MUHAMMAD IMRAN Roll No. 025480 SESSION 2004-06



- --: ~lian!ifu( to goa at the completion of such a hectic Gut important

- career Determininq assignment it is onCy due to His countless

- ... fl{fs which enable me to complete this pursuit. ~y spe cia ( attribute

- - my ,c{ignifiea Chairperson ('!JI1aaam Parhat gu{zar" who Shared

~- ;B1lerosity and extended guiaance for the completion our survey %,an I am highfy grateful to my respected teacher, ... ~-..,~. 16tisam (Butt Jlna Sir :Munawar Sa6ir tliey provided me a(( Rjna ~ Stsiasm not onEy auriug SurCJey completion ana choice of the topic

- -: !a.r rea(ry proved a tliouglit ProvokJng for me. I am also tlianliful

- - _~6rctri,ans of <PunjaG Vniversity ana LiGranan of Department of

--: T" • Cf'ina(Cy Lsuould. fifi.g to tafi.g this opportunity to extend' 9vly

_~fi11fJs to all of them wlio prayed ana heiped' me for this success.



~.TTbo a[wa-:9s pra;gs for YVl~ success anD prosperjt"J)

anD unDer ber feet js m-:iJ paraDjse


he is the source of strength; jl1sphatjoJ1 anD YJYOUD foy me

~n"J) goo b[ess tbem witb beaftb anD prosperjt~


Page no

General consideration

Role ofsur-veyin Geog"aphy What is Urban Survey

Aims & Objectives

Research Methodology

Data Tabulation

Data Analysis

Dra wingC 011 clusio 11 Report Writin:g

Problems Faced during Survey

1 1 3 3 4 4 5 5



Introduction 7
Historical Background 7
Name & foundation 8
Geographical Setting 9
Population 10
Altitude 10
Topography 10
Best Season 1~
Climate 10
Hot Season 10
Cold Season 10
Average Rainfall 10
Cultural Aspects of Multan 11
Urban Culture 11
M,-\.\ta'\.\. -'3.- S\,~~ialu.~d centre 11
Blue Pottery 12
Solm Halwa 12
Camel products 12
Textile Products 13
MeeTL?R?yi '('.\a."." 'N1)1.:R) 13
Multan] Khusa \4
Multani Emhroidery 14
Multani Jewellery 15 Chapter no 3

Page No


General Introduction Multan Craft Bazar

Central Business District (CBD) Cottage Industry

Manzoorabad (Chungi No. 14) Kotlatolay Khan

Institute of Blue Pottery Development Multan

Export Quality Manufacturing

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

16 16 20 21 22 22

23 24


Chapter No 4


4.1 Introduction 26 I
4.2 Classification of shops according to 27
Their types
4.3 Front size of Surveyed shops, Multan 28
4.4 Classification of shops according to 29
Their year of Establishment.
4.5 Choice of Profession. 30
4.6 Nature of products in Shops, Multan 31
4.7 Shops Operated by? 32
4.8 Number of Employees in Shops. 33
~.9 Wages of Employees. 34
4.10 Training of workers in shops, Multan 35
4.11 Monthly income of shopkeepers in Multan 36
4.12 Ownership of shops in Multan, 37
4.13 Rent of the shops. 38
4.14 Payments of taxes 39
4.15 Sources of Raw Material, 40
4.16 Types of Customers, 41
.. 17 Nature of Trade 42
4.18 Trend of Bargaining 43 Chapter No 5


5.1 Future Market Forccasting

Chapter No.6



6.1 6.2

Finding and Conclusion Suggestion and Recommendations

45 46



Sample of Questionnaire


of Tables.

1 0 4.1: Classification of the shops according to the goods. ~ no 4.2: Fronts size of surveyed shops.

04.3: Establishment period of shops.

. no 4.4: Choice of Profession.

~ no 4.5: Nature of tile products in shops. no 4.6: Shops operated by.

no 4.1: Number of Employees in shops. no 4.S: Wages of Employees.

e no 4.9: Classification of workers according to their sources of


4.10: Monthly income of shopkeepers. e 04.11: Owner ship of shops.

4.12: Monthly Rent of shops.

4.13: Payment of Taxes.

4.14: Sources of Raw Material used in products. 4S5: Type of Customers visiting in shops.

o 4.1 (j,: Nature of Trade.

:J. ~.17: Trend of Bargaining.

,.t.18: Trend of Demand & Supply.

Page No

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

List of Graphs Page No

Graph no 4.1: Classification of the shops according to the goods. 26

Graph no 4.2: Fronts size of surveyed shops. 27

Graph no 4.3: Establishment period of shops. 28

GrapIt no 4.4: Choice of Profession. 29

Graph no 4.5: Nature of the products in shops. 30

Graph no 4.6: Shops operated by. 31

Graph no 4.7: Number of Employees in shops. 32

Graph no 4.8: Wages of Employees. 33

Graph no 4.9: Classification of workers according to their sources of 34


Graph no 4.10: Monthly income of shopkeepers. 35

Graph no 4.11: Owner ship of shops. 36

Graph no 4.12: Monthly Rent of shops. 37

Gl"aph no 4.13: Payment of Taxes. 38

Graph no 4.14: Sources of Raw Material used in products. 39

Graph no 4.15: Type of Customers visiting iu shops. 40

Graph no 4.16: Nature of Trade. 41

Graph no 4.17: Trend of Bargaining. 42

Graph no 4.18: Trend of Demand & Supply. 43

Chapter No. :t



1.1 General Consideration:

"Geography is the study of aerial variations and similarities at the surface of the earth, from place to place and time to time"

The Human beings are causing great changes on the surface of earth that major and minor agglomerations are present in all the livable parts of the World. Where these agglomerations are greater called "Cities"

So cities are distinctive features of the earth landscape which should be necessarily included in geographical studies.

1.2 Role of Survey in Geography:

Survey is defined as;

"Surveying is the art of making observations and measurement in order to determine the relative position of Points on the earth's surface".

Through surveying we get actual information and do better planning in different fields of life. By using modem techniques in survey like GPS, Remote sensing and GIS we can do better planning and capacity of human resources development.

1.3 What is Urban Survey?

"Urban geography is a significant branch of human geography which is basically connected with spatial dimensions of urban Centers i.e. their location, origin, and growth. Functions and relationship with each other, with in and outsides it surrounding areas or zone of influence." (Mandal R.B 2001)

1.4 Aims and Objectives:

Our survey report is aimed at the analytical study of selected commercial centers ofMultan. So we have to discuss briefly.

