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L. J. van der Lof, Tertullian on the Continued Existence of Things and Beings

L. J. van der Lof, Tertullian on the Continued Existence of Things and Beings

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in: Revue des études augustiniennes, 34, 1988, 14-24.
in: Revue des études augustiniennes, 34, 1988, 14-24.

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Revue des Etudes Augustiniennes, 34 (1988), 14·24

Tertullian on the Continued Existence of Things and Beings

The continued existence of things and beings was a matter of the greatest importance to Tertullian. It was therefore incumbent on him to search for the origins of all things. This is not an isolated piece of philosophy, nor merely a matter of literary form. On the contrary, the inquiry into the origin of all things is tied up closely with the whole of Tertullian's theology. Irenaeus had already taught, with reference to Eph, 1,9, that Christ had united in himself the heavenly and earthly worlds in order to lead the human race to the paradise of life'. Tertullian continued along this line of thought, drawing on the comparison made in the New Testament (Apac. 1, 8 ; 21, 6; 22, 18) : Christ is Alpha and Omega of history. All things begin and end with him (Manag. 5, 2). Thus Tertullian's conviction of a peace worked by the Holy Spirit progressing in the history of salvation leads to the certainty that in Christ all things will ultimately return to their origin, and man in his entirety will be brought to paradise? (Manog. 5, 33).

These considerations place Tertullian at the beginning of the development of the doctrine of apocatastasis, which was to culminate with Origen",

Some important statements in this connexion can be found in the following quotations from Tertullian : « Omne genus ad origin em suam censeatur necesse est» (Praescr. 20, 7). « Mala ... materia boni non erit matrix» (Adv. Hermag. 16, 2). « Omnis res anterior posteriori norm am praeministravit» (Marc. I,

1. lRENAEUS, Adversus haereses V, 20, 2: « ut non .... projieiamur de paradiso vitae, in quem Dominus indueit eos qui obaudiunt praeconio ejus, recapitulans in se omnia quae in eaelis et quae in terra. »

2. Maria-Barbara VON STRITZKY, Aspekte geschichtlichen Denkens bei Tertullian, in Platonismus und Christentum. Festschrift fiir Heinrich Dorrie. Jahrbuch flir Antike und Christentum. Erganzungsband 10, 1983, p.266, Miinster i. Westfalen.

3. « Et adeo in Christo omnia revocantur ad initium, ut et fides reversa sit a circumcisione ad integritatem carnis iIIius sicut' ab initio fuit ... et repudii cohibitio, quod ab initio non fuit, et postremo totus homo in paradisum revocatur, ubi abinitio fuit )) (Monog. 5, 3).

4. Maria-Barbara VON STRITZKY, Die Bedeutung der Phaedrosinterpretation fur die Apokatastasislehre des Origenes, in Vtgiliae Christianae 31 (l977~, pp.282-297.

TERTULLIAN ON THE CONTINUED EXISTENCE

15

9,5). « Video .. , agendum ab originibus usque ad profectus et excessus rei » (Cor. 7, 2). « Nihilramen a matrice alienatur a qua proprietates suas ducit » (Adv. Prax. 8,7). « Regula autem omni rei ab initio constituta in priori bus et in posteriora praescribit» (Adv. Prax. 20, 3).

And it is in fact possible to discover the origin of things, for « Itaque sicut ea, quae de aliquo prolata sunt, ostendit, unde prolata sint» (Adv. Hermog. 22, 5). The truth does not abstain from using that word, and the matter and origin represented by God (Adv. Prax. 8, 1)5.

Typical for Tertullian's style and thought are the words, « Quaeritur et unde sint conchae et qua dispositione decurrant et ubi spem suam collocent » (Cult. fern. I, 8, 3). In order to judge about something - this is his view - one has to go back to the origin, and examine its principle (unde siru), the pre-arranged scheme of its evolution (qua dispositione decurrant), and the evolution that can be expected (spes)6.

Moingt gives this definition of dispositio : « La disposition est en general l'ordination d'une chose, d'une action, d'une personne, d'une figure, d'une theorie, it un but en vue duquel eUe est agencee : par exemple tout ce qui est cache vient it etre revele ' la vertu d'une disposition de la nature', d'une tendance naturelle. Au sens technique, Ie mot s'applique it l'ordonnance des choses engendrees, par opposition aux choses divines? I).

lt is an undoubted fact that with Tertullian the original meaning of the word continues to linger in later nuances of the word. We understand that even original things continue to linger in later things.

