.ii9 bolll') <llldi''l:ll» S, Bokt>ll\'i,
Aml/ln/lI, "tl/rMOll/a, On Rh,'r Asio•. I:"w,l\.m-d .11
lhe cnd oflhe 19io-. Earl\ Brome IQ
C.J., 90.000 hOl1r:1 from aU J.1\Crs. J.i.11H dctcnninc.-d
.u:rordillt:: lO <I>ccics. of "htch 926 wrh Drollle
.1/. ICEI)Q\l I
.In.,:o. UCl\\L"C1I Skopjl' :llId (},ee rt:l/lt>n.
ne;.r Nikoj,;k;ti.• ,:, u-ill"l.'" to ,he \·;uu;.r. t:"'l.II,Ilc.-d
in 1960. ,md 19ti9 iO by .I ju;m YU!.'Od:lI" \!lIrril.1II
c:,mp,d,t:1l he••ded hI G.'l';L'-U1in :lnd .\1 Gimhul-
as. Cuhural I.,) r.'5 lII,dnll from E.lrh Srolilhie 10
Copper .. C•• , 1.'1.000 hum,,, uf\\hich 19.163 could
lie ideluificd ,I) 'ulclicd bl S. Bllknnri.
CO.\L\IENTS
'nle d.u.1 from rdi"h-Lil,f<' h.lI'c been culllp.m.-d '(I
pubri,dled \.111'1'1.·, fiulIl 1I11!"''''';;' .lI1d Xorthcm Grt'(-
cc, ,md, in.1 'tiUl:1r (',1><.'. frurn .\1.....["(lon;.' er. .1001'"
136
-...-......,.;
.
......
-
.....

.... I),' .....'
Id ..
...
.......
.\\,
_.
,
\I" I_I·..
"
,lnlN
-t,
......-trl
.
"
lQ;u.. loG
, ,
"
1,-,-1'10'"
-=,
i;<.
t'
,
'"
I
..

,...."
'i:o
j,
,
'"

...

......,n ilc.
,,,
.
"
"'"
po
I
,
..

"'-
Ko
'"
"
,

po
,
,
,-
,,.11
1
"1
'a1lt'.,
lOG "',
on
2

,


....... on ilc.
"
111
..
.,
,

"
lOG
"
1\ M'il
-,-.
I
,..

, ,
"

; ,

1\ • \"
"
, ,
...-
,
J
'=S11

r
G CA
,
,
,

,
...-
"'
-CA :
,
1Nl
, ,
"
,
:",.111l6
,

"
,. ,
I'"
"
,
J
I)I""-"'a
'"
CO
\ .• \1

, ,
,
,-

CO \.\1
, , ,
i'-'
..-
'"
CO
h\'1 . P
\.\1

"
,
.... lOG
l'::\.&Sl
t.
"
"1"

'"
""ls.ll
,
"
M .....
""
..CO
" "
'-.....0
'"
,
'"
t<A
"

,',,7" I


-
BG In
.1
\' .
,
."
.1
....

DO.
't(llllll
'11 "r
BG <D'
'=966,
"
VU
In
.....
'=90411

, ,
""
>BA.
'"
'''I
i"
-'
""
'441
,
(.. 21
,

1:'>1
I"

N=UII
"
,
"
"
,11>001 G.
"'''I.lM\
"
F'
"
,
1Nl



"
s"n79
"
"
,
"..'" 11
P'
N,,176)
,

P-
'00
ISI

-"
A
N:ol5l»
,
I"
"
r" """"
<A
N:11191
,
.
''''
.1
i"'"1\-

"'A
'=11261
"
"
.
,
"
,-,
"
I"
"=]061
"
,
,
"
LiJ!,o
'1lIt:1t" v

.ftA- -
1>;1
,
-, .,
,
a

"
'=7)'.11 "

••
"' '"
,

,

• \I '.l.ou
••
..
1'1
,- , ,
r
tr;;;;-,
'=,"'3]1
'MC
,
,...
I
io-
r.-
null
,,.1021 •
MC
"
1"'1
,
1'0=11.
'" "
lII"Ul MC ON
'NI
,
N=llll
,
"
".... IV
MC'" A
10"11
'"
,
N=U8
"