What is marketing system of Multan?

To understand this Market system, numbers of terms related with it are given: in our questionnaire.

1.4(a) Objectives:

The main purpose of survey was to present the commercial structure and functions.

Other objectives of Survey are;

To trained the students in the field survey. So they could be able to perform work confidently and independently in the near future.

ii To study the civic problems and to pin point the problems of these centers and people concerned,

111 To study infrastructure of the available utility services and amenities of life.

IV To understand different function performed in these markets and reasons behind there specialization.

v Comparison of range of Market and effect of there Markets on surrounding area.

VI To study the geographical background of the region.

Vll To study the historical background of the craft and the area.

viii To understand the social, cultural, and economic structure of the craft pocket.

IX To study the production process in detail, including material,

tools, equipments and techniques.

X To study design and quality.

XI To study the marketing scenario of the craft.

xu To identify different issues in the craft pocket.

xiu To critically analyze the observations and recommend alternatives in the identified problem areas.


1.5 Research Methodology:

Methodology means procedure of rules and methods applicable to any research work. In order to accomplish this study following steps were conducted.

Subiect selection was made by looking the overall economic activities of Multan.

In order to collect the data for comparison and analysis different method were used.

1.5.1. 1.5.1.a

Collection of Data:

Primary Data:

Field visits:

Field studies were conducted by visiting handloom factories at Multan and its specialized marketing activities and products. Power-loom factories working for export market were also visited since most of the entrepreneurs were traditional weavers who had come from India after partition and were a vital source of information.


First generation immigrants from India were interviewed for they ~ad CQUle as weavers had prospered to become entrepreneurs and had also seen the complete growth and decline cycle of khes weaving in Multan. Industrialists were also interviewed to understand the present scenario of tile handloom industry.


Visiting the factories at Multan revealed that the condition of the weavers had changed drastically. The demands of the export market from the hand loom sector also showed possible reason behind the death of the double cloth khes while the handloorn sector prospered.


Photography: The traditional kbes were available only in personal collections, whereas replicas of the traditional khes were made by the Weaver's Service Centre, Multan.

Collection of samples:

Since traditional kind of double cloth Khes were not available in local market, these were made to order for sample. Samples of the raw material were also collected.

Secondary Data:


Books and journals:

Various libraries were visited in Punjab University to find out the route and source of introduction of the traditional khes in Multan. Most of the data collection was primary is nature but some secondary sources were also used in order make full report.

In secondary sources following were most helpful.

a) A lot of information was taken from internet.

b) Library of Department of geo graphy were Consulted.

c) Limitations and delimitations were identified.

Recommendation and suggestions were made ill the light of data collected.

1.5.2 Data Tabulation:

After collecting data through prunary sources (Interviews and Questionnaire) we arranged it in the forms of Rowand Columns called "Tabulations" .

1.5.3 Data Analysis:

Tabulate form of data was treated by some statistical formula's. After that we get overall trend and comprehension.


1.5.4 Drawing Conclusion:

Under the light of analyzed data conclusion were made which directly affect the report writing.

1.5.5 Report Writing:

Last step of this methodology is report writing.

~ All given steps were made in chronological order. The different books of related topics are given in bibliography which served as secondary sources for study.

In the end summary was formulated and written separately given and bibliography was written.

All these measures were made very meticulously and critically.

1.6 Problems Faced During Survey:

All of our work was based on primary date collection that becomes a laborious job while working. While conducting Survey there were no of problems such as;

Lack of Parking facilities and Jam packed rush hours ill the market was a major problem.

11 Shop keepers were hesitating to give information about their income as they think that we belong to taxation department

111 It was quiet difficult to cover such large area is short period by limited students.

IV Mostly owners of shops were absent from their shops, so employees could not satisfied Us.

v Crowd attitude was not adequate towards our female students.

VI Specialized markets that were over major conce~ were not located at a single place. These were sporadically dispersed through Multan.


vii A large number of shopkeepers were non-co-operative.

Vlll A lot of time was wasted due to illiterate and replies of people as their answers were not clear and to the point.

No suitable sites for parking in CBD or markets out side the CBD.


Chapter No. 2


•• ii~~~~



2.1 Introduction:

Multan is the fifth largest of Pakistan is located in East Central Pakistan,

in the Punjab, Ileal' the Chenab River. It h-as a population of 1,182,441 and is an important road and rail junction, an agricultural center, and a market for textiles, leather goods, and other products.

The city's industries include metalworking, flour, sugar, and oil milling, and the manufacture of textiles, fertilizer, soap, and glass. Multan is also known for its handicrafts, especially pottery and enamel work.

One of the subcontinent's oldest cities, Multan derives its name from an idol in the temple of the sun god, a shrine of the pre-Muslim period. The city was conquered (c.326 Be) by Alexander the Great, visited (AD 641) by the Chinese Buddhist scholar Hsilan-tsang, taken (8th cent.) by the Arabs, and captured by Muslim Turkish couq_uetor Mahmud of Ghazna in t005 a.nd by Timur in 1398. In the 16th and 17th century, Multan enjoyed peace under the early Mughal emperors.

In 1818 the city was seized by Ranjit Singh, leader of the Sikhs. The British held it from 1848 until Pakistan achieved independence in 1947. Landmarks include an old fort containing the 14th-century tombs of two Muslim saints.

2.2 Historical Preface:

Multan is an historic city of great antiquity and is one of the oldest

human settlements in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent. The geographical survey of the site and situation of the city of Multan has illustrated the variety of needs and circumstances responsible for its origin and development. Such

circumstances and requirements naturally have changed in different periods of history and have succeeded in moulding the structural form of the city.

2.2.1 Name & Foundation:

Multan has been known by different names in different times. According

to Hindu mythology, the founder of Multan was one Kashyapa, a Hindu diety, supposed to be the father of 12 SUll gods. It was called kashyapa pura after this name. Later on it came to be called Probhaladpura, Khauspura, and Shamspura, Bhag pura, Huns pura and Molasthana. Multan seems to be the abbreviated name of Molasthana. 'Malli tribe' which ruled the city at the time of Alexander, in 326 B.C. it is possible that the name Molasthana was caned after this tribe. The famous Chinese traveler 'Huen Tsang' visited Multan in 641 AD. calls it 'Mulasthanpura', from which the name Multan might have been derived. But shortly afterwards, Chander Gupta Morya expelled the Greeks from Multan. From then onwards it remained under the Hindu rulers till the time of Raja Dahir. Though Multan is considered to be a prehistoric city, but it didn't come into prominence until the period of the invasion of Muhammad Bin Qasim in 714. The city was conquered (c.326 Be) by Alexander the Great, visited (AD 641) by the Chinese Buddhist scholar Hsuan-tsang, taken (8th cent.) by the Arabs, and captured by Muslim Turkish conqueror Mahmud of Ghazna in 1005 and by Timur in 1398. In the 16th and 17th century, Multan enjoyed peace under the early Mughal emperors.