It will become apparent that there are four ways in which something or someone can continue to exist in that which follows. These four ways are, I. derivatio totius substantiae et portio, II. evolution, III. procreation, IV. resurrection.

I. « Derivatio »

Tertullian describes the category of portio ex summa with the aid of three metaphors: of the plant, of the river, and of the sun-ray. They illustrate how the Son can be understood as being derivatio totius substantiae et portio. They build on the Valentini an idea of consubstantiality, but augment it with the undividedness of the substance, by the added portio-summir,

The principle of the unfolding of the nature is directly present in Tertullian's writing: « Nempe de olivae nueleo et nuce persici et grano piperis sub terra temperato arbor exsurgit in ramos, in com am, in speciem sui generis » (Ad. Nat. I, 12, 10).

5. «Non ideo non utitur et veritas vocabulo isto et re ac censu eius (Adv. Prax. 8, 1). »

6. TERTULLlEN, La toilette des dames. SC 173, ed, M. Turcan, Paris 1971, p. 80 sq.

7. J. MOINGT. Thiologie trinitaire de Tertullien, Aubier 1966, t. III, p.871.

8. MOINGT, op. cit., t. III, p. 976.

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L. 1. VAN DERLOF

The simile of the fruit emerges : He is a man, who is to be a man ; the fruit is always present in the seed (Apol. 9, 8)9.

The simile of the sun and the sun-rays emerges : When a ray is projected from the sun, it is a portion of the whole; but the sun will be in the ray, because it is the sun's ray, nor is it a division of nature, but an extension. Spirit from Spirit, God from God - as light is lit from light. The source of the substance remains whole and undiminished even if you borrow many offshoots of its quality from it. Thus what was proceeded from God, is God and God's Son, and both are one. Thus Spirit from Spirit, God from God - it makes in mode a double number, in order, not in condition (status), not departing from the source but proceeding from it This ray of God, as was ever foretold in time past, entered into a certain virgin, and in her womb fashioned into flesh, is born, man mingled with God (Apol. 21, 12-14)1°.

The derivatio culminates in Adversus Praxean, where Tertullian writes in connection with Christ:

« Protulit enim Deus Sermonem, quemadmodum etiam ParacIetus docet, sicut radix fruticem et fons fluvium et sol radium. Nam et istae species 1tpo~oA.ai sunt earum substantiarum ex quibus prodeunt » (Adv. Prax. 8, 5) ;

« Nam et radix et frutex duae res sunt, sed coniunctae, et fons et flumen duae species sunt sed individuae ; et sol et radius duae formae sunt, sed cohaerentes. Omne quod prodit ex aliquo, secundum sit eius necesse est de quo prod it, non ideo tamen est separatum» (Adv. Prax. 8, 6-7);

« Tertius enim est Spiritus a Deo et Filio, sicut tertius a radice fructus ex frutice et tertius a Fonte rivus ex flumine et tertius a sole apex ex radio. Nihil tamen a matrice alienatur a qua proprietates suas ducit » (Adv. Prax. 8, 7) ;

« Pater enim tota substantia est, Filius vero derivatio totius et portio» (Adv. Prax. 9,

2) ;

« Duas res et duas species unius et indivisae substantiae numerabo, quam Deum et sermonem eius, quam Patrem et Filium (Adv. Prax. 13, 10); Visibilem vero Filium acognoscamus pro modulo derivationis, ... radium autem eius toleramus oculis pro temperatura portionis quae in terram inde porrigitur » (Adv. Prax. 14, 3) ;

« Quasi non et radius in sole deputetur » (Adv. Prax. 18, 4) ;

« Exivit (Filius) autem a Patre ut radius ex sole, ut rivus ex fonte, ut frutex ex semine» (Adv. Prax. 22, 6);

« Tamen non directo Deum norninans, portionem totius intellegi voluit quae cessura erat in Filii nomen» (Adv. Prax. 26, 3) ;

« Obducti distinctione Patris et Filii quam manente coniunctione disponimus ut solis et radii et fontis et fluvii, per individuum tamen numerum duorum et trium » (Adv. Prax. 27, 1);

9. « Homo est et qui est futurus ; etiam fructus omnis iam in semine est» iApol. 9, 8). 10. « Et cum radius ex sale porrigitur, portio ex summa; sed sol erit in radio, quia solis est radius nee separatur substantia sed extenditur. Ita de spiritu spiritus et de deo deus ut lumen de lumine aeeensum. Manet integra et indefecta materiae matrix, etsi plures inde traduces qualitatis mutueris : ita et quod de deo profectum est, deus est et dei filius et unus ambo. Ita et de spiritu spiritus et de deo deus modulo alternum numerum, gradu non statu fecit, et a matrice non recessit sed excessit. Iste igitur dei radius, ut retro semper praedieabatur, deJapsus in virginem quandam et in utero eius caro figuratus naseitur homo deo rnixtus » (Apol. 21, 12-14).