137
Fig. X.5), Other Yugoslav (or ex-Yugosl;l\') like
f:ltllOU5 Bubanj in eastern Serbia, has 0111)'
poor data (only the Earl)· Bronze Agc is per-
haps of some \';,J\lt:, including I I horse boncs; carly
c\idenec of domeslicated horse in the B"lkans)
f80koll)'i 1991), Also thc publishc:d Rom,lI\ian d.n;,
:are: of Iow qualilY 19891_ A single KSIJ.cuJ-
lUre: sile, ::11 Sfoge;l ncar Cuptoore in So\uhcnl Ro-
mania. has only 52<' 0 domestic anilllal bones per-
haps ;tn indication of f1c.xiblc economic SIr::llC1:,-ies I.
TI,c COPI>cr Agc seuJcmem of Rt,:dUlilC nc;,r uga
is panicuJarly illlefLOStillg. bill. unforlllnald). lhe
d.lIa - amOSI 6,000 alliUMI boll..os - \\ ere nOl eoll..'Cled
;1J1d havc only been published in
tenns of mcasurcs of cen;,in boncs, plus .1 summary
l. t' exca,.nio" al Agt' ..-nk",rn' of
1"'111 Go"!::",,, a, I'i""d,, "t·:" Ill<" 0 ...",1,,, ha. ""ull
:"""taIl"",,, s:""p'" ,,,,h a 101 off"h ,)1>
s. lknccl" '" aJ :!OO1 Wild af\" ('01""'01'
P'500 .. ".,,,,,1) "ild 1'1u> -.... drn-. 11...
dO......llCl'..-d i""'uls .,re 11 (""I(fflC1ll> of.. rtF 1_11. bu'
onh 1 S fr.,,:""'_ ",," ofdoc:: n,,, e"'p'" " .....
"",..red III d... o. ,>lhe""'..... ,\daj>l;ilioo, '0 .. l",nlfuLu
C""mru''''lU U c n... n"",bc' of root. boo...........-
.......""'u:aboul ,hei
li.sl (RibarO\' & loo 1997,. In nonh"eslcm
Bulg:,ri;1 :15 a ,,'hole there ;lre fe'l published sludic:s;
c,xceptiO/l5 :arc Brenils;l, and KriH)(fol
(\ 'asiJe\ 1978. Apan from thc finc I'ork of Bolwmi.
Bocssn..-ck & Driesch. Ihere is variation in
the quaJil)' of sludy ill 11\1: Balkans and GrttCc. in
panicuJ;,r conccminl;" before lhc mid-
1980-. \'cn uncenain .samplel are llOl indlldcd here.
A gcnemJ trend is the decline of C1ltie in the late
Xcolilhie and the Coppu .·W, \\ hich :Wo Stt Il1OI"C
old is on ule rise in the
pe:riods. bUI aho Ihesc indhidudU are older Iiun
fore. The: number of is the same. bUl moo ,,,;ore
killed )ounl;" in Llter timc<i. 11,esc commenb on al,'t:
do nOl lmllspire from Ihe lablcs. Wild alllmals
.unQulll 10 :i1>OUt 10"0 01':0 link more in Ihe Xco-
lilhic, bUl the perccnt;ll:e rose in lhe Copper .\ce
{S0111elim.·, "err hif:h pcrcClll;lgCS of hUlllcd allim.ob
;on: .15 al Sfo!.oc:l. . as "clJ as ill lilt" Bronze:
••\1;('. ·l1ms. in Ihe: Copper . "ith okk::.. domotic
3nilllak mon: wa... probabh pUl on lhc <0-
called "'oC('Ol1d;an" producb. lile: pO\\'er caulr. mill.
.1Ild ,,001. a more lIlobde: 1;l"lrm ofhl.l.-bandI"\
\\.I.,.lbo lI11roduc:ctf. includinc -hn'p-
go.,1 . "nl1. nlOl' at-o t.'\plain lhr hich pe:rttm:llll" of
138
""iki anim.lk m.t1.1n\:l. Ill' ti,r I(h........ l1\ m..·.••..1lId ,UII-
"""'\ m,'n' .l\,.il.lhk 1" nwhik
Th(" "'l1\Il';hLli'lIl ••1 .\ p.lni,ul.u d"II\,... II. 'I.nim'll
p,,'pul:lIi"l1 ,'wll .1' " ...·n h1l11lIh,' ..l!, !xllH" \,11',\,.1-
\:l.lion j.. \1'11:111\ .\ d" ...· n·n,,·rtillu "t lhr ll.llur.ll
'",l.I(hlnrm. "f d ...·\llt·Illt.·1I\ .1I1d il- !lIll"llli.l1. in t:u I
Ihe .l\ .l.illhllil\ ,.r".1lt'l ,met 1."':"'1'(" tI,r tlir .lnitll.•I·
thf\lllchnut thr \c.lI '", i" pu,. ,tw--....•\1'(' (\l!('I1. dllu-
men"..... incUl.lIl'''' "f 11'1.\uin 1\,n"'\'_ "hik .1 hil:h
11Umll("1 "' ,h<'\"p I' .1 n',in"li"'n \If 1'!X'1l 1.1l1<1·
'(\11x--.. dl'\ pl,lin' .md 11l0Ulll.lin,; .. ,mll'
m;\\ I'll' h'pl "heN' ",)lo:r pkmiluL ,tn',UlI'.
Jnd in fM""'l' w(I.nU' llllH'r-hinc: IIlt\ltk'\''< ,11 LiI..'TI
;\1 tht' 'tn',lm ,,,'ulrl h.ln' IXTlI .1 lim' :md l·.\.ih
.lfr.l for,·.mk; .och nl;l\ .\1'0 h.\\'(' l:!T".llro ill
the- <l.lf'I'Iohnt lil:111 f,'1T'1 -I)('hind'" Lil..'J.. Open
optim.li ror ,ht"t1"' C(l,}1 hcrdinc- l'rob.lbh. Ih\" I.u·
trr .Ji .. In..l\' pb..'(' funht'r durinl,! the ·ummcr
li\.rh in th.· lu,h m..'ullt.lin.. I.' till" So111h.
fI . I lllt' ,,, hI""'..." .... "., \u, ,It III hhll.
I'" lilt 1·.,I......'t.ll"'''..- 1)"111< ."1..11".".1",,, hllnl{ IOnd {;'"
.... I". Ihr ,kt I ".,,,,,..\1, III .... , l Il'\\"' "," \It"" ht,,, 1"''''\(In.,J,
11,." l1.n"'" . ,,, I ,1,"'IlI'IlI: tln n, ,n...d"im... h... , 11"1.,,,,.,, lInk
,lo-. l.h hI"·,,·,, I" ] ,,'I1"....J";01 ,h" 1.".1" I,,,,,,,,to.,,,'·l ',,,.
H" ".11 \1"",h,'"
11.."-.,,,,1...1 .\.nn.-...h. \ \"" Iwd."",lrnojIJ'UIt,m, tin 11111:"
I"' .. ".. III 1-'" fI /I, Il,,..y,( \". ,I.... " 1"'''lln 11"
...n.tl"n..... I),lI,,,....u},... ,,."·h...... ln"'l( ..lid {., .. hoedit' dot,
1","""I.. '" .k. l "i"'1-.nrt ""''' I""". ht.",,:;"r.. ,I.l1i ...... M\"'"
ur ,Ir, IwmK'lI"""....h," 11,.ll"", ",lk ..It. I;l< h..
I.......... h. 1...""....1,,,,, dott 1,,,h,,l(.:\!a";mih.,,,.... l·,,;,...,,.".1I
\h",.-I"". :\1"1,,1,,'"
1\"1."",,." ltlH. I;""""tr.. I/"n",,,,t. In Cmtrul awl &ilml
Joj,n'f'r llutl<l111"l
1".1."",;... I'lit> n... \',-r1l'hr:>u' r,II"'" km" A"",. h, Gionl""...,
\1 I'lih, ..d,..\ .. lI",rJ""lil: a' ""'it,I,...
... , ,,01 ... 1,313 JIG. lA"
\11.........
D.olnI'\1. -. ICI$l. hunA! Ht-"UJf\.' I" Rcllft\"\' .•\.C... :\I Gim.....l.
,\( L r.btrr 1'IHl•. «k. f::U-/ltIIIJ dJ ",'11 I, :\ loo""
mi>:l...",,_.l 13, ti3 Ill. I"", \"S"'..... ,
11.>1.""". Il1K9. Ri;nt.';'h. In' Gi",hm.l<. M. \\,,,,,. .•
n I'\11'1...d....... Jrh,lIn,'n: tI .. \",I,lh'r IIl/ln"rnl m11or,
Iflh, (;,tm', MOtl 5(j(l(1 II(.' .\,...h,,,.,,I"I:;<::1
31:' 132, I..,.,
1",I."mi..!o.. l'l9O. Lt',et Ikriell! "brr'l ;.. ..
dot do,.......lr.ll>O\ ....\ .Ik,.imhllll:; '" D,::>m:>. 1lm<1I1r Jrt R.-w.,
(-...., A iO: 1:!3 l:!i.
110. 19Q1 Lin.. ,orLl1lil:" :\11....,1,,0<: "hrt d", T",rb>ocb·
mlUlld.. '00 ....llu...... wUlI:l.. 1I.,,,horinlllt l. .1,,, ,.......,.". rt.·
,.... :!Ii.lkrl",
1">1."",;. 1ll'11, l'rdll'lOor .m;nI.,] rt:nl.,;n.< f"",, .. Hu'"
,",; su,nnn, Xl. XLI. l"ll9/1')tl{I. Ikll-'l':t<I,·.
et,..",. \.T. ,et!. , 1'1; .i ... ,lud'rJ. I"lf!t" if Ih, ,,"/wo.
""'jn...." I!JU. MJ "I Ih, IJ,.I,.,jJr/I .... ImM"U'
.If JIir .'>Wt f 'ttI'!"t1 ".! \""I".d.,,". ;<':0,11, Hnll,,,.dI
\m.. ..r.
e,",1"o 1_ I... dhrlot'l>enl<"'" 'IOCio-koIlQmi'I'''' e" lcml
oirr
ruumain l....mell l'INoLu'l..... X\.XI\"' 1,,,..,,,·..
... S,mp''''''m.. l:''''enit.l 1.:",1.0.,,-:.. 115
')J_\l 1'llIi. UlIMI"u: hk l'ui..-'·
"I' I,"",
'lrl:..,IK.l. :\1 ''1: 1n·chllld. 11. 19iO. 'n" "nu IJ." 1'''''"I!'''',''J IJi!toNl&1/
a",1 .. \,.,J"Il" <1""'''11<01''' (Ill/I, "',,<us ,N
INnMml: I1 illl a ,,'...."" of ...m"wufirm, Ihr A,l,),,,, ""dd",': ,:-....
lop", ... f'Id'r"'tII ut:l"'J,lIUIIaII" I)••, 1\.""1:..1;1:'" 1)....'1., \",..
<l<-1l""'Ur".... :-...1.1...<1>, 1I,.,I"..:i"\', ... 17.1, I.:"hrnha'"
nl1r>rh. ,\. '0" <1<-", 1<>;ua... .. 1{;"... '" "" ,lIff1SJl'_ '!I, 1,,-,...
,,- .1 '" 'win. """h,,,,h :\1"\<",,, 1I"11r,;,, 1 li""'a"l
I·.... '" .
I>nn.-h. \. "'" ,"'n, l'1j6h. 1110.- fimn"..., dtr .It'"' ,."",.. ,1/a:oo"·
'I" ur. ""d fn.lol«--«:hidllh< 1"'"
, r·"uh"m""u..... '5: 15 .. 11"""
n h\" ,," .h"h'"
".' "" ", '.
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liga
139
Lk"'L, .... ""'kll' "ll,h M 1,1,,,,,IIt'(lYfl " •.:n ""
... XII III
(; :.kllH·It.... 1'17" 1--:.,,,,: ,h,...:_. Soft..
(;;",11111.". M ,.,t.. 1'17h. \ ...,/"/11< 1I"",t'"k'; <IJ '1''''''' 6r ' .......,.,.,
,,/ •..",I},m" Itq:o'Im-.a. :'IOnlllnnH., I. TI...
In,mm.. or ,I,,,,, I h.. l'"i,t-,..", "f C;.lrfon";I. lhl .\n.
•.
Gi",h",.", ... 1, ""'''. .• SI",,,.Ih,,LII. I) ..d•. 1'18'1 ,ltAlUr-,,,
\/tOI,lhv ,,"u.-, III 1'Iv.."It. (..rn,. "'00 5fiOtl/J( .\11"","",,,,,,
I1 n,.. I,,"inn.. n... L:ni,'n"l\\
,.rC"hfonu.I. l..." ...1,.. ,
Gr.\\"Ou, I) K 1'178. M",,,,,,,,,, ""d &iml>lr in V....
,..1>0-... ,.. huu:l.l '\nOlI",... 1_"" .l1lll9"'!7 I k5J (i5.
Grn!,-,:,,,. OK 197'1. On ,h.. Qu.Lnlifl<"alion or \·m.. A....h:o...
I". Sc:holll-•. "'111, lQ7,). nI...lw-n ...
\/ff1tt:,J uJ '1 1'lI1 '137. I'ITU. .... York..
[s<-hilf....... l H.• l'Ii'l, .d.• ,\<h""lt'n
and TIlt'Ol) '1: 1f)Q n7. ,\cd<kmil: 1'......... :-<.... Yor"-I
Gr:I.)WI'. OK. 11\81 '1... l:tf.,.u 0f1 s.unl'k 01' Son... Dtm""
on \·.. n..br.ur r.,ut,..I.\n"'),i!-j....... ••
Sr-. ll: ii 118
HJ. 198b Ihk"" '''!' IN r;."u..11<tJhI,u 1Srm.,:.l
.::__ /',.,prrrr:r _ IN uw. \ ('lL
4500 1000 H.C.}. IL\.R. !tu""'"'I 1 Srries :MH. \'ols. I oS:
2.
...kl. "J, 1<\8'1. l.Qfl.ltThdenlolro .1IIt! .\!ilt'C1> of'.... S«ond-
"l) l'rod'''''' Kn.,h"io",.\ c;.,,,m.l 11.:111,.:", J'r:opn:lIVt. .::__
