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# EE 301: Experiment No: 3

## Instructed by: Mr. W. D. Prasad

Name : R. T. Liyanage
Index No : 040218K
Group : EE-1
Course : B.Sc. Engineering
Field : Electrical Engineering
Performed on : 22/05/2007
Submitted on : 05/06/2007
EXPREIMENT: Suspension Insulator String

## OBJECTIVES: To study the voltage distribution of suspension insulation by constructing models.

(a) With identical insulator units
(c) With identical units & grading ring

APPARATUS: 1. capacitors
2. Variac
3. Digital Voltmeter

THEORY:

## (a) String with identical insulator units:

C C′ V1
Ic1 I1

C′ V2
C V
Ic2 I2

C′ V3
C
Ic3 I3
C′ V4
I4

Fig 1

Let,
m = Capacitance per Insulator = C′
Capacitance per Ground C

## Let V be the operating voltage (line to ground)

V= V1 + V2 + V3 + V4

## From the Fig 1 I2 = I1 + Ic1

V2 = V1 + V1
(1/ωmC) (1/ωmC) (1/ωC)

## ωmCV2 = ωmCV1 + ωCV1 (ω angular frequency)

V2 = V1 (1 + 1/ m)
Also, I3 I2 + Ic2
=

## ωmCV3 = ωmCV2 + ωC (V1+V2)

V3 = V2 (1+1/m) + V1 / m

Substituting V2 by V1 and m
V3 = V1 (1 + 1/ m) 2 + V1 / m
V3 = V1 (1 + 3/ m + 1/m2)

## Similarly V4 can be expressed as as,

V4 = V1 (1 + 6/m + 5/m2 + 1/m3)

Normally m>1

V1<V2<V3<V4

Thus the lowermost unit is full stressed or utilized. As m increases the division of voltage becomes
more equalized. “String Efficiency” is a measure of utilization of material in the string and is
defined as,

## String Efficiency = Voltage across string

n * Voltage across unit adjacent to line

When n=4:

4V4

## (b) String with Graded Units:

Since the voltage for a given current is inversely proportional to the capacitance, the unit
nearest to the cross arm should have the maximum capacitance in order to reduce the maximum
voltage across it. Further as we move to the power conductor the unit capacitance should be
progressively increased. By correct grading of capacitances, completely equality of the voltages can
be achieved and this is called “Capacitive Grading”.

C C1
V
Ic1 I1

C2 V
C 100V
Ic2 I2

C3 V
C
Ic3 I3
C4 V
I4
Fig 2
From Fig 2, I2 = I1 + Ic1 = ωV(C1 + C) = ωVC2
Therefore, C2 = C1 + C
Voltage producing Ic2 is 2V. Ic2 = 2 ωCV
Now I3 = I2 + Ic2
ωVC3 = ωV(C1 + C) + 2ωC V
C3 = 3C + C1 = C1+ (1+2) C

## Thus we can write capacitance for the nth unit as;

Cn = C1+ (1+2 + 3…………….. + [n-1]) C

## (C) String with identical units and Graded ring:

The voltage distribution is equalized in this method by providing grading, or guard ring
in the form of a large metal ring surrounding the bottom unit and connected to the metal work at the
bottom of this unit, and therefore to the line. The arrangement is shown below.

C C′
V
Ic1 I1
C′ Ix x
V
C 1
Ic I2
(n-1)V
00V
2 y Fig 3
C′ Iy V
C (n-
Ic I3 y, z….. We can write2)V
Denoting the capacitances to the shield by x,
3 IZ z
C′ V
I2 = I1 + Ic1 – Ix I4 (n-
I3 = I2 + Ic2 – Iy etc. 3)V

But if the voltage is V across each unit and all n units are identical, the currents I1, I2, I3…. etc must be
equal.
Hence,
Ix = Ic1, Iy = Ic2, Iz = Ic3 etc.

## VCω = (n-1) Vxω

2VCω = (n-2) Vyω
3VCω = (n-3) Vzω

Which yield
x = C / (n-1)
y = 2C / (n-2)
z = 3C / (n-3)

In general, capacitance from the shield to the pth link from the top,
Cp= pC / (n-p)

CALCULATIONS:
(a) Voltage Distributions
m = C′ =6 = 6
C 1

V2 = V1 (1 + 1/ m) = V1 (1 + 1/ 6)
= 1.17 V1

V3 = V1 (1 + 3/ m + 1/m2) = V1 (1 + 3/ 6 + 1/62)
V3 = 1.53 V1

## V4 = V1 (1 + 6/m + 5/m2 + 1/m3) = V1 (1 + 6/6 + 5/62 + 1/63)

V4 = 2.14 V1

V= V1 + V2 + V3 + V4
100 = V1 + 1.17 V1 + 1.53 V1+ 2.14 V1
5.84 V1 = 100

Theoretical Practical
V1 = 17.12 V 17.15 V
V2 = 20.03 V 19.74 V
V3 = 26.19 V 25.97 V
V4 = 36.64 V 36.48 V