TERTULLIAN ON THE CONTINUED EXISTENCE

17

« Videmus duplicem statum, non confusum sed coniunctum, in una persona, Deum et hominem Jesum » (Adv. Prax. 27, 11);

On the passion he writes: « Quanquam una substantia de fonte decurrat ... tamen fluvii injuria non pertinebit ad fontem» (Adv. Prax. 29, 6) ;

Clearly in Adversus Praxean the Son and the Spirit proceed from God without affecting or diminishing God's essence and being. Tertullian's thoughts concentrate on the moment of the procession; the Son is someone other than the Father, but he remains united with the Father in and by the same substance: alius forma non substantia. So the three similes using the imagery of sun, source and root are not applied to the eternal origin of the Word, but only to the historic origin of the Son, His coming on earth 11.

« L'imagerie, il est vrai, montre une substance en devenir, en voie de s'accroitre et de s'etendre graduellement. Mais iI ne s'attarde nulle part au phenomene lui-rneme, au processus de cette expansion meme dans le cas du provignement, a plus forte raison dans celui de la germination, il a I'habitude de lire ces images en remontant, de telle sorte que, la duree mise de cote, son regard se pose a I'instant meme, sur I'acte me me de la sortie, pour souligner Ie fait, le simple fait de la provenance dans la continuite : ceci sort de cela par le mouvement immanent de la substance qui se passe dans le terme sans sortir du principe'? I).

II. Evolution

There are some passages where the notion of derivatio with portio ex summa, does not suffice, and where too much weight is attached to the notion of fructus. Moingt elucidates: « La matrix est la substance de la chose consideree dans son etat initial et dans sa puissance (vis) de germination, en tant qu'elle est le germe integral (granum, semen) et le contenant total de tout ce qui doit apparaitre en elle dans le cours de sa croissance; et on appelle sureuli ou frutices ou encore fructus toutes les determinations, qualites, proprietes, formes diverses et nombreuses, que prend cette chose successivement, qui paraissent s'ajouter a eUe, et qui constituent cependant son equipement Iporatura, instruetus, suggestus) originel, car elle tire tout cela de son pro pre fonds et par son dynamisme interne'? »,

We should also point out that erudiri gets too much weight attached to it. It sometimes has the sense of' evolve '. This is true also of the substantive noun eruditus (found only once, in Adv. Val. 29, 3) and eruditio (Paen. 6, 3).

11. J. MOINGT, op. cit.; t.Ill, p.994.

12. J. MOINGT, op, cit., t.Ill, p.991 sq.

13. J. MOINGT, op. cit., t. III, p.984 sq.

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L. J. VAN DER LOF

Evolution is clearly at stake in these sayings:

« Nos destinati a Deo ante mundum in extimationem temporum, tanquam castigando, et castrando, ut ita dixerim, saeculo erudimur a domino. Nos sum us circumcisio omnium, et spiritalis et carnalis» (Cult. fern. Il, 9, 8).

« Domino enim cognito, ultro spiritus a suo auctore respectus emergit ad notitiam veritatis, et admissus ad dominic a praecepta ex ipsis statim eruditur id peccato deputandum a quo Deus arceat» (Paen. 3, 2).

And the following sayings are directly relevant to our subject: « Terram carnis matricem » (Marc. I, 14). « Nam et aurum terra quia de terra ... longe alia materia» (Res. 6) : For even gold in earth, because it is from the earth.

In De resurreetione earn is 55 Tertullian comes close to Hegelianism: The same things return, but with a difference. The' being different' that constitutes the limit by which every object is defined, is itself aspect of this subject. In the concept also a transition takes place from one thing to another, and from each other thing again to something else. And for a proof that a thing can be changed and none the less continue to be itself, man as a whole during this life remains in substance himself, yet changes in various ways, in outward appearance and in the very constitution of his body, in health and circumstances and honour and age, in occupation, business, craft, in means, abode, laws and morals, yet loses nothing of his identity as a man, nor is he thereby made into someone else, but into something else".