3 I l" 191
H"I'lut!. J> 19l19. h.:u" tlOfTTl,-U o:<:onomic
.tabtlil) .uHI ..... "1",,,1('(' dmong ,,'1,1, r..rm;nti: rom",uruu""
ofn"""th. In I> & O·ShraJ. 19l19,..m..
'1ad .T"'" ..: ",IN,. ".>poturJ *' ruA -' ...",t<rur,!,. Cml.
...i,) I.....,.. C,,,,,bridl(".
Hat"",n, S, .\. 1),-;11=00".,,,. 1\ Ik,..... L... J Gundorf. E K/iJmt:h:r..
s. OOlnp..\1;,,\(hitu ..... \. Rri"lI",b"" Ikrirh ubr. <lit:
......n in ,kr ..n Tdl,icd!un\l .\IJll',rn
G0l'!folll"l.J<,i ltt .\1"ttt.. .... i",j.,lrrr
E"'<lJUl 10. ... .... I",'inn. ..
In:
11,11..., s..... Niknlo-. V. 1!J<17. I..m""""". !;hI .1"W"h,,'\fI'I\ '"
1')'):1.11 ,<1 l. S.,I,h"Il! ""d Soti.,.
1''''''0-.. S., I\: , v.. 1'175. "a "!ti.uti",Li),,
"':I1"ri.,1 "1 ,.,Ii.h,,,;, ",,>gib pri ,. GtlIl",mo
Ddd'n". I", r",I",,,,., ,., .11" l!li5. Scl"hl".,'a Gulp'
tilt) Dd,h""". '''lU.fhm,,!l'l V: 2·15 Soli.,. .
1..."I""l",·. K.. ,·d.. 1'1'17..11""/;,, /1'!Jtr1. lit"'" m,h.,.,/op"al £.'rol·
I'u/,,,,,, ,,1"'111 '\/,,,,Ua M"II"''''. ,,, Scullt 11.11:0".'. \'01. l. Sofia.
I.idltud",.J. (..d.), 19!J I. J),t "b hul,,,,"N ':".!or.
!""',b,.,Am all,l 6. 1:1.1/.198/1. T<,tl 1 ""d 2. 5,••'1"
bnlCLcr Ik'hr:'l=r z"r 55. 110""
V.. ,,' .,L 19'0. IN oIfwb,Ivrt .1u.W"boo'\fl'l\
1...,Ull ,,, n'mu/"" 1961.: .11,'Itl ''''{r4.lI"#:"l,,, Irllfo;(lw-.I/.l:"1a. H>:'
"", /laHh,. "or "". ""cl ..n ,\,d...""",,",
,It.. "'l'ud"...rt.K"lt"n,,,m'<,. 15.11t-'"'' \",l.lj:
.\ \'.. Ik"'''"....k.,1.•'1: ll",tl . .\ I 1'11.1. 1),1 dBWo.w.. .
-"("11 nil{tin ,I't"", IfO(UUr'" '''' """",, , 0., 1't.tUr.." '" \"'h
41.11.. "'vIN ron _NI ''''''''.;.tttrr'k lIt'n,,: If..l.-I! \
1'''.1 \lItm.oll""'r. f ,m l.. .,,,1 ...rh ' ..ol".....
...1llt-nW'nl nu, ,,11.. 1('1' Ii."' " ,...". n.., _. Ill. 1'1:;
:lOll s.-,h".
'''''''' I. 1tXlI pr'" ... mJ L \'rJ..
......n. h"'t"""l ,m , 11r..I... tr ......nU m,r"w
lilLr.. ".., 4N;,.IflbAu \rlIL"Iu.m.-""
="0111>. G 1'l8ll O.""..... ,,.(,.,,,.ll.\ I .. """ \Iao6o 'l-
JilT !>tAil_
lf1fti. laJ>ht>nr"'" '" \rr""""""" ",,11 SprtQ/
F..mpl...... on \bn ... " R",,,"'I: f"""... ]-wf'!I'''' .1......
'fI6 i .'6,
Pa, ...., <; 1'..n",1 Ktot", .... ""'" s..mpw 8 lo, 0-....
'-1. 1'l7;'.rd. \".....;.-,....,'ailfJ:; I: \mtrrn1.un
I>.wn... <; 197;,t, f"uruJ o..."It".1 Fnno:hthi en.. trnm :.'11.1)"'-'
BC. 34100 8C. In a........, \.T Ill,;. nl. I" : 'e"
Jllo6rs: UO 131 \nuI..nbm
r"."". 5, .... tn G.....,r. \ R.-......., G.-. In
'c..l eo.,loon. \\ l) t_. I''!IS. rei> , f.- ' _'aiqr-
... IfDoMlt21l--l1
.\lin....apo/il.
RadunclM:>"", ,\.• .\bt>;lrlOO.a. \, G..ur". I , .....u>o <dDhIt'
do I(r.wl R..bt"'". R.!;.¥, soo...
R,o,;IZ. F.J '" W;nl/. t.S 1q<JQ .::_.... "Jr Cambr'idv .\w,...
in Cunbridl:t-.
R,o,nf....... C.• Gimbuw.. .\l oS: t:J.lrr. t:.. t'd. . IQll>i
.. \'oaumrnu.
13. Thr ',"'lIUlt' nr \Kh.>roIoc'> Thr l·lU\tnll\
or Clbfomoa. l.oI .-\nlfl'b
R,ba."". G. .l lion. Z. Ill'l; "'OOlnl tlOf.uW di" , donu<hn.
zltt\'OIn; <>I pr:o'llOnthNbJIn ,duln.. -Tdi>I>.Rft!u",r· pn L
Tdtlh f'\ro.m>.lo H,, ftI,eon-.. : til :0
5111'""". A lll<li, "'- -' "1f1ttI"" E..,.,.-
fNrtItKI#YJ. Edinburtllt .....,..
Tndorou. H ;11 .• 1'115. Srlulnn.a,.. nKll(l!.o Goha,no Drlchno.
\ Sofia.
100010\-:>, 1I 19l1ti. A 1:p.N, lW(=.... :>ul.....
ToOO"".... I"71l 7Itt "-'* J'ttwJ .. IAJ(tmr< '" /It; fY" -'fUbl·
"'" 11C. lI.. lnt,,,,....,,,uJ Srn", In
T",Io",,-:>. "I.. 1'182 .w.J1wv:n< or \.... :0. ....
t.. .ur nnd \'r'JllrirltrlKkn \rd...olotItr.
IS. C.fllk<l.\I""ct'r"
rri"\lIt."". 11.. I\: Il;"dn... Il., l'lll;i 'n,r 0.10>" I'm;t"!; a :il...n
"f Cl,..." ... 1/, "ll' 1l.,lb" " .... ,'ult".],....,{ of
12:
\:";1,,., \' 1'178. rl""'In<M..u,u i
0100'; dh", p(....lr"'J lJ.oll["n1 ·/"""'"
<Ill. J-"/pUn" 'I WIIlO
N c.. (;oul;t>". \\'1) L ....1" IflM, C..",.-. ,1..._
JI,_<:I lI'i11MooILld:w.Ji Ktnd,,1l Hun'
e".. 0,,1,,"' ..... 10'"" .\Io""r.pol"
\\'il>o". 11 1<lfI6, •...,.... _ .1..-1 f/.-J ...-....-
I. IJP1lt ,.,-..- IL\.I/.. Iln""" .....
:.':'1.
XI. CEMETERY
IXlROI)l'(" 110\
. \'n 1!f:I"'" \ll\h "il:(hl he..I,.......\11 nl.lk, ,tllll
• hikll'('lI \I.-fl· l'ml\.I in tilt" -oIllh..nl h,!I! I\flhl" 15"",
.....ukml"nl I'e '\1.\ 1'1.:.!1l I ...,mpk. l,d"I'1I
rn\m tir;an' 111\. I l\t're \.\\ ....-d.llnlln thl" l"p"...II,1
\.JI\<\r;lto". C,hhn.lrd. thl" huri.lll' d,\IC'<III\ 1.1 ·Hlt)(l
RC rle 11 I!. 11 11,,\ 1\1 ; I1K ....·.lllt\ l..1"f:!1-"I:l-.od>
Ji.... 'I1JlI\<,n a tina! ('''ppl'''' \..,. elite l;l'3l.... ''',. \
\1.1-' di".>H·n-d In the- fl·lII.lmilll! ;n ;!t.lI.l\
Thl" .1.,- and ..n .•If tit<· ,LdctJ.! ft'"lIl"ifu I,,,-epl thc
Jloorh plT'<f\rd t;r.lIT IIC>. :l \lCI'(' dm'rminro mY.
Y,mill}.n ! Ihe- 8ukaritn .\adellll of
In hi., lTJl',n i, n."rd dUI lit<- .ldull< 1w.1\" a medium
III C'"pIT'-.n:I of the JX"I' and cr-mial
h",l<"'. and nlC"diulIllo ,mtll!! rt"licf. itJdi<"alilll!;1 \lell-
dcI'd0I"l'c1 mu-roblUlT.
Rn:"'INruc'llttn .>1" the huriJ.!
l-otnplicouC'd III th.. cllT"Um..lance. that all e;r.t\"C'o I\Cl\"
intnL'J\T; in rcLUloII 10 (".lrli..r C.Wr dC'brn "ith
fit h rnall"riJ.! n-maim
CRA\L :\0, I. l'\I'\:'o.I\, i 8 H ..\RS
llli, burial of a child \1.1., found 0_65 m helm, the
'urfarr ;1\ lI,c ....uthcm .Jupo uf thc silC in ,m oldl
wal't" pil m, intcfW'Ctinl!, Ihe OUler \\("<1·
cm \\.111 of HOlI;I: I. 11,c \I.IS orientaled x-
Ih.. h..ad hcinl:( in thc S \\;Ih a ,Iil!,hl ("as,em del;.
J.Ol'.n 1360' '\ The bocll plaC«! in <upine
\11th lIC1.l-d lhe hcacl 011 tI,c ldl
'iltk facUl!: W:,\\\ 11'. X\ '1 &- '-, 3 -"" I • ,. .'1... ee;s \\cre
CQlltraCtl-d on 'efi ,iele and the coUectt'd on
lht ,\lx!onwn nil' dl'.ld child \\
• .. ell on ;, n.lI·
ur.uh dl'IX"ited bIer of .....\)hlt·, L-,,'o"o 1 I
, . ,., . .. " nJ.te \' 11"
bun.,1 \\,l.\ ....'d "hell Ihe lOp or 'Ikull
l>ec;ttlll" 11..hle. SlIu.ued in all arc" lIilh 'b d
. f' ,I un am
n;IlMm.. 0 ;ullIll.l1 bone... lhe hi,I", 1,-- ,
,mg ragmentcd
OOn'.... of lhe ulI(krnnn "eft'" IIQ' i'n ._.- I
mcumlC} n:cog.
ni'l'd .1' h\11n,II1, n1o' pit \1,'" ,11-'0 ollh di\.
t;ngui,tlt'1:1 ,.1 it, IlllHT len'l.
Dl"pill' po."ihle Ill'" l,rinICJrlll,uion. thi.. bUli,11 COll-
\,lined Ihe l..'1,ln· ).:00<1... I'omp•• red lIilh thc
olhcf hlln.lk In Ihe .u'('" \lr till' dll"1 \\Cfe .1 lim
COpPC'f 11I,uk or flllled-up COPllef IllI'et Fig,
\1 Iti. Due 10 tll\' prc'I'll11' or thl',e t}C.I{ls il \\,lS de-
rided 10 lilt till" grol\'" in.l mel.11 rr:UllC \\ilh Ih... i11lell-
ciOll (tr.1 more comrolk·d 1',e;\I,1I1011, In the ,lIT;! of
the chc<t \\;1. ...\boo round ,\ 7.oomorphie bon\' idol
made or pig n1\'I;JI'u"'t11 IX5: PI. 28:1. 1'\\0
r:lIher flint rcprcscllling cuuiue;
l\efC' di.covcR'<! :\1 Ihe Ikull and at th... rl....l,
Ihl"C ,llso be \\'ilh Ihe
burial. Ihe cUlling or Ihc soil. \\ hen Ihe melal
platc or the rrnme pudu:<I under thc skdelOn, a
rounded shcll ca. 2 cm in diameter ;lIId \Iilh :l hole
in thee middle I cm in diameter W:lS
discol·cR-o. bclo\\ the right hip. t:nrol1unaldy il \\":15
crn,.hcd in the proct'S'>. 11,e n;lsal bone or the child
had a discolouratiOll indicming I>crhaps a
vanished eopper item,
It remain< a my,le!) \\ hcthcr the only gold find
at the ,. pcnd;tm \\;,h rolled up lel111in:ll5, :Illd
hClItt interpretcd as a phallic symbol - C;lll be as-
-.ociah.-d I\;th the 1:,'I":II'e (Eg, \'1.17), Il round in
loo!IC soil clo!;!: to the gmve blll a reil' days aner Ihe
burial was rcCOb'lli»cd, ,\11 the soil around Ihe skel·
cion in the dem.u'c;ued ;lI"ca or 2x2 III W;IS
colkcted scpamld) fOl' nOt:lIiOIl. 1'huI, Ihe ;lItcmioll
im"CSled in Ihe or thc gr:wc and thc fact
lhal il only supedici;llIy cxe.tV;ued herore being
laken OUI in Ihc mel;!1 rl':l11lC spc;!ks agaimt dif\.'(;l
\I'ilh lhc gold filld. The pCl1d:UII has
mall) speculations 1101 only dlle 10 ilS lIllcer-
lam bUI abo ilS ullcnl<till ;ll1d pos.sihll'
JaIl: d:lll:, Howc\'cr. Ihc rOnll and tnatll1f"l' in which
lhe pendanl produced call also I>e found ill :1
gt·OUp or COpper known rrolll I_lie Copper r\l:I'
& 2002), Such :t pin has b,'ell
dl»coII:I"t:d in Ihe neighhouring Rcdutile setdel1l
Cut
CCIl;O\ 19Bh
. 11te \\ ,I" exhihited in it:> :'1 Ihc r'b-
UOI\;\llllUSo;um in Sofia ill 2000 (ill cOl\nection \I'itlt
I
Ugn
Xl, I. 1'1""" "f ," ..'c.".",,," J"'j«"", ,i,-" I""" ,h.. \\r<l