2.2.2 Architectural Buildings:

Despite the fact that Multan is one of the oldest towns of Indo-Pakistan

sub-continent. It is not as rich in the preservation of historical monuments as compared to Lahore or Delhi. Most of the buildings here have been rebuilt or renovated. There are some buildings worth mentioning.

1. Fort (Qasim Bagh)


The Sun Temple

(Prehladpur Temple)

3. Qasim Bela

4. Mausoleum Hazrat Bahau Din Zikria

5. Mausoleum Shah Rukn-e-Alam

6. Mausoleum Shah Shams Sabzwari

7. Hazrat Musa Pak Shaheed

8. Eid Gah

9. Masjid Ali Muhammad Khan Khakwani

10. Masjid Pool Hattan


2.3.1 Location of City:

2.3.2 Physical Description:

Multan Division lies between north latitude 29'-22' and 30'- 45 and east longitude 71 '-4' and 72'-4'55. It is located in a bend created by five confluent rivers. The Sutlej separates it from Bahawalpur District and the Chenab from Muzaffar Garh district. District Multan is spread over an area of 3,721

square Kilometers.

The foundation of Multan had been laid on two raised mounds of earth, separated by the intervening bed of the mounds of the rivers, The physical history of Multan is in fact the history of these rivers. River Ravi had in past changed different courses. A branch of Ravi (Monam) ran within a mile of the city as late as ISth century.

At present, Multan city lises in riverain or Hithar area of Multan district having high water-table due to the proximity of river Chenab with natural creeks and artificial channels. Hithar is made of the older deposited material. Floods do not encroach upon this land until the water level is abnormally high.

Geomorphologically we can divide the Multan plain into following subdivions:

1. Active Flood Plains:

2. Recent Flood Plains:

3. Level Flood Plains: Altitude:

About 215 meters (740 feet) above sea level.


Vast plain ground dissected by rivers, canals and narrow water channels.


According to Kazi S.Ahmad's climatic regions, Multanlies in the centre of its subtropical continental lowlands. It experiences two seasons, hot season and cold season.

(a) Hot Season:

April, May and June constitute the hot season of which June is the hottest month with 49°C.

(b) Cold Season:

The cold season begins by the end of November and continues till the end of March. The days are sunny and the maximum daily temperature rises to about 85°F whereas the lowest temperature is 29°F.

Best Season:

October to March (Temperature and rainfall figures quoted are based on ten years research but may vary slightly).

Average Rainfall:

The average rainfall is 127 nnn. The land of the district is plain and very fertile. However, the portions of tehsils Multan and Shujabad close to the river Chenab are flooded during monsoons season.


The total population of Multan was 30, 83000 as enumerated in March 1998, with an intercensal increase since March 1981 when it was 732000 souls.

Census Year Population (in millions)
1931 119000
1941 143000
1951 190000
1961 358000
1972 539000
1981 732000
1988 1,000,000
1998 30, 83000 'ource: Population Census report of Pakistan (March 1998)


2.4.1 Urban Culture:

Multan is an area of multi cultural characteristics. Core of the city has purely Urban qualities while vicinity of CBD has some residential streets. Multan city is the conglomeration of some Southern Punjab Characteristic which are combined with central Punjab. But most predominantly it is having southern Punjab profiles. Being a multi-cultural center of Pakistan its homogeneity Index is not coherent.

2.4.2 Multan-A Specialized Centre:

Multan is considered 'A-specialized centre' by its product's specialty. Such


i) Wood Work

j) Block Printing

(a) Blue Pottery:

Blue Pottery Lamps & Shades &

Vases one of the oldest heritage of Multan, we bring it to you, with the same look and beauty as it was a century

a) Blue Pottery
b) SohnHalwa
c) Camel Products
d) Textile Products
e) Glass Work (Meenakari)
f) Multani Khusa
g) Multani Embroidery
h) Multani Jewellery ago.

(b) Multani Soban Halwa:

M\l\tam Sob.'3..ll 1lalwa ts ~tellated. ."trict q_ual\~ control standards in complete hygenic conditions in accordance with prevailing international standards. The recipe is prepared in the traditional manner under the direct supervision of the Hafiz family, which has been entrusted with the original formula handed down from generation to generation.

(c) Camel Products:

Various articles of daily use and decoration pieces are prepared with animal skin. These pieces export to many European and other countries.

Copy R[ghjs =:> hHp;/,

(d) Textile Products:

Various best varieties of textile products are prepared in Textile Industries. Such as: Readymade Garments, Solvent Extraction, Tannery, Textile Processing, Textile Spinning, Textile Weaving, Vegetable Ghee I Cooking Oil and Woollen Textile Spinning.

(e) Glass Work (Meenakari):

Glass work art is originated from China but this art is very popular in Multan from the ancient times (ages). This work is done by joining the small pieces of Glass in various angles and different designs. This art is used especially in the construction of buildings and utensils made of special day. This art was popularized in the mughal regime.

Razia Bibi is showing her work on the Mena Kari

(g) Multani Khusa:

Multani khussa shoes are made with the finest quality soft and pure cow leather. Khussa shoes are traditional footwear and are hand made with colorful and sophisticated embroidery on them. The warmth of the hands of great craftsmen make khussa shoes really fun to see and joy to wear.

An Artisan is making Multani Khussa

(g) Multani Embroidery:

Multani embroidery has various beautiful designs which are made by hands and machines.

(h) Multani Jewelry, Wood Work and Block Printing.

Multani Jewlery in Craft Bazar

Multani Block and Rotary Printing samples

Chapter No.3



3.1 General Introduction:

Multan is a commercial and industrial center; it is connected by road a rail with Lahore and Karachi and by air with Karachi, Quetta, and Faisalabad. Industries include fertilizer, soap, and glass factories; foundries; cotton, woolen and silk textile mills; flour, sugar and oil mills; and a large thermal-power station. It is famous for its handicrafts (ceramics and camel-skin work) and cottage industries.