In Adv. Iudaeos and De virginibus velandis Tertullian shows that he is aware of protracted processes:

« In hac enim lege Adae data omnia praecepta condita recognoscimus, quae postea pullulaverunt data per Moysen» (Adv. Iud. 2);

« Primordialis lex data est Adae et Evae quasi matrix omnium praeceptorum Dei» (Ibid.).

And the corpus sui generis of the Son is called « materia materiarum » (Adv. Hermog, 18).

« Fructus aliquamdiu rudis et infirmus paulatim eruditur j ... sic et iustitia primo fuit in rudimentis » (Virg. vel. 1, 6) j

« Aspice ipsam creaturam paulatim ad fructum promoveri : granum est primo et de grano frutex oritur et de frutice arbuscula enititur, deinde rami et frondes invalescunt, ... et flos de germine solvitur, et de flore fructus aperitur, (qui) paulatim ... eruditur» (Virg. vel. 1, 5) ;

« Sic et iustitia (nam idem Deus iustitiae et creaturae) primo fuit in rudimentis, natura Deum metuens ; dehinc per legem et prophet as promovit in infantiam, dehinc per evangelium efTerbuit in iuventutem, nunc per Paracletum componitur in maturitatem» (Virg. vel. 1, 7).

14. « Atque adeo potest et demutari quid et ipsum esse nihilominus, ut et totus homo in hoc aevo s~bstantia qui.d~m ipse si.t, I?ultifariam tamen d~mutetur~ et habitu et ipsa corpulentia et vai~tudme et condicione et dignitate et aetate, studio negotio artificio, facultatibus sedibus legibus moribus, nee quicquam tamen amittat hominis, nee ita alius efficiatur ut cesset idem esse, immo nee alius efficiatur sed aliud» (Res. 55).

TERTULLlAN ON THE CONTINUED EXISTENCE

19

This whole idea of evolution is with Tertullian more than an incidental overgrown aspect of procreation. If that were the case, then the quotations in this second section could equally well be placed in the third. But more is involved, namely Tertullian's vision on world history. The metaphorical use of the phases of life for the periods of history was borrowed by Tertullian from the tradition (Florus, Seneca)": Tertullian however leaves out the final phase of the individual, the senectus, for God makes his plan of salvation end in maturitas'", We must place Tertullian's thoughts on evolution in this vision on world history.

III. Procreation

The third way in which something or someone can continue to exist in that or in someone which follows is by procreation. We find this, for example, in :

« Haereses in nostro frutice (A : fructicaverunt, alii cod.), non nostro genere (A : nostrae 'degeneres, alii cod.), veritatis grano et (cod., sed Rig.) mendacio silvestres (« de nostro fruticaverunt non degeneri veritatis grano» fort.y » (Praescr. 36) ; more examples of this kind in our Appendix A.

In De carne Christi all this is applied extensively specifically to Christ. Braun observes: « II y a continuite dans les conceptions de Tertullien sur la substantia divine dont l'Apotre lui revele qu'elle est l'Esprit. Le realisme biblique s'est conjugue avec Ie materialisme stoicien pour l'amener it cette identification 17 I).

We read in De carne Christi:

« Ergo iam dei filius ex patris dei semine, id est spiritu » (Cam. 18, 1) ;

« Caro sine semine ex homine, spiritus cum semine ex deo» (Cam. 18, 3);

II Ita cum sit ipse de spiritu dei spiritus, ex deo natus, ipse est ex carne hominis homo in carne generatus» (Carn. 18, 7);

« Ut quid utique fructus uteri Christus?» (Cam. 21, 4) ;

(I An quia ipse est' flos de virga' prophetae ' ex radice Iesse ', radix autem Iesse genus David, virga ex radice Maria ex David, flos ex virga filius Mariae qui dicitur lesus Christus, ipse erit et fructus? » (Cam. 21, 5) ;

« Flos enim fructus quia per florem et ex flore omnis fructus eruditur in fructum.

Quid ergo? Negant et fructui suum florem et flori suam virgamet virgae suam radicem, quominus suam radix sibi vindicet per virgam proprietatem eius quod ex virga est, floris et fructus? (Cam. 21, 6).