,he olliciul Vl"\ 10 tilt' lOllllll} h} Ill<' Qlln'll (>1'
DCllrllolrkl. 011 lh:l\ YQnl.ll'U\ impcncd the
,me! conclu<!t'd Ih.11 lhe .kuJl of lhe
child ".l. (If .111 .1rlili,i.Ll ckltlnll.'lion
m,tell' 1)\ •••in!:I," rihlxHI huund bc'hind Ill<' nH\llI.i.l
_"Iurl' ' .....,d.ll,(OI.],,·.'. l0I1111'.
h" 'll. I)".."nc ",'G"" ... nn. 11"'''' '" u.ldunc ,n a
ira"'" 11lr .......... of tht .L<-!rll", .. ,.........rnl Mlh ..-.il
,nt pot<'<" of hum«! <bubo b mm. 1'"111 ,h>rd> ,Irm-
imm """"" ...bn- of Lio \ , ""d of bumrd
...;anlt" m..uttd ...uh nbDqu< wuoon.
GR..WE :'\0. ::! • .-\I)l"LT
"'b buritd in 3. f1extd hocler pClSI\lon.
on the mmt silk and "ith thc contracted
3.1 thc che<1. thc harw:b roIkcled and plaCTd under thc
lK-ad Fie. X14 11IC er-m:: ...-a.-. <furo\"t'mI. O.-ti m
!)dol, thr ,unaet'. it>- oriemation bcint: :'\·5.
the: orlcnUled IOI\-.u-d!- the: :'\ "ith a !b;-
3.UoIl toward> the E ]j
Qf
360" :,\, follO\'int:!he main
a...-i., the top of the: ,lull "ilh tlH: middle
poml of the pd"s: thr fatr: \\,l!. faont: \\'C"L. The
burial ,,-as fClllnd in an o\;u pit \\ith maximum dimen..
slons of 1.10 :'\·5 XO.8:! £...\\' m. 11,e bunal is in-
1rU§i'1: in relation 10 Ult' Copper ,\el' ,enll'ml'nt ;md
"'" pbt'Cd in thl' an:a bc:twl'Cn two d"l'lIing Slruc-
Iura; Houses:! :I.lld 3.. ,\ \:11]1: amOUlll of AiIII chip,
cOUC:<:Il-d durillg Ihe indicating pro-
dueuon and re.sharpenillll; of flinl 1006 in the area
during Ule time or the: Ul;a:! 111e: skdeton
«:erm 10 h;\\C: bct:n pbced on IOJI of a b,er of ralher
ceramic shard.... The ori:.!i.l\;tc from dif-
ferent \l:S>Cb all could bc: as stemming
froln Usa :! a.nd t1l<'lr C'len distnbution
undc:me:;uh the: slcklOfl poinu 11»<,0l.m deliberale col..
,II'M ,lrrlumJltlgitrl
CIl\\'E NO. 3. INFo\.i\.'- I, -1-6 YE.ARS
'!lIC de:ld person i';1Il Inf:l1\l I, according to Ihl.' (kn-
lition of 6 years; howcver, tIlt" size of the !lulilen
ls
:
134 mm, corre'ponds 10 an individual of 3.5-1·:1
years Ihss 1987). The skelelal I'clIl:,ill' \\'1.'1"1' fOllll
ll
In bclo\\ th,; preselll sllrfilce (Fig. XI.':I),
ThiJ. burial almOSI lotall,. destroyed by plou!:h·
- , I - - I' 'hich
1nl; .:15 re e ectcd by 1I"'a'·... depreSSIOns. 0111.' 0 11
ex;Icu} overlapping'lhe skelctOlI, ;IS ill I,h
'
:
prolile. 111l; poo;itioll of the leb"5 i, 1I0t kllOll'll. 1 hi
of Ihe OIher bones a re\\ fr:l\,:l1IelllS of <kllll :Ull
l
n,l.:lndibub., oul1illcs of the right huml.'nl', p:lrt
"gltl radiu, allo thrt:e ribs, indie;ul.' ,I tkxcd P(ri
IUO
I ""I
In UI.,,'II1I'111 ••1 till" hOlhml 01 1111' "11\,-
,,-n.'1l . ....,. " .
pit 1111' hil:\,""l d.."I1'U\ ul \1.1' llh'I'r,,'clb.,.]I)\\
thr ,Illlt,hl' IIpp"'! IMn Ill,lht' 11("I:h IIq"llri till'
I
"llh.' hUll,.1 pIt 1\\0 11Il'lhllll"
"'Ill It"ll "" •
,
I,
""
"'lInllll 0.1 i III in di.lI1Wll'l, ch,' dill,IIl\{'
"("('n. (". • .
11".1\\('1'1\ tlll"'l hl'illll ILl:! tlI. rill' l}{Itth"I,', ,1IV (luilt·
I 11
,." n-llli.>lI 10 ,he burial. Ill" ,nlll..' O.lb 111
.. 1.1 ,,,\ •
Mll ...' lIlt'.\,u,,:-t\ fro11l Ilw nl.lh., '\"1111 .md
then'fort' lh."i, .1"-.(l("1.I1101\ Will! tlu' &'T.I\C L-
IlOI lTI1,'II1, 11,c p,,·,,''',lIion of th,' 1>011\'( i, \\"1'\
l\1Or \.ilh ,\lid 'mhu.:c clo,inn. 11."
of,hr ,\..ull h,tS lx.'('11 cul-on"h.
It ,hol1l(\ ht' Ih.lt ,1\1 of Iht' ,kd..'lllt1.
includinlt Ihr {i\)lllal 01\1.'05, H'l)" Iw.Ln 1\l';lr,
\,iLh (k1l1im·. 111c hC;L\;I'SC ,Il1nliOll <\.'\.'n
on chI' pIT1ll0IJlI.... ,Illrl Illl' 1ll01ar'1\ or till' l1l:mclihuL!,
Illt'il' bllc('al I'dges being Tllt'<e ICICC<
"ould imlir.lll'. Ih:11 Ihe Icclh wcre .LClivcl)' c:l:ploilc<l
a, ;\ 1001 101' .1 ])1I11)OS\' which demanded cllt'lI'illl;,
and lracking whih.: Ihe 11lol:u'1\ W('l'I' kqll
ekm:hed. 11le er.mi:,l "en: Iwicc :IS Ihid as
tho<c of the olher indi,;du.,!s, re.lt:hing 0.1:1 elll .
l1lid.encd cranial 1,-al1s were onc of Ihc indie.llions
of an artifi('i;,l emni:!l dcfol1ll:11ioll ill Cm"c no. I.
Howcver. the I)()()r prc'-CI'"\"'al"ion of the erani.11 bonco;
of the PI"t'SCIII does not alloll an) eondmion on
account.
:\0 l'l."l":OqI\iublt ..gifis "cre found in thr
it might be assullIcd t!l:ll a bone idol
madr of a pi!; metalarsal bone found I.W III NE. of
the burial Ix: :u.:.ocialcd \I;lh this rl'l. 28:2 .111t
samr type of idol \\"'as discolcred in Gr:we no. I.
I
n
o
",. o
142
Ugfl
II'l
111
..ilh th<- ndu h"'lld unckr tht hud. 1'h(' :1>-
_uml"d onrnuunn "f hr;.od._ \.,\"'\\ 1nl" m\"t U.
mlru In rt'llU<l1l \" ,-uIlUrJ.l drbri, 01 Utra :2
.rlllrm, m
LR.WI '\0 4 \",1.\.,\\ 1, 1 I L _
n,.. I.rl,-w1 n-m.li'l' "I' thi•• hild ,,('rt
IIS1 m hd"" llw ,ul1'",n' 111\- lxxi, \'.1> hin\! in a
11,.",<"(\ pc mUll, k..: hnu\l, IK'lI\ and tomr;lClcd ;1\
Ih... l'n>nt UI\\illh,' \inr "I lilt· p.-hi., Fit. x'1,1l. 111('
chilrl 1,,1' pldC('d nn Ill!" ril!,!lt 'irlr. 11..- ricin hand
unrln 11", h.;.orl. Ilw \rh h'll1d h,:m .1lId pl'lrrd o"('r
Ill<' ntln '\110" n,,· bun,1! \\,,\ round in ,11\ 01.,\ pit
",Ih maMlIu,lm rnn\rn i"n ur U.BO i'\'\E.\l)\\" X
(\Ul '\'\\\ ........1. m. \lw dr;td "ol.' nriC1\tJ.I'oU IU..
...II'd, tll.. :\. \lith;;r, hl:lll C,,"'km dl"\lalinn 2)01
.il,!l '\ r,,\l""lIlt the m.un -Ixi., cnmllocunll, Ihr 10Jl
"I ilK" lull .1lId th. 1"'\';' _11". , ., d
• , IUnI.. to-
".lld, Ill.. \\'0 \ nu- Illl "I d I h
• I I('<JUl: Ih...
"Ul..r ".,1I Hr H"u,,· 11" 2 "t Ih.. Li, 0 "
a • ""1 ('me,,\.
llu' 'lcktal n:Il1;1im I,crc f.lirh .. dl pn..."cr\,cd. nOl
inlO .U::tQUlll lhe upper 1);11'1 of lit...
,l1.l11. pan, of Ihe bon..." .Ill<l rib, ;Illd feci, ,
.\ bont' llbtc di...co\'crcd tht' gr:w... gtft
1'1 :.la:ll. l11i" ',a., lot.lIed 1.I\:IIC,IIh lhe left 1t,lIld
on du, hl"\'.l>l. placed up,id... dO\\lI. i,t'" lh... d''l."o,r-
'llt'(\ f.lt\' tow;m:b Ih... It \\ ,I' rccI.tnglll.,r, III
<h;lp... I1lc;l.,unng 7.-IX3JI cm, Ihc Ihicknc-- lK'lIll!;
11.2:' 1;111 .md dCl;ol';llcd wilh event) sp.,ced dOls '1Ir-
roullded bl dnln. TIll' rt'tOIl,It'lIt'led comel' hok'
. I' I'" \hhollSh
1lI( IGIIC 11.\1 11 ",,, u""d .IS ,I hrc,"I-p ,lIe, . .
1
1 'I . " "Ilkc' \1>
I le (CloCn led I"pl' ol PUIl{ hed (eCOI:t(IQll •
,
' 1 d' I 11 \ . ., III·
lld
.
lIl1
"11 C appc.lr.tIlCC I II.' rntll,t·. gc, ' •
• I . 'I ., le. GlIrlllcl11
\\11 I '11II1 ar dccor:t\lon " knt)\\1I u()1l1
<-I'd 1"'1 S" 1 ' onlcl;rn'"
..:>t I1nl I " 2,. lltll1.11' hOllt' P alc'. '
"
'I I,
,upp cmclIl...d wnh .lnthroplllllorphrr le,l( , .
I 11\' n"
unu \l,ll ill Lllc Coppcr . COl\lCSh .Wl. ,
'
o-"d I' L' , II'rd1tll\l"kl-
,,,"U' rom ",Ir:mO\(I \ I In'"I,. t',!-l'" L
J
I D
• "I· 1097', Ilrf'.,<I-
r.lIna, an" olher 'ill" 'Sltl'I,t •.
plaIt..., art: ;11\0 o(:(,I,ivll,tlh found ill (rod,"U-
\';j &. \ ':lj"Q\ 20ft! '
Lip,fI
XI h Cr.".......
/I')
GIU\"E :'\'0. 5, IXF.\:\I' 11. 8 9 n:'\RS
11,e outline of gr:11 e pil I\'dlo ,;<ibk 0.35 11' Ix-tOll
Ihe <urf.lce, immedi,lIc" bcnc.llh Ihe pl.. 1;l\er.
-11,e ,kdel,,1 rem"ill> appca"..d ,Il ,I deplh of n, III m,
-l1le dt'ad child" ,I.> pJ.lced ill Il...,ed pu-ilioll
drawn-up !locker, Ihe beiru; belli ,met fulh con·
(to ,Ilt:' chesl Xl.i,. Th" b(J(h \\,1'
.HI 1I11' <id,', bolh h,tllcb belli ,LrId pre,'cd In Ihe
dle,I, bolh ",rh,s llll1led lo\\"rt:!, Ilu' d,l\'icuJ.IC, rh.,
oriclll.llioll (lflhe i. N-S, "ilh ,I '''',Ill d",;-
,lIiUII hlll.lrd, Ill<' E (lilt' 11\',ld ;, I,,\\,m:t. IIH" ili\
21°/36Uo N. The CI(e lUl"Iwd h"".rd, 11,.. \\bl,
The IlHIXi'lllllll diul<'lIsiolls of lhe ,)1,,] pil 11," 1,(11
:-.I,SlXO_ti2 E-\\", Ill_ The ",I' imu (Ill-
h'1.,1 ddui. oflh,' Lig;\ '1 ,,'ldem"1Il ,ulh,' illl.'I·,lnI(-
UII ••I 'IMU' bcl''''''!l liou'oC' '1 ,md J. TIlt' huri.11 {",'l'-
n,'(lll'a....·\ of ,hilT I",il'" ofp'Nhlllt"o,
6 fl NU ill di,lllIel"r, ,,,'ll: '\IlT(1umlilll: lh,' ,m:,lt,fllu'
uPlX"r p.ln of Ihe bo.l<fo. "111e 1ll"'1 ...:1 \I 3,., l;>tmd I' l,s
and 0..1'1 m 1: "flh.· 1.'r.1'e. -lltC...:1 al Ih.. hr.1d \la._
jlbl II 11 cm .\{Inh ofdli.,_ The \\rolrm -<I Ofp'''l-
h{ll..... 'I-;t., U..'iU III fmm lIie ,kckwII. \ ,inl:'k pi. Ih"l..
,,-;u fouud ll.(1"1 m lrom Ihe f('<'1. -111e uf pl'C"'oCl'.
I ,llion of lhe Ill.nn p.ln uf Ih.. ben!.'" "d> r:llh,-r I:fll.d,
d...pill:' 111,- ,h,olln" (kl'lh. Sc\er.u ril», ,,,'r.- ,,["t••kd.
or di.pl,I(<:</. like 111,' upp.:r p.lrl of Ihe ,Lull
The (>lll< rt'H1I::III.l:o!bk lollri,,] I.';!i "a.';1 r.ml,' hom,
1·1.5 cm .. ilh ,lllI"xilllum .ddth "f.1.5 nn Fil:
XI.I:II. Il'lth cl,.. Wll:l:lrtl,il ,lilt! Ih,' di,I,ll "lId \,j'lh.,
h\1rn \lcr<' li",ltllcd h. I"" ,<,nit'"UI 1'I,ll"c<l P..,Ill·O
,j"In:b, ,Ih",lol H,- h.:-d-p'''l'. ·111.· hU!1l ",I' ,itll,II.-J
; {"l1l!V lilt' ,\·XII ..,flhe 'kull. \lilh Ih"l'villl'"(! cnd
lu".u{I.I Ih.. Iw,Id. fhe hom ".L' Olhtl"l..... f,>JI""llIc
the "ri"lIl.Ilion of lhl' ,kd,'I.,1 rcrn.,in'_
_\ p.m;cu!.Jr ,1'11<"11 i, lh,' 1"·....."0' o>f hu-
m,'" 1.0".... in .L....... ,.:i.lli"', "ith Iht' W.1,t", n>(>ot pn,b.
"hi, dlH" to di,p1ol(Tnwnt b\ pl,)u!:run!: Ft!:. X1.9.
n.n; H.ltl m (nlm d\(· m.\.ulla. in nortlmt.....tern dirt<:<
lion. "a.,.' Idt adult rllliwla. n.w m in tlOrth"c,tcm
diITCti"n fl'l\rn thr tihia w.\, thr llro\.imal cnd of
.\11 .Idult 1""dil1.' "ith h)ull, fU'ol-d llliplt"l>. :'\Ollt of
tit.. .Idult 11oI:nmr-n, '-en- I.lckinl.!;
bonf"',.
CR.\H b,.Il"\'L:":ILE 18·19 \T.ARS
Thl."'l' ,lodetal rem"in' of.1 \'mnjl.lIl'lll WCTt· diM:Q\'er_
cd ll.'iti III Inun the 'urlart'. Illl." hudy "as pl,lced in
a !I''Xed po ilinn. IC1-" ht'lI\ 'lIld CUlllracled Illllil the
lille of Ilw 11'1'11;" I"h.· h'KI\ ";1' tlld IU 011 Ihe
rill.ht ,id,. haml, ht·nl .lI1d helow tlw
nllm "-1 tlwI the ulIckr:tnn of ,h... ril.!;hl hand "";I) per-
11oI:nd'(lIl.lr I" lh....t..,(l, nl tIlt" 'pilMl,(Ill1l11ll. "hile the
ltoft h.md rmhr:llcd tlu· upper p.trt of th" rit:hl hand
1'1: :\.l III The ,\1;"11\;lllon "flh.. d";ld ".1> the
h....,d I'", Md "1\h 01 'lil:ht '·..."l'm d,... i,uioll. -\001
360
0
:'\. tht' I1Min ori.... ntalioll line. con-
nl"Ctinl:( the tOp of the "loull ,md Ihe The f.1ce
\\":Ill ltlllwd Ill(' " .....'1. Th.... omlillc of till·
burial pit \\ nOI ckar. 'llbcit it could be
throu!l:h :l looser soil .Hld ;1 d:lrkcr
coloration ill thc \,,'stcm J>1.·riph.... l) of du'
Somc\' h.Ll ..m OCCLLl'r('lICC of <1l1:l 11 IMn id{" of
ch;ITTo;11 Oh'iCl"\l'{l :IrOlllld l1w !J.ol1l:s .md e'p'··
ci:lll) in lltc "fe;1 .lrOLllld llw ,tel11UlIl 11'11<'11 eOlnpan:
d
";11t tll{' 'oil. Th.... pn"{'l"\"ll!ioll of 11.'"
boncs \·cl)· !l:ood. All bo".... , \\t're p1"<'M'1ll and 1I1
:m:llomic ord...... The lHII)' exc"I)lion W:l< 11ll' phul.
""gc, oftl\(' I,ft h;md .lIlt! ofllu: Idi foot. wlticlt ,,\.'1','
del:lched fnml Iheir urih<inal pl:,ce {11Il: 10
'itioll:ll di.\Lurh:L1Kl:s.
"n't· hurial dqXISitS include Hd"m,lliulIl <1...11, {Fit:.
'-, 11 - - I ,- _ >cuc!:L1ll
.\. . Ill., 1'0\\ and " I}{llt,!lec uune I
nil lll.LdC' .1, ",1 imitatioll or., fl·d dcl't"
'Ot!tll, the "O·.."l1e<l (;mm/r/ 1'1. 211: IOl. The P"lld,lll
t
- 1 - -, ,. ,lu·II,.
111 Iit' IlIIddlt- of the 1"11\\ "I (,'1Il.1 nLlll
he :\1 Q. .. mt: HI {;r'''r ......' ...uh 'fI"C1b<.u>on ,,( do. ,.....,
,-
child 10 ,I Icw:r 1k1m.-c of adult. \lI
Jlrincip.tl bOIlC3 of Ihe ,I,;("klon of the .ldul! "en:
found in .lI1atolllic.11 order. lllel"l" 1.) •• lol.... dL...
pl.leem'·Il' of the of the left "hen- the dL_
t:mee bct\H...·U the dL,t.d cnd of U1C femur ,me! the
proxim,t1 cnd of the ubi.t i< 0.15 1II. nle di..pl.lcemem
occurred ill the pro.:e" ufdel::I\. "hen Ihe 'enil.tllI
placed f1e'l:ed lc1.:s h.1(1 f:tllcn to the ril,'ht .ide. 1111'
bone> ofth," child.lre di,wrbcd. The hipb(1I1'" "en'
fouml 0.:;0 1lI from ('.Ich other. lh.:: ,'l:nUll 0.25 III tu
tll<' SW llf till' lit.:11I hipbone..\bo lilt: ll.... th I:.IITI
<il,l"n" of p""t...:lq><,.lliun.II di'llnu."'Ince>. Iilllnd "":.11·
tClI.'(1 ill th,' .In·,1 ofth,' m.mdiblc .uul'hc lIn.l. Onc
to(ll1t ".1.' f(lllI1d dt,<.c to till' rdi hipOOnr. \dudl ".l'
dlt· northrt1"n,N 1)O1l<' hdoltl.';lll,l" 10 tilt: .le,,"ltln v{
the <hitd. 1'....,t..£1,1J<.Nti(,'l.lI di>lllIf,,"lC'e' "rn- .tL..., .11·
to'l'<l Ihn:IlIl,:h th,' prc--eIlCC of 011<' IIlClat.ll'a, .:md
117
so
,--\--
",,""---T- -
- /
o