3.2 Multan Craft Bazar:

Multan Craft Bazar is the Place where all Craftsmen from around this City of Saints have come together to make and display the finest hand made crafts. ill this mechanical and unsteady age we still find the amazing and soothing handy work from those masterminds. They come under one roof and display the best out of their creative hands. Some finest and handpicked work in all kinds of handmade products is in show here at Multan Craft Bazaar, the place where everlasting Work of these amazing artists is waiting to be extolled in a premium way. The unforgettable pieces of master art and wonderful sense of creativity makes you fall for these admirable artists's work.


All together there are 18 various craftsmen and women giving rise to

their master pieces in their different and unique way. The fields and theme of work is different but the skill and authenticity of their creativity reflects their genuineness and incredible sense oflegitimacy.

• While starting to explore tbis place named Multan Craft Bazar, all the right you see a craftswornan named "Rasheeda Begum" present in the "Embroidery Shop" as her family has been showing some extravagant work of Multani Embroidery since her past 3 generations. They use the hand and needle for this work. Rasheeda Begum has been making this


h1\ "N<;)'l'y;,_ im'\:,'C \<;)1\'6 \lll\e a.1\U \la.'2> a.\'\.imcu \1.)\'2> \)1. a.'YVa.'lU'2> a.llU appreciations from people understanding the true soul of this splendid work of art.

• Next to her is "Fatima Bibi'', present with her "Crochet" work. The crochet work has been praised due to its genuine beauty and decorativeness for ages. Craftswomen have been using animal's wool for this work before but in the modern age, thread and wool is used for this purpose. Fatima Bibi and her daughter are making these versatile handmade products attracting art lovers to her excellent work.

• Next to this shop is "Haq Nawaz", the "Ocre" maker. The design making on traditional shoe named Khussa is his specialiaty. This art is now being used in traditional calligraphy and in his 30 years work with Ustad Niaz Ahmad Bhatti, he has gained lots of awards including National Crafts Council award.

• Then comes the exquisite carpet making being worked on a hand loom where a craftsman is busy making the "Carpets". "Shaukat Pawaiz", the carpet maker tell us that he has been associated with this work for more than 60 years now, and his forefathers adopted this centuries ago and since then they are making this wonderful rut work which are identity of Multan and the Land itself. It has traveled from the Great Iran and Afghan workers who have shaped into a new stylish way giving it the local impressive touch. A large size carpet which is about almost 2000 Sq. Feet is also made by hands which are a substantiation of how hard working and works loving these poor craftsmen are. Their work is sold in expensive prices but they get nothing as a reward.

• Moving on you see gleaming and shimmering work of traditional "Gota


Kinari", the women fall for. A slender and gauzy thread of gold or silver

is used for making these fine works. The work itself has become the distinctiveness of the land and is Known for the stylish and trendy touch

ill tile work wnicn attracts women a)) over fue country ana inrougnout

the world where Pakistani exports are known.

"Ustad Allah Bakhsh", on the next to our way of exploring this wonderful place packed with extensive range of handmade craft products, is making the "Khussa" the traditional shoe which is worn ill the local culture. The history starts off from the Alexander so it takes much with it as a history. Ustad Allah Bakhsh himself is making these Khussa for over 80 years.

"Muhammad Zubair", on the next shop is making the wonderful art of jewelry, and is proud to write 50 books on this art. He is associated with this art since his 4 generations. "Zar Dozi" is another art you will find in this crafts heaven. The artist "Khalid Ahmad", the representer in "Lok Versa", has learnt it from his father and mother and is working on the Zar Dozi since years.

"Ustad Abdul Rasheed", on our way to finding out more about this Craft Bazaar, is making the art work made from "Ivory and Camel Bones" including "Lamp Shades, Lockets and other Jewelry items" women wear across the country. He has been doing this for 8 years now.

Next to it, comes the ''Naqqaashi'' work and two great artists "Malik Ashiq Naqqash", the president award winner, and "Malik Abdul Rahman Naqqash" his son are working. A hall in Serena Hotel Faisalabad is named after his father and is declared as best hall in Asia. The naqqaashi contains Islamic touch since the beginning of 19t11 century such as on camel bone made lamps.

After naqqaashi, comes the "Kaashi" where"Muhammad Wajid" is doing his art work. Traveling from Middle East and Iran, this work is widely liked in Pakistan now. Multan is famous for blue Kaashi, turquoise tiles. Pottery is another form of art in Multan and is known widespread in the country. The superb work of creativity made by "Ustaad Ibrahim" is uniquely appreciated. "Ustad Ajmal Chishti", with the "Glass Work", an old traditional work. Designs on P1ottery, and

1 R

buildings are made with beautiful designs is making this astonishing work since 32 years. He has worked across countries and has won many awards.

Madam Farhat Guizar and Madam Ibtsam Butt are in Craft Bazar

"Muhammad Arshad", the "Patolli" maker, makes the gold Jewellery more attractive with beads and threads for women liking.

"Ali Ijaz Nizami", the well known painter and artist is on the next spot, mixing the rich traditional art with modem stylish work Cloth painter "Waheed" is also there, who makes clothes more gorgeous by painting various designs on it.

"Carving" specialist "Muhammad Zaman Qamar" is on the next. The work is done on gold, silver and copper to make them look more sophisticated. He has gained many awards for his unique work.

Multan Craft Bazaar is providing these skillful, talented and brilliant artists an opportunity to be under one roof and the actual appreciation they look

for their incredible skills and art work. As yet, the Multan Craft Bazar is the only place on scene where these brilliant artists can have their work at show to people who are known of the values and standards of handmade art work and want them to keep flourishing their work. There is an immense need to organize and accomplish more places like Multan Craft Bazar in other cities of Pakistan so that craftsmen and craftswomen working in far away places can have their work at show and have the admiration and appreciation they deserve greatly which is necessary to keep all forms of these great arts alive and flourish with the passage of time and giving people love these arts the chance to have everything they like in one place.

3.3 Central Business District (eBD):

A Central business district (CBD) or downtown is a commercial heart of a city. "Downtown" is the usual term in North America. In the United Kingdom, Australia, Hong Kong, Ireland, parts of South Africa and New Zealand, the term "central business district" is used by geographers and sometimes colloquially. City centre is an alternative term used in some urban areas of British influenced counties (e.g. the Commonwealth) and in China as "city core". In the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, South Africa, Canada and New Zealand, the term is often just shortened to the single word "city" in general conversation among residents of a city, giving rise to the phrase "going to the city".