Mahe comments on erudiri in the above passage : « erudiri signifie ' etre degrossi " ' atteindre son parfait developpement!" ». This seems to be supported

15. M.B. VON STRITZKY, Platonismus und Christentum, p.265.

16. M.B. VON STRITZKY, p.266.

17. R. BRAUN, Deus Christianorum, Recherches sur le vocabulaire doctrinal de Tertullien, Paris 19772, p. 190.

18. TERTULLlEN, La chair du Christ, SC 217, ed, I.-P. MAHE, Paris 1975, II, p.425.

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L. J. VAN DER LOF

by the Hebrew background of the notion. In Genesis we find the idea that God has created all things good, tob, that is to say, good for the purpose which they are to serve. This idea corresponds very well with our translation' evolve '.

« Siquidem omnis gradus generis ab ultimo ad principal em recensetur, ut iam nunc carnem Christi non tantum Mariae sed et David per Mariam et Iesse per David sci ant adhaerere. Adeo hunc fructum ex lumbis David, id est ex posteritate carnis eius, iurat illi deus consessurum in throno ipsius. Si ex lumbis David, quanta magis ex lumbis Mariae ob quam ex lumbis David? II (Cam. 21, 7) ;

More quotations of this kind are to to be found in our Appendix B.

IV. Resurrection

Tertullian's most extensive treatment of this subject is found in De resurrectione carnis. Evans summarises the beginning of chapter 12 of this work in these words: « Nature, which is God's handiwork, presents on all sides examples of life after death. These examples God has provided with the express intention that we, having seen resurrection in act, should the more readily believe when we are told of it in words. Moreover if all things rise again for man's sake, and man's flesh has the enjoyment of them, how can it be that flesh should utterly perish 19 ? ».

We read:

« Et tamen rursus cum suo cultu cum dote cum sole eadem et integra et tota universo orbi revivescit, interficiens mortem suam, noctem, rescindens sepulturam suam, tenebras, heres sibimet existens, donee et nox revivescat cum suo et ilia suggestu, redaccenduntur enim et stellarum radii quos matutina succensio extinxerat, reducuntur et siderum absentiae quas temporalis distinctio exemerat, redornantur et specula lunae quae menstruus numerus adtriverat. Revolvuntur hiemes et aestates, verna et autumn a » (Res. 12, 2-4). « Semel dixerim, universa conditio recidiva est » (Res. 12, 6). « Nibil non iterum est» (Res. 12, 6).

Everything is directed towards Christ. On the one hand Tertullian asserts the identity of the risen man with the one living here and now. This is motivated emphatically in view of the judgment : If it was not really altogether the same person who appeared before God's judgment, how could this be just and fair? After all, the soul has not lived the present life by herself; on the contrary, she has always been closely tied to the body:

« Nunquam anima sine carne est quamdiu in carne est» (Res. 15, 5). « Sed deum non licet aut iniustum iudicem eredi aut inertem - iniustum si sociam bonorum operum a praemiis areeat, inert em si sociam malorum a suppliciis secernat» (Res. 15, 8).

19. E. EVANS, Tertullian's Treatise on the Resurrection. The Text edited with an Introduction, Translation and Commentary. London 1960, p. 225.

TERTULLIAN ON THE CONTINUED EXISTENCE

21

Tertullian therefore believes: « Plenitudinem perfectionemque iudicii nonnisi de totius hominis repraesentatione constare : totum porro hominem ex utriusque substantiae congregatione parere» (Res. 14, 10-11).

« Animatum spiritu omnium animarum animatore, signatum et ipsum humanae resurrectionis exemplum in testimonium vobis. Lux cotidie interfecta resplendet et tenebrae pari vice decedendo succedunt, sider a defuncta vivescunt, tempora ubi finiuntur incipiunt, fructus consummantur et redeunt, certe semina non nisi corrupta et dissoluta fecundius resurgunt, omnia pereundo servantur, omnia de interitu reformantur» (Apol. 48, 7-8).

« Quam indignum deo dimidium hominem redigere in salutem» (Res. 34, 3).

« Plane accepit hie spiritum caro, sed arrabonem, animae autem non arrabonem sed plenitudinem, itaque etiam propterea, maioris substantiae nomine animale corpus nuncupata est in qua seminatur, futura proinde per plenitudinem spiritus insuper spiritale, in qua resuscitatur. Quid mirum si magis inde vocata est unde conferta est quam un de respersa est» (Res. 53, 18-19).