_. _.
o
,-=-&
--
_.
_.
_.
-

\
--
--
I0l111illg .1 r:ltl,er light IH.:cklaec (Fi/.:. )\[,12), All
and thc pcnd.1Il1 WCI'C foulld tlndcr Ih... mandihle or
bClween the 11l:l11dillle :lIld
rill· XI g. C.Lllk h"IlI f""'KI on C,mr "" 3,
GRA\'E NO. 7..-\ in..\DOLT
25 30 n:.. \RS & INF.-\!.'\l'T I. I
1
YE.\RS
'Illis is 11 douhle gravc ,Ill .tduh m,de and
a <mall child Fig. \:1.13. H,. The gr.l\1: ".1.'; di
r
covered 0.80 nl Ildo" the <urf."'Ice. '1llL" :uluh bod\
was placed ill a <upinc flexed I>osilion. 111e
\'Cll': bclit :md origillall} the "net:< \,cre poimilll:
cal\1:li :md haunches fonnilll: and angle of
';OlllC 45°with 0.13-0.14 m the In a
of the le1;S had lilllcn down 10 the
nght '!lIe left ann II.IS l:ontr.lctl'(l ,ll1d the
hand pl.tced 011 the manul.HiulII the top p.1rI of the
StenUlln). The right anll II.IS contr:lCtctltO the ril:hl
"hich. from 1>.::101" and .Ihove, \,.t.> holding
the he.ld of Ihe child. The IIC.ld of the .Idull \,.IS
CIII thl' light side. f:tcillg Ihe child. :lI1d
',he child blllied ill a flexed on ib ri,!-:ht
SIde, the uppcr p.ln of the uod)' Iyillg (lll th,' dl<'<t.
the 1)<'111. Tlte Idi leg till the line
of the pelvis uones (fol'llling ,I !lO° .mglc \\ith the
spinal .txi,). while the riHht Ict.: "ligllll)
f0I111itlH .1 135
0
.1l1gk with tll(' "pin.tl .1.,;" n,,·
h"nds of tile child II'cre pl.ICl·d under Ilu' he.ld.
.. hieh II.,S .,lso 11ll'lll'<l to" .....:I, Ill<' \\'l·.I. rh(" child
pl.ll'(·d .It Ihe light side of the .1(1,,1t.
All bOllC$ IIere "ell pn..,..·,,·I.'<I. hut lIl<' hone. of the
148
phal.lnl:t' bdonl!illl:' If,) ;mothlT adulL found close-
Itl till' <:hild\ ridu femur.
Y(,,'Clan"" the of Ihe adull 10 bt
hiS.i8 nn aflt:r Ihr formula ofPc.\l'son.Lec
and cm till: fonnub of Trollcr-Glcscr .1111'
:nnuon of Ihl: ma..<UGlltll'\ tl't"lh of the adull deter-
minro In be: of 3rd dC\(l'tt. ;.0;: .. a anriuan
\.hl: pulp rhambcr. For Ihe !>aml: adult. a
l);\thnl.. of Ihl: l'cnebr-.tI column was e"\;Lblished,
m,u\if('!o\cd in ,.nd <pondi\o<hondro<is of
the .l.niculM
.u\lmal wert' fOUlld in thc gr.t\'C, the
m"jon\\ of 1I-0s T,lUrus Fig. XI.13
1
..-\ P:tr\ of
the...: bOllCll ",1.'0 tlOIC 10 Ihe adult hLllllan hones, "
c,Lltk e;Uc-.lLlealls ,tt tht· bones of the right fool. 0.01
m SoUdl of the neel \en:brae ".1$ a. mol:.r of young
e.lult' ..\ m''''''\l' r.mk nb W:I,!; ems<lIlg both Ihe left
hUlllan ohM Ihe in the an:a. It is
pn>bahlc th,n thC!ol: bone!; "Cll: part of lhe burial in-
\'emon, .\1 the 2nd lumb;"r \o;:n.·hra (}flhc aduh. on
the ,,",uthcm \id<'. J. ;) cm Ilim end-scrallcT
"ith a rt:lOuch .11 11ll" pro:-.;mal cnd :l1ld ulilis;\llolI
traces on the l.uel':\1 edge. 0.02 III South of the right
p;\Idla "';IS a Ilim bbdc. "hich :lllsoci'llion ,,;th lhe
burial 1101 «n;lin. hOI\e\'er. Under the l;gl1l ..c;Ip-
u\;\ of the adult. do>c to the light hUlllcrm. was :1
dClllaliul1\ shell, 2.7 cm 101lt;:. The ollly bur;:,l b<iCl of
lhc child a ralher loose double necklace of shdl;;.
\\hen: c.H;h \J:l;l' of dcm.tliulll frolll lhr
011C b)·.\ c:mlium ,hdl (Fig. X1.IS).
nOlh skeletons \\I:1l' placed 011 .L byer of shards.
'nit: onh;rcd distribulion of 111e shard;; does n()l
indic:HC ob,inu. lrllclI\ionalilY, bUl lhe high coucen'
tration IOl;clhcr wilh the fact Ih;,!l \lu; shru,<ls
'
""" "'" '"' '"')"'1" III
[0 (I crelll \'I'!>SI;ls speak III f.,vour 0 :, Ull1 l ,
'"'"' . lilt: ',n',L
,a<.:1 .L nUll. le l:lyer more COLupael 111 •
of Ih<.: 1cb"i .lIld feel I>f the .Ldllh.
l'illally..1 dOlen or Ill<' Zebrim, Dell·;I•• sI""
" , .
ell:s .\.S reponed hr N. Alldrc"sell. •
Camhridge in 2001) .-oUeCled rru
lLl
G
,. cred
r."es no,. 6 and 7. Thel>C "crc (,M:OI .
C\cl)'\,hcn: illlhc cXC:'\,lled .m'''. ,Lhhollgh Hl
·....;.-...
XI I1 1),0",••'""" ,'ml unl",,,, stM"11. 'n (;"-d'"
,,", I, '''PI'''' ro" ,.",1111 I,"'r, m"
ligo
I
1+9
the 101' er layers, bdoll/:,olng 10 th..: I.ig., 1 SI:U!tIllCnl.
:md should not he cOllsl<l.;rcd as llllcmioll,i1 dt'po-
sitions ill 1111: gl':ll'CS.
CONCLUSIONS
.\lJ I;'':I\'C< were discovered in lhe sOUlhcm to ';OlIIh-
\'c<tcm 1);\11 of the Uga hillock. -nlC rCl;ular disu;·
billion allows the area 10 be iIllClpfClt--d as ,I fonnal
buri,,1 ground or ccmclcl). dK)';C1l for the
pU'l>OSC. E;I;Ccpl for Gra\1: no. I, tile gr.wC'_ \\I:rc or·
t;:llIilCd ill bOlh ,lIld l:nilUdin,t1 rows.
CId\C! nw. 3. -, and.) "ere a rrom;I/liIlC of
burials organized ;tlong an Eo\r a:cis. lltC-SC
"en,: sp.1Ct:d. from the
pn:sumcd (emrc_ of the skulls. the dl,lance bet\\I"CII
Cr:I'·CS no. 3 .lIld "' was 3 Ill. the di"l.mce oct"ttll
Cr.lICS 110. ·1 .Illd 5. 3,20 m. Simi1.lr re<ulb .Ire
achic\'cd mC.lllUting thc dist.mee in .1 ..traight lillc
from Ihe humcrus to thc bor<lcr oflhc nc.'<1 ,,'l"1I"C pil.
i.c., 2..10 III .md 2.36 m. 1'1\1: luullcnl' ",IS thc
honc of Crmc no. .3 with a full)' prc>er\"ed outlinc'.
The distancc hClwCC11 the bm;:.l pils of Cr:II'CS nos. I
Mid 5 was 2.22 m. C1'an:s IIOS. 6 ,lI1d 7 art· fonning
Ihe ne"l 1'011' ofLJlIri:lls. oriel1l.ltc<1 E-\\' .mfl confirm-
Ihc lutitudinul sp'lIi:.1 org;lIli'i.nion of IlIe IJllriak
The di..t.lI1ce uet"een Gr:I\'CS 1105.1; IInd 7 ,,'.15 ra. 2
111, .IS 1I1c;ISUl'cd fmm the cel1lrc< ,)1' Ihe skulls ,sk,,1I
7B, child. oflhe doubk !,'T:I'·Cl.
'Illc p'"Olrmi\'c po»ition of Gra\,(' no, 2
th.l1 Ihe werl' .11"" org:lI1i ...,,1 ill •• k'"C'-
ludil1ll1 111.11111('1', following Ihe :-:05 dirt'Clion bill l),lr·
Ii..llr <.0 that Gmn' no, .') ,,-as 1lI'-
hind Cr.I',· nQ. 2, ret in .1 more l\e\,,:r!1 flO"nioo
th,ln Cr:l\e no. 2. 'Illl' renl"ininq- buri.•l.I ,,('n° .11.0
or!,r.mi'ICd in lhi, lIIanner, Grm c no. 7 IX'in!!: hc-hind
Cr:lle no. I, ,lIld Grme no. 6 behind the dl...
Gr:I\"C no. 3. Thc di<t.mcc bCI\\ttll lhc rn,,, \t.1S
limitcd. 0.36 In ",IS 'lCpar:ning th(' ,I,'T:IH' or
Cml'cs Ilm. I .md 7.•\ .irllil.lr distan("("
bet"ccn till' no'. :! .md 5.
l:k.pitc thc th.1I ';C\cr:l.I or hum.m
\,ere di.-cO\-crro in o;ond.lt!a nQ:\.. 7 and liB or
the c.,,("a\"<uion. Cr.I\"O 2. 3 and -I IIcre m.arkilll:"
thc nonhem Ml;C of tllC bunal l:"TOUnd. Cml(' 110.
.') ""as thc castcmmOSI 'tF.I\c• .100 Cm\"t:' no. I lht:
southcmmost. In 19i9. dunnll" soundint:: \H'rL .11 the
site. .delcl:d Il'm.. of.l rhild \tCn' found \ - GcT\lO\.
pers.comm.. Xoboch Il'.l!izcd Ihe 'lienilicanc( of the
find. thclI. "nlc ...Iid .I.c!ct.llll'lTUi"s "ell'
di..<ro\crc<1 in "Tll'nch 11" -Izkop lr . Dun,,!,! the Il'-
c"C;l\';llion or thi, Ill'lIch. t"o cranial ur a t:hild
"Cll' di.-co\erc<l. indie.llinc that the" t('m burtkr<
or the bun.tl .Ire SQII1C\,hcll' in ;u-ca
of "Trench w'.nulS. it is possiblc to prediClth.1l tll(,
bun.tllo:roulld ol;",oi'l.Ilh 11 •..,. OI:("UP';llll" .Ill .Jll'a (If I :!(I
m
1
. with.1 prcdi("tt'(] number orgr.t'1:S.1l 25.
Dllc import.1Il1 (IUc,lion IlIbOl\L'd, n.um:h
Ihc bunal< orlhe fCIll.Jc<. made cl"er more .ICllle
1\\'1\' illtc1"l'l'1:1 "ith .Iduh II1CI1. I'o",ibh. Ihe
oplanutlOn li.,. ill 11'lo:ul.llioll ofburi.tl 'pac!." bet"''''n
Ihc <,.. ,Hlmen lM:-im: bunl,,1 ill ;1 ...·P.lr:lIt· /l.lrI ...,f
lhc Lilt-I ("CIIWlel"\, $u.. h intCn..,.Ulll: di,i.ioll i.,.. e.c-.
oboocn'l"! ill thc CopJX'r '\!-le ("CIIl('len .11 l:irqo,'6te.
.tl'oQ ill .m old .... ll!t-mcnt dll.I, \11I:do,";) 1901 ." hell'
I I l,'T:I'T' 'WIT .. thc_'<'. four \,('re
1:\0
XI.13Gra\1"l ""'_ 1,\.11
idCllIifil'd .u, male and four as female, lving in two