The CBD or downtown is the central district of a city, usually typified by a concentration of retail and commercial buildings. Although applicable to any city, both terms usually refer to larger cities.

The old city of Multan has Darrow colorful bazaars fnll of local handicrafts and narrow winding lanes. There are many places of historical, cultural and recreational interest in the city.

3.3.1 Hussain Agahi Market:

It is the biggest and the most commercially active market of Multan located in its CBD. Though it is not famous for any particular speciality

products business, therefore, all types of shops are found to be seen in this


particular hub of business. Hand embroidery dresses fancy dresses with "Tilla,

Dapka, Naqshi & work of Gota Kinari, and Cotton·& Woolen Bedcovers". "Mohalla Kamandra" is the 1110st famous locality of this area, inhabbited by the "Shietts", and henceforth named as "Hussain Agahi". A great deal of customers come from surrounding cities like D.G.Khan, Janpur, Fazalpur, Rajanpur, Muzaffargarh, Leiah, Tonsa, Alipur, Vehari, Khanewal, T.T.Singh & Bhakar.

3.3.2 Sarafa Bazar:

This market also situated in the core of the city, particularly specializes in the uniquely crafted and embedded "Gold & Stone Jewellery". The Multaui gold jewellery is distinctively famous among its prototypes, and possesses a great variety of traditional styles & designs. The "Satlara, Artificial Stone Necklaces, Precious Stones (embedded in gold & aloft), and Hand-carved Gold Sets" are among the classic specialities of Mulatn.

3.3.3 Dolat Gate:

This place stands high for the retailing & wholesaling of Multan's ever temptingly delicious "Sohan Halwa". The "Ali Chowk" is surrounded by a large number of sweet shops & bakeries. These shops largely sell sohan halwa, freshly produced on daily basis in the backside kitchens.


A cottage industry (also called the Domestic system) is an industry - primarily manufacturing - which includes many producers, working from their homes, typically part time. The term originally referred to homeworkers who were engaged in a task such as sewing or lace-making. Some industries which are usually operated from large centralized factories were cottage industries before the Industrial Revolution. The business operators would travel around, buying raw materials, delivering it to people who would work on them, and then co\\ectmg fue fml'&' glJlJu'S \IJ 'Se\\, Wi t)!\)\.ca\\"j tlJ ",b.\'\1 tlJ '3J\lJfue-r l1_'\axket. One of the factors which allowed the industrial revolution to take place in

:tern Europe was the presence of these business people who had the ability

) expan'U 'U1.e 1:'.c~e m \n~TI Gper.l\ll.)n1:'.. \::..6't\:age' m.'U\\'s\l:le't> 'WeIe 'Yet)! CI.)IDl'lDll

rn the tune when a large proportlon at the populatlon was engaged in agriculture, because the fanners (and their families) often had both the time and the desire to earn additional income during the part of the year (Winter) when there was little fanning work to do.

3.4.1 Billal Nagar (Looms):

The looms of Multan, though a cottage industry is widely famous all over Pakistan for the great production of Multani Karandi, Rangoli Cloth, Multani Khadar, Majnoo Khes, Dariyan, and Multani Aari Embroidary. Each 100111 covers an average area of 11-15 sq.feet, where 1200-1400 meters of cloth is wooven daily with the continuous availability of power supply. The chief raw-material (silk-thread) for rangoli is imported from China, but the rest is brought about from the local markets (cotton-thread & wool). The products are widely consumed in the whole country, and loom production accounts for about 15% of the "Internal Trade" of the region. The cheif international markerts of Multani khadar are Iran and Afghanistan.


An equally progressive "Business Thoroughfare", specializing in the wholesaling of "Multani Karandi, Rangoli, Multani Kbadar, Majnoo Khes, Dariyan, and Multani Aari & Silma-Sitara Embroidary". This is an elongated roadside area, located outside the central bussiness district. There are at) anormuos number of shops side bty side competeing with each other in attracting customers and selling goods. Most of the shops are personally owend by the shopkeepers as it is an area of amazi.ngly specialized products.


An "Outlying Business District" of Multan well known for the production and trade of "Multani Khussa", a traditional foot-wear of the IndoPak subcontinent. This particular shoe is locally consumed and the supply &

demand trend has never faded. It is also distributed to other parts of the country and exported as well. This area is located in the "Rural-Urban Fringe" of the city, where there is a quick and easy supply of raw-material (camel-skin & leather). The creative handmade foot-wear is comfortably economical.


A factory based institute purposed for the manufacturing of "Clay

Pottery & Blue Painting". The raw-material used is "Feldspar, Quartz & China Clay (which comes from Mangora, Hyderabad & Sawat), and Blue-pigment (:imported)". The institute is divided into a number of sections, each assigned to a s\)e<:ified. wmk. 1'he whote }lrocess of this }lottery making, undergoes the various stages.

• "Ball Mill" is threshing machine, which crushes 50% clay & 50% feldspar with a gradual addition of water.

• From here the threshed material is slipped into the "Slip Tank", where from it is pumped by three "Filter-presses" and the impurities are exausted.

• The material now called "Merab" is casted and the water is converted into unifom layer to spread out

• In "Biscuit Firing" at 850 degrees the pottery changes its colour to red.

The items are painted upon by different designs.

• Then the products are dipped into "Glaze" and reheated on 1250 degrees for the final showdown.

In the olden times this blue work was done on ivory which originated from the crafting of "Takht-e-Sulamn". It was made of ivory but painted :in red designs. The furniture made is exported to G-8 countries.


Multan does not have a great deal of export trade, and there are about 2- 3 export quality manufacturing industries only.

3.8.1 Rainbow Textiles:

One of the few light manufacturing centers of Multan specializes in producing export quality "Towels, Napkins, Bed sheets, Table covers, and other Household Cotton Cloth". The best quality of cotton is manufactured which is locally grown in the nearby fields of Bhawalpur & Bhawalnagar. It is a huge manufacturing unit with all new technologically equipped machines and an ample amount of labor force dedicated for their works eye-catching results. This place is obviously located out of the main business center. 75% of the mills' productions is exported and the rest locally consumed. The chief markets are UK, Saudi Arabia, Germany, and Japan.

Production of Bed Sheet in Rainbow Textile

Ghapter No. 4






Multan is famous for "Shrines". It is also famous and important in trade of Pakistan. It produced many specialized export quality well. And raising the commercial activities in lower Punjab.