On the other hand there is abundant evidence that Tertullian is well aware of the total change brought about by the resurrection. In close association with New Testament terminology" he emphasises that we shall be changed into glory.

« Apostolus, Et mortui, inquit, resurgent incorrupti : quomodo, nisi integri qui retro corrupti tam vitio valetudinis quam et senio sepulturae? Nam et supra utrum que proponens, oportere et corruptivum istud induere incorruptelam et mort ale istud immortalitatem non iteravit sententiam sed differentiam demandavit : immortalitatem enim ad rescissionem mortis, incorruptelam ad obIitterationem corruptelae dividendo, alteram ad resurrectionem alteram ad redintegrationem temperavit. Puto autem et Thessalonicensibus omnis substantiae integritatem repromisit. Itaque nee in posterum timebuntur corporum labes» (Res. 57, 8-10).

When quibbling vulgar unbelief (vulgaris incredulitatis argutia) argues that the bodies of blind, crippled and lame people are to return with their defects, Tertullian replies: « Si demutamur in gloriam, quanta magis in incolumitatern? » (Res. 57, 3).

It will be a totally different existence. For according to Matt. 22, 30 we shall be like angels (Res. 62). Admittedly, even here Tertullian's argument stresses above all the preservation of'the identity. But it is made clear as a matter of course, how radical he thinks the change will be. So radical, that he can understand that some are inclined no longer to speak of mere change but rather of the destruction of the preceding earthly body (Res. 55). However, by various analogies Tertullian shows that there is no question of perditio, but of change. « Discernenda est autem demutatio ab omni argumento perditionis : aliud enim demutatio aliud perditio» (Res. 55, 3).

It is clear that the author does not think that there will be a continuation of

20. G. SEVENSTER, De "Opstandtng des vlesses' bij Tertullianus en he! Nieuwe Testament. in Nederlands Theoiogisch Tijdschrift 9 (1954-1955), p.367.

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L. J VAN DER LOF

this life in merely restored earthly bodies ; and in this respect he thinks more biblically than is generally assumed".

Regarding the resurrection-body Tertullian also connects the resurrection of the faithful closely with the resurrection of Christ, and refers to Phil. 3, 21 (Res. 48, 55). And I Cor. 15, 12-18; I Cor. 15,21 and Rom. 6, 5 are quoted in Res. 47 and 4822•

As we have already seen, beside all this the periodic renewal of the universe in the revelation in nature also plays a part in Tertullian's theology, as prediction : « La resurrection n'apparait plus ainsi que comme une rnodalite de cette restauration generale de la creation que Tertullien voit annoncee, dans la revelation naturelle chere it sa theologie par le renouvellement periodique de l'Univers'" ».

Regarding this natural revelation, Bender has shown" how Tertullian posits that God can and must be recognised by all people in his works, owing to a not yet corrupted soul. This is what Tertullian means by natural revelation, whilst he distances himself from the pagan writings which only too frequently present stolen and counterfeit truths.

Indirectly De Res. was written against the Gnostics. « Since moreover, the Corinthian problem had certain evident parallels with the later gnostic problem, a refutation by the double appeal to Corinthians (Res. 48, 1) acquired a peculiar cogency" ».

We saw that the derivatio culminated in Adversus Praxean in Tertullian's Montanistic period. Evolution is without culmination present in each period of Tertullian's writing. Procreation culminated in De carne Christi when it was applied to Christ in Tertullian's semi-Montanistic period. Resurrection culminated also in that period with its extensive treatment in De resurrectione carnis.

L.J. VAN DER LOF Olijkeweg 14 3764 CZ Soest Pays-Bas

SUMMARY: According to Tertullian there are four ways in which something or someone can continue to exist in that which follows. Those four ways are: I derivatio totius substantiae et portio; II evolution; III procreation and IV resurrection. - Derivatio is applied to the historic origin of the Son. - Evolution brings Tertullian close to Hegelianism. - Procreation culminates in De carne Christi when it is applied to Christ. - Resurrection culminates in De resurrectione carnis.

21. G. SEVENSTER, op. cit.; p.368.

22. Ibid.

23. R. BRAUN, op. cit., p, 544.

24. 'A. BENDER, Die naturliche Gotteserkenntnis bei Laktanz und seinen apologetischen Vorgiingern, Europiiische Hochschulschriften : Reihe XV, Band 26, Frankfurt a. Main 1983.

25. R. SIDER, Structure and Design in the' De resurrectione mortuorum ' of Tertullian, in Vigiliae Christianae 23 (1969), p. 189.