-l1m_.•Il Ul!;a.•Lnili,ulOll with a Rtndcr-ddincd la.
bour l:fOUp \\a., more imponam to ... in death,
,11.<1\ Ihe c\idl'lll ill tilt: hi"lhly indi\id.
u,ll hou!>c:hold, of Ihi, r.ocict\'. "111e
(hildrt:1I •• fe likcl\ of lhe ,",une as the tlte-.-
a", ;IClOmp,\\willt:. Ihu, Ul!': hup wilh men.
It i, utlccnain .. hclhcr ,h,- 1\\0 poslhokos found
al the «',If l:nd of 110. :2 art rclatl'd 10 Ihe
burial, "hilt the a......Jci•• lion of dW!iC:b of JlOSt.
h"lt"'I with Gra\"t" no. j i, ((·Main. 1110.: latter (lQ\l.!..
•. 1 !cIllOIlSlra1l'
l"l'b'lllarly MOlll,d lhe ,,,c cIon, ( 'It in
.. fl l'dwcrclH;c
that lhe p1.,,::c 'llId POSII101l 0 I le (C,l
rcspcCl. ') .,,'tr-
.)
Despitc some 400 \'1;.111\, ,,'Ine 1 lcmpo , b)· I.
' ·lhee,l:lI.l
'Ue lhe laSl Coppcr Age M.:lllcml'lll ,ll1( I 'c'S
. . f lhl' gr;L\
lllelll oflhe bUrl;ll grolllld, lilt' 0 .'. fJ.j''ll
)
. I I -lltll'hl1- 0 <>
c c,Il'I} m(llll'llcnl )}' Ill' , dug
2. '11111"1, Ihl' bll1;,,1 pit of Gm\'c 110. 1 "1,'6
lhrough lhc OUlcr \'CMCI"n w;111 uf HOll<;" I, I, -Ill
. , , >OlIlhcl'l1 ",
110'0.3 and I "cn' 1Illcrsccllllg lhe OilIer" .'Sh.
f
I. ,I 'r "'llh net
o hUll".' 2. I he l.mel" IOgcl le lqlth
nO'>. 2 ,md 5, hac! lhc <lll,llle,1 (
))1
I \.1 H l"pp<T 1'"-" of "'''' • \ 11
bdOI\ the .. surf."\cc. not excccdilll.: 0.50 m.
It i$ kllOI\ Jl from Olh..:r Copper. \1.:1,' burial groullfu.
liLt· \',lrIla and Durankul•• k. th.u diffcrcmi.llion in
depth \\.1) uo;ed to rcfll'Ct $l.llm. gender ,llld .11,."1: To-
2002'. 111 the ca"c of UI;:I. ,mother f.lclor
,11,0 pbying a p,m.
Tile lerrain after till' ahandonrnCllI of the lilr.\ 2
scuknWIll , •. <culptur..d wall, of
bun1l'd hOIl'CS, \\hich CI·CUIII.llI} hOIl-c
llllJlIll<k Through fidd \I ol'k in SUlltlll'nl kxi.:o .md
i\L & .\. Kirl.!) IMW ,[fIU.ill}
d"llh Il:d ilWI Ihe ion procc..' of mud
houses has .1 Cl.::rlaill pan' :llId call even Lw u,cc! .1' .1
IIw.m, <:If <l:llilll: Kirkb. & Kirkb. Thrl-. in
thl' 0.1'';,1(',1 wilh 500 iOO 111111 .1Illlu,d
lilt' hUllS<' llIound, \Iith rt-r0l.1l1i,.lbk profil"s
fur 500 llOO 1t.',Il". 1.01"':1' pn'dpil,llion r.u\·' lilrl
lifr
-
f.IILIII pl'Olon.l.1 lhc pcriod of .unh.Ll, TIlt" pl'c.....·lll
prnipil.uioll ill X\\' Buh[.uil I. ''tOO 600 llllll
.1'111l';'.,ul"l"ddunnl,l 19501990 GHC'\" K..'I:'.rdJc"",
of \\hclhcr Ihi, numlx-r wa.'. higher or I<."cr .u the:-
eud of Ihe Copper. \gc. house muuncb fi>nn<'d uf
burned dlub "ere di,ulIl.'Uuhablco fur 'C."l coral (cnlUr-
i...... I-Iell(('. il t;1II be a."umro lhat lhe collip-<'d h"ll.-e
\\.111. of lhe :1 «ulcmCIII rreJlro p"lII1inrrll
point> in the lerT.lin... hich \\eT"(' ><:Icctcd for burial.,
L:lter imp.ICI h,l.> IndJcd mc lemill 10 it> PI1:':'nIl
SI.Ue. Thll'. tl1l' d,,·pIII. of dlc gr.l\1:" .Il Lil[.1 bl·.... "il'
ne,. 10 lhe kwJ of Ihe ancienl ;;Un:.IU· and C.lII h.ltdh
oc eon.idcn·d .1 rdlcuiol1 of -oci.d ,111I(1111:
du' de.ld.
The ,11)(11 t' ob'en .nions <hould perh.lp. OC' applied
10 other (:01']><-'1" . \1:1' <il\" \\ hcTC' ilL<utlicielll lllh<r-
I,uioth .II'\: limililll: IlndrN.lIldinl: of UR' propo:r Tl.'-
I,ltion' .md dwcUilll:". III.Linh ule L"ue
of inleonur.11 hun.IJ. I'I,·I"<U· fOOll.ll dq""i(ioll '1Ie-
Uoj.ldli.·\ !1llJ" \. _\111<0\ nOIl'- Ih.ll .11 the
Kuhr.lI B,tlhUll.lr ldJ in.'\E "hrIT .ld-
cum. \\ "0' KI\I 11.1. llll' m.l.iono (If lh.· buri.l!.. H>Il.-ell·
tr.II."d III the .lIT.l ,,;th n-m.llI!> llf huu-'<'o
1,2
\IiLCft. nlro hi. &".,l(lh("'\ Il.l.-.("(! O/llhe
ulIihllTllll' {.fw trc..lUl'K'nllhr ,kad, it ...:1lI br an::ucd
th.1I th.- ,uc ".J..' u-cd,)' ,) I,'mul hUrWl!l'oond and
IiKTl'I,,", -.ht>tlld hr in lime rn'm the "l'11k-
111('111.
lhe InlI\",r.t! bet'>f'l:'n the
ukml'tII .mcI the huri.lb. ;11\ ,lpp,lfl"nl linL br-
1"ern the 1"1\. 1'h<- huri.d, -ht>ukt he 'o('Cn ;1.., rd\n:.
l\{>Il' or the -.Jn1C' idr.l!o lhJ.1 I!\'>\'nllcd tht- 'J);lti31 01"-
l::J.ni.....:au.m l.f the ";milari" ob;;cr...ffi
in th.. 1\l.I.lllullll; lU'1cnl,lIit\ll l.'f the dwdlinl!" and
Iht- burial and III the onU<1I1Tl 3nd fCI!I,lblffl <pacin\?
polllcrm. In ,lddili\>n. the ttn't('ll'l"I ,lm\"e!o J.!. 3 \inu..\I
Ul::a 3 ....ulmlt'nt- oflhe principles
applK-d 1\'11' r"ol.lhh.Jllnl! ....uICl1lt'lIl, imo the ;;q'Iulchral
'phcrr I' 'IriMI\ funcuon:umlcrprel:lliom,
{If -.n\l."nWlIl orlf,llIi....llioll. "hkh h:t\(' \)non rnti-
o:u"d. e \? .. h\ J UnllL and :\1. Goodmall BlUe]., &
GO\>dman 1nl' id!:'a ofJ. COllcqllU;U affili;uion
')CI"Tt'1l hnU>l'" :llId buri.\b, :t> \'l'Cn lhroulih lheir
.>.rl"!U1I'Clural uniLml\. h;ls al..o bct.'1I rulu\';llt::d ill
;'\... \ Lul'UJ)C I'lli' ""mt lime :\lili.. 19i8:
l'h>ddcI Ill1:\4; Illlll,l J:,idcnn' ofimcm:lalcdncss be.
''' .....nl'('.lllm oflht' h.in!o\ and Ih.. dead l.lllllS fOllnd
111 Lumpl' (1)0, .11!K'il ill .1 r.llhcr circul1l,t.llIlial
11I,UI1l\'r.
Gonncrl101l. lxl" ..... " holl>\" ,md hurials havc
\,ueh Ix'l-n aUe"led ,'11 Dur.ml..ulak. Ihc ,lone
.lrclm('(lllfl" of 11", mulu-Iavel\-d >eIUCIll'1I1
"
,
.--, . C "'":I> par_
.1 {' "U 111 Hl\t'n:d or frnmcd ";th '0 , •..
'\
,Nl. • Ill' sa.."
u, OTtl\.\ , UNld.... l-..:hoin" Ih, 0 . .
., nem:'UOll of
Ih., hllu>l"!o. lCTt;Un ofl1le do ..
l1l("\uc lll\"emOl"l
,,,'11.' ,11", \1,,'11 ill d'l' jl,I,III", Imll"lIi.l, h'l ..
i, ,m illllKu1,ml I"].,l'll III bolh 1I,"1'<" .md Imrilll.
11,,,Id,'1' 1'1'1(\; 1',,,1, In" ,L :.!UU:?\. I, ,11".. this lill l' ut
,Lo,:lIl1ll'IIl,1I " 11,,"11,11 W .L""Ull' ,1I,lI lh" ...·,
m.:nl "f,,,"II.I.-,, IlI,I,', GI"Il' no,:' ,It'ted 11\11
,'nil ,1',1 hll1 ,.1,,, ,I' ,m ,'1\, I'NlI\'. iHdITd, ,I
llll"I,lph{lli, hi'"'''' III th,' .... mu· ",IS .L canle
h'l\1I, li].,t'1\ ,I n·pI.LCI'lIl,·tll nl till' (kcf ,Illll,''''' nf the
:\I("ol,hthl( .1'.' nll'" ,,1111,'(1.1..,'111 .,i,hin 1111' "lllholir
.md rillL,,1 'phcft' 'ff I.lln Nncnhcle'-'.lhe
n-d Ik,.'f i, 1101 ('ll1i,,,h rrlllo\ed lmm the '\mbOlie
"'I'lI.'rtoin'. III Gnl\'-" Ill'. ti ",l' ,I bOIll' pl'lldalll in
imitalion Of.l n-d d('l'r tOOlh, 111l' tOOlh it a Gnmdtl.
,I nldillll·1I\.ll"I UppCI c;minr C;lIlillll' "rthe m,llc red
d«r daphu" \\hidl ne\,'f el1lpt, and Ihus
Jlf("<cl"l"l" ib pcarh",ilc coll)ur rodoro\',l 18i .
l'he pml"licc of imll.llioll w{"lI-].,.no\\ 11 from Ihe Llle
Cc>pjX"f \',101.1 I blln,ll, To<\oro\,;\ 2002", Both
imitauon and rc,,1 tC'Clh arc here found in :tSltOC'iatioll
"ith mall' burial, Todoro\" 2002 .
T"o I:T"..I\-C- at l.il.fol rom,lined tlt.'Cklaccs Illaclc of
... 1111' IIccll,ICC of Gra\'c no. 6 combined :1 bone
jX"mbnt and tklllaliulIl ,hells fig, :\:1.11. 12), 111e
(:hild orGr.wc no. i.\-Il had,\ doublc 1l1-'Cld:ICC rom-
Ilriscd of dClIIa1ium and cardiu11l shdb Fig.:\:1.1 \,
l.i. 11,e rela.liw of thc dClltaliulll shells :IClualll
ooITC"JXInd 10 those of thc :lCeomp,lII)'ing humans::
um, nOl full\ 1.,'TOtl1lju\'cnilc \\;Ib the
child. \\hile Ihe dilllcnsiOlls of thc dCnt:lliulll shclls
roulld in the t:ra\"c of lhc youllg :Iduh arc siguiric:ulIly
bigt:l"f. l'C:lchinl:, 30x9 llllll. Delllalilllll shells ,1I'C C51i-
Illalcd 10 be a r.lthcl" ilcm ill thc gr.I\"t."S of DuI'-
anlml:l\: .md \"anla Todoro\";l 1"1 al. 2002,185), 111C'l
Illiglll be collt'Clcd ill lhl" 1\ lediten';\l1can and pro1r
lhe Bbc\: Se,l do<.t, to 1\051>on'5 rrodoro\,;'
2002. In lhe of Plc\'cll ,.rc sewr:.1 OlllCroPS
.dlll fO!>loils of dincl"Clll l;cological periods
am\ 1999\. '\lIC most t'cadil)' dcposilS :n"l:
found :11 the \"illagc of Op:mels [widl a po.siblc Cop'
per Agc 'CUll-lII('III, "here fo.-silil.{'d dclllali,ulI (of
:\lioccl1e dalC1 can be eOIlC('led 011 the ,"diKe (:15 rc'
poned Zid:l\xw, Din:ctOl" oflhc lu.lilllle ofGe-
olo!;). Sari,\I. This SOLI1"t.:C lics le... Ih:\ll 25 kill fi"Olll
Ug;I. :\lallLcologir;11 'l1Ial),is has, hOWC\"l:l', proved:'
rceenl m:11111C of the dCl1l:I!illll1 shells, ,<'l.ich
WCT\' nOI h\ :1 lonl; pr<>cc", of fo.,ilizatioll [N.
.\l1drcascn, Copcllhagcn and C,unblldgc Lllli\<Cl'liilics,
Ugn
153
10tH I. \\'Ill'llll'f {If l';lsttl'll Uf !\(llIIhcnl OIi,.,oin. thl"W
<hdl\ .Ill" found .;LI cOl1<idrrahl,' fmm thl'if
ll:lw"d <nurn', the (".Il'dllJ111 inrJudl"d in
,hI' lled:I'ICt' of till' child of Gr:IH' Ill). 7A 8. \\eft"
jU\Tllilc 1.2XI.1 CI11'. P,If1 of the umho \'.15 irncn.
,ioll.llh ground "Wd} and a <m,lll hole created for
thrc.tdilll:(. 11lis '}lJe of marine -hdls more wit!('_
'prc;,d .\tId might ha\"c been collected .mp. here in
the Ul.ick &.1 ant! the lTodoruva
1002. 186\.
In Il'ons of trc;llmCIlI of the dead, no :'pparcnl dif.
fcn:mi:lliol1 C;\Il be noted, as might h;1\ c been ex-
pected from the d:U.1 in NE Bulgaria. in rasu Ihe r."m-
OilS V,lrn:_ gravC$, The striking exception is
Gr:\\'c 110. 1. The two AMS·d;ucs (IMscd on bone col-
bg..:n). /:,';I'illg :I late COPI>Cf Age date. arc both from
this grave. so it is possible that the renlolining
(with :mOlher orientation) arc of :1 differem, likely
lmer dllle. possibly lhe "Trnnsional Period" (3). If so,
lhey arc conlcmpomry "ith thc ne.lrb)' Rcdmile [\'
scnlelllent, Thc l'elali,'C proximit)' of thc bmia!s. 10-
gelher \\'ith the \\'holc grn'·c m:l1crial. alia\\'3 for a
holistic ,ie\\'. ho\\'c\'cr.
Thc cxclusivcness of tlJ<: )'oung de:td pCl"iOn in
Grnve no. [ is stressed by the southem
orienmtiOIl (lhe head still f.'1cing West. Iho.. and
the eomparali\'c richness of the grn\"e gifts. as wcll 35
the aniflCial dcfoonatiOIl of tllC skull. C""t:1I thoUllh the
pmctice of dcfonnation during the Copper Agt' ,,-as
not Im\l.liual :lIId eOllunonly applied towards the cnd
of the period Yom.'11l0'· & Dimilro\"a 2002. Hence
almost 11- _ ,23) of all skulls studic:d \lllOStly fr.ag-
mcmcd\ at Dumnkulak and muibutc:d to thc :\Iiddlc
and I...;uc Copper Age ha\'c traces of morphological
chang..-s of Ihe onc-ribbon circubr 1)"Jl'C (Yord:II\O, &
2002\. Perhaps the child of Gr."c no. I
origin.llcd in E:tstCOl 8u[g:uia.
In AnatO[i:I and other Near f:"'lSlcOII'egiollS. "here
artificial deformation is widespread in thc Ncolithic.
Ihe pr.lctice is imcrpreted as the of n need for
"llmic tllltl'ken' in all cxpanding or rOllllllUlli-
ealion :md cxchange :lOOt). The dislrihution
of lhe phenomcnon is tightly dustcred in lhc Nc,lr
E"utem region. Skull ill
gr.wcs should probably also bc.' St'Cll M t·,>('cptiollS.
h(n('\" thl" 'f'1l.lr.lIion tlf thl" rhild e....mp.. rtd to Ihl"
othn d".ld peNII" di'lHr.crt"d al Lilt'd: no doul" it
lCSUnlOny 10 ., l{rf/\\inl( eompkxil\' of ';.r)Cil"l' "!lich
m;,} ("\1;11 h"\'1" hcrc:dilitl) Jl'!1'lIion
Skull tr-,in ,Ill !:\en ....icler di,trilmun" in
the E.l.rh 8ronf.(' thus. I-J of chc 36 1.:011. di....
co\"en:d in 111(' bllri.tl. of the Gm\c-Pil cuhul't in Bul-
gari:a h.l\c tme" of in che morpholOlt' flf ch('
skull. conducu:d the 5.l.mC onc-ribbon
method 'YOrdl.l\(l\ & OimilrO\<l 1989
BURIALS IN THE KSB CL1..n·R£. .\.'"0 THE
\t PERlOO"
De.pite the l1!f1 diKO\·cl). lhe absence of
buri:,[s in lhc area occupied by II\!: KSB ('uhurt' re.
tn:lins unrcso[,ed: the SOlllle can be 5.1id of thc Thr.a-
ci:m phlin, dOlled Wilh tel[ scttlcmel1ll1. 11lis is
in sl:Irk contr.lst with NE Bul!f,ria. ,,-here large hurial
grounds. along with smaller deposition Siles at the
scnJcmems. lUll e produced SC\'l:ral lhousand. of
gr.t,·cs, Y, BOj.ldJ.ic\ [im ninc loatlitics "ilh rct,'Il.!ar
burial grounds ,lnd two Siles "ich intrn·mur.al
in the NE p.1" thc coaslal areas of
BulSOlri:' Bojad1.iL'\ 200[ I. In che Thrncian plain.
arc two knO\, n burial sites. fM. both
comainini; muhiplc L1le Copper sLclcul re-
mains. Okr.lZhn:1 BoInitsa ill Slara Zacorn chrec..kcJ-
elOns and Yun.1!Silc al Pazard1iJ,; Boj:tdtil:\ 2001
In ..w 8uh:aria. !,'r.l'"C$ owoeiatc:d ....ich Coppa
c'!,'l: n:mains I,ere found ill chc Ihl:'L1l:i c.... The
tcmporal po:Iilion ofche earlicsl skeletal find of 1926