The study of the specialized goods of Multan was selected to analyze the commercial activity and almost 50% of shops were surveyed for this purpose. This survey was conducted between 23-Dec- 29.


During the filed survey 250 shops were surveyed in different areas of

• Multan, which were after ward divided into different groups. This classification of Groups is as follows.

• Sohan Halwa

Multani Khusa Sazi Camel Bone's Products. Multani Jewellery. Pottery & Blue Tiles. Glass work

Block Printing

Hand Embroidery.

Fabric Looms (Power & Hand) Other (Leather, Okair Sazi)

Number of surveyed Hand embroidery shops in different areas of Multan is 78. Which is highest in frequency? No. of the surveyed Jewellery ships is 73, with 2nd highest frequency, Fabric Looms in 40, Saban Halwa 23, Multani.

Khusa Sazi (19), B lock Printing & Camel Bone's 3,3 each, Pottery 2, Glan work 2 and other shops are 7 in number.


Different types of shops in Multan can be fully analyzed form the table

Figure no. 4.1.

Table 4.1. Classification of Shops according to the Good, They Produce.

Classification of Shops Frequency Percentage
Sohan Halwa 23 9.2
Multani Khusa Sazi 19 7.6
Camel Bone's Products 3 l.2
Multani Jewellery 73 29.2
Pottery & Blue Tiles 2 0.8
Glass work 2 0.8
Block Printing 3 1.2
Hand Embroidery 78 31.2
Fabric Looms 40 16
Others 7 2.8
Total 250 100 Fig. 4.1 Classification of Shops according to the Goods, they produce:

;:... 50
:::l 40
0 [lOthers

[J Sochan Halwa

!;l Multani Khusa Sazl

[l Camel Bone's Products

!J Multilni ~ewelle{y

[J Pottery & Blue Tiles

Ef Glass work

EI Block Printing

[J Hand Embroidery

m J:'abriic Looms

Classification of Commercial Units

4.2. Table 4.2

Front Size of Surveyed ShOPS1 Multan Front Size of Shops:

Size of Shops (ft) No. of Surveyed Shops Percentage
0-5 19 7.6
6-10 110 44
11-15 93 37.2
15+ 28 11.2
Total 250 100 The size of shops in Multan is different and fan in different categories, Out of250 surveyed shops in Multan 7.6% shops have front size in between oS feet. Maximum of the shops i.e. about 44% falls in 6-10 category. 37 37.2 % ships fall in 11-15 category. 11.2 % shops have front size above 15 Feet

Fig. 4"2

Front Size of Shops:

(I) 105
C!I 90
"C 75
2: 60
- 45
Z 30
0-5 10-Jun

Size of Shops (ft.)



4.3. Classification of Shops According to Their Year of Establishment;

Table 4.30 Establishment Period of Shops:

Year of Establishment No. of Surveyed Shops Percentage
Before 1950 20 8
50-70 36 14.4
70-90 96 39.4
90-2005 98 39.2
Total 250 100 To know the period since when the shops are established. Shopkeepers answered in different year. During the Survey it was analyzed that many of shops were established in 1990-2005. The reasons behind. are following.

• Shopkeepers expanded their work due to great profit earned by their


• The better economic Condition of people living in that area.

II One of the reason is the great demand of export market of there

specialized items.

It is a common fact that when demand increases, supply also increases.

As a result, Shops established and market expanded. Almost 77.6% Shops were established from 1970 to 2005. Approximately 8% shops established before 1950.14.4% of shops were established in 1950-1970.

Fig. 4.3 Establishment Period of Shops.

01 105
"" 90
'C 75
e 60
'0 45
z 30
15 Before 1950-70 1970-90 1990-2005


Year of Establishment

4.4 Choice of Profession:

Reason of Choosing No. of Surveyed Shops % age
Family 161 64.4
Occupationally 26 10.4
Personally 61 24.4
Other 2 0.8
Total 250 100 On the question of the choice of profession, that why shopkeepers choose this particular profession. They answered different reasons overall analysis of Shops shows that most of 64.4% have chosen this profession due to their family, because it was their forefather's occupation to make such specialized work.

Fig. 4.4

Choice of Profession:


o Occupationally

o Personality

o Others

4.5 Nature of Productive In Shops:

Table 4.5 Nature of Products:

Nature of Products No. of Shops Surveyed Percentage
Generalized 59 23.6
Specialized 144 57.6
Both 47 18.8
Total 250 100 During the survey most of the shops that are visited were specialized shops located mostly in old city market of Multan named as Hussain Agahai' Almost 57.6% Shops are specialized shops preferring different item. 23.6% shops are having general items and 18.8% are fall in both category.

Fig. 4.5

Nature of Products:

Q Generalzied o Specialized E1Both

4.6 Shops Operated By

Table 4.6 Classification according to shops Operated by:

Shops Operated by No. Of Surveyed Shops %age
Personally 167 66.8
Employees 16 6.4
Both 67 26.3
Total 250 100 During the survey the shopkeepers were questioned that whether they run their shops personally or having workers too. According to their replies owners themselves run most of the shops. 66.8% owners run their shops by themselves. 6.4% have employees too and in both categories almost 26.8% fall.


Classification according to shops runs by:


o Personally

o Employees

o Both


4.7 Number of Employees in Shops:

Table 4.7 Classification of shops According to their no. of employees:

No. of Employees No. of Surveyed Shops. %. age
1-3 43 51.8
4-6 27 32.58
7-9 4 4.81
9+ 9 10.84
Total 83 100 Although the shops of Markets are small sized b but their business activities are very vast. Almost every shops has employees. Out of total 250 shops surveyed, almost 83 having workers. 51.8% shops have their employees in 1-3 category. 32.53% shops have 4 - 6 no of Employees almost 15.65% shops have employees in between 7-9+.

Fig 4.7

Classification of Shops according to their no. of employees.


o 3.Jan 06-Apr 09.Jul 1J9+


.8 Wages of Employees:

Table 4.8 Classification of Shopkeepers according to their wages:

Wages of worker No. of Shop Surveyed fYoage
0-2000 32 38.55
2000-4000 23, 39.75
4000-6000 16 19.27
6000+ 2 2.40
Total 83 100 In surveyed shops having employees. Most of the workers have wages in between 2000-4000 Rupees. 38.27% employees having wages of 0-2000 Rupees 19.27% having 4000-6000 Rupees in terms of wages and only 2 shops having above 6000+ and these 6000+ wages shops are Jewellery's Shops, which pay such high wages to workers.