TERTULLlAN ON THE CONTINUED EXISTENCE

23

Appendix A.

« (Impatientia) sola sit matrix in omne delictum, defundens de suo fonte varias criminum venas» (pat. 5, 18);

« Id ergo granum seminis spiritalis modicum et parvulum iacitur, sed eruditu huius fides augetur atque provehitur» (Adv. Val. 29, 3) ;

« Illam virtutem non vult ab aliquo deducere aeonum, sed a fructibus de -ceorum» substantia veniat» (Adv. Val. 38) ;

« Patientiam misericordiam ipsamque matricem earum bonitatem» (Marc. II, 16,6) ; « Et tam en, si concedimus separationem istam, per reformationem, per amplitudinem, per profectum. Sicut fructus separatur a semine, cum sit fructus ex semine, sic et evangelium separatur a lege, dum provehitur ex lege, aliud ab illa sed non alien urn, diversum, sed non contrarium» (Marc. IV, 11, 11);

« Illis necdum arbusculis, sed stipitibus adhuc et surculis etiamnunc, simul de scrobibus oriuntur, inest propria vis animae ... Aut unde mox illis et frutices inoculantur et folia formantur, et germina inflantur et flosculi inornantur et succi condiuntur, si non in ipsis omnis paratura generis quiescit et partibus promota grandescit ? » (Anim. 19,

3) ;

« Cuius anima velut surculus quidam ex matrice Adam in propaginem ducta» tAnim. 19, 6) ;

« Naturae et substantiae unius, iIlius scilicet, quam Deus in Adam contulit et matricem omnium fecit; ... in ipso principe generis Adam ... ut in fonte naturae» (Anim. 20,

6) ;

« Scintillulam vitae consecutum ... post decessum vitae ad matricem relatura sit» tAnim. 23, 1);

« Et nunc duo ... pariter hominem de utraque substantia effruticent, in quo rursus semen suum insit secundum genus» (Anim. 27, 8);

« Quicumque est origini fons ? » (Anim. 29, 2) ;

« Fons generis, Adam» (Anim. 43, 9).

Appendix B.

« His originis fontibus genere manante cum gradatim ordo deducitur ad Christi nativitatem, quid aliud quam caro ipsa Abrahae et David, per singulos traducem sui faciens in virginem usque describitur inferens Christum, immo ipse Christus prodit de virgine ? » (Cam. 22, 2) ;

« Sed et Paulus... confirmat Christum ex semine David secundum carnem, utique ipsius. Ergo ex semine David caro Christi. ' Sed secundum Mariae carnem ex semine David '. Ergo ex Mariae came est» (Cam. 22, 3) ;

« Quocumque detorseris dictum : aut ex carne est Mariae quod ex semine est David, aut ex David semine est quod ex carne est Mariae. Totam hanc controversiam dirimit idem apostolus ipsum definiens esse Abrahae semen. Cum Abrahae, utique multo magis David quia recentioris» (Cam. 22, 4) ;

« Retexens enim promissionem benedictionis nationum in semine Abrahae : Et in semine tuo benedicentur omnes nationes: non, inquit, dixit ' seminibus' tamquam de pluribus, sed' semine' de uno, quod est Christus» (Cam. 22, 5) ;

24

L. J. VAN DER LOF

« Qui haec nihilominus legimus et credimus, quam debemus et possumus agnoscere in Christo carnis qualitatem? Utique non ali am quam Abrahae siquidem semen Abrahae Christus » ; nee ali am quam Iesse siquidem ex radice Iesse flos Christus ; nee aliam- quam David siquidem fructus ex 1umbis David Christus; nee ali am quam Mariae siquidem ex Mariae utero Christus ; et adhuc superius nee aliam quam Adae siquidem secundus Adam Christus» (Cam. 22, 6).

The theme of Christ from the tree of Jesse can also be found in Marc. III, 17, 4 ; Marc. IV, 1, 8 ; 36, 11 ; Marc. V, 8, 4; Cor. 15, 2 ; Adv. Iud. 9, 26.

« Tot locuples substantia criminis quae tot ramos porrigit, tot venas diffundit » (Idol.

2) ;

«(Caro) non 1asciviae frondibus sed sanctimoniaefloribus praecingeretur» (Pudic. 6, 16);

« Cessatio delicti radix est veniae, ut venia sit paenitentiae fructus» (Pudic. 10, 14).

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