the hod, beill!.! placed ill a llc.ud position I'l not
kno"11 "ilh G:lul 1948. Ourinli :In e;'(("'.I-
"ation in 1952. burialll offour childn:n ,..:n: n:cordcd.
10CbC1} ;(llribull:d lO che Copper. \.."'1: IJoc\ 1959. Rt_
pc:ued C.'I(C.ll"dtions ill the C:I\'C in cht" 1990s ha,e pro-
ducrd OllC more child burial. "hich held pollt"1'\ C\-pi-
cal oflhe KSlI culture Gcrgo\. pelS. comm..
The Yugusl.lI"i:m d,ll.1 on buri.lis in the an:-a of lI,e
KSn culture .,re c,'cn more pcnurious lh:m in Bular,lri.l.
The on[\' !o'l':lI"c." hich C:1l1 be associatcd "ilh till; KSIJ
cllhllre. "':ISdi>co,'cn"CI ill 196; .11 LcPCruiki \ ir
19;21. It lh<" burial of:! f('male, 40-60 \<".'r< old
and 1,54 1.5b III 1.\11. dUll iIlIOan:tn:-:lOCCullin:l b' nu·
IllCl'Om :\k.olithic .I"d St:01iulic buri.tb. TIK"
,,-;u fuund OricllI:lln:l S.s 163 "ich
tht' hr.Id 111\\ .Inl- Ih(' lltr drat! p"'N(1lI \.1\ in " prom'
j)\""itlNI ,lnd ,'11 lhr Ll<T. I,ilh h.1C\;,,;\nll, cTOuched
1('1('< 111c 1.J:)Jf'tl<li \ ·ir ",1, d,lIt<! 1
1
n UI" of
f,llIr n 0,('1- l"h.lTallrti-tic Ill' lht' KS8 l"Ullllrc, OI1C 'lf
l11<"<" \,",-el_.•\ hit! I)\ml de-1fI1,rd prior 10 ule nq»-
.,jti,ln. ,,;\_ .lhlll)'>t Cll\-erinllthc lcl,""••\ fea·
Illl"C f'o-p;cal'lfGltl11tlniV' burial" .
Rrn>rcb uS lilt Romani.m hurial m,lt!'n." rclalcd
10 the l"Uhul"C L_ al-<l \'t'1'\ Iilnill'd. Wilh 'Omt:
f"C'o("n,lli,.n. lhf'l"(' .melc l"hikl bun.-m from ;l1, ma.n\
<:\IC'!'. B.i.ilt: Hcr\""Ub.rK' ;\11.01......"3 55. \'ad."'tra.
and one.l LttIL-.l 1971. can be .lltnDlHed to the
btN phA-'C of the cultul"C. The 3oUT'IC nn be said of
tWO bunal I!J'{Kmd (}.ll'Ontl Coroului at the Iron
G;alt't :md .1t Corboaica ;\"ikolm"3
57, SS & 1;9 ff, ,51 at
(}.tn,,'Ul Corbului. dominanth "ith lx:Jdies in 3 fb-
cd positinn on the !efl sidr and orientaled lO\\Olnh the:
'\"iloloo.-a 5i, SS & 359 If. The prcsrna:
of pOtln"l amont! lht: goods
d:ltt't burUh ;1.1 kM! 100- 200 bu::r thart
Gr.II'"'C I from Ul!3 FOl"CllbaIJa 1993, Sinular rilCS
... emplo\-cd in the <;QffiC\\--h;u \ala burial
of "ith 9 sL:drtoru. ;\-iJ,;ok>\"3 1999.
5, & 363
Rf.L\TIO;';S THE COAST
In the Lit!:! demonstrate dose ties "ith
the burial traditions blo...,-n in the coastal areas of Bul-
!!aria.. a lempor;U difference; the last Copper
burial!. in the f.asl bcinl; dated lO ca. BC,
3'i 3t Duranl.'Ulal. Todof'O\'a 2002. 61f1'. In all known
burial grounds \'am3, Deo.1l\<l. and Duranl:u1ak. as
"cU 3!0 Lit:a :t nonhem orientation or the ,kdelollS
A flexed position on the right sidr is pre-
\":tIltn\!; 3mOll,\ female burials Todof'O\"3 19°"" n
ou, le
"Mlr- ,lIT luuml in ,I <,Irl'tlhl'd IlO"ilion
lixlof'O\ I!lBu, l'\l'n I11OlIl,h ;1 ri",lu hodt'l' 11,15 oc-
c,.,iOIl,dll oo'n ,lpp1il'(1. III Li",.I. ,Ill I)O(Iil's on
the I1ll,ht _idl', in Ik'\;('d of \';trying
Two of tht:' GI",I\ I' no_. 2 ,1Ild 51. olle of" hieh
dd("nnined 10 be .• i1l.t1c b\ Yorclano\', \Icre 1'\1'11
PI'"I_l11or1.lIh oou1Id in ,Ill ('xtrellll' f1cxed I)():;ition,
"ith the knttS pIT<'C{\ 10" ,1l'dS Ihc bre.151.
111(' ro.:lSl,ll ,U'C;tS of Uull;.l-ria h;1\'1' bee" defined :u
div'Crgclll in lcm15 ofbltria1 "hell compared
to the <ild of the inland Todoro\,;\ 1986,2002'. The
principle in Ihe inland ('.'er sineI' the Nco-
lithic to bun the de;ld in a flexed on the
1Ij/ side. the head orienl,lIed towards the East
l"O\"3 & \'ajO\Q\ 199:h Almost I\;thout C)(ception_ such
roles of burial ,,"e:rc recorded in the Copper Age:
burial at Goka.mo Dc1cc\'o, Q\'taro\'o. Poly,
amtsa. Radingrad. alld others, all in the NE pan of
the l'OUlll': Todol"O\'3 1986'.
In this liglu. the ritual beha\;our recorded at Uga
interestint! qucstions about cultural traditions.
The in\'Otigations at Durankulak ha\'e demonstrated
that throughout the \\ holc Copper Age a nonhem
orientation "'as dominant. and that the shift frolll a
nonhern to an eastelll orientation (in flexed position
on the left sidcl onl) took place ,,;th the emergellce,
e-.-en lhe: am\'a!. of no\'eI social b'TOuPS during lhe
so-called Transitional Period (tcmlcd
Age-' b) I. \'ajso\" Vajso\' 2002,159 m. Hencc. me
burials at Uga might be sccn as "iU1CSSCS 10 Ihe ar-
ri\-al in lhe Nonhwcst of people 1';lh affiliation 10 the
coastal areas. Or, if preferred, Lhe)' can be \icwed.
neutrally, as regionall)' specific c.!ClllcnlS of Ihe ,,-S8
cultural pachge. The presenLly a\....i1ablc material
does nOI allow any conclusi\'e gcner.llis;lliolls COil'
cemillg the rites of the KS8. although Ihe paralld lO
lhe E.."l.St is e''OCuti\'e.
XII. CONCLUSIONS
1·'AGlll.\L
1111' ,trrh.ll"olrn.,'ic••1 Laic CoPl>cr ilt' of is
<iw.llcd .thou! onc kilometre north of lilt' lllot!("n1 \;1-
1.11;1- of Tcli.h in ehcl"\l:11 Uri:lP; Ple"\1:11
Count\ 1-11;- 1.1 . i\"c;lrby. 1.2 kill S(JUlh of the sile.
liL"" ,1I10ther I:Ull0U< .itc from the Solllll' lX"riod known
as Rc..dlllitc. '111is comaincd three buildinl; h0r1l0ns of
the Copper .\gc and 011C of the 'IO-CaJlcd Transitional
Period. 'nl(' rC5Cardl objective<> for Lig:l 1\1:1'(' 10 a
hillh degree dicl;ucd by the ('xc.n-,lIiom ,11
supplemented by infonnation (rolll Sadovcc.Golc_
tlI:1II0\'O Kale alld Pipra sitC!l. Thl'SC d.lI.t \\en: con-
sidered a good starting point for building.up .1 local
sequence of land-use at Lig:"I, and. most import'lnll\'
.,
for er:lcing llIOVClIlcn15 of peoples and ideas. So filr,
lhe m;ljOt;ty of so,;ttJclllcnt invcstigations in Wcstcm
Bulgaria h,IVo,; produccd a mass of isolated pho,;nom-
ClIll, coupled up merely with tho,; help of particular
1)l>CS of :mdilcts..-\ dilTcrcllt situation prcscmcd it5Clf
around Tdish. with an opponullit) to producc :lIld
to piecc together e\idcllcc into coherent historical '\C-
qucnccs. resembling those of the southem .m:'l of Bul-
I;'lril with the illlpressin: tells'. In lil;ht. is\UCli
sueh as 'p,llial organisation. changes in the planning
ofsettlemcnt and its architcclUrc. dur.uioll and causes
of .1b.lndonmCIlI. etc. could be set in :1 broader tem-
poral and geographical pcl""pccti\'e. Il:\'ealing the
"dialcctics" of a L:!.te Copper Agl: sculclllenl.
11le sitc of is situated :11 the cdb't: of a bro..ld
plateau. 20 III high. 195 m abovc sea 1t:\eI FiL;. 1.2 &
1.3). Thc Rcdutito,; site is locat('d 011 the S;llIIe pl'IIC'Ill.
Towards southwo,;st and nonhc:bl the plaleau h;u a
wali' .• ppc:trancc. -nlc hillock chosen for Ihe Liga
Sl:Ulemcnt is delirninatcd by ra\il1cs in the <,Qulh .md
lIorth, ero,;,l\cd during seasonal nmolf of 1.,Lter. .-\t lhe
fOOl of tho,; site lhero,; used to be prCSl.'mlr :1
S)'51enl of thrce dams k110Wtl as Lhe of Gorni
D;lhllik. In all, 2;5 rn
1
were excluding
IC)' tl"cllchcs. The depth of tho,; exc:l\.lled trl'nch<:'\"
\":H;ed bClwo,;cn 0.5 and 1.2 1Il. Thc 1:"'l:c.'I.uion
eg) I.":" .. inll'd to concemr.lle on fCI••1I'('a, "hen: the
archaoologie:tl eOlllext.s could be invcstig:ucd fulh
alld at grc:ll det.,il rFig, XJI.I .,\" a l'CSult. u h...,.
e<labli,hcd Ihat the sitl' \\.1..> in use St"\1:"ra1 tirn('"< until
the prt:YIlt.!ll" t"lrli.- I IJfC"Updtion I I du-
cd the fOr the Late Coppf-r I rac ..
or tlm .....ulclTlCnt w{'re onl. t"'>wblbh.-d in "l)ffit' p;ln.
or 111(" (":l;C,\\,u..rl .IfC.l. Rl::main< of I)TIf'
recorded 011 thl:' W1Uthem ()( th.. it... Thu
\\.L< .uppon.-d b\ ,) \\alde rraml:'. rr on
llmhc..... It \\015 7.6 m Ionll". Ut<- rotHll.ated
rnternal "}'1<:( bl:inl( 39 -to The (Jri..nt.ltinn (,f thl'
X-So AI thc eomer crthc hQu.... \\';1.\
p.ln of a rCK\lI.,r ,tOIlC pa\"cment m:l!le of "aICr''''llm
well-'IOrted cobbles of'l:mmtone Jnd hrown flint Fit!:.
11.5), The pouer} from the hoLBl' had d.,rk IUJtrous
surf.lee" olicn painted I,;th gr.lphitc and occaion;LlI
with red .lnd ydlo\\ pigmcm PI. 6: I i. in this ,h.lrp-
If cOnlf:lsting the Rcnerall}' light pottel) of Ihe follol>_
ing phase, The Uga I was al}.lnoonc-d If'r
n;:a501lS as )1'1 IInkl1ol>·n.
.-\l"OlInd +100 BC caJibr:l.lc-d a nCl. JC1demeTII
Liga 2 \\;u eslablished al thc site. wd tl'rr:tl'n
wen: en:a,c-d 011 Ihe remains of thc Liga I m.d1inll"'.
t3using SC\'ere de<tntction of the debris of the pre--
\;OUS occup;llional phase:. The na-
\"aOOm :u Liga wen: rom:cntrated on the material
of this 5CldemenL Three m.-clIinltS Io'oen: fulh
Their idcntific;ation \\01.\ uncornpliroltf:d
due to lhe ,,-as burntd down. :md n:ddnh
burntd cb.ub dearl\ outlined the SUUCIuru. In the
nonhern pan of the ClI:ca\-:ltcd an::l. nulTlCrotb lime·
<Iono I>cn: discO\ercd. a semi-rin:ul.af or
0\':1.1 p;1l1em. SIOIlCll in ouch confu!;urations
belong to stnttlur.,l fealUIl:5. in facI house fQuow-
tiOl"'. 1:\'1:11 I' hen l1ckinl,t pre5c:r\"cd burntd cb.ub.
Holl.><: I "a;; dUco\ercd C%lcth cm lOp cl
thc house from the Iln:'i;om occupational pll.bC". \\jlh
.• slight dcl'i.ltion to",lRl. the Easr. it follol>t:d
Lhe oncm;uion of lhe e•• rlier COll5truction 1'1,:.1 l11e
size "'as 6.50'<5.;0 Ill, the inwmalh a\.,ilable .In:;l
28.3 m!. 1-1011>0.: 2 is perh:,ps dIe onc. "hieh .LllpliC5
Lhe be<t to .' "upposcd .tan<!:u:.:/. ,ioel: a p.1nh eXQ-
\Oiled ndllhbounlLlt hOLl>C h.1(1 a .imiJar 1'1. I
E.'l:lem.il dimcllsion. of Hou.'C 2 .m:' ; A x6.0 Ill. Ihe
intcnl.II an:a I.>cilll,t 34.5 Hou>c J """ Ihe klllt:e't
amOllt: Ihl' ill\ e>rilt'llcd hou.<e« PI. I . It ":l> 8. n 111
lonll: :Uld 5.90 m I.id<- in the middle p.in nlern.U
11x'mu,nwh a\-ai.labk "rea WM 37.80
11... huu'C> l,nT oomulro ,·5. uC'qH for House
I. Ihe ran",in, indi(.\lt Ihal lI!'ualh lhe en-
tmort in ,,>UtlK'TIl wall. whik dlt' oven of the
h"lL'" 'l<>lld .11 11... nnnh..-m wall.
Til.. "t"'Ir;m fIoln oflh l.ilf;l "as Icfl UllO('Cll-
pi,od. 2. 1h of th... hillocL "en:
m.ttk 'C't1)CT hI a .It.lllO\\ dilch or trench 0.8 m
del,l, an alr.llll:('l1wnl illl,:ndt-d (1) inhibit mOVClllcm
ull and dUI' n \h... ,lnl)C', dIU' perhal'> made to
h\o:,IIO...1.. I..l1l! in the :tun jiO Ill! unOCCllpied area.
SOlllldinl: "llh.. trrmm ,"\I.lbli.h...d Ihat the of
Ul:a 1 '\l're ,lqUIl\'inll,.m are" of C.t, .)OX;,)j m. The
t"l.ll .Irea "ilh humed of cXlcndcd
C),n',l 1'11I11 m'
nle Lill,.ll .\h,mdOI1l:d outer Ihe COI1-
f1.Il.,'lOIU"U. _I1lt prm.lIl1l1y ur C-\4 and d:\1c,
.l\,ul,.hle imm RedmilC ,ml.l Uj.,':I 11Illlli..... soon
,Ihn lhe ,lb.ll1dfl1\1II1·UI "r111<' U"<1 ') ""I..", ."
... - • c 1:1111;1'
...·IU\nlnll ...1) ''''I.lhlL'hed Rcdullle Red', 11
·1'1 1 \lme
\0' ,I l,mdl)\U1WllIOr lh,· i'e unlil e:I.1000
Ill. .\llh.11 U1II", lilt" "')U1h"nl nl,1 .
,.. .. le ....OI.>!>C-
1C'C1t-d for a cemclc\) \\;Ih sc\cml bun"Is. III thc exCl'
\-aIM area alonc. llC\1:n !,'r.wcs h:l\"c been di5C0
1
1:red.
onc holdi1l\; of 11\0 indi\;duals.
thc Eolrly Bronze Age, the CXC;II';UOO area
\\.IS 1};In of a lIIargill<l1 aeti\;I)' 7.onc for :l scttlcmclll
higher lip on the ,;'aleau. The oceup:uiOlml debn. of
Ihi<. \"IS panl) olerlllppillg wilh the eaSII:nl limits of
the 2 scu!cmelll, ,IS has becn e,tabli"lu::d throul;h
dri11iIll;" ISe,ides sGIllercd I>OIIC\)' shal-ds, found dur·
Ihe (XC;II.I\iol1. onc pil is with ccrmilll)'
10 thc EIl/\. Orlc:I-S:ldolcc culllll'C. Auolht'r pll. 111'
ICI'Weling Home 3. CQIll.lilWd vc,sel, of E;lrly lroll
age cuhurc. This pil is dalcd 10 075 BC.
Some mOllerials from Lig:1 ,II'C allriblllCd \0 lhc I_,IC
Allliquil)'.
from Ihe I.,ilfo' silc was sllbjeCh·d
10 'pedaH\1 'llIdics. P01!el)' il1\'cslig,'tlO
U
'
Ch;\ple" IV & V) :, I>I'C:'\ {kgrcc of
indil.jduaHI) ill PO\1l:I) l)I'lxllll'lioll, qllcsliollilll;
I
· I . I'n 'fI'lll
IS Icd o:hronolol,,')'. Cer:llnk frolll WIdely (I
IlCri'xh of llll' CnllPcl' .'\gc, ,'tcording to
throlloIUh')", ""rl' lilund ill CUlllellll)Qr:tl)' hOll>'"
G,,md'''ld.lur:UlO100 .."11,,.-.. 1w"'l'ln. L, I... F"\ l,ouJ 'eol"h", I" L"h '" \I...." ""1Ur
\.>7
lIulll.urb,n