Fig. 4.8 Classification according to wages of Employees:

"Q 30
e 25
0 20
0 15
5 0-2000

2000-4000 4000-6000


Wages of workers (Rupees)

Training of Workers in Shops, Multan:

ble 4.9 Classification of Workers according to their source oftraining:

Nature of training No. of Shops surveyed %age
Formal 70 28
Informal 180 72
Total 250 100 As the most of shops dealing in specialized item. Which are their reason of ne. So, the employees and workers have some special training of preparing these ods, In total shops which are surveyed 28% shopkeepers have some formal training any institute, or by skilled person, in an organized way. These shops are most of

ue Pottery, tiles, looms etc. 72% of employees of shops having informal training m their forefather or any other family member.

g. 4.9. Classification of workers according to their source of training:

4.10. Monthly Income of Shopkeepers in Multan:

Table 4.10 Classification of Shops according to monthly of Shopkeepers:

Monthly Income (Rs) No. of Surveyed shops % age
0-5000 23 9.2
5000-10,000 42 16.8
10,000-15,000 40 16
15000-20,000 44 17.6
20,000+ 101 40.4
Total 250 100 As the most of the shops surveyed are Gold & Silver Jewellery shops. So, the incomes of these shops are very bigh.

The Gold Jewellery & design of "Sarafa Market" are very famous through out the Pakistan and have importance in export. But most of costumers are local. The income of 20,000+ are of about 101 no, of shops, or in other words 40.4% shops having income above then 20,000+, 17.6% shops having income 15,000 to 20,000 Rupees 32.8% shops are with income of 5000-10,000 Rupees. Most of the shopkeepers refused to give exact information about their income.

Fig 4.10 Classification of shops According to monthly income of shopkeepers:

105 101
'2 95
~ 85
~ 75
U) 65
Q. 55
z O·.D~O 5000· 10,000· 1&,000. 20,000+

10,00U 15,000 20,000

Monthly Income (Rs)

4.11. Ownership of shops in Multan:

Table.4.11 Ownership of Shops:

Ownership of Shops No. of Surveyed Shops %age
Owned 144 57.6
Rented 106 42.4
Total 250 100 Overall analysis of the market area shows that most of the shops about 57.6% are owned by the shopkeepers, themselves while about 42.4% of the shops are rented.


Ownership of shops:

DOwned o Rented

?ig 4.12

Rent of the Shops:

I'able 4.12 Monthly Rents of the Shops:

Rent of Shops No. of Surveyed Shops %age
0-2000 48 45.28
2000-4000 44 41.50
4000-6000 7 6.60
6000+ 7 6.60
Total 106 100 From 250 surveyed shops, 106 shops were rented, means mostly shopkeepers

ay the rent for their shops. 42.28% of the shopkeepers pay rent between 0-20QO Rupees. 41.50% shopkeepers pay rent of amount 2000-4000 Rupees. 6.6% pay monthly rent of their shops of about 4000-6000 Rupees. Which is very less in no. arid 6.6% pay more than 6000 as a rent of shops?

Thus it is very hard to find or yet true information about rent most of the shopkeepers were hesitant to provide such information.

Fig 4.12

Monthly Rent of Shops:

50 45


40 35 30

25 20






4.13. Payment of Taxes:

Table. 4.13 Classification of Shops According to the Tax paid by Shopkeepers:

Payment of Tax No. of Surveyed Shops %age
Yes 200 80%
No 50 20%
Total 250 100 It was observed during the survey that most of the shopkeepers pay tax annually. Out of 250 surveyed shops in "Hussain Agahi" and nearby areas. 80% shopkeepers pay income tax annually while 20% shopkeepers not pay any type of tax.

Fig. 4.13

Classification of Shops according to the Tax paid by:

~ ~

4.14 Sources of Raw material:

Table 4.14 Sources of Raw material use in products:

Source of Raw material No. of Surveyed Shops (%age
Local 190 76
Imported 21 8.4
Both 39 15.6
Total 250 100 Most of the material use in shops, making different special or general items. As we surveyed different types of shops. So the basic material use in making Sohan halwa in from Multan. In Saraf Market monthly Gold and other material such as pearls were also local but for mother cities mainly Lahore and Karac1ic Thread from China, Japan, Ital. 76% shops use local material in preparing goods from Multan and surrounding areas. ~.4% shops 'use imported material, mostly threads enamels, colours and other material. 15.6% shops fall in both category, use local imported material both.

Fig. 4.14

Classification of Shops according to the Tax paid by:

o Local

o Imported

o Both

4.15 Type of Customers visiting shops:

Table 4..15 Type of the customers visiting shops:

Type of Customers No. of Surveyed Shops °A,age
Local 117 468.8
Other cities 101 40.4
Foreigners 32 12.8
Total 250 100 Multan have great importance for specialized items and customers from all over Pakistan and foreigners also come and purchase these goods. People from other parts of the country and world come to Multan 46.8% customers are local while 40.4% customers are from other cities, and 12.8% are foreigners.

Fig. 4.15 Types of the customers visiting Market areas:


o Other cities

o Foreigners

·:1..16 Nature of Trade:

Table 4.16 Nature of Trade:

Production Purpose No. of Surveyed Shops %age
Local 170 68
Other cities 35 14
Foreigners 43 17.2
Total 250 100 Most of production is for local area and goods as consumed with in Multan. 68%. Shops produce goods for local markets. 14% production is for other cities and only 17.2% is for export in other countries like Portugal, Italy, Sariya, Egypt, Iran.

Fig 4.16 Nature of Trade:


o Local

o Other cities

o Foreign


4.17 Trend of Bargaining:

Table 4.17 Bargaining Probability of Customers:

Bargaining Probability No. of Surveyed Shops %age
Always 164 65.6
Seldom 48 19.2
Never Communicate 38 15.2
Total 250 100 Due to high prices customers always bargain, because most of the shop keepers fix the rates of goods by their own will out of 250 surveyed shops, 65.6% customers always bargain while 19.2% customers bargain seldom. About 15.2% customers never communicate.