## Theoretical String Efficiency = (V1+V2+V3+V4)

4V4
= (17.12 + 20.03 + 26.19 + 36.64)
4 * 36.64
= 0.68

## Practical String Efficiency = (V1+V2+V3+V4)

4V4
= (17.15 + 19.74 + 25.97 + 36.48)
4 * 36.48
= 0.68

(b) C1 = 6 μF C = 1 μF
C2 = C1 + C = 6 + 1
= 7 μF

C3 = 3C + C1 =3*1 + 6
= 9 μF

C4 = 6C + C1 =6*1 + 6
= 12 μF

=25 V

## Theoretical String Efficiency = (V1+V2+V3+V4)

4V4
= (25 + 25+ 25+ 25)
4 * 25
= 1.00

(c) C1 = 6 μF C = 1 μF n= 4
x = C / (n-1) = 6 / 3
=2
y = 2C / (n-2) = 2*6 / 2
=6
z = 3C / (n-3) = 3*6 / 1
= 18

## Theoretical voltage distribution =100 / 4

= 25 V

Theoretical Practical
V1 = 25.00 V 28.00 V
V2 = 25.00 V 23.40 V
V3 = 25.00 V 24.10 V
V4 = 25.00 V 24.10 V

## Theoretical String Efficiency = (V1+V2+V3+V4)

4V4
= (25 + 25+ 25+ 25)
4 * 25
= 1.00

## Practical String Efficiency = (V1+V2+V3+V4)

4V4
= (28.00 + 23.40 + 24.10 + 24.10)
4 * 24.10
= 1.03

DISCUSSION:
Electrical insulation is a material or object which contains no free electrons to permit the
flow of electricity. When a voltage is placed across an insulator, no charge or current flows. An
object intended to support or separate electrical conductors without passing current through itself is
called an insulator.The term electrical insulation has the same meaning as the term dielectric.

Some materials such as silicon dioxide or teflon are very good electrical insulators. A much
larger class of materials, for example rubber-like polymers and most plastics are still "good enough"
to insulate electrical wiring and cables even though they may have lower bulk resistivity. These
materials can serve as practical and safe insulators for low to moderate voltages (hundreds, or even
thousands, of volts).

High-voltage insulators

## Insulators (the vertical string of discs)

on a 275 kV suspension pylon

- High-voltage insulators used for high-voltage power transmission are made from glass, porcelain,
or composite polymer materials.
- Porcelain insulators are made from clay, quartz or alumina and feldspar, and are covered with a
smooth glaze to shed dirt. Insulators made from porcelain rich in alumina are used where high
mechanical strength is a criterion.
- Glass insulators were (and in some places still are) used to suspend electrical power lines. Some
insulator manufacturers stopped making glass insulators in the late 1960s, switching to various
ceramic and, more recently, composite materials.
- Recently, some electric utilities have begun converting to polymer composite materials for some
types of insulators which consist of a central rod made of fibre reinforced plastic and an outer
weathershed made of silicone rubber or EPDM. Composite insulators are less costly, lighter in
weight, and have excellent hydrophobic capability. This combination makes them ideal for service
in polluted areas. However, these materials do not yet have the long-term proven service life of
glass and porcelain.

The insulation of an overhead line is achieved by providing suitable "air gaps" between the
live conductors and any item of each potential, and also suitable "air gaps" between the individual
phases. Man-made insulators (the insulation strings) are still needed to insulate the conductors
from the supports.

Two kinds of insulation are used to insulate the conductors from the supports: suspension
isolation and anchoring isolation

Suspension insulation
Between the two anchoring towers of a whole
section, the attachment of conductors to the intermediate
suspension towers is achieved by the suspension insulation.

## There are generally two types of insulators:

1) I-shape (The left and the right phases on the figure)
2) V-shape (The middle phase on the figure)

Anchoring insulation
The anchoring insulation is designed for the dead span
section towers or the anchoring towers of a multi-span
section. The connection to the anchoring towers plays a
very important role in the movement of overhead lines

These two types of insulation strings are made of several sub-elements fitted one into each
other such as the shown on the next figures. On the right figure, you can see what happens when a
short-circuit between one phase and the ground occurs at the location of the insulator string: the
current, along the red lines traced on the two left figures, twists the insulator string.