"-
Prrl'KU,.. lInn /lIe .,,1
II"t "nu

m""'.rt"
n-ly \Ildd..
""nrIlwnl ."• ...,.
lIHONZE
...unl
Cl; Iftt'e;
l'unllhC' R...ln
AGE
EAIl.1Y
Mlli\urJ-
Muku
f"'tkJ
",.... RI
,...,,.
Ctl\urcni
Cutllfcll1'
W;arc
Orlca-S:sdo\cl,:
I.'.:r'l 1.Mly
IlJoJ.:n

K.\\lnlx
Ccm.l",llJa 111
..hJn
IV
TRANSI-
IlInnel
nON"I.
''''''''''
Il.:.lk.:r
1'[RIOo Galmin
lIuh;mj_1 hUll lh
lJuladl
Cullurc
TNII
Kachmanl
Ilaluh'"
• (1110

T\I
COPPER
kre:\/ltir
AGE
IJlTL
KSn la
KSB b
""oo..

KGK VI
I
Vinta IJ
• Len' d
MIl)[)I.E
I:l)akm'o
Vint:. C
En..: h..'110:
,......
Manea IV
f"l........tkl
l.eng)'Cl
Gmdcslmku
I
EAHU'
I
VinCu Bye
Mmica I-Ill C1asSI";;11


Dikili Tash- (KarJll(l\l,VI

l)imlOl
SI;llioo (1..'1 -I,
"Il; XI1-:.1 Cn"'I'.•r.. ll\r l;d..... 1\.::;11 la
Ih.. Kmodul-S1l<up·l\ul...nJ Hwn I.. ,tilt...,.) mn'!*"'.. M'h
1\••11.
1
n,...
Him (Clmplcr \'11) rc\eakd re!iallCl' 0[1 [)o:uh
local btn also region;,1 wurces of flint. on
grollnd Chapter \ '111 tklt dw'>C
WCI'4: :15 irnl>on:ml .IS flinl .md bonc look l!.onc .tni·
r:U;IS (Ch.lplcr [X) d,'moll<lmlc lite :tlllpliHlCk of COil·
Cl:pIS applied 10 hOlle as mcdium fll1' .1IIs"cnng bOlh
ulilil.lrian ,lud nOrl-lItilil.lnan dClllands. l-ill,LlI\. im-
pan.ull in undcNI.llldilll: pasl ..-rolll)lIlies, thc "nim:t1
bones (Chapter Xl <ho" ,I <lres.> on bUl
a["O callle ,IS a \it:,l ,nun:c of subsiSlcnce.
I'ERSI'ECTI\'E$
11u: main challcnge of till' Ut.,r:a I'rojccI h.15 been to
clllT)' OILt highl) d,'I,liled exC:J\ pmdllcinl:.•L
huge ocher liddwork ,ullll)".·$. ,,,rd sludll'<
of che al"dmcoloj:ieal d,'I,1 frolll Ihl: Tdi<h
region in Nonhct1l dunm,: rhe I_tic COJllx'r
.\ge ofll
ll
: fifth millennium BC: Ihi, ill onkr 10 er I1,·
a IlCrspcctivc 011 ,I j., ....Il,·r:,1 eult"r..1Jll"OC ..
hr :Iddilioll. \"cn m,,\ olltcr <wdi,... ill ,md out of Ilul·
1;,11;a II"cr,'
-111l: on1,,';n,Ll .t,;pir:nion w..., 10 .m;lt" ..LI .111 und"r-
st"nclinl: of the lilt· "Copper G.I,'''. tilt: rphnn-
em! period of tr.lrn.iuOIl to the BronZC' . But
!(r:,du"ll) il '''b ,llkl1(Ulledl(Wlh.ll tll.,. (:opJJ'("r .\1....
pruper held the kt'l 10 .m IlndcN.l1ldinlr, ,L lJ'("riod
following 1I1KlU lilt' Neolilhit-. hili l»flll,·red r(l becoIIH.·
.lllisIOriC<11 ,In,nnu •• hich ifit hold 1"It't'Il 'LKo: ,ful
,,(mId ha\!: en:"ll-d ,I to/all. dilft"relll Eurt>p<'.I11 tk-
n:lopmel1l in Ihe founh millennium llC }-ill: \.II!
nu: C"C.II.Llioll' .'1 UIr,L wt"R: .H hr<1 ITl[.Lrdcd ",
Ihc cnll;:i.rl bil of ,·"idenre, .. hreh. "hen pit't:n:lw.
I:clher .. illt n:00n.LI (\;.'1., indudinll: Ihl' Ilt"il,[hbour·
illl: ,itl' of RroUlil... \\oukl plU\ick wo In hrid.."
Ih... "G.I,," C.ontr.l .... to l·l[pn"t.iUlm,. 1..i".1 It.... Ul>IC",J
I:I,,·I:UIII...., r(lnler<IUll(' allLhorinq du.l .Iud _lUdi...... IInl
!ca,,1 dLl' ,"11 UllllUhlblwd Ill.m·n,d frum I-tt:tlulilr:.
" nllll,'M lIIil'nt.Llt·d pn'I(I';Llllllll-.
I,ilh n; ",illllllll foCI!' OIL (kl,Lib. n,'\\ '1.ll1d.. rd, h.l\r:
1, 11 1for lillun' prnj....... in th,- an'.I. \ltlll'u"h .e....
lim eOl ..,UII\Illl,[ 1..1 1(J,m ••f n:r.tmj,: ,h... "l, "Ne
.Ul.IIH.-d. tUl" c"'.lIlll'k , 'Udl ., '1f.... I..... " h..,. I'n.nd...d
.'ILl'" b;,.,i, 1\'1" lIndet'!.Illdi"" IL,il1 /ik in ,I Cop-
158
pt'1 ....1Ik-mrnt ,111<1 ,hroull:h lhi.. .uul
("'PI.\innl lh.. m.llll ,-urrtnh "f ",Kh'"C\:on-
omi. d<'n,l"l'nll"lll .lt1<llht"l'l'h\ rWll 1,I1'ltn pn"""''',r'
'rH"r.ll .lI\h.Il.,.,]<ll{l(.d 1"('0..1<1, ;U't' n:plT'Ctll''<I ,11
hUI tlll:' full....' .I<Ul\llll arh;C\-et! m 111("
IJ.\(.,... of tni, .,:nlrnl..nl Pl\)\l&ro 1?,lilllUll\
"1\ ;l n.,mmun;f\. "hi,'h Iltv...'O("......lthr (·f
K
"r,\\lon.llln-
,tmmrm' '1'1 ,'"",11;1(' ;•• mcmb<-l'\ iUlll ,;ablC' ('(lOpc-r-
;a\ilT IIl"n",rl-.. W'·lo-dl\ 'U1"\;'''1. d....
ptndnkT on fdlO\, I1l<"mhc-J' 1l1anifl."<lm hI ,h('
uml,>nn L\\oul of ,h(' IIl1dl'.lIt"d 'o('nkmrll1. I"C'<m·
him!:: lll<"1 ,If;l11 01 a milllJl'\ camp.
rclkd bll:J..'t'T hou-.('lwkb ;md ;lIT not
optnh aml("(i III undcmmK' Ih.. {ummunal rqu.ilil\.
fi,r ou,11"\ .md nllTlpctition -0 10 :;..1\ ,,'t:f'C'
C1Tatl'd in"l<k IN- fOI" rumple' In \';ariol»
r...nu... of dl>-pb\ ,.... p;uml:'d pOll",. From the
outsKk-. aD -trunu"", mll:ht "eD \Qolrd the
-.lJT'I('; c1",\ hou<r:- ,,;th dulll:lT\ ,,-;lib li\;eh undecor-
..<d
It h;b bN'n dnno.'lmtr.loIcd Ih;l1 prolifet:ltlon of t(Ch-
\";\riabilit\ m production a n:1kc·
li,m oflX\\ mode.-<. oI"nen-urbnc:.1w;nt on. ;md \\ith
Implx:.lu...m ft)!". the ('('onom)c 11lc Jr.)-
dm"nal an'harokx;cal appro.'\t"h to the Coppc:r .
in the Balblb \-lno,... the Krivodol.s.llcu,a.Bub;Ulj
Hum K::-B open in the
\\C"t in COI1tr.l.l.\ 10 the Idh in plains of the Kod-
btk'mlen-Gumdnqa-Kar;U10\'O \1 in the
l.a..<;1 \ m.llll aehle-ocl1lem of the proem that
<ueh 'Cluemem .hould IIot Ix: \it\,ed as ex-
dudUlIl. and 0ppOSlIll: each other. but as par.llld in
Il.l1Ul't'. III tenns of >ocilll complexi". 'Cn.'C of teni-
torUht\. ;.llld 'o("ldement arr.lllgements Ihc}' exhibil
and "cm fmm a rommon baclr.I,'TOund.
11. \hiftitll!; from the easilj tillahle plains to c.'..ploi_
ta\lO\l of 1IC\, and \';\riOO cl1,ironmetlt5, I' holl\ diller-
elll I't"qUinolllt"llt5 "cn: :>Ct on illll0\';It;l-c alld
SllnOOlia.lh 11IIcllil\CIlI eOllllllunilics. nxogllbcd as
the b."arcn of the KSI\-romlllex ,cf. Shcrrnu 19ao\.
A point. "hidl ha> b':cn dc,dorH.:d in the
'\udl IS tlUIl ,l11l1l1al ....dT) mainl} shl'l:p/go:n
bllt .,lso l,ntlc inC\"l:'lshu:; in impQrt<lllce over
utue, from menol} :I 50uppkmelll 10 :Igrieuhun::
10 .111 equalh I,tal !IOllln of 'ub!i,I"U- ,\",' "
. In:l 1U!o-
handrl "ould il\l:\;I••blt" le;ld to incn:::os..-d b'"
: 1110111,
and. hlr.el\. 10 a rcl!;llbr pr.teliet: Oflr.Ul>hu,n" ,
utlel:. l\
'lIpl
M
)\l llf thi, .In· !Ill' ij'\\ "'tmlil" 011. p,L1l'Ol.:t'ulo!-')
rd,U"t\ tll 1111" Coppet A",,,· ltlndlll-'l'd III
f,lr. FOl m'I.UU.... p.L1\l1ol'l!l:it'.L1 nidcllC\' ("ol1el·ted
fl\1111 Pil;n in Bull\.lIi.l Ibe-
to thl' "sn ,In'" Ix,illl' 1O\\,lrd<
l,md p."tuf.IL:l' ill 1111" Coppc.·r .\gl- (StefanG-
1,1 & Ikv-ilo\.1 1(19:)'.
nu!>, of "SU .ho\\ Ihal these
"l'n' l\JC.lte{! on of ,ml'icnt lOtl1t1IUnicatiOIl. de·
tennincd b\ thl' 1\.llk.I1I5o. Emph:tSl"
on dead\ demon_tr.ned the
relll.lim of Rom.m n),1{6. "hich U-l"<!lhe $.'\me localil_
ie\ 10 huild Iheir ;md road stations in or-
der IQ protrct traJftc. Tdish, :15 allCStl-d through the
n:maim of Lite Romall at SadO\"L"C and
l'tpra. \',15 _itu.llcd;n.l \cn "hich later
on. in Romalltime- ,l..' :1150 led along the 15kar
10 the (k..L:us .It Gigen. \lhen:: the Romans
built a the D.\llube in 328 AD in the
:"onh .lIld to 'rdica Soli.\ in the South. co
tana in the WCSt and co Scorgo7.ija I>lc\"ell in the
L'\SI. and frolll there on 10 mighty Philippopolis
1'IQ\w, in the INeikov 200 I).
Thc hil;h deWCl' of mobilit, ill Ihe UJ:,>:I-societics
can e...en be obsencd from the flint \\ hen:: a high 18".
of thl' lools ,In:: from localities mon: Ih:1I1 30 km awa}.
.\nal\'\CS of 16 copper items from RL-dl1lite show that
these: come from 15 dilfen:m sources (Pcmieka Cl al.
199; '. Onc of the :l\\ Is is prob:tbly from the lajdan-
pck-rq;ion in EaJilem Serbia. also under innllcnce
from Ihe KSIJ-comp1c.\:.
mobilit) !1."<lllired a more compk.\: sculc-
tnelll S)'Stem. \\ hich elell encompas:.ed live dinc.n:1U
t)l>es of scull'melUS ill lhe Telish area. lium fortnoJiSCS
co penml11Clll open like Uga :md C:I\1:'5
used onl} teUlporarily. Br CQlllnlst, the p:t1terl15 of
-enlemelll in .lrC;IS domil1l1ted by tells. e.g. around
thl' Polrallits,1 Tell in NE Ilulg:nia 1982\.
close IIclworking bet\\'eclI se\·cml
SCIl!cmeIIlS wichin a disl:lnee r.,rdy e-"ceed-
mg file km. The KSB sites :II'C nOl
'paced lhat dl'llsdl'; itlSlC:ld the sClders were relying
a of :l11d refuge places and b:I5o-
lhelr nCI\\"orking 011 n'gionall}' rCIllO\l;
I hl)' "ere tlm, delineating .1 Mrllcturc ch:lI1lctcdSlic
of much of Europe in the ti:llll'lh millennium BC and
I:uer.

Deladm\elll from grOlllld-w.lll'l" ,I.'(ricuhurl· (er.
Shcn'llll 1!.lUO \\;L\ the onc filrlOr which fir<;l of ,Ill
pro\idecl du' higher flc;<ibility of the 11C.lrtn o( the
KSU-rornplcx lhe IllSl of the Coppcor t\'le .s::roup<i
Ihus prcp.uillg lh('m (or 111(' ehani;CS llml ('au.socd lhe
lenllill,ilion of 1I1(' Copper As.:c: Jj\.:dy climatic
\'Ol'\CIIIIII.l. dcdin(' in popll1:uion, pcrlmp$ ,,";\rfarc
Liga
159
and C\CII .tkllll( ,hr alli'lner tOOIM. Iiuly
low,lrd, the ;\'onh. Ccmral F.u,...'PC' I
5«inl( m;lr\.:ed almOSI C\crywho:r... r\. ..nlu..lh
alY> in in tht founh millennium BC, whilt-
Iht ..Copptr Cap" a de'dine in 500111-
Casu:m Europr.

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GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
A1cxandrw 1992/A.le":C3IUpoll. c. 1992: 0 KyJlbTypHOH
xapaKTCpltCTHKC .. Op.,,, - CaJ:\OBCl\». Slutiia
P"uhiJlon"(Q, 11-11 Sofia. pp. 358-:361.
A1cxandrov, S., 1996: Earl\" Bronzc :\ge in \,"('stem Bulgaria:
Pcriodizalion and CuhllraJ Definitiun. Bailey. D.W., Panayotov,
I., c<ls., Prffli5l<1ri( Bulgaria. in World Archaeology
No. 22. Prehistory Prw. pp. :253--2;0.
Angclov 1958/Allrc.l0B H.. 19j8: CCJlHUtH3 MOfll1l3 npH c.
XOTHHua. CooP/w/>.' IIJC.le06QHIIII 6 'li'cm Ha m<ail.
ll.jleOJ(!6. COq>HlI. pp.
Angelov 1959/ AHrCilOB H.. 1959: 3.13THO C"bKJ}Oallwc OT XOT-
HI'1l3. Ap,XeO/lOlllH. 1--1. pp. 38-·W.
Angdov 1961/ AHrenoB H.. 1961" Pa60THlIHIlIta la IIJlOCKH
KOC11Ht HllOJlH 8 CeJHlWH3T3 MOfHJllI IIpH c. XOTHJll.(a.
T1,PHOBCKO. Apxeo.lOlIIR. 2. pp. 3f-38.
Angelo\'a, I., 1991:.-\ Chakolithk Cemelry near the Towll of Tar-
Uehardus,j., cd.. Die KIlpferzeit als historiehe Epoche:
Symposium Saarbrildcn und 6.-13.11.1988. Tell
I. Saar/"iicur lki/r(igr {ur Alln/lIl1!Jklln& 55. Bonn: Habelt. pp.
101-105.
Amolrl, D.E., 1985: Crrallli( 71IroO' and &cial ProceJ5. Cambridge
University Press. Cambridge.
Avramova 19921AupaMoIl3. M.. 1992: Sfro.!l.IlHCKa" nelll,epa B
U.CIITp8llbllbIX POjIonax. Sudill Awhiswrica. 11- I2. Sofia. pp.
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