Always Seldom Never


4.18 Trend of Demand:

Table 4.18 Trend of Demand:

Trend in demand No. of Surveyed Shops %age
Increased 81 32.4
Decreased 77 30.8
Stable 80 32
Difficult to judge 12 4.8
Total 250 100 On the question of demand & supply, whether it is increasing or decreasing. Most of the 32.4% shopkeepers & answered in increasing. 30.8% said it is decreasing and about 30% said it is stable, not much change during last years. About 4.8% said it is difficult to judge for them.


o Decreased


• Difficult to judge

lnereased De-e:reased Stable Difficull!to




Marketing affects among every aspect of our daily life, From home to work place we daily use many things that are the result of marketing and


Marketing is a dynamic process which continuously changes with the time and space. Marketing process observed in the marketing survey ofMultan. It was also facing ups and downs. This situation creates a balance between the different markets of Multan. The balance between the markets is necessary for the development and specialization of the commercial business activities. But this balance many change due to a number of factors.

These factors are shown in the model mentioned above.

In Islamabad, at present, two factors are more important than the others; these are as under:

Life style and culture Composition

Table 5.1 Marketing Performance

Globe Events



Consumer's DemOgraphi~ Consumer's

Marketing Performance

~-- Resource Ability

Life Style





Source: "Marketing" by Joel R. Evans and Berry Derma Hafstra University.

Chapter No. 6

...................................................... , ... ;".,',",.".,'C".,.".,',.,.".,"''', .. .",.,''",,,.,.,,,



Level of connnercialization of a country is the icon of its development.

We are living in the age of mechanized industrialization but hand made products impact on overall production. Hand made items are so connnon in Pakistan our studied area is a potent example for it.

Our key objective of this survey was making a critical study of the specialized economic/commercial item of Multan. These specialized items are the emblem for this area which culturally highlights the whole of Multani culture. At the end of our persuite some important findings and recommendations are also given.


Multan is the city of Pakistan which is most distinctively distinguished as for us its cultural heritage is concerned. The survey is not restricted to an area but specialized items of Multan. Market area is quite different from otber past of the city.

• Residents of Multan have their own social structure. People living in the urban area have adequate purchasing power but in sub-urban area and in the vicinity of Multan people are living a marginal life.

• People of Multan have strong intimate type of behaviour among them

which strongly influence on the type and nature of specialized items.

• A minimum amount of rich people which always try to maintain their status paranoia, and they only purchase export quality. Their trend is in the favour of market. Raw material for previously mentioned item is not totally available in local area. So they have to get from other cities and for-flung areas which is a major hurdle in the flourishmat of market.

Comparative analysis of all market shows that connnercial is on the rise, But the locally produced items which are hand made are not so much flourishing. This factor is making harm the basic sociocultural essence of Multan.


Under flash of whole work these are following recommendations and suggestions are given for the betterment of specialized activities ofMultan.

• Handicraft items are at low price which is unable meet even its cost of

production and cost of labour. Market price of these items should be enhanced. • Some of handicrafts have been institutionalized by the govt. but major items especially regarding textile items are the deprived sectors. It should also be patronized.

• Markets are ill planned which should be re-adjust or arrange its place.

• Sewerage and sanitary conditions are so poor. These should also renovate or repair.

• Lack of planning in the construction of markets leads to jam packed

traffic parking. It should also be paid attention.

• Power outage is much recurrent in a CBD area of Multan which deteriorates the transactional amount of al economic activities. This is to be recovered.

• Handicraft training institutes should be establish.

• Special export facilities should be provided to the export quality item which can make a major contribution in our national income.

• Special loan schemes should be started for loom textile in Multan.

• Textile sector and knitting sector should be mechanized under the pattern of govt.

These were our major fmdings and recommendations. They only lacuna in all of development of commercial activities of Multan is lack of capital, planning, less market facilities etc. these all flaws can be accurately meet if govt. pay their full attention towards this sector.



Major, Harold M. Kohan, Clyde. S. Reading in Urban Geography University of Chicago press, Chicago ad London 1959.

Royal, D. Michiel, Markets potential and Economic shadow, A quantitative Analysis of Industrial location in South Ontario. Research paper 1010.

Evans, Joel R. Beman Barry, Market Hostro University Macmillan, publishing company, 10022.

Aston, Leigh

The Art of India and Pakistan: A commemorative catalogue of exhibition held at the Royal academy of Arts" London.

Feber & Faber; Ltd London, 1947-1948.

~ Chatterjee, A.C. Consus oflndia 1961: Bibliography of Small Scale & Cottage

Industries and Handicrafts Vol. 1, Part XI (i)






Sample oft questionnaire ::

Department of Geography University of the Punjab New Campus, Lahore

Market.~ _

Questionnaire for Urban Survey (From the Shopkeepers)

Q.I Type of Shop?_~ _

Q.2 Front Size of Shop? (in ft)

1 Below 5 16-10

111- 15

115 +

Q.3 Since when you started this work? ~ _

QA Reasons behind the choice of profession?

• Personal interest?

• Family Profession

• Due to its commercial demand

• Any other reason _

Q.5 Name the items being produced?

• Generalized

• Specialized

• Both

Q.6 Shop operated by?

• Personally

• By workers

• Both

Q.7 No. of workers employed?

11-3 14-6



Q.8 Wages of workers per month in ru ees.

0-2000 2001-4000 4001-6000

Group _~ _


Q.9 From where did you get the training?

Q.I0 Monthly income of Shopkeepers? In rupees

11-3 14-617-9

Q.ll Ownership of shop?

• Owned

• Rented

Q.12 If rented then rent of shop?

10-2000 12001-4000



Q.13 Do you pay any type of income tax or property tax & how?

Q.14 From where do you get your raw material for your products? Mention the name

of orealcity as well _

• Local

• Imported

• Both

Q.15 Where do the customers come from? Mention the name of city as well.

• Local

• Other cities

• Foreigner

Q.16 Do you produce only for local market or for export purpose as wel1? In case of

other cities or export, mention the name of area. _

Q.17 Does a Customer Bargain?

• Always

• Seldomly

• Never communicate

Q.18 What measures do you adopt for increasing your sale?

Q.19 What is the trend of demand of you product during last years? • Increased

Decreased Stable

• Difficult to judge

Also mention the reasons behind the change in your demand cycle.

Q.20 What are your main problem?

Any other question.

From the Customer:


Where have you come from, Mention the name of area?

Your opinion about the prices & quality of goods? Excellent



• Satisfactory

• Very poor

Q.3 Mention the details of items you have purchased from this market.

Q.4 Any problem you faced while shopping here.

Q.5 Any suggestions regarding the quality of goods or market, etc.

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